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Sample records for bufo arenarum induced

  1. Embryotoxicity of lead on Bufo arenarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Coll, C.S.; Herkovits, J.; Salibian, A.

    1988-08-01

    Lead, one of the oldest and more widely distributed pollutants, produces serious toxicological effects. From an ecotoxicological point of view, amphibians are useful as indicators of environmental contamination because they are sensitive to a great variety of toxic agents. Considering that Bufo arenarum is one of the most widely distributed toads in South America, in the present work the authors study the LC50 and teratogenical effects of lead on Bufo arenarum embryos obtained from different couples of parents exposing them from the 2-cell stage onwards. A differential susceptibility to this heavy metal in embryos obtained from five different couples of parents is described.

  2. Determinants of Instrumental Extinction in Terrestrial Toads ("Bufo arenarum")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Ruben N.; Ruetti, Eliana; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research in a water-reinforced instrumental training situation with toads ("Bufo arenarum") has shown that performance in both acquisition and extinction is poorer after partial, rather than continuous reinforcement training. In Experiment 1, the performance of a group receiving 24 trials on a 50% partial reinforcement schedule was poorer…

  3. The envelopes of amphibian oocytes: physiological modifications in Bufo arenarum

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    Sánchez Mercedes

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A characterization of the Amphibian Bufo arenarum oocyte envelope is presented. It was made in different functional conditions of the oocyte: 1 when it has been released into the coelomic cavity during ovulation (surrounded by the coelomic envelope, (CE, 2 after it has passed through the oviduct and is deposed (surrounded by the viteline envelope, (VE, and 3 after oocyte activation (surrounded by the fertilization envelope, (FE. The characterization was made by SDS-PAGE followed by staining for protein and glycoproteins. Labeled lectins were used to identify glycosidic residues both in separated components on nitrocellulose membranes or in intact oocytes and embryos. Proteolytic properties of the content of the cortical granules were also analyzed. After SDS-PAGE of CE and VE, a different protein pattern was observed. This is probably due to the activity of a protease present in the pars recta of the oviduct. Comparison of the SDS-PAGE pattern of VE and FE showed a different mobility for one of the glycoproteins, gp75. VE and FE proved to have different sugar residues in their oligosaccharide chains. Mannose residues are only present in gp120 of the three envelopes. N-acetyl-galactosamine residues are present in all of the components, except for gp69 in the FE. Galactose residues are present mainly in gp120 of FE. Lectin-binding assays indicate the presence of glucosamine, galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine residues and the absence (or non-availability of N-acetyl-glucosamine or fucose residues on the envelopes surface. The cortical granule product (CGP shows proteolytic activity on gp75 of the VE.

  4. Anomalías oculares en híbridos Bufo paranecmis ♂ x Bufo arenarum ♀ (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Rengel, Dora

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Los híbridos entre Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum se encuadran en los llamados "híbridos vitales". Los resultados han evidenciado relevantes anomalías oculares que se manifiestan en un 90% de los casos. En algunas larvas falta el cristalino tanto en uno como en ambos ojos (20%; en otras larvas el cristalino se encuentra ubicado en posición opuesta al normal (25% o bien puede ocurrir que se forme un ojo normal y el otro de forma distinta (20%. El análisis histológico mostró anomalías en la zona retiniana, evidenciándose a partir de los estratos pigmentarios, repliegues y movimientos flexuosos (5%. También existen ojos replegados sobre sí mismos (5%. Las alteraciones más severas llevaron a procesos de anoftalmia (10%. En ocasiones (5% en lugar del ojo se evidencian grumos de pigmento. Se obtuvo un 10% con ojos normales. Los otros órganos presentan analogía con los de las larvas de Bufo paracnemis, inclusive la librea dorsal. The hybrids between Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum are counted among tbe so called "vital hybrids". Our results have revealed relevant ocular anomalies in 90% of cases. In some larvae the lens is lacking in either one or both eyes (20%; in others the lens it is found in an opposite position to normal (25% or else one normal and one different eye is formed (20%. Histological analysis reveals anomalies in the retinal area, observing flexuous movements in the pigmentary strata (5%. Eyes folded over themselves were also observed (5%. The most severe alterations produced cases of anophtalmia (10%. On occasions (5%, groupings of pigments were found instead of the eyes. l0% of the larvae were normal. The other organs show analogies to those of the larvae of Bufo paracnemis, including the dorsal pattem.

  5. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

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    O. Fridman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300-310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A, 820(B, 1368(C and 1915(D Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure.

  6. Estudio morfométrico sobre el desarrollo y evolución de las glándulas tiroides durante la metamorfosis de Bufo arenarum

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    Miranda, Leandro Andrés

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el desarrollo y la evolución de las glándulas tiroideas durante la morfogénesis de Bufo arenarum. Usando diferentes parámetros morfométricos, hemos relacionado el crecimiento y desarrollo larval con el desarrollo de las glándulas tiroideas. Se observó que la longitud total, el peso de las larvas, el volumen glandular tiroideo y el diámetro folicular, aumentan hasta el estadio XV (fin de la prometamorfosis, mientras que el número de folículos y la altura de las células foliculares tiroideas se incrementan hasta el estadio XVII (mitad del clímax metamórfico. Todos estos parámetros disminuyeron considerablemente durante el clímax metamórfico mientras que en animales postmetamórficos se observó un incremento en los valores registrados. En base a los resultados obtenidos concluimos que hay un período de síntesis y almacenamiento de hormonas tiroideas durante el crecimiento larval y un segundo período caracterizado por la liberación de hormonas tiroideas hacia el final de la prometamorfosis y durante el clímax metamórfico. We studied the development and evolution of thyroid glands during Bufo arenarum morphogenesis. Using different morphometric parameters we related larval growth and metamorphosis with thyroid glands development We observed that total length, larval weight, thyroid gland volume and follicle diameter increased until stage XV (end of prometamorphosis, meanwhile the number of follicles and follicle cell height increased until stage XVII (midclimax. All these parameters decreased during metamorphic climax and an increase was observed in postmetamorphic animals. Our results lead us to conclude that during larval growth there is a period of synthesis and store of thyroid hormones. There is a second period characterized by thyroid hormones release during the end of prometamorphosis and metamorphic climax.

  7. Exposure of toad embryos and larvae to pesticides. Use of nuclear technique to determine their effect on the reproduction, survival and potential risk to Bufo arenarum populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of pesticides is currently the most common method used to control agricultural pests. However, undesired effects on non-target organisms and pollution of the soil, air and water are frequent consequences. Amphibians are good bioindicators of the presence of contaminants in the environment, because they are semi-aquatic animals located at the top of the food chain. In many parts of the world, amphibian populations are declining, and many reasons have been suggested for these losses. Although a link between widespread decline and pesticide residues has yet to be established, it is suspected that contamination of their breeding sites with pesticide residues has had a deleterious effect on the reproduction and development of amphibians. Recent experiments with a widely distributed toad, Bufo arenarum Hensel, in South America, particularly in Argentina, indicate that a variety of insecticides affects the fertilization process through the activation of an enzyme that degrades the source of second messengers and is involved in transducing the sperm signal to the oocyte. This harmful effect is not restricted to the fertilization process, since embryonic and larval development are also affected, producing severe morphological and behavioural abnormalities in embryos. Embryonic and larval development influence the timing of metamorphosis, the susceptibility to predation, survival in the terrestrial environment, and even the success of future reproduction, these being the most sensitive period of a toad's life. Evaluation of the pesticides in our region showed their presence in many of the potential breeding sites, confirming that they may influence the survival of toad populations. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. Participation of PLA2 and PLC in DhL-induced activation of Rhinella arenarum oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Martínez, J; Medina, M F; Gramajo-Bühler, M C; Sánchez-Toranzo, G

    2016-08-01

    Rhinella arenarum oocytes can be artificially activated, a process known as parthenogenesis, by a sesquiterpenic lactone of the guaianolide group, dehydroleucodine (DhL). Transient increases in the concentration of cytosolic Ca2+ are essential to trigger egg activation events. In this sense, the 1-4-5 inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3R) seem to be involved in the Ca2+ transient release induced by DhL in this species. We analyzed the involvement of phosphoinositide metabolism, especially the participation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and phospholipase C (PLC) in DhL-induced activation. Different doses of quinacrine, aristolochic acid (ATA) (PLA2 inhibitors) or neomycin, an antibiotic that binds to PIP2, thus preventing its hydrolysis, were used in mature Rhinella arenarum oocytes. In order to assay the participation of PI-PLC and PC- PLC we used U73122, a competitive inhibitor of PI-PLC dependent events and D609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC. We found that PLA2 inhibits quinacrine more effectively than ATA. This difference could be explained by the fact that quinacrine is not a specific inhibitor for PLA2 while ATA is specific for this enzyme. With respect to the participation of PLC, a higher decrease in oocyte activation was detected when cells were exposed to neomycin. Inhibition of PC-PLC with D609 and IP-PLC with U73122 indicated that the last PLC has a significant participation in the effect of DhL-induced activation. Results would indicate that DhL induces activation of in vitro matured oocytes of Rhinella arenarum by activation of IP-PLC, which in turn may induce IP3 formation which produces Ca2+ release.

  9. Participation of PLA2 and PLC in DhL-induced activation of Rhinella arenarum oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Martínez, J; Medina, M F; Gramajo-Bühler, M C; Sánchez-Toranzo, G

    2016-08-01

    Rhinella arenarum oocytes can be artificially activated, a process known as parthenogenesis, by a sesquiterpenic lactone of the guaianolide group, dehydroleucodine (DhL). Transient increases in the concentration of cytosolic Ca2+ are essential to trigger egg activation events. In this sense, the 1-4-5 inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3R) seem to be involved in the Ca2+ transient release induced by DhL in this species. We analyzed the involvement of phosphoinositide metabolism, especially the participation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and phospholipase C (PLC) in DhL-induced activation. Different doses of quinacrine, aristolochic acid (ATA) (PLA2 inhibitors) or neomycin, an antibiotic that binds to PIP2, thus preventing its hydrolysis, were used in mature Rhinella arenarum oocytes. In order to assay the participation of PI-PLC and PC- PLC we used U73122, a competitive inhibitor of PI-PLC dependent events and D609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC. We found that PLA2 inhibits quinacrine more effectively than ATA. This difference could be explained by the fact that quinacrine is not a specific inhibitor for PLA2 while ATA is specific for this enzyme. With respect to the participation of PLC, a higher decrease in oocyte activation was detected when cells were exposed to neomycin. Inhibition of PC-PLC with D609 and IP-PLC with U73122 indicated that the last PLC has a significant participation in the effect of DhL-induced activation. Results would indicate that DhL induces activation of in vitro matured oocytes of Rhinella arenarum by activation of IP-PLC, which in turn may induce IP3 formation which produces Ca2+ release. PMID:26350822

  10. In vitro steroid-induced meiosis in Rhinella arenarum oocytes: role of pre-MPF activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Torres, Ana Josefina; Bühler, Marta Inés; Zelarayán, Liliana Isabel

    2016-04-01

    In this work we showed the relationship between seasonal periods and the response of R. arenarum follicles and oocytes to different steroids. Using in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) assays, we demonstrated that P4 is the main steroid capable of inducing maturation in R. arenarum oocytes and follicles. In the second part of this work we showed that androgens can activate pre-maturation promoting factors (pre-MPFs) such as P4, by cytoplasm microinjection experiments. The results indicated that the steroids assayed induced oocyte and follicle maturation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In oocytes, P4 was the most efficient steroid as a maturation inducer (EC50 of the reproductive period, 6 nM, EC50 of the non-reproductive period ≅ 30 nM). Androgens (DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone; T, testosterone; and AD, androstenedione) were less efficient maturation inducers than P4 (EC50 reproductive period ≅ 50, 120 and 600 nM respectively). Similar results were obtained with intact follicles in both seasonal periods. Although the response of follicles to the different androgens was variable, in no case was it above the above the response induced by P4. Independently of the season, oocytes and follicles incubated in P4, P5 and T underwent GVBD after 6-10 h while oocytes and follicles incubated in DHEA and AD matured more slowly. Furthermore, we demonstrated that microinjection of mature cytoplasm from androgen-treated oocytes is sufficient to promote GVBD in immature recipient oocytes (DHEA, 57 ± 12%; AD, 60 ± 8%; T, 56 ± 13%). Thus, androgens such as DHEA, T and AD are as competent as P4 to activate pre-MPF. PMID:26006336

  11. Alteraciones del desarrollo embrionario, poliaminas y estrés oxidativo inducidos por plaguicidas organofosforados en Rhinella Arenarum Alterations in embryonic development, polyamines and oxidative stress induced by organophosphates in Rhinella arenarum

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    Cecilia Inés Lascano

    2009-07-01

    use an amphibian embryonic model (Rhinella arenarum in order to assess the mechanisms by which the OP pesticides azinphos methyl (AM and chlorpyrifos (CP could cause teratogenesis. The embryos were developed in different concentrations of AM or CP until they reached the stage of complete operculum (CO. We analyzed malformations, histology, reduced gluthatione content (GSH and activity of antioxidant enzymes, polyamine content, ornithine decarboxilase (ODC and protein kinase C (PKC activities. Both OP pesticides caused a time- and dose-dependent increase in the number of malformations, reaching 100% teratogenesis in late embryonic development at the highest OP concentrations used. Malformations assessed include exogastrulation, caudal fin curvature, axial shortening, edema, and gill atrophy. Increasing evidence of oxidative stress was observed: GSH dependent enzymes (S- transferase, GST; peroxidase and reductase were early induced in embryos exposed to low concentrations of the OP pesticides, but their activities were inhibited in the stage of CO at high concentrations of OP. These changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in GSH content (62% in embryos exposed to AM. Besides, AM significantly increased (18X ODC activity in the stage of CO, along with putrescine levels (60% of increase but spermidine and spermine levels were significantly decreased (56% and 100%, respectively. The OP pesticide CP caused and early decrease in ODC activity and polyamine levels. The decrease in polyamine levels could be due to an increase in their degradation by polyamine oxidase, contributing to the oxidative stress induced by OP. This, in turn, would cause the decline in GSH levels and the activation of PKC in the embryonic stage of CO (55%, which is involved in the positive feedback of GST and ODC. Finally, the oxidative stress and the decrease in PA levels could be the cause of the observed embryonic alterations.

  12. Inducement of Sechenov inhibition by EtOH and NA in the Bufo toad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI RuXin; JIA ShanShan; LI YingZi; CAO Yin; CHENG XiuZhen; XIE ZuoPing

    2008-01-01

    Central inhibition, discovered by Sechenov in 1862, suggests that electrically stimulating the forebrain or medulla oblongata in frog generally suppresses reflexes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Using ethanol (EtOH), noradrenalin (NA), and other neurotransmitters in thalamic preparations, Sechenov inhibition was stimulated in Bufo toads in this study. The result showed that, similar to Sechenov inhibition, the acute application of EtOH or NA excited the thalamus and prolonged the latency of withdrawal reflex. Our study evidences the involvement of α-adrenoceptors in such central inhibition, and explains the role of acute EtOH application in the in-duction of reflex inhibition.

  13. Role of arachidonic acid cascade in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Arias-Torres, Ana Josefina; Zelarayán, Liliana Isabel

    2015-08-01

    There are no studies that document the production of prostaglandins (PGs) or their role in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation. In this study, we analysed the effect of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandins (PGs) on maturation, activation and pronuclear formation in R. arenarum oocytes. Our results demonstrated that AA was capable of inducing maturation in time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. Arachidonic acid-induced maturation was inhibited by indomethacin. PGs from AA hydrolysis, such as prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and, to a lesser extent, PGE2, induced meiosis resumption. Oocyte maturation in response to PGF2α was similar to that produced by progesterone (P4). Oocyte response to PGE1 was scarce. Rhinella arenarum oocyte PGF2α-induced maturation showed seasonal variation. From February to June, oocytes presented low sensitivity to PGF2α. In following periods, this response increased until a maximum was reached during October to January, a close temporal correlation with oocyte response to P4 being observed. The effect of PGF2α on maturation was verified by analysing the capacity of oocytes to activate and form pronuclei after being injected with homologous sperm. The cytological analysis of activated oocytes demonstrated the absence of cortical granules in oocytes, suggesting that PGF2α induces germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and meiosis resumption up to metaphase II. In turn, oocytes matured by the action of PGF2α were able to form pronuclei after fertilization in a similar way to oocyte maturated by P4. In microinjection of mature cytoplasm experiments, the transformation of pre-maturation promoting factor (pre-MPF) to MPF was observed when oocytes were treated with PGF2α. In summary, our results illustrated the participation of the AA cascade and its metabolites in maturation, activation and pronuclei formation in R. arenarum. PMID:24964276

  14. Conservation genetics of an island toad: Bufo bufo in Jersey

    OpenAIRE

    John W. Wilkinson; Trevor J C Beebee; Griffiths, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    On Jersey (British Channel Islands), common toads often reproduce in small, urban ponds. This atypical breeding strategy has implications for their persistence and they have declined on the island in recent times. We used polymorphic microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in Bufo bufo from five different ponds in Jersey with two populations from north-west France. Genetic diversity of Jersey toads was comparable with that of populations elsewhere in Europe. Numbers of breeding fe...

  15. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na+/K+-ATPase localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na+/K+-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was greater and we

  16. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy); Tripepi, Manuela [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, 201 Leidy Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brunelli, Elvira, E-mail: brunelli@unical.it [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was

  17. Mechanisms of ion transport in the mesonephric collecting duct system of Bufo bufo as revealed by microelectrode recordings in isolated perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2002-01-01

    amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad......amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad...

  18. A contribution to the intraspecific systematics of Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de L.

    1973-01-01

    A biometrical analysis of preserved specimens of Bufo bufo, supplemented by a detailed examination of the shape of the skin warts, was performed in order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the form described as B.b.spinosus. Indications of a N.-S. clinal variation in the formation of wart thorns a

  19. Effects of a fungicide formulation on embryo-larval development, metamorphosis, and gonadogenesis of the South American toad Rhinella arenarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartz, Gabriela; Meijide, Fernando; Pérez Coll, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Sublethal toxicity of the formulated fungicide Maxim(®) XL on embryonic, larval and juvenile development of Rhinella arenarum was evaluated by means of standardized bioassays. Maxim(®) XL, one of the most used fungicides in Argentina, is based on a mixture of two active ingredients: Fludioxonil and Metalaxyl-M. Maxim(®) XL exposure induced severe sublethal effects on the embryos, expressed as general underdevelopment, axial flexures, microcephaly, cellular dissociation, abnormal pigmentation, underdeveloped gills, marked edema and wavy tail. As the embryo development advanced, alterations in behavior as spasmodic contractions, general weakness and inanition were observed. Maxim(®) XL did not affect neither the time required to complete metamorphosis nor sex proportions, but gonadal development and differentiation were impaired. Gross gonadal analysis revealed a significant proportion of exposed individuals with underdevelopment of one or both gonads. Histological analysis confirmed that 18% and 10% of the individuals exposed to 0.25 and 2mg/L Maxim(®) XL, respectively, exhibited undifferentiated gonads characterized by a reduced number (or absence) of germ cells. Taking into account the risk evaluation performed by means of Hazard Quotients, this fungicide could be a threat to R. arenarum populations under chronic exposure. This study represents the first evidence of toxic effects exerted by Maxim(®) XL on amphibians. Finally, our findings highlight the properties of this fungicide that might jeopardize non-target living species exposed to it in agricultural environments. PMID:27214195

  20. Agregace jako antipredační strategie u pulců ropuchy obecné (\\kur{Bufo bufo}).

    OpenAIRE

    BODNÁR, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Tadpoles of many anuran species use a huge number of behavioral modifications to avoid predators. Reduced activity in presence of predators is favorite strategy for common toad tadpoles (Bufo bufo). Responses against predator cues by tadpoles of Bufo bufo in the presence of another cue of larger tadpole aggregation were tested in this study. We observed that these tadpoles responded differently to predator chemical cues than tadpoles in a small group.

  1. Changes to the generic names of extinct east European species described as Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993 and Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993

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    Ratnikov, V. Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The generic assignment of three fossil forms described as Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993 and Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993 is discussed. The author justifies why their original generic names should not be changed to Pseudepidalea, as recently proposed, but should be maintained until more convincing evidence is discovered.Se discute la atribución genérica de tres formas fósiles descritas como Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993, y Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993. El autor justifica las razones por las cuales las adscripciones genéricas originales no deberían cambiarse a Pseudepidalea, como recientemente se ha propuesto, sino mantenerse hasta que se descubra nueva evidencia más convincente.

  2. Intoxicación aguda en perro por toxinas de sapo (Bufo bufo - Acute intoxication in a dog by toxins of a toad (Bufo bufo

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    Fernández-Palacios, O´Connor, Rocío

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas intoxicaciones por toxinas de sapo no son frecuentes en España y su incidencia es mayor en primavera y verano. En este trabajo describimos un caso de intoxicación aguda de una perra de 4 años de edad tras la aprehensión de un sapo (Bufo bufo en la zona de Huelva. Los signos de una intoxicación comenzaron a los 15 minutos de entrar en contacto con el sapo muriendo a las 3 horas sin responder al tratamiento suministrado (corticoides, atropina, fluidoterapia y acepromazina. Aunque el diagnóstico fue precoz, a pesar del tratamiento se produjo la muerte en 3 horas.SummaryIntoxications by toad toxins are not frequent in Spain, and its incidence is greater in spring and summer. In this work it is described a case of an acute intoxication of a dog of 4 years old by toad toxins (Bufo bufo in the area of Huelva. The animal began to show signs of intoxication 15 minutes after the contact with the toad, dying 3 hours later without any response to the provided treatment (corticoids, atropine, fluidotherapy and acepromazine. Although the diagnosis was precocious and the treatment was administrated, after 3 hours the animal died.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenya; Zhang, Xingjie; Guo, Rui; Tang, Yue; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei is carried out in the present research using Illumina Hiseq 2500. The mitogenome is 17 602 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a D-loop region. The overall base composition of the H-strand is 29.15% for A, 26.09% for C, 15.16% for G, and 29.60% for T. The G + C content is 41.25%. Phylogenetic analyses of B. raddei and other 12 amphibian were carried out using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. The sequences of B. raddei were clustered in genus Bufo. PMID:26355835

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenya; Zhang, Xingjie; Guo, Rui; Tang, Yue; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei is carried out in the present research using Illumina Hiseq 2500. The mitogenome is 17 602 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a D-loop region. The overall base composition of the H-strand is 29.15% for A, 26.09% for C, 15.16% for G, and 29.60% for T. The G + C content is 41.25%. Phylogenetic analyses of B. raddei and other 12 amphibian were carried out using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. The sequences of B. raddei were clustered in genus Bufo.

  5. The supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor blocks hepatitis B virus antigen secretion in HepG2.2.15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Wang, Dongliang; Gao, Jianjun; Qi, Fanghua; Gao, Bo; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fang, Dingzhi; Tang, Wei

    2014-02-01

    The skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor has long been used for the treatment of hepatitis B in China and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO₂) is widely used in extracting active ingredients from natural products. The aim of present study was to assess the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effect of the supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (SCE-BC). Cytotoxicity of SCE-BC was analyzed using an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay in HepG2.2.15 cells. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) concentrations in cell culture medium were determined by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. HBV mRNA in cells was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. SCE-BC concentrations below 10(-2) μg/mL had no significant toxicity to HepG2.2.15 cells. SCE-BC at 10(-4) μg/mL effectively inhibited the secretion of HBeAg by 23.36% on day 6. It was more potent than the positive control lamivudine (100 μg/mL) in terms of the inhibition of HBeAg and HBcrAg secretion on day 6. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, HBV mRNA expression was markedly inhibited in comparison to the control when HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with SCE-BC. Moreover, SCE-BC had greater inhibitory activity with respect to HBeAg than to HBsAg. Since HBeAg promotes immune tolerance and persistent infection during HBV infection, the present results suggest that immune tolerance induced by HBeAg might be overcome by SCE-BC. Therefore, SCE-BC warrants further investigation.

  6. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia) at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides based on the active ingredient glyphosate are frequently applied in agriculture, horticulture and private gardens all over the world. Recently, leaching of glyphosate or its metabolite (AMPA) into water bodies inhabited by amphibians has been reported. However, very little is known about non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians and even less is known to what extent different temperatures might alter these effects. Using climate chambers, we investigated the effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup PowerFlex® (480 g L-1 glyphosate, formulated as 588 g L-1 potassium salt) on the larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia: Anura) under different temperature regimes (15°C vs. 20°C). We established five herbicide concentrations: 0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent L-1 and a 4 mg a.e. L-1 pulse treatment (totally three applications of 1.5, 1.5 and another 1 mg a.e. L-1) at each temperature in a full-factorial design. Each treatment combination was replicated five times, the experiment ran for 24 days. Results showed a highly significant effect of temperature on body length and body width but no effect of herbicide concentration on these growth parameters. Moreover, highly significant interactions between herbicide and temperature on body length and body width were observed suggesting that herbicides had different effects on different temperatures. In conclusion, although Roundup PowerFlex® at the tested concentrations appeared to have no acute toxicity to larvae of Common toads, the observed effects on tadpole morphology will potentially affect competitive interactions in spawning ponds of amphibia. Our findings of herbicide x temperature interactions might become more prevalent when human-induced climate change will lead to more extreme temperatures.

  7. Thyroid anatomy and topography of toad (Bufo marinus ictericus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autoradiographic method is used for the study of the toad's thyroid of Bufo marinus ictericus by 131I. Histolological proceedings are done. Comparative evaluations with bibliographic informations are presented. (M.A.C.)

  8. Final Critical Habitat for the Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis) based on the description provided in the Federal...

  9. The induction of neoplastic lesions by aflatoxin-B1 in the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Mofty, M M; Sakr, S A

    1988-01-01

    The carcinogenic activity of aflatoxin-B1, the metabolic product of the mold Aspergillus flavus (a commonly occurring contaminant of groundnuts and other foodstuffs), was tested using the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis). Injecting the toads with aflatoxin-B1 at a dose level of 0.01 mg/50 g body wt in 1 ml corn oil once a week for 15 weeks induced hepatocellular carcinomas in 19% of the experimental toads. Four toads developed tumors in the kidney due to metastases from the primary hepatocellular carcinomas.

  10. Spontaneous firing in olfactory bulb neurons of Bufo bufo gargarizans in and after hibernation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuancheng Liang; Shaokang Bian; Xia Peng; Liwen Wang

    2011-01-01

    Microelectrode technique was used to record the spontaneous electrical activities of the neurons in olfactory bulb of the Bufo bufo gargarizans, both in hibernation and after hibernation. This study investigated the electrophysiological characteristics of amphibian olfactory bulb in the period of hibernation and after hibernation and its effects on the start of hibernation and spontaneous awakening. The research showed four forms of spontaneous firings: single spontaneous firing, burst spontaneous firing, irregular spontaneous firing and consecutive single spontaneous firing. The single spontaneous firing includes slow depolarized spontaneous firing and fast depolarized spontaneous firing, and the slow depolarized spontaneous firing occurs only during the hibernation period. In hibernation, the low amplitude and low frequency firing with a longer duration may be relevant to maintaining the tonicity of the central nervous system in toads that are in hibernation, and this kind of firing may also provide an excited basis for their arousal from hibernation. After hibernation, the amplitude and frequency of firing increase, but the firing duration gets shorter. This form of short-term firing, which may be a phenomenon of sensory neurons fast adapting, is one of the neuronal mechanisms for the arousal of hibernating animals.

  11. Haematological changes in Bufo maculatus treated with sublethal concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult Bufo maculatus was exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L. The toxicant from which the cadmium concentrations were prepared was cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O. There were three replicate tanks per treatment and three individuals per tank including control groups. The hematologic alterations based on the examination of blood indices during the 28 days of exposure showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC, hematocrit (Hct and hemoglobin (Hb concentration decreased (P<0.05 relative to controls. The decline was concentration- dependent as concentration of cadmium increased. The decline in hemoglobin and hematocrit in the experimental organism could be due to a decrease in the synthesis or release of erythrocytes into the circulation or an increase in the rate of erythrocyte destruction inflicted by cadmium toxicity. There was significant (P<0.05 elevation in total leuko- leukocyte count (TLC with increase in the concen- cyte concentration of cadmium. The increase in total leukocyte count observed in this study could be attributed to a stimulation of the immune system in response to tissue damage caused by cadmium toxicity. The study has shown that the exposure of the Bufo maculatus toad to cadmium can inflict alterations in the hematologic indices, which could induce unfavorable physiological changes in the amphibian, which may lead to death. There is, therefore, the need to protect amphibians in order to sustain the biodiversity in the Nigerian Niger Delta ecological zone.

  12. Exposure and post-exposure effects of endosulfan on Bufo bufo tadpoles: morpho-histological and ultrastructural study on epidermis and iNOS localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Guardia, Antonello; La Russa, Daniele; Madeo, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Sandro; Brunelli, Elvira

    2013-10-15

    Endosulfan is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that has lethal and sublethal effects on non-target organisms, including amphibians. In a laboratory study, we investigated direct and post-exposure effects of endosulfan on Bufo bufo tadpoles. For this purpose we exposed the tadpoles to a single short-term contamination event (96 h) at an environmentally-realistic concentration (200 μg endosulfan/L). This was followed by a recovery period of 10 days when the experimental animals were kept in pesticide-free water. The endpoints were assessed in terms of mortality, incidence of deformity, effects on behavior, and the morpho-functional features of the epidermis. We found that a short-term exposure to the tested concentration of endosulfan did not cause mortality but induced severe sublethal effects, such as hyperactivity, convulsions, and axis malformations. Following relocation to a pesticide-free environment, we noted two types of response within the experimental sample, in terms of morphological and behavioral traits. Moreover, by using both ultrastructural and a morpho-functional approach, we found that a short-term exposure to endosulfan negatively affected the amphibian epidermis. We also observed several histo-pathological alterations: increased mucous secretion, an increase in intercellular spaces and extensive cell degeneration, together with the induction of an inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Following the post-exposure period, we found large areas of epidermis in which degeneration phenomena were moderate or absent, as well as a further increase in iNOS immunoreactivity. Thus, after 10 days in a free-pesticide environment, the larval epidermis was able to partially replace elements that had been compromised due to a physiological and/or a pathological response to the pesticide. These results highlight the need for both exposure and post-exposure experiments, when attempting to assess pollutant effects.

  13. Adverse effect of agroecosystem pond water on biological endpoints of common toad (Rhinella arenarum) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babini, María Selene; Bionda, Clarisa de Lourdes; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2016-08-01

    Chemical prroducts used in farming and wastes from livestock can contaminate pond water in agroecosystems due to runoff. Amphibians using these ponds for breeding are probably exposed to pollutants, and serious consequences might be observed afterward at the population level. Assessment biological endpoints of anuran to water quality give a realistic estimate of the probability of occurrence of adverse effects and provide an early warning signal. In this study, the ecotoxicity of agroecosystem ponds from the south of Córdoba province, Argentina, was investigated. Ponds in four sites with different degrees of human disturbance were selected: three agroecosystems (A1, A2, A3) and a site without crops or livestock (SM). The effect of pond water quality on the biological endpoint of Rhinella arenarum tadpoles was examined using microcosms with pond water from sites. Biological endpoints assessed were as follows: mortality, growth, development, morphological abnormalities (in body shape, gut, and labial tooth row formula), behavior, and blood cell parameters (micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities). Results indicated that water from agroecosystems has adverse effect on early life stage of R. arenarum. High mortality and fewer metamorphs were recorded in the A1 and A3 treatments. Tadpoles and metamorphs from A1 and A2 treatments had lower body condition. Tadpoles from A1 and A3 showed the highest prevalence of morphological abnormalities. The lowest amount of tadpoles feeding and the highest percentage of tadpoles swimming on the surface were observed in treatments with agroecosystem pond water. The higher frequencies of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities were recorded in tadpoles from A1, A2, and A3 treatments. We check the sensitivity of the biological endpoints of R. arenarum tadpoles like early warning indicators of water quality. We found that the poor water quality of agroecosystem ponds has impact on the health of the tadpoles, and this could affect the

  14. Comparative cytogenetic studies of Bufo ictericus, B. paracnemis (Amphibia, Anura and an intermediate form in sympatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo MFC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and a third type, considered an intermediate subgroup between these species, were cytogenetically studied by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and staining of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR. The nuclear DNA content and seroproteins were also analyzed to characterize these species, and verify the possibility of hybridization between them. Karyotypes and cytogenetic markers were essentially equal on the basis of the methods used. The DNA nuclear content found was 6.25 ± 0.30 pg/DNA in Bufo ictericus; 7.57 ± 0.40 pg/DNA in Bufo paracnemis and 7.04 ± 0.29 pg/DNA in the intermediate subgroup. Eletrophoresis of total blood serum in Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and the intermediate specimens revealed a remarkable difference in the patterns of the protein bands whose molecular weight corresponded to that of albumin. While the parental species presented two different bands, the intermediate form presented 4. However, only three of these bands were seen in each specimen. The results obtained pointed to a high probability for natural hybridization between Bufo ictericus and Bufo paracnemis in the site and specimens studied.

  15. Chemical activation in Rhinella arenarum oocytes: effect of dehydroleucodine (DhL) and its hydrogenated derivative (2H-DhL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, M F; Bühler, M I; Sánchez-Toranzo, G

    2015-12-01

    Mature oocytes are arrested in metaphase II due to the presence of high levels of active maturation promoting factor (MPF). After fertilization, active MPF levels decline abruptly, enabling oocytes to complete meiosis II. One of the first and universal events of oocyte activation is an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that would be responsible for MPF inactivation. Mature oocytes can also be activated by parthenogenetic activation. The aims of this work are to test the ability of dehydroleucodine (DhL) and its hydrogenated derivative 11,13-dihydro-dehydroleucodine (2H-DhL) to induce chemical activation in amphibian oocytes and to study the participation of calcium in the process. Results indicated that DhL and 2H-DhL induced oocyte activation in a dose-dependent manner. After 90 min of treatment, DhL 36 μM was able to induce 95% activation, while 2H-DhL 36 μM was less active, with only 40% activation. Our results suggest that DhL induced the inhibition of MPF activity, probably by an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Extracellular Ca2+ would not be significant, although Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is critical. In this sense, IP3Rs and RyRs were involved in the Ca2+ transient induced by lactones. In this species, RyRs appears to be the largest contributor to Ca2+ release in DhL-induced activation. Although more studies are needed on the mechanism of action through which these lactones induce oocyte activation in Rhinella arenarum, the results of this research provide interesting perspectives for the use of these lactones as chemical activators in in vitro fertilization and cloning.

  16. A contribution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L., 1758 (Amphibia: Anura from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Boyadzhiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During our study we identified 500 prey items in 20 prey categories in the trophic spectrum of Bufo bufo with average number of prey items per stomach 25.00. The most important prey taxon is Formicidae (70.20%, followed by Coleoptera (especially Carabidae – 11.40%, as well as non-insect invertebrates (Isopoda, Gastropoda, Arachnida which also play significant role. The estimated trophic niche breadth is low – 1.96.

  17. Variation in Chemical Defense Among Natural Populations of Common Toad, Bufo bufo, Tadpoles: the Role of Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókony, Veronika; Móricz, Ágnes M; Tóth, Zsófia; Gál, Zoltán; Kurali, Anikó; Mikó, Zsanett; Pásztor, Katalin; Szederkényi, Márk; Tóth, Zoltán; Ujszegi, János; Üveges, Bálint; Krüzselyi, Dániel; Capon, Robert J; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-04-01

    Defensive toxins are widespread in nature, yet we know little about how various environmental factors shape the evolution of chemical defense, especially in vertebrates. In this study we investigated the natural variation in the amount and composition of bufadienolide toxins, and the relative importance of ecological factors in predicting that variation, in larvae of the common toad, Bufo bufo, an amphibian that produces toxins de novo. We found that tadpoles' toxin content varied markedly among populations, and the number of compounds per tadpole also differed between two geographical regions. The most consistent predictor of toxicity was the strength of competition, indicating that tadpoles produced more compounds and larger amounts of toxins when coexisting with more competitors. Additionally, tadpoles tended to contain larger concentrations of bufadienolides in ponds that were less prone to desiccation, suggesting that the costs of toxin production can only be afforded by tadpoles that do not need to drastically speed up their development. Interestingly, this trade-off was not alleviated by higher food abundance, as periphyton biomass had negligible effect on chemical defense. Even more surprisingly, we found no evidence that higher predation risk enhances chemical defenses, suggesting that low predictability of predation risk and high mortality cost of low toxicity might select for constitutive expression of chemical defense irrespective of the actual level of predation risk. Our findings highlight that the variation in chemical defense may be influenced by environmental heterogeneity in both the need for, and constraints on, toxicity as predicted by optimal defense theory. PMID:27059330

  18. Bufo toxin: A new testing prospect for the screening of anti-convulsant agents. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arome

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with diverse aetiology, affecting approximately 1 % of the entire population. Epilepsy present wide range of clinical manifestations, that affect the way a person feels and acts for a short time. Previous scientific investigations have indicated bufo toxin as a potential convulsant candidate that produced similar effects as other known convulsant agents. Bufo toxin has been shown to mimic or exhibit similar action as other known convulsant agent. Its biochemical components are formed as a result of the binding of bufo-fagin and a molecule arginina. There exist wide array of convulsant agents used in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The commonly used one are: bicuculline, picrotoxin, pentylene tetrazole, isonizid etc. However, these agents are expensive, not easily available and affordable. This challenge prompted the search of other alternative convulsant agents that is easily accessible for use in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The principal objective of this review paper is to suggest the possible use of bufo toxin which mimics the action of existing convulsant agents. This new testing convulsant agent (bufo toxin is inexpensive, affordable and easy to use when compared to other known convulsant agents. The experimental procedure is easy and it gives a broad spectrum in comparing the action of bufo toxin to other chemical convulsant agents. It also offers researchers broader view or options in exploring the anti-convulsant activity of test agents and the understanding of their possible mechanism of action.

  19. Ion transport mechanisms in the mesonephric collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo: microelectrode recordings from isolated and perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2004-01-01

    It is not clear how and whether terrestrial amphibians handle NaCl transport in the distal nephron. Therefore, we studied ion transport in isolated perfused collecting tubules and ducts from toad, Bufo bufo, by means of microelectrodes. No qualitative difference in basolateral cell membrane...... and amiloride application showed a small apical Na+ conductance. Arginine vasotocin depolarized Vbl. The small apical Na+ conductance indicates that the collecting duct system contributes little to NaCl reabsorption when compared to aquatic amphibians. In contrast, Vbl rapidly depolarized upon lowering of [Na...

  20. Screening breeding sites of the common toad (Bufo bufo) in England and Wales for evidence of endocrine disrupting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickford, Daniel B; Jones, Alexandra; Velez-Pelez, Alejandra; Orton, Frances; Iguchi, Taisen; Mitsui, Naoko; Tooi, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    Anuran amphibians are often present in agricultural landscapes and may therefore be exposed to chemicals in surface waters used for breeding. We used passive accumulation devices (SPMD and POCIS) to sample contaminants from nine breeding sites of the Common toad (Bufo bufo) across England and Wales, measuring endocrine activity of the extracts in a recombinant yeast androgen screen (YAS) and yeast estrogen screen (YES) and an in vitro vitellogenin induction screen in primary culture of Xenopus laevis hepatocytes. We also assessed hatching, growth, survival, and development in caged larvae in situ, and sampled metamorphs for gonadal histopathology. None of the SPMD extracts exhibited estrogen receptor or androgen receptor agonist activity, while POCIS extracts from two sites in west-central England exhibited concentration-dependent androgenic activity in the YAS. Three sites exhibited significant estrogenic activity in both the YES and the Xenopus hepatocyte. Hatching rates varied widely among sites, but there was no consistent correlation between hatching rate and intensity of agricultural activity, predicted concentrations of agrochemicals, or endocrine activity measured in YES/YAS assays. While a small number of intersex individuals were observed, their incidence could not be associated with predicted pesticide exposure or endocrine activitity measured in the in vitro screens. There were no significant differences in sex ratio, as determined by gonadal histomorphology among the study sites, and no significant correlation was observed between proportion of males and predicted exposure to agrochemicals. However, a negative correlation did become apparent in later sampling periods between proportion of males and estrogenic activity of the POCIS sample, as measured in the YES. Our results suggest that larval and adult amphibians may be exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals in breeding ponds, albeit at low concentrations, and that chemical contaminants other than

  1. Stereological analysis of mitochondria in embryos of Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo during cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Krzysztofowicz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Total numbers of mitochondria and their morphology have been quantitatively determined in mature oocytes and in cleaving embryos of two anuran species Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo using stereological methods. Surface densities of inner mitochondrial membranes for both studied species during cleavage ranged from 5.43 m2/cm3 to 7.53 m2/cm3, whereas volume densities of mitochondria did not exceed 1.65%. Since values of these parameters were low, thus embryos during cleavage may be considered as metabolically "silent". Transition of ultrastructural morphology of mitochondria towards that characterising actively respiring organelles occurs at stage 9 for R. temporaria and at stage 8 for B. bufo, correlated with blastula-gastrula and mid-blastula transition, respectively. The total numbers of mitochondria N(c in mature oocytes are as high as 114.8 and 107.2 millions for R. temporaria and B. bufo, respectively, and during cleavage at late blastula stages they increase to 300 millions for both species under study. We suggest that an undefined mechanism might eliminate during cleavage those amphibian embryos which contain small number of mitochondria and low levels of nutrient substances.

  2. Diazinon mediated biochemical changes in the African toad (Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isioma Tongo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal toxicity of diazinon to the adult African toad, Bufo regularis was assessed using an integration of biomarkers. Changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE, corticosterone and total protein levels were assessed in the serum, brain, liver, lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT and the results supported by bioaccumulation data. The biomarkers were chosen as indicators of key physiological functions: AChE for neurotoxicity, corticosterone and total protein levels as indicators of oxidative stress. Toads were exposed to 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 g/L for 28 days. Brain AChE activity reduced by 96% in the highest concentration (0.04 g/L compared to the control brain. Similarly, AChE activities in serum, liver, lungs and GIT tissues (88%, 88%, 87, 87% umg-1 protein respectively were also inhibited in the toads. Corticosterone and total protein levels in the tissues decreased compared to the control. The accumulation results obtained showed accumulation in the tissues (liver>serum>brain> lung>GIT, with a direct relationship between tissue concentration and changes in the biochemical indices. The alterations in all the indices were significantly concentration dependent. The biomarkers described in this study could be useful complementary indices in the risk assessment of diazinon pesticide.

  3. Diet of Physalaemus cf. cicada (Leptodactylidae) and Bufo granulosus (Bufonidae) in a semideciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, A S; Juncá, F A

    2007-02-01

    We determined the diet of the two most abundant anuran species which occur in the litter of a semideciduous forest (Lençóis, Bahia, Brazil), Physalaemus cf. cicada and Bufo granulosus in the dry and rainy seasons. Pitfall traps were used to collect anuran and invertebrate fauna, which showed the availability of prey in the environment. Physalaemus cf. cicada was present in both seasons and Bufo granulosus only in the rainy season. Both species fed mainly on Isoptera and Formicidae. However, there is a difference between the rainy and dry seasons concerning the diet of P. cf. cicada. During the rainy season P. cf. cicada consumed less Isoptera and more Formicidae than in the dry season. In the volumetric sense, Orthoptera was the most important alimentary category for P. cf. cicada and B. granulosus. The Jacobs electivity index indicated that Physalaemus cf. cicada and Bufo granulosus were specialists in Isoptera. PMID:17505759

  4. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

  5. Determination of impacts on the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) at Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge from ammonium nitrate concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) is found only as a reintroduced population at Mortenson NWR in the Laramie Plains of southeast Wyoming. Reasons for the...

  6. Acute toxicity of arsenic and oxidative stress responses in the embryonic development of the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardirosian, Mariana Noelia; Lascano, Cecilia Inés; Ferrari, Ana; Bongiovanni, Guillermina Azucena; Venturino, Andrés

    2015-05-01

    Arsenic (As), a natural element of ecological relevance, is found in natural water sources throughout Argentina in concentrations between 0.01 mg/L and 15 mg/L. The autochthonous toad Rhinella arenarum was selected to study the acute toxicity of As and the biochemical responses elicited by the exposure to As in water during its embryonic development. The median lethal concentration (LC50) value averaged 24.3 mg/L As and remained constant along the embryonic development. However, As toxicity drastically decreased when embryos were exposed from heartbeat-stage on day 4 of development, suggesting the onset of detoxification mechanisms. Given the environmental concentrations of As in Argentina, there is a probability of exceeding lethal levels at 1% of sites. Arsenic at sublethal concentrations caused a significant decrease in the total antioxidant potential but generated an increase in endogenous glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. This protective response might prevent a deeper decline in the antioxidant system and further oxidative damage. Alternatively, it might be linked to As conjugation with GSH for its excretion. The authors conclude that toad embryos are more sensitive to As during early developmental stages and that relatively high concentrations of this toxic element are required to elicit mortality, but oxidative stress may be an adverse effect at sublethal concentrations.

  7. Use of local visual cues for spatial orientation in terrestrial toads (Rhinella arenarum): The role of distance to a goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneri, M Florencia; Casanave, Emma B; Muzio, Rubén N

    2015-08-01

    The use of environmental visual cues for navigation is an ability present in many groups of animals. The effect of spatial proximity between a visual cue and a goal on reorientation in an environment has been studied in several vertebrate groups, but never previously in amphibians. In this study, we tested the use of local visual cues (beacons) to orient in an open field in the terrestrial toad (Rhinella arenarum). Experiment 1 showed that toads could orient in space using 2 cues located near the rewarded container. Experiment 2 used only 1 cue placed at different distances to the goal and revealed that learning speed was affected by the proximity to the goal (the closer the cue was to the goal, the faster toads learned its location). Experiment 3 showed that the position of a cue results in a different predictive value. Toads preferred cues located closer to the goal more than those located farther away as a reference for orientation. Present results revealed, for the first time, that (a) toads can learn to orient in an open space using visual cues, and that (b) the effect of spatial proximity between a cue and a goal, a learning phenomenon previously observed in other groups of animals such as mammals, birds, fish, and invertebrates, also affects orientation in amphibians. Thus, our results suggest that toads are able to employ spatial strategies that closely parallel those described in other vertebrate groups, supporting an early evolutionary origin for these spatial orientation skills.

  8. 除草剂丁草胺对蟾蜍肝脏形态学和组织学的毒性作用%Toxicity effect of herbicide butachlor on hepatic morphologic and histology of bufo bufo gargarizans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 边邵康; 梁传成; 王丽文

    2012-01-01

    Objective :To observe influence of the herbicide butachlor on hepatic morphologic and histology of Bufo bufo gargarizans. To study toxicity of herbicide butachlor on liver of Bufo bufo. Method: The Bufo bufo gargarizans were randomly divided into control group, paddy goup, S times paddy group, 10 times paddy group ( n = 15 ), the control groups and experimental groups were placed apart in aerated water and in experimental barrels containing butachlor( 5, 10, 30 ml/L) , 1/2 of the body of Bufo bufo gargarizans was immersed in the sulotion. After 3,6, and 9 days, five Bufo bufo were randomly selected from each group and they were dissected to observe the modality and to measure the coefficient of liver. The paraffin slice and HE dyeing were used to observe the structure of liver. Result: The time and concentration of dyeing poison can affect the hepatic modality and structure of Bufo bufo. As concentration of herbicide butachlor and time of dyeing poison increase, the coefficient of liver becomes augmented, and hepatic structure becomes augmented and autolyzed. Conclusion: Herbicide butachlor can change the hepatic modality and structure of Bufo bufo, suggesting environmental protection should be considered when herbicide is used.%观察除草剂丁草胺对蟾蜍肝脏形态学和组织学的影响,探讨除草剂丁草胺对蟾蜍肝脏的毒性作用.将中华大蟾蜍随机分为对照组、稻田组、稻田5倍组和稻田10倍组,染毒剂量分别为5、10、30 ml/L,每组15只,分别放入盛有经曝气的自来水和试验用液的实验桶内,溶液的量为浸没1/2蟾蜍体积,分别在染毒后3、6、9d,从各组随机取蟾蜍5只,解剖观察其肝脏的形态,测量肝系数;应用石蜡切片,HE染色,观察除草剂丁草胺对蟾蜍肝脏组织结构的影响.结果:除草剂丁草胺的染毒时间和浓度均可影响蟾蜍肝脏的组织结构.随着除草剂丁草胺浓度的增加和染毒时间的递增,肝系

  9. Population and habitat viability assessment for the Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri): Final workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Wyoming toad was discovered by Dr. George Baxter in 1946 and was originally known as Bufo hemiophrys baxteri until 1998 when it was given full species status as Bufo baxteri. The toad is thought to be a glacial relic always found only in the Laramie Basin. It was originally known from many breeding sites in the floodplains of the Big and Little Laramie Rivers. Later, after irrigation practices changed the nature of the floodpains, it was found along margins of ponds and small seepage lakes between 7,000 and 7,500 feet. Baxter and others monitored breeding sites for more than 30 years, with few toads seen or heard from 1975 to 1979. An extensive survey of the Laramie Basin in 1980 found only one population.

  10. Shifts in life history as a response to predation in western toads (Bufo boreas)

    OpenAIRE

    Chivers, Douglas P.; Marco, Adolfo; Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Wildy, Erica L.; Andrew R. Blaustein

    1999-01-01

    Larval western toads (Bufo boreas) are known to exhibit antipreda­ tor behavior in response to both chemical alarm cues released from injured conspecifics and chemical cues of predatory invertebrates. In this study, we tested whether long-term exposure to predator and alarm cues resulted in an adaptive shift in life history characteristics of the toads. We raised groups of tadpoles in the presence of: (1) predatory backswimmers (Notonecta spp.) that were fed toad tadpoles, (2) nonpredatory w...

  11. Natural and experimental infection of the lizard Ameiva ameiva with Hemolivia stellata (Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae) of the toad Bufo marinus

    OpenAIRE

    Lainson R.; De Souza M.C.; Franco C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Developmental stages of a haemogregarine in erythrocytes of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae), from Pará State, north Brazil, were shown to be those of Hemolivia by the nature of the parasite’s sporogonic cycle in the tick Amblyomma rotondatum. The type species, Hemolivia stellata Petit et al., 1990 was described in the giant toad Bufo marinus and the tick Amblyomma rotondatum, also from Pará State, and in view of the fact that A. ameiva and Bufo marinus share the same habitat and are both c...

  12. Volunteer Conservation Action Data Reveals Large-Scale and Long-Term Negative Population Trends of a Widespread Amphibian, the Common Toad (Bufo bufo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovan, Silviu O.

    2016-01-01

    Rare and threatened species are the most frequent focus of conservation science and action. With the ongoing shift from single-species conservation towards the preservation of ecosystem services, there is a greater need to understand abundance trends of common species because declines in common species can disproportionately impact ecosystems function. We used volunteer-collected data in two European countries, the United Kingdom (UK) and Switzerland, since the 1970s to assess national and regional trends for one of Europe’s most abundant amphibian species, the common toad (Bufo bufo). Millions of toads were moved by volunteers across roads during this period in an effort to protect them from road traffic. For Switzerland, we additionally estimated trends for the common frog (Rana temporaria), a similarly widespread and common amphibian species. We used state-space models to account for variability in detection and effort and included only populations with at least 5 years of data; 153 populations for the UK and 141 for Switzerland. Common toads declined continuously in each decade in both countries since the 1980s. Given the declines, this common species almost qualifies for International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red-listing over this period despite volunteer conservation efforts. Reasons for the declines and wider impacts remain unknown. By contrast, common frog populations were stable or increasing in Switzerland, although there was evidence of declines after 2003. “Toads on Roads” schemes are vital citizen conservation action projects, and the data from such projects can be used for large scale trend estimations of widespread amphibians. We highlight the need for increased research into the status of common amphibian species in addition to conservation efforts focusing on rare and threatened species. PMID:27706154

  13. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  14. Primer reporte de parasitismo de una garrapata blanda del género Ornithodoros (Ixodida: Argasidae sobre Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae en el departamento de Valle Fértil, San Juan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta, Juan Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente comunicación es reportar por primera vez un caso de parasitismo en Rhinella arenarum y a la vez mencionar el primer registro del género Ornithodoros en el departamento de Valle Fértil, San Juan, Argentina. Siendo el primer registro de parasitismo de anfibios por Ornithodoros en la Argentina y el segundo para el neotrópico.

  15. Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. (Apicomplexa, Lankesterellidae from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Paperna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. is described from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru. Merogony and oogony occur in the capillary endothelium and the macrophages in the liver, spleen and kidneys. Meronts are oval, 25,2–29,4 x 15,7–16,8 μm in size and yield 35–46 merozoites. Oocysts are 26,3–29,4 x 15,1–17,6 μm in size; sporozoites 9,2-9,8 x 4,2–5,0 μm in size, assemble in macrophages. Released 8,7–9,8 x 2,8–3,1 μm sporozoites enter erythrocytes. L. poeppigii is compared with Lankesterella petiti Lainson & Paperna, 1995 infecting Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Brazil. The above mentioned specific characters, added to differences in hosts and geographical location warrant the description of Lankesterella poeppigii from B. poeppigii as a new species.

  16. New Karyological and Morphometric Data on Poorly Known Bufo surdus and Bufo luristanicus in Comparison with Data of Diploid Green Toads of the Bufo viridis Complex from South of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh FAKHARZAEH; Jamshid DARVISH; Haji Gholi KAMI; Fereshteh GHASEMZADEH; Eskandar RASTEGAR-POUYANI

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the Bufo viridis complex, which is distributed broadly across Iran, are incomplete and restricted to a few regions or a few samples. In this paper a new detailed study on the B. viridis complex in southern of Iran (from West to East) is presented. The analysis of 18 morphometric characters with univariate and multivariate methods reveals significant differences between three members of the B. viridis complex namely B. variabilis, B. luristanicus, and B. surdus distributed in southern part of Iran. Our result help to resolve an old taxonomic problem about B. surdus subgroup (taxa closely related to B. surdus) conifrming that B. luristanicus and B. surdus are distinct species. Moreover, for the ifrst time we report and describe karyotype details of B. luristanicus and B. surdus which conifrmed that they are diploid. Karyological studies demonstrate that all toads from three mentioned species have 2n=22 chromosomes. These chromosomes are arranged into two groups. First group has six large chromosomes and the second group is composed of five small chromosomes. These chromosomes are metacentric or submetacentric. The number of submetacentric chromosomes is different in three mentioned species of B. viridis complex. Neither sexual heteromorphism, nor secondary constriction was observed in any pairs of chromosomes.

  17. Helmintos parásitos de anfibios: Dos Especies de Nemátodos parásitos de Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi)

    OpenAIRE

    Asucena Naupay

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo sobre los helmintos que parasitan a Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi) de la localidad de Huánuco, se presentan dos especies conocidas para la ciencia pero una de ellas nueva para el Perú.

  18. Variación ontogenética en la palatibilidad de los renacuajos de Bufo spinulosus papillosus Philippi, 1902 (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara, Fabián Gastón

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la variación ontogenética de la palatabilidad en Bufo spinulosus papillosus expuestos a larvas del odonato Rhionaeshna variegata (Odonata, Aeshnidae. Los renacuajos fueron agrupados en cuatro categorías de desarrollo y fueron expuestos a la depredación directa determinándose el número de renacuajos consumidos al finalizar los experimentos. Bufo spinulosus papillosus no fue palatable en los primeros estadios del desarrollo (categorías I, estadios 24-26 y categoría II, estadios 32-34, mientras que los estadios de las categoría III (estadios 38-40 y categoría IV (estadios 42-45 fueron progresivamente palatables. Se observó un comportamiento de rechazo por parte de los depredadores luego de la captura de renacuajos de las categorías I y II. El patrón de palatabilidad encontrado en Bufo spinulosus papillosus difiere del observado en otras especies relacionadas del género Bufo (Brodie y Formanowicz, 1987; Kehr y Schnack, 1991; Lawler y Hero, 1997. We evaluated the ontogenetic variation in the palatability of Bufo spinulosus papillosus tadpoles exposed to odonate larvae of Rhionaeshna variegata (Odonata, Aeshnidae. We exposed tadpoles to direct predation and determined the number of consumed tadpoles in four developmental categories. Bufo spinulosus papillosus tadpoles of categories I (stages 24-26 and II (stages 32-34 were unpalatable, while categories III (stages 38-40 and IV (stages 42-45 were progressively palatable. We observed a post-capture rejection behavior when they caught unpalatable tadpoles in categories I and II. The palatability pattern observed in Bufo spinulosus papillosus was different from related Bufo species (Brodie and Formanowicz, 1987; Kehr and Schnack, 1991; Lawler and Hero, 1997.

  19. Oswaldocruzia venezuelensis sp. n. (Nematoda:Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea), a parasite of Bufo marinus from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slimane, B; Guerrero, R; Durette-Desset, M C

    1996-01-01

    A new species of Oswaldocruzia Travassos, 1917, a parasite of Bufo marinus L. from Venezuela, is described. Like most Neotropical Oswaldocruzia, Oswaldocruzia venezuelensis sp. n. is characterized by spicules with three principal branches: blade, shoe and fork, and by a division of the fork within the distal third of the spicule length. O. vaucheri Ben Slimane et Durette-Desset, 1993 is the most closely related species due to its caudal bursa of type II and its cervical alae of the same shape but it differs in the following characters: the position of the papillae of rays 4 situated nearer the papillae of rays 3 rather than rays 5, a higher percentage of the ridges in the oesophageal region, the cervical alae three times longer and sharp and the spicular fork divided less deeply.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of cystatin, a cysteine protease inhibitor, from bufo melanostictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wa; Ji, Senlin; Zhang, A-Mei; Han, Qinqin; Feng, Yue; Song, Yuzhu

    2013-01-01

    Cystatins are efficient inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteinases, and they serve various important physiological functions. In this study, a novel cystatin, Cystatin-X, was cloned from a cDNA library of the skin of Bufo melanostictus. The single nonglycosylated polypeptide chain of Cystatin-X consisted of 102 amino acid residues, including seven cysteines. Evolutionary analysis indicated that Cystatin-X can be grouped with family 1 cystatins. It contains cystatin-conserved motifs known to interact with the active site of cysteine proteinases. Recombinant Cystatin-X expressed and purified from Escherichia coli exhibited obvious inhibitory activity against cathepsin B. rCystatin-X at a concentration of 8 µM inhibited nearly 80% of cathepsin B activity within 15 s, and about 90% of cathepsin B activity within 15 min. The Cystatin-X identified in this study can play an important role in host immunity and in the medical effect of B. melanostictus.

  1. Effects of age, weight, hormones, and hibernation on breeding success in boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T L; Szymanski, D C; Keyster, E D

    2010-03-01

    The goals of this study were to test the effects of exogenous hormones and hibernation on breeding behavior and gamete release by boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas). Each year, a subset of 77 toads was hibernated and then paired with hibernated or nonhibernated mates and treated with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), or left untreated. Amplexus and egg and sperm production were recorded. At 1 yr of age, only 19% of pairs exhibited amplexus, and no sperm or eggs were produced. At 2 and 3 yr of age, most male toads treated with LHRHa exhibited amplexus (56.9% and 100%, respectively). Among 2-yr-old males, amplexus was more prevalent (Pbreeding success, males should be hibernated and treated with LHRHa. In contrast, female productivity was enhanced by improving their body condition instead of subjecting them to hibernation prior to LHRHa treatment.

  2. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toews Daniel P

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from the posterior region of Bufo marinus was measured under resting conditions and in response to a systemic hypervolemia. Doppler flow probes were positioned on the renal portal and ventral abdominal veins, and flow was recorded as injections of artificial plasma equaling 100% of the animal's plasma volume were administered through the sciatic artery. Resting flow was found to be 5.54 ± 2.03 ml min-1 kg-1 in the paired renal portal veins, and 7.31 ± 0.89 ml min-1 kg-1 in the ventral abdominal vein. While renal portal flow was found to increase by a factor of 2.4 times during the first 10 min of hypervolemia, ventral abdominal flow only increased by a factor of 1.3. Conclusions Our results quantify the contribution to circulation from posterior venous return in the toad Bufo marinus. A preferential movement of excess fluid through the renal portal pathway was also demonstrated, supporting the possibility of water elimination via the renal portal circulation, especially during periods of high water influx into the animals.

  3. Alimentación y fecundidad de Bufo variegatus (Anura: Bufonidae en Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappi, Guillermina E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la alimentación de una población de Bufo variegatus procedente de la región de Lago del Desierto, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. De los 11 ítems presa identificados, los más consumidos por los adultos (tanto machos como hembras fueron los coleópteros. En los machos la segunda categoría presa mas importante en la contribución a la dieta fueron los ácaros, mientras que en las hembras las hormigas y las larvas de insectos siguieron en importancia al consumo de coleópteros. En los especímenes juveniles, los ácaros fueron las presas más consumidas, quedando los coleópteros en segundo lugar en importancia relativa. Se demuestra la existencia de una correlación positiva significativa entre el volumen de las presas y el tamaño del depredador. Se aportan datos referentes a la fecundidad de B. variegatus y se comprueba la ausencia de correlación entre el tamaño de las hembras grávidas y el número de óvulos maduros. The diet of a population of Bufo variegatus from the region of Lago del Desierto, Santa Cruz province, Argentina, is described. Of the 11 prey items identified, Coleoptera was the most consumed prey both for males and females. In males, the second most important prey was Acarii, while in females they were the ants and insect larvae. Acarii was the most consumed prey for juveniles, followed by Coleoptera. A significant positive correlation was found between prey volume and predator body size. Fecundity information for B. variegwus is given, and a lack of correlation between snout-vent length of mature females and ovarian egg complement is demonstrated.

  4. Trophic ecology and microhabitat utilization by the Bufo gargarizans, Rana guentheri, and Rana limnocharis in southwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Tonglei Yu; Yanshu Guo

    2012-01-01

    We studied the trophic ecology and microhabitat use of the Asiatic toad, Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842; Guentheri frog, Rana guentheri (Boulenger, 1882); and the Ricefield frog, Rana limnocharis (Boie, 1834). These three species are common around Nanchong City, in southwestern China, where they live in the same habitat before hibernation. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diets and patterns of coexistence relative to the microhabitat of each species. In the Asiatic toad, bas...

  5. Ultrastructure of the renal juxtaglomerular complex and peripolar cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and toad (Bufo marinus).

    OpenAIRE

    Hanner, R H; Ryan, G B

    1980-01-01

    Renal juxtaglomerular regions were examined in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and toad (Bufo marinus). Prominent granulated peripolar epithelial cells were found surrounding the origin of the glomerular tuft in the axolotl. These cells resembled the peripolar cells recently discovered in mammalian species. They contained multiple electron-dense cytoplasmic granules, some of which showed a paracrystalline substructure and signs of exocytoxic activity. Such cells were difficult to find and sm...

  6. Association preference and mechanism of kin recognition in tadpoles of the toad Bufo melanostictus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lilly Margaret Eluvathingal; Bhagyashri A Shanbhag; Srinivas K Saidapur

    2009-09-01

    In experiments with specially designed choice tanks, tadpoles of Bufo melanostictus spend significantly greater amounts of time near kin than near non-kin. However, in the absence of kin members, they prefer to spend more time near non-kin rather than stay away in isolation in the opposite blank zone with no company. This implies that association of toad tadpoles with their kin is due to attraction rather than repulsion from non-kin. Experiments designed to elucidate the sensory basis of kin recognition showed that toad tadpoles recognize their kin based on chemical cues rather than visual cues. They can also discriminate between homospecific non-kin and heterospecific (Sphaerotheca breviceps) tadpoles since the tadpoles spent significantly greater amounts of time near the former than near the latter. These findings suggest that where kin members are unavailable, selection may have favoured living with non-kin so as to derive benefits from group living and that a phenotype-matching mechanism may operate for both kin and species discrimination in B. melanostictus.

  7. Efficacy of fenbendazole and levamisole treatments in captive Houston toads (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Catherine M; Johnson, Cassidy B; Howard, Lauren L; Crump, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Effective disease monitoring and prevention is critical to the success of captive amphibian care. Nematodes, including the genera Rhabdias and Strongyloides, are known to contribute to mortality in captive amphibians and have been identified in the Houston Zoo's endangered Houston toad (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis) captive assurance colony. Five years of fecal data for the toad colony were compiled and analyzed in order to investigate the efficacy of two anthelminthic medications, fenbendazole (FBZ) and levamisole (LMS), which were used to control nematode infections. Both FBZ (dusted onto food items) and topical LMS (6.5 to 13.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of nematode eggs, larvae, and adults observed by fecal parasitologic examination. There were no significant differences between treatments, and egg reappearance periods were difficult to compare as a result of low sample size. No adverse effects from either anthelminthic treatment were observed. Both topical LMS and oral FBZ appear to be safe and efficacious treatments for the reduction of the internal nematode burden in captive Houston toads.

  8. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorchin, A., E-mail: adorchin@campus.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Shanas, U., E-mail: shanas@research.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural sciences, University of Haifa - Oranim, Tiv' on 36006 (Israel)

    2010-12-15

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  9. Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sakr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55 and postmetamorphic (66 stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63 displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled.

  10. The osmotic behaviour of toad skin epithelium (Bufo viridis). an electron microprobe analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, R; Dörge, A; Katz, U; Bauer, R; Thurau, K

    1980-05-01

    The effect of saline adaptation on the intracellular Na, K, Cl, P concentrations and dry weight content of the toad skin epithelium (Bufo viridis) was studied using the technique of electron microprobe analysis. The measurements were performed on isolated abdominal skins either directly after dissection or after additional incubation in Ussing-type chambers. Adaptations of the toads to increasing NaCl concentrations for 7 days resulted in increased blood plasma osmolarity and a parallel increase in the cellular electrolyte, P and dry weight concentrations of the epithelium, the K increase representing the most significant fraction of the intracellular osmolarity increase. No evidence was obtained to show that the nucleus and cytoplasm reacted differently from each other and all living epithelial cell types basically showed the same response. Incubation of the isolated skins under control conditions showed a drastic inhibition of the transepithelial Na transport after adaptation to high salinities. In spite of the large variations in the transport rate almost identical intracellular electrolyte concentrations were observed. In tap water adapted toads the average cellular concentrations were 8.8 mmole/kg wet weight for Na, 109.6 for K, 41.5 for Cl, and 135.3 for P, respectively. Incubation of the skin with Ringer's solution of different osmolarities demonstrated that the epithelial cells are in osmotic equilibrium with the inner bathing solution. The results are consistent with the view that the osmotic adaptation is mainly accomplished by the movement of water. PMID:7191092

  11. Effects of copper on growth, metamorphosis and endocrine disruption of Bufo gargarizans larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Liang, Gang; Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) tadpoles were exposed to copper (1, 6.4, 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper) from the beginning of larval period through completion of metamorphosis. We examined the effects of chronic copper exposure on mortality, growth, time to metamorphosis, tail resorption time, body size at the metamorphic climax (Gs 42) and completion of metamorphosis (Gs 46) and thyroid gland histology. In addition, type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were also measured to assess disruption of TH synthesis. Our result showed that 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper concentration increased the mortality and inhibited the growth of B. gargarizans tadpoles. In addition, significant reduction in size at Gs 42 and a time delay to Gs 42 were observed at 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper treatments. Moreover, histological examinations have clearly revealed that 64μgL(-1) copper caused follicular cell hyperplasia in thyroid gland. According to real-time PCR results, exposure to 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of Dio3, but down-regulated mRNA expression of TRα and TRβ mRNA level. We concluded that copper delayed amphibian metamorphosis through changing mRNA expression of Dio3, TRα and TRβ, which suggests that copper might have the endocrine-disrupting effect.

  12. Urea transport across urinary bladder and salt acclimation in toad (Bufo viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpun, S; Katz, U

    1990-04-01

    The fluxes of urea across the urinary bladder of the toad Bufo viridis have been studied under conditions of acclimation to tap water or 500 mosM NaCl solution. The [14C]urea fluxes were measured simultaneously with [3H]inulin to test for nonspecific leakage. The fluxes are quite high (Ktrans = 75 x 10(-7) cm/s at 5 mmol/l urea) and are similar in either the mucosal-to-serosal or the opposite direction. "Summer" rates were five to six times higher than the "winter" rates. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), theophylline, and forskolin increased the fluxes to variable degrees (two to five times), similar in the two acclimation conditions. Phloretin inhibited the urea fluxes by nearly 50%. 1,3-Dimethylurea and thiourea, but not acetamide, competed with the urea fluxes effectively. The fluxes of urea were not affected by the osmotic water flow, although both responded to ADH. It is concluded that urea transport across the urinary bladder of B. viridis is by facilitated diffusion through a specific pathway independent of water flux. The inhibitory effect of the structural analogues on the urea flux was affected by salt acclimation, whereas most other characteristics did not differ significantly at 5 mmol/l external urea under the two conditions of acclimation. PMID:2331031

  13. Diagnostic histological findings in Yosemite toads (Bufo canorus) from die-off in the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Sherman, C.K.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve adult and 25 larval Yosemite toad (Bufo canorus) specimens from the eastern Sierra Nevada of California were examined histologically for evidence of infectious, toxicological, and degenerative diseases. The preserved toads were selected from 21 that had been salvaged or collected during a die-off in 1976-1979 that immediately preceded a population decline. Causes of death of four toads were determined histologically; clinical signs and field observations suggested causes of death of three more. Four toads died of infectious diseases, including chytridiomycosis of the skin (N = 1), bacillary septicemia (N = 2), and combined chytridiomycosis and bacterial septicemia (N = 1). Infections by a funguslike organism (Dermosporidium penneri), renal myxozoa (Leptotheca ohlmacheri), larval Rhabdias, various gastrointestinal nematodes, urinary bladder flukes, and lung flukes were detected in five specimens. No evidence of degenerative diseases, virus infections, or intoxications was found. The variety of lethal diseases and our inability to determine the causes of death of five specimens suggests that one or more histologically undetectable diseases or intoxications may have also contributed to the deaths and population decline.

  14. Genomewide scan for adaptive differentiation along altitudinal gradient in the Andrew's toad Bufo andrewsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baocheng; Lu, Di; Liao, Wen Bo; Merilä, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of humans, dogs and rodents have started to discover the genetic underpinnings of high altitude adaptations, yet amphibians have received little attention in this respect. To identify possible signatures of adaptation to altitude, we performed a genome scan of 15 557 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained with restriction site-associated DNA sequencing of pooled samples from 11 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi) from the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, spanning an altitudinal gradient from 1690 to 2768 m.a.s.l. We discovered significant geographic differentiation among all sites, with an average FST   = 0.023 across all SNPs. Apart from clear patterns of isolation by distance, we discovered numerous outlier SNPs showing strong associations with variation in altitude (1394 SNPs), average annual temperature (1859 SNPs) or both (1051 SNPs). Levels and patterns of genetic differentiation in these SNPs were consistent with the hypothesis that they have been subject to directional selection and reflect adaptation to altitudinal variation among the study sites. Genes with footprints of selection were significantly enriched in binding and metabolic processes. Several genes potentially related to high altitude adaptation were identified, although the identity and functional significance of most genomic targets of selection remain unknown. In general, the results provide genomic support for results of earlier common garden and low coverage genetic studies that have uncovered substantial adaptive differentiation along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients in amphibians. PMID:27289071

  15. Behavioral response and kinetics of terrestrial atrazine exposure in American toads (bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrs, Mendez S.I.; Tillitt, D.E.; Rittenhouse, T.A.G.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians in terrestrial environments obtain water through a highly vascularized pelvic patch of skin. Chemicals can also be exchanged across this patch. Atrazine (ATZ), a widespread herbicide, continues to be a concern among amphibian ecologists based on potential exposure and toxicity. Few studies have examined its impact on the terrestrial juvenile or adult stages of toads. In the current study, we asked the following questions: (1) Will juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) avoid soils contaminated with ATZ? (2) Can they absorb ATZ across the pelvic patch? (3) If so, how is it distributed among the organs and eventually eliminated? We conducted a behavioral choice test between control soil and soil dosed with ecologically relevant concentrations of ATZ. In addition, we examined the uptake, distribution, and elimination of water dosed with 14C-labeled ATZ. Our data demonstrate that toads do not avoid ATZ-laden soils. ATZ crossed the pelvic patch rapidly and reached an apparent equilibrium within 5 h. The majority of the radiolabeled ATZ ended up in the intestines, whereas the greatest concentrations were observed in the gall bladder. Thus, exposure of adult life stages of amphibians through direct uptake of ATZ from soils and runoff water should be considered in risk evaluations. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Descripción de dos renacuajos y una clave para las larvas conocidas del grupo Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae de Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Aguilar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los renacuajos de Bufo arequipensis y Bufo cophotis. Ningún carácter externo examinado permite distinguir la larva de las especies nominales B. arequipensis, B. flavolineatus y B. trifolium. La larva de Bufo limensis se diferencia de las de B. flavolineatus y B. trifolium por presentar un espacio menor en la segunda fila anterior de dentículos labiales y una fórmula de dentículos labiales (LTRF igual a 2(2/3[1]. B. cophotis difiere de B. limensis, B. flavolineatus y B. trifolium por presentar la altura máxima de la cola en su extremo posterior, una coloración marrón oscura en el cuerpo y cola, y un LTRF igual a 2(2/3(1. Se proporciona una clave de identificación para las larvas conocidas del grupo spinulosus presentes en Perú.

  17. Synergy between glyphosate- and cypermethrin-based pesticides during acute exposures in tadpoles of the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Julie Céline; Poliserpi, María Belén; D'Andrea, María Florencia; Sánchez, Marisol

    2014-10-01

    The herbicide glyphosate and the insecticide cypermethrin are key pesticides of modern management in soy and corn cultures. Although these pesticides are likely to co-occur in ephemeral ponds or aquatic systems supporting amphibian wildlife, the toxicological interactions prevailing in mixtures of these two pesticides have been little studied. The current study evaluated the toxicity of equitoxic and non-equitoxic binary mixtures of glyphosate- and cypermethrin-based pesticides to tadpoles of the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum. Two different combinations of commercial products were tested: glyphosate Glifosato Atanor®+cypermethrin Xiper® and glyphosate Glifoglex®+cypermethrin Glextrin®. When tested individually, the formulations presented the following 96 h-LC50s: Glifosato Atanor® 19.4 mg ae L(-1) and Glifoglex 72.8 mg ae L(-1), Xiper® 6.8 mg L(-1) and Glextrin® 30.2 mg L(-1). Equitoxic and non-equitoxic mixtures were significantly synergic in both combinations of commercial products tested. The magnitude of the synergy (factor by which toxicity differed from concentration addition) was constant at around twofold for all tested proportions of the glyphosate Glifoglex®+cypermethrin Glextrin® mixture; whereas the magnitude of the synergy varied between 4 and 9 times in the glyphosate Glifosato Atanor®+cypermethrin Xiper® mixture. These results call for more research to be promptly undertaken in order to understand the mechanisms behind the synergy observed and to identify and quantify the extent of its environmental impacts. PMID:25048890

  18. Ultrastructure of the renal juxtaglomerular complex and peripolar cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and toad (Bufo marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, R H; Ryan, G B

    1980-05-01

    Renal juxtaglomerular regions were examined in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and toad (Bufo marinus). Prominent granulated peripolar epithelial cells were found surrounding the origin of the glomerular tuft in the axolotl. These cells resembled the peripolar cells recently discovered in mammalian species. They contained multiple electron-dense cytoplasmic granules, some of which showed a paracrystalline substructure and signs of exocytoxic activity. Such cells were difficult to find and smaller in the toad. In contrast, granulated juxtaglomerular arteriolar myoephithelial cells were much more readily found and larger in the toad than in the axolotl. No consistent differences were noted in juxtaglomerular cells or their granules in response to changes in environmental chloride concentration.

  19. Molecular cloning and analysis of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 from Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The protein of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 has been reported to repress the transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene c-Myc in humans. Moreover, it was shown to be the subunit 5 of human prefoldin (PFD. So far, this gene and its homologs have been isolated and sequenced in many organisms, such as mammals and fish, but has not been sequenced for any amphibian or reptile. In order to better understand the function and evolution of Mm-1, we isolated a full-length Mm-1 cDNA (BgMm-1, GenBank accession no. EF211947 from Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Mm-1 in B. gargarizans is 755 bp long, comprising an open reading frame (ORF of 459 bp encoding 152 amino acids. The amino acid sequence had a prefoldin α-like domain, partially including a typical putative leucine zipper motif. BgMm-1 showed high similarity to its homolog of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (82% and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 MM-1 isoform a (81% at the amino acid level. The protein secondary structure modeled with the SWISS MODEL server revealed that there were two α-helices and four b-strands in BgMm-1 as its human orthologue, and both proteins belonged to the a class of PFD family. The phylogenetic relationships of Mm-1s from lower archaea to high mammals was consistent with the evolution of species, meanwhile the cluster result was consistent with the multiple alignment and the sequence identity analysis. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that BgMm-1 expressed widely in ten tissues of adult toad. These results can be helpful for the further investigation on the evolution of Mm-1.

  20. Vasculature of the parotoid glands of four species of toads (bufonidae: bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah A; Savitzky, Alan H

    2004-05-01

    The parotoid glands of toads (Bufonidae) consist of large aggregations of granular glands located between the otic region of the skull and the scapular region. To determine the circulatory pattern of these glands, we perfused the vascular systems of Bufo alvarius, B. marinus, B. terrestris, and B. valliceps with either India ink or Microfil, a fine latex. The perfused glands were studied by gross dissection, microscopic examination, and histology. The vascular patterns of the parotoid glands were compared to the arrangement of vessels in the dorsal skin of Rana sphenocephala (Ranidae), a frog that lacks parotoid glands. The parotoid glands of the four species of toads are supplied with blood by the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries and are drained by one or more branches of the internal jugular vein. The dorsal cutaneous artery supplies most of the blood to the parotoid glands in B. terrestris and B. valliceps. In B. alvarius and B. marinus, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries serve major roles in the blood supply of the glands. These patterns of blood flow have not been described previously for parotoid glands and conflict with earlier accounts for B. alvarius and B. marinus. The arteries and veins associated with the parotoid glands of toads are present in R. sphenocephala, but are arranged differently. In R. sphenocephala, the lateral cutaneous artery supplies the dorsal and lateral skin posterior to the shoulder region, whereas the dorsal cutaneous artery supplies the skin of the shoulder region. In toads, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries supply the skin of the shoulder region and ramify into subcutaneous capillaries that surround the secretory units of the parotoid glands. Extensive vasculature presumably is important for delivering cholesterol and other precursor molecules to the parotoid glands, where those compounds are converted into toxins.

  1. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Stark

    Full Text Available Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later, to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  2. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae

  3. Natural and experimental infection of the lizard Ameiva ameiva with Hemolivia stellata (Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae) of the toad Bufo marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainson, R; De Souza, M C; Franco, C M

    2007-12-01

    Developmental stages of a haemogregarine in erythrocytes of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae), from Pará State, north Brazil, were shown to be those of Hemolivia by the nature of the parasite's sporogonic cycle in the tick Amblyomma rotondatum. The type species, Hemolivia stellata Petit et al., 1990 was described in the giant toad Bufo marinus and the tick Amblyomma rotondatum, also from Pará State, and in view of the fact that A. ameiva and Bufo marinus share the same habitat and are both commonly infested by A. rotondatum, the possibility that the parasite of A. ameiva is H. stellata had to be considered. Uninfected lizards fed with material from infected ticks taken from B. marinus, and others fed with liver of toads containing tissue-cysts of H. stellata, were shown to subsequently develop typical Hemolivia infections, with all stages of the development similar to those seen in the naturally infected lizards. Conversely, a juvenile, uninfected toad became infected when fed with sporocysts of Hemolivia in a macerated tick that had fed on an infected A. ameiva and pieces of liver containing tissuecysts from the same lizard. The remarkable lack of host specificity shown by H. stellata, in hosts so widely separated as an amphibian and a reptile, is discussed. PMID:18225421

  4. Natural and experimental infection of the lizard Ameiva ameiva with Hemolivia stellata (Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae of the toad Bufo marinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainson R.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Developmental stages of a haemogregarine in erythrocytes of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae, from Pará State, north Brazil, were shown to be those of Hemolivia by the nature of the parasite’s sporogonic cycle in the tick Amblyomma rotondatum. The type species, Hemolivia stellata Petit et al., 1990 was described in the giant toad Bufo marinus and the tick Amblyomma rotondatum, also from Pará State, and in view of the fact that A. ameiva and Bufo marinus share the same habitat and are both commonly infested by A. rotondatum, the possibility that the parasite of A. ameiva is H. stellata had to be considered. Uninfected lizards fed with material from infected ticks taken from B. marinus, and others fed with liver of toads containing tissuecysts of H. stellata, were shown to subsequently develop typical Hemolivia infections, with all stages of the development similar to those seen in the naturally infected lizards. Conversely, a juvenile, uninfected toad became infected when fed with sporocysts of Hemolivia in a macerated tick that had fed on an infected A. ameiva and pieces of liver containing tissue-cysts from the same lizard. The remarkable lack of host specificity shown by H. stellata, in hosts so widely separated as an amphibian and a reptile, is discussed.

  5. Helmintos parásitos de anfibios: Dos Especies de Nemátodos parásitos de Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi

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    Asucena Naupay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo sobre los helmintos que parasitan a Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi de la localidad de Huánuco, se presentan dos especies conocidas para la ciencia pero una de ellas nueva para el Perú.

  6. Microsatellite analysis of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) in Denmark: populations are islands in a fragmented landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allentoft, Morten Erik; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Briggs, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    The European natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) has declined rapidly in recent years, primarily due to loss of habitat, and in Denmark it is estimated that 50% of the isolated populations are lost each decade. To efficiently manage and conserve this species and its genetic diversity, knowledge...

  7. Post-breeding habitat use by adult Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas) after wildfire in Glacier National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guscio, C.G.; Hossack, B.R.; Eby, L.A.; Corn, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of wildfire on amphibians are complex, and some species may benefit from the severe disturbance of stand-replacing fire. Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA increased in occurrence after fires in 2001 and 2003. We used radio telemetry to track adult B. boreas in a mosaic of terrestrial habitats with different burn severities to better understand factors related to the post-fire pulse in breeding activity. Toads used severely burned habitats more than expected and partially burned habitats less than expected. No toads were relocated in unburned habitat, but little of the study area was unburned and the expected number of observations in unburned habitat was < 3. High vagility of B. boreas and preference for open habitats may predispose this species to exploit recently disturbed landscapes. The long-term consequences of fire suppression likely have had different effects in different parts of the range of B. boreas. More information is needed, particularly in the northern Rocky Mountains, where toads are more likely to occupy habitats that have diverged from historic fire return intervals. Copyright ?? 2008. C. Gregory Guscio. All rights reserved.

  8. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  9. Ocorrência de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 e Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Bufo arenalis no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurence of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 and Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae in Bufo arenalis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Lodovico Sinkoc

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a ocorrência do parasitismo monoespecífico de A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 e A. humerale KOCH, 1844 em sapos (Bufo arenalis no Município de Rosana, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Este relato caracteriza um novo hospedeiro e uma nova localização geográfica para estas duas espécies de carrapatos.The objective of this work is to describe the occurence of the monoespecific parasitism of A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 and A. humerale KOCH, 1844 in toads (Bufo arenalis from the County of Rosana, State of São Paulo, Brazil. This is the description of a new host and new geographic site for those two species.

  10. Morphological and genetic differentiation among Chilean populations of Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae Diferenciación morfológica y genética entre poblaciones chilenas de Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Marco A. Méndez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Bufo spinulosus has a wide and fragmented range distribution in Chile (18° to 33° S along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. Genetic variation was estimated using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers in 10 populations from northern and central Chile. Morphometric and genetic information was analyzed as a function of geographical origin. The correlation between genetic and morphometric differentiation was analyzed by the Mantel test. An increase in body size as a function of latitude was observed. Specimens from El Tatio had the smallest body size and the greatest morphometric divergence. The AMOVA applied to genetic data indicated that 57.85 % of the variance is explained by interregional differences and that 30.12 % of the variance is found within populations. Low levels of within-regions genetic differentiation was observed in northern populations while higher levels of genetic differentiation was found in populations from central Chile. Mantel tests revealed a significant, positive correlation between genetic variation and geographic distance. When we excluded El Tatio population, Mantel test analyses showed significant correlations between morphological distance and genetic and geographic distances. We discuss whether water temperature could explain the morphological divergence observed in individuals from El TatioBufo spinulosus presenta una amplia y fragmentada distribución en Chile (18º a 33º S a lo largo de gradientes altitudinales y latitudinales. La variación genética fue estimada utilizando marcadores RAPD ("Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA" en diez poblaciones del norte y centro de Chile. La información morfométrica y genética fue analizada en función de la procedencia geográfica. La correlación entre diferenciación genética y morfométrica fue analizada utilizando la prueba de Mantel. Se observó un incremento en el tamaño corporal en función de la latitud. Los individuos de El Tatio mostraron el tama

  11. Low temperature induces oocytes p34cdc2 synthesis and accumulation—the acquisition of competence to resume meiosis in toad oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUJINING; ZHENGGU; 等

    1996-01-01

    Full grown oocytes derived from Bufo Bufo gargarizans rearing at high temperature environment (24℃), never underwent GVBD after progesterone treatment.No p34cdc2 Hl kinase activity was detected in the oocytes after progesterone stimulation or OA microinjection;Western blotting analysis showed that the level of p34cdc2 and p33 in the oocytes are significantly lower than those in the oocytes derived from the hibernating toads (below 10℃).35S-Met incorporation analysis showed that when the oocytes were incubated at 6℃,synthesis of about thirty defferent polypeptides was promoted or induced,including p34cdc2 and some other p13suc1-binding proteins.All these results indicated that a low temperature environment is essential for the oocytes of Bufo Bufo gargarizans to express and stord some cell cycle drivers and its regulators,and to gain the maturation competence.These results will also provide a nwe clue for explaining the molecular mechanisms why gametogenesis of some organisms depends on a relative low temperature and how to maintain the geographical distribution of some animals.

  12. Isolation and sequencing of doublesex/male abnormal 3 (DM related transcription factor (Dmrt genes from the Asian toad Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842

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    Wen Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The doublesex/male abnormal 3 (dsx/mab-3 or DM domain gene family involved in sexual development encodes putative transcription factors including a DNA-binding homology motif, the DM domain. We used highly degenerate primers to clone and sequence seven distinct DM related transcription factor (Dmrt genes from the Asian toad (Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842. A database search for the cloned sequences revealed the following percentage identity with the homologous Dmrt genes of the human: BgDmrt1 = 97%, BgDmrt2 = 97%, three isoforms of BgDmrt3 (BgDmrt3a = 93%, BgDmrt3b = 95%, BgDmrt3c = 100% and two isoforms of BgDmrt5 (BgDmrt5 = 97%, BgDmrt5 = 91%. Based on DM domain amino acid sequence similarities we constructed a phylogenetic tree which grouped vertebrate and invertebrate Dmrt genes into seven distinct subfamilies. The DM domains of both human and the newly-discovered Bufo gargarizans genes contained two conserved zinc-chelating sites (CCHC and HCCC, except BgDmrt3b, which contained the CCRC and HCCC sites.

  13. A new linearly-combined bi-exponential model for kinetic analysis of the isometric relaxation process of Bufo gastrocnemius under electric stimulation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There was a slow-relaxing tail of skeletal muscles in vitro upon the inhibition of Ca2+-pump by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Herein, a new linearly-combined bi-exponential model to resolve this slow-relaxing tail from the fast-relaxing phase was investigated for kinetic analysis of the isometric relaxation process of Bufo gastrocnemius in vitro, in comparison to the single exponential model and the classical bi-exponential model. During repetitive stimulations at a 2-s interval by square pulses of a 2-ms duration at 12 V direct currency (DC), the isometric tension of Bufo gastrocnemius was recorded at 100 Hz. The relaxation curve with tensions falling from 90% of the peak to the 15th datum before next stimulation was analyzed by three exponential models using a program in MATLAB 6.5. Both the goodness of fit and the distribution of the residuals for the best fitting supported the comparable validity of this new bi-exponential model for kinetic analysis of the relaxation process of the control muscles. After CPA treatment, however, this new bi-exponential model showed an obvious statistical superiority for kinetic analysis of the muscle relaxation process, and it gave the estimated rest tension consistent to that by experimentation, whereas both the classical bi-exponential model and the single exponential model gave biased rest tensions. Moreover, after the treatment of muscles by CPA, both the single exponential model and the classical bi-exponential model yielded lowered relaxation rates,nevertheless, this new bi-exponential model had relaxation rates of negligible changes except much higher rest tensions. These results suggest that this novel linearly-combined bi-exponential model is desirable for kinetic analysis of the relaxation process of muscles with altered Ca2+-pumping activity.

  14. Genotoxicity of the Herbicide Butachlor on Bufo gargarizans gargarizans Tadpoles%丁草胺对中华大蟾蜍蝌蚪的遗传毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玲; 姚丹; 钟碧瑾; 房振华; 王楠楠; 耿艳; 耿宝荣

    2009-01-01

    以中华大蟾蜍(Bufo gargarizans gargarizans)蝌蚪为研究对象,采用微核实验和碱性单细胞凝胶电泳法(又称彗星实验,SCGE)检测不同质量浓度(0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4 mg/L)的丁草胺溶液对中华大蟾蜍蝌蚪红细胞的遗传毒性.结果表明:在实验室条件下,丁草胺质量浓度越高,蝌蚪红细胞的微核率和核异常率越显著.经丁草胺溶液处理24 h,蝌蚪红细胞的细胞损伤率及DNA损伤程度(彗星DNA长宽比)出现极显著的提高,并与丁草胺质量浓度呈显著的线性关系.研究表明丁草胺对两栖动物具有遗传毒性作用,同时也说明微核实验和碱性单细胞凝胶电泳法是检测环境污染对两栖动物遗传毒性的合适方法.%Micro-nuclear test and the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCGE) or comet assay was performed to examine the genotoxicity of butachlor on erythro-cytes of Bufo gargarizans gargarizans tadpoles exposed to increasing concentration of the tested substance (0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4 mg/L). The results showed that both micro-nuclear frequency and nuclear abnormity frequency were significantly increased with the increasing concentration of butachlor in laboratory condition. Tadpoles treated for 24 h had significant, dose-responsive increases in the levels of DNA damage, as measured by the mean DNA length: width ratio. There were strong linear correlations between cells damage frequency, the mean DNA damage (length-to-width ratios) and the concentrations of butachlor. The results of this study indicate that butachlor produce genotoxicity in amphibians, and that using micro-nuclear test and SCGE may be useful for measuring DNA damage in tadpoles exposed in the field.

  15. Drift rather than selection dominates MHC class II allelic diversity patterns at the biogeographical range scale in natterjack toads Bufo calamita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Zeisset

    Full Text Available Study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC loci has gained great popularity in recent years, partly due to their function in protecting vertebrates from infections. This is of particular interest in amphibians on account of major threats many species face from emergent diseases such as chytridiomycosis. In this study we compare levels of diversity in an expressed MHC class II locus with neutral genetic diversity at microsatellite loci in natterjack toad (Bufo (Epidalea calamita populations across the whole of the species' biogeographical range. Variation at both classes of loci was high in the glacial refugium areas (REF and much lower in postglacial expansion areas (PGE, especially in range edge populations. Although there was clear evidence that the MHC locus was influenced by positive selection in the past, congruence with the neutral markers suggested that historical demographic events were the main force shaping MHC variation in the PGE area. Both neutral and adaptive genetic variation declined with distance from glacial refugia. Nevertheless, there were also some indications from differential isolation by distance and allele abundance patterns that weak effects of selection have been superimposed on the main drift effect in the PGE zone.

  16. Quality Assessment of Serially Ultradiluted and Agitated Drug Digitalis purpurea by Emission Spectroscopy and Clinical Analysis of Its Effect on the Heart Rate of Indian Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of ultradiluted (homeopathic drugs is extremely interesting and challenging, and from that point of view this study shows novelty. A study of in vivo changes in heart rate of the Indian Bufo melanostictus caused by commercially available serially ultra-diluted and agitated extract of Digitalis purpurea has been tried in order to understand their pharmacological role. RR interval (of ECG was compared after intraperitoneal administration of serially diluted and agitated Digitalis purpurea extract, diluent rectified spirit, and Digoxin in anesthetized animals. The study revealed statistically significant changes in the heart rate after application of these drugs except in case of Digoxin and the 200th serial dilution of Digitalis purpurea. The duration of RR intervals after application of the drugs was corroborative of the effect of Digoxin and Digitalis purpurea extract up to 30th dilution. Emission spectra were obtained for the experimental ultra-diluted Digitalis purpurea extract and Digoxin to identify and characterize them. The observed RR pattern and emission spectra show an association. The quality assessment of the commercial ultra-diluted organic drugs obtained from natural products may be initiated by monitoring in vivo studies on animal models.

  17. Effects of temperature on embryonic and larval development and growth in the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita in a semi-arid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanuy, D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature affects the duration of embryonic and larval periods in amphibians. Plasticity in time to metamorphosis is especially important in amphibian populations of Mediterranean semi-arid zones where temperatures are high and precipitation is low, increasing the rate of pond desiccation. In order to test the influence of water temperature on the larval development and growth of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita, we collected two spawns in a semi¿arid zone at Balaguer (Lleida, NE Iberian peninsula. Approximately 50 (+/-10 eggs (stage 14-16 were raised in the lab at different temperature conditions: 10, 15, 20, 22.5 and 25ºC with 12:12 photoperiod. The results show a lengthening of development time with decreasing temperatures and a better survival performance of B. calamita to high temperatures. However, mean size at metamorphosis was not different across treatments, thus, suggesting that this population of B. calamita requires a minimum size to complete the metamorphosis. This study is the first approach to examine the effects that climatic factors have on the growth and development of B. calamita in semi-arid zones.

  18. Studies on the physiological function of spermine in the process of progesterone induced toad oocyte maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIRUNSHENG; JIAKETSO

    1992-01-01

    Spermidine or spermine but not putrescine inhibited progesterone induced Bufo bufo gargarizans oocyte maturation.The ID50 for spermine inhibition via intra -oocyte microinjection on maturation induced by progesterone was 6.8mM(100nl).Spermine could inhibit MPF induced toad oocyte maturation with a much higher ID50.A 55 kD protein was dephosphorylated during the process of progesterone induced oocyte maturation .Spermine selectively promoted the level of phosphorylation of this protein in both progesterone-stimulated and hormone-untreated oocytes.The extent of its dephosphorylation was fairly Correlated with the percentage of GVBD in the hormone stimulated oocytes.The level of endogenous spermine was reduced by 28% between the perod of 0.40 GVBD50 and 0.60 GVBD50,at which 55 kD protein was dephosphorylated.Spermine inhibited progesterone-stimulated protein synthesis in almost the same dose dependent manner as its inhititory effect on the hormone-induced maturation,The endogenous spermine regulated 55 kD protein dephosphorylation which may trigger the increase of protein dephosphorylation which may trigger the increase of protein synthesis and in turn promote the activation of MPF,It is possible that 55 kD protein may be one of the components of messenger ribonucleoprotein(mRNP) particles.

  19. Strong reproductive barriers in a narrow hybrid zone of West-Mediterranean green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup with Plio-Pleistocene divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrin Nicolas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One key question in evolutionary biology deals with the mode and rate at which reproductive isolation accumulates during allopatric speciation. Little is known about secondary contacts of recently diverged anuran species. Here we conduct a multi-locus field study to investigate a contact zone between two lineages of green toads with an estimated divergence time of 2.7 My, and report results from preliminary experimental crosses. Results The Sicilian endemic Bufo siculus and the Italian mainland-origin B. balearicus form a narrow hybrid zone east of Mt. Etna. Despite bidirectional mtDNA introgression over a ca. 40 km North-South cline, no F1 hybrids could be found, and nuclear genomes display almost no admixture. Populations from each side of the contact zone showed depressed genetic diversity and very strong differentiation (FST = 0.52. Preliminary experimental crosses point to a slightly reduced fitness in F1 hybrids, a strong hybrid breakdown in backcrossed offspring (F1 x parental, with very few reaching metamorphosis and a complete and early mortality in F2 (F1 x F1. Conclusion Genetic patterns at the contact zone are molded by drift and selection. Local effective sizes are reduced by the geography and history of the contact zone, B. balearicus populations being at the front wave of a recent expansion (late Pleistocene. Selection against hybrids likely results from intrinsic genomic causes (disruption of coadapted sets of genes in backcrosses and F2-hybrids, possibly reinforced by local adaptation (the ranges of the two taxa roughly coincide with the borders of semiarid and arid climates. The absence of F1 in the field might be due to premating isolation mechanisms. Our results, show that these lineages have evolved almost complete reproductive isolation after some 2.7 My of divergence, contrasting sharply with evidence from laboratory experiments that some anuran species may still produce viable F1 offspring after > 20

  20. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis) Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchen, Jörn F; Reichert, Samuel J; Röhr, Johannes T; Dieterich, Christoph; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis) specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%), many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues) provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species. PMID:27232626

  1. The effects of dexamethasone (DXM) and vitamin A on the growth and metamorphosis of gamma irradiated, thyroxine induced Bufo melanostictus tadpoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the effects of vitamin A and dexamethasone (DXM) on the metamorphosis of irradiated tadpoles. Results indicate that hypervitaminosis A depresses the metamorphosing action of thyroxine for several days. On the contrary, dexamethasone accelerates the action of exogenous thyroxine on tadpoles. Thus present data suggest that DXM supresses STH synthesis and promotes TSH secretion. Moreover, muscle appears to be its target tissue and DXM seems to promote the proteolytic digestion of the larval tail. (author)

  2. The effect of detergents pollution on growth of Bufo melanostictus embryo and tadpoles%生活污水对黑眶蟾蜍胚胎及蝌蚪发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立; 徐剑

    2012-01-01

    两栖类蝌蚪发育对环境污染比较敏感,可用于对环境污染的生物监测.观察了黑眶蟾蜍胚胎及蝌蚪在生活污水中的发育情况,可以看出随着污染浓度增大,表现为胚胎及蝌蚪死亡率增加,发育时期延长,蝌蚪的体重增加延迟,体长发育延迟,尾部萎缩过程延迟.结果表明:黑眶蟾蜍胚胎在生活污水浓度达到10%为致死量,8%为半致死量.蝌蚪在生活污水中浓度达到80%为致死量,60%为半致死量,50%对发育明显影响,甚至致畸,50%对体长和尾长的影响最为明显.%The growth of amphibian tadpoles are sensitive to environmental pollution, which can be used for the biological monitoring of environmental pollution. Observing embryos and Bufo melanostictus tadpoles in a detergent-based domestic wastewater, with the increasing concentration, showing an increase in mortality, there are three aspects of development which is growth of the extension period, tadpole weight, body length and tail length affected. The results showed that the lethal dose of Bufo melanostictus embryos in sewage concentration is 10%, the semi-lethal dose of Bufo melauostictus embryos is 8%. The lethal dose to Tadpoles in the concentration of domestic sewage for up to 80%, the semi-lethal dose is 60%, 50% of sewage affected obviously, and even teratogenic, 50% of sewage is the most obvious of body length and tail length.

  3. Studies on the Effects of Deltamethrin on Sodium Net Transport Through the in vivo Amphibian Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALFREDOSALIBIAN; JOSEL.MARAZZO

    1995-01-01

    The action of micromolar concentrations of Deltamethrin on sodium net transport through the in vivo skin of the South American toad Bufo arenarum was studied.The effect or pure ethanolic insecticide solutions and commercial formulations when applied on the mucosal surface was assayed.Deltamethrin provoked a concentration-independent inhibition;the highest inhibition was found at the lowest concentrations.At highest concentrations of the insecticide the Jn Na was not altered.

  4. Casein kinase G may be the target of spermine during progesterone-induced oocyte maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIRUNSHENG; JIAKETSO

    1993-01-01

    Casein kinase G (CKG) with more than 2500-fold enrichraent was purified from Bufo bufo gargarizans ovaries. The catalytic activity of the enzyme was found to be associated with its 42 kD subunit, and its 26 kD subunit was found to be the major tsrget for the enzyme autophos phorylation. Each fuU-grown oocyte contained 1.9 units of CKG corresponding to an intracellular concentration of 93 nM. After injecting an amount of 0,38 units of the enzyme into the oocyte, approximately 50% of the progesterone-induoed maturation was inhibited. The inhibitory effect was enhanced in oocytes pretreated with spermine, which was consistent with the results that the enzyme was activated in vitro in the presence of spermine, The MPF-induced oocyte maturation was delayed and even prohibited in the kinase-microinjected oocytes. A 55 kD oocyte protein was identified as an suhstrate of CKG both in vivo and in vitro, and the enhancement of the 55 kD protein phosphory[ation was associated with kinase inhibition on maturation and on protein synthesis in kinase-microinjected oocytes. As the endogenous spermine level decreased in the course of progesteroneinduced oocyte maturation. 55 kD protein was dephosphorylated, Heparin, a specific inhibitor of CKG, potentiated the progesterone-induced oocyte maturation. Altogether the experimental reSults indicated Strongly that CKG may be the physiological target of spermine.

  5. Behavior of toads, Bufo bufo, in a dynamic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, D V

    2009-01-01

    Susceptibility to motion sickness was tested by exposing free moving toads to rotation of a stimulator modeled after an amusement park Ferris Wheel. The stimulator provided a gentle stimulation of frequency 0.25 Hz and centrifugal acceleration 0.143 g during 120 min or more without external visual cues. No emetic or prodromal behavioral response was elicited during or after rotation. During rotation the amount of motor activity in most toads increased evidently. The most active toads attempted to climb out of the test chamber. It was inferred that experimental rotation was rather a stressful stimulus which initiated an escape response. In addition, during rotation the number of eye retractions and urination incidences increased, but appetite after rotation was inhibited. During rotation the motionless toads performed small regular head movements with period equal to rotation period of stimulator. These oscillations were probably vestibular (otolith) reaction to oscillating acceleration. The proposed resonance hypothesis gives a general idea of why lower vertebrates are immune to motion sickness.

  6. 长波紫外线照射对花背蟾蜍肾脏结构损伤%Impacts of long-wave ultraviolet radiation on kidney structure of Bufo Raddei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈婷婷; 李丕鹏; 聂颖; 陆宇燕

    2012-01-01

    为研究长波紫外线对花背蟾蜍(Bufo raddei)肾脏的损伤,用波长为365 nm的长波紫外线(UVA)以352 μW·cm-2的辐射量对花背蟾蜍亚成体进行150、300和450 min的连续照射,分别在照射后立即、3、6、9、12和15 d取材,常规石蜡切片.结果表明:UVA照射后,3组不同照射时间的花背蟾蜍肾脏整体结构基本完整,但均出现肾小管管壁破裂,管径显著缩小,肾小囊消失,而300 min照射组的损伤则极为明显,其后依次为450 min照射组与150 min照射组,300与450 min照射组的肾小体塌陷程度较150 min照射组更为严重;经15 d的恢复,虽出现明显好转,但大多指标仍与对照组间存在极显著性差异;UVA对花背蟾蜍肾脏有着不可忽视的损伤,虽然具有一定的自我修复的能力,但在野外,紫外辐射的增强和植被的减少可导致两栖类遭受过度的紫外辐射,进而引起两栖类种群的衰减.%In order to study the damage of long-wave ultraviolet (UVA) on Bufo raddei kidney, three groups of Bufo raddeis juveniles were irradiated continuously by 365 nm UVA with a dosage of 352 μW · cm-2 for 150, 300, and 450 min, respectively, and the kidney after the irradiation was dissected immediately and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days later, with its histological changes observed by general histological method. After the UVA radiation, the kidney structure was basically in integrity, except the fracture and visible constriction of renal tubule and the disappearance of renal capsule, which were most obvious in the 300 min group, followed by in 450 min group and in 150 min group. The damage to Malpigkian bodies was more serious in 300 and 450 min groups than in 150 min group. After 15 days recovery, though the damage was somewhat mitigated , most of the histological indices of the three experimental groups were significantly different from the control group. This study showed that the damage of UVA to B. raddei kidney could not be ignored in spite of

  7. 花背蟾蜍皮肤结构及其抗氧化和免疫功能的研究%Microstructure of toad (Bufo raddei) andits antioxidant and immune function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凤娟; 李丕鹏; 陆宇燕

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the skin structure and function of the toad (Bufo raddei),the conventional paraffin section technique and ELISA were adopted to observe the microstructural characteristics of its dorsal skin,ventral skin and skin glands;and determine the contents of SOD,CAT,MDA,TLR4 andβD-1 of the dorsal skin and ventral skin, respectively.The results show that the toad skin structures are similar to other amphibians.That is the ventral cuticle thicker than the dorsal,the dorsal epidermis and dermis thicker than the ventral,granular glands mainly in the dorsal skin,and mucous glands in the ventral skin.SOD and TLR4 examined in the ventral skin are higher than in the dorsal skin,CAT containing in the dorsal skin is higher than in the ventral skin,but MDA andβD-1 are similar in these two areas.In conclusion,the structures and related protein levels of the toad skin closely adapt to the living environment,and have the antioxidant capacities and natural immune functions.%为了深入了解花背蟾蜍(Bufo raddei Strauch)皮肤显微结构及其相关功能,利用石蜡切片及酶联免疫吸附反应技术,观察了花背蟾蜍背腹侧皮肤及其皮肤腺的显微结构特点,分别测定了背、腹侧皮肤中 SOD、CAT、MDA、TLR4和βD-1含量。结果:花背蟾蜍皮肤结构与其他两栖类皮肤结构基本相同,其角质层腹侧较背侧厚,表皮和真皮背侧较腹侧厚;颗粒腺主要存在于背侧,而黏液腺主要存在于腹侧。SOD和TLR4含量腹侧皮肤高于背侧皮肤;CAT含量背侧皮肤较腹侧高;MDA和βD-1含量在背腹皮肤中相近。结论:花背蟾蜍皮肤结构和相关蛋白水平能够较好的适应其生境,并具有一定的抗氧化能力和天然免疫功能。

  8. Microstructure of toad (Bufo raddei) andits antioxidant and immune function%花背蟾蜍皮肤结构及其抗氧化和免疫功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凤娟; 李丕鹏; 陆宇燕

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the skin structure and function of the toad (Bufo raddei),the conventional paraffin section technique and ELISA were adopted to observe the microstructural characteristics of its dorsal skin,ventral skin and skin glands;and determine the contents of SOD,CAT,MDA,TLR4 andβD-1 of the dorsal skin and ventral skin, respectively.The results show that the toad skin structures are similar to other amphibians.That is the ventral cuticle thicker than the dorsal,the dorsal epidermis and dermis thicker than the ventral,granular glands mainly in the dorsal skin,and mucous glands in the ventral skin.SOD and TLR4 examined in the ventral skin are higher than in the dorsal skin,CAT containing in the dorsal skin is higher than in the ventral skin,but MDA andβD-1 are similar in these two areas.In conclusion,the structures and related protein levels of the toad skin closely adapt to the living environment,and have the antioxidant capacities and natural immune functions.%为了深入了解花背蟾蜍(Bufo raddei Strauch)皮肤显微结构及其相关功能,利用石蜡切片及酶联免疫吸附反应技术,观察了花背蟾蜍背腹侧皮肤及其皮肤腺的显微结构特点,分别测定了背、腹侧皮肤中 SOD、CAT、MDA、TLR4和βD-1含量。结果:花背蟾蜍皮肤结构与其他两栖类皮肤结构基本相同,其角质层腹侧较背侧厚,表皮和真皮背侧较腹侧厚;颗粒腺主要存在于背侧,而黏液腺主要存在于腹侧。SOD和TLR4含量腹侧皮肤高于背侧皮肤;CAT含量背侧皮肤较腹侧高;MDA和βD-1含量在背腹皮肤中相近。结论:花背蟾蜍皮肤结构和相关蛋白水平能够较好的适应其生境,并具有一定的抗氧化能力和天然免疫功能。

  9. The influences of the herbicide glyphosate on nerve impulse generation and conduction of Bufo gargarizans%草甘膦胁迫对中华大蟾蜍(Bufo gargarizans)神经冲动产生和传导的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖永红; 龙婉婉; 罗斯成; 尹彩萍; 龙进

    2007-01-01

    应用电生理方法研究了除草剂草甘膦对中华大蟾蜍 (Bufo gargarizans Cantor) 坐骨神经干冲动产生和传导的影响.用不同浓度的草甘膦溶液对中华大蟾蜍进行胁迫处理,草甘膦有效成分经由皮肤进入蟾蜍体内而作用于神经系统,利用生物信号采集处理系统测定草甘膦胁迫下中华大蟾蜍离体坐骨神经干的应激反应时间、动作电位幅度和冲动传导速度,结果表明:随着草甘膦溶液浓度的升高,中华大蟾蜍坐骨神经干接受刺激后产生冲动所需的时间逐渐延长,动作电位峰值降低,神经冲动传导速度亦逐渐减慢.草甘膦施用后,中华大蟾蜍7d内的平均应激反应时间与草甘膦浓度呈正相关,而动作电位幅度及传导速度均与草甘膦浓度呈负相关.草甘膦溶液浓度达到推荐农田使用浓度1.64~2.87ml/L时,各处理组蟾蜍的应激反应时间、动作电位幅度和冲动传导速度均与对照组差异极显著(P<0.01).同时,随着试验处理时间的延长,中华大蟾蜍神经干对刺激的反应变得更为迟钝,神经冲动的传导速度也进一步减慢.回归分析可知,中华大蟾蜍坐骨神经干的应激反应时间与草甘膦施用后天数呈正相关,而神经传导速度与药后天数呈负相关.由此可以说明,草甘膦胁迫条件下,中华大蟾蜍神经细胞对刺激反应的灵敏性降低,动作电位的产生及传导受到一定程度的抑制和阻碍.

  10. 中华蟾蜍蝌蚪变态过程中甲状腺的组织学变化%Changes of thyroid gland histological structures during the metamorphosis of Bufo gargarizans tadpole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 柴丽红; 吴民耀; 王宏元

    2012-01-01

    【目的】研究中华蟾蜍(Bufogargarizans)蝌蚪在不同发育阶段甲状腺的组织学变化。【方法】以处于变态高峰前后5期(28,33,38,42,46期)的中华蟾蜍蝌蚪为试验材料,用MoticBA300光学显微镜对各个发育时期蝌蚪的甲状腺进行组织学观察,测定蝌蚪的全长、体质量和肝质量等形态指标,并分析这些形态指标与甲状腺直径、滤泡平均直径及最大直径的线性相关性。【结果】在28期时,中华蟾蜍蝌蚪甲状腺出现但无分泌甲状腺激素的功能;33期时,甲状腺具备了分泌甲状腺激素的能力;此后甲状腺进一步发育,在蝌蚪前肢展开期甲状腺活性达到最强;至尾完全吸收期,甲状腺机能减弱。蝌蚪全长、体质量及肝质量与甲状腺直径及滤泡直径呈正线性相关。【结论】具有分泌机能的甲状腺出现的发育时期,与两栖动物变态类型相关;分泌高峰期出现的发育时期与幼体持续时间密切相关。中华蟾蜍蝌蚪的全长可以直观地反映其甲状腺的机能活性。%[Objective] The research was to study the changes of thyroid gland histological structures in tadpole of Bufo gargarizans during development. [Method] Tadpoles were taken from every five stages before and after metamorphosis(stage 28,stage 33,stage 38,stage 42 and stage 46),and histological struc- tures of thyroid glands in tadpoles were observed by Motic BA300 microscope. In addition, total length, body weight and liver weight of the tadpoles were measured. Then, the relationship was analyzed between total length, body weight, liver weight and thyroid gland, follicle diameter and follicle number. [Result] The thyroid gland was first present at the stage 28, but it lacked function. Thyroid gland possessed the abil- ity of secreting hormone at the stage 33. The activity of thyroid gland reached peak when forelimbs unfol- ded. The activity of thyroid gland declined

  11. Opus corpus: martirilogio bufo en tres cantos

    OpenAIRE

    Schrader París, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    “Opus Corpus” es un experimento que pasa necesariamente por el cuerpo –por mi cuerpo, en este caso- y que termina siendo catártico, psicomágico, sanador. El desamor es la prehistoria, la excusa, el material. La consecuencia son tres estados del cuerpo (uno detrás del otro, causalmente). Esta historia ordinaria está cantada (contada) desde los intestinos. Un primer cuerpo visceral empieza pidiendo a gritos ser volteado para que el desamor acumulado en sus entrañas se asolee u...

  12. Kinematics of Chinese toad Bufo gargarizans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional motion force tester for animal was used to measure the reaction forces of the feet of a Chinese toad (B. gargarizans) against a horizontal solid surface on which it crawled. The motion behavior of the Chinese toad was recorded by a high-speed camera on line. The motor function of every foot was analyzed. It was found that the lateral force represents the control ability of side-to-side locomotion, controls the lateral movement, and maintains a stable state for the sustainable creeping gesture. The forefeet play the assistant role and the hind feet play the main role in driving. The normal force of the forefeet is significantly greater than that of the hind feet, so the forefeet play the main role in supporting the body and the hind feet play the assistant role. The normal force is significantly greater than the lateral force and the driving force as well. There is little change for the friction force and the support angle of the all four feet. The average value of the support angle is 70°–80°. The Chinese toad’s vola friction coefficient of the forefeet is less than that of the hind feet. The above results indicate that the difference in kinematics and the material characteristic of the contact skin of the Chinese toad. The results could be useful to the structure design and gait optimization of some robots.

  13. Properties of a conductive cellular chloride pathway in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Kristensen, P

    1978-01-01

    of the steady-state conductance and the steady-state chloride current reveal that the chloride pathway has maximum conductance for V approximately -80 mV (outside of the skin being negative) and approaches a non-conducting safe for V greater than 0 mV. This strong outward going rectification is a steady......-compartment model indicate that the strong steady-state chloride current rectification cannot be obtained if only the intracellular chloride concentration and the membrane potentials are allowed to vary ("Goldman-rectification"). It is suggested, therefore, that the premeability of the chloride pathway varies...

  14. 中华蟾蜍中脑视叶白介素1α、干扰素γ和肿瘤坏死因子α阳性细胞的分布%Distribution of IL-1α-, IFN-γ-and TNF-α-like immunoreactive cells in the optic lobe of Bufo gargariizans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨乐乐; 刘再群

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the distribution of IL-lα-, IFN-y- and TNF-α-like immunoreactive cells in the optic lobe of Bufo gargariizans, and get much more knowledge of cytokines expressed in the brain in amphibians to aim at providing basic information of the study on cytokines acting on the central nervous system. Methods: The immunohistochemical SABC method and Nissl staining were used to observe the distribution of cells in the optic lobe under a light microscope, and statistic analysis was also used. Results: There were many IL-lcr and IFN-y- like immunoreactive cells in the whole optic lobe. They were large, middle or small sized cells, but most of them were middle and small sized cells. Their bodies were round and cone like in shape. Also, two sub-layers imunoreactive fibres were observed in the stratum zonale. TNF-α-like immunoreactive cells with middle or small size were only distributed in the dorsal tegmentum. Their bodies were round in shape. ' Conclusion: IL-1α and IFN-y-like immunoreactive cells were widely present in the whole optic lobe of Bufo gargariizans, but TNF-crlike immunoreactive cells were only observed in the dorsal tegmentum. do%目的:研究中华蟾蜍中脑视叶白介素1α (IL-1α),干扰素γ(IFN-γ)和肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)免疫阳性细胞的形态和分布特点,以丰富细胞因子在两栖类神经系统表达的情况,为进一步研究细胞因子对中枢神经系统的作用积累材料.方法:采用免疫组织化学SABC法和Nissl法对中华蟾蜍中脑视叶切片进行显色,光镜观察并进行统计分析处理.结果:IL-1α和IFN-γ阳性细胞在中脑视叶顶盖和被盖都有很多分布,为大、中和小型细胞,而且以中、小型细胞为主,胞体为圆形和似锥形,另外顶盖带状层出现2亚层的阳性纤维;TNF-α阳性细胞只分布在中脑视叶被盖背侧区,都为中、小型细胞,胞体圆形. 结论:IL-1α和IFN-γ阳性细胞广泛分布中华蟾蜍中脑视叶各区,

  15. Induced Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  16. EFFECTS OF AMINO ACIDS ON THE MEMBRANE POTENTIAL OF TOAD OOCYTES AND THE MECHANISMS INVOLVED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYu-Feng; CHENGJiun; CHENGZhi-Ping

    1989-01-01

    The etTects of 23 amino acids on the membrane potential of toad ( Bufo bufo gargarizans ) oocytes and the mechanisms involved were investigated in vitro by means of microelectrode. At a concentration of I mmol/L-alanine, leucine and lyaine induced signfiant depolarization, and tryptophan provoked a marked hyperpolarization during

  17. Photobleaching correction in fluorescence microscopy images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, Nathalie B; Diaz Zamboni, Javier E; Adur, Javier F; Paravani, Enrique V; Casco, Victor H [Microscopy Laboratory, School of Engineering - Bioengineering, National University of Entre Rios (UNER), Ruta 11, Km 10 (3101), Oro Verde, Entre Rios (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Fluorophores are used to detect molecular expression by highly specific antigen-antibody reactions in fluorescence microscopy techniques. A portion of the fluorophore emits fluorescence when irradiated with electromagnetic waves of particular wavelengths, enabling its detection. Photobleaching irreversibly destroys fluorophores stimulated by radiation within the excitation spectrum, thus eliminating potentially useful information. Since this process may not be completely prevented, techniques have been developed to slow it down or to correct resulting alterations (mainly, the decrease in fluorescent signal). In the present work, the correction by photobleaching curve was studied using E-cadherin (a cell-cell adhesion molecule) expression in Bufo arenarum embryos. Significant improvements were observed when applying this simple, inexpensive and fast technique.

  18. 浙江丽水中华大蟾蜍和黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪对水位变化的表型响应%Phenotypic responses to water level change in Bufo gargarizans and Duttaphrynus melanosticus tadpoles at Lishui, Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小芬; 樊晓丽; 林植华; 姚婷婷; 李香; 金晶; 周存通

    2015-01-01

    全球气候变暖引发栖息地干涸将对生活在水中的无尾类幼体提出了挑战.通过浙江丽水中华大蟾蜍(Bufo gargarizans)和黑眶蟾蜍(Duttaphrynus melanosticus)蝌蚪在实验条件下对不同水位变化的表型响应,检测表型可塑性的遗传性和环境近因性影响.结果表明,水位变化对中华大蟾蜍蝌蚪早期发育历期、头宽和体重影响不显著,对体长影响显著,其中逐减水位最大、恒低水位最小,慢波、恒高与快波、逐增水位依次减少;水位变化对黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪早期发育历期、体长、头宽和体重影响均显著;发育历期以恒高水位最大,恒低水位最小;体长以逐减水位最大,恒低、快波和慢波水位显著偏小,逐增和快波水位居中;头宽以恒低水位最小,逐增水位居中,其余较大;体重以恒低水位最小、恒高水位最大,其余居中.水位变化对中华大蟾蜍蝌蚪的变态时间、体长、头宽和体重影响均不显著;水位变化对黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪的变态时间、体长和体重影响均显著,对头宽影响不显著;恒低水位的变态时间最长,恒高水位的变态时间最短,其他水位变化之间差异不显著;恒高水位的体长最大,恒低和快波水位最小,其他居中;逐增和快波水位的体重最大,恒低水位最小.研究结果表明,繁殖季节不同的中华大蟾蜍和黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪响应水位变化的表型可塑性差异显著,长期在容易发生干旱和水位变化的冬季繁殖的中华大蟾蜍蝌蚪的表型可塑性低,在雨水充沛的春季繁殖的黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪的表型可塑性高,表现出表型可塑性的种间差异和遗传性;在早期发育过程中,两种蝌蚪体长的共同的表型变异与缺乏遗传基础的环境近因性影响有关;黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪对低水位或水位下降作出减速分化的消极响应,响应程度与环境信号的强弱直接相关.

  19. Aprendizaje instrumental en anfibios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén N. Muzio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una revisión de los estudios realizados acerca de los mecanismos de aprendizaje en anfibios. Se conoce muy poco acerca de los procesos de aprendizaje en anfibios, y aún menos respecto de las relaciones cerebro-aprendizaje. Recientemente hemos comenzado el estudio sistemático del aprendizaje instrumental en el sapo Bufo arenarum dentro de un marco comparativo. Se observaron diversos fenómenos de aprendizaje comunes a una amplia variedad de vertebrados, tales como la adquisición bajo condiciones de entrenamiento masivo y espaciado, la extinción, la recuperación espontánea, el efecto subsiguiente al refuerzo, y el efecto en al adquisición de la magnitud del reforzamiento. Además, comenzamos el análisis de los efectos sobre el aprendizaje de las lesiones del pallium medial (estructura postulada como homóloga al hipocampo de los mamíferos. La lesión del paIlium medial no tuvo efectos sobre el desempeño ni sobre la tasa de captación de agua durante la adquisición. Pero retardó significativamente la extinción de la respuesta instrumental en un corredor recto. Estos datos sugieren que el palli um medial de los sapos juega un papel en la inhibición de respuestas previamente aprendidas. Los resultados de nuestros estudios en el sapo Bufo arenarum aportan datos origi na1es a la limitada información disponible sobre aprendizaje en anfibios.

  20. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series...... of inhibitors (thiocyanate, furosemide, phloretin, and acetazolamide) also affects chloride exchange diffusion, hyperpolarization current as well as chloride influx during hyperpolarization. Although in some cases, effects on the short circuit current were also observed none of the effects on chloride transport....... On the basis of these findings, and the results reported in the previous paper (Hviid Larsen and Kristensen 1977) it is considered probable that the membrane molecules responsible to chloride exchange diffusion under short circuit conditions, are rearranged under the influence of a hyperpolarizing clamping...

  1. Caracterización morfológica de larvas de anuros del Noroeste argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrezi, Marissa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan caracteres morfológicos en larvas de catorce especies de anuros. Las especies analizadas son Bufo arenarum, B. paracnemis, Leptodadylus chaquensis, L. latinasus, Odontophrynus americanus, O. lavillai, Phrynohyas venulosa, Phyllomedusa sauvagii, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuqui, Pleurodema borellii, P. tucumana, Scinax fuscovaria y S. nasica. Estas especies se desarrollan en charcas temporarias del Noroeste de Argentina. Se caracterizan las larvas de cada especie por el análisis de la morfología externa e interna, caracteres de la cavidad oral, condrocráneo y arcos viscerales. Algunos de estos aspectos morfológicos se discuten con las hipótesis propuestas acerca de larvas generalizadas. We have analyzed morphological characters in tadpoles of fourteen anuran species. The species considered are Bufo arenaum, B. paracnemis, Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. latinasus, Odontopbynus americanus, O.lavillai, Phrynohyas venulosa, Phyllomedusa sauvagii, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuqui, Pleurodema borellii, P. tucumana, Scinax fuscovaria and S. nasica. They develop in similar temporary ponds of Northwestern of Argentina. We characterized the larvae of each species by the analyses on external morphology, internal oral features, chondrocranium and visceral archs. Some of these morphological aspects have been discussed with proposal hypotheses about generalized tadpoles.

  2. Inducing autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Lea M; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Andersen, Jens S.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal-mediated catabolic process, which through degradation of different cytoplasmic components aids in maintaining cellular homeostasis and survival during exposure to extra- or intracellular stresses. Ammonia is a potential toxic and stress-inducing byproduct of glutamine...... catabolism, which has recently been found to induce autophagy in an MTOR independent way and support cancer cell survival. In this study, quantitative phosphoproteomics was applied to investigate the initial signaling events linking ammonia to the induction of autophagy. The MTOR inhibitor rapamycin was used...... as a reference treatment to emphasize the differences between an MTOR-dependent and -independent autophagy-induction. By this means 5901 phosphosites were identified of which 626 were treatment-specific regulated and 175 were coregulated. Investigation of the ammonia-specific regulated sites supported that MTOR...

  3. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma Print A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  4. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  5. The influence of ambient salinity and temperature on lipid metabolism in toad (Bufo bufo) skin. Is phosphatidylethanolamine an endogenous regulator of ion channels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.J.M.; Olsen, Allan Gylling; Willumsen, Niels J.

    1994-01-01

    ) were found in vivo, when toads adapted to Ringer solution were transferred to tap water containing tracer amounts of (32P) phosphate and (14C) acetate. PE could play a role in the formation of a "hydrophilic" environment and thereby, e.g. stabilise the integral membrane proteins that regulate...

  6. Extrachromosomal inducible expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, Douwe M; Van Haastert, Peter J M; Eichinger, L.; Rivero, F.

    2013-01-01

    Inducible expression systems are very convenient for proteins that induce strong side effects such as retardation of growth or development and are essential for the expression of toxic proteins. In this chapter we describe the doxycycline-inducible expression system, optimized for the controlled exp

  7. Cavitation-resistant inducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, C.; Subbaraman, M.R.

    1989-06-13

    An improvement in an inducer for a pump is disclosed wherein the inducer includes a hub, a plurality of radially extending substantially helical blades and a wall member extending about and encompassing an outer periphery of the blades. The improvement comprises forming adjacent pairs of blades and the hub to provide a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow area which cross-sectional flow area decreases from the inlet end of the inducer to a discharge end of the inducer, resulting in increased inducer efficiency improved suction performance, reduced susceptibility to cavitation, reduced susceptibility to hub separation and reduced fabrication costs. 11 figs.

  8. Hydrosmotic effect of angiotensin II in the toad skin: role of cyclic AMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, A; Brauckmann, E S; de Atenor, M S; Apud, J A; Causarano, J

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the hydrosmotic response of the isolated skin of the toad Bufo arenarum Hensel to angiotensin II was studied by means of an indirect pharmacological approach. Angiotensin II (2.10(-10) M), vasopressin (2.10(-13) M) and theophylline (10(-4) and 10(-3) M) in subliminal doses produced a significant increase on water permeability when added in different paired combinations. Angiotensin II (2.10(-7) M) and vasopressin (2.10(-8) M) in doses producing significant effects on water permeability increased the response to submaximal doses of epinephrine (10(-6) M) but not to higher doses (10(-5) M). Acid pH (6.4) and prostaglandin E1 (2.10(-7) M) reduced significantly the hydrosmotic response to angiotensin II, but in contrast with the toad bladder, the effect was not completely abolished. Present results support the view that the hydrosmotic effect of angiotensin II in toad skin is mediated by the adenylate cyclase - cyclic AMP system. PMID:189568

  9. ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ ПОЧКИ У АМФИБИЙ В ЛИЧИНОЧНЫЙ ПЕРИОД РАЗВИТИЯ НА ПРИМЕРЕ ЖАБЫ ЗЕЛЕНОЙ (BUFO VIRIDIS LAURENTI, 1768)

    OpenAIRE

    СВЕТАШЕВА Д.Р.; ГРУШКО М.П.

    2014-01-01

    Описываются морфофизиологические особенности формирующегося мезонефроса у личинки зеленой жабы (Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768). Определено, что изученный орган, наряду с функцией выделения, выполняет функцию кроветворения на протяжении личиночного периода развития. В почке образуются элементы крови всех линий. Основную долю формирующихся элементов крови на протяжении всего личиночного периода развития составляли клетки эритропоэтического ряда, далее, по мере убывания – гранулоцитопоэтические и ...

  10. Antibiotic induced meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Three patients with antibiotic induced meningitis, one following penicillin with seven episodes, are reported on--the first well documented description of penicillin induced meningitis. In this patient episodes of headache and nuchal rigidity appeared with and without CSF pleocytosis. Two patients had a total of five episodes of antibiotic induced meningitis after trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) administration. The features common to all three patients were myalgia, confusion ...

  11. Isoniazid-induced alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, K. B.; Kumar, V.; Vishvkarma, S.; R Shandily

    2011-01-01

    Isoniazid is a safe and very effective antituberculosis drug. Antimitotic agents routinely cause alopecia. Drug-induced alopecia is usually reversible upon withdrawal of the drug. Isoniazid, thiacetazone and ethionamide are the antituberculosis drugs which have been associated with alopecia. Isoniazid-induced alopecia was observed in one case and confirmed by the finding that hair growth resumed when drug removed from the regimen.

  12. Material Induced Anisotropic Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, M.S.; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, V.T.; Boogaard, van den A.H.; Hora, P.

    2012-01-01

    The anisotropy in damage can be driven by two different phenomena; anisotropic defor-mation state named Load Induced Anisotropic Damage (LIAD) and anisotropic (shape and/or distribution) second phase particles named Material Induced Anisotropic Damage (MIAD). Most anisotropic damage models are based

  13. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  14. Diet induced thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  15. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Killorn, Erin E; Toews, Daniel P

    2001-01-01

    Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from the poste...

  16. Determining the effects of cattle grazing treatments on Yosemite toads (Anaxyrus [=Bufo] canorus in montane meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K McIlroy

    Full Text Available Amphibians are experiencing a precipitous global decline, and population stability on public lands with multiple uses is a key concern for managers. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains (California, USA, managers have specifically identified livestock grazing as an activity that may negatively affect Yosemite toads due to the potential overlap of grazing with toad habitat. Grazing exclusion from Yosemite toad breeding and rearing areas and/or entire meadows have been proposed as possible management actions to alleviate the possible impact of cattle on this species. The primary objective of this study was to determine if different fencing treatments affect Yosemite toad populations. We specifically examined the effect of three fencing treatments on Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy, tadpoles, and young of the year (YOY. Our hypothesis was that over the course of treatment implementation (2006 through 2010, Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy and early life stage densities would increase within two fencing treatments relative to actively grazed meadows due to beneficial changes to habitat quality in the absence of grazing. Our results did not support our hypothesis, and showed no benefit to Yosemite toad presence or early life stages in fenced or partially fenced meadows compared to standard USDA Forest Service grazing levels. We found substantial Yosemite toad variation by both meadow and year. This variation was influenced by meadow wetness, with water table depth significant in both the tadpole and YOY models.

  17. Spatial and temporal ecology of oak toads (Bufo quercicus) on a Florida landscape.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT: We used data from 10 years of continuous, concurrent monitoring of oak toads at eight isolated, ephemeral ponds in Florida longleaf pine-wiregrass uplands to address: (1) did weather variables affect movement patterns of oak toads?; (2) did pond hydrology and the condition of surrounding uplands affect pond selection by adults or juvenile recruitment?; (3) were population trends evident?; and (4) did a classical metapopulation model best represent their population ecology? Of 4076 oak toads captured, 92.2% were adults. Substantial (n _ 30 exiting juveniles) recruitment occurred only three times (once each at three ponds during two years). Males outnumbered females (average for all years 2.3:1). Most captures occurred during May–September. Adult captures during June–August increased with heavier rainfall but were not influenced by the durations of preceding dry periods. Movement patterns of metamorphs suggested that oak toads emigrated when moisture conditions become favorable. Pond use by adults was correlated with maximum change in pond depth (May–September). Juvenile recruitment was negatively correlated with minimum pond depth and the number of weeks since a pond was last dry, and positively correlated with the maximum number of weeks a pond held water continuously. The number of breeding adults and juvenile recruitment were highest at ponds within the hardwood-invaded upland matrix. The direction of most immigrations and emigrations was nonrandom, but movement occurred from all directions, and the mean direction of pond entry and exit did not always correspond. A total of 21.1% of individuals was recaptured; 13.3% of first captures were recaptured during the same year, and 7.7% during a subsequent year. Only 1.9% of captured oak toads moved among ponds, mostly within a distance of 132 m. We did not detect adult population trends over the 10- yr studied. Presence or absence at ponds in any given year was a poor indicator of overall use. We saw little evidence of local extinction or ‘‘rescue,’’ but were unable to determine whether juveniles returned to natal ponds or colonized new ponds for breeding as adults. Oak toad conservation can best be ensured by maintaining multiple ponds within a landscape to increase the probability of recruitment within the landscape neighborhood during at least some years and at some ponds, and to increase the likelihood of interpond movement.

  18. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1984-01-01

    ). for V = -50 mV the transepithelial Cl- conductance calculated from isotope flux measurements was 2.5 +/- 0.3 mS cm-2, N = 10. When the skin was clamped at + 50 mV the net flux of Cl- was reversed, but Cl- conductance was only 0.3 +/- 0.1 mScm-2. Flux ratio analysis indicated that the potential...

  19. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV inhibitory activity of parotid exudate of Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allenki Venkatesham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes arises as a result of β-cell failure combined with concomitant insulin resistance. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a gastrointestinal hormone that is released postprandially from the L cells of the gut and exerts a glucose- dependent and direct insulinotropic effect on the pancreatic β cell. Which activate adenylate cyclase and enhances insulin secretion. GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by DPP-IV to GLP-1(9-37 amide following release from gut L cells. GLP-1 directly enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion via an increase in β-cell cAMP. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV is a plasma membrane glycoprotein ectopeptidase. In mammals, DPP-IV was widely expressed on the surface of endothelial and epithelial cells and highest levels in humans have been reported to occur in the intestine, bone marrow and kidney. Inhibiting DPP-IV reduces its rapid degradation of GLP-1, increasing circulating levels of the active hormone in vivo and prolonging its beneficial effects. The IC 50 value of parotid exudate was found to be 9.4 μg/ml. The maximum % inhibition (61.8 was showed at a concentration of 12μg/ml. Parotid exudate through inhibition of DPP-IV, improves glucose tolerance and enhances insulin secretion. DPP-IV inhibitors are a novel class of oral hypoglycemic agents with a potential to improve pancreatic beta cell function and the clinical course of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Soil Organic Matter Content Effects on Dermal Pesticide Bioconcentration in American Toads (Bufo Americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural landscapes serve as active amphibian breeding grounds despite their seemingly poor habitat value. Activity of adults and dispersal of metamorphs to and from agricultural ponds occurs in most species from spring through late summer or early fall, a time that coincides...

  1. Mania induced by opipramol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazhungil Firoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressants have propensity to induce manic switch in patients with bipolar disorder. Opipramol is an atypical anxiolytic and antidepressant drug which predominantly acts on sigma receptors. Although structurally resembles tricyclic antidepressant imipramine it does not have inhibitory action on the reuptake of norepinephrine/serotonin and hence it is not presumed to cause manic switch in bipolar depression. Here, we describe a case of mania induced by opipramol, in a patient with bipolar affective disorder who was treated for moderate depressive episode with lithium and opipramol and we discuss neurochemical hypothesis of opipramol-induced mania.

  2. Drug-induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  3. LASER-INDUCED PHOTODISSOCIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, N.

    1985-01-01

    The richness of the field of laser-induced photodissociation is pointed out. Some of the recent works in this area comprising theoretical, computational as well as experimental research are discussed.

  4. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat (macular) and depigmented, but maintains ...

  5. Topological Induced Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We propose a topological model of induced gravity (pregeometry) where both Newton's coupling constant and the cosmological constant appear as integration constants in solving field equations. The matter sector of a scalar field is also considered, and by solving field equations it is shown that various types of cosmological solutions in the FRW universe can be obtained. A detailed analysis is given of the meaning of the BRST transformations, which make the induced gravity be a topological field theory, by means of the canonical quantization analysis, and the physical reason why such BRST transformations are needed in the present formalism is clarified. Finally, we propose a dynamical mechanism for fixing the Lagrange multiplier fields by following the Higgs mechanism. The present study clearly indicates that the induced gravity can be constructed at the classical level without recourse to quantum fluctuations of matter and suggests an interesting relationship between the induced gravity and the topological qu...

  6. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...

  7. Optomechanically induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Weis, S; Deleglise, S; Gavartin, E; Arcizet, O; Schliesser, A; Kippenberg, T J

    2010-01-01

    Coherent interaction of laser radiation with multilevel atoms and molecules can lead to quantum interference in the electronic excitation pathways. A prominent example observed in atomic three-level-systems is the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), in which a control laser induces a narrow spectral transparency window for a weak probe laser beam. The concomitant rapid variation of the refractive index in this spectral window can give rise to dramatic reduction of the group velocity of a propagating pulse of probe light. Dynamic control of EIT via the control laser enables even a complete stop, that is, storage, of probe light pulses in the atomic medium. Here, we demonstrate optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT)--formally equivalent to EIT--in a cavity optomechanical system operating in the resolved sideband regime. A control laser tuned to the lower motional sideband of the cavity resonance induces a dipole-like interaction of optical and mechanical degrees of freedom. Under...

  8. Noise induced Hopf bifurcation

    OpenAIRE

    Shuda, I. A.; Borysov, S S; A.I. Olemskoi

    2008-01-01

    We consider effect of stochastic sources upon self-organization process being initiated with creation of the limit cycle induced by the Hopf bifurcation. General relations obtained are applied to the stochastic Lorenz system to show that departure from equilibrium steady state can destroy the limit cycle in dependence of relation between characteristic scales of temporal variation of principle variables. Noise induced resonance related to the limit cycle is found to appear if the fastest vari...

  9. Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, S.; Suss, M. E.; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bercovici, M.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, ...

  10. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

    OpenAIRE

    Molis, Marc A.; Molis, Whitney E.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a phenomenon of airway narrowing that occurs during or after exercise or physical exertion. This condition has been reported in a range of sporting activities but is most common in participants of cold-weather sports (eg, Nordic skiing) and indoor sports (eg, ice-skating and swimming). Traditionally, the terms exercise induced-asthma (EIA) and EIB have been used interchangeably; however, more recent evidence suggests that these entities are sepa...

  11. Beam induced heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Esteban Mueller, J; Gentini, L; Goddar, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Nougaret, J L; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Sapinski, M; Shaposhinkova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the rapid increase of the luminosity performance of LHC came at the expense of increased temperature and pressure readings on several near-beam LHC equipments. In some cases, this beam induced heating was suspected to cause beam dumps and even degradation of the equipment. This contribution aims at gathering the observations of beam induced heating due to beam coupling impedance, their current level of understanding and possible actions that could be implemented during the winter stop 2011-2012.

  12. Paroxetine-induced galactorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Prannay; Chavan, B.S.; Das, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced galactorrhea has been reported with agents such as antidopaminergic antiemetics, antipsychotics, etc., with few case reports of galactorrhea with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, including paroxetine, being reported in last few decades. Prolactin levels have been found to be either raised or normal in these cases. We here report a case of paroxetine induced galactorrhea in a 48-year-old female patient of obsessive compulsive disorder, having hyperprolactinemic and euprola...

  13. Induced Norm Control Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, Eric Bengt

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the basic nature of the InducedNorm Control Toolbox (INCT). The toolbox is a set of Matlab-filesusing LMITOOL and the Semidefinite Programming package(SP). Thetoolbox is public domain. The INCT provides a series of analysisand synthesis tools for continuous time-invariant lin......This paper describes the basic nature of the InducedNorm Control Toolbox (INCT). The toolbox is a set of Matlab-filesusing LMITOOL and the Semidefinite Programming package(SP). Thetoolbox is public domain. The INCT provides a series of analysisand synthesis tools for continuous time......-invariant linear systems,all related to induced norms. A packing system has also beendeveloped to make the writing of code less cumbersome....

  14. Gravitationally induced quantum transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Landry, A

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we calculate the probability for resonantly induced transitions in quantum states due to time dependent gravitational perturbations. Contrary to common wisdom, the probability of inducing transitions is not infinitesimally small. We consider a system of ultra cold neutrons (UCN), which are organized according to the energy levels of the Schr\\"odinger equation in the presence of the earth's gravitational field. Transitions between energy levels are induced by an oscillating driving force of frequency $\\omega$. The driving force is created by oscillating a macroscopic mass in the neighbourhood of the system of neutrons. The neutrons decay in 880 seconds while the probability of transitions increase as $t^2$. Hence the optimal strategy is to drive the system for 2 lifetimes. The transition amplitude then is of the order of $1.06\\times 10^{-5}$ hence with a million ultra cold neutrons, one should be able to observe transitions.

  15. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest;

    2012-01-01

    of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function...... laterally constrained inversion algorithm that extracts the spectral content of the induced polarization phenomenon in terms of the Cole- Cole parameters. Synthetic examples and field examples from Denmark showed a significant improvement in the resolution of the parameters that control the induced...... polarization response when compared to traditional integral chargeability inversion. The quality of the inversion results has been assessed by a complete uncertainty analysis of the model parameters; furthermore, borehole information confirm the outcomes of the field interpretations. With this new accurate...

  16. Gravitationally induced quantum transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, A.; Paranjape, M. B.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we calculate the probability for resonantly inducing transitions in quantum states due to time-dependent gravitational perturbations. Contrary to common wisdom, the probability of inducing transitions is not infinitesimally small. We consider a system of ultracold neutrons, which are organized according to the energy levels of the Schrödinger equation in the presence of the Earth's gravitational field. Transitions between energy levels are induced by an oscillating driving force of frequency ω . The driving force is created by oscillating a macroscopic mass in the neighborhood of the system of neutrons. The neutron lifetime is approximately 880 sec while the probability of transitions increases as t2. Hence, the optimal strategy is to drive the system for two lifetimes. The transition amplitude then is of the order of 1.06 ×10-5, and hence with a million ultracold neutrons, one should be able to observe transitions.

  17. Optically Induced Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yuanlin; Shen, Zhenhua; Cao, Jianjun; Chen, Xianfeng; Liang, Xiaogan; Wan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Light-matter-light interactions serve as the backbone technology of all-optical information processing for both on-chip and long-haul communication purposes. The representative example of electromagnetically induced transparency has its unique ability of optically controlling transparency windows with relative low light in atomic systems, though its practical applications are limited due to rigid experimental requirements. Here we demonstrate a new form of optically induced transparency in a micro-cavity by introducing four-wave mixing gain in order to couple nonlinearly two separated resonances of the micro-cavity in ambient environment. A signature Fano-like resonance is also observed owing to the nonlinear interference of two coupled resonances. Moreover, we show that the unidirectional gain of four-wave mixing can lead to non-reciprocal transmission at the transparency windows. Optically induced transparency may offer a unique platform for a compact, integrated solution to all-optical processing and quant...

  18. Rosuvastatin-induced pemphigoid.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murad, Aizuri A

    2012-01-01

    Statins are widely prescribed medications and very well tolerated. Rosuvastatin is another member of this drug used to treat dyslipidaemia. It is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Immunobullous disease is usually idiopathic but can be drug-induced. Both idiopathic and iatrogenic forms share common clinical and immunohistological features. The authors report a case of pemphigoid induced by rosuvastatin, a commonly prescribed medication. To our knowledge, there is limited report on rosuvastatin associated with pemphigoid in the literature.

  19. Noise-induced linearisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dykman, Mark; Luchinsky, D. G.; Mannella, R.; McClintock, Peter V. E.; Short, H. E.; Stein, N. D.; Stocks, N. G.

    1994-01-01

    It is found that the response of a nonlinear dynamical system can be linearised, and its frequency dispersion diminished, by the addition of external noise of sufficient intensity. Taking as an example an overdamped bistable system driven by a low-frequency periodic field, this noise-induced linearisation is investigated through analogue electronic experiments. The wider implications are considered.

  20. Metformin induced acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H.

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis frequently presents with abdomen pain but may presents with various skin manifestations as rash and rarely, pancreatic panniculitis. Metformin, one of the most effective and valuable oral hypoglycemic agents in the biguanide class was linked to acute pancreatitis in few cases. Here, we report a case of metformin induce acute pancreatitis in young healthy man with normal renal function.

  1. Drug-induced hyperkalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Chaker; Badreddine, Atef; Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Hmouda, Houssem

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common clinical condition that can be defined as a serum potassium concentration exceeding 5.0 mmol/L. Drug-induced hyperkalemia is the most important cause of increased potassium levels in everyday clinical practice. Drug-induced hyperkalemia may be asymptomatic. However, it may be dramatic and life threatening, posing diagnostic and management problems. A wide range of drugs can cause hyperkalemia by a variety of mechanisms. Drugs can interfere with potassium homoeostasis either by promoting transcellular potassium shift or by impairing renal potassium excretion. Drugs may also increase potassium supply. The reduction in renal potassium excretion due to inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system represents the most important mechanism by which drugs are known to cause hyperkalemia. Medications that alter transmembrane potassium movement include amino acids, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, suxamethonium, and mannitol. Drugs that impair renal potassium excretion are mainly represented by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcineurin inhibitors, heparin and derivatives, aldosterone antagonists, potassium-sparing diuretics, trimethoprim, and pentamidine. Potassium-containing agents represent another group of medications causing hyperkalemia. Increased awareness of drugs that can induce hyperkalemia, and monitoring and prevention are key elements for reducing the number of hospital admissions, morbidity, and mortality related to drug-induced hyperkalemia.

  2. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Patients can develop thrombocytopenia during heparin therapy.The most frequent form, type I heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, does not require cessation of therapy. Type II heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is immune-mediated. It can cause venous or arterial thrombosis, which may be fatal or require amputation. Type II thrombocytopenia typically develops 5 to 10 days after initiation of treatment, sometimes earlier in patients previously exposed to heparins. The recommendations on platelet-count monitoring during heparin therapy are not based on high-level evidence. The main risk factors for type II thrombocytopenia must be taken into account: unfractionated heparin, previous heparin exposure, surgery, female patient. For patients considered at high risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, platelet-count monitoring is usually recommended at least twice a week for at least 2 weeks. The treatment of immune-mediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is based on stopping heparin and replacing it with danaparoid or argatroban. In practice, the decision to initiate treatment with unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin is not a trivial one. In addition to the bleeding risk, the risk of type II thrombocytopenia in the short- term, or during subsequent heparin therapy, should be taken into account when assessing the harm-benefit balance. PMID:23819174

  3. Bowthruster-induced damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokking, L.A.; Janssen, P.C.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    The stability of stones in propeller-induced jet wash is still difficult to predict. Especially the trend of bowthrusters increasing in size and power in sea going ships (especially ferries) over the last years may be a reason for concern when dealing with the protection of slopes and beds. But also

  4. Methacholine induced headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratala, C; Gea, J G; Aguar, M C; Grau, S; Espadaler-Medina, J M; Broquetas, J M

    1995-03-01

    A lung function technician developed episodes of headache, probably related to the use of methacholine. The headache disappeared with breathing 100% oxygen. Cholinergic agents are known to induce headaches but the mechanism remains unclear. Vascular factors could be implicated. PMID:7660351

  5. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, W. van Marken; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic respon

  6. Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.

    1999-08-09

    This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the irradiation-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of irradiation are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion irradiations when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion irradiation in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered irradiation from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been irradiated by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization.

  7. Radiation-induced pneumothorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, D.M.; Littman, P.; Gefter, W.B.; Miller, W.T.; Raney, R.B. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of radiation therapy to the chest. The proposed pathogenesis is radiation-induced fibrosis promoting subpleural bleb formation that ruptures resulting in pneumothorax. We report on two young patients with primary sarcomas without pulmonary metastases who developed spontaneous pneumothorax after irradiation. Neither patient had antecedent radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis.

  8. Radiation-induced pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of radiation therapy to the chest. The proposed pathogenesis is radiation-induced fibrosis promoting subpleural bleb formation that ruptures resulting in pneumothorax. We report on two young patients with primary sarcomas without pulmonary metastases who developed spontaneous pneumothorax after irradiation. Neither patient had antecedent radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis

  9. Advertising-Induced Embarrassment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puntoni, S.; Hooge, de I.E.; Verbeke, W.J.M.I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consumer embarrassment is a concern for many advertisers. Yet little is known about ad-induced embarrassment. The authors investigate when and why consumers experience embarrassment as a result of exposure to socially sensitive advertisements. The theory distinguishes between viewing potent

  10. Pentazocine-induced agranulocytosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Meg; Hyland, Robert H; Norman, Conolly

    1984-01-01

    A 46-year-old man with pentazocine-induced agranulocytosis is described. In previously reported cases of a complete absence of mature neutrophils in the peripheral blood and bone marrow the patients had undergone marrow-depressing treatment with radiation and antineoplastic drugs. This case is unique in that the patient had complete agranulocytosis without predisposing factors.

  11. Induced Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses, classically and quantum mechanically, the angular momentum induced in the bound motion of an electron by an external magnetic field. Calculates the current density and its magnetic moment, and then uses two methods to solve the first-order perturbation theory equation for the required eigenfunction. (Author/GA)

  12. Radiation Induced Fermion Resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, S.; M. W. Evans; Recami, E.

    1998-01-01

    The Dirac equation is solved for two novel terms which describe the interaction energy between the half integral spin of a fermion and the classical, circularly polarized, electromagnetic field. A simple experiment is suggested to test the new terms and the existence of radiation induced fermion resonance.

  13. Muon-induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of recent experimental results on negative-muon-induced fission, both of 238U and 232Th, is given. Some conclusions drawn by the author are concerned with muonic atoms of fission fragments and muonic atoms of the shape isomer of 238U. (author)

  14. Lupus induced by medicaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a 55 years old female patient who consulted by fever syndrome, artralgias and the presence of high tittles positives antinuclear antibodies. She had arterial hypertension in treatment with captopril. We suspected the clinical diagnoses of drug-induced lupus; the withdraw of captopril was associated with the remission of the clinical and laboratory manifestations

  15. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it is…

  16. Mild induced hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria E; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Bestle, Morten H;

    2014-01-01

    trial; The Cooling And Surviving Septic shock (CASS) study. Patients suffering severe sepsis/septic shock are allocated to either mild induced hypothermia (cooling to 32-34°C for 24hours) or control (uncontrolled temperature). TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01455116. Thrombelastography (TEG) is performed three...

  17. Sulphasalazine induced renal failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Dwarakanath, A D; Michael, J.; Allan, R. N.

    1992-01-01

    Two men with longstanding ulcerative colitis who were treated with sulphasalazine for several years and who developed chronic renal failure are reported. Renal biopsy specimens showed histological changes consistent with drug induced chronic intestinal nephritis. Extensive investigation made other causes of chronic renal failure unlikely. One of these patients underwent renal transplantation, the other has impaired but stable renal function.

  18. Olanzapine induced hyperprolactinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Veena Nayak; Virupaksha Devaramane; Deepak Mallya; Panambur V Bhandary

    2013-01-01

    Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic is widely used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Though olanzapine is an efficacious antipsychotic it has been associated with many adverse effects like weight gain, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, etc necessitating its discontinuation. Here, we present two cases of hyperprolactinemia induced by olanzapine. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000): 836-837

  19. Uterine contraction induced by Tanzanian plants used to induce abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Tine; Nielsen, Frank; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect.......Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect....

  20. Induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddhartha Bhowmik; LI Yong

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a recent development which has brought a promise of great therapeutic values. The previous technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been ineffective in humans. Recent discoveries show that human fibroblasts can be reprogrammed by a transient over expression of a small number of genes; they can undergo induced pluripotency. iPS were first produced in 2006. By 2008, work was underway to remove the potential oncogenes from their structure. In 2009, protein iPS (piPS) cells were discovered. Surface markers and reporter genes play an important role in stem cell research. Clinical applications include generation of self renewing stem cells, tissue replacement and many more. Stem cell therapy has the ability to dramatically change the treatment of human diseases.

  1. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 1999 guidelines on contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the definition of CIN, the choice of contrast medium, the prophylactic...... measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  2. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 1999 guidelines on contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the definition of CIN, the choice of contrast medium, the prophylactic...... measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR = 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  3. Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, James; Bourgeois, Marie; Harbison, Raymond

    2014-04-01

    Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity is a persistent allergic contact dermatitides documented in floral workers exposed to Alstroemeria and its cultivars.[1] The causative allergen is tulipalin A, a toxic glycoside named for the tulip bulbs from which it was first isolated.[2] The condition is characterized by fissured acropulpitis, often accompanied by hyperpigmentation, onychorrhexis, and paronychia. More of the volar surface may be affected in sensitized florists. Dermatitis and paronychia are extremely common conditions and diagnostic errors may occur. A thorough patient history, in conjunction with confirmatory patch testing with a bulb sliver and tuliposide A exposure, can prevent misdiagnosis. We report a case of Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity misdiagnosed as an unresolved tinea manuum infection in a patient evaluated for occupational exposure. PMID:25024947

  4. Ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu Ramineni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ofloxacin is a commonly used antimicrobial agent to combat various infections. The adverse profile of quinolones includes gastrointestinal symptoms, which are the most frequent, neuropsychiatric symptoms, hematologic abnormalities are less common. We report a rare case of ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction in a 57 year old female patient with complaints of rashes over the axilla, upper limb and back, abdomen, thorax associated with exfoliation of skin all over the axilla associated with severe itching. Based on history and clinical examination patient was diagnosed as ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction and was successfully treated with antihistamines and corticosteroids. Pharmacovigilance should be a part of patient care in order to reduce occurrence of adverse drug reaction and also encourage practitioners in reporting so as to gather more and more data regarding adverse drug reactions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 349-351

  5. Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, S; Biesheuvel, P M; Bercovici, M

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, which leads to rapid and significant deionization of ionic species from a volume which is on the scale of the particle. We show by theory and experiment that the transient response around a cylindrical particle results in spatially non-uniform charging and non-steady growth of depletion regions which emerge around the particle's poles. Potentially, ICCDI can be useful in applications where fast concentration changes of ionic species are required over large volumes.

  6. Curvature-induced dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Debus, J -D; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J

    2015-01-01

    By inspecting the effect of curvature on a moving fluid, we find that local sources of curvature not only exert inertial forces on the flow, but also generate viscous stresses as a result of the departure of streamlines from the idealized geodesic motion. The curvature-induced viscous forces are shown to cause an indirect and yet appreciable energy dissipation. As a consequence, the flow converges to a stationary equilibrium state solely by virtue of curvature-induced dissipation. In addition, we show that flow through randomly-curved media satisfies a non-linear transport law, resembling Darcy-Forchheimer's law, due to the viscous forces generated by the spatial curvature. It is further shown that the permeability can be characterized in terms of the average metric perturbation.

  7. Induced galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuchaev, V; Rubin, S; Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav; Eroshenko, Yury; Rubin, Sergei

    2004-01-01

    We describe the model of protogalaxy formation around the cluster of primordial black holes with a minimum extension of standard cosmological model. Namely, it is supposed, that a mass fraction of the universe ~10^-3 is composed of the compact clusters of primordial (relict) black holes produced during the phase transitions in the early universe. These clusters are the centers of the dark matter (DM) condensations. As a result the protogalaxies with a mass 2x10^8Msun form at the redshift z=15. These induced protogalaxies contain the central black holes of mass ~10^5Msun and look like the dwarf spheroidal galaxies with a central density spike. Subsequent merging of the induced protogalaxies and ordinary DM haloes leads to the standard scenario of the large scale structure formation. Black holes merging gives the nowadays supermassive black holes and reproduces the observed correlations between their masses and velocity dispersions in the bulges.

  8. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Noise-Induced Hearing Loss On this page: What is ... I find additional information about NIHL? What is noise-induced hearing loss? Every day, we experience sound ...

  9. OXYTOCIN INDUCED NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most common causes of health problems, observed in 60% of term and 80% of preterm infants in the first week of life . Hyperbilirubinemia leads to neurotoxicity in severe condition. Some studies suggests that liberal use of oxytocin for inducing labour is one of the factor which lead to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of oxytocin and neonatal bilirubin levels with spontaneous vaginal delivery . MATERIALS AND METHOD S : 100 full term parturients were selected for this study. The subjects were divided into two groups. 50 healthy babies of women who had oxytocin induced labour and 50 healthy babies of women with normal vaginal delivery following spontaneous onset of labour formed the control group. Neon atal serum bilirubin was measured on day 1, 3 and 5 after delivery. Bilirubin was measured by spectrophotometry. Data was analysed in ms excel sheet using spss 19.0v. Statistical analysis was done by using unpaired‘t’ test. RESULTS: There was significant i ncrease in bilirubin level in oxytocin induced group compared to control group on day 1 and 3. There was insignificant increase in bilirubin level in oxytocin induced group on day 5. However the level of serum bilirubin is within normal limits as bilirubin level normally rises on till 4 th day and decreases thereafter. CONCLUSION: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia may be due to oxytocin administration by continues IV infusion which results in erythrocyte swell and rupture. Increase in bilirubin level in oxytocin i nduced group is within physiological limits

  10. Polarization induced doped transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Huili (Grace); Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  11. Inducement prizes and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Brunt, Liam; Lerner, Josh; Nicholas, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We examine prizes as an inducement for innovation using a novel dataset of awards for inventiveness offered by the Royal Agricultural Society of England from 1839 to 1939. At annual shows the RASE held competitive trials and awarded medals and monetary prizes (exceeding one million pounds in current prices) to spur technological development. We find large effects of the prizes on contest entries, especially for the Society’s gold medal. Matching award and patent data, we also detect large eff...

  12. Tattoo-induced psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Orzan, OA; Popa, LG; Vexler, ES; Olaru, I; Voiculescu, VM; Bumbăcea, RS

    2014-01-01

    Koebner phenomenon represents the development of several inflammatory skin lesions (psoriasis, lichen planus, vitiligo, etc.) in uninvolved skin following various traumatic insults. The case of a 27-year-old male patient with scalp psoriasis who was referred to our clinic for generalized psoriatic lesions developed two weeks after tattooing his skin at the age of 18 was presented; the case illustrated the possibility of Koebner phenomenon induced by skin tattooing in patients with psoriasis.

  13. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    OpenAIRE

    P S Satheesh Kumar; Anita Balan; Arun Sankar; Tinky Bose

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concer...

  14. Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    McCluskey, James; Bourgeois, Marie; Harbison, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity is a persistent allergic contact dermatitides documented in floral workers exposed to Alstroemeria and its cultivars.[1] The causative allergen is tulipalin A, a toxic glycoside named for the tulip bulbs from which it was first isolated.[2] The condition is characterized by fissured acropulpitis, often accompanied by hyperpigmentation, onychorrhexis, and paronychia. More of the volar surface may be affected in sensitized florists. Dermatitis and paronychia ar...

  15. Doxycycline induced Esophagitis

    OpenAIRE

    Banu Karakus Yilmaz; Erdem Cevik

    2014-01-01

    Esophagitis is a hazardous condition such as acid reflux of esophageal mucosa, infection, systemic diseases, radiation, drugs and trauma. Drug- induced esophagial injury (DIEI) is a disease with the use of variety of drugs that caused serious damage and ulcer in the mucosa of the esophagus. The most commonly implicated drugs are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), chloride and especially antibiotics. Thirty-six year-old female patient presented to the emergency department with...

  16. Magnetic Induced Axion Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Campanelli, L

    2006-01-01

    We study the effect of a uniform magnetic field on the dynamics of axions. In particular, we show that the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is explicitly broken by the presence of an external magnetic field. This breaking is induced by the non-conservation of the magnetic helicity and generates an electromagnetic contribution to the axion mass. We compute the magnetic axion mass in one loop approximation, with no restriction on the intensity of the magnetic field, and including thermal effects.

  17. Xerostomia induced by radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Alimi, David

    2015-01-01

    David Alimi Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAWe read with great interest the excellent review on xerostomia induced by radiotherapy, by Pinna et al.1 The authors should be congratulated for a very detailed review of the physiopathology, clinical symptoms, and therapeutic management of an extremely difficult condition. Although we agree that the use of anticholinergic medication represents treatment, it requires the patient to have resi...

  18. Gold induced enterocolitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, C W; Haboubi, N Y; Whorwell, P.J.; Schofield, P. F.

    1986-01-01

    A case of gold associated enterocolitis is described. A review of all 27 previously reported cases revealed that the syndrome induced has common characteristics. The reaction occurs within three months of instituting gold therapy, is characterised by profuse diarrhoea and vomiting with abdominal pain, fever, and sometimes eosinophilia. Petechial changes are prominent on endoscopy and the endoscopic and histological features of the gut lesion do not resemble inflammatory bowel disease. The ove...

  19. Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Seifollah Beladi Mousavi

    2014-02-01

    The standard approach to prevent cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is the administration of lower doses of cisplatin in combination with the administration of full intravenous isotonic saline before and after cisplatin administration. Although a number of pharmacologic agents including sodium thiosulfate, N-acetylcysteine, theophylline and glycine have been evaluated for prevention of nephrotoxicity, none have proved to have an established role, thus, additional clinical studies will be required to confirm their probable effects.

  20. Glycerol-induced hyperhydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedesel, Marvin L.; Lyons, Timothy P.; Mcnamara, M. Colleen

    1991-01-01

    Maintenance of euhydration is essential for maximum work performance. Environments which induce hypohydration reduce plasma volume and cardiovascular performance progressively declines as does work capacity. Hyperhydration prior to exposure to dehydrating environments appears to be a potential countermeasure to the debilitating effects of hypohydration. The extravascular fluid space, being the largest fluid compartment in the body, is the most logical space by which significant hyperhydration can be accomplished. Volume and osmotic receptors in the vascular space result in physiological responses which counteract hyperhydration. Our hypothesis is that glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) can accomplish extravascular fluid expansion because of the high solubility of glycerol in lipid and aqueous media. A hypertonic solution of glycerol is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, results in mild increases in plasma osmolality and is distributed to 65 percent of the body mass. A large volume of water ingested within minutes after glycerol intake results in increased total body water because of the osmotic action and distribution of glycerol. The resulting expanded extravascular fluid space can act as a reservoir to maintain plasma volume during exposure to dehydrating environments. The fluid shifts associated with exposure to microgravity result in increased urine production and is another example of an environment which induces hypohydration. Our goal is to demonstrate that GIH will facilitate maintenance of euhydration and cardiovascular performance during space flight and upon return to a 1 g environment.

  1. Ethanol-induced analgesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohorecky, L.A.; Shah, P.

    1987-09-07

    The effect of ethanol (ET) on nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using a new tail deflection response (TDR) method. The IP injection of ET (0.5 - 1.5 g/kg) produced raid dose-dependent analgesia. Near maximal effect (97% decrease in TDR) was produced with the 1.5 g/kg dose of ET ten minutes after injection. At ninety minutes post-injection there was still significant analgesia. Depression of ET-induced nociceptive sensitivity was partially reversed by a 1 mg/kg dose of naloxone. On the other hand, morphine (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP) did not modify ET-induced analgesia, while 3.0 minutes of cold water swim (known to produce non-opioid mediated analgesia) potentiated ET-induced analgesic effect. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ET by itself did not depress motor activity in an open field test, but prevented partially the depression in motor activity produced by cold water swim (CWS). Thus, the potentiation by ET of the depression of the TDR produced by CWS cannot be ascribed to the depressant effects of ET on motor activity. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  2. Sildenafil induced priapism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, T; Hayakawa, K; Miyaji, K; Ishikawa, H; Hata, M

    1999-11-01

    A 53 year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital for persistent priapism, which had been induced by 200 mg (usual dose 25-50 mg) of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) three days earlier. He had a history of erectile dysfunction and had undergone penile injection therapy elsewhere; however, he had not used injection therapy this time. He obtained sildenafil personally without a doctor's prescription. He had not taken any other drugs that affect the metabolism of sildenafil, nor did he have any medical complications that might induce priapism. Since needle aspiration and irrigation were ineffective as first line therapy, surgical treatment was indicated to relieve the condition; a incision of tunica albuginea of both corpora cavernosa was made, and vigorous irrigation of saline washed out the blood clots. This is the first case report of priapism induced by sildenafil. Although this drug can be obtained through private commerce, it should be used under professional guidance as its abuse may lead to severe morbidity. PMID:11933312

  3. Dynamical gauge field induced

    CERN Document Server

    Kikkawa, K; Keiji Kikkawa; Humitaka Tamura

    1994-01-01

    Abstract: Some part of the local gauge symmetries in the low energy region, say, lower than GUT or the Planck energy can be an induced symmetry describable with the holonomy fields associated with a topologically non-trivial structure of partially compactified space. In the case where a six dimensional space is compactified by the Kaluza-Klein mechanism into a product of the four dimensional Minkowski space M_{4} and a two dimensional Riemann surface with the genus g, \\Sigma_{g}, we show that, in a limit where the compactification mass scale is sent to infinity, a model lagrangian with a U(1) gauge symmetry produces the dynamical gauge fields in M_{4} with a product of g U(1)'s symmetry, i.e., U(1)\\times \\cdots\\timesU(1). These fields are induced by a Berry phase mechanism, not by the Kaluza-Klein. The dynamical degrees of freedom of the induced fields are shown to come from the holonomies, or the solenoid potentials, associated with the cycles of \\Sigma_{g}. The production mechanism of kinetic energy terms f...

  4. Induced QCD I: Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Bastian B; Wettig, Tilo

    2016-01-01

    We explore an alternative discretization of continuum SU(N_c) Yang-Mills theory on a Euclidean spacetime lattice, originally introduced by Budzcies and Zirnbauer. In this discretization the self-interactions of the gauge field are induced by a path integral over N_b auxiliary boson fields, which are coupled linearly to the gauge field. The main progress compared to earlier approaches is that N_b can be as small as N_c. In the present paper we (i) extend the proof that the continuum limit of the new discretization reproduces Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions from gauge group U(N_c) to SU(N_c), (ii) derive refined bounds on N_b for non-integer values, and (iii) perform a perturbative calculation to match the bare parameter of the induced gauge theory to the standard lattice coupling. In follow-up papers we will present numerical evidence in support of the conjecture that the induced gauge theory reproduces Yang-Mills theory also in three and four dimensions, and explore the possibility to integrate out the ga...

  5. Swimming pool-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, S; Vivaldo, T; Morelli, M; Carlucci, P; Zuccotti, G V

    2011-01-01

    A 13-year-old elite swimmer presented with wheezing after indoor swimming training. On the basis of her clinical history and the tests performed, exercise-induced asthma and mold-induced asthma were ruled out and a diagnosis of chlorine-induced asthma was made. PMID:21548454

  6. Duxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukund Joshi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The survival rate of cancer patients has greatly increased over the last 20 years. However, to achieve this result, a considerable price has been paid in terms of the side-effects associated with the intensive anticancer treatment. Cardiotoxicity of anticancer drugs is a serious problem. It is defined, by the National Cancer Institute, as the and ldquo;toxicity that affects the heart. and rdquo; This definition not only includes a direct effect of the drug on the heart, but also an indirect effect due to enhancement of hemodynamic flow alterations or due to thrombotic events. Cardiotoxicity can develop in a subacute, acute, or chronic manner. The risk for such effects depends upon: cumulative dose, rate of drug administration, mediastinal radiation, advanced age, younger age, female gender, pre-existing heart disease and hypertension. Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin (DOX, cause serious cardiac side-effects. Acute tachyarrhythmias and acute heart failure (HF may occur after high doses, but these reactions are now rare due to changed dosage schemes (e.g. slower infusion with the aim to prevent this. However, the sub-acute or chronic cardiac effects of anthracyclines remain a clinical problem. Clinically, anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity manifests itself as left ventricular failure, which develops insidiously over months to years after completion of the anthracycline based chemotherapy and may result in congestive HF. The mechanism of anthracyclin induced cardiotoxicity is not totally unraveled. It is likely that the decline in myocardial function is related to apoptosis of cardiac myocytes that occurs apparently at random in the myocardium. Anthracyclin induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the presence of intracellular iron, impaired homeostasis of intracellular iron and calcium (that may facilitate the apoptosis induced by the ROS have been put forward as mechanisms. Cardiac protection can be achieved by limitation of the

  7. -induced continental warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo

    2014-11-01

    In this the second of a two-part study, we examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the increasing contrast of the land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) in summertime over the Far East, as observed in recent decades and revealed in future climate projections obtained from a series of transient warming and sensitivity experiments conducted under the umbrella of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. On a global perspective, a strengthening of land-sea SAT contrast in the transient warming simulations of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models is attributed to an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). However, in boreal summer, the strengthened contrast over the Far East is reproduced only by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. In response to SST increase alone, the tropospheric warming over the interior of the mid- to high-latitude continents including Eurasia are weaker than those over the surrounding oceans, leading to a weakening of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East. Thus, the increasing contrast and associated change in atmospheric circulation over East Asia is explained by CO2-induced continental warming. The degree of strengthening of the land-sea SAT contrast varies in different transient warming scenarios, but is reproduced through a combination of the CO2-induced positive and SST-induced negative contributions to the land-sea contrast. These results imply that changes of climate patterns over the land-ocean boundary regions are sensitive to future scenarios of CO2 concentration pathways including extreme cases.

  8. Sulphasalazine Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Şanlı

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS is one of the most dangerous drug reactions. Mortality and morbidity is increased by consequent systemic organ involvement. Maculopapular eruptions are the most common lesions accompanying DIHS, however, the morphology of skin lesions may vary. The most common cause of DIHS is the use of aromatic anticonvulsant drugs. However, one must not forget that other drugs may also cause DIHS. Early recognition of the condition is the most important step in the treatment. Herein, we present a case of DIHS triggered by sulphasalazine and associated with pustular eruption and maculopapular eruption.

  9. Cannabis induced asystole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancheau, Daniel; Blanco, Jessica; Gholkar, Gunjan; Patel, Brijesh; Machado, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis or marijuana is the most used recreational, and until recently illegal, drug in the United States. Although cannabis has medicinal use, its consumption has been linked to motor vehicle accidents in dose dependent fashion. Marijuana and other cannabinoids produce a multitude of effects on the human body that may result in these motor vehicle accidents. Some of the effects that marijuana has been known to cause include altered sensorium, diminished reflexes, and increased vagal tone. We present a case of cannabis induced asystole from hypervagotonia.

  10. Catatonia induced by disulfiram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HK Goswami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia is a clinical syndrome with varieties of psychomotor abnormalities of retardation and excitement. It can occur both in psychiatric and medical conditions. The aetiology of catatonia has not been fully described. Many researchers suggest that catatonia can occur due to deficiency of cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA which is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Disulfiram is an agent that is being used in the treatment of alcohol dependence by its aversive effect. It has been seen that disulfiram is one of the causes of catatonia. This paper aimed to report a case of catatonia induced by disulfiram with no past history of any psychiatric or medical illness.

  11. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasararaju, Radhika; Singh, Nirupama; Mehta, Amitkumar

    2013-08-01

    Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a serious, potentially life and limb threatening immune adverse reaction to heparin. IgG antibodies against platelet factor 4 and heparin multimer complexes activate platelets to create a prothrombotic state. ELISA based immunoassay to detect these antibodies is sensitive while serotonin release assay is highly specific but is not widely available. 4T score is a simple score to calculate pre-test probability of HIT. Score danaparoid are recommended in therapeutic dose to treat or prevent thrombotic events in HIT. Increased awareness of this condition among clinicians is important to ensure its early recognition and treatment to avoid serious complications. PMID:23991928

  12. [Neuroleptic induced deficit syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafrański, T

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest in subjective aspects of therapy and rehabilitation focused the attention of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychopharmacologists on the mental side effects of neuroleptics. For the drug-related impairment of affective, cognitive and social function the name of neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS) is proposed. Patients with NIDS appear to be indifferent to the environmental stimuli, retarded and apathetic. They complain of feeling drugged and drowsy, weird, they suffer from lack of motivation, feel like "zombies". The paper presents description of NIDS and its differentiation from negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and subjective perceiving of extrapyramidal syndromes. PMID:7652089

  13. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Kross

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that “antioxidant-induced stress” results when antioxidants overwhelm the body’s free radicals.

  14. Emotionally induced hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Rachel S; Schwartz, Robert A

    2002-05-01

    Hyperhidrosis, a disorder that usually begins in childhood or adolescence, is defined as sweating in excess of what is required for normal thermoregulation. This condition may adversely affect one's quality of life by causing emotional disturbance and social embarrassment. Three forms of hyperhidrosis exist: emotionally induced, localized, and generalized. Hyperhidrosis may be either idiopathic or secondary to other diseases, metabolic disorders, febrile illnesses, or drugs. Diagnosis usually is made based on the patient's history and visible signs of excessive sweating. Various effective treatment options are available. PMID:12041810

  15. Trauma Induced Coagulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Johansson, Per; Meyer, Martin Abild Stengaard;

    2013-01-01

    It remains debated whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a different coagulopathy compared to non-TBI. This study investigated traditional coagulation tests, biomarkers of coagulopathy and endothelial damage in trauma patients with and without TBI. Blood from 80 adult trauma patients were...... sampled (median of 68 min (IQR 48-88) post-injury) upon admission to our trauma centre. Plasma/serum were retrospectively analysed for biomarkers reflecting sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline, noradrenaline), coagulation activation/inhibition and fibrinolysis (protein C, activated protein C, tissue...

  16. Xerostomia induced by radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimi D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available David Alimi Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAWe read with great interest the excellent review on xerostomia induced by radiotherapy, by Pinna et al.1 The authors should be congratulated for a very detailed review of the physiopathology, clinical symptoms, and therapeutic management of an extremely difficult condition. Although we agree that the use of anticholinergic medication represents treatment, it requires the patient to have residual salivary gland function. Unfortunately, it is well established that in most cases radiotherapy destroys most of the salivary gland and associated salivary secretions.     

  17. Nonlinearity Induced Critical Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Nireekshan; Gupta, S Dutta

    2013-01-01

    We study a critically coupled system (Opt. Lett., \\textbf{32}, 1483 (2007)) with a Kerr-nonlinear spacer layer. Nonlinearity is shown to inhibit null-scattering in a critically coupled system at low powers. However, a system detuned from critical coupling can exhibit near-complete suppression of scattering by means of nonlinearity-induced changes in refractive index. Our studies reveal clearly an important aspect of critical coupling as a delicate balance in both the amplitude and the phase relations, while a nonlinear resonance in dispersive bistability concerns only the phase.

  18. Chemotherapy-induced polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zedan, Ahmed; Vilholm, Ole Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced polyneuropathy (CIPN) is a common, but underestimated, clinical challenge. Incidence varies depending on many factors that are equally as important as the type of chemotherapeutic agent itself. Moreover, the assessment of CIPN is still uncertain, as several of the most...... frequently used scales do not rely on a formal neurological evaluation and depend on patients' reports and examiners' interpretations. Therefore, the aim of this MiniReview was to introduce the most common chemotherapies that cause neuropathy, and in addition to this, highlight the most significant...

  19. Man-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1994-01-01

    work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...... concerned with spectator-induced vertical vibrations on grandstands. The idea is to use impulse response analysis and base the load description on the load impulse. If the method is feasable, it could be used in connection with the formulation of requirements in building codes. During the last two decades...

  20. Ofloxacin-induced hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced hallucinations are not uncommon, and may be misdiagnosed as psychiatric illness leading to unnecessary treatment with antipsychotics. If a temporal association of use of a drug having the potential to cause hallucinations is present, mere withdrawal of the drug causes complete improvement in the symptoms. There are reports of various untoward central nervous system adverse events following administration of fluoroquinolones, including delirium, hallucinations and psychosis, even after a single dose. We describe a 5-year-old girl who suffered visual hallucinations following ofloxacin use.

  1. Inducing Constraint Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Samuelsson, C; Voutilainen, A; Samuelsson, Christer; Tapanainen, Pasi; Voutilainen, Atro

    1996-01-01

    Constraint Grammar rules are induced from corpora. A simple scheme based on local information, i.e., on lexical biases and next-neighbour contexts, extended through the use of barriers, reached 87.3 percent precision (1.12 tags/word) at 98.2 percent recall. The results compare favourably with other methods that are used for similar tasks although they are by no means as good as the results achieved using the original hand-written rules developed over several years time.

  2. Electromagnetically Induced Entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xihua; Xiao, Min

    2015-08-28

    Quantum entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum network. How to conveniently and efficiently produce entanglement between bright light beams presents a challenging task to build realistic quantum information processing networks. Here, we present an efficient and convenient way to realize a novel quantum phenomenon, named electromagnetically induced entanglement, in the conventional Λ-type three-level atomic system driven by a strong pump field and a relatively weak probe field. Nearly perfect entanglement between the two fields can be achieved with a low coherence decay rate between the two lower levels, high pump-field intensity, and large optical depth of the atomic ensemble. The physical origin is quantum coherence between the lower doublet produced by the pump and probe fields, similar to the well-known electromagnetically induced transparency. This method would greatly facilitate the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band continuous-variable entanglement between bright light beams by using only coherent laser fields, and may find potential and broad applications in realistic quantum information processing.

  3. Drug-induced lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Robert L

    2005-04-15

    Autoantibodies and, less commonly, systemic rheumatic symptoms are associated with treatment with numerous medications and other types of ingested compounds. Distinct syndromes can be distinguished, based on clinical and laboratory features, as well as exposure history. Drug-induced lupus has been reported as a side-effect of long-term therapy with over 40 medications. Its clinical and laboratory features are similar to systemic lupus erythematosus, except that patients fully recover after the offending medication is discontinued. This syndrome differs from typical drug hypersensitivity reactions in that drug-specific T-cells or antibodies are not involved in induction of autoimmunity, it usually requires many months to years of drug exposure, is drug dose-dependent and generally does not result in immune sensitization to the drug. Circumstantial evidence strongly suggests that oxidative metabolites of the parent compound trigger autoimmunity. Several mechanisms for induction of autoimmunity will be discussed, including bystander activation of autoreactive lymphocytes due to drug-specific immunity or to non-specific activation of lymphocytes, direct cytotoxicity with release of autoantigens and disruption of central T-cell tolerance. The latter hypothesis will be supported by a mouse model in which a reactive metabolite of procainamide introduced into the thymus results in lupus-like autoantibody induction. These findings, as well as evidence for thymic function in drug-induced lupus patients, support the concept that abnormalities during T-cell selection in the thymus initiate autoimmunity.

  4. Drug-Induced Hematologic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Mintzer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Drugs can induce almost the entire spectrum of hematologic disorders, affecting white cells, red cells, platelets, and the coagulation system. This paper aims to emphasize the broad range of drug-induced hematological syndromes and to highlight some of the newer drugs and syndromes. Methods. Medline literature on drug-induced hematologic syndromes was reviewed. Most reports and reviews focus on individual drugs or cytopenias. Results. Drug-induced syndromes include hemolytic anemias, methemoglobinemia, red cell aplasia, sideroblastic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, polycythemia, aplastic anemia, leukocytosis, neutropenia, eosinophilia, immune thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic syndromes, hypercoagulability, hypoprothrombinemia, circulating anticoagulants, myelodysplasia, and acute leukemia. Some of the classic drugs known to cause hematologic abnormalities have been replaced by newer drugs, including biologics, accompanied by their own syndromes and unintended side effects. Conclusions. Drugs can induce toxicities spanning many hematologic syndromes, mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Physicians need to be alert to the potential for iatrogenic drug-induced hematologic complications.

  5. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  6. Trastuzumab-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglin, Maya; Cutro, Raymond; Mishkin, Joseph D

    2008-06-01

    Trastuzumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of advanced breast cancer. It improves survival and increases response to chemotherapy. The major side effect of trastuzumab is cardiotoxicity manifesting as a reduction in left ventricular systolic function, either asymptomatic or with signs and symptoms of heart failure. Although reversible in most cases, cardiotoxicity frequently results in the discontinuation of trastuzumab. The objective of this review is to summarize facts about trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity and to highlight the areas of future investigations. We searched PubMed for trials involving trastuzumab used as an adjuvant therapy for breast cancer, including the metastatic breast cancer setting, and focused on cardiotoxicity. PMID:18514938

  7. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

  8. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  9. Induced abortion in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, T H; Sarwono, S W; Widyantoro, N

    1993-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most difficult sociomedical problems facing the Indonesian government. While well-known in traditional society, the practice was discouraged by all Indonesian religious groups, and forbidden by the Dutch colonial authorities. Although abortion was technically illegal under the criminal code, a judicial interpretation in the early 1970s permitted medical professionals to offer the procedure so long as they were discreet and careful. The numbers of medical abortions carried out in Indonesia rose dramatically, and there was evidence of matching declines in the incidence of morbidity and mortality caused by dangerous illegal procedures. Medical and community groups campaigned for a more liberal abortion law to protect legal practitioners and stamp out illegal traditional practices. Their efforts appeared to bear fruit in the draft Health Law, but when the law was passed by the legislature in late 1992, the issue was again clouded by contradictions and inconsistencies. PMID:8212094

  10. Tibolone induced Bullous pemphigoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal. R. Tandon, Annil Mahajan* & Sudhaa Sharma**

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present first ever report of Bullous pemphigoid induced by Tibolone, a STEAR (Selective tissueestrogenic activity regulator that has progestogenic, some androgenic as well as estrogenic effects prescribedas an alternative to estrogen replacement therapy for treatment of climacteric symptoms in one ofthe 51 year old postmenopausal women with one and half year duration since menopause with previoushistory of use of estrogen progesterone pills during her active sexual life. The mechanism for this ADR isnot well understood. But possible explanation could be progesterone activity of the drug leading to autoimmunityas reported previously. The present patient was managed by dechallenge of drug, local, oral corticosteroidsand injectable, methotrexate, along with folic acid and antibiotic coverage fearing anemia andsecondary infections.

  11. Migraine induced by hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik Winther; Britze, Josefine;

    2016-01-01

    Migraine with aura is prevalent in high-altitude populations suggesting an association between migraine aura and hypoxia. We investigated whether experimental hypoxia triggers migraine and aura attacks in patients suffering from migraine with aura. We also investigated the metabolic and vascular...... response to hypoxia. In a randomized double-blind crossover study design, 15 migraine with aura patients were exposed to 180 min of normobaric hypoxia (capillary oxygen saturation 70-75%) or sham on two separate days and 14 healthy controls were exposed to hypoxia. Glutamate and lactate concentrations...... in the visual cortex were measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The circumference of cranial arteries was measured by 3 T high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography. Hypoxia induced migraine-like attacks in eight patients compared to one patient after sham (P = 0.039), aura in three...

  12. Gadolinium-Induced Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Derrick J; Kay, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), once believed to be safe for patients with renal disease, have been strongly associated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a severe systemic fibrosing disorder that predominantly afflicts individuals with advanced renal dysfunction. We provide a historical perspective on the appearance and disappearance of NSF, including its initial recognition as a discrete clinical entity, its association with GBCA exposure, and the data supporting a causative relationship between GBCA exposure and NSF. On the basis of this body of evidence, we propose that the name gadolinium-induced fibrosis (GIF) more accurately reflects the totality of knowledge regarding this disease. Use of high-risk GBCAs, such as formulated gadodiamide, should be avoided in patients with renal disease. Restriction of GBCA use in this population has almost completely eradicated new cases of this debilitating condition. Emerging antifibrotic therapies may be useful for patients who suffer from GIF.

  13. [Radiation-induced cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrillaux, B

    1998-01-01

    The induction of malignant diseases is one of the most concerning late effects of ionising radiation. A large amount of information has been collected form atomic bomb survivors, patients after therapeutic irradiation, occupational follow-up and accidentally exposed populations. Major uncertainties persist in the (very) low dose range i.e., population and workers radioprotection. A review of the biological mechanisms leading to cancer strongly suggests that the vast majority of radiation-induced malignancies arise as a consequence of recessive mutations of tumour-suppressor genes. These mutations can be unveiled by ageing, this process being possibly furthered by constitutional or acquired genomic instability. The individual risk is likely to be very low, probably because of the usual dose level. However, the magnitude of medical exposure and the reliance of our societies on nuclear industry are so high that irreproachable decision-making processes and standards for practice are inescapable. PMID:9868399

  14. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  15. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  16. Vincristine induced cranial polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Ali; Yilmaz, Cahide; Yilmaz, Nebi; Oner, Ahmet Faik

    2006-06-01

    We describe a 5-year-old girl showed recovery of vincristine induced cranial polyneuropathy with pyridoxine and pyridostigmine treatment. A 5-year-old girl was diagnosed preB cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). She received chemotherapy according to the previously described modified St. Jude total therapy studies XIII. Five days after the fourth dose of vincristine, she presented with bilateral ptosis. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis, and complete external opthalmoplegia with normal pupillary and corneal reflexes. She received 3.8 mg cumulative dose of vincristin before development of ptosis. A neuroprotective and neuroregenerative treatment attempt with pyridoxine and pyridostigmine was initiated. The bilateral ptosis markedly improved after 7 days of pyridoxine and pyridostigmine treatment and completely resolved after two weeks. The both agents were given for 3 weeks and were well tolerated without any side effects. During the follow up period we did not observe residue or recurrence of the ptosis.

  17. Discreteness induced extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Renato Vieira; da Silva, Linaena Méricy

    2015-11-01

    Two simple models based on ecological problems are discussed from the point of view of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. It is shown how discrepant may be the results of the models that include spatial distribution with discrete interactions when compared with the continuous analogous models. In the continuous case we have, under certain circumstances, the population explosion. When we take into account the finiteness of the population, we get the opposite result, extinction. We will analyze how these results depend on the dimension d of the space and describe the phenomenon of the "Discreteness Inducing Extinction" (DIE). The results are interpreted in the context of the "paradox of sex", an old problem of evolutionary biology.

  18. Uncertainty-induced quantum nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-xiong; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-shui; Song, He-shan

    2014-01-01

    Based on the skew information, we present a quantity, uncertainty-induced quantum nonlocality (UIN) to measure the quantum correlation. It can be considered as the updated version of the original measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN) preserving the good computability but eliminating the non-contractivity problem. For 2×d-dimensional state, it is shown that UIN can be given by a closed form. In addition, we also investigate the maximal uncertainty-induced nonlocality.

  19. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  20. Congruence properties of induced representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Dieter; Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    In this paper we study representations of the projective modular group induced from the Hecke congruence group of level 4 with Selberg's character. We show that the well known congruence properties of Selberg's character are equivalent to the congruence properties of the induced representations....... Concerning this congruence property, it turns out that working with the induced representations is easier than with Selberg's character itself. We also show that the kernels of the induced representations determine an infinite sequence of noncongruence groups, whose noncongruence property can not be detected...

  1. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan Mircea Radu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  2. Humoral immune alterations caused by lead: studies on an adult toad model Alteraciones inmunes humorales causadas por plomo: estudios en un modelo de sapo adulto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina E. Rosenberg

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that environmental metal levels affect the immune function. In the particular case of the impact of heavy metals, information available suggests that the immune system is a target for low-dose Pb exposure. Among vertebrates it was shown that amphibians are capable of forming antibodies against a variety of antigens, causing several responses such as anaphylactic response and rejecting grafts. In this study, the production of antibodies was assessed against sheep red blood cells (SRBC in the anuran Bufo arenarum after six weekly injections of sublethal doses of lead (50 mg.kg-1, as lead acetate. Natural antibodies (natural heteroagglutinins were also quantified against SRBC. Both assessments were carried out employing an ELISA method developed to this end, measuring absorbance (A. For natural anti-SRBC antibodies in both control (C and Pb treated (T toads, there was a non significant tendency to increase the initial absorbances (C initial: 0.69±0.39 A; T initial: 0.54±0.30 A, relative to those registered at the end of the experiments (C final: 0.89±0.49 A; T final: 0.76±0.31A; the T/C ratios also did not show changes. The only significant difference was found between initial and final samples from lead-treated toads (pExiste evidencia de que los niveles de metal ambientales afectan la función inmune. En el caso particular del impacto de metales pesados, la información disponible sugiere que el sistema inmune es un blanco para la exposición a bajas dosis de Pb. Entre los vertebrados, se ha mostrado que los anfibios son capaces de formar anticuerpos contra una variedad de antígenos, que causan diversas respuestas, tales como respuesta anafiláctica y rechazo de injertos. En este estudio, la producción de anticuerpos fue evaluada contra eritrocitos de oveja (EO en el anuro Bufo arenarum, luego de seis inyecciones semanales de dosis subletales de plomo (50 mg.kg-1, como acetato de Pb. Los anticuerpos naturales

  3. Bioacustical and etho-ecological features in amphibian communities of Southern Cordoba province (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas, Nancy E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de las características del canto de los anfibios constituye un importante elemento para la identificación de las especies que puede ser empleado como herramienta para prácticas estandarizadas de monitoreo. En el presente trabajo se resaltan las diferencias eto-ecológicas más notables (hábitat de reproducción, sitio de canto, actividad estacional y diaria de aquellas especies que integran las comunidades del sur de la Provincia Córdoba y se proporciona una clasificación de los cantos nupciales. La batracofauna del área de llanura del sur-este de la provincia de Córdoba está representada por 9 especies de leptodactílidos correspondientes a 5 géneros (Leptodactylus gracilis, L. mystacinus, L. latinasus latinasus, L. ocellatus, Pleurodema tucumanum, Physalaemus biligonigerus, Odontophrynus americanus, Ceratophrys cranwelli y C. ornata, 2 especies de bufónidos (Bufo arenarum y B. fernandezae y un hílido (Hyla pulchella pulchella. Los registros acústicos obtenidos en el campo durante el período reproductivo fueron analizados a través de programas de análisis digital de sonido, comparándose los siguientes parámetros: frecuencia dominante, duración del canto, intervalo entre cantos; se realizaron además descripciones respecto del tipo de canto y su modulación. Se reconocieron tres tipos de cantos básicos segun su duración, categoría que fue subdividida por la forma de la imagen oscilográfica. El resultado de este análisis establece que existen notables diferencias entre los cantos nupciales, principalmente a nivel de rangos de frecuencia dominante y duración de las emisiones. Esta partición del espacio sonoro representa un mecanismo de aislamiento reproductivo que minimiza la interacción entre especies simpátricas cuya reproducción muestra también un solapamiento temporal. Knowledge of the characteristics of amphibian calls is essential for species identification, and may be used as a tool in

  4. Radiation induced nano structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nanometer-size silicon clusters have been attracting much attention due to their technological importance, in particular, as promising building blocks for nano electronic and nano photonic systems. Particularly, silicon wires are of great of interest since they have potential for use in one-dimensional quantum wire high-speed field effect transistors and light-emitting devices with extremely low power consumption. Carbon and metal nano structures are studied very intensely due to wide possible applications. Radiation material sciences have been dealing with sub-micron objects for a long time. Under interaction of high energy particles and ionizing radiation with solids by elastic and inelastic mechanisms, at first point defects are created, then they form clusters, column defects, disordered regions (amorphous colloids) and finally precipitates of another crystal phase in the matrix. Such irradiation induced evolution of structure defects and phase transformations was observed by X-diffraction techniques in dielectric crystals of quartz and corundum, which exist in and crystal modifications. If there is no polymorphism, like in alkali halide crystals, then due to radiolysis halogen atoms are evaporated from the surface that results in non-stoichiometry or accumulated in the pores formed by metal vacancies in the sub-surface layer. Nano-pores are created by intensive high energy particles irradiation at first chaotically and then they are ordered and in part filled by inert gas. It is well-known mechanism of radiation induced swelling and embrittlement of metals and alloys, which is undesirable for construction materials for nuclear reactors. Possible solution of this problem may come from nano-structured materials, where there is neither swelling nor embrittlement at gas absorption due to very low density of the structure, while strength keeps high. This review considers experimental observations of radiation induced nano-inclusions in insulating

  5. Sparfloxacin induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh M

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a life-threatening cutaneous adverse drug reaction. TEN is known to occur with the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics, but only four cases of sparfloxacin induced TEN have been reported to the WHO database. This is another case report of sparfloxacin induced TEN.

  6. Gold-induced lung disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Heyd, J.; Simmeran, A.

    1983-01-01

    A 70-year-old female with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis developed interstitial pneumonitis while on chrysotherapy. The reversibility of lung disease and favourable response to steroid treatment support the diagnosis of gold-induced lung disease and distinguish this entity from other forms of interstitial lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis. The relevant literature related to gold-induced lung disease is briefly reviewed.

  7. Drug-induced pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000104.htm Drug-induced pulmonary disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... take longer to improve. Some drug-induced lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis, may never go away. Possible Complications Complications ...

  8. Traffic forecasts ignoring induced demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Nicolaisen, Morten Skou; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of induced traffic has been theorized for more than 60 years and is now widely accepted among transport researchers, the traffic-generating effects of road capacity expansion are still often neglected in transport modelling. Such omission can lead to serious bias...... performance of a proposed road project in Copenhagen with and without short-term induced traffic included in the transport model. The available transport model was not able to include long-term induced traffic resulting from changes in land use and in the level of service of public transport. Even though...... the model calculations included only a part of the induced traffic, the difference in cost-benefit results compared to the model excluding all induced traffic was substantial. The results show lower travel time savings, more adverse environmental impacts and a considerably lower benefitcost ratio when...

  9. Methaemoglobinemia Induced by MDMA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. W. Verhaert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Case. A 45-year-old man with a blank medical history presented at the emergency room with dizziness and cyanosis. Physical examination showed cyanosis with a peripheral saturation (SpO2 of 85%, he did not respond to supplemental oxygen. Arterial blood gas analysis showed a striking chocolate brown colour. Based on these data, we determined the arterial methaemoglobin concentration. This was 32%. We gave 100% oxygen and observed the patient in a medium care unit. The next day, patient could be discharged in good condition. Further inquiry about exhibitions and extensive history revealed that the patient used MDMA (3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine, the active ingredient of ecstasy. Conclusion. Acquired methaemoglobinemia is a condition that occurs infrequently, but is potentially life threatening. Different nutrients, medications, and chemicals can induce methaemoglobinemia by oxidation of haemoglobin. The clinical presentation of a patient with methaemoglobinemia is due to the impossibility of O2 binding and transport, resulting in tissue hypoxia. Important is to think about methaemoglobin in a patient who presents with cyanosis, a peripheral saturation of 85% that fails to respond properly to the administration of O2. Because methaemoglobin can be reduced physiologically, it is usually sufficient to remove the causative agent, to give O2, and to observe the patient.

  10. Temozolomide-Induced Myelodysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan A. Natelson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient who had received temozolomide (TMZ as a single agent in treatment of malignant glioma developed therapy-induced myelodysplasia (T-MDS. TMZ is an orally active imidazotetrazine which methylates guanine residues in DNA, ultimately causing single and double-strand DNA breaks leading to apoptotic cell death. TMZ does not chemically cross-link DNA and is considered a nonclassical alkylating agent, similar in structure and activity to dacarbazine. Observations on this patient, and on similarly treated others, suggest that the cumulative dose threshold (CDT for TMZ that predisposes to T-MDS and which may potentially lead to acute myeloid leukemia (T-AML is around 18000 to 20000 mg/sq m. Although the incidence of T-MDS and the predisposing CDT of TMZ may differ from that of other potentially leukemogenic compounds currently and formerly used as chemotherapeutic agents, all alkylating agents, including TMZ, should be considered potentially leukemogenic when administered long term.

  11. Carbimazole-induced agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47 year old lady with hyperthyroidism for past 1½ years was initially on Carbimazole 20 mg orally then changed to 30 mg (during Hysterectomy but was taking 10 mg for last 1 year. She had intermittent fever with severe B/L bifrontal headache since 3 weeks. Routine investigations showed anaemia, neutropenia, leucopenia and CRP elevation. Peripheral smear showed normocytic normochromic anaemia with Rouleaux formation, leucopenia with 2% atypical cells and mild thrombocytosis. Widal test, RA factor (Rheumatoid factor test, Ig M (Immunoglobulin M dengue, Ig M Lepto, TORCH infections (Toxoplasmosis, Other (Syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes infections, ANA (Antinuclear antibody screen cANCA (Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and pANCA (Perinuclear Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies tests were negative. Bone marrow aspiration showed normo to hypercellular marrow with 15% atypical cells and plasma cells. Multiple myeloma workup was done. Carbimazole was withheld. Conclusion: Drug induced agranulocytosis occurs with in 1-2 months of taking the antithyroid medication but onset delayed by 1½ year. De-challenge resulted normalization of blood parameters.

  12. [Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, T; Althaus, K; Greinacher, A

    2010-09-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an adverse drug reaction that carries an increased risk of thromboembolic complications. HIT is caused by platelet-activating antibodies directed against a complex of platelet factor 4 (PF4) and heparin. HIT typically manifests in the second week after initiation of heparin therapy with a platelet count reduction of more than 50% of the highest level after the start of heparin administration as well as thromboembolic events. The clinical probability can be calculated by the 4 T's score. The laboratory diagnosis of HIT is based on confirmation of PF4/heparin antibodies or on functional tests that provide evidence of heparin-dependent platelet-activating antibodies. A low 4 T's score and negative HIT test virtually rule out the presence of HIT. Patients with acute HIT require anticoagulation with a compatible anticoagulant in a therapeutic dose. The drugs currently available for this include the direct thrombin inhibitors argatroban, lepirudin, bivalirudin, and desirudin and the indirect factor Xa inhibitors danaparoid and fondaparinux. PMID:20694716

  13. Chloroquine-induced pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghahowa S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine-induced pruritus remains one of the most common side-effects in the use of chloroquine in the prophylaxis and treatment of uncomplicated malaria before the advent of artemisinin-based combination therapies. It has been reported to vary from a tolerable to intolerable intensity among susceptible individuals resulting in disruption of treatment and development of resistance to the drug thus leading to therapeutic failures as reported. This scourge is quite challenging due to the complex physiologic mechanism that has not been fully elucidated. Factors observed to be responsible in the induction of pruritus such as age, race, heredity, density of parasitaemia; impurities in formulations, plasmodial specie, dosage form and metabolites have been discussed in this review. Efforts to ameliorate this burden have necessitated the use of drugs of diverse pharmacological classes such as antihistamines, corticosteroids and multivitamins either alone or as a combination. This review is to look into the use of chloroquine retrospectively, and consider its re-introduction due to its safety. Efficacy can be attained if the pruritic effect is resolved.

  14. Neutron induced electron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper a new radiography technique, the 'Neutron Induced Electron Radiography' - NIER, to inspect low thickness samples on the order of micra, has been developed. This technique makes use of low energy electrons as penetrating radiation generated from metallic gadolinium screens when irradiated by thermal neutrons. The conditions to obtain the best image for the conventional X-ray film Kodak-AA were determined by using a digital system to quantify the darkening level of the film. The irradiations have been performed at a radiography equipment installed at the beam-hole no. 8 of the 5 MW IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The irradiation time to obtain the best radiography was 100 seconds and for such condition the technique was able to discern 1 μm in 24 μm of aluminum at a resolution of 32 μm. By visual comparison the images obtained by the NIER shown a higher quality when compared with the ones from other usual techniques the make use of electrons a penetrating radiation and films for image registration. Furthermore the use of the digital system has provided a smaller time for data acquisition and data analysis as well as an improvement in the image visualization. (author)

  15. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffer, A L; Austen, K F

    1980-08-01

    Sixteen patients were seen because of possibly life-threatening exercise-associated symptoms similar to anaphylactic reactions. Asthma attacks, cholinergic urticaria and angioedema, and cardiac arrythmias are recognized as exertion-related phenomena in predisposed patients but are distinct from the syndrome described here. A syndrome characterized by the exertion-related onset of cutaneous pruritus and warmth, the development of generalized urticaria, and the appearance of such additional manifestations as collapse in 12 patients, gastrointestinal tract symptoms in five patients, and upper respiratory distress in 10 patients has been designated exercise-induced anaphylaxis, because of the striking similarity of this symptom complex to the anaphylactic syndrome elicited by ingestion or injection of a foreign antigenic substance. There is a family history of atopic desease for 11 patients and cold urticaria for two others and a personal history of atopy in six. The size of the wheals, the failure to develop an attack with a warm bath or shower or a fever, and the prominence of syncope rule against the diagnosis of conventional cholinergic urticaria. There is no history or evidence of an encounter with an environmental source of antigen during the exercise period. PMID:7400473

  16. Discreteness inducing coexistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Renato Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Consider two species that diffuse through space. Consider further that they differ only in initial densities and, possibly, in diffusion constants. Otherwise they are identical. What happens if they compete with each other in the same environment? What is the influence of the discrete nature of the interactions on the final destination? And what are the influence of diffusion and additive fluctuations corresponding to random migration and immigration of individuals? This paper aims to answer these questions for a particular competition model that incorporates intra and interspecific competition between the species. Based on mean field theory, the model has a stationary state dependent on the initial density conditions. We investigate how this initial density dependence is affected by the presence of demographic multiplicative noise and additive noise in space and time. There are three main conclusions: (1) Additive noise favors denser populations at the expense of the less dense, ratifying the competitive exclusion principle. (2) Demographic noise, on the other hand, favors less dense populations at the expense of the denser ones, inducing equal densities at the quasi-stationary state, violating the aforementioned principle. (3) The slower species always suffers the more deleterious effects of statistical fluctuations in a homogeneous medium.

  17. Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Lee, Su-Jae; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

  18. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Nissar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last 7 decades heparin has remained the most commonly used anticoagulant. Its use is increasing, mainly due to the increase in the number of vascular interventions and aging population. The most feared complication of heparin use is heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT. HIT is a clinicopathologic hypercoagulable, procoagulant prothrombotic condition in patients on heparin therapy, and decrease in platelet count by 50% or to less than 100,000, from 5 to 14 days of therapy. This prothrombotic hypercoagulable state in HIT patient is due to the combined effect of various factors, such as platelet activation, mainly the formation of PF4/heparin/IgG complex, stimulation of the intrinsic factor, and loss of anticoagulant effect of heparin. Diagnosis of HIT is done by clinical condition, heparin use, and timing of thrombocytopenia, and it is confirmed by either serotonin release assay or ELISA assay. Complications of HIT are venous/arterial thrombosis, skin gangrene, and acute platelet activation syndrome. Stopping heparin is the basic initial treatment, and Direct Thrombin Inhibitors (DTI are medication of choice in these patients. A few routine but essential procedures performed by using heparin are hemodialysis, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, and Cardiopulmonary Bypass; but it cannot be used if a patient develops HIT. HIT patients with unstable angina, thromboembolism, or indwelling devices, such as valve replacement or intraaortic balloon pump, will require alternative anticoagulation therapy. HIT can be prevented significantly by keeping heparin therapy shorter, avoiding bovine heparin, using low-molecular weight heparin, and stopping heparin use for flush and heparin lock.

  19. Immune Vasculitis Induced Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between immune vasculitis and atherosclerosis was studied. The experimental model of weanling rabbits for immune vasculitis was reproduced by intravenous injection of 10 % bovine serum albumin. There were 6 groups: group A, 25 weanling rabbits with immune vasculitis subject to coronary arteriography; group B, 10 normal mature rabbits subject to coronary arteriography; group C, 10 weanling rabbits subject to coronary arteriography; group D, 8 weanling rabbits with vasculitis and cholesterol diet; group E, 8 weanling rabbits receiving single cholesterol diet; group F: 8 weanling rabbits receiving basic diet. Four weeks later, coronary arteriography was performed in groups A, B and C. The rabbits in groups D, E and F were sacrificed for the study of pathological changes in the coronary artery after 12 weeks. The results showed that the dilatation of coronary artery occurred in 6 rabbits of group A, but in groups B and C, no dilatation of coronary artery appeared. In comparison with group E, more severe atherosclerosis occurred in group D, showing the thickened plaque, fibrous sclerosis and atherosclerotic lesion. Percentage of plaques covering aortic intima, incidence of atherosclerosis of small coronary arteries and degree of stenosis of coronary arteries were significantly higher in group D than in group E (P<0.01). No atherosclerosis changes were found in group F. It was concluded that in the acute phase, the serum immune vasculitis can induce the dilatation of coronary artery of some weanling rabbits, and aggravate the formation of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with cholesterol diet. Immune vasculitis is a new risk factor of atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of induced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic analysis has revealed that radiation and many chemical mutagens induce in bacteria an error-prone DNA repair process which is responsible for their mutagenic effect. The biochemical mechanism of this inducible error-prone repair has been studied by analysis of the first round of DNA synthesis on ultraviolet light-irradiated phiX174 DNA in both intact and ultraviolet light-irradiated host cells. Intracellular phiX174 DNA was extracted, subjected to isopycnic CsCl density-gradient analysis, hydroxylapatite chromatography and digestion by single-strand-specific endonuclease S1. Ultraviolet light-induced photolesions in viral DNA cause a permanent blockage of DNA synthesis in intact Escherichia coli cells. However, when host cells were irradiated and incubated to induce fully the error-prone repair system, a significant fraction of irradiated phiX174 DNA molecules can be fully replicated. Thus, inducible error-prone repair in E.coli is manifested by an increased capacity for DNA synthesis on damaged phiX174 DNA. Chloramphenicol (100 μ g/ml), which is an inhibitor of the inducible error-prone DNA repair, is also an inhibitor of this particular inducible DNA synthesis. (author)

  1. Tissue kinetics, ion transport, and recruitment of mitochondria-rich cells in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo) in response to exposure to distilled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz, Poul Egede; Christoffersen, Betina C.; Johansen, Jesper S.;

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondria-rich cells (MRC) of the amphibian epidermis are responsible for active chloride uptake at low external salinity, and new MRCs are recruited in response to exposure to distilled (deionized) water. The time-course of this recruitment, the tissue kinetics and ion transport have been...

  2. Noise-induced coherent switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN ZhanJiang; ZHANG Jiadun; ZHOU TianShou

    2008-01-01

    Taking the famous genetic toggle switch as an example, we numerically investigated the effect of noise on bistability. We found that extrinsic noise resulting from stochastic fluctuations in synthesis and degradation rates and from the environmental fluctuation in gene regulatory processes can induce coherent switch, and that there is an optimal noise intensity such that the noise not only can induce this switch, but also can amplify a weak input signal. In addition, we found that the intrinsic noise introduced through the Poisson τ-leap algorithm cannot induce such a switch.

  3. Noise-induced coherent switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Taking the famous genetic toggle switch as an example,we numerically investigated the effect of noise on bistability.We found that extrinsic noise resulting from stochastic fluctuations in synthesis and degradation rates and from the environmental fluctuation in gene regulatory processes can induce coherent switch,and that there is an optimal noise intensity such that the noise not only can induce this switch,but also can amplify a weak input signal.In addition,we found that the intrinsic noise introduced through the Poisson τ-leap algorithm cannot induce such a switch.

  4. Seizures induced by playing music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherling, W W; Hershman, L M; Miller, J Q; Lee, S I

    1980-09-01

    A 67-year-old organist and minister with diabetes mellitus had stereotyped focal seizures of the left lower face, jaw, and neck. Attacks occurred spontaneously or were induced when he played a specific hymn on the organ. The seizures were not induced by reading, singing, hearing, or playing the hymn silently. The patient had interictal weakness of the left lower face and left side of the tongue. Focal seizures were recorded on an electroencephalogram (EEG) at the right temporofrontal area. This patient illustrates partial seizures induced by playing music. PMID:6775246

  5. Cisplatin-Induced Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideharu Ideguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man suffering from esophageal cancer was admitted to our hospital complaining of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He had been treated with cisplatin, docetaxel, and fluorouracil combined with radiotherapy. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral ground-glass opacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed increased eosinophils. Two episodes of transient eosinophilia in peripheral blood were observed after serial administration of anticancer drugs before the admission, and drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test to cisplatin was positive. Thus cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was suspected, and corticosteroid was effectively administered. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.

  6. Drug-induced cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, H J; Lewis, J H

    1987-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis, defined as arrested bile flow, mimics extrahepatic obstruction in its biochemical, clinical and morphological features. It may be due to hepatocyte lesions of which there are three types, termed canalicular, hepatocanalicular and hepatocellular, respectively; or it may be due to ductal lesions at the level of the cholangiole or portal or septal ducts. Defective bile flow due to hepatic lesions reflects abnormal modification of the ductular bile. Defective formation of canalicular bile may involve bile acid-dependent or independent flow. It appears to result most importantly from defective secretion of bile acid-dependent flow secondary to defective uptake from sinusoidal blood, defective transcellular transport and defective secretion; or from regurgitation of secreted bile via leaky tight junctions. An independent defect in bile acid-independent flow is less clear. Defective flow of bile along the canaliculus may reflect increased viscosity and impaired canalicular contractility secondary to injury of the pericanalicular microfibrillar network. Impaired flow beyond the canaliculus may result from ductal injury. Sites of lesions that contribute to cholestasis include the sinusoidal and canalicular plasma membrane, the pericanalicular network and the tight junction and, less certainly, microtubules and microfilaments and Golgi apparatus. A number of drugs that lead to cholestasis have been found to lead to injury at one or more of these sites. Other agents (alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate, methylenedianiline, contaminated rapeseed oil, paraquat) lead to ductal injury resulting in cholestasis. Reports of inspissated casts in ductules (benoxaprofen jaundice) and injury to the major excretory tree (5-fluorouridine after hepatic artery infusion) have led to other forms of ductal cholestasis. Most instances of drug-induced cholestasis present as acute, transient illness, although important chronic forms also occur. The clinical features include the

  7. Induced-charge Electrokinetic Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Bazant, M Z; Bazant, Martin Z.; Squires, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of AC electro-osmosis near micro-electrodes, we predict a broad class of nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena involving induced interfacial charge. By considering various polarizable objects (metals or dielectrics) in DC and AC applied fields, we develop a simple physical picture of `induced-charge electro-osmosis' (ICEO), the fluid slip at a surface due to an electric field acting on the diffuse charge it induces. We also discuss `induced-charge electrophoresis' (ICEP), the analogous motion of a freely-suspended polarizable particle. Both differ significantly from their classical linear counterparts. We present a mathematical theory of ICEO flows in the weakly nonlinear limit of thin double layers. As an example, we calculate the time-dependent ICEO slip around a metallic sphere with a thin dielectric coating in a suddenly-applied DC field. We briefly discuss possible applications of ICEO to microfluidics and of ICEP to colloidal manipulation.

  8. Tachycardia-induced Cardiomyopathy (Tachycardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The term tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy or tachycardiomyopathy refers to impairment in left ventricular function secondary to chronic tachycardia, which is partially or completely reversible once the tachyarrhythmia is controlled. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy has been shown to occur both in experimental models and in patients with incessant tachyarrhythmia.Data from several studies and from case reports have shown that rate control by means of cardioversion, negative chronotropic agents, and surgical or catheter-based atrioventricular node ablation, resulted in significant improvement of systolic function.The diagnosis of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy is usually made following observation of marked improvement in systolic function after normalization of heart rate. Clinicians should be aware that patients with unexplained systolic dysfunction may have tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy, and that controlling the arrhythmia may result in improvement of systolic function.

  9. Drug-Induced Urinary Calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlaga, Brian R; Shah, Ojas D; Assimos, Dean G

    2003-01-01

    Urinary calculi may be induced by a number of medications used to treat a variety of conditions. These medications may lead to metabolic abnormalities that facilitate the formation of stones. Drugs that induce metabolic calculi include loop diuretics; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; and laxatives, when abused. Correcting the metabolic abnormality may eliminate or dramatically attenuate stone activity. Urinary calculi can also be induced by medications when the drugs crystallize and become the primary component of the stones. In this case, urinary supersaturation of the agent may promote formation of the calculi. Drugs that induce calculi via this process include magnesium trisilicate; ciprofloxacin; sulfa medications; triamterene; indinavir; and ephedrine, alone or in combination with guaifenesin. When this situation occurs, discontinuation of the medication is usually necessary. PMID:16985842

  10. The Surgically Induced Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Finnerty, Celeste C.; Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Ali, Arham; Kozar, Rosemary A.; Herndon, David N

    2013-01-01

    The stress response to surgery, critical illness, trauma, and burns encompasses derangements of metabolic and physiological processes which induce perturbations in the inflammatory, acute phase, hormonal, and genomic responses. Hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism result, leading to muscle wasting, impaired immune function and wound healing, organ failure, and death. The surgery-induced stress response is largely similar to that triggered by traumatic injuries; the duration of the stress respo...

  11. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply non-linear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatio-temporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to...

  12. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mignan, A

    2015-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid ...

  13. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground...

  14. Inducible chemical defences in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Heyttyey, Attila; Tóth, Zoltán; Buskirk, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is extremely widespread in the behaviour, morphology and life-history of animals. However, inducible changes in the production of defensive chemicals are described mostly in plants and surprisingly little is known about similar plasticity in chemical defences of animals. Inducible chemical defences may be common in animals because many are known to produce toxins, the synthesis of toxins is likely to be costly, and there are a few known cases of animals adjusting their t...

  15. Radiation induced diarrhoea - literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced diarrhoea is an acute side effect of radiotherapy treatment to the pelvic area, experienced by nearly all patients. This paper will explore the patho-physiological rationale of diarrhoea, the causes of radiation-induced diarrhoea, the factors that influence the severity and occurrence, and the treatment of diarrhoea in relation to the radiotherapy setting, by analysing the current literature and will conclude by outlining future directions in this field. Copyright (2004) Australian Institute of Radiography

  16. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  17. Anisotropy-induced Fano resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Novitsky, Andrey; Gao, Lei; Dong, Jian-Wen; Luk'yanchuk, Boris

    2012-01-01

    An optical Fano resonance, which is caused by birefringence control rather than frequency selection, is discovered. Such birefringence-induced Fano resonance comes with fast-switching radiation. The resonance condition $\\varepsilon_t< 1/\\varepsilon_r$ is revealed and a tiny perturbation in birefringence is found to result in a giant switch in the principal light pole induced near surface plasmon resonance. The loss and size effects upon the Fano resonance have been studied Fano resonance is s...

  18. JUVENILE WESTERN TOADS, BUFO BOREAS, AVOID CHEMICAL CUES OF SNAKES FED JUVENILE, BUT NOT LARVAL, CONSPECIFICS. (U915529)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Toews Daniel P; Killorn Erin E

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from ...

  20. Wyoming toad, Bufo hemiophrys baxteri, habitat use and hibernaculum research project with the use of telemetry : Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report is on a two year study, started in 1998, to evaluate the daily and seasonal habitat use to determine the location of the hibemaculum of the...

  1. ROLE OF THE EGG JELLY COAT IN PROTECTING HYLA REGILLA AND BUFO CANORUS EMBRYOS FROM ULTRAVIOLET B RADIATION DURING DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have suggested that Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may play a role in amphibian population declines. Some of these studies also indicate that egg hatching success is unaltered in some species of anurans as a result of UVB exposure. It has been proposed that the eg...

  2. THE EFFECT OF SUBSTRATE TYPE ON AVOIDANCE OF UREA IN JUVENILE WESTERN TOADS (BUFO BOREAS). (U915529)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Induced mutations in sesame breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of induced mutations in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) breeding is reviewed. So far in Egypt, India, Iraq, Rep. of Korea, and Sri Lanka, 14 officially released varieties have been developed through induced mutations: 12 directly and 2 through cross breeding (one using the 'dt45' induced mutant from Israel). For another variety released in China there are no details. The induced mutations approach was adopted primarily in order to obtain genetic variability that was not available in the germplasm collection. The mutagens commonly applied have been gamma rays, EMS and sodium azide. Sesame seeds can withstand high mutagen doses, and there are genotypic differences in sensitivity between varieties. The mutants induced in the above named countries and others include better yield, improved seed retention, determinate habit, modified plant architecture and size, more uniform and shorter maturation period, earliness, resistance to diseases, genic male sterility, seed coat color, higher oil content and modified fatty acids composition. Some of the induced mutants have already given rise to improved varieties, the breeding value of other mutants is now being assessed and still others can serve as useful markers in genetic studies and breeding programmes. (author)

  4. Sociocultural determinants of induced abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identity the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Subjects and Methods: The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Results: Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced concentration. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encouraged in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Conclusion: Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion. (author)

  5. Flash photography-induced maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veugelen, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report a flash photography-induced maculopathy. Methods: A professional photographer blinded himself accidentally and he consulted 3 days after the event with a scotoma in his dominant left eye. A unilateral acute light-induced maculopathy with hemorrhage was observed. The lesion was studied with colour photography, fluorescein and indocyanin angiography, autofluorescence imaging and repeated optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging. Results: At age 43, this professional photographer was blinded by the flash light of his camera and subsequently realized he had a scotoma in his dominant eye. Three days after the event visual acuity (VA was 20/70 and an acute light-induced maculopathy was noted. Another three days later, VA was 20/50 and the lesions were less prominent. After one month, the photographer still had problems making sharp pictures, VA was 20/25 and a macular scar was observed. During further follow-up, he regained full vision and experienced no professional problems. Conclusions: This case illustrates that the light of flash photography can accidentally hit an eye and induce a light-induced maculopathy.

  6. Drug-induced cutaneous vasculitides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiga, E; Verdelli, A; Bonciani, D; Bonciolini, V; Quintarelli, L; Volpi, W; Fabbri, P; Caproni, M

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous vasculitides (CV) can be idiopathic or secondary to several triggers, including drugs, which account for up to 30% of all the cases of CV. Several drugs can induce CV, including some medications commonly used in dermatology, including minocycline, and several new drugs, such as anti-TNF agents. Different pathomecanisms are involved in the development of drug-induced CV, including the formation and deposition of immune complexes, the induction of neutrophil apoptosis, the formation of neoantigens between the drugs and proteins from the host, the shift of the immune response, and others. Although the diagnosis is difficult, because the clinical picture of drug-induced CV is in general indistinguishable from that of other forms of CV, it is important to recognize such entities in order to correctly manage the patient. Anamnesis, diagnostic algorithms to assess the likelihood of the association between a drug and a cutaneous reaction, skin biopsy and laboratory testing (including the search for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) are useful tools to make a diagnosis of drug-induced CV. About the therapy, while in idiopathic vasculitides the treatment is usually more aggressive and long-lasting, very often requiring a maintenance therapy with immunosuppressive drugs, in drug-induced CV the discontinuation of the suspected drug alone is usually enough to achieve complete remission, making the prognosis usually very good.

  7. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mignan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the behaviour of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non-Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope.

  8. Late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Velayudhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agranulocytosis is defined as an absolute neutrophil count less than 100/mm 3 in association with infectious disease. The risk of agranulocytosis is 0.38% of all clozapine treated cases and there is a relatively lesser incidence in Indian population. The risk of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis and neutropenia is highest in the first 6 months and higher in the initial 18 months after the onset of treatment. There have been very few reports of neutropenia and agranulocytosis after this period. There have so far been no reports of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis has been reported from India. A case of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis with possible mechanism of the same is reported.

  9. The surgically induced stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Celeste C; Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Ali, Arham; Kozar, Rosemary A; Herndon, David N

    2013-09-01

    The stress response to surgery, critical illness, trauma, and burns encompasses derangements of metabolic and physiological processes that induce perturbations in the inflammatory, acute phase, hormonal, and genomic responses. Hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism result, leading to muscle wasting, impaired immune function and wound healing, organ failure, and death. The surgery-induced stress response is largely similar to that triggered by traumatic injuries; the duration of the stress response, however, varies according to the severity of injury (surgical or traumatic). This spectrum of injuries and insults ranges from small lacerations to severe insults such as large poly-traumatic and burn injuries. Burn injuries provide an extreme model of trauma induced stress responses that can be used to study the long-term effects of a prolonged stress response. Although the stress response to acute trauma evolved to confer improved chances of survival following injury, in modern surgical practice the stress response can be detrimental. PMID:24009246

  10. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the behaviour of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non- Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope.

  11. Surface-induced evaporative cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Min; Yan Bo; Cheng Feng; Wang Yu-Zhu

    2009-01-01

    The effects of surface-induced evaporative cooling on an atom chip are investigated. The evolutions of temperature, number and phase-space density of the atom cloud are measured when the atom cloud is brought close to the surface. Rapid decrease of the temperature and number of the atoms is found when the atom-surface distance is < 100 μm. A gain of about a factor of five on the phase-space density is obtained. It is found that the efficiency of the surface-induced evaporative cooling depends on the atom-surface distance and the shape of the evaporative trap. When the atoms are moved very close to the surface, severe heating is observed, which dominates when the holding time is > 8 ms. It is important that the surface-induced evaporative cooling offers novel possibilities for the realization of a continuous condensation, where a spatially varying evaporative cooling is required.

  12. Metal-induced crystallization fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zumin; Mittemeijer, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Metal-Induced CrystallizationAtomic Mechanisms and Interface Thermodynamics of Metal-Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Semiconductors at Low TemperaturesThermodynamics and Kinetics of Layer Exchange upon Low-Temperature Annealing Amorphous Si/Polycrystalline Al Layered StructuresMetal-Induced Crystallization by Homogeneous Insertion of Metallic Species in Amorphous SemiconductorsAluminum-Induced Crystallization: Applications in Photovoltaic TechnologiesApplications of Metal-Induced Crystallization for Advanced Flat-Panel DisplaysLaser-Assisted Meta

  13. Validating induced seismicity forecast models - Induced Seismicity Test Bench

    CERN Document Server

    Kiraly-Proag, Eszter; Gischig, Valentin; Wiemer, Stefan; Karvounis, Dimitrios; Doetsch, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Induced earthquakes often accompany fluid injection, and the seismic hazard they pose threatens various underground engineering projects. Models to monitor and control induced seismic hazard with traffic light systems should be probabilistic, forward-looking, and updated as new data arrive. In this study, we propose an Induced Seismicity Test Bench to test and rank such models; this test bench can be used for model development, model selection, and ensemble model building. We apply the test bench to data from the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-For\\^ets 2004 geothermal stimulation projects, and we assess forecasts from two models: Shapiro and Smoothed Seismicity (SaSS) and Hydraulics and Seismics (HySei). These models incorporate a different mix of physics-based elements and stochastic representation of the induced sequences. Our results show that neither model is fully superior to the other. Generally, HySei forecasts the seismicity rate better after shut-in, but is only mediocre at forecasting the spatial distri...

  14. Pump cavitation and inducer design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details of past work on sodium pump development and cavitation studies executed mainly for SNR 300 were reported earlier. Among the requirements for large sodium pumps are long life (200000 hours up to 300000 hours) and small size of impeller and pump, fully meeting the process and design criteria. These criteria are the required 'Q, H, r characteristics' in combination with a low NPSH value and the avoidance of cavitation damage to the pump. The pump designer has to develop a sound hydraulic combination consisting of suction arrangement, impeller design and diffuser. On the other hand the designer is free to choose an optimal pump speed. The pump speed in its turn influences the rotor dynamic pump design and the pump drive. The introduction of the inducer as an integral part of the pump design is based on following advantages: no tip cavitation; (possible) cavitation bubbles move to the open centre due to centrifugal forces on the fluid; the head of the inducer improves the inlet conditions of the impeller. The aim of an inducer is the increase in the suction specific speed (SA value) of a pump whereby the inducer functions as a pressure source improving the impeller inlet conditions. With inducer-impeller combinations values up to SA=15000 are realistic. With the use of an inducer the overall pump sizes can be reduced with Ca. 30%. Pumps commonly available have SA values up to a maximum of ca. 10000. A development programme was executed for SNR 300 in order to reach an increase of the suction specific speed of the impeller from SA 8200 to SA 11000. Further studies to optimize pumps design for the follow up line introduced the 'inducer acting as a pre-impeller' development. This programme was executed in the period 1979-1981. At the FDO premises a scale 1 2.8 inducer impeller combination with a suction specific speed SA=15000 was developed, constructed and tested at the water test rig. This water test rig is equipped with a perspex pipe allowing also visualisation

  15. Anesthetic-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-RenLiu; Qian Liu; Jing Li; Sulpicio G. Soriano

    2011-01-01

    1 IntroductionMillions of newborn and infants receive anesthetic,sedative and analgesic drugs for surgery and painful procedures on a daily basis.Recent laboratory reports clearly demonstrate that anesthetic and sedative drugs induced both neuroapoptosis and neurocognitive deficits in laboratory models.This issue is of paramount interest to pediatric anesthesiologists and intensivists because it questions the safety of anesthetics used for fetal and neonatal anesthesia[1-2].In an attempt to summarize the rapidly expanding laboratorybased literature on anesthetic-induced developmental neurotoxicity (AIDN),this review will examine published reports on the characterization,mechanisms and alleviation of this phenomenon.

  16. Ceftriaxone-induced toxic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erdal Peker; Eren Cagan; Murat Dogan

    2009-01-01

    Toxic hepatitis or drug-induced liver injury encompasses a spectrum of clinical disease ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to acute liver failure. The advantages of a long half-life, wide spectrum, high tissue penetration rate, and a good safety profile,make ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin,a frequent choice in the treatment of childhood infections. Previous studies have reported a few cases of high aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, along with three cases ofhepatitis caused by ceftriaxone. Here, we report a case of drug-induced toxic hepatitis in a patient who was treated with ceftriaxone for acute tonsillitis.

  17. Drug-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  18. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

  19. Snowfall induced by corona discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Ju, Jingjing; Li, Ruxin; Du, Shengzhe; Sun, Haiyi; Liu, Yonghong; Tian, Ye; Bai, Yafeng; Liu, Yaoxiang; Chen, Na; Wang, Jingwei; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, S L; Xu, Zhizhan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated for the first time the condensation and precipitation (or snowfall) induced by a corona discharge inside a cloud chamber. Ionic wind was found to have played a more significant role than ions as extra Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). 2.25 g of net snow enhancement was measured after applying a 30 kV corona discharge for 25 min. In comparison with another newly emerging femtosecond laser filamentation method, the snow precipitation induced by the corona discharge has about 4 orders of magnitude higher wall-plug efficiency under similar conditions.

  20. Interacting Induced Dark Energy Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrehbakhsh, Amir F.

    2016-01-01

    Similar to the idea of the brane world scenarios, but based on the approach of the induced matter theory, for a non--vacuum five--dimensional version of general relativity, we propose a model in which the conventional matter sources considered as all kind of the matter (the baryonic and dark) and the induced terms emerging from the extra dimension supposed to be as dark energy. Then we investigate the FLRW type cosmological equations and illustrate that the model is capable to explain respect...

  1. Radiation-induced intestinal inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meritxell Mollà; Julián Panés

    2007-01-01

    Radiation induces an important inflammatory response in the irradiated organs, characterized by leukocyte infiltration and vascular changes that are the main limiting factor in the application of this therapeutic modality for the treatment of cancer. Recently, a considerable investigative effort has been directed at determining the molecular mechanisms by which radiation induces leukocyte recruitment, in order to create strategies to prevent intestinal inflammatory damage. In these review, we consider current available evidence on the factors governing the process of leukocyte recruitment in irradiated organs, mainly derived from experimental studies, with special attention to adhesion molecules, and their value as therapeutic targets.

  2. An induced junction photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Silicon solar cells operating with induced junctions rather than diffused junctions have been fabricated and tested. Induced junctions were created by forming an inversion layer near the surface of the silicon by supplying a sheet of positive charge above the surface. Measurements of the response of the inversion layer cell to light of different wavelengths indicated it to be more sensitive to the shorter wavelengths of the sun's spectrum than conventional cells. The greater sensitivity occurs because of the shallow junction and the strong electric field at the surface.

  3. SPS Ion Induced Desorption Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    This experiment will give a study about the induced desorption from heavy ion (Indium ion run from week 45 in SPS T4-H8 area) impacting LHC type graphite collimator. 4 different samples are located in the 4 chambers 90° one to each other: pure graphite, graphite with copper coating, graphite with NEG coating, 316LN stainless steal (reference).

  4. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply non-linear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatio-temporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the geometrical description of the spatio-temporal patterns of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non-Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope and provides an alternative physical approach to poroelasticity for the modelling of induced seismicity. The applicability of the proposed geometrical approach is illustrated for the case of the 2006, Basel enhanced geothermal system stimulation experiment. Applicability to more problematic cases where the stress field may be spatially heterogeneous is also discussed.

  5. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  6. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.;

    2012-01-01

    neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge'' (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow, in ion-exchange membranes much thicker than the local Debye screening length...

  7. Microcracks and Overpressure- Induced Fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed M. Al - QAHTANI

    2001-01-01

    The microfractures and natural fractures studies have a great significance in the hydrocarbon accumulation exploration and can be a good supporter for wide geophysical study on the major structures. This paper is a brief review on microcracks and overpressure- induced fracture. It is to discuss different views on the mechanism of fractures in the subsurface of the earth.

  8. Murine antigen-induced arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, W.B. van den; Joosten, L.A.B.; Lent, P.L.E.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Antigen induced arthritis is a unilateral T-cell driven model caused by direct injection of an antigen into the knee joint of a FCA preimmunized animal. The chronicity is determined by antigen retention in avascular structures of the joint through charge mediated binding or antibody mediated trappin

  9. Plasma generation induced by triboelectrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Michelsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    A gas discharge plasma can be induced by triboelectrification around a sliding contact. The detailed physical mechanism of triboelectrification is unknown, but an empirical classification scheme can be referred to in practice. It is reported that intense ultra-violet emission from a plasma...

  10. 'Popper'-induced vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krilis, Matthew; Thompson, Julia; Atik, Alp; Lusthaus, Jed; Jankelowitz, Stacey

    2013-05-01

    Amyl nitrite 'poppers' are recreational drugs, which are a potent source of nitric oxide. The use of 'poppers' can cause psychoactive stimulation, reduced blood pressure, tachycardia and involuntary muscle relaxation. Their use is becoming increasingly common around the world, including approximately 60% of Australia's male homosexual community. We report the first case of 'popper'-induced vision loss in Australasia.

  11. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Brown, P; Morris, HR; Lees, A

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor ties were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The ties developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex ties may occur in Gille

  12. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  13. Induced geometry from disformal transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Fang Yuan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this note, we use the disformal transformation to induce a geometry from the manifold which is originally Riemannian. The new geometry obtained here can be considered as a generalization of Weyl integrable geometry. Based on these results, we further propose a geometry which is naturally a generalization of Weyl geometry.

  14. Induced geometry from disformal transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Fang-Fang, E-mail: ffyuan@nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Huang, Peng, E-mail: huangp46@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2015-05-11

    In this note, we use the disformal transformation to induce a geometry from the manifold which is originally Riemannian. The new geometry obtained here can be considered as a generalization of Weyl integrable geometry. Based on these results, we further propose a geometry which is naturally a generalization of Weyl geometry.

  15. Methotrexate-induced pulmonary toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubovic, Baruch D; Andrea Donovan; Webster, Peter M; Shear, Neil H.

    2013-01-01

    Methotrexate is a widely used medication with an array of recognized side effects. The present report describes a case of methotrexate-induced pneumonitis in a patient with psoriasis, and demonstrates the hallmark clinical and investigational findings that support this infrequently encountered diagnosis. The ensuing discussion reviews the pathogenesis, management and prevention of this adverse drug reaction.

  16. Transdermal hyoscine induced unilateral mydriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, Breffni

    2012-03-20

    The authors present a case of unilateral mydriasis in a teenager prescribed transdermal hyoscine hydrobromide (scopolamine) for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. The authors discuss the ocular side-effects associated with this particular drug and delivery system and the potential use of transdermal hyoscine as an antiemetic agent in this group.

  17. Toxic encephalopathy induced by capecitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, B; Rochlitz, C; Herrmann, R; Pless, M

    2004-01-01

    Toxic encephalopathy is a rarely described side effect of 5-fluorouracil which usually presents with cerebellar, neuropsychiatric, and focal neurological symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging findings are described as patchy white matter alterations. We report the 1st case of capecitabine-induced toxic encephalopathy with epilepsy-like symptoms and diffuse white matter alterations on magnetic resonance imaging.

  18. UV-induced skin damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar radiation induces acute and chronic reactions in human and animal skin. Chronic repeated exposures are the primary cause of benign and malignant skin tumors, including malignant melanoma. Among types of solar radiation, ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) radiation is highly mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments compared to ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) radiation. Epidemiological studies suggest that solar UV radiation is responsible for skin tumor development via gene mutations and immunosuppression, and possibly for photoaging. In this review, recent understanding of DNA damage caused by direct UV radiation and by indirect stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA repair mechanisms, particularly nucleotide excision repair of human cells, are discussed. In addition, mutations induced by solar UV radiation in p53, ras and patched genes of non-melanoma skin cancer cells, and the role of ROS as both a promoter in UV-carcinogenesis and an inducer of UV-apoptosis, are described based primarily on the findings reported during the last decade. Furthermore, the effect of UV on immunological reaction in the skin is discussed. Finally, possible prevention of UV-induced skin cancer by feeding or topical use of antioxidants, such as polyphenols, vitamin C, and vitamin E, is discussed

  19. Constraint-induced movement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellini, Greta; Gianola, Silvia; Banzi, Rita;

    2014-01-01

    on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included in a Cochrane systematic review on the effectiveness of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) for stroke patients. METHODS: We extracted data on the functional independence measure (FIM) and the action research arm test (ARAT) from RCTs that compared CIMT...

  20. Photodistributed Telangiectasia Induced by Amlodipine

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Ji Won; Bang, Chan Il; Yang, Bo Hee; Han, Sung Hyub; Song, Hee Jin; Lee, Hyeon Sook; Shin, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Gwang Seong

    2011-01-01

    Calcium channel blockers are widely used antihypertensive drugs, which are uncommonly associated with cutaneous reactions, such as pruritus, urticaria, or alopecia. Photosensitivity presenting with telangiectasia has rarely been described. We present here a case of photodistributed telangiectasia induced clinically by amlodipine and histologically by enlarged capillaries in the upper dermis without signs of vasculitis.

  1. Nodal bradycardia induced by tocainide.

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, S. K.; Datta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    A case of tocainide-induced nodal bradycardia in standard recommended dose is reported. There was no recurrence when the drug was subsequently reintroduced in a reduced dosage. It is suggested that in the elderly, tocainide should be used in a lower dosage than normally recommended.

  2. Hydralazine-induced constrictive pericarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, CFC; ElGamal, MIH; Gans, ROB; Hoorntje, SJ

    1996-01-01

    A 59-year-old man was diagnosed as having constrictive pericarditis 17 months after a typical hydralazine-induced autoimmune syndrome, This late complication of hydralazine has been reported only once. Ten years later the patient was found to have anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies directed agai

  3. Distinguishing warming-induced drought from drought-induced warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, M. L.; Yin, D.

    2015-12-01

    It is usually observed that temperatures, especially maximum temperatures are higher during drought. A very widely held public perception is that the increase in temperature is a cause of drought. This represents the warming-induced drought scenario. However, the agricultural and hydrologic scientific communities have a very different interpretation with drought being the cause of increasing temperature. In essence, those communities assume the warming is a surface feedback and their interpretation is for drought-induced warming. This is a classic cause-effect problem that has resisted definitive explanation due to the lack of radiative observations at suitable spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation we first summarise the observations and then use theory to untangle the cause-effect relationships that underlie the competing interpretations. We then show how satellite data (CERES, NASA) can be used to disentangle the cause-effect relations.

  4. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  5. Taxane-Induced Peripheral Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser Velasco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxane-derived agents are chemotherapy drugs widely employed in cancer treatment. Among them, paclitaxel and docetaxel are most commonly administered, but newer formulations are being investigated. Taxane antineoplastic activity is mainly based on the ability of the drugs to promote microtubule assembly, leading to mitotic arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. Peripheral neurotoxicity is the major non-hematological adverse effect of taxane, often manifested as painful neuropathy experienced during treatment, and it is sometimes irreversible. Unfortunately, taxane-induced neurotoxicity is an uncertainty prior to the initiation of treatment. The present review aims to dissect current knowledge on real incidence, underlying pathophysiology, clinical features and predisposing factors related with the development of taxane-induced neuropathy.

  6. Drug-induced hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amacher, David E; Chalasani, Naga

    2014-05-01

    Several drugs have been associated with the potential for drug-induced hepatic steatosis (DIHS) and/or phospholipidosis (DIPL), a lysosomal storage disorder. Drug-induced hepatic steatosis is generally a chronic but reversible affliction and may involve drug accumulation in the liver. Fat accumulation may be either macrovesicular or microvesicular in nature. Commonly used medications associated with DIHS include amiodarone, valproate, tamoxifen, methotrexate, and some chemotherapeutic and antiretroviral agents. Two recently approved medications for the treatment of hereditary homozygous hypercholesterolemia have also been noted to cause hepatic steatosis. For some compounds such as methotrexate and tamoxifen, the underlying metabolic risk factors such as obesity and metabolic syndrome may exacerbate their potential to cause DIHS and its progression. In this article, the authors discuss the preclinical screening and mechanisms of DIHS and DIPL, and review specific examples of drugs commonly used in clinical practice that are known to cause DIHS. PMID:24879984

  7. Methadone Induced Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadi Saifan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL caused by opiate abuse or overuse has been well documented in the medical literature. Most documented case reports have involved either heroin or hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Recently, case reposts of methadone induced SSHL have been published. Case Report. We present the case of a 31-year-old man who developed SSHL after a methadone overdose induced stupor. He was subsequently restarted on methadone at his regular dose. On follow-up audiometry exams, he displayed persistent moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss bilaterally. Discussion. This case is notable because unlike all but one previously reported case, the patient—who was restated on methadone—did not make a complete recovery. Conclusion. Methadone overuse in rare cases causes SSHL.

  8. Gyromagnetically Induced Transparency of Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S. Hossein; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Allen, Jeffery; Allen, Monica; Shvets, Gennady

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate that the presence of a (gyro) magnetic substrate can produce an analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in Fano-resonant metamolecules. The simplest implementation of such gyromagnetically induced transparency (GIT) in a metasurface, comprised of an array of resonant antenna pairs placed on a gyromagnetic substrate and illuminated by a normally incident electromagnetic wave, is analyzed. Time reversal and spatial inversion symmetry breaking introduced by the dc magnetization makes metamolecules bianisotropic. This causes Fano interference between the otherwise uncoupled symmetric and antisymmetric resonances of the metamolecules giving rise to a sharp transmission peak through the otherwise reflective metasurface. We show that, for an oblique wave incidence, one-way GIT can be achieved by the combination of spatial dispersion and gyromagnetic effect. These theoretically predicted phenomena pave the way to nonreciprocal switches and isolators that can be dynamically controlled by electric currents.

  9. The Surgically Induced Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Celeste C.; Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Ali, Arham; Kozar, Rosemary A.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    The stress response to surgery, critical illness, trauma, and burns encompasses derangements of metabolic and physiological processes which induce perturbations in the inflammatory, acute phase, hormonal, and genomic responses. Hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism result, leading to muscle wasting, impaired immune function and wound healing, organ failure, and death. The surgery-induced stress response is largely similar to that triggered by traumatic injuries; the duration of the stress response, however, varies according to the severity of injury (surgical or traumatic). This spectrum of injuries and insults ranges from small lacerations to severe insults such as large poly-traumatic and burn injuries. Although the stress response to acute trauma evolved to improve chances of survival following injury, in modern surgical practice the stress response can be detrimental. PMID:24009246

  10. Paramagnetically induced gapful topological superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daido, Akito; Yanase, Youichi

    2016-08-01

    We propose a generic scenario for realizing gapful topological superconductors (TSCs) from gapless spin-singlet superconductors (SCs). Noncentrosymmetric nodal SCs in two dimensions are shown to be gapful under a Zeeman field, as a result of the cooperation of inversion-symmetry breaking and time-reversal-symmetry breaking. In particular, non-s -wave SCs acquire a large excitation gap. Such paramagnetically induced gapful SCs may be classified into TSCs in the symmetry class D specified by the Chern number. We show nontrivial Chern numbers over a wide parameter range for spin-singlet SCs. A variety of the paramagnetically induced gapful TSCs are demonstrated, including D +p -wave TSC, extended S +p -wave TSC, p +D +f -wave TSC, and s +P -wave TSC. Natural extension toward three-dimensional Weyl SCs is also discussed.

  11. Prediction of pilot induced oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin PANĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in the design of flight-control systems for aircraft under pilotedcontrol is the determination of handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillations (PIO tendencieswhen significant nonlinearities exist in the vehicle description. The paper presents a method to detectpossible pilot-induced oscillations of Category II (with rate and position limiting, a phenomenonusually due to a misadaptation between the pilot and the aircraft response during some tasks in whichtight closed loop control of the aircraft is required from the pilot. For the analysis of Pilot in the LoopOscillations an approach, based on robust stability analysis of a system subject to uncertainparameters, is proposed. In this analysis the nonlinear elements are substituted by linear uncertainparameters. This approach assumes that PIO are characterized by a limit cycle behavior.

  12. Color-induced graph colorings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive treatment of color-induced graph colorings is presented in this book, emphasizing vertex colorings induced by edge colorings. The coloring concepts described in this book depend not only on the property required of the initial edge coloring and the kind of objects serving as colors, but also on the property demanded of the vertex coloring produced. For each edge coloring introduced, background for the concept is provided, followed by a presentation of results and open questions dealing with this topic. While the edge colorings discussed can be either proper or unrestricted, the resulting vertex colorings are either proper colorings or rainbow colorings. This gives rise to a discussion of irregular colorings, strong colorings, modular colorings, edge-graceful colorings, twin edge colorings and binomial colorings. Since many of the concepts described in this book are relatively recent, the audience for this book is primarily mathematicians interested in learning some new areas of graph colorings...

  13. Electrochemical Oscillations Induced by Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟俊红; 贺占博

    2003-01-01

    A new type of electrochemical oscillation induced by surfactant was observed in experiments. The electrochemical system is a Daniell cell with a copper rod in CuSO4 aqueous and an aluminum rod in Al(NO3)3 aqueous as electrodes. The surfactants are CTAB, TX-100, SLS. The addition of trace surfactant solution by a micro-syringe made the original monotonously changing electrochemical system produce obvious periodic phenomena. At the mean time, the copper ion selective electrode and Hg2SO4 reference electrode were used to monitor the copper electrode reaction and determine its rate constant k of first order reaction. According to the experimental results of electrode reaction kinetics, the possible mechanism was found to be the polarization induced from the directional adsorption of trace surfactant on the electrode surface. That is the electrochemical oscillations.

  14. Gyromagnetically induced transparency of metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S Hossein; Khanikaev, Alexander B; Allen, Jeffery; Allen, Monica; Shvets, Gennady

    2014-03-21

    We demonstrate that the presence of a (gyro) magnetic substrate can produce an analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in Fano-resonant metamolecules. The simplest implementation of such gyromagnetically induced transparency (GIT) in a metasurface, comprised of an array of resonant antenna pairs placed on a gyromagnetic substrate and illuminated by a normally incident electromagnetic wave, is analyzed. Time reversal and spatial inversion symmetry breaking introduced by the dc magnetization makes metamolecules bianisotropic. This causes Fano interference between the otherwise uncoupled symmetric and antisymmetric resonances of the metamolecules giving rise to a sharp transmission peak through the otherwise reflective metasurface. We show that, for an oblique wave incidence, one-way GIT can be achieved by the combination of spatial dispersion and gyromagnetic effect. These theoretically predicted phenomena pave the way to nonreciprocal switches and isolators that can be dynamically controlled by electric currents. PMID:24702414

  15. Noise-induced quantum transport

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar; Barik, Debashis; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the problem of directed quantum transport induced by external exponentially correlated telegraphic noise. In addition to quantum nature of the heat bath, nonlinearity of the periodic system potential brings in quantum contribution. We observe that quantization, in general, enhances classical current at low temperature, while the differences become insignificant at higher temperature. Interplay of quantum diffusion and quantum correction to system potential is analyzed for various r...

  16. Field Induced Spin Density Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Chaikin, P

    1996-01-01

    The Field Induced Spin Density Waves (FISDWs) found in organic conductors represent a unique series of transitions which meld the one-dimensional physics of the Peierls instability with the two-dimensional physics of the Quantum Hall Effect. This paper presents a pedagogical introduction to the FISDW's in the Bechgaard salts, along with recent experimental results on related high magnetic field phenomena.


  17. MRI-induced retrocalcaneal bursitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tol, J.L.; Dijk, C.N. van [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Maas, M. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-10-01

    This case report describes a patient with acute retrocalcaneal bursitis, which developed after MRI examination of the ankle. The sagittal T2*-weighted gradient echo sequence revealed an extensive susceptibility artifact in the area surrounding the Achilles tendon near its insertion at the os calcis. This artifact was caused by postsurgical metallic particles. We postulate that these particles were mechanically stimulated by the magnetic field and induced the inflammatory response. (orig.)

  18. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, MB; Soestbergen, van, M Michiel; A Mani; Bruus, H.; Biesheuvel, PM; Bazant, MZ

    2012-01-01

    Possible mechanisms for overlimiting current (OLC) through aqueous ion-exchange membranes (exceeding diffusion limitation) have been debated for half a century. Flows consistent with electro-osmotic instability have recently been observed in microfluidic experiments, but the existing theory neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by “current-induced membrane discharge” (CIMD), even in the...

  19. Tachycardia-Induced Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Jitenbhai J; Whittaker, Charles T

    2007-01-01

    Heart failure associated with tachyarrhythmias can very often be reversed by dealing with the underlying tachyarrhythmia. Typically characterized by left ventricular dilation and subsequent systolic dysfunction, this disorder can be caused by both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, most commonly chronic atrial fibrillation. Whereas for most cardiomyopathies there is little that can be done to reverse the progression of the disease, in tachycardia-induced heart failure the patient's often deb...

  20. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosshan Thiruchelvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  1. Cocaine-Induced Recurrent Leukoencephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    González-Duarte, Alejandra; Williams, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine-induced leukoencephalopathy is a rare neurological complication. It is most likely related to the substances used to adulterate the cocaine. Levamisole is one of the most common adulterants of cocaine and causes reversible leukoencephalopathy. Patients display severe neurological symptoms that resolve at termination of the exposure. MRI shows diffuse white matter involvement with sparing of the U fibers, without brain stem or cerebellar involvement. We describe the case of a woman wit...

  2. Noise-induced hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Mariola Sliwinska-Kowalska; Adrian Davis

    2012-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English), which were identified by a literature search of accessible medic...

  3. [Environmentally induced (extrinsic) skin aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutmann, J; Schikowski, T; Hüls, A; Vierkötter, A; Grether-Beck, S

    2016-02-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, particularly as a component of natural sunlight, is a major cause of environmentally induced aging of the skin. In addition, other environmental factors for premature skin aging include longer wavelength radiation in the visible light region and in particular in the shortwave infrared radiation region. Furthermore, particulate and gaseous components of air pollution significantly contribute to the aging process. PMID:26769311

  4. Acoustically-Induced Electrical Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    We have observed electrical signals excited by and moving along with an acoustic pulse propagating in a sandstone sample. Using resonance we are now studying the characteristics of this acousto-electric signal and determining its origin and the controlling physical parameters. Four rock samples with a range of porosities, permeabilities, and mineralogies were chosen: Berea, Boise, and Colton sandstones and Austin Chalk. Pore water salinity was varied from deionized water to sea water. Ag-AgCl electrodes were attached to the sample and were interfaced to a 4-wire electrical resistivity system. Under computer control, the acoustic signals were excited and the electrical response was recorded. We see strong acoustically-induced electrical signals in all samples, with the magnitude of the effect for each rock getting stronger as we move from the 1st to the 3rd harmonics in resonance. Given a particular fluid salinity, each rock has its own distinct sensitivity in the induced electrical effect. For example at the 2nd harmonic, Berea Sandstone produces the largest electrical signal per acoustic power input even though Austin Chalk and Boise Sandstone tend to resonate with much larger amplitudes at the same harmonic. Two effects are potentially responsible for this acoustically-induced electrical response: one the co-seismic seismo-electric effect and the other a strain-induced resistivity change known as the acousto-electric effect. We have designed experimental tests to separate these mechanisms. The tests show that the seismo-electric effect is dominant in our studies. We note that these experiments are in a fluid viscosity dominated seismo-electric regime, leading to a simple interpretation of the signals where the electric potential developed is proportional to the local acceleration of the rock. Toward a test of this theory we have measured the local time-varying acoustic strain in our samples using a laser vibrometer.

  5. Induced mutations in sorghum improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review of different aspects of mutagen sensitivity, considering the importance of such factors as genotypic constitution of the material, pre- and post-treatment modifications, type of mutagen and dose, techniques of handling the material and treatment procedures to maximize the induction of mutations together with the scope of induced mutations in sorghum improvement is presented. Hydrazine was found to be a more effective and efficient mutagen for inducing chlorophyll and viable mutations in sorghum than ethyl methanesulphonate, methyl methanesulphonate or γ-rays. Ethyl methane-sulphonate among the alkylating agents and nitroso methyl urea among nitroso compounds were the most potent mutagens. The efficient radiation dose was within the 20-35 kr range whereas 0.015M was the effective dosage for hydrazine and ethylmethane sulphonate. The combination treatments of various physical and chemical mutagens failed to yield significant increase in the recovery of mutations, while cysteine post-treatments of γ-irradiated and hydrazine-treated material reduced seedling injury, seed sterility and increased the recovery of viable mutations compared to single treatments. There is scope for induced mutations in solving some of the current problems of sorghum improvement such as, increasing the recombination potential of tropical X temperate crosses, improving the nutritional quality of grain and forage sorghums, diversification of male sterile cytoplasmic sources, better understanding of mechanism of apomixis and augmenting the levels of resistance to sorghum insects, pests and diseases. (author)

  6. Induced mutation of Dendrobium orchid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendrobiiim orchids serve as the main orchid cut flower export of Malaysia. The wide range of colour and forms presently available in the market are obtained through hybridisation. Induced mutation breeding program was initiated on a commercial variety Dendrobium 'Sonia Kai' to explore the possibilities of obtaining new colour and forms. Matured seeds from self pollination were cultured and irradiated at 35 Gy at the protocorm-like bodies (PLBS) stage. Selection of induced mutations was done after the first flowering of the plants regenerated from the irradiated protocorms. Results showed changes in flower colour, shape and size. Most of these chances are expressed in different combinations in the petals, sepals and lip of the flowers. Thus, resulting. in a very wide spectrum of mutations. Some of these chances are not stable. To date, mutants that showed stable characteristics changes are grouped into 11 categories based on flower colour and form. These results show that the combination of its vitro technique and induced mutation can be applied in orchid breeding to produce new interesting and attractive variety for the market

  7. UV-induced cutaneous photobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissert, S; Granstein, R D

    1996-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) present in sunlight is a major environmental factor capable of affecting human health and well being. The organ primarily affected by UVR is the skin, which is composed of a variety of different cell types. Here, UVR is needed for production of active vitamin D as well as producing undesirable effects such as sunburn, premature cutaneous photoaging, and promoting skin cancer development. Depending on the radiation dose, UVR influences virtually every cutaneous cell type investigated differently. Since the end of the nineteenth century, sun exposure has been known to induce skin cancer, which is now the human malignancy with the most rapidly increasing incidence. In several experimental models, mid-range UVR has been demonstrated to be the major cause of UV-induced cutaneous tumors. The stratospheric ozone layer protecting the terrestrial surface from higher quantum energy solar radiation is being damaged by industrial activities resulting in the possibility of increased UVR exposure in the future. Investigations in the field of experimental dermatology have shown that within the skin an immunosurveillance system exists that may be able to detect incipient neoplasms and to elicit a host responses against it. This article reviews the literature on studies designed to investigate the effects of UVR on cutaneous cellular components, with special focus on the immune system within the skin and the development of UV-induced cancer. PMID:8994803

  8. YAP Induces Human Naive Pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Qin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human naive pluripotent stem cell (PSC state, corresponding to a pre-implantation stage of development, has been difficult to capture and sustain in vitro. We report that the Hippo pathway effector YAP is nuclearly localized in the inner cell mass of human blastocysts. Overexpression of YAP in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced PSCs (iPSCs promotes the generation of naive PSCs. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA can partially substitute for YAP to generate transgene-free human naive PSCs. YAP- or LPA-induced naive PSCs have a rapid clonal growth rate, a normal karyotype, the ability to form teratomas, transcriptional similarities to human pre-implantation embryos, reduced heterochromatin levels, and other hallmarks of the naive state. YAP/LPA act in part by suppressing differentiation-inducing effects of GSK3 inhibition. CRISPR/Cas9-generated YAP−/− cells have an impaired ability to form colonies in naive but not primed conditions. These results uncover an unexpected role for YAP in the human naive state, with implications for early human embryology.

  9. Efficient treatment of induced dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonett, Andrew C; Pickard, Frank C; Shao, Yihan; Cheatham, Thomas E; Brooks, Bernard R

    2015-08-21

    Most existing treatments of induced dipoles in polarizable molecular mechanics force field calculations use either the self-consistent variational method, which is solved iteratively, or the "direct" approximation that is non-iterative as a result of neglecting coupling between induced dipoles. The variational method is usually implemented using assumptions that are only strictly valid under tight convergence of the induced dipoles, which can be computationally demanding to enforce. In this work, we discuss the nature of the errors that result from insufficient convergence and suggest a strategy that avoids such problems. Using perturbation theory to reintroduce the mutual coupling into the direct algorithm, we present a computationally efficient method that combines the precision of the direct approach with the accuracy of the variational approach. By analyzing the convergence of this perturbation series, we derive a simple extrapolation formula that delivers a very accurate approximation to the infinite order solution at the cost of only a few iterations. We refer to the new method as extrapolated perturbation theory. Finally, we draw connections to our previously published permanent multipole algorithm to develop an efficient implementation of the electric field and Thole terms and also derive some necessary, but not sufficient, criteria that force field parameters must obey. PMID:26298123

  10. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, S. [GSI, Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Recent studies on radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the progeny of exposed mammalian cells were briefly described as well as other related studies. For the analysis of chromosomal damage in clones, cells were seeded directly after exposure in cell well-dish to form single cell clones and post-irradiation chromosome aberrations were scored. Both exposure to isoeffective doses of X-ray or 270 MeV/u C-ions (13 keV/{mu}m) increased the number of clones with abnormal karyotype and the increase was similar for X-ray and for C-ions. Meanwhile, in the progeny of cells for mass cultures, there was no indication of a delayed expression of chromosomal damage up to 40 population doublings after the exposure. A high number of aberrant cells were only observed directly after exposure to 10.7 MeV/u O-ions, i.e. in the first cycle cells and decreased with subsequent cell divisions. The reason for these differences in the radiation-induced chromosomal instability between clonal isolates and mass culture has not been clarified. Recent studies indicated that genomic instability occurs at a high frequency in the progeny of cells irradiated with both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. Such genomic instability is thought likely to increase the risk of carcinogenesis, but more data are required for a well understanding of the health risks resulting from radiation-induced delayed instability. (M.N.)

  11. Material Induced Anisotropic Damage in DP600

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, M.S.; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, V.T.; Boogaard, van den A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Plasticity induced damage development in metals is anisotropic by nature. The anisotropy in damage is driven by two different phenomena; anisotropic deformation state i.e. Load Induced Anisotropic Damage (LIAD) and anisotropic microstructure i.e. Material Induced Anisotropic Damage (MIAD). The contr

  12. Mutations induced by ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Gerd P. [Department of Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States)]. E-mail: gpfeifer@coh.org; You, Young-Hyun [Department of Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States); Besaratinia, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The different ultraviolet (UV) wavelength components, UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (280-320 nm), and UVC (200-280 nm), have distinct mutagenic properties. A hallmark of UVC and UVB mutagenesis is the high frequency of transition mutations at dipyrimidine sequences containing cytosine. In human skin cancers, about 35% of all mutations in the p53 gene are transitions at dipyrimidines within the sequence 5'-TCG and 5'-CCG, and these are localized at several mutational hotspots. Since 5'-CG sequences are methylated along the p53 coding sequence in human cells, these mutations may be derived from sunlight-induced pyrimidine dimers forming at sequences that contain 5-methylcytosine. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) form preferentially at dipyrimidines containing 5-methylcytosine when cells are irradiated with UVB or sunlight. In order to define the contribution of 5-methylcytosine to sunlight-induced mutations, the lacI and cII transgenes in mouse fibroblasts were used as mutational targets. After 254 nm UVC irradiation, only 6-9% of the base substitutions were at dipyrimidines containing 5-methylcytosine. However, 24-32% of the solar light-induced mutations were at dipyrimidines that contain 5-methylcytosine and most of these mutations were transitions. Thus, CPDs forming preferentially at dipyrimidines with 5-methylcytosine are responsible for a considerable fraction of the mutations induced by sunlight in mammalian cells. Using mouse cell lines harboring photoproduct-specific photolyases and mutational reporter genes, we showed that CPDs (rather than 6-4 photoproducts or other lesions) are responsible for the great majority of UVB-induced mutations. An important component of UVB mutagenesis is the deamination of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine within CPDs. The mutational specificity of long-wave UVA (340-400 nm) is distinct from that of the shorter wavelength UV and is characterized mainly by G to T transversions presumably arising through mechanisms

  13. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad TALEBIAN*

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Talebian A, Goudarzi RM, Mohammadzadeh M , Mirzadeh AS. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:66-68. AbstractVincristine (VCR is a vinca alkaloid that is used for treatment of many malignancies.The vinca alkaloids are neurotoxic, usually causing a peripheral neuropathy, but cranial neuropathies are rare as side effects. Described here is the case of a 2.5-year-old boy, a known case of Wilms’ tumor, treated by vincristine (0/067 mg/kg/day and dactinomycin (0/045 mg/kg/day after surgery. Three weeks after treatment, he presented with bilateral ptosis.Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis with normal pupillary reflex and eye movement. He received 3.015 mg cumulative dose of vincristine before development of ptosis.Treatment with pyridoxine (150 mg/m2 p.o. BID and pyridostigmine (3 mg/kg p.o. BID started as neuroprotective agents, and after 7 days the problem disappeared.The treatment continued for 6 weeks and there were no signs of ptosis or a recurrence in follow up 2 months later. References:Toopchizade V, Hosseini M, et al. Electrophysiological signs of neuropathy caused by vincristine. Medical Journal of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. 2010 Autumn;31(3; 19-25.Gursel E.S. Vincristine-Induced Unilateral Ptosis in a Child. Pediatr Neurol 2009; 41:461-463.Ngamphaiboon N, Sweeney R, Wetzler M, Wang ES. Pyridoxine treatment of vincristine-induced cranial polyneuropathy in an adult patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia: Case report and review of the literature. Leuk Res. 2010 Aug;34(8:e194-6.Lash SC, Williams CP, Marsh CS, Crithchley C, Hodgkins PR, Mackie EJ. Acute Sixth-Nerve Palsy After Vincristine Therapy. Journal of AAPOS 2004 Feb;8(1: 67-8.Bay A, Yilmaz C, Yilmaz N, Oner AF. Vincristine induced cranial polyneuropathy. Indian J Pediatr. 2006 Jun;73(6:531-3.Tuxen M K, Hansen SW. Complication of treatment, Neurotoxicity secondary to antineoplastic

  14. Alternate blade cavitation on inducer; Inducer no kogoyoku cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, M. [Ebara Research Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Huang, J.; Zhang, J.

    1996-08-25

    Concerning a flat-helical inducer with two blades, examinations on suction performance, cavitation development and internal flow conditions of the impeller were performed. As the suction pressure is reduced, the balanced cavity development on both blades is destroyed. Alternate blade cavitation, in which cavity development evolves on one blade while weakens on the other, can occur. When the alternate blade cavitation occurs, the theoretical and actual pump heads can decrease quickly. The following investigations were conducted to determine how this phenomenon develops. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Sad music induces pleasant emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion. PMID:23785342

  16. Sad Music Induces Pleasant Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AI eKAWAKAMI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all to 4 (very much. The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion.

  17. Sad music induces pleasant emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion.

  18. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    TALEBIAN, Ahmad; Razeieh GOUDARZI; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi; Mirzadeh, Azadeh Sadat

    2014-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Talebian A, Goudarzi RM, Mohammadzadeh M , Mirzadeh AS. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1):66-68. AbstractVincristine (VCR) is a vinca alkaloid that is used for treatment of many malignancies.The vinca alkaloids are neurotoxic, usually causing a peripheral neuropathy, but cranial neuropathies are rare as side effects. Described here is the case of a 2.5-year-old boy, a known case of Wilms’ tumor, treated by vincristine (0/0...

  19. Clozapine-induced late leukopenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Latif, Z

    2012-03-01

    A patient with a 28-year history of schizophrenia was treated with a wide range of antipsychotic medications since diagnosis. She had experienced no clinically significant symptomatic relief until she commenced treatment on clozapine. Her psychotic symptoms, self care, and general sense of well-being improved significantly. After 6 years of successful treatment, she developed leukopenia and clozapine was discontinued. The following issues will be discussed in the article: rechallenge with clozapine following leukopenia during previous therapy and the choice of and haematological monitoring needs with other antipsychotic medications after clozapine-induced blood dyscrasia.

  20. Laser Induced Surface Chemical Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinespring, Charter D.; Freedman, Andrew

    1990-02-01

    Studies of the thermal and photon-induced surface chemistry of dimethyl cadmium (DMCd) and dimethyl tellurium (DMTe) on GaAs(100) substrates under ultrahigh vacuum conditions have been performed for substrate temperatures in the range of 123 K to 473 K. Results indicate that extremely efficient conversion of admixtures of DMTe and DMCd to CdTe can be obtained using low power (5 - 10 mJ cm-2) 193 nm laser pulses at substrate temperatures of 123 K. Subsequent annealing at 473 K produces an epitaxial film.

  1. Opioid induced nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard S; Laufer, Andras

    2014-01-01

    Opioids are broad spectrum analgesics that are an integral part of the therapeutic armamentarium to combat pain in the palliative care population. Unfortunately, among the adverse effects of opioids that may be experienced along with analgesia is nausea, vomiting, and/or retching. Although it is conceivable that in the future, using combination agents (opioids combined with agents which may nullify emetic effects), currently nausea/vomiting remains a significant issue for certain patients. However, there exists potential current strategies that may be useful in efforts to diminish the frequency and/or intensity of opioid-induced nausea/vomiting (OINV).

  2. Nilotinib-Induced Keratosis Pilaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Wai Mun Sean; Aw, Chen Wee Derrick

    2016-01-01

    Nilotinib is a second-generation Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that is approved for the treatment of imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukaemia expressing the Bcr-Abl mutation. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions occur more frequently in patients using this medication. We present a case of nilotinib-induced keratosis pilaris that did not have accompanying symptoms of alopecia or pruritus. Greater recognition of this association is needed so that appropriate treatment can be instituted to ensure a good oncologic outcome. PMID:27194977

  3. Drug-induced peripheral neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilholm, Ole Jakob; Christensen, Alex Alban; Zedan, Ahmed;

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy can be caused by medication, and various descriptions have been applied for this condition. In this MiniReview, the term 'drug-induced peripheral neuropathy' (DIPN) is used with the suggested definition: Damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system caused by a chemical...... substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention or diagnosis of a disease. Optic neuropathy is included in this definition. A distinction between DIPN and other aetiologies of peripheral neuropathy is often quite difficult and thus, the aim of this MiniReview is to discuss the major agents associated...

  4. Sertraline induced acute mandibular dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Raveendranathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been linked with the occurrence of drug-induced parkinsonism, dystonia, dyskinesia, and akathisia. Here, we describe a patient with a diagnosis of emotionally unstable personality disorder and depression who developed severe mandibular dystonia with sertraline in the absence of concurrent prescription of medications, which have potential action on the dopaminergic system. This case highlights the need for clinicians to be aware of this alarming acute adverse effect with sertraline, which is conventionally considered to be well-tolerated and safe.

  5. CRBRP flow induced vibration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program to assure the structural adequacy of Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBRP) components during its planned 30 years of operation is described. The program includes (1) an assessment of reactor components relative to their susceptibility to FIV, (2) designing to minimize component excitation due to Fluid induced vibrations (FIV), (3) scale model tests to measure structural response during simulated operating conditions and (4) preoperational tests. An overview of the CRBRP test program is described. Additionally, details of scale model testing of reactor internals and the steam generator is described in more detail. (author)

  6. Adsorption-induced step formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, P.; Christoffersen, Ebbe; Lorensen, Henrik Qvist;

    2001-01-01

    Through an interplay between density functional calculations, Monte Carlo simulations and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments, we show that an intermediate coverage of CO on the Pt(110) surface gives rise to a new rough equilibrium structure with more than 50% step atoms. CO is shown to bind...... so strongly to low-coordinated Pt atoms that it can break Pt-Pt bonds and spontaneously form steps on the surface. It is argued that adsorption-induced step formation may be a general effect, in particular at high gas pressures and temperatures....

  7. Laser induced nuclear waste transmutation

    OpenAIRE

    Hirlimann, Charles

    2007-01-01

    When producing electricity that collects the mass energy that is available at the time of the induced disintegration of radioactive elements, other unstable elements are produced with half-life span durations ranging from less than one second to hundreds of thousands of years and which are considered as waste. Managing nuclear waste with a half-life of less than 30 years is an easy task, as our societies clearly know how to keep buildings safe for more than a century, the time it takes for th...

  8. Esophagitis Induced by Doxycycline Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Şenel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Esophagitis is the most common disease of the esophagus. Drug use is one of the reasons of chemical esophagitis. Herein, we report two male patients of 17 and 18 years of age who developed esophagitis in acne treatment with doxycycline. Both patients took doxycycline capsules for approximately one week. Ulcerations were detected at upper and mid-esophagus of the 17-year-old patient. Circular ulcerations were found at mid-esophagus of the 18-year-old case. Doxycycline induced esophagitis is a preventable disease with the physician giving appropriate medication ingestion advice to the patient.

  9. Protostellar Collapse Induced by Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Hennebelle, P.; Whitworth, A. P.; Gladwin, P. P.; Andre, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of the evolution of low-mass, isothermal, molecular cores which are subjected to an increase in external pressure $P\\xt$. If $P\\xt$ increases very slowly, the core approaches instability quite quasistatically. However, for larger (but still quite modest) $dP\\xt/dt$ a compression wave is driven into the core, thereby triggering collapse from the outside in. If collapse of a core is induced by increasing $P\\xt$, this has a number of interesting consequences. (i)...

  10. Neutrino induced 1-pion production

    CERN Document Server

    González-Jiménez, R; Van Dessel, N; Pandey, V; Jachowicz, N

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino-induced pion production constitutes an important contribution to neutrino-nucleus scattering cross sections at intermediate energies. A deep understanding of this process is mandatory for a correct interpretation of neutrino-oscillation experiments. We aim at contributing to the ongoing effort to understand the various experimental results obtained by different collaborations in a wide range of energies. In particular, in this work we analyze recent MiniBooNE and MINERvA charged-current neutrino 1-pion production data. We use a relativistic theoretical approach which accounts for resonant and non-resonant 1-pion production contributions.

  11. Doxorubicin-induced ovarian toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizel Shulamith

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young cancer patients may occasionally face infertility and premature gonadal failure. Apart from its direct effect on follicles and oocytes, chemotherapy may induce ovarian toxicity via an impact on the entire ovary. The role of doxorubicin in potential ovarian failure remains obscure. Our intention was to elucidate doxorubicin-related toxicity within ovaries. Methods Female mice were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 or 10 mg/kg doxorubicin and their ovaries were visualized in vivo by high resolution MRI, one day and one month following treatment. Ovaries of other treated mice were excised and weighed at the same post-treatment intervals. Ovarian histological sections were stained for TUNEL or active caspase-3 and follicles were counted and categorized. Ovulation rates were evaluated in superovulated female mice treated with doxorubicin. Results A single injection of doxorubicin resulted in a major reduction in both ovarian size and weight that lasted even one month post treatment. A dramatic reduction in ovulation rate was observed one week after treatment, followed by a partial recovery at one month. Histological examination revealed positive staining of TUNEL and active caspase-3. We observed a significant reduction in the population of secondary and primordial follicles one month following treatment. Conclusions Our results may imply a mechanism of chemotherapy-induced ovarian toxicity, manifested by reduced ovulation and accompanied by a reduction in ovarian size, caused probably by an acute insult to the ovary.

  12. Coffee induces autophagy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrocola, Federico; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Mariño, Guillermo; Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Chaba, Kariman; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies and clinical trials revealed that chronic consumption coffee is associated with the inhibition of several metabolic diseases as well as reduction in overall and cause-specific mortality. We show that both natural and decaffeinated brands of coffee similarly rapidly trigger autophagy in mice. One to 4 h after coffee consumption, we observed an increase in autophagic flux in all investigated organs (liver, muscle, heart) in vivo, as indicated by the increased lipidation of LC3B and the reduction of the abundance of the autophagic substrate sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1). These changes were accompanied by the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), leading to the reduced phosphorylation of p70(S6K), as well as by the global deacetylation of cellular proteins detectable by immunoblot. Immunohistochemical analyses of transgenic mice expressing a GFP-LC3B fusion protein confirmed the coffee-induced relocation of LC3B to autophagosomes, as well as general protein deacetylation. Altogether, these results indicate that coffee triggers 2 phenomena that are also induced by nutrient depletion, namely a reduction of protein acetylation coupled to an increase in autophagy. We speculate that polyphenols contained in coffee promote health by stimulating autophagy.

  13. Magnetically induced QCD Kondo effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Sho; Itakura, Kazunori; Kuramoto, Yoshio

    2016-10-01

    The "QCD Kondo effect" stems from the color exchange interaction in QCD with non-Abelian property, and can be realized in a high-density quark matter containing heavy-quark impurities. We propose a novel type of the QCD Kondo effect induced by a strong magnetic field. In addition to the fact that the magnetic field does not affect the color degrees of freedom, two properties caused by the Landau quantization in a strong magnetic field are essential for the "magnetically induced QCD Kondo effect"; (1) dimensional reduction to 1 +1 -dimensions, and (2) finiteness of the density of states for lowest energy quarks. We demonstrate that, in a strong magnetic field B , the scattering amplitude of a massless quark off a heavy quark impurity indeed shows a characteristic behavior of the Kondo effect. The resulting Kondo scale is estimated as ΛK≃√{eqB }αs1 /3exp {-4 π /Ncαslog (4 π /αs)} where αs and Nc are the fine structure constant of strong interaction and the number of colors in QCD, and eq is the electric charge of light quarks.

  14. Sildenafil Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Burkhart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN is characterized by inflammation of the renal interstitium and usually occurs in a temporal relationship with the medication. We present a case of an Asian male who had nephrotic range proteinuria and presented with acute kidney injury. The patient reported an acute change in physical appearance and symptomatology after the ingestion of a single dose of sildenafil. Renal biopsy was notable for minimal change disease (MCD with acute and chronic interstitial nephritis. Renal replacement and glucocorticoid therapy were initiated. Renal recovery within six weeks permitted discontinuation of dialysis. AIN superimposed on MCD is a known association of NSAID induced nephropathy. The temporal association and the absence of any new drugs suggest that the AIN was most likely due to the sildenafil. NSAIDs are less likely to have caused the AIN given their remote use. The ease of steroid responsiveness would also suggest another cause as NSAID induced AIN is often steroid resistant. The MCD was most likely idiopathic given the lack of temporal association with a secondary cause. As the number of sildenafil prescriptions increases, more cases of AIN may be identified and physician awareness for this potential drug disease association is necessary.

  15. Simulations of Cavitating Cryogenic Inducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Dan (Technical Monitor); Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet; Ungewitter, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    Simulations of cavitating turbopump inducers at their design flow rate are presented. Results over a broad range of Nss, numbers extending from single-phase flow conditions through the critical head break down point are discussed. The flow characteristics and performance of a subscale geometry designed for water testing are compared with the fullscale configuration that employs LOX. In particular, thermal depression effects arising from cavitation in cryogenic fluids are identified and their impact on the suction performance of the inducer quantified. The simulations have been performed using the CRUNCH CFD[R] code that has a generalized multi-element unstructured framework suitable for turbomachinery applications. An advanced multi-phase formulation for cryogenic fluids that models temperature depression and real fluid property variations is employed. The formulation has been extensively validated for both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen by simulating the experiments of Hord on hydrofoils; excellent estimates of the leading edge temperature and pressure depression were obtained while the comparisons in the cavity closure region were reasonable.

  16. Drugs induced pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferian, Andrei; Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Savale, Laurent; Günther, Sven; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Humbert, Marc; Montani, David

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disorder characterized by progressive obliteration of the pulmonary microvasculature, resulting in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and premature death. According to the current classification, PAH can be associated with exposure to certain drugs or toxins, particularly appetite suppressant drugs, such as aminorex, fenfluramine derivatives and benfluorex. These drugs have been confirmed to be risk factors for PAH and were withdrawn from the market. The supposed mechanism is an increase in serotonin levels, which was demonstrated to act as a growth factor for the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Amphetamines, phentermine and mazindol were less frequently used but are also considered as possible risk factors for PAH. Dasatinib, a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor, used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukaemia was associated with cases of severe PAH, in part reversible after its withdrawal. Recently several studies raised the potential endothelial dysfunction that could be induced by interferon, and few cases of PAH have been reported with interferon therapy. Other possible risk factors for PAH include: nasal decongestants, like phenylpropanolamine, dietary supplement - L-Tryptophan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, pergolide and other drugs that could act on 5HT2B receptors. Interestingly, PAH remains a rare complication of these drugs, suggesting possible individual susceptibility and further studies are needed to identify patients at risk of drugs induced PAH. PMID:23972547

  17. Magnetically Induced QCD Kondo Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Ozaki, Sho; Kuramoto, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The "QCD Kondo effect" stems from the color exchange interaction in QCD with non-Abelian property, and can be realized in a high-density quark matter containing heavy-quark impurities. We propose a novel type of the QCD Kondo effect induced by a strong magnetic field, which is possible even without a Fermi surface (when the quark is massless). In addition to the fact that the magnetic field does not affect the color degrees of freedom, two properties caused by the Landau quantization in a strong magnetic field are essential for the "magnetically induced QCD Kondo effect"; (1) dimensional reduction to 1+1-dimensions, and (2) finiteness of the density of states for lowest energy quarks. We demonstrate that, in a strong magnetic field $B$, the scattering amplitude of a massless quark off a heavy quark impurity indeed shows a characteristic behavior of the Kondo effect. The resulting Kondo scale is estimated as $\\Lambda_{\\rm K} \\simeq \\sqrt{e_qB}\\ {\\rm{exp}}\\{-2(2\\pi)^{2}/N_{c} g^{2} \\}$ where $g$ and $N_c$ are t...

  18. Shear-Induced Reactive Gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bastian; Morbidelli, Massimo; Soos, Miroslav

    2015-11-24

    In this work, we describe a method for the production of porous polymer materials in the form of particles characterized by narrow pore size distribution using the principle of shear-induced reactive gelation. Poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) primary particles with diameter ranging from 80 to 200 nm are used as building blocks, which are assembled into fractal-like clusters when exposed to high shear rates generated in a microchannel. It was found that independent of the primary particle size, it is possible to modulate the internal structure of formed fractal-like aggregates having fractal dimension ranging from 2.4 to 2.7 by varying the residence time in the microchannel. Thermally induced postpolymerization was used to increase the mechanical resilience of such formed clusters. Primary particle interpenetration was observed by SEM and confirmed by light scattering resulting in an increase of fractal dimension. Nitrogen sorption measurements and mercury porosimetry confirmed formation of a porous material with surface area ranging from 20 to 40 m(2)/g characterized by porosity of 70% and narrow pore size distribution with an average diameter around 700 nm without the presence of any micropores. The strong perfusive character of the synthesized material was confirmed by the existence of a plateau of the height equivalent to a theoretical plate measured at high reduced velocities using a chromatographic column packed with the synthesized microclusters. PMID:26488233

  19. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-03-10

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer.

  20. Geomagnetically induced currents in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljanen Ari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Statistics of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC in the European high-voltage power grids based on 1-min geomagnetic recordings in 1996–2008 and on 1-D models of the ground conductivity have been derived in the EURISGIC project (European Risk from Geomagnetically Induced Currents. The simplified yet realistic power grid model indicates that large GIC can occur anywhere in Europe. However, geomagnetic variations are clearly larger in North Europe, so it is the likely region of significant GIC events. Additionally, there are areas in the North with especially low ground conductivities, which further tend to increase GIC. The largest modelled GIC values at single substations in 1996–2008 are about 400 A in the Nordic Countries, about 100 A in the British Isles, about 80 A in the Baltic Countries, and less than 50 A in Central and South Europe. The largest GIC event in the period studied is the Halloween storm on 29–30 October 2003, and the next largest ones occurred on 15 July 2000 and 9 November 2004.

  1. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  2. Inducible competitors and adaptive diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beren W. ROBINSON, David W. PFENNIG

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the causes of diversification is central to evolutionary biology. The ecological theory of adaptive diversification holds that the evolution of phenotypic differences between populations and species––and the formation of new species––stems from divergent natural selection, often arising from competitive interactions. Although increasing evidence suggests that phenotypic plasticity can facilitate this process, it is not generally appreciated that competitively mediated selection often also provides ideal conditions for phenotypic plasticity to evolve in the first place. Here, we discuss how competition plays at least two key roles in adaptive diversification depending on its pattern. First, heterogenous competition initially generates heterogeneity in resource use that favors adaptive plasticity in the form of “inducible competitors”. Second, once such competitively induced plasticity evolves, its capacity to rapidly generate phenotypic variation and expose phenotypes to alternate selective regimes allows populations to respond readily to selection favoring diversification, as may occur when competition generates steady diversifying selection that permanently drives the evolutionary divergence of populations that use different resources. Thus, competition plays two important roles in adaptive diversification––one well-known and the other only now emerging––mediated through its effect on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity [Current Zoology 59 (4: 537–552, 2013].

  3. [Autoimmune hepatitis induced by isotretionine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Rojas, Patricia; Gallegos Lopez, Roxana; Ciliotta Chehade, Alessandra; Scavino, Yolanda; Morales, Alejandro; Tagle, Martín

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a teenage patient with the diagnosis of drug induced autoimmune hepatitis. The patient is a 16 years old female, with the past medical history of Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism controlled with levothyroxine, who started treatment with Isotretionin (®Accutane) 20 mg q/12 hours for a total of 3 months for the treatment of severe acne. The physical examination was within normal limits and the results of the laboratory exams are: Baseline values of ALT 28 U/L, AST 28 U/L. Three months later: AST 756 U/L, ALT 1199U/L, alkaline phosphatase 114 U/L, with normal bilirrubin levels throughout the process. The serology studies were negative for all viral hepatitis; ANA titers were positive (1/160) and igG levels were also elevated. A liver biopsy was performed, and was compatible with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Corticosteroid therapy was started with Prednisone 40 mg per day one week after stopping the treatment with isotretionin, observing an improvement in the laboratory values. We describe this case and review the world literature since there are no reported cases of Isotretinoin-induced autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:27131947

  4. Coffee induces autophagy in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrocola, Federico; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Mariño, Guillermo; Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Chaba, Kariman; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies and clinical trials revealed that chronic consumption coffee is associated with the inhibition of several metabolic diseases as well as reduction in overall and cause-specific mortality. We show that both natural and decaffeinated brands of coffee similarly rapidly trigger autophagy in mice. One to 4 h after coffee consumption, we observed an increase in autophagic flux in all investigated organs (liver, muscle, heart) in vivo, as indicated by the increased lipidation of LC3B and the reduction of the abundance of the autophagic substrate sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1). These changes were accompanied by the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), leading to the reduced phosphorylation of p70S6K, as well as by the global deacetylation of cellular proteins detectable by immunoblot. Immunohistochemical analyses of transgenic mice expressing a GFP–LC3B fusion protein confirmed the coffee-induced relocation of LC3B to autophagosomes, as well as general protein deacetylation. Altogether, these results indicate that coffee triggers 2 phenomena that are also induced by nutrient depletion, namely a reduction of protein acetylation coupled to an increase in autophagy. We speculate that polyphenols contained in coffee promote health by stimulating autophagy. PMID:24769862

  5. Induced gravity II: grand unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhorn, Martin B.; Jones, D. R. Timothy

    2016-05-01

    As an illustration of a renormalizable, asymptotically-free model of induced gravity, we consider an SO(10) gauge theory interacting with a real scalar multiplet in the adjoint representation. We show that dimensional transmutation can occur, spontaneously breaking SO(10) to SU(5)⊗U(1), while inducing the Planck mass and a positive cosmological constant, all proportional to the same scale v. All mass ratios are functions of the values of coupling constants at that scale. Below this scale (at which the Big Bang may occur), the model takes the usual form of Einstein-Hilbert gravity in de Sitter space plus calculable corrections. We show that there exist regions of parameter space in which the breaking results in a local minimum of the effective action giving a positive dilaton (mass)2 from two-loop corrections associated with the conformal anomaly. Furthermore, unlike the singlet case we considered previously, some minima lie within the basin of attraction of the ultraviolet fixed point. Moreover, the asymptotic behavior of the coupling constants also lie within the range of convergence of the Euclidean path integral, so there is hope that there will be candidates for sensible vacua. Although open questions remain concerning unitarity of all such renormalizable models of gravity, it is not obvious that, in curved backgrounds such as those considered here, unitarity is violated. In any case, any violation that may remain will be suppressed by inverse powers of the reduced Planck mass.

  6. Induced Gravity II: Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Einhorn, Martin B

    2016-01-01

    As an illustration of a renormalizable, asymptotically-free model of induced gravity, we consider an $SO(10)$ gauge theory interacting with a real scalar multiplet in the adjoint representation. We show that dimensional transmutation can occur, spontaneously breaking $SO(10)$ to $SU(5){\\otimes}U(1),$ while inducing the Planck mass and a positive cosmological constant, all proportional to the same scale $v$. All mass ratios are functions of the values of coupling constants at that scale. Below this scale (at which the Big Bang may occur), the model takes the usual form of Einstein-Hilbert gravity in de Sitter space plus calculable corrections. We show that there exist regions of parameter space in which the breaking results in a local minimum of the effective action, and a {\\bf positive} dilaton $(\\hbox{mass})^2$ from two-loop corrections associated with the conformal anomaly. Furthermore, unlike the singlet case we considered previously, some minima lie within the basin of attraction of the ultraviolet fixed ...

  7. Inducible competitors and adaptive diversification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beren W.ROBINSON; David W.PFENNIG

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the causes of diversification is central to evolutionary biology.The ecological theory of adaptive diversification holds that the evolution of phenotypic differences between populations and species-and the formation of new species-stems from divergent natural selection,often arising from competitive interactions.Although increasing evidence suggests that phenotypic plasticity can facilitate this process,it is not generally appreciated that competitively mediated selection often also provides ideal conditions for phenotypic plasticity to evolve in the first place.Here,we discuss how competition plays at least two key roles in adaptive diversification depending on its pattern.First,heterogenous competition initially generates heterogeneity in resource use that favors adaptive plasticity in the form of"inducible competitors".Second,once such competitively induced plasticity evolves,its capacity to rapidly generate phenotypic variation and expose phenotypes to alternate selective regimes allows populations to respond readily to selection favoring diversification,as may occur when competition generates steady diversifying selection that permanently drives the evolutionary divergence of populations that use different resources.Thus,competition plays two important roles in adaptive diversification--one well-known and the other only now emerging-mediated through its effect on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity.

  8. Dispersive mudslide-induced tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rubino

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear nested model for mudslide-induced tsunamis is proposed in which three phases of the life of the wave, i.e. the generation, far-field propagation and costal run-up are described by means of different mathematical models, that are coupled through appropriate matching procedures. The generation and run-up dynamics are simulated through a nonlinear shallow-water model with movable lateral boundaries: in the generation region two active layers are present, the lower one describing the slide descending on a sloping topography. For the intermediate phase, representing wave propagation far from the generation region, the hydrostatic assumption is not assumed as appropriate in general and, therefore, a nonlinear model allowing for weak phase dispersion, namely a Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, is used. This choice is made in order to assess the relevance of dispersive features such as solitary waves and dispersive tails. It is shown that in some realistic circumstances dispersive mudslide-induced tsunami waves can be produced over relatively short, distances. In such cases the use of a hydrostatic model throughout the whole tsunami history turns out to give erroneous results. In particular, when solitary waves are generated during the tsunami propagation in the open sea, the resulting run-up process yields peculiar wave forms leading to amplified coastal inundations with respect to a mere hydrostatic context.

  9. Zafirlukast-induced acute hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chien-Wei; Wu, Jaw-Ching; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Huang, Yi-Shin; Chang, Full-Young; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2002-11-01

    Zafirlukast, a competitive cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, is a new class of asthma medications. It has shown an adverse event profile similar to that of placebo. Herein, we present a 69-year-old female patient who suffered from general malaise, poor appetite, nausea and jaundice after 3 months of zafirlukast therapy for asthma. She had no past history of liver disease, nor history of alcoholism, herb medication, blood transfusion, acupuncture, tattoo or recent traveling history. Liver biochemistries revealed elevated serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartase aminotransferase levels up to 481 U/L and 212 U/L, respectively. Moreover, peak serum total bilirubin level was elevated to 34.8 mg/dL during admission. Serum viral hepatitis marker, antinuclear antibody, anti-mitochondrial antibody and anti-smooth muscle antibody were all negative. Her general condition and liver biochemistries improved gradually after zafirlukast was discontinued. Roussel Uclaf causality assessment for adverse drug reaction confirmed the diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury. This case reminds us that zafirlukast is a potentially hepato-toxic drug. If clinical manifestations of hepatitis develop, patients should be managed cautiously and closely monitored for liver biochemistries. If drug-induced hepatitis is suspected, medication should be discontinued immediately to prevent further liver injury. PMID:12583521

  10. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4.......5%) reports and unclassifiable in four (0.4%) reports. Hepatic injuries accounted for 5.9% of all adverse drug reactions reported, and 14.7% of the lethal adverse drug reactions. A total of 47.2% were classified as acute cytotoxic, 16.2% as acute cholestatic and 26.9% as abnormal hepatic function. In 52 (4.......7%) cases the hepatic injury was lethal; only 14 (1.3%) cases were chronic. Halothane accounted for 25% of the cases. The incidence of halothane-induced hepatic injury is decreasing, and only one lethal case has been reported since 1981. Next to halothane, sulfasalazine was the drug most often suspected...

  11. Amoxicillin-induced aseptic meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radi Shahien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Radi Shahien1, Vetaly Vieksler1, Abdalla Bowirrat11Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Ziv Medical Center, Safed, IsraelAbstract: Meningitis is usually produced by an infectious agent, but there are multiple noninfectious causes. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM is an important entity and has been reported as an uncommon adverse reaction with numerous agents. Thus, DIAM constitutes a diagnostic and patient management challenge. We present a patient with three episodes of aseptic meningitis due to amoxicillin, and then review the literature on this rare idiosyncratic event which may occur after local or systemic drug administration. A 77-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with fever, headache, and neck stiffness. Seven days before admission he had a dental and gingival inflammation. He was treated with two oral doses of 500 mg daily of amoxicillin for one week. The seventh day he awoke with the complaints that prompted hospital admittance. Amoxicillin was stopped 1 day before his admission. From his history we knew of two similar episodes: The first episode was after a dental procedure 3 months before this incident. He had received a 1-week course of postprocedure amoxicillin of 500 mg daily and had similar headache, fever, and chills during the entire course of treatment. He wasn’t admitted to the hospital, because he stopped taking amoxicillin and he felt spontaneous pain relief after taking symptomatic pain treatment. The second episodes was 6 months after his first admission, he had been admitted to our hospital with the same symptoms. Amoxicillin was stopped and changed with intravenous (IV ceftriaxone (CTRX for 10 days due to suspected partial untreated meningitis. The patient improved rapidly within 2 days and was discharged from the hospital. On the basis of these three confirmed episodes of meningitis after recurrent exposure to amoxicillin, with repetitive negative testing for viral, bacterial, and mycobacterial

  12. Laser induced nuclear waste transmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Hirlimann, Charles

    2016-01-01

    When producing electricity that collects the mass energy that is available at the time of the induced disintegration of radioactive elements, other unstable elements are produced with half-life span durations ranging from less than one second to hundreds of thousands of years and which are considered as waste. Managing nuclear waste with a half-life of less than 30 years is an easy task, as our societies clearly know how to keep buildings safe for more than a century, the time it takes for the activity to be divided by a factor of 8. High-activity, long-lasting waste that can last for thousands of years or even longer, up to geological time laps, cannot be taken care of for such long durations. Therefore, these types of waste are socially unacceptable; nobody wants to leave a polluted planet to descendants.

  13. Nuclear dynamics induced by antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Reaction dynamics in collisions of antiprotons on nuclei is investigated within the Lanzhou quantum molecular dynamics model. The reaction channels of elastic scattering, annihilation, charge exchange and inelastic collisions of antiprotons on nucleons have been included in the model. Dynamics on particle production, in particular pions, kaons, antikaons and hyperons, is investigated in collisions of $\\overline{p}$ on $^{12}$C, $^{20}$Ne, $^{40}$Ca and $^{181}$Ta from a low to high incident momenta. It is found that the annihilations of $\\overline{p}$ on nucleons are of importance on the dynamics of particle production in phase space. Hyperons are mainly produced via meson induced reactions on nucleons and strangeness exchange collisions, which lead to the delayed emission in antiproton-nucleus collisions.

  14. Plant improvement by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic variability is required for the plant breeder to select better traits. Mutation induction by radiation and other mutagens is a means of altering genes and creating genetic variability for the breeder. A list is given of the number of mutant varieties of vegetables, fruits and ornamental flowers. Data given in the tables show that using induced mutations, 227 improved varieties of agricultural crops have been developed and released to farmers in 35 different countries. The IAEA has been involved in fostering mutation breeding since its foundation through training and direct research support. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division has published the Mutation Breeding Newsletter for plant breeders all over the world to keep abreast with developments in this field

  15. Gravity Induced C-Deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Ooguri, H; Ooguri, Hirosi; Vafa, Cumrun

    2003-01-01

    We study F-terms describing coupling of the supergravity to N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories which admit large N expansions. We show that these F-terms are given by summing over genus one non-planar diagrams of the large N expansion of the associated matrix model (or more generally bosonic gauge theory). The key ingredient in this derivation is the observation that the chiral ring of the gluino fields is deformed by the supergravity fields, generalizing the C-deformation which was recently introduced. The gravity induced part of the C-deformation can be derived from the Bianchi identities of the supergravity, but understanding gravitational corrections to the F-terms requires a non-traditional interpretation of these identities.

  16. Lattice Induced Transparency in Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Manjappa, Manukumara; Singh, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Lattice modes are intrinsic to the periodic structures and their occurrence can be easily tuned and controlled by changing the lattice constant of the structural array. Previous studies have revealed excitation of sharp absorption resonances due to lattice mode coupling with the plasmonic resonances. Here, we report the first experimental observation of a lattice induced transparency (LIT) by coupling the first order lattice mode (FOLM) to the structural resonance of a metamaterial resonator at terahertz frequencies. The observed sharp transparency is a result of the destructive interference between the bright mode and the FOLM mediated dark mode. As the FOLM is swept across the metamaterial resonance, the transparency band undergoes large change in its bandwidth and resonance position. Besides controlling the transparency behaviour, LIT also shows a huge enhancement in the Q-factor and record high group delay of 28 ps, which could be pivotal in ultrasensitive sensing and slow light device applications.

  17. Fenofibrate-induced liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazufumi Dohmen; Hiromi Tshibashi; Chun Yang Wen; Shinya Nagaoka; Koji Yano; Seigo Abiru; Toshihito Ueki; Atsumasa Komori; Manabu Daikoku; Hiroshi Yatsuhashi

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Fenofibrate is a member of such fibrate class agents as bezafibrate and it work as a ligand of PPARα, and also shows a potent triglyceride-lowering effect. The elevation of aminotransferase levels has been frequently observed after the administration of fenofibrate and this phenomenon is considered to be non-pathological because fenofibrate activates the gene expression of the aminotransferases. Recently, fenofibrate has been used not only for hypercholesterolemia but also for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)[1,2]. However, the occurrence of liver injury induced by fenofibrate has not yet been reported written in the English literature. We herein report a rare case of liver injury due to the oral use of this drug.

  18. Capecitabine-Induced Coronary Vasospasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish Henry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Capecitabine, an oral prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, is approved for early-stage and advanced colorectal cancer and metastatic breast cancer. Cardiotoxicity of 5-FU is well described in the literature. However, cardiac adverse effects of capecitabine are poorly described. We report a case of coronary vasospasm induced by capecitabine. A 41-year-old female with metastatic breast cancer presented with chest pain 3 days after starting capecitabine. The chest pain was relieved by rest and exacerbated by exertion. Her physical examination was unremarkable except for a rapid heart rate of 100 bpm. Electrocardiogram test showed no acute ischemic changes. Troponin tests were negative. CT angiography of the chest was negative for acute pulmonary embolism. An echocardiogram showed a left ventricular ejection fraction of 60% without any wall motion abnormalities. The chest pain resolved with aspirin and analgesic use. She was discharged following an inconclusive cardiac workup. Further use of capecitabine was discontinued.

  19. Rice breeding with induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture decided in 1964 to organize a co-ordinated research programme on the use of induced mutations in rice breeding. The programme was organized within the framework of activities of the International Rice Commission. This is a report of the Third Co-ordination Meeting of the participants, which was held in Taipei, 5-9 June 1967. As the projects, which together make up the co-ordinated programme, are at different stages of progress, the report contains a variety of papers including completed studies, field and progress reports, and highlights of the discussions with some additional recommendations prepared by the participants. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Anion-induced urea deprotonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiocchi, Massimo; Del Boca, Laura; Esteban-Gómez, David; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Monzani, Enrico

    2005-05-01

    The urea-based receptor 1 (1-(7-nitrobenzo[1,2,5]oxadiazol-4-yl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)urea, L--H), interacts with X- ions in MeCN, according to two consecutive steps: 1) formation of a hydrogen-bond complex [L--H...X]-; 2) deprotonation of L--H to give L- and [HX2]-, as shown by spectrophotometric and 1H NMR titration experiments. Step 2) takes place with more basic anions (fluoride, carboxylates, dihydrogenphosphate), while less basic anions (Cl-, NO2-, NO3-) do not induce proton transfer. On crystallisation from a solution containing L--H and excess Bu4NF, the tetrabutylammonium salt of the deprotonated urea derivative (Bu4N[L]) was isolated and its crystal and molecular structure determined. PMID:15770711

  1. Canagliflozin-Induced Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jessica; Begum, Tahmina; Smalligan, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are relatively new antihyperglycemic agents that lower renal glucose reabsorption. They are used as adjunctive therapy to standard diabetes treatment. Case Report: We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and sudden-onset diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Use of canagliflozin, a SGLT-2 inhibitor, was determined to be the cause of the DKA. The patient ultimately recovered after 5 days in the intensive care unit. She was changed to long- and short-acting insulins and instructed to avoid canagliflozin. Conclusion: Although SGLT-2 inhibitors are effective at lowering a patient’s hemoglobin A1C, physicians must be aware of the rare but dangerous potential adverse effect of inducing DKA. This article reports an illustrative case and presents a review of the literature.

  2. Linezolid-induced optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Karuppannasamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many systemic antimicrobials have been implicated to cause ocular adverse effects. This is especially relevant in multidrug therapy where more than one drug can cause a similar ocular adverse effect. We describe a case of progressive loss of vision associated with linezolid therapy. A 45-year-old male patient who was on treatment with multiple second-line anti-tuberculous drugs including linezolid and ethambutol for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB presented to us with painless progressive loss of vision in both eyes. Color vision was defective and fundus examination revealed optic disc edema in both eyes. Ethambutol-induced toxic optic neuropathy was suspected and tablet ethambutol was withdrawn. Deterioration of vision occurred despite withdrawal of ethambutol. Discontinuation of linezolid resulted in marked improvement of vision. Our report emphasizes the need for monitoring of visual function in patients on long-term linezolid treatment.

  3. Spatially dependent electromagnetically induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Radwell, Neal; Piccirillo, Bruno; Barnett, Stephen M; Franke-Arnold, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen vast progress in the generation and detection of structured light, with potential applications in high capacity optical data storage and continuous variable quantum technologies. Here we measure the transmission of structured light through cold rubidium atoms and observe regions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use q-plates to generate a probe beam with azimuthally varying phase and polarisation structure, and its right and left circular polarisation components provide the probe and control of an EIT transition. We observe an azimuthal modulation of the absorption profile that is dictated by the phase and polarisation structure of the probe laser. Conventional EIT systems do not exhibit phase sensitivity. We show, however, that a weak transverse magnetic field closes the EIT transitions, thereby generating phase dependent dark states which in turn lead to phase dependent transparency, in agreement with our measurements.

  4. The airway microvasculature and exercise induced asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, S. D.; Daviskas, E

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that exercise induced asthma is a result of "rapid expansion of the blood volume of peribronchial plexi" (McFadden ER, Lancet 1990;335:880-3). This hypothesis proposes that the development of exercise induced asthma depends on the thermal gradient in the airways at the end of hyperpnoea. The events that result in exercise induced asthma are vasoconstriction and airway cooling followed by reactive hyperaemia. We agree that the airway microcirculation has the potential for ...

  5. Cavitation-Induced Fusion: Proof of Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Fomitchev-Zamilov, Max I.

    2012-01-01

    Cavitation-induced fusion (also known as bubble fusion or sonofusion) has been a topic of much debate and controversy and is generally (albeit incorrectly) perceived as unworkable. In this paper we present the theoretical foundations of cavitation-induced fusion and summarize the experimental results of the research conducted in the past 20 years. Based on the systematic study of all available data we conclude that the cavitation-induced fusion is feasible, doable, and can be used for commerc...

  6. Innovation Inducement Prizes: Connecting Research to Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Besharov, Douglas J.; Heidi L. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Innovation inducement prizes have been used for centuries. In the United States, a recent federal policy change—the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010—clarified and simplified a path by which all federal agencies can offer innovation inducement prizes, thus intensifying interest in how government agencies can most effectively design and apply such prizes. This paper aims to review and synthesize the academic literature on innovation inducement prizes, to clarify what has been learne...

  7. A Visual Observation of Cavitating Inducer Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Kamijo, Kenjiro; Shimura, Takashi; 渡辺, 光男; WATANABE, Mitsuo; 上条, 謙二郎; 志村, 隆

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments on the instability of a cavitating inducer, which is considered to be closely related with the POGO phenomena in liquid propellant rockets. The present experiment employed a high speed camera for visual observations. The dynamic pressure of both the inducer upstream and downstream was also measured. The difference between rotating cavitation and cavitation induced low cycle oscillations was examined. The cavities moved around the periphery of the...

  8. Diphenylhydantoin (phenytoin)-induced chronic pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit Ramakant; Dixit Kalpana; Nuwal Paras; Banerjee Arunima; Sharma Sidharth; Dave Lokendra

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced respiratory diseases are difficult to diagnose and therefore usually not identified, probably underestimated and under-reported. We report a case of diphenylhydantoin/phenytoin-induced chronic pulmonary disease in a 62-year-old male patient presenting with progressive dyspnea, eosinophilia, and pulmonary abnormalities. The importance of drug history in clinical history-taking and early diagnosis of drug-induced respiratory diseases is emphasized so as to prevent permanent pulmona...

  9. Drug-induced status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Hannah R

    2015-08-01

    Drug-induced status epilepticus (SE) is a relatively uncommon phenomenon, probably accounting for less than 5% of all SE cases, although limitations in case ascertainment and establishing causation substantially weaken epidemiological estimates. Some antiepileptic drugs, particularly those with sodium channel or GABA(γ-aminobutyric acid)-ergic properties, frequently exacerbate seizures and may lead to SE if used inadvertently in generalized epilepsies or less frequently in other epilepsies. Tiagabine seems to have a particular propensity for triggering nonconvulsive SE sometimes in patients with no prior history of seizures. In therapeutic practice, SE is most commonly seen in association with antibiotics (cephalosporins, quinolones, and some others) and immunotherapies/chemotherapies, the latter often in the context of a reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Status epilepticus following accidental or intentional overdoses, particularly of antidepressants or other psychotropic medications, has also featured prominently in the literature: whilst there are sometimes fatal consequences, this is more commonly because of cardiorespiratory or metabolic complications than as a result of seizure activity. A high index of suspicion is required in identifying those at risk and in recognizing potential clues from the presentation, but even with a careful analysis of patient and drug factors, establishing causation can be difficult. In addition to eliminating the potential trigger, management should be as for SE in any other circumstances, with the exception that phenobarbitone is recommended as a second-line treatment for suspected toxicity-related SE where the risk of cardiovascular complications is higher anyways and may be exacerbated by phenytoin. There are also specific recommendations/antidotes in some situations. The outcome of drug-induced status epilepticus is mostly good when promptly identified and treated, though less so in the context of overdoses. This article is

  10. Mechanically induced degradation of diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the wear of diamond occurring during frictional sliding contact between diamonds. In the introduction, a literature survey on friction, wear and polishing behaviour of diamond, with some emphasis on the anisotropy, is presented and earlier work is discussed. A review of the existing theories is given, a new hypothesis is proposed and key-experiments for verification are identified. Electron microscopical techniques such as High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM) imaging and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy are described as they were employed to study the nature of the surface damage and the debris which is formed during sliding contact. The results of these experiments indicate that a transformation from diamond to graphite may take place during shearing contact of diamonds. A microscopic model, which is a further refinement of the hypothesis, is developed and its prediction on the orientation dependency for shear-induced graphitisation is found to correspond to the observed anisotropy in the friction, wear and polishing behaviour of diamond. The model, based on c transformation of sp3-coordinated carbon into sp2-coordinated carbon due to excessive distortions of the diamond bonds, is used to describe phenomena occurring during macroscopic experiments. A HREM study of controlled ion beam bombarded Chemical Vapour Deposited (CVD) Diamond is presented to demonstrate the broader applicability of the model. It is found that during the ion bombardment a mechanically induced graphitisation, as opposed to a thermally activated transformation, may occur locally on collision with the CVD diamond. Two types of diamond-graphite interfaces were observed: (111) planes of diamond parallel to the a-b planes of graphite and (111) planes of diamond, smoothly within the plane, connected to a-b planes of graphite. The thesis concludes with a summary of the results, conclusions and recommendations for further work. (author)

  11. Diabetes mellitus induces bone marrow microangiopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Siragusa, Mauro; Quaini, Federico; Mangialardi, Giuseppe; Katare, Rajesh G.; Caporali, Andrea; van Buul, Jaap D.; van Alphen, Floris P. J.; Graiani, Gallia; Spinetti, Gaia; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Prezioso, Lucia; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The impact of diabetes on the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment was not adequately explored. We investigated whether diabetes induces microvascular remodeling with negative consequence for BM homeostasis.

  12. Vaccination with IL-6 analogues induces autoantibodies to IL-6 and influences experimentally induced inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Jensen, Lene; Andersson, Christina;

    2007-01-01

    ; yet they appear healthy and do not exhibit overt clinical or laboratory abnormalities. We induced comparable levels of aAb-IL-6 in different mouse strains by vaccination with immunogenic IL-6 analogues. We observed that the induced aAb-IL-6 protected against collagen-induced arthritis and experimental...

  13. Topical immunotherapy with diphenylcyclopropenone-induced vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Songur, Abdullah; Serdaroglu, Server; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2016-08-01

    Topical immunotherapy made by diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) is an alternative treatment that can be used safely and efficaciously in recalcitrant alopecia areata patients. DPCP-induced vitiligo is a rare, but documented, unwanted side effect. The real mechanism of DPCP-induced vitiligo is not well known. PMID:26963903

  14. Mechanisms of Metal-Induced Centrosome Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, John Pierce

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to toxic and carcinogenic metals is widespread; however, their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. One potential mechanism for metal-induced carcinogenicity and toxicity is centrosome amplification. Here, we review the mechanisms for metal-induced centrosome amplification, including arsenic, chromium, mercury and nano-titanium dioxide.

  15. Cholestasis and pneumonitis induced by gold therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farre, J M; Perez, T; Hautefeuille, P; Tonnel, F; Colombel, J F; Duquesnoy, B; Delcambre, B

    1989-12-01

    The authors describe the association of gold salt-induced cholestasis and lymphocytic alveolitis proved by liver biopsy and broncho-alveolar lavage. To our knowledge this is the third case report on the combination of liver disease and pulmonary infiltration induced by gold compounds. PMID:2612124

  16. Innovation Inducement Prizes: Connecting Research to Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharov, Douglas J.; Williams, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Innovation inducement prizes have been used for centuries. In the United States, a recent federal policy change--the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010--clarified and simplified a path by which all federal agencies can offer innovation inducement prizes, thus intensifying interest in how government agencies can most effectively design…

  17. Clustering of noise-induced oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovtseva, Olga; Fomin, A I; Postnov, D E;

    2001-01-01

    The subject of our study is clustering in a population of excitable systems driven by Gaussian white noise and with randomly distributed coupling strength. The cluster state is frequency-locked state in which all functional units run at the same noise-induced frequency. Cooperative dynamics of th...... of this regime is described in terms of effective synchronization and noise-induced coherence....

  18. Proton induced X-ray emission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developments in proton induced X-ray emission analysis are reviewed. Techniques for analyzing thick and thin samples of different origin are described. Discussions on the application of proton induced X-ray emission analysis in different fields, comparison of the sensitivity of this method with other analytical techniques, its limitations and possible improvements are presented

  19. Induced floral heteromorphism in Petunia hybrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Kashikar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Floral heteromorphism induced in Petunia hybrida with several chemical mutagens and gamma-radiation is discussed. Potentials of these mutagens in inducing various forms are described. The effect of heteromorphism on flower production, pollen sterility and seed set besides cross and self compatibilities between different heteromorphic forms have also been reported.

  20. Induced corepresentations of locally compact quantum groups

    OpenAIRE

    Kustermans, Johan

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the construction of induced corepresentations in the setting of locally compact quantum groups and prove that the resulting induced corepresentations are unitary under some mild integrability condition. We also establish a quantum analogue of the classical bijective correspondence between quasi-invariant measures and certain measures on the larger locally compact group.

  1. Morphactin-induced parthenocarpy in the cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R W; Cantliffe, D J; Shannon, S

    1971-03-26

    Parthenocarpy was induced in cucumber Cucumis sativus L. by foliar application of morphactin. Morphactin (chlorfluorenol) was most effective in inducing parthenocarpy when applied in the flowering stage, and the response was enhanced by prior treatment with Ethrel (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid). Morphactin stimulated pistillate flower development in a monoecious cultivar but did not modify sex expression of a gynoecious line. PMID:17742578

  2. Aircraft induced contrail cirrus over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannstein, H.; Schumann, U. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    Condensation trails (contrails) and aircraft induced cirrus are nowadays a common feature at the mid latitude skies. Previously the impact of aircraft induced cirrus changes has been roughly estimated from observed decadal trends in cirrus cover but the direct attribution of observed cirrus changes to changes in aviation activity remains uncertain. In this paper the amount of additional cirrus induced from spreading contrails in humid air is estimated from the direct correlation between observed cirrus cover derived with suitable methods from METEOSAT data and aviation flight density reported by EUROCONTROL at high spatial and temporal resolution from June 22 to July 27, 1998 and September 27 to October 21, 2000. The results indicate that the aircraft induced cirrus cover over Europe is about ten times larger than that of linear contrails in the same region. Radiative forcing from the additional cirrus may be more than 10 times higher than that of linear contrails and aviation induced CO{sub 2} increases. (orig.)

  3. Uridine prevents fenofibrate-induced fatty liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuc T Le

    Full Text Available Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside, can modulate liver lipid metabolism although its specific acting targets have not been identified. Using mice with fenofibrate-induced fatty liver as a model system, the effects of uridine on liver lipid metabolism are examined. At a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg, fenofibrate treatment causes reduction of liver NAD(+/NADH ratio, induces hyper-acetylation of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme (ECHD and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1, and induces excessive accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA. Uridine co-administration at a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg raises NAD(+/NADH ratio, inhibits fenofibrate-induced hyper-acetylation of ECHD, ACOX1, and reduces accumulation of LCFA and VLCFA. Our data indicates a therapeutic potential for uridine co-administration to prevent fenofibrate-induced fatty liver.

  4. Chemotherapy-induced sclerosing cholangitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrasegaran, K.; Alazmi, W.M.; Tann, M.; Fogel, E.L.; McHenry, L.; Lehman, G.A

    2006-08-15

    Aim: To review the computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cholangiographic findings of chemotherapy-induced sclerosing cholangitis (CISC). Methods: Between January 1995 and December 2004, 11 patients in the endoscopic retrograde cholangiography database were identified with CISC. Twelve CT, four MRI, 69 endoscopic and nine antegrade cholangiographic studies in these patients were reviewed. Serial change in appearance and response to endoscopic treatment were recorded. Results: CISC showed segmental irregular biliary dilatation with strictures of proximal extrahepatic bile ducts. The distal 5 cm of common bile duct was not affected in any patient. CT and MRI findings included altered vascular perfusion of one or more liver segments, liver metastases or peritoneal carcinomatosis. Biliary strictures needed repeated stenting in 10 patients (mean: every 4.7 months). Cirrhosis (n = 1) or confluent fibrosis (n = 0) were uncommon findings. Conclusion: CISC shares similar cholangiographic appearances to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Unlike PSC, biliary disease primarily involved ducts at the hepatic porta rather than intrahepatic ducts. Multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT or MRI may show evidence of perfusion abnormalities, cavitary liver lesions, or metastatic disease.

  5. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad TALEBIAN*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Talebian A, Goudarzi RM, Mohammadzadeh M , Mirzadeh AS. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:66-68. Abstract Vincristine (VCR is a vinca alkaloid that is used for treatment of many malignancies. The vinca alkaloids are neurotoxic, usually causing a peripheral neuropathy, but cranial neuropathies are rare as side effects. Described here is the case of a 2.5-year-old boy, a known case of Wilms’ tumor, treated by vincristine (0/067 mg/kg/day and dactinomycin (0/045 mg/kg/day after surgery. Three weeks after treatment, he presented with bilateral ptosis. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis with normal pupillary reflex and eye movement. He received 3.015 mg cumulative dose of vincristine before development of ptosis. Treatment with pyridoxine (150 mg/m2 p.o. BID and pyridostigmine (3 mg/kg p.o. BID started as neuroprotective agents, and after 7 days the problem disappeared. The treatment continued for 6 weeks and there were no signs of ptosis or a recurrence in follow up 2 months later.

  6. Radiation induced estane polymer crosslinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Foster, P. [Masson Hanger Pantex Plant, Amarillo, TX (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The exposure of polymeric materials to radiation has been known to induce the effects of crosslinking and degradation. The crosslinking phenomena comes about when two long chain polymers become linked together by a primary bond that extends the chain and increases the viscosity, molecular weight and the elastic modules of the polymer. This process has been observed in relatively short periods of time with fairly high doses of radiation, on the order of several megarads/hour. This paper address low dose exposure over long periods of time to determine what the radiation effects are on the polymeric binder material in PBX 9501. An experimental sample of binder material without explosives will be placed into a thermal and radiation field produced from a W-48 put mod 0. Another sample will be placed in a thermal environment without the radiation. The following is the test plan that was submitted to the Pantex process. The data presented here will be from the first few weeks of exposure and this test will be continued over the next few years. Subsequent data will hopefully be presented in the next compatibility and aging conference.

  7. Vascular calcification: Inducers and inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Donghyun, E-mail: dhlee@cau.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heukseok-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} Types of vascular calcification processes. {center_dot} Inducers of vascular calcification. {center_dot} Inhibitors of vascular calcifications. {center_dot} Clinical utility for vascular calcification therapy. {center_dot} Implications for the development of new tissue engineering strategies. - Abstract: Unlike the traditional beliefs, there are mounting evidences suggesting that ectopic mineral depositions, including vascular calcification are mostly active processes, many times resembling that of the bone mineralization. Numbers of agents are involved in the differentiation of certain subpopulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into the osteoblast-like entity, and the activation and initiation of extracellular matrix ossification process. On the other hand, there are factors as well, that prevent such differentiation and ectopic calcium phosphate formation. In normal physiological environments, activities of such procalcific and anticalcific regulatory factors are in harmony, prohibiting abnormal calcification from occurring. However, in certain pathophysiological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetes, such balances are altered, resulting in abnormal ectopic mineral deposition. Understanding the factors that regulate the formation and inhibition of ectopic mineral formation would be beneficial in the development of tissue engineering strategies for prevention and/or treatment of such soft-tissue calcification. Current review focuses on the factors that seem to be clinically relevant and/or could be useful in developing future tissue regeneration strategies. Clinical utilities and implications of such factors are also discussed.

  8. Transgenic technologies to induce sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimmer Ernst A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last few years have witnessed a considerable expansion in the number of tools available to perform molecular and genetic studies on the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria. As a consequence, knowledge of aspects of the biology of mosquitoes, such as immunity, reproduction and behaviour, that are relevant to their ability to transmit disease is rapidly increasing, and could be translated into concrete benefits for malaria control strategies. Amongst the most important scientific advances, the development of transgenic technologies for Anopheles mosquitoes provides a crucial opportunity to improve current vector control measures or design novel ones. In particular, the use of genetic modification of the mosquito genome could provide for a more effective deployment of the sterile insect technique (SIT against vector populations in the field. Currently, SIT relies on the release of radiation sterilized males, which compete with wild males for mating with wild females. The induction of sterility in males through the genetic manipulation of the mosquito genome, already achieved in a number of other insect species, could eliminate the need for radiation and increase the efficiency of SIT-based strategies. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms already in use for inducing sterility by transgenesis in Drosophila and other insects, and speculates on possible ways to apply similar approaches to Anopheles mosquitoes.

  9. Bimatoprost-induced chemical blepharoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnoff, Deborah S; Gotkin, Robert H

    2015-05-01

    We report significant changes in the appearance of the periorbital area, beyond eyelash enhancement, induced by the topical application of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution, 0.03% (Latisse®, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA). To our knowledge, this is the first report in the dermatology or plastic surgery literature describing the rejuvenating effect and overall improvement in the appearance of the periorbital area resulting from applying Latisse to the upper eyelid margins. To date, reports in the literature discuss side-effects and potential complications of topical bimatoprost therapy causing a constellation of findings known as PAP (prostaglandin-associated periorbitopathy). While periorbitopathy implies pathology or a state of disease, we report changes that can be perceived as an improvement in the overall appearance of the periorbital area. We, therefore, propose a name change from PAP to PAPS - prostaglandin- associated periorbital syndrome. This better describes the beneficial, as well as the possible negative effects of topical bimatoprost. Although there is a risk for periorbital disfigurement, when used bilaterally, in properly selected candidates and titrated appropriately, bimatoprost can be beneficial. The striking improvement in the appearance of some individuals warrants further research into the potential use of topical bimatoprost to achieve a "chemical blepharoplasty."

  10. Cyclophosphamide-induced temporomandibular synostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, W

    1983-06-01

    The study of malformations helps toward a better understanding of normal development, which is of significance to the orthodontist. Experiments in teratology have induced an extensive variety of facial abnormalities, but temporomandibular joint (TMJ) synostosis has never been previously reported. Ten pregnant female rabbits were treated with a daily injection of 50 mg. cyclophosphamide (DNA synthesis inhibitor), from day 11 to day 14, which is the period that precedes formation of the face. The control sample comprised five female rabbits. The fetuses were obtained by cesarean section on day 28 and stained with alizarin. Six of the ten treated female animals produced offspring that had TMJ synostosis. The skull with TMJ synostosis showed a retrognathic mandibular pattern in relation to the maxilla, and the bony trabeculae in the mandibular angle showed a downward orientation instead of the horizontal orientation seen in animals without synostosis. The length of the heads was significantly smaller in the treatment group than in the control group; within the treatment group, the heads with synostosis were significantly smaller than those without synostosis. It could be hypothesized that the cyclophosphamide might have affected intrinsic factors in the temporomandibular mesenchyma; an impairment in the development and function of the mandibular musculature, which is a vital factor in joint development and maintenance, might also have contributed to the genesis of the malformation. The association of immobilization and mandibular hypodevelopment seems to be in agreement with today's theories on maxillofacial growth.

  11. Propylthiouracil-induced autoimmune disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Paiaulla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is a condition characterized by excessive production of thyroid hormones. Propylthiouracil (PTU is commonly used as first line drug in the management of hyperthyroidism. This is a case report of 24-year-old female, a known case of hyperthyroidism since 4 years, who came with a history of fever and myalgia since 3 days and dyspnea with coughing out of blood since 1 day. Patient was taking PTU (100 mg per day since 4 years for hyperthyroidism. Patient was immediately intubated for type-II respiratory failure. Diagnosed to be having PTU-induced autoimmune disease. PTU was stopped and treated with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Clinical features improved over a period of 8 days and discharged home successfully. Having a high suspicion for the onset of autoimmune disease in hyperthyroidism patients who are on PTU therapy and timely treatment with immunosuppressants and supportive care along with the withdrawal of the drug can make a difference in morbidity and mortality.

  12. Mantle superplumes induce geomagnetic superchrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eOlson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We use polarity reversal systematics from numerical dynamos to quantify the hypothesis that the modulation of geomagnetic reversal frequency, including geomagnetic superchrons, results from changes in core heat flux related to growth and collapse of lower mantle superplumes. We parameterize the reversal frequency sensitivity from numerical dynamos in terms of average core heat flux normalized by the difference between the present-day core heat flux and the core heat flux at geomagnetic superchron onset. A low-order polynomial fit to the 0-300 Ma Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS reveals that a decrease in core heat flux relative to present-day of approximately 30% can account for the Cretaceous Normal Polarity and Kiaman Reverse Polarity Superchrons, whereas the hyper-reversing periods in the Jurassic require a core heat flux equal to or higher than present-day. Possible links between GPTS transitions, large igneous provinces (LIPs, and the two lower mantle superplumes are explored. Lower mantle superplume growth and collapse induce GPTS transitions by increasing and decreasing core heat flux, respectively. Age clusters of major LIPs postdate transitions from hyper-reversing to superchron geodynamo states by 30-60 Myr, suggesting that superchron onset may be contemporaneous with LIP-forming instabilities produced during collapses of lower mantle superplumes.

  13. Naproxen-induced liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharif Ali; Jason D Pimentel; Chan Ma

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to induce liver injury. Patterns of the injury usually range from mild elevations of liver enzymes to sometimes severe fulminant hepatic failure. Likewise, naproxen is a propionic acid derivative NSAID that was introduced in 1980 and has been available as an over-the-counter medication since 1994, but has rarely been reported to cause liver injury. METHODS: We treated a 30-year-old woman with jaundice and intractablepruritusthatdevelopedshortlyaftertakingnaproxen. We reviewed the medical history and liver histopathology of the patient as well as all previously published case reports of naproxen-associated liver toxicity in the English language literature. RESULTS: The liver biochemical profile of the patient revealed a mixed cholestasis and hepatitis pattern. Consecutive liver biopsies demonstrated focal lobular inflammation, hepatocyte drop-out, and a progressive loss of the small interlobular bile ducts (ductopenia). The biopsy performed two years after onset of the disease showed partial recovery of a small number of bile ducts; however, 10 years passed before the biochemical profile returned to near normal. CONCLUSIONS:  Naproxen-associated liver toxicity remains a rare entity, but should be considered in any patient presenting with cholestasis shortly after its use. Liver injury is most commonly seen in a mixed pattern characterized by cholestasis and hepatitis. The resulting liver damage may take years to resolve.

  14. Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Reinert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin is a chemotherapeutic agent commonly used to treat curable diseases such as germinative tumors and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The major limitation of bleomycin therapy is pulmonary toxicity, which can be life threatening in up to 10% of patients receiving the drug. The mechanism of bleomycin-induced pneumonitis (BIP involves oxidative damage, relative deficiency of the deactivating enzyme bleomycin hydrolase, genetic susceptibility, and the elaboration of inflammatory cytokines. Ultimately, BIP can progress to lung fibrosis. The diagnosis of BIP is established by the combination of systemic symptoms, radiological and histological findings, and respiratory function tests abnormalities, while other disorders should be excluded. Although the diagnosis and pathophysiology of this disease have been better characterized over the past few years, there is no effective therapy for the disease. In general, the clinical picture is extremely complex. A greater understanding of the BIP pathogenesis may lead to the development of new agents capable of preventing or even treating the injury already present. Physicians who prescribe bleomycin must be aware of the potential pulmonary toxicity, especially in the presence of risk factors. This review will focus on BIP, mainly regarding recent advances and perspectives in diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Anatomopathological Changes Induced by Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Tirziu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi or mycetes represents the biggest group of microorganisms from the entire biologic system (nearly 250.000 species, very widespread in nature. They are inferior vegetal organisms, heterotrophic, lacking chlorophyll or other trophic pigments, which grow up on live organic substrates or on decaying substrates. The intensive researches from the last two decades had proved that only 30 – 40% from the total number of fungi species is capable to synthesize some toxic metabolites, and, among this species, only 60 species had proved to be dangerous for human or animals. Researches about mycotoxins action upon factors that interfere with the natural or acquired immunity are relatively recent and most of them refer to aflatoxins. The immune-suppression phenomena rely on morphological and histological modifications of lymphoid organs, changes of blood parameters, changes of functional capacity of humoral and some cellular factors. The presence of mycotoxins in feed causes major economic losses, either by their direct action (defined by disease state or indirectly, by affecting the specific and nonspecific resistance of the organism. In the present study we studied the effect of aflatoxins upon the main organs involved in immune response, pathological changes induced by mycotoxins. To determine the influence of mycotoxins on food conversion, weighings were made at the beginning and the end of the experimental period.

  16. Radiation-induced gene responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Paunesku, T.; Shearin-Jones, P.; Oryhon, J.

    1996-12-31

    In the process of identifying genes that are differentially regulated in cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV), we identified a transcript that was repressed following the exposure of cells to a combination of UV and salicylate, a known inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Sequencing this band determined that it has identify to lactate dehydrogenase, and Northern blots confirmed the initial expression pattern. Analysis of the sequence of the LDH 5` region established the presence of NF-kappaB, Sp1, and two Ap-2 elements; two partial AP- 1; one partial RE, and two halves of E-UV elements were also found. Electromobility shift assays were then performed for the AP-1, NF- kappaB, and E-UV elements. These experiments revealed that binding to NF-kappaB was induced by UV but repressed with salicylic acid; UV did not affect AP-1 binding, but salicylic acid inhibited it alone or following UV exposure; and E-UV binding was repressed by UV, and salicylic acid had little effect. Since the binding of no single element correlated with the expression pattern of LDH, it is likely that multiple elements govern UV/salicylate-mediated expression.

  17. Bubble-induced cave collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshika Girihagama

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned "natural" instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m. Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a "collapse". We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section, with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet, and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor.

  18. [Drug induced eosinophilic pleural effusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, Raluca

    2014-01-01

    The hypersensitivity reactions induced by drugs, some widely used, like central nervous system medication, can have various presentations. The lung is a frequent target for such events. We present the case of 40-year-old male patient, non-smoker, with infant encephalopaty, seizures since age of 6 with polimorphic crisis (mainly absences), with anticonvulsivant treatment since 2011 (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, levetiracetam), with no respiratory medical history. Current symptoms started two weeks before, with chest pain, dry cough. He received no antibiotics. Chest X-ray and thoracic CT scan (27 June 2013) showed a left pleral effusion. Left exploratory thoracocentesis extracted 20 ml reddish pleural fluid: eosinophilic exsudate (60%) with normal adenosin deaminase. He also presents moderate blood eosinophilia (13.7%-1780/mm3). Pulmonary infarction with secondary pleurisy, thoracic trauma, acute pancreatitis with secondary pleurisy were excluded. No Loeffler transient infiltrates were documented, serology for Toxocara is IgG positive (historical) and not significant for current episode, no symptoms suggestive for toxocarosis (characteristic to young children, patient had no liver enlargement etc.), no hidatidosis or trichinelosis were found. As an exclusion diagnosis, a hypersensitivity reaction to anticonvulsivant medication was considered (mentioned in literature) carbamazepine and sodium valproate (even if medication was taken for a longer time), with blood and pleural eosinophilia. Together with the neurologist, the mentioned drugs were stopped and he was started on lamotrigine 2 tb/day and levetiracetam 1 tb/day, well tolerated, no absences were noticed. Total remission of blood eosinophilia and partial remission of pleural effusion were noticed. Subsequent follow-ups confirm favourable evolution, with healing of pleurisy and normal blood cell count, which are stable at 7 months after changing anticonvulsivant treatment. PMID:25241560

  19. Neutrino-recoil induced desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear decay induced 37Cl ion desorption from the electron capture decay 37Ar→37Cl+ν is reported for the first time. A mixture of one part 36Ar and ∼5x10-5 parts 37Ar (36/37Ar) is physisorbed on a gold-plated Si wafer kept at 16 K under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The time of flight (TOF) of recoiled 37Cl ions is measured using coincidence techniques. The observed kinetic energy distribution of the 37Cl ions is approximately Gaussian in shape, with a maximum at ∼9.0 eV and a full width at half-maximum of ∼3 eV. Considering the binding energy of physisorbed 37Ar is ∼80 meV, the 9-eV peak energy compares well with that of the gas-phase value, where conservation of the energy and momentum fixes the kinetic energy of 37Cl ions at 9.54 eV. Using a combination of TOF and retarding field energy analysis, the charge states of detected ions for 1 ML (monolayer) of 36/37Ar are determined as 53%+1e, 21%+2e, and 26%+ne, where n≥3. The fraction of decaying 37Ar atoms which emerge from the surface as positive 37Cl ions is found to be 10%. Finally, a strong charge exchange reaction between a 37Cl ion and near-neighbor atoms causes a Coulomb explosion within the multilayers, increasing the kinetic energy of desorbing ions by as much as ∼7 eV

  20. Noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Sliwinska-Kowalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English, which were identified by a literature search of accessible medical and other relevant databases. A substantial part of this research has been concerned with the risk of NIHL in the entertainment sector, particularly in professional, orchestral musicians. There are also constant concerns regarding noise exposure and hearing risk in "hard to control" occupations, such as farming and construction work. Although occupational noise has decreased since the early 1980s, the number of young people subject to social noise exposure has tripled. If the exposure limits from the Noise at Work Regulations are applied, discotheque music, rock concerts, as well as music from personal music players are associated with the risk of hearing loss in teenagers and young adults. Several recent research studies have increased the understanding of the pathomechanisms of acoustic trauma, the genetics of NIHL, as well as possible dietary and pharmacologic otoprotection in acoustic trauma. The results of these studies are very promising and offer grounds to expect that targeted therapies might help prevent the loss of sensory hair cells and protect the hearing of noise-exposed individuals. These studies emphasize the need to launch an improved noise exposure policy for hearing protection along with developing more efficient norms of NIHL risk assessment.

  1. Induced gravity and Planck zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with an asymptotically free gauge theory with dynamical symmetry breaking and a mass hierarchy, we investigate the Adler-Zee formula for the induced gravitational constant. We study the two-point function psi(q2), constructed with the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. First, we show that if the zeros of psi are at a mass scale significantly below the leading scale, then G/sub ind/ -1 = 0 (m/sub zero/ 2) making it impossible to get a realistic G/sub ind/ from the Adler-Zee formula with low-mass zeros. Next we use the Jensen formula to derive a sum rule for Vertical Barm/sub zero/Vertical Bar. The analysis of this sum rule coupled with the result above leads to a dilemma with only one reasonable resolution. To get a realistic G/sub ind/ from the Adler-Zee formula, psi(q2) must have a pair of complex-conjugate zeros at q2 = M02 +- 2iνM0, where M0 is large and of the maximal scale and ν/M0-1. It gives a lower bound, which with our previously derived general upper bound gives [π2/4(ln10)288] C/sub psi/M02-1 2/288) C/sub psi/M02, where C/sub psi/ is the anomaly coefficient, a number easily determined by low-order perturbation theory for any group

  2. Mitochondrial rejuvenation after induced pluripotency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T Suhr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As stem cells of the early embryo mature and differentiate into all tissues, the mitochondrial complement undergoes dramatic functional improvement. Mitochondrial activity is low to minimize generation of DNA-damaging reactive oxygen species during pre-implantation development and increases following implantation and differentiation to meet higher metabolic demands. It has recently been reported that when the stem cell type known as induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs are re-differentiated for several weeks in vitro, the mitochondrial complement progressively re-acquires properties approximating input fibroblasts, suggesting that despite the observation that IPSC conversion "resets" some parameters of cellular aging such as telomere length, it may have little impact on other age-affected cellular systems such as mitochondria in IPSC-derived cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have examined the properties of mitochondria in two fibroblast lines, corresponding IPSCs, and fibroblasts re-derived from IPSCs using biochemical methods and electron microscopy, and found a dramatic improvement in the quality and function of the mitochondrial complement of the re-derived fibroblasts compared to input fibroblasts. This observation likely stems from two aspects of our experimental design: 1 that the input cell lines used were of advanced cellular age and contained an inefficient mitochondrial complement, and 2 the re-derived fibroblasts were produced using an extensive differentiation regimen that may more closely mimic the degree of growth and maturation found in a developing mammal. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results - coupled with earlier data from our laboratory - suggest that IPSC conversion not only resets the "biological clock", but can also rejuvenate the energetic capacity of derived cells.

  3. Metoclopramide-induced cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Rumore

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of cardiac arrest in a patient receiving intravenous (IV metoclopramide and review the pertinent literature. A 62-year-old morbidly obese female admitted for a gastric sleeve procedure, developed cardiac arrest within one minute of receiving metoclopramide 10 mg via slow intravenous (IV injection. Bradycardia at 4 beats/min immediately appeared, progressing rapidly to asystole. Chest compressions restored vital function. Electrocardiogram (ECG revealed ST depression indicative of myocardial injury. Following intubation, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. Various cardiac dysrrhythmias including supraventricular tachycardia (SVT associated with hypertension and atrial fibrillation occurred. Following IV esmolol and metoprolol, the patient reverted to normal sinus rhythm. Repeat ECGs revealed ST depression resolution without pre-admission changes. Metoclopramide is a non-specific dopamine receptor antagonist. Seven cases of cardiac arrest and one of sinus arrest with metoclopramide were found in the literature. The metoclopramide prescribing information does not list precautions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs related to cardiac arrest. The reaction is not dose related but may relate to the IV administration route. Coronary artery disease was the sole risk factor identified. According to Naranjo, the association was possible. Other reports of cardiac arrest, severe bradycardia, and SVT were reviewed. In one case, five separate IV doses of 10 mg metoclopramide were immediately followed by asystole repeatedly. The mechanism(s underlying metoclopramide’s cardiac arrest-inducing effects is unknown. Structural similarities to procainamide may play a role. In view of eight previous cases of cardiac arrest from metoclopramide having been reported, further elucidation of this ADR and patient monitoring is needed. Our report should alert clinicians to monitor patients and remain diligent in surveillance and

  4. Laser-induced damage in optical materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ristau, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Dedicated to users and developers of high-powered systems, Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials focuses on the research field of laser-induced damage and explores the significant and steady growth of applications for high-power lasers in the academic, industrial, and military arenas. Written by renowned experts in the field, this book concentrates on the major topics of laser-induced damage in optical materials and most specifically addresses research in laser damage that occurs in the bulk and on the surface or the coating of optical components. It considers key issues in the field of hi

  5. Induced Gravity and Topological Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We construct an induced gravity (pregeometry) where both the Newton constant and the cosmological constant appear as integration constants in solving field equations. By adding the kinetic terms of ghosts and antighosts, an action of the induced gravity is transformed to a topological field theory. Moreover, by solving field equations of the topological field theory in the FRW universe, we find an inflation solution. The present study might shed some light on a close relationship between the induced gravity and the topological quantum field theory.

  6. Cavitation-Induced Fusion: Proof of Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Fomitchev-Zamilov, Max I

    2012-01-01

    Cavitation-induced fusion (also known as bubble fusion or sonofusion) has been a topic of much debate and controversy and is generally (albeit incorrectly) perceived as unworkable. In this paper we present the theoretical foundations of cavitation-induced fusion and summarize the experimental results of the research conducted in the past 20 years. Based on the systematic study of all available data we conclude that the cavitation-induced fusion is feasible, doable, and can be used for commercial power generation. We present the results of our own research and disclose a commercial reactor prototype.

  7. An Overview of Bortezomib-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Meregalli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The boronic acid dipeptide bortezomib, able to induce tumor cell death by degradation of key proteins, is the first proteasome inhibitor drug to enter clinical practice. It is employed as first-line treatment in relapsed or resistant multiple myeloma (MM patients. However, bortezomib often induces a dose-limiting toxicity in the form of painful sensory neuropathy, which can mainly be reduced by subcutaneous administration or dose modification. In this review we focus on the current understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of bortezomib-induced neuropathy to allow further studies in animal models and humans, including analysis of clinical and pharmacogenetic aspects, to optimize the treatment regimens.

  8. Levofloxacin-induced acute anxiety and insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Kandasamy; D Srinath

    2012-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones can cause adverse neuropsychiatric side effects, which are more common in older age. We present three cases of levofloxacin-induced acute anxiety and insomnia in young adults. In all the cases, discontinuation of levofloxacin immediately lead to remission.

  9. Developmental Aspects of Reaction to Positive Inducements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskold, Svenn; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Probes children's behavioral sensitivity to variation in reward probability and magnitude (bribes) and suggests that preadolescent children do respond to promises of positive inducements for cooperation in a mixed-motive situation. (WY)

  10. Subsurface Airflow Induced by Natural Forcings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiu J. Jiao; LI Hai-long

    2004-01-01

    Subsurface air flow can be induced by natural processes, such as atmospheric or barometric pressure changes, water table fluctuations, topographic effects, and rainfall infiltration. Barometric pressure fluctuations are the most common cause of subsurface air flow, which can be significant under favourable geological conditions. This process has been studied most extensively because of its application to passive soil vapor extraction. Soil air flow induced by water table fluctuations can be significant, particularly where the fluctuations are of high frequency, for example, in tidal-influenced coastal areas. Topographic effects can lead to strong subsoil air flow in areas with great elevation differences. Rainfall infiltration usually produces only weak airflow. Air flow induced by these natural processes has important environmental and engineering implications. Among the different processes, air flow induced by tidal fluctuations has been studied the least, although it has exciting applications to coastal engineering projects and environmental remediation.

  11. A case of dapsone induced methaemoglobinaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, D

    2008-09-01

    We present a case of dapsone induced methaemoglobinaemia that occurred in a patient who presented to the Emergency Department of a University Hospital. It is an uncommon condition that requires specific and urgent treatment in severe cases.

  12. Proximity induced superconductivity in bilayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordaz, Julien; Wu, Fan [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Wolf, Michael; Beckmann, Detlef [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Loehneysen, Hilbert von [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Institute of Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Institute for Solid-State Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Danneau, Romain [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Institute of Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Proximity induced superconductivity effect occurs when graphene is connected with close enough superconducting electrodes. Observations of Andreev reflection and induced supercurrents flowing through graphene sheets have already been reported in graphene. However, these effects have not been explored in bilayer graphene so far. By applying a perpendicular electric field, it is possible to open a gap in a bilayer graphene. This can be achieved in practice by designing a top gate in addition to the usual back gate. Our devices are produced on top of sapphire wafers by using transfer techniques and standard electron-beam lithography. The bilayers are sandwiched between two atomically flat hexagonal boron nitride multilayers which are both used as gate dielectric. By inducing a band gap into a bilayer graphene connected by two superconducting leads, the supercurrent could be switched off inducing a superconductor-insulator transition.

  13. Sotalol-induced torsade de pointes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopoulos, A.; Manoudis, F.; Filindris, A.; Metaxas, P.

    1981-01-01

    The authors report a case of torsade de pointes atypical ventricular tachycardia in a patient with chronic renal failure and hypertension treated with sotalol hydrochloride which they believe induced the arrhythmia. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:7301675

  14. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced hydrocephalus in hamsters.

    OpenAIRE

    Kohn, D F; Chinookoswong, N; Wang, J

    1984-01-01

    Hydrocephalus was induced in neonatal hamsters after intracerebral inoculation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Examination of the ependyma from affected animals by electron microscopy did not reveal mycoplasma. However, in an ependymal organ culture system, M. pneumoniae cytadsorbed to ependymal cells.

  15. Noise Induced Phenomena in Population Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Valenti, D.; Giuffrida, A; Denaro, G.; Pizzolato, N; Curcio, L; Spagnolo, B.; Mazzola, S.; Basilone, G.; Bonanno, A.

    2015-01-01

    Noise through its interaction with the nonlinearity of the living systems can give rise to counter-intuitive phenomena. In this paper we shortly review the noise induced effects in different ecosystems. The transient dynamics of these ecosystems are analyzed through generalized Lotka-Volterra equations in the presence of multiplicative noise, which models the interaction between the species and the environment. We find noise induced phenomena such as quasi-deterministic oscillations, stochast...

  16. Photo-Induced Micellization of Block Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Kuwayama; Eri Yoshida

    2010-01-01

    We found novel photo-induced micellizations through photolysis, photoelectron transfer, and photo-Claisen rearrangement. The photolysis-induced micellization was attained using poly(4-tert-butoxystyrene)-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer (PBSt-b-PSt). BSt-b-PSt showed no self-assembly in dichloromethane and existed as isolated copolymers. Dynamic light scattering demonstrated that the copolymer produced spherical micelles in this solvent due to irradiation with a high-pressure mercury lamp ...

  17. Paliperidone Induced Hypoglycemia by Increasing Insulin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Tsubasa; Riku, Keisen; Fukumoto, Motoyuki; Kanai, Koji; Omura, Yumi; Takada, Hiromune; Matunaga, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old woman with schizophrenia who developed persistent hypoglycemia following paliperidone administration. After discontinuing paliperidone, the hypoglycemia resolved, but symptoms of diabetes emerged. Therefore, it appears that the hypoglycemia induced by paliperidone may mask symptoms of diabetes. Paliperidone may induce hypoglycemia by increasing insulin secretion. This report could help elucidate the relationship between atypical antipsychotics and glucose metabolism. PMID:27478670

  18. Penicillin-induced lysis of Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Kral, T A; Callaway, M D

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 cells with concentrations of penicillin G within a relatively narrow range resulted in substantial lysis. This penicillin-induced lysis was dependent upon cell density and pH of the lysis medium. Other oral streptococci (Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus rattus, and Streptococcus cricetus) also demonstrated substantial levels of penicillin-induced lysis under appropriate conditions. Lesser degrees of lysis were seen in a related organism, Streptococc...

  19. How does relativity affect magnetically induced currents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R J F; Repisky, M; Komorovsky, S

    2015-09-21

    Magnetically induced probability currents in molecules are studied in relativistic theory. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) enhances the curvature and gives rise to a previously unobserved current cusp in AuH or small bulge-like distortions in HgH2 at the proton positions. The origin of this curvature is magnetically induced spin-density arising from SOC in the relativistic description. PMID:26243659

  20. Do Process Innovations Induce Product Ones?

    OpenAIRE

    Battaggion, Maria Rosa; Tedeschi, Piero

    2006-01-01

    We study the relationship between process and product innovations in vertically differentiated duopolies. A process innovation can lead two competing firms to improve the quality of their goods introducing a product innovation. In fact, a cost reducing innovation has two effects: it spurs production and it enhances price competition. The former effect induces both firms to increase quality. The latter encourages differentiation, inducing low quality firm to decrease it. Therefore, high qualit...

  1. Anomaly-induced charges in baryons

    OpenAIRE

    Eto, Minoru; Hashimoto, Koji; Iida, Hideaki; Ishii, Takaaki; Maezawa, Yu

    2011-01-01

    We show that quantum chiral anomaly of QCD in magnetic backgrounds induces a novel structure of electric charge inside baryons. To illustrate the anomaly effect, we employ the Skyrme model for baryons, with the anomaly-induced gauged Wess-Zumino term (\\pi_0 + (multi-pion)) E_i B_i. Due to this term, the Skyrmions giving a local pion condensation ((\\pi_0 + (multi-pion)) \

  2. Whence Induced Demand: How Access Affects Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Levinson, David; Kanchi, Seshasai

    2000-01-01

    Additional highway capacity, by increasing travel speed, affects the individual share of time within a 24-hour budget allocated to various activities (time spent at and traveling to home, shop, work and other), some activities will be undertaken more, others less. This paper extends previous research that identified and quantified induced demand in terms of vehicle miles traveled, by considering questions of what type of demand is induced and which activities are consequently reduced. This pa...

  3. Medium-induced multi-photon radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hao; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    We study the spectrum of multi-photon radiation off a fast quark in medium in the BDMPS/ASW approach. We reproduce the medium-induced one-photon radiation spectrum in dipole approximation, and go on to calculate the two-photon radiation in the Moli\\`{e}re limit. We find that in this limit the LPM effect holds for medium-induced two-photon ladder emission.

  4. Induced Gravity and Topological Quantum Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We construct an induced gravity (pregeometry) where both the Newton constant and the cosmological constant appear as integration constants in solving field equations. By adding the kinetic terms of ghosts and antighosts, an action of the induced gravity is transformed to a topological field theory. Moreover, by solving field equations of the topological field theory in the FRW universe, we find an inflation solution. The present study might shed some light on a close relationship between the ...

  5. Medium-induced multi-photon radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hao; Salgado, Carlos A [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Tywoniuk, Konrad [Lund University (Sweden)

    2011-01-01

    We study the spectrum of multi-photon radiation off a fast quark in medium in the BDMPS/ASW approach. We reproduce the medium-induced one-photon radiation spectrum in dipole approximation, and go on to calculate the two-photon radiation in the Moliere limit. We find that in this limit the LPM effect holds for medium-induced two-photon ladder emission.

  6. Clonazepam induced maculopapular rash: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mabu Shareef

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine with prominent anticonvulsant action than other members of the group at equisedating doses. It especially blocks pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. Other important actions include anxiolysis. Common adverse effects to Clonazepam include drowsiness and lethargy. In this submission we report a case of Clonazepam induced maculopapular rash in a 30 year old female treated for panic disorder. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 647-649

  7. Clonazepam induced maculopapular rash: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mabu Shareef; P. Sai Krishna; Naser A. Tadvi; C. Dinesh M. Naidu

    2013-01-01

    Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine with prominent anticonvulsant action than other members of the group at equisedating doses. It especially blocks pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. Other important actions include anxiolysis. Common adverse effects to Clonazepam include drowsiness and lethargy. In this submission we report a case of Clonazepam induced maculopapular rash in a 30 year old female treated for panic disorder. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000): 647-649

  8. Spin-current induced electric field

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, QF; Guo, H; Wang, J

    2003-01-01

    We theoretically investigate properties of the induced electric field of a steady-state spin-current without charge current, using an 'equivalent magnetic charge' method. Several general formula for the induced electric field are derived which play the role of 'Biot-Savart law' and 'Ampere's law.' Conversely, a moving spin is affected by an external electric field and we derive an expression for the interaction torque.

  9. Induced Technological Change under Technology Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlagh, Reyer

    2003-01-01

    We develop a partial one-sector model with capital, natural resources, and labor as production factors, and endogenous technological change through research. Production exhibits increasing returns to scale. We compare the response of output and resource use to a change in resource prices with and without induced technological change (ITC). It is shown that induced technological change is insignificant in reducing resource use when there is one representative technology and output demand is in...

  10. Induced mutations - a tool in plant research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings include 34 papers and 18 brief descriptions of poster presentations in the following areas as they are affected by induced mutations: advancement of genetics, plant evolution, plant physiology, plant parasites, plant symbioses, in vitro culture, gene ecology and plant breeding. Only a relatively small number of papers are of direct nuclear interest essentially in view of the mutations being induced by ionizing radiations. The papers of nuclear interest have been entered as separate and individual items of input

  11. Induced gravity from curvature density preserving diffeomorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    We construct not only an induced gravity model with restricted diffeomorphisms, that is, transverse diffeomorphisms that preserve the curvature density, but also with full diffeomorphisms. By solving the equations of motion, it turns out that these models produce Einstein's equations with a certain Newton constant in addition to the constraint for the curvature density. In the limit of the infinite Newton constant, the models give rise to induced gravity. Moreover, we discuss cosmological solutions on the basis of the gravitational models at hand.

  12. Nutritional Interventions for Cancer-induced Cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    Gullett, Norleena P.; Mazurak, Vera; Hebbar, Gautam; Ziegler, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer-induced cachexia remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer treatment. Cancer research and development continues at an aggressive pace and yet a degree of cancer-induced cachexia is experienced by up to 80% of advanced stage cancer patients. Unfortunately, there are no established treatment regimens for this condition. Weight loss and fatigue consistently appear in patient oncologic histories and progress notes. However, few oncologists fully understand the pathol...

  13. Nutritional Support for Exercise-Induced Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Tipton, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is one method to counter the negative impact of an exercise-induced injury. Deficiencies of energy, protein and other nutrients should be avoided. Claims for the effectiveness of many other nutrients following injuries are rampant, but the evidence is equivocal. The results of an exercise-induced injury may vary widely depending on the nature of the injury and severity. Injuries typically result in cessation, or at least a reduction, in participation in sport and decreased physical ...

  14. Risk of miscarriage after previously induced abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Sithiravel, Cindhya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The risk of miscarriage is approximately 15 % of clinically recognized pregnancies, most of them appearing in first trimester. Miscarriage is known to be a distressing event in a woman s life. Hence, it would be in the patients favor to find any association which reduces the risk of miscarriage. On the other hand, it is estimated that 30 – 50 % of all women undergo at least one induced pregnancy termination in their lifetime, making any link between miscarriage and induc...

  15. Bacterial Gibberellins Induce Systemic Resistance of Plants

    OpenAIRE

    I. N. FEKLISTOVA; I. A. GRINEVA; T. L. SKAKUN; L. E. SADOVSKAYA

    2014-01-01

    It is generally agreed today that some rhizosphere bacteria can ensure induced systemic resistance to pathogens. In this paper we tested the ability of gibberellins produced by rhizosphere non-pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aurantiaca to induce systemic resistance to alternariosis agent – Alternaria brassicicola – in oilseed rape plants.Oilseed rape (Brássica nápus) is one of the most promising oil-bearing croppers. It allows improving the supply of population with vegetable oil, animal and ...

  16. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Chernenkov Yu.V.; Nechaev V.N.; Stasova Yu.V.; Tereshenko V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART); to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies), from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced p...

  17. Insect inducible antimicrobial peptides and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzati-Tabrizi, Reyhaneh; Farrokhi, Naser; Talaei-Hassanloui, Reza; Alavi, Seyed Mehdi; Hosseininaveh, Vahid

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found as important components of the innate immune system (host defense) of all invertebrates. These peptides can be constitutively expressed or induced in response to microbial infections. Indeed, they vary in their amino acid sequences, potency and antimicrobial activity spectra. The smaller AMPs act greatly by disrupting the structure or function of microbial cell membranes. Here, the insect innate immune system with emphasis on inducible antimicrobial peptide properties against microbial invaders has been discussed.

  18. Dexrazoxane exacerbates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Mattan; Tzabari, Moran; Savion, Naphtali; Stemmer, Salomon M; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2015-10-01

    Infertility induced by anti-cancer treatments pose a major concern for cancer survivors. Doxorubicin (DXR) has been previously shown to exert toxic effects on the testicular germinal epithelium. Based upon the cardioprotective traits of dexrazoxane (DEX), we studied its potential effect in reducing DXR-induced testicular toxicity. Male mice were injected with 5  mg/kg DXR, 100  mg/kg DEX, combination of both or saline (control) and sacrificed either 1, 3 or 6 months later. Testes were excised and further processed. Glutathione and apoptosis assays were performed to determine oxidative stress. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to study the effects of the drugs on testicular histology and on spermatogonial reserve. DXR and the combined treatment induced a striking decline in testicular weight. DEX prevented DXR-induced oxidative stress, but enhanced DXR-induced apoptosis within the testes. Furthermore, the combined treatment depleted the spermatogonial reserve after 1 month, with impaired recovery at 3 and 6 months post-treatment. This resulted in compromised sperm parameters, testicular and epididymal weights as well as significantly reduced sperm motility, all of which were more severe than those observed in DXR-treated mice. The activity of DEX in the testis may differ from its activity in cardiomyocytes. Adding DEX to DXR exacerbates DXR-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:26329125

  19. Calpain Activator Dibucaine Induces Platelet Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-dependent calpains are a family of cysteine proteases that have been demonstrated to play key roles in both platelet glycoprotein Ibα shedding and platelet activation and altered calpain activity is associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Calpain activators induce apoptosis in several types of nucleated cells. However, it is not clear whether calpain activators induce platelet apoptosis. Here we show that the calpain activator dibucaine induced several platelet apoptotic events including depolarization of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, up-regulation of Bax and Bak, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, caspase-3 activation and phosphatidylserine exposure. Platelet apoptosis elicited by dibucaine was not affected by the broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001. Furthermore, dibucaine did not induce platelet activation as detected by P-selectin expression and PAC-1 binding. However, platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin or α-thrombin, platelet adhesion and spreading on von Willebrand factor were significantly inhibited in platelets treated with dibucaine. Taken together, these data indicate that dibucaine induces platelet apoptosis and platelet dysfunction.

  20. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  1. Induced Seismicity Potential of Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzman, Murray

    2013-03-01

    Earthquakes attributable to human activities-``induced seismic events''-have received heightened public attention in the United States over the past several years. Upon request from the U.S. Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Research Council was asked to assemble a committee of experts to examine the scale, scope, and consequences of seismicity induced during fluid injection and withdrawal associated with geothermal energy development, oil and gas development, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The committee's report, publicly released in June 2012, indicates that induced seismicity associated with fluid injection or withdrawal is caused in most cases by change in pore fluid pressure and/or change in stress in the subsurface in the presence of faults with specific properties and orientations and a critical state of stress in the rocks. The factor that appears to have the most direct consequence in regard to induced seismicity is the net fluid balance (total balance of fluid introduced into or removed from the subsurface). Energy technology projects that are designed to maintain a balance between the amount of fluid being injected and withdrawn, such as most oil and gas development projects, appear to produce fewer seismic events than projects that do not maintain fluid balance. Major findings from the study include: (1) as presently implemented, the process of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas recovery does not pose a high risk for inducing felt seismic events; (2) injection for disposal of waste water derived from energy technologies does pose some risk for induced seismicity, but very few events have been documented over the past several decades relative to the large number of disposal wells in operation; and (3) CCS, due to the large net volumes of injected fluids suggested for future large-scale carbon storage projects, may have potential for inducing larger seismic events.

  2. Induced Sputum Proteome in Health and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Sina A.; Nguyen, Elizabeth V.; Lai, Ying; Plampin, Jessica D.; Goodlett, David R.; Hallstrand, Teal S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by abnormal airway pathophysiology and susceptibility to different stimuli, as exemplified by a subset of individuals with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Induced sputum provides a noninvasive method to sample airway biofluids that are enriched in proteins. Objective We hypothesized that novel mechanisms in the pathogenesis of asthma may be revealed by studying the patterns of protein expression in induced sputum. Methods We used shotgun proteomics to analyze induced sputum from 5 normal individuals and 10 asthmatics, including 5 with EIB. Differential protein expression between asthmatics, asthma subphenotypes and control subjects was determined using spectral counting and computational methods. Results Using Gene Ontology analysis, we defined the functional landscape of induced sputum proteome and applied network analysis to construct a protein interaction map for this airway compartment. Shotgun proteomics analysis identified a number of proteins whose differential enrichment or depletion robustly distinguishedasthmatics from normal controls, and captured the effects of exercise on induced sputum proteome. Functional and network analysis identified key processes, including proteolytic activity that are known contributors to airway remodeling. Importantly, this approach highlighted previously unrecognized roles for differentially expressed proteins in pathways implicated in asthma, such as modulation of phospholipase A2 by secretoglobin, a putative role for S100A8/9 in human asthma, and selective upregulation of complement 3a in response to exercise in asthmatics. Conclusion Computationally-intensive analysis of induced sputum proteome is a powerful approach to understand the pathophysiology of asthma and a promising methodology to investigate other diseases of the airways. PMID:21906793

  3. Metformin induces apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To assess the role and mechanism of mefformin in inducing apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. METHODS: The human pancreatic cancer cell lines ASPC-1, BxPc-3, PANC-1 and SW1990 were exposed to mefformin. The inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation via apoptosis induction and S phase arrest in pancreatic cancer cell lines of mefformin was tested.RESULTS: In each pancreatic cancer cell line tested, metformin inhibited cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner in MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assays). Flow cytometric analysis showed that metformin reduced the number of cells in G1 and increased the percentage of cells in S phase as well as the apoptotic fraction. Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (EUSA) showed that metformin induced apaptosis in all pancreatic cancer cell lines. In Western blot studies, metformin induced oly-ADP-ribose polymerase(PARP) cleavage (an indicator of aspase activation) in all pancreatic cancer cell lines. The general caspase inhibitor (VAD-fmk) completely abolished metformin-induced PARP cleavage and apoptosis in ASPC-1 BxPc-3 and PANC-1, the caspase-8 specific inhibitor (IETD-fmk) and the caspase-9 specific inhibitor (LEHD-fmk) only partially abrogated metformin-induced apoptosis and PARP cleavage in BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cells. We also observed that metformin treatment ramatically reduced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphorylated mitogen activated protein kinase (P-MAPK) in both a time- and dose-dependent manner in all cell lines tested.CONCLUSION: Metformin significantly inhibits cell proliferation and apoptosis in all pancreatic cell lines. And the metformin-induced apoptosis is associated with PARP leavage, activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Hence, both caspase-8 and -9-initiated apoptotic signaling pathways contribute to metforrnin-induced apoptosis in pancreatic cell lines.

  4. Beam induced RF cavity transient voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the transient voltage induced in a radio frequency (RF) cavity by the injection of a relativistic bunched beam into a circular accelerator. A simplified model of the beam induced voltage, using a single tone current signal, is generated and compared with the voltage induced by a more realistic model of a point-like bunched beam. The high Q limit of the bunched beam model is shown to be related simply to the simplified model. Both models are shown to induce voltages at the resonant frequency ωr of the cavity and at an integer multiple of the bunch revolution frequency (i.e. the accelerating frequency for powered cavity operation) hω0. The presence of two nearby frequencies in the cavity leads to a modulation of the carrier wave exp(jhω0t). A special emphasis is placed in this paper on studying the modulation function. These models prove useful for computing the transient voltage induced in superconducting RF cavities, which was the motivation behind this research. The modulation of the transient cavity voltage discussed in this paper is the physical basis of the recently observed and explained new kind of longitudinal rigid dipole mode which differs from the conventional Robinson mode

  5. Neutron induced bystander effect among zebrafish embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. Y. P.; Kong, E. Y.; Kobayashi, A.; Suya, N.; Uchihori, Y.; Cheng, S. H.; Konishi, T.; Yu, K. N.

    2015-12-01

    The present paper reported the first-ever observation of neutron induced bystander effect (NIBE) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as the in vivo model. The neutron exposure in the present work was provided by the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) facility at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. Two different strategies were employed to induce NIBE, namely, through directly partnering and through medium transfer. Both results agreed with a neutron-dose window (20-50 mGy) which could induce NIBE. The lower dose limit corresponded to the threshold amount of neutron-induced damages to trigger significant bystander signals, while the upper limit corresponded to the onset of gamma-ray hormesis which could mitigate the neutron-induced damages and thereby suppress the bystander signals. Failures to observe NIBE in previous studies were due to using neutron doses outside the dose-window. Strategies to enhance the chance of observing NIBE included (1) use of a mono-energetic high-energy (e.g., between 100 keV and 2 MeV) neutron source, and (2) use of a neutron source with a small gamma-ray contamination. It appeared that the NASBEE facility used in the present study fulfilled both conditions, and was thus ideal for triggering NIBE.

  6. Baicalin induced dendritic cell apoptosis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huahua eZhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effects of Baicalin (BA, a major flavonoid constituent found in the herb Baikal skullcap, on dendritic cells (DCs. DCs were generated by culturing murine bone marrow cells for 6 days with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-4, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS was added on day 5 to stimulate DCs maturation. The expression levels of DC maturity markers (CD80/CD86 were assessed by flow cytometry using direct immunofluorescence method. Interleukin-12 (IL-12 levels in the culture supernatants were assayed by ELISA. Apoptosis of DCs was analyzed by flow cytometry after Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. The mitochondrial membrane potential changes were measured by using the J-aggregate forming lipophilic cation 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1. Exposure of DCs to BA (2-50 microM during bone marrow cell differentiation showed no effects on the up-regulation of CD80/CD86 expression on DCs in response to LPS stimulation, but reduced DCs recovery by inducing apoptosis, and significantly inhibited the release of IL-12 to culture supernatants. BA induced DC apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent way, and immature DCs were more sensitive for BA-induced apoptosis than mature DC. BA also induced mitochondrial membrane potential changes in DCs. These results demonstrate that BA induces selective apoptosis in immature DCs possibly through mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  7. On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2011-01-01

    Of all the types of drag, induced drag is associated with the creation and generation of lift over wings. Induced drag is directly driven by the span load that the aircraft is flying at. The tools by which to calculate and predict induced drag we use were created by Ludwig Prandtl in 1903. Within a decade after Prandtl created a tool for calculating induced drag, Prandtl and his students had optimized the problem to solve the minimum induced drag for a wing of a given span, formalized and written about in 1920. This solution is quoted in textbooks extensively today. Prandtl did not stop with this first solution, and came to a dramatically different solution in 1932. Subsequent development of this 1932 solution solves several aeronautics design difficulties simultaneously, including maximum performance, minimum structure, minimum drag loss due to control input, and solution to adverse yaw without a vertical tail. This presentation lists that solution by Prandtl, and the refinements by Horten, Jones, Kline, Viswanathan, and Whitcomb.

  8. A case of radiation-induced glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of malignant cerebellar glioma developing 25 years after radiotherapy for pineal tumor is described. The patient is a 40-year-old male, who was admitted to our department with complaints of dizziness and gait disturbance. neurological examinations revealed symptoms involving the left cerebellar hemisphere and cerebellar vermis. CT scan and MRI demonstrated a circularly enhanced tumor which was located in the left cerebellar hemisphere extending to the vermis. The tumor was diagnosed as malignant glioma. In view of the former radiotherapy, this glioma was suspected to have been induced by radiation. The situation conformed to Walker's criteria for radiation-induced tumor. With the patient under general anesthesia, the tumor was subtotally removed by means of suboccipitel craniectomy. Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as astrocytoma, grade 3. Most radiation-induced gliomas are malignant. There seems to be no significant correlation between the radiation dose; the latent period widely varies, ranging from several years to more than 20 years. Even if the radiation dose is small, there still exists the risk that radiation might induce a tumor. It was concluded that the possibility of radiation-induced tumor should be kept in mind whenever radiation therapy is carried out for brain tumors. (author)

  9. Pump, sodium, inducer, intermediate size (ISIP) (impeller/inducer/diffuser retrofit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This specification defines the requirements for the Intermediate-Size Inducer Pump (ISIP), which is to be made by replacing the impeller of the FFTF Prototype Pump with a new inducer, impeller, diffuser, seal, and necessary adapter hardware. Subsequent testing requirements of the complete pump assembly are included

  10. Nonsurgical Management of Nifedipine Induced Gingival Overgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Sam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is frequently associated with three particular drugs: phenytoin, cyclosporin, and nifedipine. As gingival enlargement develops, it affects the normal oral hygiene practice and may interfere with masticatory functions. The awareness in the medical community about this possible side effect of nifedipine is less when compared to the effects of phenytoin and cyclosporin. The frequency of gingival enlargement associated with chronic nifedipine therapy remains controversial. Within the group of patients that develop this unwanted effect, there appears to be variability in the extent and severity of the gingival changes. Although gingival inflammation is considered a primary requisite in their development, few cases with minimal or no plaque induced gingival inflammation have also been reported. A case report of gingival overgrowth induced by nifedipine in a patient with good oral hygiene and its nonsurgical management with drug substitution is discussed in this case report.

  11. Microbe- and danger-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggi, Achille; Granucci, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The ability of the immune system to give rise to an effective response against pathogens while maintaining tolerance towards self-tissues has always been an object of keen interest for immunologist. Over the years, different theories have been proposed to explain if and how the immune system is able to discriminate between self and non-self, including the Infectious Non-self theory from Charles Janeway and Polly Matzinger's Danger theory. Nowadays we know Janeway's theory is largely true, however the immune system does respond to injured, stressed and necrotic cells releasing danger signals (DAMPs) with a potent inflammatory response. To avoid unwanted prolonged autoimmune reactions, though, danger-induced inflammation should be tightly regulated. In the present review we discuss how prototypic DAMPs are able to induce inflammation and the peculiarity of danger-induced inflammation, as opposed to a complete immune response to fight pathogen invasions.

  12. Dose-sensitive steroid-induced hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Craig; Dando, Nicholas

    2010-10-01

    Steroids cause significant but under-appreciated and poorly managed glucose intolerance. In this case we describe a patient with steroid-induced hyperglycaemia who obtained a large positive impact on glycaemic control from a small reduction in her steroid dose, sufficient to alleviate the need for insulin. Developments in the treatment of steroid-induced hyperglycaemia may mean that a more active approach needs to be considered when treating steroid-related diabetes in patients whose management is palliative. We advise checking for steroid-induced hyperglycaemia by testing capillary blood glucose values 2 hours after the lunchtime meal and recommend a single morning dose of long-acting insulin to treat the condition.

  13. Selective enhancement of topologically induced interface states

    CERN Document Server

    Poli, C; Kuhl, U; Mortessagne, F; Schomerus, H

    2014-01-01

    An attractive mechanism to induce robust spatially confined states utilizes interfaces between regions with topologically distinct gapped band structures. For electromagnetic waves, this mechanism can be realized in two dimensions by breaking symmetries in analogy to the quantum Hall effect or by employing analogies to the quantum spin Hall effect, while in one dimension it can be obtained by geometric lattice modulation. Induced by the presence of the interface, a topologically protected, exponentially confined state appears in the middle of the band gap. The intrinsic robustness of such states raises the question whether their properties can be controlled and modified independently of the other states in the system. Here, we draw on concepts from passive non-hermitian parity-time (PT)-symmetry to demonstrate the selective control and enhancement of a topologically induced state in a one-dimensional microwave set-up. In particular, we show that the state can be isolated from losses that affect all other mode...

  14. Seismic induced earth pressures in buried vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnitude and distribution of earth pressures acting on buried structures and induced by a seismic event are considered in this paper. A soil-structure-interaction analysis is performed for typical Department of Energy high level waste storage tanks using a lumped parameter model. The resulting soil pressure distributions are determined and compared with the static soil pressure to assess the design significance of the seismic induced soil pressures. It is found that seismic pressures do not control design unless the peak ground acceleration exceeds about 0.3 G. The effect of soil non linearities (resulting from local soil failure) are also found to have little effect on the predictions of the seismic response of the buried structure. The seismic induced pressures are found to be very similar to those predicted using the elastic model in ASCE 4-86

  15. Does erythropoietin augment noise induced hearing loss?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Lund, Søren Peter;

    2007-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss may result from excessive release of glutamate, nitrogen oxide and reactive oxygen species. The effects of these factors on the inner ear may potentially be prevented or reduced by erythropoietin (EPO), as indicated by previously demonstrated neuro-protective effects...... of EPO upon damage to the central nervous system and the retina. This paper reports three separate trials, conducted to investigate the hypothesis that noise-induced hearing loss is prevented or reduced by erythropoietin. The trials employed three different modes of drug application, different...... and auditory brainstem responses (at 16kHz) were recorded before and after noise exposure in all trials. The noise exposure induced a hearing loss in all animals. In trial 1, no recovery and no improvement of hearing occurred in any treatment group. In trial 2 and 3, a partial hearing recovery was seen...

  16. Deuterium NMR, induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were studied. Induced cholesteric lyomesophases based on potassium laurate (KL) system, with small amounts of cholesterol added, were studied by deuterium NMR and by polarizing microscopy. Order profiles obtained from deuterium NMR of KL perdenderated chains in both induced cholesteric and normal mesophases were compared. The intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were based on the amphiphile potassium N-lauroyl serinate (KLNS) in the resolved levo form. The study of the type I intrinsic cholesteric mesophase was made by optical microscopy under polarized light and the type II intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophase was characterized by deuterium NMR. The new texture was explained by the use of the theory of disclinations developed for thermotropic liquid crystals, specially for cholesteric type. (M.J.C.)

  17. Flow induced vibration in pump impellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex nature of flow-induced vibration (FIV) has led prominent researchers in the field to conclude that it is extremely important to understand the flow-induced vibration mechanism in order to design out of the problem (DOP), rather than to attempt to design the problem area on the basis of analysis with a high degree of certitude (i.e., predicting system response). Designing out of the problem may not be affected by addressing one parameter but rather several: structural contour, material selection, flow properties, structural stiffness, damping, and fluid-structure coupling In this paper the mechanism of flow induced vibration fatigue failure of large circulating water pumps is discussed. This paper provides an overview of the inter-relationship of finite element and theoretical analysis, component and material testing, operational data, fabrication, and repair practices

  18. Molecular Mechanisms in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Golbidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is increasingly recognized as modifiable behavioral risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. A partial list of proposed mechanisms for exercise-induced cardioprotection include induction of heat shock proteins, increase in cardiac antioxidant capacity, expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, anatomical and physiological changes in the coronary arteries, changes in nitric oxide production, adaptational changes in cardiac mitochondria, increased autophagy, and improved function of sarcolemmal and/or mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels. It is currently unclear which of these protective mechanisms are essential for exercise-induced cardioprotection. However, most investigations focus on sarcolemmal KATP channels, NO production, and mitochondrial changes although it is very likely that other mechanisms may also exist. This paper discusses current information about these aforementioned topics and does not consider potentially important adaptations within blood or the autonomic nervous system. A better understanding of the molecular basis of exercise-induced cardioprotection will help to develop better therapeutic strategies.

  19. Dimensionality constraints of light induced rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Oroszi, László; Galajda, Péter; Kelemen, Lóránd; Mathesz, Anna; Vicsek, Tamás; Vizsnyiczai, Gaszton; Ormos, Pál

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the conditions of rotation induced by collimated light carrying no angular momentum. Objects of different shapes and optical properties were examined in the nontrivial case where the rotation axis is perpendicular to the direction of light propagation. This geometry offers important advantages for application as it fundamentally broadens the possible practical arrangements to be realised. We found that collimated light cannot drive permanent rotation of 2D or prism-like 3D objects (i.e. fixed cross-sectional profile along the rotation axis) in the case of fully reflective or fully transparent materials. Based on both geometrical optics simulations and theoretical analysis, we derived a general condition for rotation induced by collimated light carrying no angular momentum valid for any arrangement: Permanent rotation is not possible if the scattering interaction is two-dimensional and lossless. In contrast, light induced rotation can be sustained if partial absorption is present or the object ...

  20. Diffuse Hair Loss Induced by Sertraline Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Kıvrak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair loss is a rare side effect of psychotropic drugs. The most related drug class with this side effect is the mood stabilizers. Studies reporting the sertraline-induced alopecia are limited in number. Sertraline is a potent antidepressant which inhibits the serotonin reuptake from the presynaptic terminals selectively. The reason for hair loss could not be elucidated completely. Psychotropic drugs are usually considered to lead to hair loss through influencing the telogen phase of hair follicle. This paper reports a 21-year-old male with diffuse hair loss induced by sertraline use and improved by quitting the drug. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other case reports on sertraline-induced alopecia within 2 weeks.