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Sample records for bufo arenarum induced

  1. Polyspermy in Bufo arenarum oocytes matured in vitro.

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    Oterino, J; Sánchez Toranzo, G; Zelarayán, L; Bühler, M I

    1997-08-01

    Full-grown ovarian oocytes of the amphibian Bufo arenarum were induced to mature in vitro by removing the follicular layers (spontaneous maturation) or by treatment with progesterone (hormone-induced maturation). These oocytes were then treated with trypsin and inseminated with homologous spermatozoa. Oocytes matured in vivo that had not undergone any influence of the oviducts (coelomic oocytes), inseminated under the same experimental conditions, were used as controls. The results show that oocytes induced to mature in vitro and exhibiting apparently normal signs of activation were polyspermic. In fact, 2 h after insemination numerous functioning pronuclei could be observed in the animal hemisphere. These results suggest that even though the oocytes which matured in vitro were able to undergo activation after insemination, they were unable to establish an effective block to polyspermy.

  2. Determinants of Instrumental Extinction in Terrestrial Toads ("Bufo arenarum")

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    Muzio, Ruben N.; Ruetti, Eliana; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research in a water-reinforced instrumental training situation with toads ("Bufo arenarum") has shown that performance in both acquisition and extinction is poorer after partial, rather than continuous reinforcement training. In Experiment 1, the performance of a group receiving 24 trials on a 50% partial reinforcement schedule was poorer…

  3. [Studies of oogenesis in Bufo arenarum (author's transl)].

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    Valdez Toledo, C L; Pisanó, A

    1980-01-01

    Based on a series of macroscopic and histological observations, during an annual cycle, the main stages of oogenesis in Bufo arenarum (Hensel) have been recognized, pointing out the most significant features. The analysis has established five characteristic stages which permit the individualization of the maturation stage of the oocyte in the ovary. All the information obtained has provided the possibility of drawing up a synthetic table so that the oogenetic stages of this amphibian species, very much used in Argentine experimentation, could be easily recognized.

  4. The envelopes of amphibian oocytes: physiological modifications in Bufo arenarum

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    Sánchez Mercedes

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A characterization of the Amphibian Bufo arenarum oocyte envelope is presented. It was made in different functional conditions of the oocyte: 1 when it has been released into the coelomic cavity during ovulation (surrounded by the coelomic envelope, (CE, 2 after it has passed through the oviduct and is deposed (surrounded by the viteline envelope, (VE, and 3 after oocyte activation (surrounded by the fertilization envelope, (FE. The characterization was made by SDS-PAGE followed by staining for protein and glycoproteins. Labeled lectins were used to identify glycosidic residues both in separated components on nitrocellulose membranes or in intact oocytes and embryos. Proteolytic properties of the content of the cortical granules were also analyzed. After SDS-PAGE of CE and VE, a different protein pattern was observed. This is probably due to the activity of a protease present in the pars recta of the oviduct. Comparison of the SDS-PAGE pattern of VE and FE showed a different mobility for one of the glycoproteins, gp75. VE and FE proved to have different sugar residues in their oligosaccharide chains. Mannose residues are only present in gp120 of the three envelopes. N-acetyl-galactosamine residues are present in all of the components, except for gp69 in the FE. Galactose residues are present mainly in gp120 of FE. Lectin-binding assays indicate the presence of glucosamine, galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine residues and the absence (or non-availability of N-acetyl-glucosamine or fucose residues on the envelopes surface. The cortical granule product (CGP shows proteolytic activity on gp75 of the VE.

  5. Role of phospholipase A2 pathway in regulating activation of Bufo arenarum oocytes.

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    Ajmat, M T; Bonilla, F; Hermosilla, P C; Zelarayán, L; Bühler, M I

    2013-08-01

    Transient increases in the concentration of cytosolic Ca(2+) are essential for triggering egg activation events. Increased Ca(2+) results from its rapid release from intracellular stores, mainly mediated by one or both intracellular calcium channels: the inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and the ryanodine receptor (RyR). Several regulatory pathways that tailor the response of these channels to the specific cell type have been proposed. Among its many modulatory actions, calcium can serve as an activator of a cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA2), which releases arachidonic acid from phospholipids of the endoplasmic reticulum as well as from the nuclear envelope. Previous studies have suggested that arachidonic acid and/or its metabolites were able to modulate the activity of several ion channels. Based on these findings, we have studied the participation of the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) pathway in the process of Bufo arenarum oocyte activation and the interrelation between any of its metabolites and the ion channels involved in the calcium release from the intracellular reservoirs at fertilization. We found that addition of both melittin, a potent PLA(2) activator, and arachidonic acid, the main PLA(2) reaction metabolite, was able to induce activation events in a bell-shaped manner. Differential regulation of IP3Rs and RyRs by arachidonic acid and its products could explain melittin and arachidonic acid behaviour in Bufo arenarum egg activation. The concerted action of arachidonic acid and/or its metabolites could provide controlled mobilization of calcium from intracellular reservoirs and useful tools for understanding calcium homeostasis in eggs that express both types of receptors.

  6. Cell mediated immune response of Bufo arenarum and Leptodactylus ocellatus (Amphibia, Anura) to mycobacterial antigens.

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    Fliess, E L; Salibian, A

    1984-01-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test was applied to the study of cell mediated immune (CMI) response in vitro to mycobacterial antigens in Bufo arenarum and Leptodactylus ocellatus previously inoculated with a suspension of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The stimulated samples of blood both in B. arenarum and L. ocellatus showed a significant increase in the percent of blastic dedifferentiation (almost 100% with respect to controls) suggesting the presence of a positive CMI response to PPD. The differences were observed on the fifth day of incubation and lasted until the seventh day.

  7. Behaviour of the vitelline envelope in Bufo arenarum oocytes matured in vitro in blockade to polyspermy.

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    Oterino, J; Sánchez Toranzo, G; Zelarayán, L; Ajmat, M T; Bonilla, F; Bühler, M I

    2006-05-01

    During activation of amphibian eggs, cortical granule exocytosis causes elaborate ultrastructural changes in the vitelline envelope. These changes involve modifications in the structure of the vitelline envelope and formation of a fertilization envelope (FE) that can no longer be penetrated by sperm. In Bufo arenarum, as the egg traverses the oviduct, the vitelline envelope is altered by a trypsin-like protease secreted by the oviduct, which induces an increased susceptibility of the vitelline envelope to sperm lysins. Full-grown oocytes of B. arenarum, matured in vitro by progesterone, are polyspermic, although cortical granule exocytosis seems to occur within a normal chronological sequence. These oocytes can be fertilized with or without trypsin treatment, suggesting that the vitelline envelope is totally sperm-permeable. Vitelline envelopes without trypsin treatment cannot retain either gp90 or gp96. This suggests that these glycoproteins are involved in the block to polyspermy and that trypsin treatment of matured in vitro oocytes before insemination is necessary to enable vitelline envelopes to block polyspermy. The loss of the binding capacity in vitelline envelopes isolated from B. arenarum oocytes matured in vitro with trypsin treatment and activated by electric shock suggests that previous trypsin treatment is a necessary step for sperm block to occur. When in vitro matured oocytes were incubated with the product of cortical granules obtained from in vitro matured oocytes (vCGP), vitelline envelopes with trypsin treatment were able to block sperm entry. These oocytes exhibited the characteristic signs of activation. These results support the idea that B. arenarum oocytes can be activated by external stimuli and suggest the presence of unknown oocyte surface receptors linked to the activation machinery in response to fertilization. Electrophoretic profiles obtained by SDS-PAGE of solubilized vitelline envelopes from oocytes matured in vitro revealed the

  8. Estereoultraestructura del pulmón de anuros bufónidos. Bufo arenarum

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    Hermida, Gladys N.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Scanning electron microscopy was used to determined the inner morphology of the Bufo arenarum lung. The observations let conclude that the lung presents three types of folds which divide the organ into alveolar spaces. The inner surface of the lung, as well as the lateral wall of the folds are lined with respiratory epithelium, except in the apex of the primary folds (ciliated surface with goblet cells and in the secondary folds (ciliated surface.

  9. Anomalías oculares en híbridos Bufo paranecmis ♂ x Bufo arenarum ♀ (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Rengel, Dora

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Los híbridos entre Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum se encuadran en los llamados "híbridos vitales". Los resultados han evidenciado relevantes anomalías oculares que se manifiestan en un 90% de los casos. En algunas larvas falta el cristalino tanto en uno como en ambos ojos (20%; en otras larvas el cristalino se encuentra ubicado en posición opuesta al normal (25% o bien puede ocurrir que se forme un ojo normal y el otro de forma distinta (20%. El análisis histológico mostró anomalías en la zona retiniana, evidenciándose a partir de los estratos pigmentarios, repliegues y movimientos flexuosos (5%. También existen ojos replegados sobre sí mismos (5%. Las alteraciones más severas llevaron a procesos de anoftalmia (10%. En ocasiones (5% en lugar del ojo se evidencian grumos de pigmento. Se obtuvo un 10% con ojos normales. Los otros órganos presentan analogía con los de las larvas de Bufo paracnemis, inclusive la librea dorsal. The hybrids between Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum are counted among tbe so called "vital hybrids". Our results have revealed relevant ocular anomalies in 90% of cases. In some larvae the lens is lacking in either one or both eyes (20%; in others the lens it is found in an opposite position to normal (25% or else one normal and one different eye is formed (20%. Histological analysis reveals anomalies in the retinal area, observing flexuous movements in the pigmentary strata (5%. Eyes folded over themselves were also observed (5%. The most severe alterations produced cases of anophtalmia (10%. On occasions (5%, groupings of pigments were found instead of the eyes. l0% of the larvae were normal. The other organs show analogies to those of the larvae of Bufo paracnemis, including the dorsal pattem.

  10. The arsenic action during the Bufo arenarum gonad development (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Rengel, Dora

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Bufo arenarum ovulations have been kept in potassium bibasic arsenate from the fertilization until 26mm larva. The gonad in development, in the presence of the toxic, suffers significant alterations in its volume, shape and structure. It does not have the typical naillike morphology; on the other hand, it is presented as a spherical mass of reduced volume, that has, as demostrated by the histological analysis, very few oocytes or gonia submerged in a very scarce quantity of stroma. The hypothesis of this study was that it would be due to a succession of events whose cause would lie on the damage that the arsenic determine at the somatic layers level.

  11. Vitellogenesis in Bufo arenarum: Identification, characterization and immunolocalization of high molecular mass lipovitellin during oogenesis

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    O’Brien, Emma D.; Salicioni, Ana M.; Cabada, Marcelo O.; Arranz, Silvia E.

    2009-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg), a large lipoglycophosphoprotein, is the most important precursor of the yolk proteins, and the major source of nutrients for the developing embryo in oviparous species. After its uptake by the oocytes, Vtg is converted into lipovitellins (high and light) and phosvitin, which are deposited into crystalline yolk platelets. We describe here the presence of two high molecular mass lipovitellins isoforms in Bufo arenarum mature oocytes with masses of 113 and 100 kDa, respectively. The amino acid sequence analysis of p113 and p100 peptides showed a high sequence homology between both polypeptides and the complete reported sequences of Xenopus laevis vitellogenin. Using specific antibodies, we determined that the Vtg uptake begins early during oogenesis, at the previtellogenic stage, and continues until oocytes have reached their mature status. In addition, we found that large endocytic vesicles mediate Vtg uptake in stage I oocytes, and that the size of the endocytic vesicles declines with oogenesis progression. In terms of the Vtg protein trafficking, we detected the Vtg precursor (190 kDa) in the liver of estradiol-injected females. Finally, we propose a subclassification of B. arenarum stage-II oocytes into three physiologically and morphologically distinct periods (early, mid and late). PMID:19932187

  12. Expression of phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic enzymes during early embryogenesis in the amphibian Bufo arenarum.

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    Fernández-Bussy, Rodrigo; Mouguelar, Valeria; Banchio, Claudia; Coux, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    In the principal route of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis the regulatory steps are catalysed by CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) and choline kinase (CK). Knock-out mice in Pcyt1a (CCT gene) and Chka1 (CK gene) resulted in preimplantation embryonic lethality, demonstrating the essential role of this pathway. However, there is still a lack of detailed CCT and CK expression analysis during development. The aim of the current work was to study the expression during early development of both enzymes in the external-fertilization vertebrate Bufo arenarum. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot confirmed their presence in unfertilized eggs. Analysis performed in total extracts from staged embryos showed constant protein levels of both enzymes until the 32-cell stage: then they decreased, reaching a minimum in the gastrula before starting to recover. CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase is an amphitropic enzyme that inter-converts between cytosolic inactive and membrane-bound active forms. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that the cytosolic:total CCT protein ratio does not change throughout embryogenesis, suggesting a progressive decline of CCT activity in early development. However, PC (and phosphatidylethanolamine) content per egg/embryo remained constant throughout the stages analysed. In conclusion, the current data for B. arenarum suggest that net synthesis of PC mediated by CCT and CK is not required in early development and that supplies for membrane biosynthesis are fulfilled by lipids already present in the egg/embryo reservoirs.

  13. Calcineurin regulates progressive motility activation of Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum sperm through dephosphorylation of PKC substrates.

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    Krapf, Dario; O'Brien, Emma; Maidagán, Paula M; Morales, Enrique S; Visconti, Pablo E; Arranz, Silvia E

    2014-10-01

    Animals with external fertilization, as amphibians, store their sperm in a quiescent state in the testis. When spermatozoa are released into natural fertilization media, the hypotonic shock triggers activation of sperm motility. Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum sperm are immotile in artificial seminal plasma (ASP, resembling testicular plasma tonicity) but acquire in situ flagellar beating upon dilution. However, if components from the egg shelly coat are added to this medium, motility shifts to a progressive pattern. Recently, we have shown that the signal transduction pathway required for in situ motility activation involves a rise in intracellular cAMP through a transmembrane adenylyl cyclase and activation of PKA, mostly in the midpiece and in the sperm head. In this report, we demonstrate that activation of calcineurin (aka PP2B and PPP3) is required for the shift from in situ to progressive sperm motility. The effect of calcineurin is manifested by dephosphorylation of PKC substrates, and can be promoted by intracellular calcium rise by Ca(2+) ionophore. Both phosphorylated PKC substrates and calcineurin localized to the flagella, indicating a clear differentiation between compartmentalization of PKA and calcineurin pathways. Moreover, no crosstalk is observed between these signaling events, even though both pathways are required for progressive motility acquisition as discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

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    Herkovits, J.; D’Eramo, J. L.; Fridman, O.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300–310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure. PMID:16823076

  15. Involvement of the dehydroleucodine alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone function in GVBD inhibition in Bufo arenarum oocytes.

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    Sánchez Toranzo, G; López, L A; Martínez, J Zapata; Bühler, M C Gramajo; Bühler, M I

    2010-02-01

    Dehydroleucodine (DhL), a sesquiterpenic lactone, was isolated and purified from aerial parts of Artemisia douglasiana Besser, a medicinal herb used in Argentina. DhL is an alpha-methylene butyro-gamma-lactone ring connected to a seven-membered ring fused to an exocyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated cyclopentenone ring. It has been previously shown that DhL selectively induces a dose-dependent transient arrest in G2 of both meristematic cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Treatment with DhL induces an inhibition of spontaneous and progesterone-induced maturation in a dose-dependent manner in Bufo arenarum fully grown oocytes arrested at G2, at the beginning of meiosis I. However, the nature of the mechanisms involved in the process is still unknown. The aim of this work was to analyse whether DhL's alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone function is responsible for the inhibition effect on meiosis reinitiation of Bufo arenarum oocytes as well as some of the transduction pathways that could be involved in this effect using a derivative of DhL inactivated for alpha-methylenelactone, the 11,13-dihydro-dehydroleucodine (2H-DhL). The use of 2H-DhL in the maturation promoting factor (MPF) amplification experiments by injection of both cytoplasm with active MPF and of germinal vesicle content showed results similar to the ones obtained with DhL, suggesting that the hydrogenated derivative would act in a similar way to DhL. Pretreatment with DhL or 2H-DhL did not affect the percentage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) induced by H89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, which suggests that these lactones would act on another step of the signalling pathway that induces MPF activation. The fact that both DhL and 2H-Dhl inhibit GVBD induced by okadaic acid microinjection suggests that they could act on the activity of the Myt1 kinase. This idea is supported by the experiments of injection of GV contents in which an inhibitory effect of these lactones on GVBD was also observed. Our

  16. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

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    O. Fridman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300-310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A, 820(B, 1368(C and 1915(D Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure.

  17. El ciclo evolutivo experimental de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei en Paracyclops fimbriatus, larvas de Bufo arenarum y caninos Experimental life cycle of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei in Paracyclops fimbriatus, tadpoles of Bufo arenarum and dogs

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    Lucila Venturini

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue lograr la reproducción experimental del ciclo evolutivo de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea con la intervención de Paracyclops fimbriatus y larvas de Bufo arenarum como hospedadores intermediarios y caninos como hospedadores definitivos. Los huevos del parásito se obtuvieron de heces de caninos infectados naturalmente y se conservaron refrigerados en agua. Se incubaron 7 días a 25°C para que desarrollaran los coracidios y se pusieron en recipientes que contenían a los copépodos mencionados. Al cabo de 12 días a 22,6°C (promedio se hallaron procercoides maduros en ellos y se agregaron 10 renacuajos de Bufo arenarum. Estos se examinaron por disección 22, 23, 61 y 107 días después, hallándose en todos 1 o más plerocercoides (Temperatura promedio: 24,9°C. El día 23, de 6 renacuajos se obtuvieron 49 plerocercoides, de los cuales se administraron 28, por vía oral, a una perra. El día 107, 3 de 11 plerocercoides obtenidos de un renacuajo se le dieron a otra perra por la misma vía. Se hallaron huevos del cestode en las heces del primer canino a partir del día 22 posterior a la infección (p.i. y a los 30 días p.i., segmentos de estróbila. En el segundo canino se hallaron huevos a los 30 días p.i..Experiments were performed in order to develop the life cycle of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea in Paracyclops fimbriatus and Bufo arenarum as intermediate hosts and dogs as definitive hosts. The eggs of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei from faeces of naturally infected dogs were kept refrigered, in water. In order to obtain coracidiums they were incubated at 25°C, and then were placed in a flask which contained Paracyclops fimbriatus. The copepods were observed to be infected with procercoids 12 days after, (mean temperature 22.6°C and then, ten tadpoles of Bufo arenarum were put into the same flask. The tadpoles were examined

  18. Retinol-induced apoptosis in larval pancreas of Bufo bufo

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    Accordi, F; Chimenti, C

    2003-01-01

    Tadpoles of Bufo bufo at the end of premetamorphosis were exposed to the action of retinol diluted in the rearing water at two concentrations: 20 and 40 µm, for 48 h. Assuming that retinol causes growth suppression by cell death induction, the TUNEL reaction for the detection of apoptotic cells was performed on paraffin sections of pancreas. The results showed that retinol induced a significant dose-dependent increase of number of apoptotic cells with respect to controls, in which apoptosis was scarce. Electron microscopic observations of treated specimens showed that the effects of retinol mostly occurred on exocrine cells: condensed crescent-shaped nuclear chromatin, dark cytoplasm with long projections; conversely, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum appeared unaffected. PMID:12713271

  19. Variación estacional en la proporción relativa de los estadios de la oogénesis en Bufo arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Echeverría, Dinorah D.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The Anova repeated measure design was used to compare the percentage of oocytes in female toads (Bufo arenarum at stages 1 to 5 and at different physiological ovary periods (or phases: production, before ovulation, after ovulation. Individual comparisons among stages and between phases have been made with the minimum significant difference method at 0.05 probability level. The statistical analysis at percentage of oocytes showed that: a Stages 1 and 2 have few variation. They are the permanent oocytes group. b Stage 3 (late vitelogenesis oocytes are absent previous to the breeding season. Their rate increases in summer and decreases in autumn. The development of oocytes 3 take place afterwards the ovulation. c Stage 4 increases in autumn and disappears in late winter. d Stage 5 sets up as the 18% of the ovulated oocytes. e. Stages 3, 4 and 5 are renewed every year; they are temporary ovarian oocytes.

  20. Estudio morfométrico sobre el desarrollo y evolución de las glándulas tiroides durante la metamorfosis de Bufo arenarum

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    Miranda, Leandro Andrés

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el desarrollo y la evolución de las glándulas tiroideas durante la morfogénesis de Bufo arenarum. Usando diferentes parámetros morfométricos, hemos relacionado el crecimiento y desarrollo larval con el desarrollo de las glándulas tiroideas. Se observó que la longitud total, el peso de las larvas, el volumen glandular tiroideo y el diámetro folicular, aumentan hasta el estadio XV (fin de la prometamorfosis, mientras que el número de folículos y la altura de las células foliculares tiroideas se incrementan hasta el estadio XVII (mitad del clímax metamórfico. Todos estos parámetros disminuyeron considerablemente durante el clímax metamórfico mientras que en animales postmetamórficos se observó un incremento en los valores registrados. En base a los resultados obtenidos concluimos que hay un período de síntesis y almacenamiento de hormonas tiroideas durante el crecimiento larval y un segundo período caracterizado por la liberación de hormonas tiroideas hacia el final de la prometamorfosis y durante el clímax metamórfico. We studied the development and evolution of thyroid glands during Bufo arenarum morphogenesis. Using different morphometric parameters we related larval growth and metamorphosis with thyroid glands development We observed that total length, larval weight, thyroid gland volume and follicle diameter increased until stage XV (end of prometamorphosis, meanwhile the number of follicles and follicle cell height increased until stage XVII (midclimax. All these parameters decreased during metamorphic climax and an increase was observed in postmetamorphic animals. Our results lead us to conclude that during larval growth there is a period of synthesis and store of thyroid hormones. There is a second period characterized by thyroid hormones release during the end of prometamorphosis and metamorphic climax.

  1. Assessing atrazine-induced toxicities in Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor.

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    Sai, Linlin; Wu, Qingbo; Qu, Binpeng; Bo, Cunxiang; Yu, Gongchang; Jia, Qiang; Xie, Lin; Li, Yuezhong; Guo, Qiming; Ng, Jack C; Peng, Cheng

    2015-02-01

    Atrazine (AZ), a widely used herbicide has drawn attentions for its potential impacts on amphibians. This study aims to investigate the toxicity of AZ in Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (B. bufo gargarizans), a species of toad commonly found in China and countries in East Asia. We treated tadpoles with 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg/L AZ for 85 days and examined related parameters. The results showed that the mortality of the toads in the treatment group increased dramatically in a U-shaped dose-response relationship. The hindlimb extension and metamorphosis rate of the toads were significantly inhibited by AZ at 10 and 100 μg/L. Under the same condition, there were significant progressive changes in the testicular structures. Moreover, we found that AZ has no significant effects on growth, sex ratios, gonadal morphology, forelimb emergence and histology in the ovaries. Our results support the idea that environmental contaminants including AZ may be relevant to global amphibian decline.

  2. Expression of N-CAM-180 and N-Cadherin during development in two southamerican anuran species (Bufo arenarum and Hyla nana

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    VH Casco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadherins and N-CAM are Ca++-dependent and Ca++-independent cell adhesion molecules respectively. These molecules play a key role in morphogenesis and histogenesis. We determined the spatiotemporal pattern of N-cadherin and N-CAM-180 kDa expression by immunohistochemistry during development in two South-American anuran species (Bufo arenarum, toad and Hyla nana, frog. Both N-cadherin and N-CAM were not detectable during early developmental stages. Expression of Ncadherin appeared between the inner and the outer ectoderm layers at stages 19-20. At stages 24 -25, Ncadherin was expressed in the neural tube and the heart. In early tadpoles, N-cadherin expression increased along with the central nervous system (CNS morphogenesis, and reached its maximum level at metamorphic climax stage. N-Cadherin expression was not uniformly distributed. At stage 42, olfactory placodes and retina expressed N-cadherin. Contrary to N-CAM, the strongly myelinated cranial nerves were not labeled. N-Cadherin was present in several mesoderm derivatives such as the notochord, heart and skeletal muscle. The non-neural ectoderm and the endoderm were always negative. Expression of N-CAM appeared first in the neural tube at stages 24-25 and the level of expression became uniform from pre-metamorphic to metamorphic climax tadpoles. At this latter stage, a clear N-CAM immunolabeling appeared in the nerve terminals of pharynx and heart. N-Cadherin and N-CAM were found mainly co-expressed in the CNS from early tadpole to metamorphic climax tadpole. Our results show that the expression of N-CAM and N-cadherin is evolutionary conserved. Their increased expression during late developmental stages suggests that N-CAM and N-cadherin are involved in cell contact stabilization during tissue formation.

  3. Flurochloridone-based herbicides induced genotoxicity effects on Rhinella arenarum tadpoles (Anura: Bufonidae).

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    Nikoloff, Noelia; Natale, Guillermo S; Marino, Damián; Soloneski, Sonia; Larramendy, Marcelo L

    2014-02-01

    Acute toxicity and genotoxicity of the flurochloridone (FLC)-containing commercial formulation herbicides Twin Pack Gold(®) (25 percent a.i.) and Rainbow(®) (25 percent a.i.) were evaluated on Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) tadpoles exposed under laboratory conditions. Lethal effect was evaluated as end point for lethality, whereas frequency of micronuclei (MN) and single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) were employed as end points for genotoxicity. Lethality studies revealed equivalent LC-5096 h values of 2.96 and 2.85 mg/L for Twin Pack Gold(®) and Rainbow(®), respectively. Twin Pack Gold(®) did not induce DNA damage at the chromosomal level, whereas Rainbow(®) increased the frequency of MN only when the lowest concentration (0.71 mg/L) was used. However, all concentrations of Twin Pack Gold(®) and Rainbow(®) increased the frequencies of primary DNA lesions estimated by alkaline SCGE. This study represents the first evidence of the acute toxic and genotoxic effects exerted by two FLC-based commercial formulations, Twin Pack Gold(®) and Rainbow(®), on tadpoles of an amphibian species native to Argentina under laboratory conditions. Finally, our findings highlight the importance of minimizing the impacts on nontarget living species exposed to agrochemicals. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cinobufacini, an aqueous extract from Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor, induces apoptosis through a mitochondria-mediated pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fanghua; Li, Anyuan; Zhao, Lin; Xu, Huanli; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Wang, Dongliang; Cui, Xiaoyan; Gao, Bo; Kokudo, Norihiro; Nakata, Munehiro; Tang, Wei

    2010-04-21

    Cinobufacini (Huachansu), an aqueous extract from the skin and parotid venom glands of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor, is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used in clinical cancer therapy in China. The present study sought to investigate the possible signaling pathway implicated in cinobufacini-induced apoptosis in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG(2) and Bel-7402. The effects of cinobufacini on cell proliferation of HepG(2) and Bel-7402 cells were evaluated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry analysis. The mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim) and caspase-9 and -3 activity were detected using MitoCapture reagent staining and colorimetric assays, respectively. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins and release of cytochrome c were assessed by Western blot analysis. Cinobufacini significantly inhibited cell proliferation of both cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Marked changes in apoptotic morphology and apoptosis rates were clearly observed after cinobufacini treatment. The protein expression of Bax increased whereas that of Bcl-2 decreased, leading to an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Subsequently, cinobufacini disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim) and resulted in the release of cytochrome c, activation of both caspase-9 and -3, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). The present study indicated that cinobufacini can induce apoptosis of HepG(2) and Bel-7402 cells through a mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Control of spatial orientation in terrestrial toads (Rhinella arenarum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneri, M Florencia; Casanave, Emma; Muzio, Rubén N

    2011-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine problem-solving strategies used by toads, Rhinella arenarum (= Bufo arenarum), in spatial learning situations, using water as reward. Experiment 1 showed that toads can acquire a spatial orientation based on a body-centered turn -an internal self-reference cue. Experiment 2 showed that toads can use a fixed landmark (visual cue) as guidance to solve a spatial problem. Experiment 3 determined whether maze learning was based on "body-centered turn" or "guidance". In this case, animals were trained with a fixed visual cue in relation to a body-centered turn (i.e., simultaneously with the internal self-reference cue) and then tested with the visual cue dissociated from positional cues. Toads trained with the combination of a visual cue and a body-centered turn preferred the latter (turn response) when the two sources of information were set in conflict on probe trials. Toads showed behavioral patterns similar to those described in rodents trained under similar condition, thus, suggesting an early evolutionary origin for these problem-solving strategies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. [Bufadienolides from venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Wei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wen-Cai; Tian, Hai-Yan

    2014-03-01

    Twelve compounds were isolated from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans. On the basis of their physical and chemical properties and spectral data, their structures were identified as resibufagenin (1), bufotalin (2), desacetylcinobufagin (3), 19-oxodesacetylcinobufotalin (4), cinobufotalin (5), 1beta-hydroxylbufalin (6), 12alpha-hydroxybufalin (7), bufotalinin (8), Hellebrigenin (9), telocinobufagin (10), hellebrigenol (11) and cinobufagin-3-hemisuberate methyl ester (12), respectively. Compounds 7 and 12 are new natural products.

  7. How complex is the Bufo bufo species group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntzen, Jan W; Recuero, Ernesto; Canestrelli, Daniele; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo

    2013-12-01

    Species delineation remains one of the most challenging tasks in the study of biodiversity, mostly owing to the application of different species concepts, which results in contrasting taxonomic arrangements. This has important practical consequences, since species are basic units in fields like ecology and conservation biology. We here review molecular genetic evidence relevant to the systematics of toads in the Bufo bufo species group (Anura, Bufonidae). Two studies recently published in this journal (Recuero et al., MPE 62: 71-86 and García-Porta et al., MPE 63: 113-130) addressed this issue but reached opposing conclusions on the taxonomy of the group (four versus two species). In particular, allozyme data in the latter paper were interpreted as evidence for hybridization across species (between B. bufo-B. spinosus and B. bufo-B. verrucosissimus). We tested claims for hybridization through re-analysis of allozyme data for individuals instead of populations, to be able to distinguish between sympatry with and without admixture, and found no evidence of hybridization across taxa. We propose alternative explanations for the observed patterns that García-Porta et al. (2012) failed to consider. In the absence of unequivocal evidence for hybridization and introgression, we reject the proposal to downgrade Bufo spinosus and Bufo verrucosissimus to the subspecies level. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluctuating asymmetry rather than oxidative stress in Bufo raddei can be an accurate indicator of environmental pollution induced by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, Wenya; Ai, Shiwei; Ren, Liang; Zhang, Yingmei

    2017-06-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as risk markers for environmental stress are widely used to predict changes in the health and fitness of many animals exposed to pollutants. However, from the perspective of protecting declining amphibians, it remains to be verified which one would be a reliable indicator for amphibians exposed to long-term heavy metal pollution under natural conditions. In this study, the OS and FA of Bufo raddei exposed to natural heavy metal pollution were analyzed to determine which marker is more accurate for indicating heavy metal-induced stress. Three years of data were collected during the breeding season of B. raddei from Baiyin (BY), which has been mainly contaminated with Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd compounds for a long period, and from Liujiaxia (LJX), which is a relatively unpolluted area. Unexpectedly, although significant accumulation of the four heavy metals was found in the kidney and liver of B. raddei from BY, the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde in these two organs were found to be irregular, with low repeatability in both BY and LJX. However, significant differences in the levels of FA were observed in B. raddei populations from these two areas over the past 3 years (P < 0.01). The degrees of FA in B. raddei populations from BY and LJX were assessed as degree 4 and 1, respectively. In short, this study suggested that FA was a more reliable and effective indicator than OS to monitor and predict long-term environmental stress on anuran amphibians.

  9. Bufadienolides and polyhydroxycholestane derivatives from Bufo bufo gargarizans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Min; Li, Zong-Yun; Wang, Jing-Jing; Wu, Xi-Yan; Gao, Hui-Min; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2015-01-01

    A new polyhydroxycholestane sulfate ester, 3α,12β,25,26-tetrahydroxy-7-oxo-5β-cholestane 26-O-sulfate (1), was isolated from dried skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor and its structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR as well as HR-ESI-MS analysis. A comparison of steroidal metabolite profiles, based on HPLC and LC-MS analyses, indicates that the chemical compositions of the various parts of toads, such as venom, skin and stratum corneum, are significantly different.

  10. Mechanisms of ion transport in the mesonephric collecting duct system of Bufo bufo as revealed by microelectrode recordings in isolated perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2002-01-01

    amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad......amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad...

  11. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca; Tripepi, Manuela; Brunelli, Elvira

    2013-05-15

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was greater and we

  12. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy); Tripepi, Manuela [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, 201 Leidy Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brunelli, Elvira, E-mail: brunelli@unical.it [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was

  13. Endosulfan acute toxicity in Bufo bufo gills: ultrastructural changes and nitric oxide synthase localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Brunelli, Elvira; Berg, Cecilia; Bonacci, Antonella; Tripepi, Sandro

    2008-02-18

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide used in agriculture for a wide range of crops. Endosulfan concentrations of up to 0.7 mg/L can be found in ponds and streams near sprayed agricultural fields. We investigated the short-term toxicity of endosulfan in common toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles after 24, 48, and 96 h of exposure. Acute toxicity was evaluated at nominal concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.6 mg/L: concentrations that could be found after the application of pesticide. Our results show that 0.43 mg/L of endosulfan caused 50% mortality (LC(50)). The effects of a sublethal endosulfan concentration (0.2mg/L) on gill apparatus morphology were evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical methods were also applied to detect the expression pattern of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the gills using the confocal laser scanner microscope. Exposure to 0.2mg/L of endosulfan caused an apparent increase in mucus production, the occurrence of secretory vesicles and lamellar bodies, a widening of intercellular spaces and additionally there was evidence of an inflammatory response in the gill apparatus. The morphological alterations occurred after 24h and were more pronounced after 48 and 96 h of exposure. Altered morphology and increased mucus secretion indicate impaired gas exchange and osmoregulation in the gills. In addition, there was an increase of iNOS expression after 24 and 48 h which may reflect hypoxia and inflammation in the gill epithelium. Our results clearly indicate that short-term exposure to a sublethal concentration of endosulfan, near the high end of the environmental range, disrupts gill morphology and function in B. bufo tadpoles.

  14. Hormonal induction of spermatozoa from amphibians with Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo as anuran models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uteshev, V K; Shishova, N V; Kaurova, S A; Browne, R K; Gakhova, E N

    2012-01-01

    The use of hormonally induced spermatozoa expressed in urine (HISu) is a valuable component of reproduction technologies for amphibians. Five protocols for sampling HISu from the European common frog (Rana temporaria) were compared: (1) pituitary extracts, (2) 0.12 µg g⁻¹ luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa), (3) 1.20 µg g⁻¹ LHRHa, (4) 11.7 IU g⁻¹ human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and (5) 23.4 IU g⁻¹ hCG (g⁻¹ = per gram bodyweight). From 1 to 24h after administration we assessed the number and concentration of spermatozoa in spermic urine and in holding water, and in urine the percentage of motile spermatozoa and their progressive motility. The protocol using 1.20 µg g⁻¹ LHRHa gave the highest total sperm numbers (650 × 10⁶) and the highest percentage (40%) of samples with sperm concentrations above 200 × 10⁶ mL⁻¹. The percentage motility and progressive motility was similar from all protocols. Considerable amounts of spermatozoa were expressed by R. temporaria into their holding water. We tested hormonal priming and spermiation in the common toad (Bufo bufo) using 0.13 µg g⁻¹ LHRHa administered 24h before a final spermiating dose of 12.8 IU g⁻¹ hCG. No spermatozoa were expressed in holding water. Priming resulted in 35% more spermatozoa than without; however, there were no differences in sperm concentrations. Primed B. bufo produced spermatozoa with significantly higher percentage motility, but not progressive motility, membrane integrity, or abnormal spermatozoa than unprimed males.

  15. Endosulfan acute toxicity in Bufo bufo gills: Ultrastructural changes and nitric oxide synthase localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabo, Ilaria [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy); Brunelli, Elvira [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)], E-mail: brunelli@unical.it; Berg, Cecilia [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18A, 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Bonacci, Antonella; Tripepi, Sandro [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2008-02-18

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide used in agriculture for a wide range of crops. Endosulfan concentrations of up to 0.7 mg/L can be found in ponds and streams near sprayed agricultural fields. We investigated the short-term toxicity of endosulfan in common toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles after 24, 48, and 96 h of exposure. Acute toxicity was evaluated at nominal concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.6 mg/L: concentrations that could be found after the application of pesticide. Our results show that 0.43 mg/L of endosulfan caused 50% mortality (LC{sub 50}). The effects of a sublethal endosulfan concentration (0.2 mg/L) on gill apparatus morphology were evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical methods were also applied to detect the expression pattern of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the gills using the confocal laser scanner microscope. Exposure to 0.2 mg/L of endosulfan caused an apparent increase in mucus production, the occurrence of secretory vesicles and lamellar bodies, a widening of intercellular spaces and additionally there was evidence of an inflammatory response in the gill apparatus. The morphological alterations occurred after 24 h and were more pronounced after 48 and 96 h of exposure. Altered morphology and increased mucus secretion indicate impaired gas exchange and osmoregulation in the gills. In addition, there was an increase of iNOS expression after 24 and 48 h which may reflect hypoxia and inflammation in the gill epithelium. Our results clearly indicate that short-term exposure to a sublethal concentration of endosulfan, near the high end of the environmental range, disrupts gill morphology and function in B. bufo tadpoles.

  16. Cromoblastomicosis Experimental en Bufo marinus

    OpenAIRE

    Trejos, A.

    2016-01-01

    Reviewing the observations of CARINI and the experimental work of ALMEIDA and AREA LEAO, MELLO & CURY on the pathogenicity of the etiologic agents of Chromoblastomycosis inyected intraperitonealy in Salientia species Leptodactylus ocellatus and L. pentadactylus, we decided to determine the pathogenicity of Fonsecaeae pedrosoi on Bufo marinus. Six specimens were innoculated with suspensions of cultures of this fungs obtained from six human cases, using one strain per animal.At autopsy, one obs...

  17. [Isolation and structure identification of chemical constituents from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li-Ping; Gao, Hui-Min; Wang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Wei-Hao

    2007-08-01

    The skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans, originated from Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (Bufonidae), is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of hepatoma, lung cancer and etc. The preparation of the aqueous components has significant therapeutic effect against the digestive tract cancer. The water-soluble chemical constituents in the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans were then investigated to make clear the active compounds. Six compounds were isolated and purified by recrystallization and column chromatography on silica gel and ODS, their structures were elucidated as 4-amido-3-hydroxymethyl-cyclooctylamidezotetra-alpha-furanone (I), bufogargarizanine C (II), bufothionine (III), dehydrobufotenine hydrobromide (IV), suberic acid (V) and succinic acid (VI) on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data (UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS). Of the above compounds, compounds I and II are new compounds and named bufogargarizanine B and C, respectively.

  18. C23 steroids from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hai-Yan; Luo, Shi-Lin; Liu, Jun-Shan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2013-10-25

    Five new C23 steroids (1-5) together with five known bufadienolides (6-10) were isolated from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans (ChanSu in Chinese). The structures of the new steroids were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods in combination with X-ray diffraction analysis. Among these C23 steroids, only compound 3 showed cytotoxicities against HepG2 and A549 cancer cells, with respective IC50 values of 26.8 ± 8.3 and 45.6 ± 2.5 μM. In contrast, the bufadienolides (7-10) displayed potent inhibitory activities against these cancer cells, with respective IC50 values in the ranges 0.5-5.5 and 0.6-6.5 μM, but relatively less cytotoxicity on normal mouse spleen cells. In addition, the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activities of 2, 5, and 7 revealed that the lactone moiety of a bufadienolide was important for the inhibitory activity.

  19. Assessment of age and intersexual size differences in Bufo bufo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragana D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have underlined the complex nature of relationship between age, size, and reproductive traits in anurans. One of the most intriguing problems for evolutionary biologists is intersexual difference in body size (SSD. For testing various hypotheses about SSD, we need reliable estimates of its extent (the important issue being the choice of trait for analysis as well as the accurate determination of individual age. The measures of SSD may be subject to error if estimated from populations with unknown age distribution; amphibians continue to grow throughout their life and SSD is linked to sex differences in traits such as age at maturity and lifespan. In the present paper, we analyze problems involved in accurate determination of age structure and factors that may lead to under- or overestimation of individual age, as well as the problem of appropriate choice of traits, in the light of our experience and results of investigating populations of common toad (Bufo bufo in the vicinity of Belgrade.

  20. Chromatographic Fingerprint-Bioactivity Relationships of the Antitumor Properties of Bufo bufo gargarizans Skin Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lulu; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Surong; Pan, Qiong; Zhang, Hongmin; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Zhitao

    2016-01-01

    Statistical analyses of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based chemical fingerprints of Bufo bufo gargarizans toad skin extracts were integrated with antitumor evaluations as a means to more effectively identify bioactive constituents. Specifically, chemical fingerprints of Bufo bufo gargarizans skin extract samples obtained from ten different regions in China were generated by HPLC, and then subjected to similarity analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). Concurrently, a MCF-7 breast cancer cell model was adopted to obtain the antitumor activity of different toad skin extracts. The chromatographic fingerprint-bioactivity relationships of the Bufo bufo gargarizans extracts were then evaluated by Pearson correlation analysis. The results demonstrated that all skin extract samples inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells to some extent, and that there was a correlation between the chemical fingerprints and the anti-proliferative activity. Bufotalin, bufalin, and cinobufagin, three known components of Bufo bufo gargarizans that were identified in the chemical fingerprints, were highlighted as constituents responsible for the observed bioactivity. The activity of cinobufagin was confirmed by cell viability and colony formation assays using MCF-7 cells. The approach documented here provides a more effective means to associate chemical information on medicinal extracts with the principle components responsible for their bioactivity, and to therefore expedite drug discovery.

  1. Bufospirostenin A and Bufogargarizin C, Steroids with Rearranged Skeletons from the Toad Bufo bufo gargarizans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hai-Yan; Ruan, Li-Jun; Yu, Tong; Zheng, Qing-Fei; Chen, Nan-Hao; Wu, Rui-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2017-04-28

    Bufospirostenin A (1) and bufogargarizin C (2), two novel steroids with rearranged A/B rings, were isolated from the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans. Compound 1 represents the first spirostanol found in animals. Compound 2 is an unusual bufadienolide with a cycloheptatriene B ring. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and computational calculations.

  2. A contribution to the intraspecific systematics of Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de L.

    1973-01-01

    A biometrical analysis of preserved specimens of Bufo bufo, supplemented by a detailed examination of the shape of the skin warts, was performed in order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the form described as B.b.spinosus. Indications of a N.-S. clinal variation in the formation of wart thorns

  3. Physiological and molecular mechanisms of inorganic phosphate handling in the toad Bufo bufo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Werner, Andreas; Hansen, Sofie M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate mechanisms of P(i) handling in toads (Bufo bufo). We introduced toads to experimental solutions of various [P(i)] and high P(i) diets and measured urine and lymph [P(i)]. Both lymph and urine [P(i)] increased with increasing P(i) loads, indicating P...

  4. Phenotypic divergence of the common toad (Bufo bufo) along an altitudinal gradient: evidence for local adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquet, E; Léna, J-P; Miaud, C; Plénet, S

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the environment can induce different patterns of genetic and phenotypic differentiation among populations. Both neutral processes and selection can influence phenotypic differentiation. Altitudinal phenotypic variation is of particular interest in disentangling the interplay between neutral processes and selection in the dynamics of local adaptation processes but remains little explored. We conducted a common garden experiment to study the phenotypic divergence in larval life-history traits among nine populations of the common toad (Bufo bufo) along an altitudinal gradient in France. We further used correlation among population pairwise estimates of quantitative trait (QST) and neutral genetic divergence (FST from neutral microsatellite markers), as well as altitudinal difference, to estimate the relative role of divergent selection and neutral genetic processes in phenotypic divergence. We provided evidence for a neutral genetic differentiation resulting from both isolation by distance and difference in altitude. We found evidence for phenotypic divergence along the altitudinal gradient (faster development, lower growth rate and smaller metamorphic size). The correlation between pairwise QSTs-FSTs and altitude differences suggested that this phenotypic differentiation was most likely driven by altitude-mediated selection rather than by neutral genetic processes. Moreover, we found different divergence patterns for larval traits, suggesting that different selective agents may act on these traits and/or selection on one trait may constrain the evolution on another through genetic correlation. Our study highlighted the need to design more integrative studies on the common toad to unravel the underlying processes of phenotypic divergence and its selective agents in the context of environmental clines.

  5. Water-balance response of Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867 tadpoles to graduated increase in environmental osmolarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ferrari

    Full Text Available The water balance and the upper limit of osmotic tolerance of premetamorphic Rhinella arenarum larvae (Gosner's stage 26 was evaluated after semistatic incubation in electrolyte (NaCl and non-electrolyte (mannitol media following a protocol of progressively increased osmotic pressure. Wet and dry weights were measured to calculate the water content as a derived variable indicative of the hydric balance. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and integrated multivariate analysis. Tadpoles survived in electrolyte and non-electrolyte solutions up to 200 mOsm. The discriminant function was the best tool to describe the responses of the animals to external environmental stress under experimental conditions. The results were compared with those obtained in previous studies using a protocol of acute exposure to the same media used in this study. It was concluded that a multivariate analysis is an appropriate approach to describe the responses of tadpoles to changes in the environmental physicochemical parameters, and b progressive and acute acclimation to the experimental solutions induced similar responses.

  6. Agregace jako antipredační strategie u pulců ropuchy obecné (\\kur{Bufo bufo}).

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnár, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Tadpoles of many anuran species use a huge number of behavioral modifications to avoid predators. Reduced activity in presence of predators is favorite strategy for common toad tadpoles (Bufo bufo). Responses against predator cues by tadpoles of Bufo bufo in the presence of another cue of larger tadpole aggregation were tested in this study. We observed that these tadpoles responded differently to predator chemical cues than tadpoles in a small group.

  7. Molecular effectors in the chronic exposure to arsenic as early and sensitive biomarkers in developing Rhinella arenarum toads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardirosian, Mariana Noelia; Ceschin, Danilo Guillermo; Lascano, Cecilia Inés; Venturino, Andrés, E-mail: a.venturino@conicet.gov.ar

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Arsenic early induces MAPK pathway in R. arenarum embryos and larvae. • The MAPKs MEK-ERK in turn upregulate the transcription factors c-FOS and c-JUN. • SOD, CAT and GST would be affected by ROS at synthesis and degradation level. • Low As levels inducing molecular biomarkers have high probabilities of exceedence. • Molecular biomarkers are most adequate to ascertain As impact in R. arenarum. - Abstract: Arsenic, a natural element of ecological relevance, is one of the most toxic elements present in various regions of the world. It can be found in natural water sources throughout Argentina in concentrations between 0.01 and 15 mg L{sup –1}. The Argentinean autochthonous toad Rhinella arenarum was selected to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the effects and response to the chronic As exposure along its embryonic and larval development. We evaluated the effects on MAPK signal transduction pathway and transcription factors c-FOS and c-JUN, and the regulation of the expression at protein levels of different antioxidant enzymes. Our results indicated that As is modulating the MAPK pathway, increasing MEK and ERK levels both in the nuclear and post-nuclear fraction along the embryonic development and mainly at the beginning of the larval stage. Through this pathway, As can upregulate transcription factors like c-FOS and c-JUN, impacting the antioxidant response of the exposed embryos and larvae through antioxidant enzymes and recycling of GSH. Arsenic triggered specifically the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes in exposed R. arenarum embryo and larvae. In particular, the expression levels of SOD, CAT and GST enzymes analyzed by Western blot showed a similar behavior to their enzymatic activities in our previous work. This fact suggests that not only the synthesis of these antioxidant enzymes but also their rapid degradation after inactivation would be regulated in response to ROS levels. Antioxidant enzymes may show dual responses of

  8. New bufadienolides and C(23) steroids from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hai-Yan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Wang, Ying; Liu, Jun-Shan; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2010-12-01

    Six new bufadienolides (1-6) and two new C(23) steroids (7 and 8), together with three known compounds (9-11) were isolated from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In vitro cytotoxicities of all compounds were evaluated in A549 cancer cell line. Compounds 2, 3 and 10 showed significant cytotoxic activities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biological activities of skin and parotoid gland secretions of bufonid toads (Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Karış, Mert; Yalcin, Husniye Tansel; Göçmen, Bayram

    2016-05-01

    Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain numerous natural agents which may provide unique resources for novel drug development. Especially the skin-parotoid gland secretions of toads from genus Bufo contain as many as 86 different types of active compounds, each with the potential of becoming a potent drug. In the present study, crude skin-parotoid gland secretions from Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis from Turkey were screened against various cancer cells together with normal cells using MTT assay. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of skin secretions were tested on selected bacterial and fungal species for assessing the possible medical applications. Antimicrobial activity of skin secretions was studied by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity of each skin-secretion was also estimated for evaluating pharmaceutical potential. Both skin-parotoid gland secretions showed high cytotoxic effect on all cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines with IC50 values varying between <0.1μg/ml and 6.02μg/ml. MIC results of antimicrobial activity tests were found to be between 3.9μg/ml and 250μg/ml. No hemolytic activities on rabbit red blood cells at concentrations between 0.5μg/ml and 50μg/ml were observed. In conclusion, skin-parotoid secretions of bufonid toads might be remarkable candidates for anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents without hemolytic activities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. A curious case of herbivory in the common toad Rhinella arenarum during hibernation in captivity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozzi, Andrea Gabriela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente nota es documentar un comportamiento curioso ocurrido con un grupo de animales adultos de Rhinella arenarum que fueron mantenidos en condiciones de hibernación artificial en el laboratorio durante abril-julio del 2012.

  11. blood glucose level in Bufo gutturalis (power)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a larger study dealing with glucose homeostasis in the toad Bufo gutturalis. Seven groups of seven toads each were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for one month. During this period the toads were fed daily on live insects and were housed in a large laboratory terrarium in which the natural habitat was simulated as ...

  12. Multilocus species tree analyses resolve the radiation of the widespread Bufo bufo species group (Anura, Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuero, E; Canestrelli, D; Vörös, J; Szabó, K; Poyarkov, N A; Arntzen, J W; Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J; Kidov, A A; Cogălniceanu, D; Caputo, F P; Nascetti, G; Martínez-Solano, I

    2012-01-01

    New analytical methods are improving our ability to reconstruct robust species trees from multilocus datasets, despite difficulties in phylogenetic reconstruction associated with recent, rapid divergence, incomplete lineage sorting and/or introgression. In this study, we applied these methods to resolve the radiation of toads in the Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae) species group, ranging from the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa to Siberia, based on sequences from two mitochondrial and four nuclear DNA regions (3490 base pairs). We obtained a fully-resolved topology, with the recently described Bufo eichwaldi from the Talysh Mountains in south Azerbaijan and Iran as the sister taxon to a clade including: (1) north African, Iberian, and most French populations, referred herein to Bufo spinosus based on the implied inclusion of populations from its type locality and (2) a second clade, sister to B. spinosus, including two sister subclades: one with all samples of Bufo verrucosissimus from the Caucasus and another one with samples of B. bufo from northern France to Russia, including the Apennine and Balkan peninsulas and most of Anatolia. Coalescent-based estimations of time to most recent common ancestors for each species and selected subclades allowed historical reconstruction of the diversification of the species group in the context of Mediterranean paleogeography and indicated a long evolutionary history in this region. Finally, we used our data to delimit the ranges of the four species, particularly the more widespread and historically confused B. spinosus and B. bufo, and identify potential contact zones, some of which show striking parallels with other co-distributed species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor blocks hepatitis B virus antigen secretion in HepG2.2.15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Wang, Dongliang; Gao, Jianjun; Qi, Fanghua; Gao, Bo; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fang, Dingzhi; Tang, Wei

    2014-02-01

    The skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor has long been used for the treatment of hepatitis B in China and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO₂) is widely used in extracting active ingredients from natural products. The aim of present study was to assess the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effect of the supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (SCE-BC). Cytotoxicity of SCE-BC was analyzed using an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay in HepG2.2.15 cells. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) concentrations in cell culture medium were determined by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. HBV mRNA in cells was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. SCE-BC concentrations below 10(-2) μg/mL had no significant toxicity to HepG2.2.15 cells. SCE-BC at 10(-4) μg/mL effectively inhibited the secretion of HBeAg by 23.36% on day 6. It was more potent than the positive control lamivudine (100 μg/mL) in terms of the inhibition of HBeAg and HBcrAg secretion on day 6. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, HBV mRNA expression was markedly inhibited in comparison to the control when HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with SCE-BC. Moreover, SCE-BC had greater inhibitory activity with respect to HBeAg than to HBsAg. Since HBeAg promotes immune tolerance and persistent infection during HBV infection, the present results suggest that immune tolerance induced by HBeAg might be overcome by SCE-BC. Therefore, SCE-BC warrants further investigation.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenya; Zhang, Xingjie; Guo, Rui; Tang, Yue; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei is carried out in the present research using Illumina Hiseq 2500. The mitogenome is 17 602 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a D-loop region. The overall base composition of the H-strand is 29.15% for A, 26.09% for C, 15.16% for G, and 29.60% for T. The G + C content is 41.25%. Phylogenetic analyses of B. raddei and other 12 amphibian were carried out using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. The sequences of B. raddei were clustered in genus Bufo.

  15. A New C23 Steroid from the Venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shi-Lin; Tian, Hai-Yan; Liu, Jun-Shan; Wang, Ying; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2015-08-01

    A new C23 steroid, (3β,5β,14β)-methyl (3-hydroxy-14,15-epoxy-20-oxo-21-norcholan-24-oate) (1), together with four known ones (2-5), were isolated from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was also evaluated against human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Compound 3 showed significant cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 16.8 +/- 0.7 μM.

  16. Migrating common toads (Bufo bufo) in rural temperate regions: reservoirs of Salmonella?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian-Fard, Mojdeh; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella infections in amphibians are supposedly highly prevalent. Migrating common amphibian species in cultivated areas such as common toads (Bufo bufo) may thus promote spread and zoonotic transfer of Salmonella to humans, both indirectly by crop and livestock contamination and by direct contact. Between February and April 2011, the intestinal content of 1,740 samples of road-killed migrating common toads in five Flemish provinces of Belgium was examined for the presence of Salmonella using bacterial culture and PCR. All the samples were negative. These results suggest that the role of migrating common toads in maintaining the infection cycle of Salmonella in northern European temperate regions is negligible.

  17. Report of Bufo tihamicus karyotype from Saudi Arabia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdulaziz

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... This study gives a description of the Karyotype of the Tihama toad Bufo tihamicus from Saudi Arabia. Samples of males and females of Bufo tihamicus Parker were collected from Gazan Province of. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The karyotype consists of a diploid number 2n = 22 and the fundamental number ...

  18. Water-balance response of Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867) tadpoles to graduated increase in environmental osmolarity

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari,L.; de la Torre,FR.; Salibián,A.

    2010-01-01

    The water balance and the upper limit of osmotic tolerance of premetamorphic Rhinella arenarum larvae (Gosner's stage 26) was evaluated after semistatic incubation in electrolyte (NaCl) and non-electrolyte (mannitol) media following a protocol of progressively increased osmotic pressure. Wet and dry weights were measured to calculate the water content as a derived variable indicative of the hydric balance. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and integrated multivariate analysi...

  19. Gill alterations as biomarkers of chronic exposure to endosulfan in Bufo bufo tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Elvira; Bernabò, Ilaria; Sperone, Emilio; Tripepi, Sandro

    2010-12-01

    Endosulfan sprayed on agricultural fields accumulates in temporary pools due to surface runoff or sediment transport and may result in high water concentrations in spring and summer, coinciding with breeding and crucial stages of amphibian larval development. In the present study, Bufo bufo tadpoles were exposed to three different concentrations of endosulfan (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/L) until they reached complete metamorphosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of endosulfan, at environmentally relevant concentrations on gill morphology and ultrastructure. Modifications in ultrastructure and cell composition were observed at all concentrations after 96 h. The main gill effects recorded in treated animals were: mucous secretion, the appearance of tubular vesicles cells (TVC) and a degeneration phenomenon. Comparing these results with our previous findings in which we used growth, developmental rate and behaviour as endpoints, we also demonstrated that the first effect of endosulfan on Bufo bufo was gill alteration, thus supporting the role of a morphological approach in toxicological studies. This study provides additional information on the role of morphological studies in demonstrating the effects of exposure to environmental pollutants. In this context, the use of amphibian gills, as effective biomarkers, is a valuable approach in evaluating exposure to agrochemicals.

  20. Antitumor activity of extracts and compounds from the skin of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fanghua; Li, Anyuan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Kokudo, Norihiro; Tamura, Sumihito; Nakata, Munehiro; Tang, Wei

    2011-03-01

    The skin of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor is known to be rich in bufadienolides, peptides and alkaloids. It has been found to be a source of some extracts and biologically active compounds with antitumor activity. Cinobufacini (Huachansu), a Chinese medicine prepared from the dried toad skin, has been widely used in clinical therapy for various cancers in China. Bufadienolides, such as bufalin, cinobufagin, resibufogenin, and telocinobufagin, are the major active compounds derived from the toad skin. They are the maker biologically active compounds of cinobufagin while the antitumor activity of cinobufagin may be due to this kind of components. Experimental research has suggested that cinobufacini and its active compounds (e.g. bufalin and cinobufagin) exhibit significant antitumor activity, including inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell differentiation, induction of apoptosis, disruption of the cell cycle, inhibition of cancer angiogenesis, reversal of multi-drug resistance, and regulation of the immune response. Clinical data have indicated that cinobufacini may have effective anticancer activity with low toxicity and few side effects. Data to date suggest it may also enhance quality of life for patients with cancer. Thus, this review briefly summarizes recent studies on the anticancer activity of cinobufacini and some of its active compounds from the skin of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor. This might provide additional evidence for further study of the extracts and active compounds from the toad skin in cancer treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of spirotetramat on the acute toxicity, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation in Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, XiaoHui; Jiang, ShengJu; Yu, Jun; Zhu, GuoNian; Wu, HuiMing; Mao, ChenLei

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential effects of antioxidant and lipid peroxidation parameters as indicators of exposure to spirotetramat and effects of acute toxicity in the Chinese toad Bufo bufo gargarizans. The results of an acute toxicity test showed that the 72 and 96 h median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) of spirotetramat for tadpoles were 6.98 and 6.45 mg/L, respectively. It indicated that the spirotetramat was moderate toxicity to Chinese toad tadpoles. In a sub-lethal toxicity test, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were determined after exposure to 0.03, 0.06, 0.13, 0.65, and 3.23 mg/L for 4, 15, and 30 days. SOD activity significantly in all experimental groups except the highest concentration group increased on day 4 but decreased on days 15 compared with that of the acetone control (P < 0.05). The most sensitive parameters was GSH-Px activity, which significantly increased on day 4, but was inhibited and decreased after prolonged exposure for 15 and 30 days except the lowest concentration treatment group (P < 0.05). The MDA content significantly decreased on day 30 (P < 0.05). During the entire experimental period, sub-lethal doses spirotetramat caused oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in B. gargarizans tadpoles. These results indicate that sub-lethal even non-lethal spirotetramat are potentially toxic to amphibians. The information presented in this study will be helpful for understanding oxidative stress induced by spirotetramat in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia) at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides based on the active ingredient glyphosate are frequently applied in agriculture, horticulture and private gardens all over the world. Recently, leaching of glyphosate or its metabolite (AMPA) into water bodies inhabited by amphibians has been reported. However, very little is known about non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians and even less is known to what extent different temperatures might alter these effects. Using climate chambers, we investigated the effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup PowerFlex® (480 g L-1 glyphosate, formulated as 588 g L-1 potassium salt) on the larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia: Anura) under different temperature regimes (15°C vs. 20°C). We established five herbicide concentrations: 0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent L-1 and a 4 mg a.e. L-1 pulse treatment (totally three applications of 1.5, 1.5 and another 1 mg a.e. L-1) at each temperature in a full-factorial design. Each treatment combination was replicated five times, the experiment ran for 24 days. Results showed a highly significant effect of temperature on body length and body width but no effect of herbicide concentration on these growth parameters. Moreover, highly significant interactions between herbicide and temperature on body length and body width were observed suggesting that herbicides had different effects on different temperatures. In conclusion, although Roundup PowerFlex® at the tested concentrations appeared to have no acute toxicity to larvae of Common toads, the observed effects on tadpole morphology will potentially affect competitive interactions in spawning ponds of amphibia. Our findings of herbicide x temperature interactions might become more prevalent when human-induced climate change will lead to more extreme temperatures.

  3. Genotoxic effect of a binary mixture of dicamba- and glyphosate-based commercial herbicide formulations on Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867) (Anura, Bufonidae) late-stage larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloneski, Sonia; Ruiz de Arcaute, Celeste; Larramendy, Marcelo L

    2016-09-01

    The acute toxicity of two herbicide formulations, namely, the 57.71 % dicamba (DIC)-based Banvel(®) and the 48 % glyphosate (GLY)-based Credit(®), alone as well as the binary mixture of these herbicides was evaluated on late-stage Rhinella arenarum larvae (stage 36) exposed under laboratory conditions. Mortality was used as an endpoint for determining acute lethal effects, whereas the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay was employed as genotoxic endpoint to study sublethal effects. Lethality studies revealed LC5096 h values of 358.44 and 78.18 mg L(-1) DIC and GLY for Banvel(®) and Credit(®), respectively. SCGE assay revealed, after exposure for 96 h to either 5 and 10 % of the Banvel(®) LC5096 h concentration or 5 and 10 % of the Credit(®) LC5096 h concentration, an equal significant increase of the genetic damage index (GDI) regardless of the concentration of the herbicide assayed. The binary mixtures of 5 % Banvel(®) plus 5 % Credit(®) LC5096 h concentrations and 10 % Banvel(®) plus 10 % Credit(®) LC5096 h concentrations induced equivalent significant increases in the GDI in regard to GDI values from late-stage larvae exposed only to Banvel(®) or Credit(®). This study represents the first experimental evidence of acute lethal and sublethal effects exerted by DIC on the species, as well as the induction of primary DNA breaks by this herbicide in amphibians. Finally, a synergistic effect of the mixture of GLY and DIC on the induction of primary DNA breaks on circulating blood cells of R. arenarum late-stage larvae could be demonstrated.

  4. Final Critical Habitat for the Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis) based on the description provided in the Federal...

  5. Environmentally relevant concentrations of endosulfan impair development, metamorphosis and behaviour in Bufo bufo tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Elvira; Bernabò, Ilaria; Berg, Cecilia; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Bonacci, Antonella; Tripepi, Sandro

    2009-01-31

    Endosulfan is a widely used organochlorine pesticide with well-documented neurotoxic effects in both humans and laboratory animals (mammals and fish). Neurotoxicity has been implied also in amphibians after short-term exposure to endosulfan. Little is known about effects of chronic exposure of endosulfan in amphibians. Previously, we examined the short-term toxicity of endosulfan in common toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles and determined the LC50 value to 0.43 mg/L. In the present study, we investigated the effects of endosulfan on B. bufo tadpoles after chronic exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations. Tadpoles were exposed in a static renewal test, from shortly after hatching (Gosner stage 25) to completed metamorphosis, to 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1mg endosulfan/L (nominal). The exposure period lasted 43-52 days. Mortality, larval growth (mass), development (reached Gosner stage at various times and deformities presence), metamorphosis and behaviour (swimming activity) were monitored regularly over the entire course of larval development. Our results show that 0.05 and 0.1mg endosulfan/L caused impaired behaviour, prolonged time to metamorphosis, increased incidences of mouth and skeletal malformations as well as mortality, and reduced body weight (observed also at 0.01 mg/L) in B. bufo tadpoles. Behavioural effects occurred at exposure day 4, before any other effects occurred, indicating a neurotoxic effect. Endosulfan levels found in groundwater and surface water range from 0.1 to 100 microg/L and after extraordinary runoff events, concentrations exceed 0.5 mg/L in surface water. Our results indicate that endosulfan may negatively affect wild frog populations in agricultural areas.

  6. A novel cathelicidin from Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor showed specific activity to its habitat bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tongyi; Zhan, Bo; Gao, Yuanyuan

    2015-10-25

    Toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor is still used in China as traditional Chinese medicine. However, present investigations on its skin secretions were mainly focused on the bufadienolides, the proteins/peptides contained in the secretions are largely unknown. A cDNA encoding a novel cathelicidin termed BG-CATH was identified by analysis of the toad skin transcriptome. The BG-CATH precursor was predicted to have 2 possible cleavage sites following dibasic cleavage signals at its C-terminal, which will generate two mature peptides, BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37). Phylogenetic analysis suggests that amphibian cathelicidins might evolve from common ancestors. The two predicted mature cathelicidins from B. bufo gargarizans were synthesized and both of them showed weak antimicrobial activities against human pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC ≥ 200 μg/mL). However, BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) had strong antimicrobial activities against aquatic bacteria of Vibrio splendidus, Streptococcus iniae and Aeromorus hydrophila, which were common microorganisms in the habitat of B. bufo gargarizans (MIC 3.125-40 μg/mL). BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) showed no hemolytic activity even at high concentrations (400 μg/mL). CD spectra analysis suggested that structure rigidity of BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) might play an important role to regulate their biological activities. Selective antimicrobial activity against habitat microorganisms might reflect the adaptation of amphibians to their living environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of the west-palearctic common toads (Bufo bufo species complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Porta, J; Litvinchuk, S N; Crochet, P A; Romano, A; Geniez, P H; Lo-Valvo, M; Lymberakis, P; Carranza, S

    2012-04-01

    In most pan-Eurasiatic species complexes, two phenomena have been traditionally considered key processes of their cladogenesis and biogeography. First, it is hypothesized that the origin and development of the Central Asian Deserts generated a biogeographic barrier that fragmented past continuous distributions in Eastern and Western domains. Second, Pleistocene glaciations have been proposed as the main process driving the regional diversification within each of these domains. The European common toad and its closest relatives provide an interesting opportunity to examine the relative contributions of these paleogeographic and paleoclimatic events to the phylogeny and biogeography of a widespread Eurasiatic group. We investigate this issue by applying a multiproxy approach combining information from molecular phylogenies, a multiple correspondence analysis of allozyme data and species distribution models. Our study includes 304 specimens from 164 populations, covering most of the distributional range of the Bufo bufo species complex in the Western Palearctic. The phylogenies (ML and Bayesian analyses) were based on a total of 1988 bp of mitochondrial DNA encompassing three genes (tRNAval, 16S and ND1). A dataset with 173 species of the family Bufonidae was assembled to estimate the separation of the two pan-Eurasiatic species complexes of Bufo and to date the main biogeographic events within the Bufo bufo species complex. The allozyme study included sixteen protein systems, corresponding to 21 presumptive loci. Finally, the distribution models were based on maximum entropy. Our distribution models show that Eastern and Western species complexes are greatly isolated by the Central Asian Deserts, and our dating estimates place this divergence during the Middle Miocene, a moment in which different sources of evidence document a major upturn of the aridification rate of Central Asia. This climate-driven process likely separated the Eastern and Western species. At the

  8. Bufo canorus Camp 1916, Yosemite Toad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Carlos; Fellers, Gary M.; Lannoo, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Yosemite toads (Bufo canorus) are endemic to the Sierra Nevada, California, from Ebbetts Pass, Alpine County to the Spanish Mountain area, Fresno County (Karlstrom 1962, 1973; Stebbins 1966; unpublished Sierra National Forest survey data, 1995, 2002). Sites occur from 1,950–3,444 m elevation, with the majority of sites between 2,590–3,048 m (Karlstrom, 1962). Jennings and Hayes (1994a) estimate that populations have disappeared from 50% of historically reported sites, although the overall range of the species may have only contracted in the far north and in western Fresno County. Disappearances have been concentrated at lower elevation sites on the western edge of the range, with greater persistence at higher elevation sites (Davidson et al., 2002).

  9. Sublethal effects of atrazine on embryo-larval development of Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartz, Gabriela V; Herkovits, Jorge; Pérez-Coll, Cristina S

    2012-05-01

    Atrazine (ATR), one of the most widely used herbicides in the world, affects not only target organisms but also the biota in general. Here, the teratogenic and neurotoxic effects of ATR on Rhinella arenarum (South American toad) embryos, and larvae were evaluated by means of standardized bioassays during acute and chronic exposures. The herbicide had a significant incidence of malformations, with a Teratogenic Index (TI) of 3.28. The main effects were delayed development, reduced body size, microcephaly, axial flexures, wavy tail and edema. In addition, delayed development, reduced development of forelimbs, and edema were recorded at metamorphosis stages. Scanning electron microscopy allowed observing different degrees of cellular dissociation and persistent cilliar cells in specific regions like the adhesive structure and tail fin. Results obtained by ATR 24 h pulse exposures at six developmental stages pointed out blastula as the most susceptible developmental stage both for immediate and delayed adverse effects. A noteworthy recovery capacity from acute toxic effects was recorded from the neural plate stage onwards. Regarding neurotoxic effects, abnormal, and erratic swimming and spasmodic contractions were recorded. Both the teratogenic and neurotoxic effects reported in this study demonstrate the importance of evaluating sublethal effects in non-target organisms as they could imply reduced fitness of individuals and eventually a population decline. The Hazard Quotients (HQ) for ATR ranged from 0.14 to 10.80, and the fact that some of these values are above USEPA's level of concern indicate that ATR is likely a risk to R. arenarum.

  10. Stage-dependent toxicity of bisphenol a on Rhinella arenarum (anura, bufonidae) embryos and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowicz, Ianina R Hutler; Herkovits, Jorge; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2014-02-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) was evaluated on the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum embryos and larvae by means of continuous and pulse exposure treatments. Embryos were treated continuously from early blastula (S.4) up to complete operculum (S.25), during early larval stages and by means of 24 h pulse exposures of BPA in concentrations ranging between 1.25 and 40 mg L(-1) , in order to evaluate the susceptibility to this compound in different developmental stages. For lethal effects, S.25 was the most sensitive and gastrula was the most resistant to BPA. The Teratogenic Index for neurula, the most sensitive embryonic stage for sublethal effects was 4.7. The main morphological alterations during early stages were: delayed or arrested development, reduced body size, persistent yolk plug, microcephaly, axial/tail flexures, edemas, blisters, waving fin, underdeveloped gills, mouth malformations, and cellular dissociation. BPA caused a remarkable narcotic effect from gill circulation stage (S.20) onwards in all the organisms exposed after 3 h of treatment with 10 mg L(-1) BPA. After recovering, the embryos exhibited scarce response to stimuli, erratic or circular swimming, and spasmodic contractions from 5 mg L(-1) onwards. Our results highlight the lethal and sublethal effectsof BPA on R. arenarum embryos and larvae, in the last case both at structural and functional levels. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  11. Thermal parameters changes in males of Rhinella arenarum (Anura:Bufonidae related to reproductive periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alfredo Sanabria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of body temperature in ectotherms has a major impact in their physiological and behavioral processes. Observing changes in thermal parameters related with reproduction allows us to better understand how Rhinella arenarum optimizes a thermal resource. The aim of this study was to compare the thermal parameters of this species between breeding and non-breeding periods. In the field, we recorded the body temperature from captured animals, the air temperature, and the temperature of the substrate. In the laboratory, we measured the temperature R. arenarum selected on a thermal gradient and the critical extreme temperatures. The results of our study show variations in thermal parameters between the two situations studied. This species makes efficient use of thermal resources during the breeding period by basking to significantly increase body temperature. Because calling is energetically costly for males, this behavior results in increased efficiency to callers during the breeding period. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 347-353. Epub 2011 March 01.La regulación de la temperatura en ectotérmos tiene gran importancia en los procesos fisiológicos y comportamentales. Los cambios en los parámetros térmicos relacionados con la reproducción nos permiten entender de qué manera Rhinella arenarum optimiza el recurso térmico. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar los parámetros térmicos de la especie entre el periodo reproductivo y no reproductivo. En el campo se registraron la temperatura corporal de los animales capturados, la temperatura del aire y del sustrato. Además, en laboratorio se registro la temperatura selecta en un gradiente térmico. Como así también las temperaturas criticas máxima y mínima. Los resultados de nuestro estudio muestran variaciones de los parámetros térmicos entre ambas situaciones estudiadas. Aparentemente esta especie hace un uso eficiente del recurso térmico durante el periodo reproductivo ya que

  12. Proliferative events and apoptotic remodelling in retinal development of common toad (Bufo bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Claudia; Sansone, Alfredo; De Maio, Anna; Morgillo, Antonietta; Scandurra, Anna; D'Aniello, Biagio

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation and apoptosis are fundamental processes in the development of the retina, and a proper balance of the two phenomena is crucial to correct development of the organ. Despite intense investigation in different vertebrates, only a few studies have analyzed the cell death and the cell division quantitatively in the same species during development. Here we studied the time course of apoptosis and proliferation in the retina of common toad, Bufo bufo, and discuss the findings in an evolutionary perspective. We found cells that were dividing first scattered throughout the retina, then, in later stages, proliferation was confined to the ciliary marginal zone. This pattern was confirmed by the expression of the proliferative marker PCNA. Both proliferation and apoptosis occurred in successive waves, and two apoptotic peaks were detected: one at premetamorphosis 1 and the second at prometamorphosis. PARP-1, a known molecular marker of apoptosis, was used to confirm the data obtained by counting pyknotic nuclei. In summary, proliferative and apoptotic waves display an inverse time-relationship through development, with apoptotic peaks coinciding with low proliferation phases. In a comparative perspective, amphibians follow a developmental pattern similar to other vertebrates, although with different timing. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Bufadienolides with cytotoxic activity from the skins of Bufo bufo gargarizans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-Jing; Tian, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Lei, Yu-He; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2015-09-01

    Twelve new bufadienolides (1-12), along with fourteen known analogues (13-26) were isolated from the skins of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR, HRESIMS and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 was an unusual bufadienolide with 3,19-epoxy moiety and A/B trans ring junction. Compounds 2-4 were rare bufadienolides possessing 10-H or 10-carboxyl units. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic effects on HepG2, A549 and HeLa cells. Six new compounds (2, 3, 5, 6, 10 and 12) displayed significant anti-proliferative activities with IC50 values ranging from 0.049 to 1.856 μM. Arenobufagin (24) exhibited the most potent cytotoxic activity with IC50 value 0.011 μM. In addition, the present data provided more insight into the structure-activity relationships of bufadienolides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Influence of the Concentration of Dissolved Oxygen on Embryonic Development of the Common Toad (Bufo bufo)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, E V

    2015-01-01

    Several series of experiments investigating the influence of dissolved oxygen concentrations on the growth rates and mortality in the embryogenesis of the common toad Bufo bufo were carried out. The experiments showed that, when the eggs develop singly, the lack of oxygen does not lead to an increase in mortality by the time of hatching and results only in a change in the dynamics of mortality: mortality occurs at an earlier stage of development than in the conditions of normal access to oxygen. Taking into account the combined effect of the density of eggs and the dissolved oxygen concentration, we increase the accuracy of analysis of the experimental results and improve the interpretation of the results. In the conditions of different initial density of eggs, the impact of the concentration of dissolved oxygen on mortality and rates of development of the common toad embryos is manifested in different ways. At high density, only a small percentage of embryos survives by the time of hatching, and the embryos are significantly behind in their development compared with the individuals that developed in normal oxygen conditions. The lack of oxygen dissolved in the water slows down the development of embryos of the common toad.

  15. Morphology of Bufo ictericus integument (Amphibia, Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito-Gitirana, L; Azevedo, R A

    2005-01-01

    Bufo ictericus integument was investigated by stereoscopic, low vacuum scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. The studies revealed, that the dorsal integument surface is rougher than ventral. Three types of projections are visualized: larger rounded verrucae, smaller conical cornified tubercles, and conical short spines. Prominent verrucae are observed on the dorsal surface, being flatter on the ventral surface. The tubercles are visualized only on the dorsal surface. The verrucae are separated by grooves that may contribute spreading and retention of the glandular secretion upon the integument. The pattern of the epidermal grooves is also important for water distribution, protecting the animal against desiccation. The epidermis is composed of a stratified epithelium with intraepithelial blood vessels, where keratinocytes predominate, but flask cells, and Merkel cells also occur. In the spongious dermis, cutaneous glands are visualized. The compact dermis is a series of alternating layers of bundles of collagenous fibers, and between spongious and compact dermis there are basophilic areas that correspond to Eberth-Katschenko layer. The dorsal and the ventral surfaces of B. ictericus are morphologically distinct. The integument structure is related to the physiology of each surface and represents an adaptation to habitat, reflecting a lifestyle of the animal.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Bufo stejnegeri (Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bingjun; Yang, Baotian

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo stejnegeri was determined, which was 17 939 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one displacement loop (D-loop). The total length of D-loop region is 2533 bp, some tandem repeat units were found in this region. The phylogenetic trees of the 20 species from anura were reconstructed based on complete mtDNA sequences by Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses. The result demonstrated that B. stejnegeri is the most closely related species with other Bufo species.

  17. Morphological differentiation of the common toad Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758 in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čađenović Natalija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the degree of morphological differentiation among populations of the common toad Bufo bufo in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. Variations in a number of morphometric and qualitative characters in 14 population samples were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistics. We found a high degree of female-biased sexual size dimorphism. Morphological variation among the samples was more expressed in morphometric than in qualitative characters. The significant size differences that exist between northern and southern population groups could be the result of phenotypic plasticity. Our results do not support a clear split between northern and southern populations, contrary to the current taxonomic treatment of these groups as B. b. bufo and B. b. spinosus, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173043

  18. Slope-Based and Geometric Encoding of a Goal Location by the Terrestrial Toad (Rhinella arenarum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, María Inés; Bingman, Verner P; Muzio, Rubén N

    2017-08-28

    The current study was designed to test for the ability of terrestrial toads, Rhinella arenarum, to use slope as source of spatial information to locate a goal, and investigate the relative importance of slope and geometric information for goal localization. Toads were trained to locate a single, water-reward goal location in a corner of a rectangular arena placed on an incline. Once the toads learned the task, 3 types of probe trials were carried out to determine the relative use of slope and geometric information for goal localization. The probe trials revealed that the toads were able to independently use slope, and as previously reported, geometry to locate the goal. However, the boundary geometry of the experimental arena was found to be preferentially used by the toads when geometric and slope information were set in conflict. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. N-methyl serotonin analogues from the Bufo bufo toad venom interact efficiently with the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukova, E V; Lebedev, D S; Ivanov, I A; Ivanov, D A; Starkov, V G; Tsetlin, V I; Utkin, Yu N

    2017-01-01

    Two low-molecular-weight compounds were isolated from the parotid gland secret of the toad Bufo bufo, which by absorption spectra and HPLC-MS/MS chromatography data correspond to di- and trimethyl derivatives of serotonin (5-hydorxytryptamine): bufotenine (confirmed by counter synthesis) and bufotenidine (5-HTQ). In experiments on competitive radioligand binding, these compounds showed a higher affinity and selectivity for neuronal α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors compared with the muscular cholinergic receptors. The most efficient compound in terms of binding value was bufotenine, the efficiency of 5-HTQ was an order of magnitude lower, and the minimal activity was exhibited by serotonin.

  20. Breeding frequency of western toads (Bufo boreas) in northeastern Oregeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn L. Bull; Cynthia Carey

    2008-01-01

    Many species of toads (family Bufonidae), including the western toad (Bufo boreas), are declining in-the western United States. The ability of this species to recover from declines depends, in part, on its reproductive success. This study examined the breeding frequency in both sexes of B. borelis in northeastern Oregon compared to...

  1. Evolution of Acoustic Behaviour in African Bufo (Anura: Bufonidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mating calls are known for 29 species of African Bufo belonging to 11 species groups. Twenty-five African species, representing eight species groups (including four groups or complexes having 2N=22) have calls which Martin (1972) termed Type I. This call type is also found in Schismaderma carens, Nectophrynoides ...

  2. (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) from the urinary bladder of Bufo gutturalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-09-07

    Sep 7, 1988 ... described trichodinids from amphibians in southern. Africa, i.e. Trichodina xenopodos Fantham, 1924 from the urinary bladder of the African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis and T. bufonis Fantham, 1924 from Bufo regularis. Although both these descriptions did not make use of silver-impregnation and the ...

  3. Haematological changes in Bufo maculatus treated with sublethal concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult Bufo maculatus was exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L. The toxicant from which the cadmium concentrations were prepared was cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O. There were three replicate tanks per treatment and three individuals per tank including control groups. The hematologic alterations based on the examination of blood indices during the 28 days of exposure showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC, hematocrit (Hct and hemoglobin (Hb concentration decreased (P<0.05 relative to controls. The decline was concentration- dependent as concentration of cadmium increased. The decline in hemoglobin and hematocrit in the experimental organism could be due to a decrease in the synthesis or release of erythrocytes into the circulation or an increase in the rate of erythrocyte destruction inflicted by cadmium toxicity. There was significant (P<0.05 elevation in total leuko- leukocyte count (TLC with increase in the concen- cyte concentration of cadmium. The increase in total leukocyte count observed in this study could be attributed to a stimulation of the immune system in response to tissue damage caused by cadmium toxicity. The study has shown that the exposure of the Bufo maculatus toad to cadmium can inflict alterations in the hematologic indices, which could induce unfavorable physiological changes in the amphibian, which may lead to death. There is, therefore, the need to protect amphibians in order to sustain the biodiversity in the Nigerian Niger Delta ecological zone.

  4. Arginine derivatives of dicarboxylic acids from the parotid gland secretions of common toad Bufo bufo-New agonists of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, D S; Ivanov, I A; Kryukova, E V; Starkov, V G; Tsetlin, V I; Utkin, Yu N

    2017-05-01

    Compounds activating γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor were isolated from the toad Bufo bufo venom as a result of chromatographic separation. Analysis of the structure of these compounds by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance showed that they are arginine derivatives of dicarboxylic acids and represent suberylarginine, pimeloylarginine, and adipoylarginine.

  5. The influence of ambient salinity and temperature on lipid metabolism in toad (Bufo bufo) skin. Is phosphatidylethanolamine an endogenous regulator of ion channels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.J.M.; Olsen, Allan Gylling; Willumsen, Niels J.

    1994-01-01

    Incorporation of (32P) phosphate and (14C) acetate into frog (Rana temporaria) skin phospholipids in vitro was positively correlated to skin MR cell density. Transport across toad (Bufo bufo) skin and incorporation into skin phospholipids of the radioactive tracers were independent...

  6. Exposure and post-exposure effects of endosulfan on Bufo bufo tadpoles: morpho-histological and ultrastructural study on epidermis and iNOS localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Guardia, Antonello; La Russa, Daniele; Madeo, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Sandro; Brunelli, Elvira

    2013-10-15

    Endosulfan is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that has lethal and sublethal effects on non-target organisms, including amphibians. In a laboratory study, we investigated direct and post-exposure effects of endosulfan on Bufo bufo tadpoles. For this purpose we exposed the tadpoles to a single short-term contamination event (96 h) at an environmentally-realistic concentration (200 μg endosulfan/L). This was followed by a recovery period of 10 days when the experimental animals were kept in pesticide-free water. The endpoints were assessed in terms of mortality, incidence of deformity, effects on behavior, and the morpho-functional features of the epidermis. We found that a short-term exposure to the tested concentration of endosulfan did not cause mortality but induced severe sublethal effects, such as hyperactivity, convulsions, and axis malformations. Following relocation to a pesticide-free environment, we noted two types of response within the experimental sample, in terms of morphological and behavioral traits. Moreover, by using both ultrastructural and a morpho-functional approach, we found that a short-term exposure to endosulfan negatively affected the amphibian epidermis. We also observed several histo-pathological alterations: increased mucous secretion, an increase in intercellular spaces and extensive cell degeneration, together with the induction of an inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Following the post-exposure period, we found large areas of epidermis in which degeneration phenomena were moderate or absent, as well as a further increase in iNOS immunoreactivity. Thus, after 10 days in a free-pesticide environment, the larval epidermis was able to partially replace elements that had been compromised due to a physiological and/or a pathological response to the pesticide. These results highlight the need for both exposure and post-exposure experiments, when attempting to assess pollutant effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  7. DC electrical stimulation of the pretectal thalamus and its effects on the feeding behavior of the toad (Bufo bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, James; Laming, Peter R

    2007-06-01

    The feeding motivation of the common European common toad (Bufo bufo) can be quantified by the feeding sequence of arousal-orientation-approach-fixate-snap. Previous work has found that the optic tectum is an important structure responsible for the mediation of feeding behaviors, and combined electrical and visual stimulation of the optic tectum was found to increase the animals feeding behaviors. However, the pretectal thalamus has an inhibitory influence upon the optic tectum and its lesion results in disinhibited feeding behaviors. This suggests that feeding behavior of anurans is also subject to influence from the pretectal thalamus. Previous studies involving the application of DC stimulation to brain tissue has generated slow potential shifts and these shifts have been implicated in the modulation of the neural mechanisms associated with behavior. The current study investigated the application of DC stimulation to the diencephalon surface dorsal to the lateral posterodorsal pretectal thalamic nucleus in Bufo bufo, in order to assess effects on feeding motivation. The application of DC stimulation increased the incidence of avoidance behaviors to a visual prey stimulus while reducing the prey catching behavior component of approach, suggesting that the DC current applied to the pretectum increased the inhibition upon the feeding elements of the optic tectum. This can be explained by the generation of slow potential shifts.

  8. Bufo alvarius: a potent hallucinogen of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, A T; Davis, W

    1994-01-01

    Anthropologists have long speculated that ancient peoples of Mesoameria used a toad, Bufo marinus, as a ritual intoxicant. This hypothesis rests on many iconographic and mythological representations of toads and on a number of speculative ethnographic reports. The authors reject B. marinus as a candidate for such use because of the toxicity of its venom. A more likely candidate is the Sonoran desert toad, Bufo alvarius, which secretes large amounts of the potent known hallucinogen, 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT). The authors demonstrate that the venom of B. alvarius, although known to be toxic when consumed orally, may be safely smoked and is powerfully psychoactive by that route of administration. These experiments are the first documentation of an hallucinogenic agent from the animal kingdom, and they provide clear evidence of a psychoactive toad that could have been employed by Precolumbian peoples of the New World.

  9. Article Syndactyly in Bufo maculatus Hallowell (Amphibia: Anura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syndactyly in five specimens of Bufo maculatus, all from a small area 25 km west of Harare, Zimbabwe, is described. In three cases only one pair of digits was involved (two of the hand, one of the foot); in a fourth, two pairs of digits on one foot were involved; and in the fifth case, all digits of one hand were involved together ...

  10. Goal orientation by geometric and feature cues: spatial learning in the terrestrial toad Rhinella arenarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, María Inés; Bingman, Verner Peter; Muzio, Rubén N

    2015-01-01

    Although of crucial importance in vertebrate evolution, amphibians are rarely considered in studies of comparative cognition. Using water as reward, we studied whether the terrestrial toad, Rhinella arenarum, is also capable of encoding geometric and feature information to navigate to a goal location. Experimental toads, partially dehydrated, were trained in either a white rectangular box (Geometry-only, Experiment 1) or in the same box with a removable colored panel (Geometry-Feature, Experiment 2) covering one wall. Four water containers were used, but only one (Geometry-Feature), or two in geometrically equivalent corners (Geometry-only), had water accessible to the trained animals. After learning to successfully locate the water reward, probe trials were carried out by changing the shape of the arena or the location of the feature cue. Probe tests revealed that, under the experimental conditions used, toads can use both geometry and feature to locate a goal location, but geometry is more potent as a navigational cue. The results generally agree with findings from other vertebrates and support the idea that at the behavioral-level geometric orientation is a conserved feature shared by all vertebrates.

  11. Apoptosis, proliferation and presence of estradiol receptors in the testes and Bidder's organ of the toad Rhinella arenarum (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaia, María Florencia; Czuchlej, Silvia Cristina; Cervino, Nadia; Ceballos, Nora Raquel

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic equilibrium between spermatogonial proliferation and testicular apoptosis determines the progression of spermatogenesis in amphibians. Estrogens and their receptors play a central role in regulating spermatogenesis in vertebrates, and in some species of anurans, estradiol (E2 ) is involved in the regulation of spermatogonial proliferation and apoptosis of germ cells. Bidder's organ (BO) is a structure characteristic of Bufonidae that has historically been compared to an undeveloped ovary. In adult Rhinella arenarum males, BO is one of the main sources of plasma E2 . The aim of this study was 1) to describe the seasonal variations in testicular apoptosis, spermatogonial proliferation, and cellular proliferation in BO; and 2) to analyze the presence and localization of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) in the testes and BO of R. arenarum. Testicular fragments and BOs from animals collected during the year were labeled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and BrdU incorporation was determined using immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis in testicular sections was detected using the TUNEL method, and ERβ localization was assessed using immunohistochemistry in testes and BOs. The results indicate that spermatogonial proliferation is highest during the reproductive season and that cysts of spermatocytes and spermatids undergo apoptosis during the postreproductive season. Furthermore, the proliferation of follicular cells is highest during the reproductive and postreproductive seasons. ERβ was primarily detected by immunolocalization in Sertoli cells, follicular cells, and oocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that cysts that do not form spermatozoa are removed from testes by apoptosis and that estrogens regulate both spermatogenesis and oogenesis in adult males of R. arenarum. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Specific features of the melanophore system in different color morphs of larvae of the common toad (Bufo bufo L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, L A; Surova, G S; Timofeev, K N

    2012-01-01

    In a natural pond among usual black larvae of the common toad (Bufo bufo L.), a few unusual individuals of red-olive coloring were found out. In both morphs we investigated the melanophores of skin using different methods. The ESR-spectrometric analysis has shown the absence of distinctions between morphs by the amount of melanin. Analysis of total preparations of skin has shown the presence of various kinds of melanophore cells both in the derma and in the epidermis. Among typical melanophores, essentially differing cells appeared (atypical cells). In black morph tadpoles, the number of all kinds of melanophores is significantly greater than in red-olive morphs. It is shown that dark coloring is connected with a considerable number of atypical cells in the epidermis imposed on a dense layer of typical dermal melanophores with dispersed melanin.

  13. Report of Bufo tihamicus karyotype from Saudi Arabia | Al-Shehri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study gives a description of the Karyotype of the Tihama toad Bufo tihamicus from Saudi Arabia. Samples of males and females of Bufo tihamicus Parker were collected from Gazan Province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The karyotype consists of a diploid number 2n = 22 and the fundamental number NF = 44 in both of ...

  14. Morphological and genetic differentiation of Bufo toads: two cryptic species in Western Europe (Anura, Bufonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; McAtear, J.; Recuero, E.; Ziermann, J.M.; Ohler, A.; Alphen, van J.; Martínez-Solano, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Common toad Bufo bufo sensu lato is a widespread, morphologically conserved taxon. Recent studies have uncovered deep genetic differentiation between population groups, highlighting the need to revise the current taxonomy of the group and recognize additional species. Here we investigate

  15. Comparative cytogenetic studies of Bufo ictericus, B. paracnemis (Amphibia, Anura and an intermediate form in sympatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo MFC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and a third type, considered an intermediate subgroup between these species, were cytogenetically studied by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and staining of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR. The nuclear DNA content and seroproteins were also analyzed to characterize these species, and verify the possibility of hybridization between them. Karyotypes and cytogenetic markers were essentially equal on the basis of the methods used. The DNA nuclear content found was 6.25 ± 0.30 pg/DNA in Bufo ictericus; 7.57 ± 0.40 pg/DNA in Bufo paracnemis and 7.04 ± 0.29 pg/DNA in the intermediate subgroup. Eletrophoresis of total blood serum in Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and the intermediate specimens revealed a remarkable difference in the patterns of the protein bands whose molecular weight corresponded to that of albumin. While the parental species presented two different bands, the intermediate form presented 4. However, only three of these bands were seen in each specimen. The results obtained pointed to a high probability for natural hybridization between Bufo ictericus and Bufo paracnemis in the site and specimens studied.

  16. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia) and associated algae are altered by temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Ivanković, Marina; Mentler, Axel; Brühl, Carsten A.; Spangl, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. Methods We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L−1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L−1) on larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo, L.; Amphibia: Anura) and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C). Results Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (−8%), induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails) and reduced algae diversity (−6%). Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl) +66%, length-to-width ratio +4%) and decreased algae diversity (−21%). No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. Discussion These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological interactions in

  17. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia and associated algae are altered by temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Baier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. Methods We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L−1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L−1 on larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo, L.; Amphibia: Anura and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C. Results Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (−8%, induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails and reduced algae diversity (−6%. Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl +66%, length-to-width ratio +4% and decreased algae diversity (−21%. No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. Discussion These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological

  18. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia) and associated algae are altered by temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Hein, Thomas; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Ivanković, Marina; Mentler, Axel; Brühl, Carsten A; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L -1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L -1 ) on larval development of Common toads ( Bufo bufo , L.; Amphibia: Anura) and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C). Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (-8%), induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails) and reduced algae diversity (-6%). Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl) +66%, length-to-width ratio +4%) and decreased algae diversity (-21%). No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological interactions in freshwater ecosystems. Although no clear dose

  19. A contribution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L., 1758 (Amphibia: Anura from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Boyadzhiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During our study we identified 500 prey items in 20 prey categories in the trophic spectrum of Bufo bufo with average number of prey items per stomach 25.00. The most important prey taxon is Formicidae (70.20%, followed by Coleoptera (especially Carabidae – 11.40%, as well as non-insect invertebrates (Isopoda, Gastropoda, Arachnida which also play significant role. The estimated trophic niche breadth is low – 1.96.

  20. Effect of different types of sesquiterpene lactones on the maturation of Rhinella arenarum oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Toranzo, G; Zapata-Martínez, J; Catalán, C; Bühler, M I

    2015-06-01

    The sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) are a large class of plant secondary metabolites that are generally found in the Asteraceae family and that have high diversity with respect to chemical structure as well as biological activity. STLs have been classified into different groups, such as guaianolides, germacranolides, and melampolides etc., based on their carboxylic skeleton. In amphibians, fully grown ovarian oocytes are arrested at the beginning of meiosis I. Under the stimulus of progesterone, this meiotic arrest is released and meiosis progresses to metaphase II, a process known as oocyte maturation. The purpose of this work was to determine whether sesquiterpene lactones from the germacranolide and melampolide groups act as inhibitor agents on the meiosis of amphibian oocytes in vitro. Results for germacranolides indicated that the addition of deoxyelephantopins caused a high degree of inhibition and that minimolide showed a moderate inhibitory effect, whereas glaucolide A was inactive. Furthermore, the addition of melampolides (uvedalin, enhydrin, polymatin A and polymatin B) showed inhibitory effects. For enhydrin and uvedalin, inhibitory effects were observed at the higher concentrations assayed. The results of this study suggest that the inhibitory activity of the tested sesquiterpene lactones on the meiosis of Rhinella arenarum oocytes is not dependent on the group to which they belong, i.e. not on the carboxylic skeleton, but probably due to the arrangement and type of function groups present in the molecules. All assayed lactones in the germacranolide group showed low toxicity. In contrast, important differences in toxicity were observed for lactones from the melampolide group: enhydrin and uvedalin showed low toxicity, but polymatin A and B were highly toxic.

  1. Characterization and seasonal changes in LHβ and FSHβ mRNA of Rhinella arenarum (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonteri, M Clara; Regueira, Eleonora; Scaia, M Florencia; Ceballos, Nora R

    2013-06-15

    In anurans, two types of gonadotropins were described in several species of Ranidae and Pipidae families but only in one of the Bufonidae family. Rhinella arenarum is a bufonid that have the lowest concentration of plasma androgens during the breeding. The objective of this paper was to characterize the cDNA sequence of β subunit of LH and FSH from toad pituitary and study seasonal variation in gonadotropins mRNA using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The LHβ cDNA is a 636 bp sequence containing an open reading frame (ORF), 45 bp of 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and 174 bp of 3'-UTR. The ORF encodes for a signal peptide of 26 amino acids and a mature protein of 113 amino acids with one N-glycosylation site at the 34th position. The FSHβ cDNA sequence is a 535 bp fragment containing an ORF, 8 bp of 5'-UTR and 152 bp of 3'-UTR. The ORF encodes for a signal peptide of 20 amino acids and a mature protein of 104 amino acids with two N-glycosylation sites at 25th and 42nd positions. Multiple alignments of aminoacid deduced sequences of LHβ and FSHβ (teleosts, amphibians, birds, mammals) showed that all the tetrapods studied conserve 12 cysteins and one (LH) or two (FSH) N-Glycosylation sites. LHβ is closer to teleosts than to mammals and birds while FSHβ is closer to mammals. The analysis of seasonal changes in LHβ and FSHβ mRNA indicates that transcript levels have seasonal variations and that the profile of androgens is opposite to that of the gonadotropins mRNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Interaction between Pax6 and its novel mutant in Bufo raddei Strauch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Furong; Zhao, Yongqing; Zhao, Yuanlin; Wang, Ying; Wen, Fan; Ye, Lin; Gao, Lan

    2011-01-01

    Exploration of the relationship between a novel paired box 6 (Pax6) mutant and Pax6 in Bufo raddei Strauch. RT-PCR, yeast 2-hybrid system, and co-immunoprecipitation were used to analyze the Pax6 protein and its mutant during embryonic eye development in Bufo raddei Strauch. We have cloned the Pax6 ORF sequence from Bufo raddei Strauch. Here we report the cloning of a novel Pax6 homolog of Bufo raddei Strauch named Pax6 variant. Comparing the 2 genes, the homolog of ORF nucleotide sequence is more than 99% in Bufo raddei Strauch; only the proline-serine-threonine(PST)-rich transaction domain differs. The deduced amino acid sequences of PST region are 53.1% identical. An interaction was found between Pax6 and Pax6 variant via yeast 2-hybrid system; with further study, we found that they interacted in vivo via co-immunopricipitation. A Pax6 mutant was first found in Bufo raddei Strauch. Interaction between Pax6 and Pax6 variant may play a critical role during eye development in Bufo raddei Strauch. This suggests that expression of Pax6 variant may play a role and appears to be a necessity in eye development, but that Pax6 itself is still pivotal in eye development.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Bufo tibetanus (Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinbo; Wang, Yan; Yue, Bisong; Zhang, Xiuyue; Liu, Shaolong

    2013-06-01

    The total length of the Bufo tibetanus mitochondrial genome sequence is 17,405 bp. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 displacement loop (D-loop). Except for eight tRNAs and nd6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand (H strand). Most of the 22 tRNA genes can fold into a typical cloverleaf secondary structure by tRNAscan-SE, except for tRNA(Ser). Molecular data presented here provide a useful toll for helping set the stage for further studies and the molecular evolution of the mitochondrial genome.

  4. Agricultural intensity in ovo affects growth, metamorphic development and sexual differentiation in the common toad (Bufo bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Frances; Routledge, Edwin

    2011-06-01

    Pollution was cited by the Global Amphibian Assessment to be the second most important cause of amphibian decline worldwide, however, the effects of the agricultural environment on amphibians are not well understood. In this study, spawn from Bufo bufo was taken from four sites in England and Wales with varying intensities of arable agriculture. Spawn was either placed in tanks containing aged tap water (ex-situ, five replicates) or in cages at the native site (caged, five replicates). Hatching success, abnormal tadpoles, and forelimb emergence were recorded during the larval stage. Individuals were also sampled at five time points (TP) during development (5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 15-weeks post-hatch) and analysed for morphological parameters. The thyroids (TP2) and the gonads (TP3,4,5) were also analysed histologically. With the exception of the thyroid histopathology, all analysed endpoints were significantly different between ex-situ individuals reared under identical conditions from the different sites. In addition, intensity of arable agriculture had a negative effect on growth and development. At one site, despite distinct rearing conditions, a high level of intersex (up to 42%) and similar sex ratios were observed in both ex-situ and caged individuals. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal exposure and/or events in ovo had a much larger effect on growth, metamorphic development, and sexual differentiation in B. bufo than the ambient environment. This could have important implications for traditional exposure scenarios that typically begin at the larval stage. Intersex is reported for the first time in European amphibians in situ, highlighting the potential use of distinct populations of amphibians in fundamental research into the aetiology of specific developmental effects in wild amphibians.

  5. Effect of Cortisol on Plasma Lactate Levels following Cortisolinduced Hyperglycaemia in Common African Toad, Bufo regularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isehunwa, G O; Oladun, O T; Akpan, J E; Alada, A R A

    2017-06-30

    Previous studies in man have shown that cortisol induces hyperglycemia through gluconeogenesis. However,the metabolic substrates involved in cortisol-induced hyperglycemia and the role of adrenergic receptors in lactate productionin toads have not been well studied. This study investigated the effects of adrenergic receptor blockers in cortisol-inducedhyperglycemia and blood lactate levels in the common African toad (Bufo regularis). Each toad was fasted and anaesthetizedwith sodium thiopentone given intraperitoneally (50mg/kg/i.p). The animals (control) received 0.7% amphibian saline whileanimals (untreated) received cortisol intravenously (50µg/kg/i.v). In pre-treatment groups, animals received propanolol (0.5mg/kg/i.v), prazosin (0.2 mg/kg/i.v) and combination of propanolol (0.5mg/kg/i.v) and prazosin (0.2 mg/kg/i.v) respectivelyfollowed by administration of cortisol 50µg/kg/i.v. Thereafter, blood samples were collected for estimation of glucose andlactate using the modified glucose oxidase method and colorimetric method respectively. Cortisol caused significant increase in blood glucose level ((pbufo regularis. The betaadrenergic receptors are involved in the use of lactate to induce cortisol hyperglycemia in the Common African toad Buforegularis.

  6. Differing long term trends for two common amphibian species (Bufo bufo and Rana temporaria) in alpine landscapes of Salzburg, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyek, Martin; Kaufmann, Peter H; Lindner, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the population trends of two widespread European anuran species: the common toad (Bufo bufo) and the common frog (Rana temporaria). The basis of this study is data gathered over two decades of amphibian fencing alongside roads in the Austrian state of Salzburg. Different statistical approaches were used to analyse the data. Overall average increase or decrease of each species was estimated by calculating a simple average locality index. In addition the statistical software TRIM was used to verify these trends as well as to categorize the data based on the geographic location of each migration site. The results show differing overall trends for the two species: the common toad being stable and the common frog showing a substantial decline over the last two decades. Further analyses based on geographic categorization reveal the strongest decrease in the alpine range of the species. Drainage and agricultural intensification are still ongoing problems within alpine areas, not only in Salzburg. Particularly in respect to micro-climate and the availability of spawning places these changes appear to have a greater impact on the habitats of the common frog than the common toad. Therefore we consider habitat destruction to be the main potential reason behind this dramatic decline. We also conclude that the substantial loss of biomass of a widespread species such as the common frog must have a severe, and often overlooked, ecological impact.

  7. Variation in Chemical Defense Among Natural Populations of Common Toad, Bufo bufo, Tadpoles: the Role of Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókony, Veronika; Móricz, Ágnes M; Tóth, Zsófia; Gál, Zoltán; Kurali, Anikó; Mikó, Zsanett; Pásztor, Katalin; Szederkényi, Márk; Tóth, Zoltán; Ujszegi, János; Üveges, Bálint; Krüzselyi, Dániel; Capon, Robert J; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-04-01

    Defensive toxins are widespread in nature, yet we know little about how various environmental factors shape the evolution of chemical defense, especially in vertebrates. In this study we investigated the natural variation in the amount and composition of bufadienolide toxins, and the relative importance of ecological factors in predicting that variation, in larvae of the common toad, Bufo bufo, an amphibian that produces toxins de novo. We found that tadpoles' toxin content varied markedly among populations, and the number of compounds per tadpole also differed between two geographical regions. The most consistent predictor of toxicity was the strength of competition, indicating that tadpoles produced more compounds and larger amounts of toxins when coexisting with more competitors. Additionally, tadpoles tended to contain larger concentrations of bufadienolides in ponds that were less prone to desiccation, suggesting that the costs of toxin production can only be afforded by tadpoles that do not need to drastically speed up their development. Interestingly, this trade-off was not alleviated by higher food abundance, as periphyton biomass had negligible effect on chemical defense. Even more surprisingly, we found no evidence that higher predation risk enhances chemical defenses, suggesting that low predictability of predation risk and high mortality cost of low toxicity might select for constitutive expression of chemical defense irrespective of the actual level of predation risk. Our findings highlight that the variation in chemical defense may be influenced by environmental heterogeneity in both the need for, and constraints on, toxicity as predicted by optimal defense theory.

  8. High genetic diversity of common toad (Bufo bufo) populations under strong natural fragmentation on a Northern archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Steffen; Jehle, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The last decades have shown a surge in studies focusing on the interplay between fragmented habitats, genetic variation, and conservation. In the present study, we consider the case of a temperate pond-breeding anuran (the common toad Bufo bufo) inhabiting a naturally strongly fragmented habitat at the Northern fringe of the species' range: islands offshore the Norwegian coast. A total of 475 individuals from 19 populations (three mainland populations and 16 populations on seven adjacent islands) were genetically characterized using nine microsatellite markers. As expected for a highly fragmented habitat, genetic distances between populations were high (pairwise F st values ranging between 0.06 and 0.33), with however little differences between populations separated by ocean and populations separated by terrestrial habitat (mainland and on islands). Despite a distinct cline in genetic variation from mainland populations to peripheral islands, the study populations were characterized by overall high genetic variation, in line with effective population sizes derived from single-sample estimators which were on average about 20 individuals. Taken together, our results reinforce the notion that spatial and temporal scales of fragmentation need to be considered when studying the interplay between landscape fragmentation and genetic erosion.

  9. Evaluating factors affecting amphibian mortality on roads: the case of the Common Toad Bufo bufo, near a breeding place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, X.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Common Toad Bufo bufo is the amphibian with the highest rates of road mortality in many European countries. This elevated incidence of road kills has frequently been associated with migration to breeding sites. In this study, we analysed the mortality of the Common Toad in the road network in Catalonia (NE Spain, and investigated the related causative factors on four roads near a breeding site in the Pyrenees. Results suggest that the high mortality rate is due to a combination of factors: toad abundance, traffic density and quality of water bodies for breeding. On the road with the highest incidence of road kills we investigated whether deaths occurred at specific spots or in a random manner. The road was divided into 500 m sections and each section was classified according to biotic (type of vegetation and abiotic (presence of streams, roadside topography variables. Multiple correspondence analysis showed that sections with streams crossing under the road had the highest mortality rate, suggesting that such water bodies flowing into the breeding pond are the toads’ main migratory pathways for hibernation and breeding. As toads use the same migratory routes each year, it is critical to identify areas with a high potential mortality so that efficient measures can be designed to increase wildlife permeability, and thereby reduce habitat fragmentation. This methodology could be applied in other areas with high amphibian mortality.

  10. Comparison of toad venoms from different Bufo species by HPLC and LC-DAD-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huimin; Zehl, Martin; Leitner, Alexander; Wu, Xiyan; Wang, Zhimin; Kopp, Brigitte

    2010-09-15

    Toad venom, called Chansu in China, has been widely used for the treatment of heart failure, sores, pains, and various cancers for a long time in clinic. The aim of the study is to investigate the chemical differences among a variety of toad venoms from different geographic locations and related Bufo species. Ten batches of commercial toad venom collected from different regions in China, one batch of fresh toad venom obtained from Bufo bufo gargarizans, and six batches of related Bufo species were analyzed by HPLC and LC-DAD-MS/MS. Individual components were identified by comparison of retention times, UV spectra, and mass spectra with authentic compounds, standard addition, as well as summarized MS fragmentation rules. Based on the profile of identified constituents and the content of cinobufagin and resibufogenin, the chemical differences observed among different samples are discussed. Overall, 43 compounds were identified in the methanolic extracts of the different samples of toad venom. Besides of suberoyl arginine, several free bufadienolides, bufadienolide sulfates, and suberoyl esters of bufadienolides were found. The total amounts of cinobufagin and resibufogenin, which are the only two control markers according to the current Chinese Pharmacopoeia, varied widely from 0.7% to 10.9% in the commercial Chansu samples collected in the different locations in China. Low levels of resibufogenin, but no cinobufagin was observed in the samples from Bufo melanosticus and Bufo marinus, and even neither of both compounds was found in the sample from Bufo viridis. The chemical profiles of the different commercial and collected toad venoms from related Bufo species differed significantly, not only in the absolute and relative contents, but also in the number and type of the constituents. The main reason for this variation are species-specific differences, but additional factors, such as the harvest and post-harvest processing, and adaption to environmental factors in

  11. Lethal and sublethal toxicity of the industrial chemical epichlorohydrin on Rhinella arenarum (Anura, Bufonidae) embryos and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutler Wolkowicz, Ianina R; Aronzon, Carolina M; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2013-12-15

    Lethal and sublethal toxicity of the major chemical used in epoxide compounds, epichlorohydrin (ECH) was evaluated on the early life cycle of the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum (Anura, Bufonidae). The stages evaluated were (according to Del Conte and Sirlin): early blastula (S.3-S.4), gastrula (S.10-S.12), rotation (S.15), tail bud (S.17), muscular response (S.18), gill circulation (S.20), open mouth (S.21), opercular folds (S.23) and complete operculum (S.25). The LC50 and EC50 values for lethal and sublethal effects were calculated. The early blastula was the most sensitive stage to ECH both for continuously and pulse-exposures (LC50-24h=50.9 mg L(-1)), while S.20 was the most resistant (LC50-24h=104.9 mg L(-1)). Among sublethal effects, early blastula was also the most sensitive stage (LOEC-48 h=20 mg L(-1)) and it has a Teratogenic Index of 2.5, which indicates the teratogenic potential of the substance. The main abnormalities were persistent yolk plugs, cell dissociation, tumors, hydropsy, oral malformations, axial/tail flexures, delayed development and reduced body size. ECH also caused neurotoxicity including scarce response to stimuli, reduction in the food intake, general weakness, spasms and shortening, erratic or circular swimming. Industrial contamination is considered an important factor on the decline of amphibian populations. Considering the available information about ECH's toxicity and its potential hazard to the environment, this work shows the first results of its developmental toxicity on a native amphibian species, Rhinella arenarum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Health status of tadpoles and metamorphs of Rhinella arenarum (Anura, Bufonidae) that inhabit agroecosystems and its implications for land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babini, María Selene; Bionda, Clarisa de Lourdes; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2015-08-01

    Perturbations of water bodies near agricultural and livestock systems can affect embryonic and larval stages of anurans and negatively impact adult populations and structure of amphibian communities. This study is focused on early development of Rhinella arenarum, for which body growth, abnormalities in the oral disc and genetic damage on erythrocytes were analyzed to establish the impact of agroecosystems on local populations of amphibians. Tadpoles and metamorphs of R. arenarum were collected in three agroecosystems (namely, C1, C2, and C3) and in a site without agricultural and livestock activities (SM) from central Argentina. Egg masses of C1 were extracted for breeding tadpoles under laboratory conditions (Lab). Tadpoles were in small size and lighter in weight in C1 and C2. Metamorphs were shorter and lighter in weight in C1 and C3. In SM and Lab samples, no tadpoles with abnormal LTRF (labial tooth row formula) or without labial teeth were observed. In C1, the highest frequency of abnormal LTRF was recorded and was the only site in which tadpoles without labial teeth were found. In C1 and C2 the tadpoles had highest micronucleus frequencies and nuclear abnormalities. C1 can be considered as the site with the highest anthropogenic perturbation and with less healthy tadpoles. Livestock practices such as alternating cattle between parcel and keeping a buffer between crops and water bodies, would allow a better development of the first aquatic stages that are essential for the conservation of the anuran populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Trophic ecology in tadpoles of Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) in agroecosystems and their possible implications for conservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionda, Clarisa; Gari, Noemi; Luque, Elisa; Salas, Nancy; Lajmanovich, Rafael; Martino, Adolfo

    2012-06-01

    The progress of the agriculture border has led an important loss of natural habitats, with significant consequences for biodiversity. In this sense, the studies in anuran amphibian tadpoles inhabiting these environments are relevant, because the larval stage is a phase of population regulation. The aim of this study was to analyze the body condition and diet in Rhinella arenarum, tadpoles, an anuran species widely distributed in South America and that inhabit agroecosystems. Three sites were sampled, two agroecosystems with different alteration degrees (C1 and C2) and an uncultured (SM) third place. The captured tadpoles were anesthetized, fixed and preserved in formaldehyde (10%). Subsequently, body measurements were made and the complete intestine was removed and analyzed for food items under a binocular microscope. The diet in R. arenarum tadpoles has a dominance of algae Bacillariophyceae, followed by Cyanophyceae. In particular, the class Bacillariophyceae, due to the presence of the genus Navicula, Nitzschia, Gomphonema and Hantzschia, was important in the diet of the anurans in those agroecosystems. Class Cyanophyceae, mainly represented by genus Oscillatoria and Euglenophyceae represented by Euglena and Strombomonas, were predominant in the diet of the anurans in SM. Some differences in the total items consumed by tadpole were observed between the studied sites. Tadpoles that inhabit the modified sites (C1 and C2) recorded a significantly smaller amount of food. Moreover, the tadpoles that inhabit these sites showed a lower body condition. The presence of certain algae associated with eutrophic environments, could indicate some pollution in agroecosystems (C1 and C2). Food resources would be lesser in places with strong agricultural activity, possibly with a greater degree of eutrophication. A smaller food amount could have consequences at population level for the short and long time terms, because of its impact on individual growth. Larval diet is

  14. Ecología trófica en larvas de Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) en agroecosistemas y sus posibles implicaciones para la conservación

    OpenAIRE

    Clarisa Bionda; Noemi Gari; Elisa Luque; Nancy Salas; Rafael Lajmanovich; Adolfo Martino

    2012-01-01

    El crecimiento de la agricultura produce perdida del habitat natural, con consecuencias para la biodiversidad de los anfibios. Se analizo la dieta y condición corporal de larvas de anuros de Rhinella arenarum que habitan agroecosistemas. Los muestreos fueron realizados en dos agroecosistemas y en un tercer sitio, no afectado por cultivos. Las larvas capturadas fueron anestesiadas, fijadas y preservadas en formaldehido, se realizaron medidas corporales y se analizo la dieta de las larvas. Se r...

  15. Ion transport mechanisms in the mesonephric collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo: microelectrode recordings from isolated and perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2004-01-01

    It is not clear how and whether terrestrial amphibians handle NaCl transport in the distal nephron. Therefore, we studied ion transport in isolated perfused collecting tubules and ducts from toad, Bufo bufo, by means of microelectrodes. No qualitative difference in basolateral cell membrane...... and amiloride application showed a small apical Na+ conductance. Arginine vasotocin depolarized Vbl. The small apical Na+ conductance indicates that the collecting duct system contributes little to NaCl reabsorption when compared to aquatic amphibians. In contrast, Vbl rapidly depolarized upon lowering of [Na...

  16. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2014-01-01

    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50 % of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The iss...

  17. Breeding phenology of Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Sicilia

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 is a common species that inhabits a wide variety of habitats. The different climates characterising its broad range lead to a high degree of variability in its seasonal activity and reproductive cycle. This paper reports some observations carried out on the breeding phenology of this species over a two year period in Mediterranean temporary ponds in Sicily. The reproductive period of Sicilian green toads extends into the autumn months, making it longer than that of other Italian populations. This behaviour seems due to the impact of xeric environmental conditions on the seasonal activity of the studied populations. The present study confirms that B. viridis is an opportunistic breeder with a wide margin of variability in annual reproductive cycle patterns, as would be expected of an ecologically variable species. The duration of the reproductive season varied between populations in the same year and between different years for the same population.

  18. Cd, Cu, Zn, Se, and metallothioneins in two amphibians, Necturus maculosus (Amphibia, Caudata) and Bufo bufo (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovoljc, Katarina; Falnoga, Ingrid; Žnidarič, Magda Tušek; Mazej, Darja; Ščančar, Janez; Bulog, Boris

    2012-12-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, its affinity for metallothioneins (MTs), and its relation to copper, zinc, and selenium were investigated in the experimental mudpuppy Necturus maculosus and the common toad Bufo bufo captured in nature. Specimens of N. maculosus were exposed to waterborne Cd (85 μg/L) for up to 40 days. Exposure resulted in tissue-dependent accumulation of Cd in the order kidney, gills > intestine, liver, brain > pancreas, skin, spleen, and gonads. During the 40-day exposure, concentrations increased close to 1 μg/g in kidneys and gills (0.64-0.95 and 0.52-0.76; n = 4), whereas the levels stayed below 0.5 in liver (0.14-0.29; n = 4) and other organs. Cd exposure was accompanied by an increase of Zn and Cu in kidneys and Zn in skin, while a decrease of Cu was observed in muscles and skin. Cytosol metallothioneins (MTs) were detected as Cu,Zn-thioneins in liver and Zn,Cu-thioneins in gills and kidney, with the presence of Se in all cases. After exposure, Cd binding to MTs was clearly observed in cytosol of gills as Zn,Cu,Cd-thionein and in pellet extract of kidneys as Zn,Cu,Cd-thioneins. The results indicate low Cd storage in liver with almost undetectable Cd in liver MT fractions. In field trapped Bufo bufo (spring and autumn animals), Cd levels were followed in four organs and found to be in the order kidney > liver (0.56-5.0 μg/g >0.03-0.72 μg/g; n = 11, spring and autumn animals), with no detectable Cd in muscle and skin. At the tissue level, high positive correlations between Cd, Cu, and Se were found in liver (all r > 0.80; α = 0.05, n = 5), and between Cd and Se in kidney (r = 0.76; n = 5) of autumn animals, possibly connected with the storage of excess elements in biologically inert forms. In the liver of spring animals, having higher tissue level of Cd than autumn ones, part of the Cd was identified as Cu,Zn,Cd-thioneins with traces of Se. As both species are special in having liver Cu levels higher than

  19. Age-dependent changes in sensitivity to a pesticide in tadpoles of the common toad (Bufo bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikó, Zsanett; Ujszegi, János; Hettyey, Attila

    2017-06-01

    The worldwide en masse application of pesticides and the frequently reported malign effects on several non-target organisms underpin the importance of ecotoxicological research on these anthropogenic pollutants. Previous studies showed that sensitivity to herbicides can vary widely depending on additional stress factors, on the species and even on the population investigated. However, there is little information about how sensitivity changes during ontogeny, and how the duration of exposure is linked to the magnitude of malign effects, even though this knowledge would be important for the interpretation of toxicity test results and for formulating recommendations regarding the timing of pesticide application. We exposed tadpoles of the common toad (Bufo bufo) to three concentrations (0, 2 and 4mg a.e./L) of a glyphosate-based herbicide during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, or 5th period of larval development or during the entire experiment, and measured survival, time until metamorphosis and body mass at metamorphosis to estimate fitness-consequences. Younger tadpoles were more sensitive to the herbicide in all measured traits than older ones, and this age-dependence was especially pronounced at the high herbicide concentration. Furthermore, tadpoles exposed to the herbicide during the entire experiment developed slower than tadpoles exposed only early on, but we did not observe a similar effect either on body mass or survival. The observed age-dependence of sensitivity to herbicides draws attention to the fact that results of toxicity tests obtained for one age-class are not necessarily generalizable across ontogeny. Also, the age of test animals has to be considered when planning ecotoxicological studies and interpreting their results. Finally, taking into account the temporal breeding habits of local amphibians when planning pesticide application would be highly favourable: if tadpoles would not get exposed to the herbicide during their most sensitive early development

  20. Screening breeding sites of the common toad (Bufo bufo) in England and Wales for evidence of endocrine disrupting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickford, Daniel B; Jones, Alexandra; Velez-Pelez, Alejandra; Orton, Frances; Iguchi, Taisen; Mitsui, Naoko; Tooi, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    Anuran amphibians are often present in agricultural landscapes and may therefore be exposed to chemicals in surface waters used for breeding. We used passive accumulation devices (SPMD and POCIS) to sample contaminants from nine breeding sites of the Common toad (Bufo bufo) across England and Wales, measuring endocrine activity of the extracts in a recombinant yeast androgen screen (YAS) and yeast estrogen screen (YES) and an in vitro vitellogenin induction screen in primary culture of Xenopus laevis hepatocytes. We also assessed hatching, growth, survival, and development in caged larvae in situ, and sampled metamorphs for gonadal histopathology. None of the SPMD extracts exhibited estrogen receptor or androgen receptor agonist activity, while POCIS extracts from two sites in west-central England exhibited concentration-dependent androgenic activity in the YAS. Three sites exhibited significant estrogenic activity in both the YES and the Xenopus hepatocyte. Hatching rates varied widely among sites, but there was no consistent correlation between hatching rate and intensity of agricultural activity, predicted concentrations of agrochemicals, or endocrine activity measured in YES/YAS assays. While a small number of intersex individuals were observed, their incidence could not be associated with predicted pesticide exposure or endocrine activitity measured in the in vitro screens. There were no significant differences in sex ratio, as determined by gonadal histomorphology among the study sites, and no significant correlation was observed between proportion of males and predicted exposure to agrochemicals. However, a negative correlation did become apparent in later sampling periods between proportion of males and estrogenic activity of the POCIS sample, as measured in the YES. Our results suggest that larval and adult amphibians may be exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals in breeding ponds, albeit at low concentrations, and that chemical contaminants other than

  1. Hematotoxic and biochemical effects of UVA on the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H

    2016-01-01

    To study the adverse impacts of ultraviolet radiation-A (UVA 320-400 nm) on some hematological and biochemical parameters of Bufo regularis was considered. Samples were classified into four groups: (i) Control; (ii) ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-treated group (for 3 days/for 15 min/day); (iii) UVR-treated group (for 3 days/for 30 min/day); and (iv) (for 3 days/for 60 min/day). The destructive effects of UVA radiation was evaluated by red blood cells (RBC) count, hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrite (Ht), erythrocytic indices, white blood cells (WBC) count, total protein, glucose, aspartic amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehyderogenase (LDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehyderogenase (G6PDH) and total bilribuin. No mortality was observed. However, some physiological effects after the exposure to UVA were reported. The UVA-induced malformations recorded in the red blood cells included crenated cells (Cr), Acanthocytes (Ac), tear drop-like cells (Tr) and sickle cells (Sk). The present study revealed the exposure to UVA from 15-60 min/day for three days could promote several biochemical and physiological disturbances as well as some changes in RBC.

  2. Evaluation of DNA damage in Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans) after in vivo exposure to sublethal concentrations of four herbicides using the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao Hui; Li, Shao Nan; Zhang, Le; Zhu, Guo Nian; Zhuang, Hui Sheng

    2008-05-01

    Chinese toad, Bufo bufo gargarizans, is frequently found in rice fields, muddy ponds, wetlands and other aquatic ecosystems in China. Because of its habitat, it has many chances of being exposed to pesticides, such as acetochlor, butachlor, chlorimuron-ethyl, and paraquat, which are extensively used in rice or cereal fields. Amphibians may serve as model organisms for determining the genotoxic effects of pollutants contaminating these areas. In the present study DNA damage was evaluated in the Chinese toad using the comet assay, as a potential tool for the assessment of ecogenotoxicity. The first step was to determine the acute toxicity of the above-mentioned herbicides. In acute tests, tadpoles were exposed to a series of relatively high concentrations of acetochlor, butachlor, chlorimuron-ethyl, and paraquat for 96 h. The LC(50 )(96 h) of acetochlor, butachlor, chlorimuron-ethyl and paraquat were measured as 0.76, 1.32, 20.1 and 164 mg l(-1), respectively. Also, negative effects on the behavior of tadpoles were observed with acetochlor, butachlor, and paraquat. Secondly, the comet assay was used for detecting DNA damage in Chinese toad tadpoles exposed to sublethal concentrations of four herbicides. Significant (P Bufo bufo gargarizans for genotoxicity assessment of herbicides.

  3. Stereological analysis of mitochondria in embryos of Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo during cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Krzysztofowicz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Total numbers of mitochondria and their morphology have been quantitatively determined in mature oocytes and in cleaving embryos of two anuran species Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo using stereological methods. Surface densities of inner mitochondrial membranes for both studied species during cleavage ranged from 5.43 m2/cm3 to 7.53 m2/cm3, whereas volume densities of mitochondria did not exceed 1.65%. Since values of these parameters were low, thus embryos during cleavage may be considered as metabolically "silent". Transition of ultrastructural morphology of mitochondria towards that characterising actively respiring organelles occurs at stage 9 for R. temporaria and at stage 8 for B. bufo, correlated with blastula-gastrula and mid-blastula transition, respectively. The total numbers of mitochondria N(c in mature oocytes are as high as 114.8 and 107.2 millions for R. temporaria and B. bufo, respectively, and during cleavage at late blastula stages they increase to 300 millions for both species under study. We suggest that an undefined mechanism might eliminate during cleavage those amphibian embryos which contain small number of mitochondria and low levels of nutrient substances.

  4. Hormonal priming, induction of ovulation and in-vitro fertilization of the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Robert K; Seratt, Jessica; Vance, Carrie; Kouba, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) is the subject of an extensive captive breeding and reintroduction program. Wyoming toads in captivity rarely ovulate spontaneously and hormonal induction is used to ovulate females or to stimulate spermiation in males. With hormonal induction, ovulation is unreliable and egg numbers are low. The sequential administration of anovulatory doses of hormones (priming) has increased egg numbers and quality in both anurans and fish. Consequently, we tested the efficacy of a combination of human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) and Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone analogue (LHRHa) administered as one dose, or two or three sequential doses to Bufo baxteri on egg numbers, fertilization and early embryo development. Spawning toads deposited eggs into Simplified Amphibian Ringers (SAR) solution to enable controlled in-vitro fertilization (IVF) with sperm from hormonally induced male toads. Unprimed females receiving a single mixed normally ovulatory dose of 500 IU hCG plus 4 micrograms of LHRHa produced no eggs. Whereas females primed with this dose and an anovulatory dose (100 IU hCG and 0.8 micrograms of LHRHa) of the same hormones, or primed only with an anovulatory dose, spawned after then receiving an ovulatory dose. Higher total egg numbers were produced with two primings than with one priming. Moreover, two primings produced significantly more eggs from each individual female than one priming. The cleavage rate of eggs was not found to differ between one or two primings. Nevertheless, embryo development with eggs from two primings gave a significantly greater percentage neurulation and swim-up than those from one priming. Of the male toads receiving a single dose of 300 IU hCG, 80% produced spermic urine with the greatest sperm concentration 7 hours post-administration (PA). However, peak sperm motility (95%) was achieved at 5 hours PA and remained relatively constant until declining 20 hours PA. In conclusion, Bufo baxteri

  5. Histochemical and structural characterization of egg extra-cellular matrix in bufonid toads, Bufo bufo and Bufotes balearicus: molecular diversity versus morphological uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentino, Donatella; Mastrodonato, Maria; Rossi, Roberta; Scillitani, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    The extra-cellular matrix of fertilized eggs in the bufonid toads Bufo bufo and Bufotes balearicus was studied to clear the relationships between structural and molecular diversity. Histochemical (PAS, AB pH 2.5 and pH 1.0, Beta-elimination PAS) and lectin-histochemical (Con A, WGA, Succinyl-WGA, PNA, RCA-1, DBA, SBA, AAA, UEA-I, LTA) techniques were used and the observations were made under light and electron microscopy. Both species present a fertilization envelope (FE) and two jelly layers (J1 and J2). The fibers of J2 are shared among the eggs of a clutch in a jelly ribbon. The FE of both species presents neutral glycoproteins, mostly N-linked. In B. bufo there are also residuals of mannose and/or glucose and N-acetylglucosamine. In the FE fibers run parallel to egg's surface or are in bundles or looser hanks with no clear orientation. The J1 layer of both species presents sialosulfoglycoproteins, mostly O-linked, with lactosaminylated, galactosaminylated, glycosaminylated, and fucosylated residuals. A lower amount of galactosaminylated residuals is observed in B. balearicus in respect to B. bufo, whereas the opposite is seen in the amount of fucosylated residuals. The J2 layer is similar in composition to J1 but in B. balearicus there are no glucosaminylated residuals. J layers present fibers and granules that reduce towards J2 . Several microorganisms, in particular blue algae, are observed in the J2 layer of both species. In respect to other species, B. bufo and B. balearicus have a lower number of jelly layers, but a comparable number of glycan types. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, and malformation of Bufo gargarizans embryo exposed to sub-lethal cadmium concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Zhang, Yuhui; Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is critical for vertebrate postembryonic development as well as embryonic development. Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) embryos were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (5, 50, 100, 200 and 500μg Cd L-1) for 7days. Malformations were monitored daily, and growth and development of embryos were measured at day 4 and 7, and type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were also measured to assess disruption of TH synthesis. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) mRNA expression were examined to evaluate the ability of scavenging ROS. Our results demonstrated a bimodal inhibitory effect of Cd on the embryo growth and development of Bufo gargarizans. Reduced mean stage, total length and weight were observed at 5, 50, 200 and 500, but not at 100μg Cd L-1. Embryos malformation occurred in all cadmium treatments. Morphological abnormalities of embryos are characterized by axial flexures, abdominal edema, stunted growth and fin flexure. Real-time PCR results show that exposure to cadmium down-regulated TRα and Dio3 mRNA expression and up-regulated Dio2 mRNA level. SOD and GPx mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated after cadmium exposure. We concluded that cadmium could change mRNA expression of TRα, Dio2 and Dio3 leading the inhibition of growth and development of B. gargarizans embryo, which suggests that cadmium might have the endocrine-disrupting effect in embryos. Moreover, the reduced ability of scavenging ROS induced by cadmium might be responsible for the teratogenic effects of cadmium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of local visual cues for spatial orientation in terrestrial toads (Rhinella arenarum): The role of distance to a goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneri, M Florencia; Casanave, Emma B; Muzio, Rubén N

    2015-08-01

    The use of environmental visual cues for navigation is an ability present in many groups of animals. The effect of spatial proximity between a visual cue and a goal on reorientation in an environment has been studied in several vertebrate groups, but never previously in amphibians. In this study, we tested the use of local visual cues (beacons) to orient in an open field in the terrestrial toad (Rhinella arenarum). Experiment 1 showed that toads could orient in space using 2 cues located near the rewarded container. Experiment 2 used only 1 cue placed at different distances to the goal and revealed that learning speed was affected by the proximity to the goal (the closer the cue was to the goal, the faster toads learned its location). Experiment 3 showed that the position of a cue results in a different predictive value. Toads preferred cues located closer to the goal more than those located farther away as a reference for orientation. Present results revealed, for the first time, that (a) toads can learn to orient in an open space using visual cues, and that (b) the effect of spatial proximity between a cue and a goal, a learning phenomenon previously observed in other groups of animals such as mammals, birds, fish, and invertebrates, also affects orientation in amphibians. Thus, our results suggest that toads are able to employ spatial strategies that closely parallel those described in other vertebrate groups, supporting an early evolutionary origin for these spatial orientation skills. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Evaluation in situ of genotoxicity and stress in South American common toad Rhinella arenarum in environments related to fluorite mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, Favio E; Grenat, Pablo R; Salinas, Zulma A; Otero, Manuel A; Salas, Nancy E; Martino, Adolfo L

    2017-08-01

    Little attention has been paid to the impact of wastewater generated by mining activities on fluoride. In this study, we evaluated the hematology responses of common South American toad Rhinella arenarum inhabiting natural and artificial environments associated with a fluorite mine from central Argentina. We analyzed three sampling stations associated with the fluorite mine: (I) Los Cerros Negros stream (CN), which runs on granitic rock with a high fluorite content; (II) Los Vallecitos stream (LV), which runs on metamorphic rock with low fluorite content; and (III) artificial decantation ponds (DP) containing sediments produced by fluorite flotation process. We calculated frequencies of micronuclei, erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities, mitosis, and immature erythrocytes. In addition, we performed a differential leukocyte count and determined neutrophils/lymphocyte ratio as a stress response estimator. We found high micronucleus (MN) and erythrocyte nuclear abnormality (ENA) frequencies in DP and CN but low frequencies in LV. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio was different among sites, with a significant increase in individuals from DP. Values registered in DP could be caused by exposure to mixture of compounds registered in dams that hold wastewater, while high values registered in CN stream might be due to natural concentrations of fluoride. Our results suggest that blood is an effective and non-destructive sensitive indicator for monitoring genotoxic agents in freshwater ecosystems.

  9. Diazinon mediated biochemical changes in the African toad (Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isioma Tongo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal toxicity of diazinon to the adult African toad, Bufo regularis was assessed using an integration of biomarkers. Changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE, corticosterone and total protein levels were assessed in the serum, brain, liver, lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT and the results supported by bioaccumulation data. The biomarkers were chosen as indicators of key physiological functions: AChE for neurotoxicity, corticosterone and total protein levels as indicators of oxidative stress. Toads were exposed to 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 g/L for 28 days. Brain AChE activity reduced by 96% in the highest concentration (0.04 g/L compared to the control brain. Similarly, AChE activities in serum, liver, lungs and GIT tissues (88%, 88%, 87, 87% umg-1 protein respectively were also inhibited in the toads. Corticosterone and total protein levels in the tissues decreased compared to the control. The accumulation results obtained showed accumulation in the tissues (liver>serum>brain> lung>GIT, with a direct relationship between tissue concentration and changes in the biochemical indices. The alterations in all the indices were significantly concentration dependent. The biomarkers described in this study could be useful complementary indices in the risk assessment of diazinon pesticide.

  10. Ecología trófica en larvas de Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) en agroecosistemas y sus posibles implicaciones para la conservación

    OpenAIRE

    Bionda, Clarisa; Gari, Noemi; Luque, Elisa; Salas, Nancy; Lajmanovich, Rafael; Martino, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    El crecimiento de la agricultura produce pérdida del hábitat natural, con consecuencias para la biodiversidad de los anfibios. Se analizó la dieta y condición corporal de larvas de anuros de Rhinella arenarum que habitan agroecosistemas. Los muestreos fueron realizados en dos agroecosistemas y en un tercer sitio, no afectado por cultivos. Las larvas capturadas fueron anestesiadas, fijadas y preservadas en formaldehído, se realizaron medidas corporales y se analizó la dieta de las larvas. Se r...

  11. Common toad Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867) and its importance in assessing environmental health: test of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, Favio E; Bionda, Clarisa L; Salinas, Zulma A; Salas, Nancy E; Martino, Adolfo L

    2015-09-01

    Anthropogenic activities may generate significant changes in the integrity of aquatic ecosystems, so long-term monitoring of populations that inhabit them is crucial. Counting micronucleated erythrocytes (MN) and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) in peripheral blood is a widely used method for detecting chromosomal damage due to chemical agents in the water. We analyzed MN and ENA frequency in blood obtained from the common toad Rhinella arenarum populations in sites with different degrees of environmental degradation. The results of this study indicate that there is an association between the frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities and the degree of environmental alteration recorded for the sites studied.

  12. Cloning the sterol carrier protein 2 genes of Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) and Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) and its tissue expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yu-Cheng; Zhuge, Hui; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Shu-Fang; Yang, Xian-Yu

    2014-09-01

    In this study, to clarify the bioactive polypeptides included in the skins and secretions of Bufo, we screened the Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) skin cDNA liary by colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and obtained a transcript of 1 075 bp consisting of 1 37 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), 515 bp 3' UTR and a 423 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 140 amino acid residues (GenBank accession number: KF359945). Homolog analysis showed a 70%-96% homology with sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) present in other animals, which is implicated in lipid metabolism of other organisms. The gene SCP-2 of Chinese toad (B. gargarizans) was cloned from a first strand cDNA of Bufo skin (GenBank accession number: KF381341) via PCR, whose encoding polypeptide has only one amino acid difference from that of Japanese toad. Tissue distribution analysis showed that SCP-2 expressed in all organs tested, though in the liver and spleen it manifested lower expression than in other organs. These findings might indicate SCP-2 being one of the active ingredients in toad skin. These findings may in turn have implications for further drug development from traditional Chinese medicine sources.

  13. Selection of diet by metamorphic and juvenile western toads (Bufo boreas) in northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn L Bull; Jane L. Hayes

    2009-01-01

    The decline of Bufo boreas, the Western Toad, in portions of its range has accentuated the need for more complete information on all life stages of this species. Our objectives were to describe the diet of recently metamorphosed and juvenile (one-year old) B. boreas and then compare it to the available arthropods. Metamorphs (n...

  14. Habitat modeling and movements of the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.T. Liang

    2010-01-01

    The Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) canorus) is a high-elevation species endemic to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in California and is part of the world-wide amphibian declines phenomenon. The toad is thought to have disappeared from over 50% of its historic range even in seemingly undisturbed areas, and...

  15. Summer movements of boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in two western Montana basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Schmetterling; Michael K. Young

    2008-01-01

    The Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas boreas) is widely distributed in the western United States but has declined in portions of its range. Research directed at conserving Boreal Toads has indicated that their movements are largely terrestrial and often limited after the breeding season. We used a combination of stream-based netting, PIT tagging, and radio...

  16. POPULATION STRUCTURE OF THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD, BUFO PUNCTATUS, IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the spatial scale at which genetic structure of Bufo punctatus within the MojaveDesert is organized by sequencing a portion of mitochondrial DNA control region for 831 toadscollected from 43 sites around Las Vegas, Nevada. We grouped these collecti...

  17. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

  18. Sexual differences in the ecology and habitat selection of western toads (Bufo boreas) in northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn L. Bull

    2006-01-01

    Several species of toads (family Bufonidae), including the Western Toad (bufo boreas) have declined in the Western United States. Information on toad ecology and habitat use is essential to determine potential causes for population declines, as is the potential relationship between this information and disturbance events. Aspects of western toad...

  19. Short notes and reviews Bidder’s organ in the female of Bufo ictericus: morphological characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farias, C.F.; Brito-Gitirana, de L.; Carvalho-e-Silva, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Bidder’s organ has been cited as a structure present only in males of the toad family Bufonidae, and is used as a systematic characteristic. In this study, we examined females of Bufo ictericus in order to ascertain whether this structure also occurs in females. Macroscopic observations and light

  20. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late...

  1. Effects of fluoride on morphology, growth, development, and thyroid hormone of Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhui; Xie, Lei; Li, Xinyi; Chai, Lihong; Chen, Mengxing; Kong, Xiaojing; Wang, Qingqing; Liu, Jingfei; Zhi, Lijuan; Yang, Chang; Wang, Hongyuan

    2017-10-12

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect amphibians, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in Bufo gargarizans embryos. In the present study, the effects of fluoride exposure on B. gargarizans embryos were investigated. First, fluoride teratogenic experiment showed that the 9 days EC50 of fluoride on B. gargarizans embryos was 177.62 mg/L. Then, we studied the sublethal effects of fluoride on B. gargarizans embryos at control, 0.7, 4.1, 19.6, 41.9, and 62.7 mg/L fluoride concentration. Malformation, growth, and development of embryos were monitored, and type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were measured. Our results showed the morphological malformations, such as tail curvature (lordosis), edema, cuticularized ciliated cells, and hyperplasia were occurred during fluoride exposure. Growth and development were all inhibited at 19.5, 41.9, and 62.7 mg/L fluoride-treated groups after 9 days' exposure. According to real-time PCR results, exposure to fluoride upregulated Dio3 and TRβ mRNA expression and downregulated Dio2 and TRα mRNA level. All above indicated that excessive fluoride could induce morphology malformations, inhibit embryonic growth and development, and disrupt the normal function of maternal thyroid hormone in B. gargarizans embryos. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Chronic effects of triclosan on embryonic development of Chinese toad, Bufo gargarizans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhao, Hongfeng; Deng, Hongzhang

    2016-10-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is commonly used worldwide in a range of personal care and sanitizing products. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential effects of TCS exposure on embryonic development of Bufo gargarizans, an endemic frog species in China. Standard Gosner stage 3 B. gargarizans embryos were exposed to 10 ~ 150 μg/L TCS during embryogenesis. Survival, total length, weight, developmental stage, duration of different embryo stages, malformation, and type II and III deiodinase (D2 and D3) expression were measured. Inhibitory effects on embryo developmental stage, total length and weight were found at 30 ~ 150 μg/L TCS. Moreover, the duration of embryonic development was increased at gastrula, neural, circulation, and operculum development stage in TCS-treated groups. In addition, TCS exposure induced morphological malformations in B. gargarizans embryos, which are characterized by hyperplasia, abdominal edema, and axial flexures. Furthermore, our results showed that the expression of D2 in embryos was probably down-regulated at 60 and 150 μg/L TCS, but its spatial expression patterns was not affected by TCS. In summary, our study suggested that TCS exposure not only resulted in delayed growth and development but also caused teratogenic effects in B. gargarizans embryos, and the developmental effects of TCS at high concentrations may be associated with disruption of THs homeostasis. Although further studies are necessary, the present findings could provide a basis for understanding on harmful effects and the potential mechanisms of TCS in amphibian embryos.

  3. Electrical responses of rods in the retina of Bufo marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetto, L.; Pasino, E.; Torre, V.

    1977-01-01

    1. Intracellular responses to flashes and steps of light have been recorded from the outer segment and the cell body of rods in the retina of the Bufo marinus. The identification of the origin of recorded responses has been confirmed by intracellular marking. 2. Responses to flashes delivered in darkness or superimposed on a background were analysed. Responses recorded from outer segments conform to the principle of `spectral univariance'. The shape of the response is not affected by enlarging the spot diameter from 150 to 1000 μm. 3. The membrane potential measured in darkness at the outer segments varied from -15 to -25 mV. Injection of steady hyperpolarizing currents increases the size of the response to light; depolarizing currents reduce the response. The mean value of the input resistance is 97 ± 30 MΩ in darkness and increases by 20-30% during illumination. 4. The responses obtained from the cell body of rods have the same shape, time course and spectral sensitivity of those recorded at the outer segment. Injection of steady current at the cell body produces different effects than at the outer segment: hyperpolarizing currents reduce the amplitude of the response to light; depolarizing currents increase the response. 5. The experimental data are fitted according to a model similar to that used to describe the responses of turtle cones (Baylor & Hodgkin, 1974; Baylor, Hodgkin & Lamb, 1974a, b). 6. The model reproduces the electrical responses of the rod outer segment to a variety of stimuli: (a) brief flashes and steps of light in dark adapted conditions; (b) bright flashes superimposed on background illuminations; (c) pairs of flashes delivered at different time intervals. Responses to hyperpolarizing steps of current are also reproduced by the model. ImagesABCD PMID:406383

  4. Determination of impacts on the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) at Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge from ammonium nitrate concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) is found only as a reintroduced population at Mortenson NWR in the Laramie Plains of southeast Wyoming. Reasons for the...

  5. Avoidance responses to scents of snakes that pose different risks of predation by adult natterjack toads, Bufo calamita

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalo, Adega; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2008-01-01

    ... ( Bufo calamita Laurenti, 1768) was influenced by the presence in the refuge of chemical cues from conspecifics or from two different snake predators ( Natrix maura (L., 1758) and Natrix natrix (L., 1758...

  6. Toxicity of four herbicide formulations with glyphosate on Rhinella arenarum (anura: bufonidae) tadpoles: B-esterases and glutathione S-transferase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Attademo, Andrés M; Peltzer, Paola M; Junges, Celina M; Cabagna, Mariana C

    2011-05-01

    In this study, amphibian tadpoles Rhinella arenarum were exposed to different concentrations of Roundup Ultra-Max (ULT), Infosato (INF), Glifoglex, and C-K YUYOS FAV. Tadpoles were exposed to these commercial formulations with glyphosate (CF-GLY) at the following concentrations (acid equivalent [ae]): 0 (control), 1.85, 3.75, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg ae/L for 6-48 h (short-term). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), carboxylesterase (CbE), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were measured among tadpoles sampled from those treatments that displayed survival rates >85%. Forty-eight-hour LC(50) for R. arenarum tadpoles exposed to CF-GLY in the static tests ranged from ULT = 2.42 to FAV = 77.52 mg ae/L. For all CF-GLY, the LC(50) values stabilized at 24 h of exposure. Tadpoles exposed to all CF-GLY concentrations at 48 h showed decreases in the activities of AChE (control = 17.50 ± 2.23 nmol/min/mg/protein; maximum inhibition INF 30 mg ae/L, 71.52%), BChE (control = 6.31 ± 0.86 nmol/min/mg/protein; maximum inhibition INF 15 mg ae/L, 78.84%), CbE (control = 4.39 ± 0.46 nmol/min/mg/protein; maximum inhibition INF 15 mg ae/L, 81.18%), and GST (control = 4.86 ± 0.49 nmol/min/mg/protein; maximum inhibition INF 1.87 mg ae/L, 86.12%). These results indicate that CF-GLY produce a wide range of toxicities and that all enzymatic parameters tested may be good early indicators of herbicide contamination in R. arenarum tadpoles.

  7. A microchannel confocal examination of arsenic speciation and distribution in Bufo americanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Gordon, Robert A.; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2016-05-01

    We have used confocal methods to examine the distribution and speciation of arsenic within amphibian tissue (Bufo americanus) from a contaminated mine site. The use of new microchannel technology permits a confocal, and energy-independent, examination of a given voxel within the amphibian tissue without the need for sectioning. We observe differences in arsenic concentration and speciation depending on tissue type, with the Eberth- Katschenko layer in particular containing Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in addition to Ca and pentavalent arsenic.

  8. Active urea transport by the skin of Bufo viridis: Amiloride- and phloretin-sensitive transport sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapoport, J.; Abuful, A.; Chaimovitz, C.; Noeh, Z.; Hays, R.M. (Soroka Medical Center, Beersheva (Israel) Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1988-09-01

    Urea is actively transported inwardly (J{sub i}) across the skin of the green toad Bufo viridis. J{sub i} is markedly enhanced in toads adapted to hypertonic saline. The authors studied urea transport across the skin of Bufo viridis under a variety of experimental conditions, including treatment with amiloride and phloretin, agents that inhibit urea permeability in the bladder of Bufo marinus. Amiloride (10{sup {minus}4} M) significantly inhibited J{sub i} in both adapted and unadapted animals and was unaffected by removal of sodium from the external medium. Phloretin (10{sup {minus}4} M) significantly inhibited J{sub i} in adapted animals by 23-46%; there was also a reduction in J{sub i} in unadapted toads at 10{sup {minus}4} and 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M phloretin. A dose-response study revealed that the concentration of phloretin causing half-maximal inhibition (K{sub {1/2}}) was 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M for adapted animals. J{sub i} was unaffected by the substitution of sucrose for Ringer solution or by ouabain. They conclude (1) the process of adaptation appears to involve an increase in the number of amiloride- and phloretin-inhibitable urea transport sites in the skin, with a possible increase in the affinity of the sites for phloretin; (2) the adapted skin resembles the Bufo marinus urinary bladder with respect to amiloride and phloretin-inhibitable sites; (3) they confirm earlier observations that J{sub i} is independent of sodium transport.

  9. Factors limiting the recovery of boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, C.; Corn, P.S.; Jones, M.S.; Livo, L.J.; Muths, E.; Loeffler, C.W.; Lannoo, M.

    2005-01-01

    Boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas) are widely distributed over much of the mountainous western United States. Populations in the Southern Rocky Mountains suffered extensive declines in the late 1970s through early 1980s (Carey, 1993). At the time, these mass mortalities were thought to be associated with a bacterial infection (Carey, 1993). Although the few populations that survived the mass die-offs were not systematically monitored until at least 1993, no mass mortalities had been observed until 1996 when die-offs were observed. A mycotic skin infection associated with a chytrid fungus is now causing mortality of toads in at least two of the populations (M.S. Jones and D.E. Green, unpublished data; Muths et al., 2003). Boreal toads are now absent throughout large areas of their former distribution in Colorado and southern Wyoming and may be extinct in New Mexico (Corn et al., 1989; Carey, 1993; Stuart and Painter, 1994). These toads are classified as “endangered” by Colorado and New Mexico and are designated as a protected non-game species in Wyoming. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has categorized the Southern Rocky Mountain populations for federal listing and is currently reviewing their designation as a “warranted but precluded” species for possible listing in the next few years. For the management of boreal toads and their habitats, a Boreal Toad Recovery Team was formed by the Colorado Division of Wildlife in 1995 as part of a collaborative effort with federal agencies within the United States’ departments of the Interior and Agriculture and with agencies in two adjoining states. To date, conservation agreements have been signed by eight state and federal agencies and by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. Although boreal toads were considered common throughout their range in Colorado, no comprehensive surveys of the numbers and sizes of their populations were conducted prior to mass die-offs in the 1970s. Surveys completed in the late 1980s to

  10. Long-term effect of heavy-metal pollution on diversity of gastrointestinal microbial community of Bufo raddei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenya; Guo, Rui; Yang, Ying; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-09-06

    Gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota plays a very important role in maintaining its host's health. However, the effects of environmental contamination on the GI microbiota homeostasis of amphibians have not yet been reported. The present study reveals the long-term effect of natural heavy-metal pollution on the GI microbial community diversity and structural changes of Bufo raddei (B. raddei). Basing on the 16S rRNA sequencing method, the GI microbiota of B. raddei from a heavily heavy-metal-polluted area (Baiyin, (BY)) and a relatively unpolluted area (Liujiaxia, (LJX)) were profiled. The results showed that heavy-metal pollution had caused significant shifts in the composition of the GI microbiota both at the phylum and genus levels. Specifically, Bacteroidetes dominated in the GI tract of B. raddei from BY, while Tenericutes was much more common in those from LJX. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and the proportion of probiotics in the GI microbiota of B. raddei from BY were reduced compared to those from LJX, as well. Heavy-metal pollution also induced in a reduction of species diversity and decreased proportion of unique operational taxonomic units in the GI tract. In short, our results demonstrate that long-term heavy-metal exposure re-shaped the composition and decreased the species diversity of GI microbiota of B. raddei; our results also represent a novel approach to uncover the toxic effects of pollution on amphibians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Primer reporte de parasitismo de una garrapata blanda del género Ornithodoros (Ixodida: Argasidae sobre Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae en el departamento de Valle Fértil, San Juan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta, Juan Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente comunicación es reportar por primera vez un caso de parasitismo en Rhinella arenarum y a la vez mencionar el primer registro del género Ornithodoros en el departamento de Valle Fértil, San Juan, Argentina. Siendo el primer registro de parasitismo de anfibios por Ornithodoros en la Argentina y el segundo para el neotrópico.

  12. Concordant morphological and molecular clines in a contact zone of the Common and Spined toad (Bufo bufo and B. spinosus) in the northwest of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntzen, Jan W; Trujillo, Tania; Butôt, Roland; Vrieling, Klaas; Schaap, Onno; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Jorge; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid zones are regions where individuals of two species meet and produce hybrid progeny, and are often regarded as natural laboratories to understand the process of species formation. Two microevolutionary processes can take place in hybrid zones, with opposing effects on population differentiation. Hybridization tends to produce genetic homogenization, reducing species differences, whereas the presence of mechanisms of reproductive isolation result in barriers to gene flow, maintaining or increasing differences between taxa. Here we study a contact zone between two hybridizing toad species, Bufo bufo and B. spinosus, through a combination of molecular (12 polymorphic microsatellites, four nuclear and two mitochondrial SNP markers) and morphological data in a transect in the northwest of France. The results show largely concordant clines across markers, defining a narrow hybrid zone of ca. 30 km wide. Most hybrids in the centre of the contact zone are classified as F2 or backcrossed individuals, with no individuals assigned to the F1 hybrid class. We discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of the evolutionary history of these species. We anticipate that the toad contact zone here described will become an important asset in the study of hybrid zone dynamics and evolutionary biology because of its easy access and the abundance of the species involved.

  13. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2015-01-01

    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50% of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The issue of maternal transfer of thallium from females to oocytes is discussed. Due to a significant accumulation of thallium, spawn analysis can be used as a sensitive indicator of the presence of this element in the environment and may replace more invasive methods that involve the killing of adult animals. In those regions that are abundant in Zn-Pb ores, the spawn of amphibians may be a very important source of thallium contamination for predators. From among all tissues of the Bukowno adult toads, the livers have shown the highest accumulation of thallium (mean 3.98 mg/kg d.w. and maximum value--18.63). For as many as 96.5% of livers, concentrations exceeded 1.0 mgTl/kg d.w. which is treated as indicative of poisoning.

  14. How fast do amphibians disperse? Introductions, distribution and dispersal of the common frog Rana temporaria and the common toad Bufo bufo on a coastal island in Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Dolmen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common frog (Rana temporaria and the common toad (Bufo bufo were introduced successfully to the coastal island of Frøya in Central Norway several times during 1960–2012. There is still a very high degree of conformity between sites where they were introduced and the present distribution of the two species. However, in western Frøya, a release of frogs about 1996 was followed by a quick expansion of their distribution area; in 2012 and 2013, breeding was registered close to 7 km westwards and eastwards, respectively, i.e. a population dispersal speed of approximately 0.4 km/yr. On eastern Frøya and some small islands in the archipelago, area expansions at another four frog localities have been prevented by ecological barriers like unfavourable limnetic or terrestrial habitats or salty water. Two local common toad populations on eastern Frøya do not show any expansion either. However, an apparently isolated record of the species on western Frøya in 2011 can possibly be explained by the expansion westwards of a population in northern central Frøya, where toads were introduced around 1995. This stretch is about 9.9 km, i.e. an average population dispersal speed of 0.6 km/yr.

  15. Tissue kinetics, ion transport, and recruitment of mitochondria-rich cells in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo) in response to exposure to distilled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz, Poul Egede; Christoffersen, Betina C.; Johansen, Jesper S.

    1995-01-01

    studied in toads (Bufo bufo) immediately before, and after 2,7, and 14 days exposure to distilled water. General epidermal structure was not affected. However, the numbers of MRCs per mm2 (DMRC) increased throughout the experiment as revealed by staining of epidermal sheets with AgNO3 (Ag) or methylene...... blue (MB). Part of the increased DMRC was accounted for by an increase in MRC subpopulation(s) that stained neither with Ag nor MB. The cell birth rate (Kb) decreased and cell loss by moulting (Kd) increased without any significant change in epidermal cell pool size, indicating a reduced apoptotic rate...

  16. The role of adrenergic receptors in nicotine-induced hyperglycemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of adrenergic receptors in nicotine-induced hyperglycaemia has not been well studied in amphibians. Thus, this study investigates the effects of alpha and beta adrenergic receptor blockers in nicotine-induced hyperglycaemia in the common African toad Bufo regularis. Toads fasted for 24 h were anaesthetized with ...

  17. Volunteer Conservation Action Data Reveals Large-Scale and Long-Term Negative Population Trends of a Widespread Amphibian, the Common Toad (Bufo bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovan, Silviu O; Schmidt, Benedikt R

    2016-01-01

    Rare and threatened species are the most frequent focus of conservation science and action. With the ongoing shift from single-species conservation towards the preservation of ecosystem services, there is a greater need to understand abundance trends of common species because declines in common species can disproportionately impact ecosystems function. We used volunteer-collected data in two European countries, the United Kingdom (UK) and Switzerland, since the 1970s to assess national and regional trends for one of Europe's most abundant amphibian species, the common toad (Bufo bufo). Millions of toads were moved by volunteers across roads during this period in an effort to protect them from road traffic. For Switzerland, we additionally estimated trends for the common frog (Rana temporaria), a similarly widespread and common amphibian species. We used state-space models to account for variability in detection and effort and included only populations with at least 5 years of data; 153 populations for the UK and 141 for Switzerland. Common toads declined continuously in each decade in both countries since the 1980s. Given the declines, this common species almost qualifies for International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red-listing over this period despite volunteer conservation efforts. Reasons for the declines and wider impacts remain unknown. By contrast, common frog populations were stable or increasing in Switzerland, although there was evidence of declines after 2003. "Toads on Roads" schemes are vital citizen conservation action projects, and the data from such projects can be used for large scale trend estimations of widespread amphibians. We highlight the need for increased research into the status of common amphibian species in addition to conservation efforts focusing on rare and threatened species.

  18. Comparison of toad skins Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor from different regions for their active constituents content and cytotoxic activity on lung carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Congyan; Cao, Wei; Chen, Yan; Qu, Ding; Zhou, Jing

    2014-07-01

    The skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor, rich in bufadienolides, peptides, and alkaloids, has approved pharmacological activity for preliminary anti-liver and lung tumor treatment. However, few studies have systematically focused on the influence of the producing regions on the content and antitumor activity of the active constituents in toad skins. This study aims to compare toad skins obtained from six different regions in China (Jiangsu, Anhui, Henan, Hebei, Jiangxi, and Shandong province) for their bufadienolide and alkaloid content, and their cytotoxic activity on two lung carcinoma cell lines (SPC-A-1 cells and A549 cells). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantificationally determine four bufadienolides, which included bufotalin, bufalin, cinobufagin, and resibufogenin in toad skins, from six different regions, respectively. In addition, an ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer was also employed to identify the content of the total alkaloids using 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) as the reference substance. An MTT assay was performed to compare the antiproliferative effects of the toad skins' ethanolic extracts from the different regions against SPC-A-1 and A549 cells. In this study, the toad skins from Jiangsu province had the highest amount of bufadienolides (472.6 μg/g crude drug) and alkaloids (1.51 mg/g crude drug). Meanwhile, according to the extract, it exhibited the strongest cytotoxic effect against the lung carcinoma cell line (SPC-A-1 cells and A549 cells) with IC50 values of 24.82 ± 0.76 and 23.77 ± 0.63 μg crude drug/mL, respectively. The toad skins that originated from the Jiangsu province, have comparatively greater advantages over samples from other regions as far as active constituent content and potential anti-lung cancer activity is concerned, suggesting that it can be a promising chemotherapeutic agent in lung cancer therapy, in further studies.

  19. Body size, nuptial pad size and hormone levels: potential non-destructive biomarkers of reproductive health in wild toads (Bufo bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Frances; Baynes, Alice; Clare, Frances; Duffus, Amanda L J; Larroze, Severine; Scholze, Martin; Garner, Trenton W J

    2014-09-01

    Amphibians are declining and fertility/fecundity are major drivers of population stability. The development of non-destructive methods to assess reproductive health are needed as destructive measures are fundamentally at odds with conservation goals for declining species. We investigated the utility of body size, nuptial pad size and forelimb width as non-destructive biomarkers of internal reproductive physiology, by analysing correlations with commonly used destructive methods in adult male toads (Bufo bufo) from a low human impact and a high human impact site. Principal component analyses revealed that size was the most important variable for explaining inter-individual differences in other measured endpoints, both non-destructive and destructive, except for hormone levels and nuptial pad, which were independent of size. Toads from the LI and the HI site differed in almost all of the measured endpoints; this was largely driven by the significantly smaller size of toads from the HI site. Correlational analyses within sites revealed that size was correlated with several reproductive endpoints in toads from the HI site but not the LI site, indicating a possible limiting effect of size on reproductive physiology. Intersex was observed in 33% of toads from the HI site and incidence was not related to any other measured endpoint. In conclusion, we provide evidence that size is associated with reproductive physiology and that nuptial pad/hormone levels have potential as additional markers due to their independence from size. We also show that human activities can have a negative effect on reproductive physiology of the common toad.

  20. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Olivia; Fabbro, Larelle; Makiela, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Limnothrix (strain AC0243) is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243) live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine are discussed. PMID:24662524

  1. Toxicity of mine drainage to embryonic and larval boreal toads (Bufonidae: Bufo boreas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, K.R.; Hakanson, D.E.

    1976-05-17

    Chemical analyses and bioassays of mine drainage were made to determine if it could be a factor accounting for the absence of amphibians from Clear Creek County, Colorado. The concentrations of hydrogen ion, iron, copper and zinc in the drainage were all individually much greater than the tolerance levels of premetamorphic toads. The lethality of the drainage was found to be of such a magnitude that it required diluting approximately one thousand times before larvae could survive in it. Boreal toad (Bufo boreas) larvae are more resistant to acidity than most fish but are very similar to other anuran larvae and salmonids in their sensitivity to copper and zinc. (auth)

  2. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  3. Ecología trófica en larvas de Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae en agroecosistemas y sus posibles implicaciones para la conservación Trophic ecology in tadpoles of Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae in agroecosystems and their possible implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa Bionda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento de la agricultura produce perdida del habitat natural, con consecuencias para la biodiversidad de los anfibios. Se analizo la dieta y condición corporal de larvas de anuros de Rhinella arenarum que habitan agroecosistemas. Los muestreos fueron realizados en dos agroecosistemas y en un tercer sitio, no afectado por cultivos. Las larvas capturadas fueron anestesiadas, fijadas y preservadas en formaldehido, se realizaron medidas corporales y se analizo la dieta de las larvas. Se registro diversidad en la oferta alimenticia proporcionada por los distintos ambientes. La dieta tuvo una predominancia de algas Bacillarophyceae, seguidas por Cyanophyceae. Particularmente, los géneros Navicula, Nitzschia, Hantzschia y Gomphonema (clase Bacillarophyceae, fueron importantes en los agroecosistemas. Los géneros Osillatoria, Euglena y Strombomonas (clases Cyanophyceae y Euglenophyceae, predominaron en la dieta de las larvas de anuros en el sitio menos alterado. Las larvas de los sitios más alterados consumen menor cantidad de alimento y registran una menor condición corporal. La presencia de determinadas algas, indicarían un mayor grado de contaminación en los agroecosistemas. La eutrofización de lagunas podría alterar la disponibilidad de alimento para larvas de anuros que podría tener consecuencias poblacionales negativas. Se sugiere el análisis de dietas larvarias como un potencial bioindicador de salubridad ambiental.Trophic ecology in tadpoles of Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae in agroecosystems and their possible implications for conservation. The progress of the agriculture border has led an important loss of natural habitats, with significant consequences for biodiversity. In this sense, the studies in anuran amphibian tadpoles inhabiting these environments are relevant, because the larval stage is a phase of population regulation. The aim of this study was to analyze the body condition and diet in Rhinella arenarum

  4. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BUFO PUNCTATUS: LONG TERM EVOLUTION WITHIN THE WARM DESERTS OF NORTH AMERICA AND LATE QUATERNARY RANGE SHIFTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufo punctatus, the red-spotted toad, is a widespread anuran of the warm-desert regions of western North America. This distribution makes this species ideal for evaluating biotic response to geotectonically and climatically mediated episodes of landscape transformation (e.g., ear...

  5. WHEN A PHYLOGENETIC TRICHOTOMY MAKES SENSES: PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BUFO PUNCTATUS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE WARM DESERTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufo punctatus, the red-spotted toad, is a common, desert-adapted anuran with a widespread distribution throughout warm, and regions of North America. This distribution makes this species ideal for evaluating alternative scenarios of biotic response to geotectonically and climat...

  6. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo panctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the la...

  7. Post-breeding habitat use by adult boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas) after wildfire in Glacier National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Gregory Guscio; Blake R. Hossack; Lisa A. Eby; Paul Stephen Corn

    2008-01-01

    Effects of wildfire on amphibians are complex, and some species may benefit from the severe disturbance of stand-replacing fire. Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA increased in occurrence after fires in 2001 and 2003. We used radio telemetry to track adult B. boreas in a mosaic of terrestrial...

  8. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  9. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  10. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  11. Age-related seasonal variation in captures of stream-borne Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas, Bufonidae) in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young; David A. Schmetterling

    2009-01-01

    Like many species of amphibians, Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas, Bufonidae) are declining throughout portions of their range. Recent efforts have focused on describing the ecology of this species, yet few studies have evaluated demographic characteristics that may influence the persistence of Boreal Toad populations. Because Boreal Toads often...

  12. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NAUTRALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  13. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtis R. Moseley; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; W. Mark Ford

    2004-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo tmrestns) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands...

  14. Movements and habitat use of Yosemite toads (Anaxyrus (formerly Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina T. Liang

    2013-01-01

    The Yosemite Toad (Anaxyrus (Bufo) canorus) is a high-elevation species endemic to the central Sierra Nevada mountain range in California whose populations are in decline. There is limited information on their terrestrial movement and habitat use, which impairs our understanding of the ecology and habitat...

  15. Wildfire effects on water temperature and selection of breeding sites by the boreal toad (Bufo boreas) in seasonal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake R. Hossack; Paul Stephen Corn

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances can significantly affect the thermal regime and community structure of wetlands. We investigated the effect of a wildfire on water temperature of seasonal, montane wetlands after documenting the colonization of recently burned wetlands by the Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas boreas). We compared the daily mean temperature, daily maximum...

  16. [Identification and bactericidal activity of a novel Cathelicidin family member from skin of Bufu bufo gargarizans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Bo; Gao, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Wei-Ping; Jia, Guang-Tao; Sun, Tong-Yi; Lee, Wen-Hui

    2016-02-01

    The skin transcriptome of Bufu bufo gargarizans was determined by conventional methods. A novel full length cDNA coding for a Cathelicidin precursor was identified by transcriptomic data assembling, annotation and blast search of corresponding data banks. According to the known processing methods of Cathelicidin family members, present reported novel Cathelicidin precursor of B. bufo gargarizans might be cleaved at 2 possible sites of the same precursor and generate both BG-CATH25 and BG-CATH29 as mature molecules. The deduced BG-CATH25 and BG-CATH29 were synthesized with purity>95% to evaluate the properties and bactericidal activities. The secondary structural characteristics of both BG-CATH25 and BG-CATH29 in different solutions were determined by Circular Dichroism (CD) Analysis. CD results indicated that random coil conformation were the main structural elements for both BG-CATH25 and BG-CATH29 in different buffer systems. Antimicrobial activities against tested bacterial strains were carried out by plating method. Both BG-CATH25 and BG-CATH29 showed strong antibacterial activities against Aeromonas hydrophila, with MIC values of 1.25, 10 mg•L⁻¹, respectively. However, both of them showed weak bactericidal activities against human pathogenic bacteria, like Escherichia coli (ATCC25922),Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923)and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Population Genetic Structure and Species Status of Asiatic Toads (Bufo gargarizans) in Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guannan; Yang, Weizhao; Fu, Jinzhong

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the population genetic structure of Asiatic toads (Bufo gargarizans) from the mountains of western China to determine their species status, using genotypic data of ten microsatellite DNA loci and DNA sequences from one mitochondrial gene. A total of 197 samples from eight sites were examined, which cover a large range of elevations (559-3457 m), as well as all three traditionally defined species (or subspecies). AMOVA did not reveal any particularly large among-groups structure, whether the sites were grouped by drainage, elevation, region, or species (subspecies). Individual assignment tests placed all samples into two genetic clusters, which largely corresponded to their geographic locations. An isolation-by-distance pattern was also detected when an outlier population (site 3) was excluded. Furthermore, a mitochondrial gene tree revealed deep divergence among haplotypes, sometimes within the same site. The clade patterns were partially associated with geographic distribution but had no resemblance to the traditional 2- or 3-species classification. Overall, these toad populations harbor a large amount of genetic diversity and have very high population differentiation, but taken together the evidence suggests that all populations belong to a single species. Our results are consistent with most previous molecular studies, and we recommend using Bufo gargarizans to represent all Asiatic toad populations from western China without subspecies division.

  18. Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. (Apicomplexa, Lankesterellidae from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru

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    Ilan Paperna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. is described from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru. Merogony and oogony occur in the capillary endothelium and the macrophages in the liver, spleen and kidneys. Meronts are oval, 25,2–29,4 x 15,7–16,8 μm in size and yield 35–46 merozoites. Oocysts are 26,3–29,4 x 15,1–17,6 μm in size; sporozoites 9,2-9,8 x 4,2–5,0 μm in size, assemble in macrophages. Released 8,7–9,8 x 2,8–3,1 μm sporozoites enter erythrocytes. L. poeppigii is compared with Lankesterella petiti Lainson & Paperna, 1995 infecting Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Brazil. The above mentioned specific characters, added to differences in hosts and geographical location warrant the description of Lankesterella poeppigii from B. poeppigii as a new species.

  19. Demografía poblacional de Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae y Physalaemus biligonigerus (Anura: Leiuperidae en agroecosistemas de la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa Bionda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento de la agricultura produce pérdida del hábitat natural, con consecuencias para la biodiversidad de los anfibios. Se analizó la demografía poblacional de dos especies de anfibios en agroecosistemas de la provincia de Córdoba, Rhinella arenarum y Physalaemus biligonigerus. Los muestreos se realizaron en tres agroecosistemas y en un cuarto sitio, no afectado por cultivos. Los individuos se capturaron utilizando trampas de caída viva y relevamientos visuales. Con los datos de abundancia se estimó la supervivencia para cada clase de edad y con las tasas de supervivencia y fertilidad poblacional, se construyeron matrices de Leslie para obtener una proyección cuantitativa del tamaño poblacional. Las proyecciones poblacionales fueron favorables para el sitio SM2 y desfavorables para los sitios cultivados. Los agroecosistemas son ambientes posiblemente inhóspitos para la reproducción y supervivencia de las especies estudiadas. Particularmente se ven afectados aquellos estadios acuáticos del ciclo de vida de estas especies, debido al deterioro de los cuerpos de agua en estas áreas. Se reconocieron efectos especie-específicos de los ecosistemas agrícolas, ya que P. biligonigerus resultó la especie más afectada. Se sugiere un deterioro ambiental producido por cultivos extensivos de soja, lo que impactaría la demografía de las poblaciones de anuros.

  20. Ecología trófica en larvas de Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae en agroecosistemas y sus posibles implicaciones para la conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa Bionda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento de la agricultura produce perdida del habitat natural, con consecuencias para la biodiversidad de los anfibios. Se analizo la dieta y condición corporal de larvas de anuros de Rhinella arenarum que habitan agroecosistemas. Los muestreos fueron realizados en dos agroecosistemas y en un tercer sitio, no afectado por cultivos. Las larvas capturadas fueron anestesiadas, fijadas y preservadas en formaldehido, se realizaron medidas corporales y se analizo la dieta de las larvas. Se registro diversidad en la oferta alimenticia proporcionada por los distintos ambientes. La dieta tuvo una predominancia de algas Bacillarophyceae, seguidas por Cyanophyceae. Particularmente, los géneros Navicula, Nitzschia, Hantzschia y Gomphonema (clase Bacillarophyceae, fueron importantes en los agroecosistemas. Los géneros Osillatoria, Euglena y Strombomonas (clases Cyanophyceae y Euglenophyceae, predominaron en la dieta de las larvas de anuros en el sitio menos alterado. Las larvas de los sitios más alterados consumen menor cantidad de alimento y registran una menor condición corporal. La presencia de determinadas algas, indicarían un mayor grado de contaminación en los agroecosistemas. La eutrofización de lagunas podría alterar la disponibilidad de alimento para larvas de anuros que podría tener consecuencias poblacionales negativas. Se sugiere el análisis de dietas larvarias como un potencial bioindicador de salubridad ambiental.

  1. Variación ontogenética en la palatibilidad de los renacuajos de Bufo spinulosus papillosus Philippi, 1902 (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara, Fabián Gastón

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la variación ontogenética de la palatabilidad en Bufo spinulosus papillosus expuestos a larvas del odonato Rhionaeshna variegata (Odonata, Aeshnidae. Los renacuajos fueron agrupados en cuatro categorías de desarrollo y fueron expuestos a la depredación directa determinándose el número de renacuajos consumidos al finalizar los experimentos. Bufo spinulosus papillosus no fue palatable en los primeros estadios del desarrollo (categorías I, estadios 24-26 y categoría II, estadios 32-34, mientras que los estadios de las categoría III (estadios 38-40 y categoría IV (estadios 42-45 fueron progresivamente palatables. Se observó un comportamiento de rechazo por parte de los depredadores luego de la captura de renacuajos de las categorías I y II. El patrón de palatabilidad encontrado en Bufo spinulosus papillosus difiere del observado en otras especies relacionadas del género Bufo (Brodie y Formanowicz, 1987; Kehr y Schnack, 1991; Lawler y Hero, 1997. We evaluated the ontogenetic variation in the palatability of Bufo spinulosus papillosus tadpoles exposed to odonate larvae of Rhionaeshna variegata (Odonata, Aeshnidae. We exposed tadpoles to direct predation and determined the number of consumed tadpoles in four developmental categories. Bufo spinulosus papillosus tadpoles of categories I (stages 24-26 and II (stages 32-34 were unpalatable, while categories III (stages 38-40 and IV (stages 42-45 were progressively palatable. We observed a post-capture rejection behavior when they caught unpalatable tadpoles in categories I and II. The palatability pattern observed in Bufo spinulosus papillosus was different from related Bufo species (Brodie and Formanowicz, 1987; Kehr and Schnack, 1991; Lawler and Hero, 1997.

  2. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of Bufo gargarizans minshanicus (Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiandong; Liu, Jiabin; Xue, Rui; Chen, Limin

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome of Bufo gargarizans minshanicus is 17,719 bp in size, and shares a conserved gene arrangement, gene content and base composition with other Bufonidae species. The base composition of the H-strand is biased toward A + T content at 56.97% (T 28.14%, C 27.67%, A 28.83% and G 15.36%). Most protein-coding genes (PCGs) begin with ATG, while COX1 and ND2 initiate with ATA and ND1 starts at ATT. Seven PCGs have the complete stop codons AGA and TAA, whereas the remaining four PCGs end with TA or T. The putative control region possesses two repeat motifs, and four termination-associated sequences and six conserved sequence blocks at the 5' and 3' ends.

  3. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1984-01-01

    The steady-state Cl- current across the skin of Bufo viridis adapted to tap water was found to be rectified. In skins bathed with NaCl Ringer on both sides, a large outward current, carried by influx of Cl-, was observed at a clamping voltage (V) of less than -50 mV (outside of the skin negative......, and apparent leakage conductance was reduced. Application of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to skin of fully salt-adapted toads increased the transepithelial Cl- conductance, and the time courses of voltage clamp currents became more like those of water-adapted toads. Apparent...... leakage conductance was increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  4. Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala infection in Bufo marinus: lung nematodes reduce viability of metamorph cane toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelehear, C; Webb, J K; Shine, R

    2009-07-01

    Cane toads (Bufo marinus) were introduced to Australia in 1935 and have since spread widely over the continent, generating concern regarding ecological impacts on native predators. Most Australian cane toad populations are infected with lung nematodes Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala, a parasite endemic to New World (native-range) cane toad populations; presumably introduced to Australia with its toad host. Considering the high intensities and prevalence reached by this parasite in Australian toad populations, and public ardour for developing a control plan for the invasive host species, the lack of experimental studies on this host-parasite system is surprising. To investigate the extent to which this lungworm influences cane toad viability, we experimentally infected metamorph toads (the smallest and presumably most vulnerable terrestrial phase of the anuran life cycle) with the helminth. Infected toads exhibited reduced survival and growth rates, impaired locomotor performance (both speed and endurance), and reduced prey intake. In summary, R. pseudosphaerocephala can substantially reduce the viability of metamorph cane toads.

  5. Accumulation and depuration of trace metals in Southern Toads, Bufo Terrestris, exposed to coal combustion waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.; Hassan, S.; Mendonca, M. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States). Dept. of Biological Science

    2009-02-15

    Accumulation and depuration of metals by an organism are underrepresented in the literature. We collected southern toads (Bufo terrestris) from coal by-product (ash)-contaminated and uncontaminated sites to examine metal concentrations over time. Toads were placed in four exposure regimes, then sacrificed periodically over a 5-month period, and whole-body metal levels were measured. Toads exposed to ash accumulated significant concentrations of metals. Metal concentrations changed throughout the experiment, and profiles of accumulation and depuration differed depending on the metal and exposure regime. Ash-exposed toads exhibited elevated levels of 11 of 18 metals measured. Increases ranged from 47.5% for Pb to more than 5000% for As. Eight of 18 metals did not change in control toads, while 10 of 18 metals decreased in toads removed from ash, ranging from -25% for Co to -96% for Tl. Seven metals that decreased in toads removed from ash did not change in control toads.

  6. Metabolic measures of male southern toads (Bufo terrestris) exposed to coal combustion waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.K.; Appel, A.G.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Montgomery, AL (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2006-03-15

    Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) are found in coal fly ash collection basins associated with coal-burning electrical power plants. These basins contain large amounts of trace metals and organisms found in these basins are known to accumulate large quantities of metals. Studies on a variety of organisms exposed to trace metals found that they experience a significant increase in standard metabolic rate. We experimentally exposed southern toads to metal-contaminated sediment and food and measured changes in standard and exercise metabolic rates as well as changes in body, liver and muscle mass, blood glucose, and corticosterone. We found that toads exposed to trace metal contamination gained significantly less mass (18.3%) than control toads (31.3%) when food was limited and experienced significantly decreased RQ after exercise. However, contaminated toads did not experience changes in standard or exercise metabolic rates, plasma glucose levels, and hepatic or muscle percentage indices whether food was limited or not.

  7. Testes asymmetry of Bufo gargarizans in relation to body condition and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Lei Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Testes asymmetry theory predicts that males in good condition or mature age may be able to develop larger degrees of directional asymmetry than males in poor condition or younger age. In this study, we tested the testes asymmetry theory in the Bufo gargarizans. We found that B. gargarizans has a significant directional asymmetry in testes mass, with left testis being significantly larger than right testis. Male body condition was correlated with relative testes mass and absolute testes asymmetry, but not correlated with relative testes asymmetry. Therefore, we suggested that males in good body condition have the higher ability of sperm competition than males in poor body condition. Additionally, male age was correlated with absolute testes asymmetry, but not correlated with relative testes mass and testes asymmetry, thus not supporting the hypothesis that males with a higher degree of directional asymmetry survive better.

  8. Bufo & Spallanzani e a paródia pós-modernista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Brandão

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo investigar as considerações acerca da paródia e sua implicação na linha teórica pós-modernista, partindo das análises de Fredric Jameson e Linda Hutcheon, quando conceituando pastiche. Desse modo, nos propomos a fazer uma análise das paródias no romance Bufo & Spallanzani, de Rubem Fonseca, a partir da leitura de Ana Cristina T. de B. Carvalho (2013 que corrobora para sonegar a proposta de Jameson. Desse modo, procuraremos, no emaranhado de citações do romance, que remetem aos mais diversos campos da cultura, elementos que qualifiquem a característica paródica do romance, tendo por embasamento a contraproposta feita por Linda Hutcheon.

  9. Serum and hepatic vitamin A levels in captive and wild marine toads (Bufo marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher J; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Crawshaw, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    The captive breeding program for the endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been hampered by an undiagnosed condition called "Brown Skin Disease" (BSD). Toads develop widespread skin darkening, skin thickening and abnormal shedding and eventually succumb to a chronic loss of viability. This project evaluated the marine toad (Bufo marinus) as a model for the PRCT, examining vitamin A deficiency as a potential cause of BSD. Wild caught marine toads had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations (61.89 ± 63.49 µg/g) than captive born marine toads (0.58 ± 0.59 µg/g); P<0.001). A significant difference in serum vitamin A concentration was found between the captive and wild caught toads (P=0.013) and between the low vitamin A-fed and wild caught toads (P=0.004), when controlling for liver vitamin A concentrations. After captive toads were treated with topical and/or oral vitamin A, their hepatic vitamin A concentrations were similar to those of the wild toads, averaging 48.41 ± 37.03 µg/g. However, plasma vitamin A concentrations pre- and post-vitamin A supplementation did not differ statistically. We concluded that plasma vitamin A concentrations do not provide a linear indication of liver/body vitamin A status, and that both topical and oral supplementation with an oil-based vitamin A formulation can increase liver stores in amphibians. No evidence of BSD or other signs of deficiency were noted in the marine toads, although this feeding trial was relatively short (127 days). To date, clinical, pathological and research findings do not support vitamin A deficiency as a primary factor underlying BSD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killorn, Erin E; Toews, Daniel P

    2001-01-01

    Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from the posterior region of Bufo marinus was measured under resting conditions and in response to a systemic hypervolemia. Doppler flow probes were positioned on the renal portal and ventral abdominal veins, and flow was recorded as injections of artificial plasma equaling 100% of the animal's plasma volume were administered through the sciatic artery. Resting flow was found to be 5.54 ± 2.03 ml min-1 kg-1 in the paired renal portal veins, and 7.31 ± 0.89 ml min-1 kg-1 in the ventral abdominal vein. While renal portal flow was found to increase by a factor of 2.4 times during the first 10 min of hypervolemia, ventral abdominal flow only increased by a factor of 1.3. Conclusions Our results quantify the contribution to circulation from posterior venous return in the toad Bufo marinus. A preferential movement of excess fluid through the renal portal pathway was also demonstrated, supporting the possibility of water elimination via the renal portal circulation, especially during periods of high water influx into the animals. PMID:11696249

  11. Alimentación y fecundidad de Bufo variegatus (Anura: Bufonidae en Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappi, Guillermina E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la alimentación de una población de Bufo variegatus procedente de la región de Lago del Desierto, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. De los 11 ítems presa identificados, los más consumidos por los adultos (tanto machos como hembras fueron los coleópteros. En los machos la segunda categoría presa mas importante en la contribución a la dieta fueron los ácaros, mientras que en las hembras las hormigas y las larvas de insectos siguieron en importancia al consumo de coleópteros. En los especímenes juveniles, los ácaros fueron las presas más consumidas, quedando los coleópteros en segundo lugar en importancia relativa. Se demuestra la existencia de una correlación positiva significativa entre el volumen de las presas y el tamaño del depredador. Se aportan datos referentes a la fecundidad de B. variegatus y se comprueba la ausencia de correlación entre el tamaño de las hembras grávidas y el número de óvulos maduros. The diet of a population of Bufo variegatus from the region of Lago del Desierto, Santa Cruz province, Argentina, is described. Of the 11 prey items identified, Coleoptera was the most consumed prey both for males and females. In males, the second most important prey was Acarii, while in females they were the ants and insect larvae. Acarii was the most consumed prey for juveniles, followed by Coleoptera. A significant positive correlation was found between prey volume and predator body size. Fecundity information for B. variegwus is given, and a lack of correlation between snout-vent length of mature females and ovarian egg complement is demonstrated.

  12. Morphological and genetic differentiation among Chilean populations of Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae) Diferenciación morfológica y genética entre poblaciones chilenas de Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Marco A. Méndez; Eduardo R. Soto; Claudio Correa; Alberto Veloso; Eliseo Vergara; Michel Sallaberry; Patricia Iturra

    2004-01-01

    Bufo spinulosus has a wide and fragmented range distribution in Chile (18° to 33° S) along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. Genetic variation was estimated using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers in 10 populations from northern and central Chile. Morphometric and genetic information was analyzed as a function of geographical origin. The correlation between genetic and morphometric differentiation was analyzed by the Mantel test. An increase in body size as a functi...

  13. Infestação de Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae em sapos Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: novo registro de hospedeiro Infestation of Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae ticks on Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: new host record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Woehl Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bufo ictericus Spix, 1824 toad population (N = 125 foraging in lighted areas in the Corupá Municipality, Santa Catarina State, was surveyed to evaluate the prevalence (percentage of infestation and the mean infestation intensity of Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 (Acari, Ixodidae ticks. The prevalence was of 19.2% and the mean infestation intensity was 7.4 ticks per infested toad. For the first time B. ictericus as host of A. rotundatum is reported.

  14. Synergy between glyphosate- and cypermethrin-based pesticides during acute exposures in tadpoles of the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Julie Céline; Poliserpi, María Belén; D'Andrea, María Florencia; Sánchez, Marisol

    2014-10-01

    The herbicide glyphosate and the insecticide cypermethrin are key pesticides of modern management in soy and corn cultures. Although these pesticides are likely to co-occur in ephemeral ponds or aquatic systems supporting amphibian wildlife, the toxicological interactions prevailing in mixtures of these two pesticides have been little studied. The current study evaluated the toxicity of equitoxic and non-equitoxic binary mixtures of glyphosate- and cypermethrin-based pesticides to tadpoles of the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum. Two different combinations of commercial products were tested: glyphosate Glifosato Atanor®+cypermethrin Xiper® and glyphosate Glifoglex®+cypermethrin Glextrin®. When tested individually, the formulations presented the following 96 h-LC50s: Glifosato Atanor® 19.4 mg ae L(-1) and Glifoglex 72.8 mg ae L(-1), Xiper® 6.8 mg L(-1) and Glextrin® 30.2 mg L(-1). Equitoxic and non-equitoxic mixtures were significantly synergic in both combinations of commercial products tested. The magnitude of the synergy (factor by which toxicity differed from concentration addition) was constant at around twofold for all tested proportions of the glyphosate Glifoglex®+cypermethrin Glextrin® mixture; whereas the magnitude of the synergy varied between 4 and 9 times in the glyphosate Glifosato Atanor®+cypermethrin Xiper® mixture. These results call for more research to be promptly undertaken in order to understand the mechanisms behind the synergy observed and to identify and quantify the extent of its environmental impacts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC CADMIUM EXPOSURE ON METAMORPHOSIS, SKELETAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN CHINESE TOAD BUFO GARGARIZANS TADPOLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nailiang; Wang, Hongyuan; Ju, Zongqi; Zhao, Hongfeng

    2017-08-11

    The study examined the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on metamorphosis, body size, thyroid gland, and skeletal development of Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) tadpoles. Tadpoles were exposed to cadmium concentrations at 0, 5, 10, 50,100 and 500 μg/L from Gonser stage 26 to Gosner stage 46 of completion of metamorphosis. Our results showed 100 and 500 μg/L cadmium concentrations increased mortality and decelerated metamorphosis rate. In addition, significant body size reduction at Gosner stage 42 was observed at 100 and 500 μg/L cadmium treatments (p Bufo gargarizans larvae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification and characterization of gastrointestinal hormone immunoreactive cells in the skin and parotoids of Chinese toad Bufo gargarizans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Sheng-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The skin and skin secretion of Chinese toad Bufo gargarizans have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the exact types and location of bioactive substances in Bufo gargarizans skin still have not been fully elucidated. The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution and density of six types of gastrointestinal (GI) hormone immunoreactive (IR) cells in the skin and parotoids of Bufo gargarizans. Immunohistochemistry was used for qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of GI hormone presence in the dorsal and ventral skin, and parotoids of eight adult Chinese toads. Six types of IR cells were found: serotonin (5-HT), glucagon (GLU), gastrin (GAS), somatostatin (SS), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and neuropeptide Y(NPY) IR cells. They were mainly present in the epidermis and skin glands. 5-HT-IR cells were distributed in all layers of epidermis and glands, with higher density in the glands. Glucagon was prominently expressed in the epidermis and the bottle-shaped glands of parotoids; however, it was not present in the granular glands of skin and parotoids. The distributions of GAS and SS-IR cells were similar since they were present mainly in mucous, granular and bottle-shaped glands, while these cell types were absent in the differentiated glands of parotoids. PP-IR cells were predominant in the granular glands and the bottle-shaped glands. The expression of NPY was high in epidermal stratum granulosum and mucous glands of the dorsal skin, the bottle-shaped glands and differentiated glands of parotoids, while NPY-IR was rarely seen in the granular glands of ventral skin, and not present in the granular glands of dorsal skin and parotoids. The expression of several types of GI hormones in the skin and parotoids of Bufo gargarizans varies depending on tissue and type of glands.

  17. Microsatellite analysis of the natterjack toad ( Bufo calamita ) in Denmark: populations are islands in a fragmented landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allentoft, Morten E.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Briggs, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The European natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) has declined rapidly in recent years, primarily due to loss of habitat, and in Denmark it is estimated that 50% of the isolated populations are lost each decade. To efficiently manage and conserve this species and its genetic diversity, knowledge...... in a highly fragmented gene pool. Future conservation management of this species is discussed in light of these results....

  18. When new human-modified habitats favour the expansion of an amphibian pioneer species: Evolutionary history of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) in a coal basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Leslie; Hénocq, Laura; Vanappelghem, Cédric; Rondel, Stéphanie; Quevillart, Robin; Gallina, Sophie; Godé, Cécile; Jaquiéry, Julie; Arnaud, Jean-François

    2017-09-01

    Human activities affect microevolutionary dynamics by inducing environmental changes. In particular, land cover conversion and loss of native habitats decrease genetic diversity and jeopardize the adaptive ability of populations. Nonetheless, new anthropogenic habitats can also promote the successful establishment of emblematic pioneer species. We investigated this issue by examining the population genetic features and evolutionary history of the natterjack toad (Bufo [Epidalea] calamita) in northern France, where populations can be found in native coastal habitats and coalfield habitats shaped by European industrial history, along with an additional set of European populations located outside this focal area. We predicted contrasting patterns of genetic structure, with newly settled coalfield populations departing from migration-drift equilibrium. As expected, coalfield populations showed a mosaic of genetically divergent populations with short-range patterns of gene flow, and native coastal populations indicated an equilibrium state with an isolation-by-distance pattern suggestive of postglacial range expansion. However, coalfield populations exhibited (i) high levels of genetic diversity, (ii) no evidence of local inbreeding or reduced effective population size and (iii) multiple maternal mitochondrial lineages, a genetic footprint depicting independent colonization events. Furthermore, approximate Bayesian computations suggested several evolutionary trajectories from ancient isolation in glacial refugia during the Pleistocene, with biogeographical signatures of recent expansion probably confounded by human-mediated mixing of different lineages. From an evolutionary and conservation perspective, this study highlights the ecological value of industrial areas, provided that ongoing regional gene flow is ensured within the existing lineage boundaries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. induced gastric acid secretion in the common african toad – bufo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    generation modulates the inhibition of interleukin-1-Beta of pentagastrin – stimulated gastric acid secretion in the rat. Gut 34: S11. Bilski, J., Konturek, S. J, Cieszkowski, M.,. Czarnobilski, K.. and Pawlik, W. W.. (1994). Endogenous nitric oxide in the regulation of gastric acid secretion, gastrin release and blood flow. Biomed.

  20. Genetic variability in geographic populations of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oromi, N; Richter-Boix, A; Sanuy, D; Fibla, J

    2012-01-01

    Across altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, the proportion of suitable habitats varies, influencing the individual dispersal that ultimately can produce differentiation among populations. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is distributed across a wide geographic range that qualifies the species as interesting for a geographic analysis of its genetic variability. Five populations of B. calamita in the Sierra de Gredos (Spain) were studied in an altitudinal gradient ranging from 750 to 2270 m using microsatellite markers. In addition, we analyzed the latitudinal genetic variation in B. calamita within a global European distribution using genetic diversity parameters (mean number of alleles per locus [Ma] and expected heterozygosity [HE]) obtained from our results and those published in the literature. The low level of genetic differentiation found between populations of B. calamita (Fst ranging from 0.0115 to 0.1018) and the decreases in genetic diversity with altitude (Ma from 13.6 to 8.3, HE from 0.82 to 0.74) can be interpreted by the combined effects of discontinuous habitat, produced mainly by the high slopes barriers and geographic distance. In the latitudinal gradient, genetic diversity decreases from south to north as a consequence of the colonization of the species from the Pleistocene refugium. We conclude that the genetic variability in B. calamita along its wide altitudinal and latitudinal geographic distribution mainly reflects the colonization history of the species after the last glacial period. PMID:22957202

  1. Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, S. A.; Badawy, G. M.; El-Borm, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55) and postmetamorphic (66) stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63) displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled. PMID:24715821

  2. Measuring Energetics and Behaviour Using Accelerometry in Cane Toads Bufo marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Lewis G.; White, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to Australia as a control agent but now have a rapidly progressing invasion front and damage new habitats they enter. Predictive models that can give expansion rates as functions of energy supply and feeding ground distribution could help to maximise control efficiency but to date no study has measured rates of field energy expenditure in an amphibian. In the present study we used the accelerometry technique to generate behavioural time budgets and, through the derivation of ODBA (overall dynamic body acceleration), to obtain estimates of energetics in free ranging cane toads. This represents the first time that accelerometers have been used to not only quantify the behaviour of animals but also assign to those behaviours rates of energy expenditure. Firstly, laboratory calibrations between ODBA and metabolic rate were obtained and used to generate a common prediction equation for the subject toads (R2 = 0.74). Furthermore, acceleration data recorded during different behaviours was studied to ascertain threshold values for objectively defining behaviour categories. Importantly, while subsequent accelerometer field deployments were relatively short they agreed with previous studies on the proportion of time that cane toads locomote yet suggest that the metabolic rate of cane toads in the wild may sometimes be considerably higher than might be assumed based on data for other species. PMID:20422048

  3. [Effects of different stocking density and diet on development of Bufo gargarizans tadpoles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-de; Zhao, Qun; Kang, Yan; Gao, Bo; Li, Deng-Lin; Yang, Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2016-03-01

    The effects of four different stocking densities and five different diets on the growth of Bufo gargarizans tadpoles were studied to determine the optimum stocking density and diet. For stocking density experiment, the tadpoles were fed respectively at different density of 200, 500, 1 000 and 2 000 tadpoles per square meter. For diet experiment, the tadpoles were divided into five groups fed respectively with five different diets. The body weight, snout-vent length and tail length were measured every seven days, and mortality was recorded. The results showed that: the survival rates of tadpole before metamorphosis and after metamorphosis were from 68.7% to 96.3% and from 5.7% to 36.0%, respectively; the optimum stocking density is 1 000 tadpoles per square meter for the stocking density had no effect on the survival rate of tadpole before metamorphosis, and the tadpoles had the relative large body weight and survival numbers in 1000 tadpoles per square meter; the diet Ⅱ(37.9% crude protein and 5.7% crude fat), Ⅳ (25.1% crude protein and 4.0% crude fat), and Ⅴ (egg yolk) were all the optimum diets for the diet had no effect on the survival rate of tadpole before metamorphosis and the tadpoles fed with three kinds of diet above had relatively large body weight, and one of these three diets based on their availability and cost should be adopted during breeding period. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Chronic Effects of Fluoride Exposure on Growth, Metamorphosis, and Skeleton Development in Bufo gargarizans Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhao, Hongfeng; Dong, Suiming

    2017-04-01

    Bufo gargarizans tadpoles were chronically exposed to waterborne fluoride at measured concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 61.2 mg F-/L for 70 days from Gosner stage 26 to completion of metamorphosis. The chronic exposure caused a concentration-dependent mortality in all tested fluoride concentrations. Total length, snout-to-vent length (SVL), body mass, and developmental stage of tadpoles were significantly inhibited at 42.6 mg F-/L. In addition, significant metamorphic delay and increase in size at completion of metamorphosis occurred after exposure to 19.8 mg F-/L. Moreover, 19.8 mg F-/L suppressed the bone mineralization of larvae at completion of metamorphosis. However, the bone mineralization could be enhanced by 4.1 mg F-/L. In conclusion, our results suggested that the presence of high concentrations of fluoride could increase mortality risk, delay metamorphosis, and suppress skeletal ossification in B. gargarizans larvae.

  5. Genetic comparison of water molds from embryos of amphibians Rana cascadae, Bufo boreas and Pseudacris regilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Kori K; Johnson, James E; Pinkart, Holly C; Wagner, R Steven

    2012-06-13

    Water molds that cause the disease saprolegniasis have been implicated in widespread mortality of amphibian embryos. However, because of the limitations of traditional identification methods, water mold species involved in die-offs or utilized in ecological studies often remain unidentified or identified only as Saprolegnia ferax. Furthermore, water mold taxonomy requires revision, so very distinct organisms may all be called S. ferax. Recent DNA-based studies indicate that the diversity of water molds infecting amphibian embryos is significantly higher than what was previously known, but these studies rely on culture methods, which may be biased towards taxa that grow best under laboratory conditions. In this study, total embryo-associated DNA was extracted from 3 amphibian species in a pond in central Washington, USA. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of DNA was amplified with primers capable of amplifying a broad array of eukaryotic microorgansisms, and was used to construct clone libraries. Individual clones were sequenced and relationships among newly recovered sequences and previously studied taxa were analyzed using phylogenetics. These methods recovered several new taxa in association with amphibian embryos. Samples grouped into 11 distinct phylotypes with ITS sequence differences ranging from 4 to 28%. The water mold communities recovered differed among Rana cascadae, Bufo boreas, and Pseudacris regilla egg masses. Furthermore, the diversity of water molds increased as egg masses aged, and members comprising this diversity changed over time.

  6. Quantifying Bufo boreas connectivity in Yellowstone National Park with landscape genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Melanie A; Evans, Jeffrey S; Storfer, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A major objective of ecology is to understand how ecological processes limit population connectivity and species' distributions. By spatially quantifying ecological components driving functional connectivity, we can understand why some locally suitable habitats are unoccupied, resulting in observed discontinuities in distribution. However, estimating connectivity may be difficult due to population stochasticity and violations of assumptions of parametric statistics. To address these issues, we present a novel application of Random Forests to landscape genetic data. We address the effects of three key ecological components on Bufo boreas connectivity in Yellowstone National Park: ecological process, scale, and hierarchical organization. Habitat permeability, topographic morphology, and temperature-moisture regime are all significant ecological processes associated with B. boreas connectivity. Connectivity was influenced by growing-season precipitation, 1988 Yellowstone fires, cover, temperature, impervious surfaces (roads and development), and topographic complexity (56% variation explained). We found that habitat permeability generally operates on fine scales, while topographic morphology and temperature-moisture regime operate across multiple scales, thus demonstrating the importance of cross-scale analysis for ecological interpretation. In a hierarchical analysis, we were able to explain more variation within genetic clusters as identified using Structure (a Bayesian algorithm) (74%; dispersal cover, growing-season precipitation, impervious surfaces) as opposed to between genetic clusters (45%; ridgelines, hot, dry slopes, length of hot season, and annual precipitation). Finally, the analytical methods we developed are powerful and can be applied to any species or system with appropriate landscape and genetic data.

  7. Membranes during yolk-platelet development in oocytes of the toad Bufo marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, H -P

    1987-09-01

    Oocytes of the toad Bufo marinus have been studied by means of thin section and particularly freeze-fracture electron microscopy to characterize the cytoplasmic membranes around the yolk organelle, and the storage of yolk material in precursors and platelets. This appears to be a previously unknown type of yolk-platelet formation. During yolk-organelle development from the primordial precursor to the bi-partite fully grown yolk platelet, numerous lipoid droplets are attached to the periphery of the platelet, indicating an intense uptake of lipids. As is typical for amphibians, the fully grown yolk platelet has a crystalline internum covered by a dense osmiophilic externum, and the whole organelle is enveloped by a plasma membrane that shows no direct connection or fusion with endocytotic vesicles. The yolk membrane exhibits few intramembraneous particles (IMPs) at the core areas and some more where it borders fields of lipoid droplets. Here the IMPs show a net-like arrangement in the furrows between adjacent droplets.

  8. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorchin, A., E-mail: adorchin@campus.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Shanas, U., E-mail: shanas@research.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural sciences, University of Haifa - Oranim, Tiv' on 36006 (Israel)

    2010-12-15

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  9. Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sakr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55 and postmetamorphic (66 stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63 displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled.

  10. Measuring energetics and behaviour using accelerometry in cane toads Bufo marinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis G Halsey

    Full Text Available Cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to Australia as a control agent but now have a rapidly progressing invasion front and damage new habitats they enter. Predictive models that can give expansion rates as functions of energy supply and feeding ground distribution could help to maximise control efficiency but to date no study has measured rates of field energy expenditure in an amphibian. In the present study we used the accelerometry technique to generate behavioural time budgets and, through the derivation of ODBA (overall dynamic body acceleration, to obtain estimates of energetics in free ranging cane toads. This represents the first time that accelerometers have been used to not only quantify the behaviour of animals but also assign to those behaviours rates of energy expenditure. Firstly, laboratory calibrations between ODBA and metabolic rate were obtained and used to generate a common prediction equation for the subject toads (R(2 = 0.74. Furthermore, acceleration data recorded during different behaviours was studied to ascertain threshold values for objectively defining behaviour categories. Importantly, while subsequent accelerometer field deployments were relatively short they agreed with previous studies on the proportion of time that cane toads locomote yet suggest that the metabolic rate of cane toads in the wild may sometimes be considerably higher than might be assumed based on data for other species.

  11. Effect of gibberellin-A3 on metamorphosis in the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber A. Sakr

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to study the effect of gibberellin-A3 on the metamorphosis of the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis. Samples of B. regularis were collected from Shebin El-Kom, Menoufia Governorate during the breeding season and kept in aquaria with little water till spawning, fertilized eggs are divided into 2 groups of 200 eggs each. The 1st group was treated with 5 ppm of gibberellin-A3 (Berelex 3 days/week for the period of metamorphosis. The second group was left untreated under the same environmental conditions and considered as a control. Hatchability of the eggs in each group was recorded. External lengths of the total body, hind limbs and the tail were measured. As a measure of apoptotic DNA fragmentation, the presence of DNA ladder was determined. The results showed that out of 200 eggs 47.5% were hatched in the control group and 76.5% were hatched in gibberellin-A3 treated group. The average duration of metamorphosis was 60 days and 52 days in the control and treated groups, respectively. There was an increase in the total length of the hind limbs of the treated tadpole as compared with the control throughout the experimental periods. DNA isolated from control and tadpoles treated with gibberellin-A3 showed degradation into oligonucleotide fragments forming a clear laddering pattern of apoptosis, but the treated tadpoles showed an increase of DNA fragmentation.

  12. Comparative study on the tongue of Bufo regularis and Chalcides ocellatus in relation to their habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H. Elsheikh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the structure of the tongue of the toad, Bufo regularis and the lizard, Chalcides ocellatus. They have different feeding habits and live in different habitats. The tongue of the toad contains two types of lingual papillae; fungiform papillae and filiform papillae. The fungiform papillae are usually scattered among the filiform papillae and are believed to function in gustation and in the secretion of salivary fluid. Scanning electron microscopical studies revealed that no ciliated cells were observed on the surface of the filiform papillae or in the surrounding area of the sensory disc. In C. ocellatus the tip of the tongue is bifurcated and keratinized. The dorsal surface of the tongue is covered with several types of papillae; irregular, scale and ridge-shaped. Taste buds were present in the epithelium of the tongue. The lingual glands consist of mucous cells that form crypt-like invaginations between papillae. The present study revealed that there is a marked correlation between the structure of the tongue of both B. regularis and C. ocellatus and habitats and feeding mechanism of the two species.

  13. Behavioral response and kinetics of terrestrial atrazine exposure in American toads (bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrs, Mendez S.I.; Tillitt, D.E.; Rittenhouse, T.A.G.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians in terrestrial environments obtain water through a highly vascularized pelvic patch of skin. Chemicals can also be exchanged across this patch. Atrazine (ATZ), a widespread herbicide, continues to be a concern among amphibian ecologists based on potential exposure and toxicity. Few studies have examined its impact on the terrestrial juvenile or adult stages of toads. In the current study, we asked the following questions: (1) Will juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) avoid soils contaminated with ATZ? (2) Can they absorb ATZ across the pelvic patch? (3) If so, how is it distributed among the organs and eventually eliminated? We conducted a behavioral choice test between control soil and soil dosed with ecologically relevant concentrations of ATZ. In addition, we examined the uptake, distribution, and elimination of water dosed with 14C-labeled ATZ. Our data demonstrate that toads do not avoid ATZ-laden soils. ATZ crossed the pelvic patch rapidly and reached an apparent equilibrium within 5 h. The majority of the radiolabeled ATZ ended up in the intestines, whereas the greatest concentrations were observed in the gall bladder. Thus, exposure of adult life stages of amphibians through direct uptake of ATZ from soils and runoff water should be considered in risk evaluations. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. New species of Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from Bufo occidentalis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Sierra Madre del Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Salazar, Elizabeth A; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2007-10-01

    Rhabdias kuzmini n. sp., a parasite of the lungs of Bufo occidentalis, is described and illustrated. This Mexican taxon differs from the related species in the genus by the possession of 4 lips (2 subdorsal and 2 subventral) and 2 lateral pseudolabia, corpus not inflated, a larger barrel-shaped buccal capsule, equatorial vulva, and the presence of a slightly swollen cuticle in the anterior and posterior ends of the body. This is the 16th species described in the Neotropical Realm and the first species of Rhabdias described from endemic anurans in México.

  15. CRYPTIC NEOGENE VICARIANCE AND QUATERNARY DISPERSAL OF THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD (BUFO PUNCTATUS) INSIGHTS ON THE EVOLUTION OF NORTH AMERICAN WARM DESERT BIOTAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We define the geographic distributions of embedded evolutionary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages (clades) within a broadly distributed, arid- dwelling toad, Bufo punctatus, and evaluate these patterns as they relate to hypothesized vicariant events leading to the formation of b...

  16. On the presence of Bufo nasicus Werner in Guiana, with a redescription of the species on the basis of recently collected material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    During research on material recently collected in Guyana and in Venezuelan Guiana, several specimens of the rare toad Bufo nasicus Werner, thus far only known from the holotype without known origin, were discovered. On the basis of this material the species is redescribed and some notes on its

  17. Helmintos parásitos de anfibios: Dos Especies de Nemátodos parásitos de Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asucena Naupay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo sobre los helmintos que parasitan a Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi de la localidad de Huánuco, se presentan dos especies conocidas para la ciencia pero una de ellas nueva para el Perú.

  18. Responses of growth, malformation, and thyroid hormone-dependent genes expression in Bufo gargarizans embryos following chronic exposure to Pb2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lihong; Li, Yanbin; Chen, Zhihong; Chen, Aixia; Deng, Hongzhang

    2017-10-08

    The aim of this study was to examine the adverse effects of lead (Pb) exposure on Bufo gargarizans embryos. The 96 h-LC50 of Pb2+ for B. gargarizans embryos was determined to be 26.6 mg L-1 after an acute test. In the chronic test, B. gargarizans embryos at Gosner stage 3 were exposed to 10~2000 μg Pb2+ L-1 during embryogenesis. Total length, weight, developmental stage, and malformation were monitored. In addition, the transcript levels of type II and type III iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3) and thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) were determined to assess the thyroid-disrupting effects of Pb2+. Slightly increased growth and development of B. gargarizans embryos were observed at low concentrations of Pb2+ (10, 50, and 100 μg L-1), while retarded growth and development were found at high concentrations of Pb2+ (1000 and 2000 μg L-1). In addition, Pb2+ exposure induced morphological abnormalities, which were characterized by edema at tail, wavy fin, abdominal edema, stunted growth, hyperplasia, and axial flexures in B. gargarizans embryos. Furthermore, our results showed that exposure to 2000 μg Pb2+ L-1 decreased the transcript levels of Dio2, TRα, and TRβ, but it increased Dio3 mRNA level. In contrast, exposure to 50 μg Pb2+ L-1 increased TRα mRNA level and decreased Dio3 mRNA level. These results suggested that Pb2+ might have thyroid-disrupting effects, leading to the disruption of growth and development in B. gargarizans embryos.

  19. Effects of copper on growth, metamorphosis and endocrine disruption of Bufo gargarizans larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Liang, Gang; Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) tadpoles were exposed to copper (1, 6.4, 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper) from the beginning of larval period through completion of metamorphosis. We examined the effects of chronic copper exposure on mortality, growth, time to metamorphosis, tail resorption time, body size at the metamorphic climax (Gs 42) and completion of metamorphosis (Gs 46) and thyroid gland histology. In addition, type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were also measured to assess disruption of TH synthesis. Our result showed that 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper concentration increased the mortality and inhibited the growth of B. gargarizans tadpoles. In addition, significant reduction in size at Gs 42 and a time delay to Gs 42 were observed at 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper treatments. Moreover, histological examinations have clearly revealed that 64μgL(-1) copper caused follicular cell hyperplasia in thyroid gland. According to real-time PCR results, exposure to 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of Dio3, but down-regulated mRNA expression of TRα and TRβ mRNA level. We concluded that copper delayed amphibian metamorphosis through changing mRNA expression of Dio3, TRα and TRβ, which suggests that copper might have the endocrine-disrupting effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ranking Landscape Development Scenarios Affecting Natterjack Toad (Bufo calamita) Population Dynamics in Central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Kamila W.; Romanowski, Jerzy; Johst, Karin; Grimm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    When data are limited it is difficult for conservation managers to assess alternative management scenarios and make decisions. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is declining at the edges of its distribution range in Europe and little is known about its current distribution and abundance in Poland. Although different landscape management plans for central Poland exist, it is unclear to what extent they impact this species. Based on these plans, we investigated how four alternative landscape development scenarios would affect the total carrying capacity and population dynamics of the natterjack toad. To facilitate decision-making, we first ranked the scenarios according to their total carrying capacity. We used the software RAMAS GIS to determine the size and location of habitat patches in the landscape. The estimated carrying capacities were very similar for each scenario, and clear ranking was not possible. Only the reforestation scenario showed a marked loss in carrying capacity. We therefore simulated metapopulation dynamics with RAMAS taking into account dynamical processes such as reproduction and dispersal and ranked the scenarios according to the resulting species abundance. In this case, we could clearly rank the development scenarios. We identified road mortality of adults as a key process governing the dynamics and separating the different scenarios. The renaturalisation scenario clearly ranked highest due to its decreased road mortality. Taken together our results suggest that road infrastructure development might be much more important for natterjack toad conservation than changes in the amount of habitat in the semi-natural river valley. We gained these insights by considering both the resulting metapopulation structure and dynamics in the form of a PVA. We conclude that the consideration of dynamic processes in amphibian conservation management may be indispensable for ranking management scenarios. PMID:23734223

  1. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae. PMID:25927361

  2. Vasculature of the parotoid glands of four species of toads (bufonidae: bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah A; Savitzky, Alan H

    2004-05-01

    The parotoid glands of toads (Bufonidae) consist of large aggregations of granular glands located between the otic region of the skull and the scapular region. To determine the circulatory pattern of these glands, we perfused the vascular systems of Bufo alvarius, B. marinus, B. terrestris, and B. valliceps with either India ink or Microfil, a fine latex. The perfused glands were studied by gross dissection, microscopic examination, and histology. The vascular patterns of the parotoid glands were compared to the arrangement of vessels in the dorsal skin of Rana sphenocephala (Ranidae), a frog that lacks parotoid glands. The parotoid glands of the four species of toads are supplied with blood by the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries and are drained by one or more branches of the internal jugular vein. The dorsal cutaneous artery supplies most of the blood to the parotoid glands in B. terrestris and B. valliceps. In B. alvarius and B. marinus, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries serve major roles in the blood supply of the glands. These patterns of blood flow have not been described previously for parotoid glands and conflict with earlier accounts for B. alvarius and B. marinus. The arteries and veins associated with the parotoid glands of toads are present in R. sphenocephala, but are arranged differently. In R. sphenocephala, the lateral cutaneous artery supplies the dorsal and lateral skin posterior to the shoulder region, whereas the dorsal cutaneous artery supplies the skin of the shoulder region. In toads, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries supply the skin of the shoulder region and ramify into subcutaneous capillaries that surround the secretory units of the parotoid glands. Extensive vasculature presumably is important for delivering cholesterol and other precursor molecules to the parotoid glands, where those compounds are converted into toxins. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Molecular cloning and analysis of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 from Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The protein of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 has been reported to repress the transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene c-Myc in humans. Moreover, it was shown to be the subunit 5 of human prefoldin (PFD. So far, this gene and its homologs have been isolated and sequenced in many organisms, such as mammals and fish, but has not been sequenced for any amphibian or reptile. In order to better understand the function and evolution of Mm-1, we isolated a full-length Mm-1 cDNA (BgMm-1, GenBank accession no. EF211947 from Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Mm-1 in B. gargarizans is 755 bp long, comprising an open reading frame (ORF of 459 bp encoding 152 amino acids. The amino acid sequence had a prefoldin α-like domain, partially including a typical putative leucine zipper motif. BgMm-1 showed high similarity to its homolog of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (82% and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 MM-1 isoform a (81% at the amino acid level. The protein secondary structure modeled with the SWISS MODEL server revealed that there were two α-helices and four b-strands in BgMm-1 as its human orthologue, and both proteins belonged to the a class of PFD family. The phylogenetic relationships of Mm-1s from lower archaea to high mammals was consistent with the evolution of species, meanwhile the cluster result was consistent with the multiple alignment and the sequence identity analysis. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that BgMm-1 expressed widely in ten tissues of adult toad. These results can be helpful for the further investigation on the evolution of Mm-1.

  4. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris.

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    Karolina Stark

    Full Text Available Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later, to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  5. Modelling the extinction risk of isolated populations of natterjack toad Bufo calamita

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    F. Meyer

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Many local populations of the natterjack toad Bufo calamita in Germany are endangered. Due to the fragmentation and destruction of natural habitats by man, toads have often been forced to switch to secondary habitats. The permanent existence of these habitats is uncertain. Habitat and area requirements have been investigated in various parts of Germany in recent years. Our study uses field observations from sites in Halle (Saxony-Anhalt and List (Schleswig-Holstein as a basis for analyses of the population dynamics under different environmental conditions. Deterministic trends of these populations are calculated with the help of a Leslie matrix consisting of average parameters for mortality and reproduction. For a more thorough analysis we use a stochastic simulation model in order to assess survival probabilities of local toad populations. This model also takes into account environmental fluctuations affecting mortality and reproduction. Using scenarios from different locations, a sensitivity analysis of the parameters indicates which management options are the most promising to preserve a population. Our results indicate that the mortality rates of juveniles and the availability of spawning ground have the greatest influence on a population’s survival. Consequently, habitat management should focus on these aspects. In addition, we investigate the risk of extinction for different reproductive strategies. Natterjack toad populations observed in the field actually follow a strategy with three breeding periods. We find that this strategy supports the survival of the population better than strategies with less periods, which are more likely to result in a complete breeding failure during one season.

  6. Ranking landscape development scenarios affecting natterjack toad (Bufo calamita population dynamics in Central Poland.

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    Kamila W Franz

    Full Text Available When data are limited it is difficult for conservation managers to assess alternative management scenarios and make decisions. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita is declining at the edges of its distribution range in Europe and little is known about its current distribution and abundance in Poland. Although different landscape management plans for central Poland exist, it is unclear to what extent they impact this species. Based on these plans, we investigated how four alternative landscape development scenarios would affect the total carrying capacity and population dynamics of the natterjack toad. To facilitate decision-making, we first ranked the scenarios according to their total carrying capacity. We used the software RAMAS GIS to determine the size and location of habitat patches in the landscape. The estimated carrying capacities were very similar for each scenario, and clear ranking was not possible. Only the reforestation scenario showed a marked loss in carrying capacity. We therefore simulated metapopulation dynamics with RAMAS taking into account dynamical processes such as reproduction and dispersal and ranked the scenarios according to the resulting species abundance. In this case, we could clearly rank the development scenarios. We identified road mortality of adults as a key process governing the dynamics and separating the different scenarios. The renaturalisation scenario clearly ranked highest due to its decreased road mortality. Taken together our results suggest that road infrastructure development might be much more important for natterjack toad conservation than changes in the amount of habitat in the semi-natural river valley. We gained these insights by considering both the resulting metapopulation structure and dynamics in the form of a PVA. We conclude that the consideration of dynamic processes in amphibian conservation management may be indispensable for ranking management scenarios.

  7. The ecological impact of invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard

    2010-09-01

    Although invasive species are viewed as major threats to ecosystems worldwide, few such species have been studied in enough detail to identify the pathways, magnitudes, and timescales of their impact on native fauna. One of the most intensively studied invasive taxa in this respect is the cane toad (Bufo marinus), which was introduced to Australia in 1935. A review of these studies suggests that a single pathway-lethal toxic ingestion of toads by frog-eating predators-is the major mechanism of impact, but that the magnitude of impact varies dramatically among predator taxa, as well as through space and time. Populations of large predators (e.g., varanid and scincid lizards, elapid snakes, freshwater crocodiles, and dasyurid marsupials) may be imperilled by toad invasion, but impacts vary spatially even within the same predator species. Some of the taxa severely impacted by toad invasion recover within a few decades, via aversion learning and longer-term adaptive changes. No native species have gone extinct as a result of toad invasion, and many native taxa widely imagined to be at risk are not affected, largely as a result of their physiological ability to tolerate toad toxins (e.g., as found in many birds and rodents), as well as the reluctance of many native anuran-eating predators to consume toads, either innately or as a learned response. Indirect effects of cane toads as mediated through trophic webs are likely as important as direct effects, but they are more difficult to study. Overall, some Australian native species (mostly large predators) have declined due to cane toads; others, especially species formerly consumed by those predators, have benefited. For yet others, effects have been minor or have been mediated indirectly rather than through direct interactions with the invasive toads. Factors that increase a predator's vulnerability to toad invasion include habitat overlap with toads, anurophagy, large body size, inability to develop rapid behavioral

  8. Retina damage after exposure to UVA radiation on the early developmental stages of the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis Reuss

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    Alaa El-Din H. Sayed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the histological and histochemical changes in the retina on different developmental stages of Egyptian toad Bufo regularis. Our experiment started when tadpoles begin to feed. The adapted embryos are divided into 3 large tanks of 200 embryos each, collections of samples started from feeding age every three days. Both histological and histochemical results showed that the general architecture of the retina organ is correlated with the state of development. Therefore, it displayed different characteristic features depending on the investigated developmental stage starting from the larval stage (feeding began, stage 44 and ending with the post-metamorphic stage 66. Also, the present work aimed to study the chronic effects of UVA on the retina structure of B. regularis during development and metamorphosis for the first time.

  9. Effects of seasonal variation on oxidative stress physiology in natural population of toad Bufo melanostictus; clues for analysis of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Luna; Paital, Biswaranjan

    2016-11-01

    Natural population of Bufo melanostictus in response to environmental cues shows several physiologic changes such as reproductive activity, hibernation, aestivation and metabolic depression in different seasons. We investigated the effects of seasonal fluctuations on oxidative stress (OS) physiology biomarkers, such as endogenous (ELPx) and induced (ILPx) lipid peroxidation, front-line redox regulatory enzymes (superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase) and two non-enzyme antioxidant metabolites (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione) in liver, gonad and cerebral hemisphere of toads collected from the Bhubaneswar area of India, where temperature fluctuates considerably rising to the highest in summer (∼46 °C) and being lowest in winter (<10 °C). Soil and air of the sampling site, although varying seasonally, were mostly found to be unpolluted, except for suspended particulate matter and respiratory particulate matter that were above recommended value. The magnitude of both ELPx and ILPx levels in most of the tissues, for example, ELPx in liver, cerebral hemisphere and ovary, and ILPx in liver of males and ovary, were found to be higher in rainy season in comparison to the other seasons. Nevertheless, levels of both ELPx and ILPx were low in testes in rainy season in comparison to the other two seasons. No correlation was observed between temperature and the studied OS parameters except a positive correlation with SOD and negative correlations with non-enzymatic small redox regulatory molecules in some selected tissues. Conversely, discriminant function analysis reveals a clear impact of the changing season on OS physiology of the toad. It implies that season considerably modulates OS physiology which be a reflection of the toads to abiotic pollutants alone and/or as results of metabolic changes under hibernation, aestivation and due to reproductive activities. Therefore, seasonal changes in OS physiological responses in poikilothermic models especially in toads

  10. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia) and associated algae are altered by temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Hein, Thomas; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Ivankovi?, Marina; Mentler, Axel; Br?hl, Carsten A.; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae ar...

  11. Ocorrência de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 e Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Bufo arenalis no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurence of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 and Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae in Bufo arenalis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Afonso Lodovico Sinkoc

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a ocorrência do parasitismo monoespecífico de A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 e A. humerale KOCH, 1844 em sapos (Bufo arenalis no Município de Rosana, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Este relato caracteriza um novo hospedeiro e uma nova localização geográfica para estas duas espécies de carrapatos.The objective of this work is to describe the occurence of the monoespecific parasitism of A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 and A. humerale KOCH, 1844 in toads (Bufo arenalis from the County of Rosana, State of São Paulo, Brazil. This is the description of a new host and new geographic site for those two species.

  12. One year in the life of Bufo punctatus: annual patterns of body temperature in a free-ranging desert anuran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Candice M.; Starkweather, Peter L.; van Breukelen, Frank

    2008-06-01

    The Mojave Desert is characterized by hot dry summers and cold winters. The red-spotted toad ( Bufo ( Anaxyrus) punctatus) is the predominant anuran species; yet little is known of their thermal histories and strategies to avoid temperature extremes. We measured body temperature ( T b) in free-ranging adult toads across all four seasons of a year using implanted data loggers. There is marked individual variation in the temperatures experienced by these toads. As expected, toads generally escape extreme seasonal and diel temperature fluctuations. However, our data demonstrate a much wider estimated T b range than was previously assumed. Though often for short periods, red-spotted toads do experience T b as low as 3.1°C and as high as 39.1°C. All animals showed periods of prolonged thermal stability in cooler months and wider diel oscillations in warmer months. Red-spotted toad thermal history is likely a function of site choice; the exploitation of different refuges results in diverse thermal experiences. These data represent the most complete record of thermal experiences for a desert anuran and reveal greater extremes in body temperature than previously suggested.

  13. Wildfire effects on water temperature and selection of breeding sites by the Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas) in seasonal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, B.R.; Corn, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances can significantly affect the thermal regime and community structure of wetlands. We investigated the effect of a wildfire on water temperature of seasonal, montane wetlands after documenting the colonization of recently burned wetlands by the Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas boreas). We compared the daily mean temperature, daily maximum temperature, and accumulated growing degree days measured on the north shore of three classes of wetlands: unburned wetlands, burned wetlands that were colonized by breeding toads, and burned wetlands that were not colonized. We hypothesized that toads colonized burned wetlands because they were warmer than unburned wetlands and selected specific burned wetlands because they were warmer than neighboring burned sites. There was weak evidence that toads selected burned wetlands with higher temperature maxima; however, the differences were small (???1??C) and were not supported when accounting for geography and wetland features. We also found no evidence that burning the forest around wetlands increased water temperatures two and three years after the fire. Unburned wetlands had higher daily mean and maximum temperatures and accrued more growing degree days than either class of burned wetlands. Temperature differences among groups of wetlands seemed to be driven by subtle differences in geography. We suspect we did not find warmer temperatures in burned wetlands because all of the wetlands we monitored already had open canopies and the fire likely resulted in only small increases in incident radiation. Copyright ?? 2008. Blake R. Hossack. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression pattern of glycoconjugates in the integument of Bufo ictericus (Anuran, Bufonidae): biochemical and histochemical (lectin) profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Gitirana, Lycia; Azevedo, Rodrigo Alves; Pelli, Adriana Alves

    2007-12-01

    Mucous consists of glycoproteins and proteoglycans produced by specific secretory cells (mucocytes). In anurans the cutaneous mucous is produced by intradermal glands and displays both mechanical and chemical protection functions. Indeed, mucous maintains the integument moist and facilitates gas exchange (cutaneous respiration). In this work, the carbohydrate moiety distribution was investigated in the integument of Bufo ictericus using conventional and lectin histochemistry to describe the pattern of cutaneous glycoconjugate expression, including both secretory and structural proteoglycans. As a preliminary step, the descendent chromatography in Whatmann 1MM paper was undertaken to prepare the histochemical trials involving the lectins. In B. ictericus, the integument exhibits the basic morphological structure found in lower terrestrial vertebrates: the epidermis is a keratinized squamous stratified epithelium supported by spongious and compact layers. The spongy dermis contain secretory portion of both mucous and serous (or poison) glands. The paper chromatography identified galactose, fucose and mannose as characteristic sugar residues. The secretory cells of the mucous gland in the dermis, as well as the interstice between the stratum corneum and the subjacent stratum spinosum in the epidermis exhibit alpha-l-fucose and alpha-galactose residues. The serous glands give no reaction. The alpha-mannose residue was detected in the extracellular matrix of spongious dermis, but not in the dermal glands. The different glycoconjugate location reflects in two glycoconjugates categories: the secretory which participate in the water flow regulation, and the structural which is involved in the dermal maintenance.

  15. Chronic exposure to coal fly ash causes minimal changes in corticosterone and testosterone concentrations in male southern toads Bufo terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, C K; Mendonça, M T

    2006-08-01

    More than 50% of the electricity in the United States is produced by coal-burning power plants. The byproduct of coal-burning plants is coal fly ash, which contains increased concentrations of trace metals and is disposed of in collection basins. Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) frequently use these basins for reproduction. Male toads were collected in spring 2001 and 2002 from an ash basin and a reference site and divided into four groups: toads collected at the control site and maintained on (1) control substrate and food or (2) ash and contaminated food and toads collected at the ash site and maintained in (3) control or (4) ash conditions. Blood was collected periodically during 5 months to determine testosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Reference to ash toads exhibited a significant, transient increase in corticosterone at 4 weeks, but neither corticosterone nor testosterone continued to increase beyond this time. In contrast, toads caught and maintained on ash did not exhibit increased corticosterone. Testosterone in these toads appeared to be unrelated to ash exposure. This unexpected lack of a corticosterone response and no effect on testosterone suggests that toads chronically exposed to trace metals can acclimate to a polluted environment, but they may still experience subtle long-term consequences.

  16. Sexual differences in the post-breeding movements and habitats selected by Western toads (Bufo boreas) in southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Peterson, Charles R.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to study the movements and habitat use of Western toads (Bufo boreas) in the Targhee National Forest in southeastern Idaho. Eighteen toads (10 male and 8 female) that bred in a seasonally flooded pond, were fitted with radio-transmitters, tracked, and their movements mapped and analyzed with global positioning and geographic information systems. We also analyzed their patterns of habitat selection at micro- and macro-scales by comparing sites used by toads with randomly selected sites. After breeding, two male and six female toads left the breeding pond and used terrestrial habitats extensively. Male and female toads showed different patterns of movement and habitat use, although all toads seemed to behave in ways that reduced loss of body water (e.g., such as traveling on nights of high humidity). Male toads traveled shorter distances from the pond than females (581 ± 98 m and 1105 ± 272 m, respectively). Female toads used terrestrial habitats extensively and were selective of cover types (e.g., shrub) that provided greater protection from dehydration. Female toads also preferred certain habitat edges and open forests over forests with closed canopies or clearcuts. Information from this study can assist land managers in establishing protective buffers and managing forests for the protection of toad populations.

  17. Characterization and quantification of corticosteroid-binding globulin in a southern toad, Bufo terrestris, exposed to coal-combustion-waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.K.; Fontes, C.; Breuner, C.W.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (USA). Dept. of Biological Science

    2007-05-15

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a plasma protein that binds corticosterone and may regulate access of hormone to tissues. The role of CBG during a stress response is not clear. In this study, southern toads, Bufo terrestris, were exposed to a chronic pollutant (coal-combustion-waste), to determine changes in CBG and free corticosterone levels. Since toads exposed to chronic pollutants in previous studies did not exhibit the predicted changes in metabolic rate and mass, but did experience a significant elevation in total corticosterone, we hypothesized that CBG would likewise increase and thus, mitigate the effects of a chronic (i.e. 2 months) pollutant stressor. To conduct this study, we first characterized the properties of CBG in southern toads. After characterization, we monitored the changes in CBG, total corticosterone, and free corticosterone in male toads that were exposed to either coal-combustion-waste or control conditions. CBG increased in all groups throughout the experiment. Total corticosterone, on the other hand, was only significantly elevated at four weeks of exposure to coal-combustion-waste. The increase in CBG did not parallel the increase in total corticosterone; as a result, free corticosterone levels were not buffered by CBG, but showed a peak at four weeks similar to total corticosterone. This finding indicates that, in this species, CBG may not provide a protective mechanism during long-term pollution exposure.

  18. Mortality and toxin bioaccumulation in Bufo marinus following exposure to Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii cell extracts and live cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S.H. [Freshwater Ecology Group, Centre for Environmental Management, Central Queensland University, Building 6, Bruce Highway, Rockhampton, QLD 4702 (Australia)]. E-mail: s.white@cqu.edu.au; Duivenvoorden, L.J. [Freshwater Ecology Group, Centre for Environmental Management, Central Queensland University, Building 6, Bruce Highway, Rockhampton, QLD 4702 (Australia)]. E-mail: l.duivenvoorden@cqu.edu.au; Fabbro, L.D. [Freshwater Ecology Group, Centre for Environmental Management, Central Queensland University, Building 6, Bruce Highway, Rockhampton, QLD 4702 (Australia)]. E-mail: l.fabbro@cqu.edu.au; Eaglesham, G.K. [Queensland Health Scientific Services, Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, QLD 4109 (Australia)]. E-mail: geoff_eaglesham@health.qld.gov.au

    2007-05-15

    Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a cyanobacterium responsible for the production of the toxin, cylindrospermopsin (CYN). Tadpoles of the cane toad Bufo marinus were exposed to freeze-thawed whole cell extracts or live cultures of C. raciborskii containing maximum CYN concentrations of 400 {mu}g L{sup -1} or 232 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. Exposure to live culture treatment solutions resulted in up to 66% mortality of B. marinus, whereas tadpoles exposed to whole cell extracts containing similar toxin concentrations survived. Decreases in relative growth rates and time spent for swimming were recorded from tadpoles during both types of exposure regimes. Bioconcentration of CYN was not evident following exposure to whole cell extracts containing extracellular toxin. In contrast exposure to live cultures, which contained cell-bound toxin, resulted in maximum average tissue concentrations of 895 {mu}g free-CYN kg{sup -1} fresh weight. This is the first investigation of C. raciborskii exposure effects and toxin bioaccumulation in the developmental stages of an amphibian. - Cane toad tadpoles experienced adverse effects and bioaccumulation of toxin following exposure to the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii.

  19. Chronic exposure to coal fly ash causes minimal changes in corticosterone and testosterone concentrations in male southern toads Bufo terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.K.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Montgomery, AL (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2006-08-15

    More than 50% of the electricity in the United States is produced by coal-burning power plants. The byproduct of coal-burning plants is coal fly ash, which contains increased concentrations of trace metals and is disposed of in collection basins. Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) frequently use these basins for reproduction. Male toads were collected in spring 2001 and 2002 from an ash basin and a reference site and divided into four groups: toads collected at the control site and maintained on (1) control substrate and food or (2) ash and contaminated food and toads collected at the ash site and maintained in (3) control or (4) ash conditions. Blood was collected periodically during 5 months to determine testosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Reference to ash toads exhibited a significant, transient increase in corticosterone at 4 weeks, but neither corticosterone nor testosterone continued to increase beyond this time. In contrast, toads caught and maintained on ash did not exhibit increased corticosterone. Testosterone in these toads appeared to be unrelated to ash exposure. This unexpected lack of a corticosterone response and no effect on testosterone suggests that toads chronically exposed to trace metals can acclimate to a polluted environment, but they may still experience subtle long-term consequences.

  20. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  1. Morphological and genetic differentiation among Chilean populations of Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae Diferenciación morfológica y genética entre poblaciones chilenas de Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Marco A. Méndez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Bufo spinulosus has a wide and fragmented range distribution in Chile (18° to 33° S along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. Genetic variation was estimated using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers in 10 populations from northern and central Chile. Morphometric and genetic information was analyzed as a function of geographical origin. The correlation between genetic and morphometric differentiation was analyzed by the Mantel test. An increase in body size as a function of latitude was observed. Specimens from El Tatio had the smallest body size and the greatest morphometric divergence. The AMOVA applied to genetic data indicated that 57.85 % of the variance is explained by interregional differences and that 30.12 % of the variance is found within populations. Low levels of within-regions genetic differentiation was observed in northern populations while higher levels of genetic differentiation was found in populations from central Chile. Mantel tests revealed a significant, positive correlation between genetic variation and geographic distance. When we excluded El Tatio population, Mantel test analyses showed significant correlations between morphological distance and genetic and geographic distances. We discuss whether water temperature could explain the morphological divergence observed in individuals from El TatioBufo spinulosus presenta una amplia y fragmentada distribución en Chile (18º a 33º S a lo largo de gradientes altitudinales y latitudinales. La variación genética fue estimada utilizando marcadores RAPD ("Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA" en diez poblaciones del norte y centro de Chile. La información morfométrica y genética fue analizada en función de la procedencia geográfica. La correlación entre diferenciación genética y morfométrica fue analizada utilizando la prueba de Mantel. Se observó un incremento en el tamaño corporal en función de la latitud. Los individuos de El Tatio mostraron el tama

  2. Expression pattern of glycoconjugates in the Bidderian and ovarian follicles of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus analyzed by lectin histochemistry

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    C. F. Farias

    Full Text Available The Bidder's organ and ovary of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus were studied by light microscopy, using hematoxylin-eosin (HE and periodic acid Schiff (PAS staining. The expression and distribution of carbohydrate moieties was analyzed by lectin histochemistry, using 8 lectins with different carbohydrate specificities: Ulex europaeus (UEA I, Lens culinaris (LCA, Erythrina cristagalli (ECA, Arachis hypogaea (PNA, Ricinus communis (RCA I, Aleuria aurantia (AAA, Triticum vulgaris (WGA, and Glycine maximum (SBA. The results showed that the Bidderian zona pellucida presented alpha-mannose, alpha-L-fucose, beta-D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. The Bidderian follicular cells showed the presence of beta-D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. In the extracellular matrix, alpha-mannose and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues were detected. The ovarian zona pellucida showed alpha-L-fucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues, and alpha-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues were detected in the follicular cells. Thus, the zona pellucida in both organs contains N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. alpha-L-fucose residues were detected in the zona pellucida of both organs, using different lectins. Considering that beta-D-galactose residue was absent from ovary but present in the Bidder's organ, this sugar residue may play an important role in follicle development, blocking the Bidderian follicles and preventing further development of the Bidder's organ into a functional ovary.

  3. Mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis during Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ release in gastric myocytes from Bufo marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Robert M; Mix, T Christian H; Tuft, Richard A; Walsh, John V; Fay, Fredric S

    2000-01-01

    The Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent indicator rhod-2 was used to monitor mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]m) in gastric smooth muscle cells from Bufo marinus. In some studies, fura-2 was used in combination with rhod-2, allowing simultaneous measurement of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and [Ca2+]m, respectively. During a short train of depolarizations, which causes Ca2+ influx from the extracellular medium, there was an increase in both [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]m. The half-time (t½) to peak for the increase in [Ca2+]m was considerably longer than the t½ to peak for the increase in [Ca2+]i. [Ca2+]m remained elevated for tens of seconds after [Ca2+]i had returned to its resting value. Stimulation with caffeine, which causes release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), also produced increases in both [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]m. The values of t½ to peak for the increase in [Ca2+] in both cytoplasm and mitochondria were similar; however, [Ca2+]i returned to baseline values much faster than [Ca2+]m. Using a wide-field digital imaging microscope, changes in [Ca2+]m were monitored within individual mitochondria in situ, during stimulation of Ca2+ influx or Ca2+ release from the SR. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake during depolarizing stimulation caused depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential. The mitochondrial membrane potential recovered considerably faster than the recovery of [Ca2+]m. This study shows that Ca2+ influx from the extracellular medium and Ca2+ release from the SR are capable of increasing [Ca2+]m in smooth muscle cells. The efflux of Ca2+ from the mitochondria is a slow process and appears to be dependent upon the amount of Ca2+ in the SR. PMID:10713963

  4. A New Phylogeographic Pattern of Endemic Bufo bankorensis in Taiwan Island Is Attributed to the Genetic Variation of Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Teng-Lang; Lin, Hung-Du; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aim To comprehend the phylogeographic patterns of genetic variation in anurans at Taiwan Island, this study attempted to examine (1) the existence of various geological barriers (Central Mountain Ranges, CMRs); and (2) the genetic variation of Bufo bankorensis using mtDNA sequences among populations located in different regions of Taiwan, characterized by different climates and existing under extreme conditions when compared available sequences of related species B. gargarizans of mainland China. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic analyses of the dataset with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop gene (348 bp) recovered a close relationship between B. bankorensis and B. gargarizans, identified three distinct lineages. Furthermore, the network of mtDNA D-loop gene (564 bp) amplified (279 individuals, 27 localities) from Taiwan Island indicated three divergent clades within B. bankorensis (Clade W, E and S), corresponding to the geography, thereby verifying the importance of the CMRs and Kaoping River drainage as major biogeographic barriers. Mismatch distribution analysis, neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots revealed that a significant population expansion occurred for the total population and Clade W, with horizons dated to approximately 0.08 and 0.07 Mya, respectively. These results suggest that the population expansion of Taiwan Island species B. bankorensis might have resulted from the release of available habitat in post-glacial periods, the genetic variation on mtDNA showing habitat selection, subsequent population dispersal, and co-distribution among clades. Conclusions The multiple origins (different clades) of B. bankorensis mtDNA sequences were first evident in this study. The divergent genetic clades found within B. bankorensis could be independent colonization by previously diverged lineages; inferring B. bankorensis originated from B. gargarizans of mainland China, then dispersal followed by isolation within Taiwan Island. Highly divergent

  5. Gene expression variations in high-altitude adaptation: a case study of the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weizhao; Qi, Yin; Lu, Bin; Qiao, Liang; Wu, Yayong; Fu, Jinzhong

    2017-07-03

    Genome-wide investigation of molecular mechanisms for high-altitude adaptation has attracted great attention in the last few years. In order to understand the contribution of gene expression level variations to high-altitude adaptation in Asiatic toads (Bufo gargarizans), we implemented a reciprocal transplant experiment between low- and high-altitude sites and sequenced 12 transcriptomes from brain, heart, and liver tissues. A large number of genes with expression differences (DEGs) between high- and low-altitude individuals (193 fixed and 844 plastic) were identified, and the majority of them were tissue specific. Heart displayed the largest number of DEGs, both plastic and fixed. Fixed DEGs were particularly concentrated in functions associated with muscle contraction, and the majority of them were down-regulated in high-altitude individuals. Plastic DEGs were highly concentrated in several energy metabolism related functional categories, and the majority of them were also down-regulated at high-altitude environments. In liver samples, genes associated with nutrient metabolism experienced a broad-scale expression down-regulation in high-altitude toads. These broadly suppressed expression patterns at high altitudes are in strong contrast to those of endothermic homeotherms, suggesting poikilothermic vertebrates may have adopted different strategies at high altitudes. Our results strongly support that both genotypic specialization and phenotypic plasticity play crucial role in adaptation to high altitude for Asiatic toads. Poikilothermic vertebrates are among the most hypoxia-tolerant animals known, and many molecular mechanisms remain elusive. We hope that our results will provide useful directions for future research.

  6. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  7. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in cane toads (Bufo marinus) from Grenada, West Indies, and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M; Amadi, V; Zieger, U; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2013-09-01

    Cloacal swabs and caecal contents sampled from 58 cane toads (Bufo marinus) in St George's parish, Grenada, during a 7-month period in 2011 were examined by an enrichment and selective culture method for presence of Salmonella spp. Twenty-four (41%) toads were positive for Salmonella spp. of which eight were Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana, and eight were S. enterica serovar Rubislaw. The other serovars were as follows: Montevideo, 6; Arechavaleta, 1; and serovar: IV:43:-:-, 1. The high frequency of isolation of serovar Javiana, an emerging human pathogen associated with several outbreaks in the recent years in the eastern United States, suggests a possible role for cane toads in transmission of this serovar. Although S. Rubislaw has been isolated from lizards, bats and cases of some human infections, there is no report of its carriage by cane toads, and in such high frequency. The rate of carriage of S. Montevideo, a cause for human foodborne outbreaks around the world was also over 10% in the 58 toads sampled in this study. The antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal and is of little concern. Antimicrobial resistance was limited to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in one isolate of S. Javiana and one isolate of S. Rubislaw. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars not identified previously in cane toads in Grenada, West Indies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Modeling amphibian energetics, habitat suitability, and movements of western toads, Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas, across present and future landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Klaver, Robert W.; Porter, Warren P.

    2010-01-01

    Effective conservation of amphibian populations requires the prediction of how amphibians use and move through a landscape. Amphibians are closely coupled to their physical environment. Thus an approach that uses the physiological attributes of amphibians, together with knowledge of their natural history, should be helpful. We used Niche Mapper™ to model the known movements and habitat use patterns of a population of Western toads (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas) occupying forested habitats in southeastern Idaho. Niche Mapper uses first principles of environmental biophysics to combine features of topography, climate, land cover, and animal features to model microclimates and animal physiology and behavior across landscapes. Niche Mapper reproduced core body temperatures (Tc) and evaporation rates of live toads with average errors of 1.6 ± 0.4 °C and 0.8 ± 0.2 g/h, respectively. For four different habitat types, it reproduced similar mid-summer daily temperature patterns as those measured in the field and calculated evaporation rates (g/h) with an average error rate of 7.2 ± 5.5%. Sensitivity analyses indicate these errors do not significantly affect estimates of food consumption or activity. Using Niche Mapper we predicted the daily habitats used by free-ranging toads; our accuracy for female toads was greater than for male toads (74.2 ± 6.8% and 53.6 ± 15.8%, respectively), reflecting the stronger patterns of habitat selection among females. Using these changing to construct a cost surface, we also reconstructed movement paths that were consistent with field observations. The effect of climate warming on toads depends on the interaction of temperature and atmospheric moisture. If climate change occurs as predicted, results from Niche Mapper suggests that climate warming will increase the physiological cost of landscapes thereby limiting the activity for toads in different habitats.

  9. Trophic ecology and microhabitat utilization by the Bufo gargarizans, Rana guentheri, and Rana limnocharis in southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonglei Yu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the trophic ecology and microhabitat use of the Asiatic toad, Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842; Guentheri frog, Rana guentheri (Boulenger, 1882; and the Ricefield frog, Rana limnocharis (Boie, 1834. These three species are common around Nanchong City, in southwestern China, where they live in the same habitat before hibernation. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diets and patterns of coexistence relative to the microhabitat of each species. In the Asiatic toad, based on index of relative importance, the diet was dominated by adult Coleoptera, Isopoda, and Hymenoptera (29.53%, 22.07%, and 15.20%, respectively, while the Guenther's frog and Ricefield frog ingested predominantly Orthoptera (67.44% and 40.94%, respectively. The standardized feeding niche breadth of the Asiatic toad (0.277 was wider than that of the Guentheri frog (0.177 and Ricefield frog (0.269. The overlap in the trophic niche (prey proportion between the toad and two species of frog was low (toad vs. Guentheri frog, C H = 0.526; toad vs. Ricefield frog, C H = 0.521, while this was high for the two species of frogs (C H = 0.942. The three species also differed in microhabitat use. Asiatic toads showed strong preference for small roads close to shrubs or pre-harvest corn, while Guenther's frogs preferred bare surfaces on habitat edges, and Ricefield frogs showed a preference for bare surfaces as feeding sites in the middle of habitat. The difference in diet observed during three species seems to be explained by the difference in microhabitat use and body size of three species.

  10. Phylogeography of a widespread terrestrial vertebrate in a barely-studied Palearctic region: green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) indicate glacial refugia in Eastern Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Jun; Stöck, Matthias; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiu-Ling; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2008-11-01

    The phylogeography of western Palearctic species is relatively well studied, but data on Eastern Central Asia are scarce. We present one of the first data sets from a widespread terrestrial vertebrate (Bufo pewzowi) inhabiting Eastern Central Asian mountains and deserts to gain knowledge on its phylogeography in this region. We applied combined phylogenetic and demographic analyses to understand the evolutionary history using mitochondrial DNA D-loop variation of toads from 37 locations. Genetic structure of Bufo pewzowi is strongly affected by landscape: we found three haplotype groups in eastern Kazakhstan, Dzungaria and Tarim Basin, divided by the Tian Shan and Dzungarian Alatau ranges. A vicariant hypothesis may explain divergence among groups. The divergence time of the three major clades was estimated about 0.9 million years ago (confidence interval 0.5-1.4), and is discussed with respect to Quaternary uplifting and glaciation in the Tian Shan. Demographic analyses provided evidence for both historical bottlenecks and population expansions and suggested Pleistocene signatures. Glacial refugia were inferred in the Tarim Basin (around the Turpan depression), in southern Dzungaria (Urumqui region), at the northern foot of the Tian Shan (Gongnaisi) and perhaps at the Altai range (Terekti). Regional Post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal patterns are proposed. A taxonomic hypothesis is presented. This study provides a detailed history of how a widespread terrestrial vertebrate responded to geological change and Quaternary glacial events in Eastern Central Asia and may have significance for future phylogeographic research in this understudied region.

  11. Effects of Petrol Exposure on Glucose, Liver and Muscle glycogen levels in the Common African toad Bufo regularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isehunwa, G O; Yusuf, I O; Alada, A Ar

    2017-03-06

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to petrol on blood glucose, liver and muscle glycogen levels in the common African toad Bufo regularis. A total of 126 adult toads of either sex weighing between 70-100g were used for this study. The experiment was divided into three phases. The phase 1 experiment the acute toxicity test consisted of animals divided into six groups of 10 toads per group and were exposed to water (H2O), H2O + Tween 80, 2ml/l, 3ml/l, 5ml/l, and 10ml/l of petrol respectively for 96 hours using the static renewal bioassay system. In the Phase 2 experiment, the animals were exposed to H2O, H2O + Tween 80, 0.14ml/l, 0.3ml/l, 0.6ml/l, and 1.13ml/l of petrol respectively for 3 days; while in phase 3 experiment they were exposed to petrol solutions for 14 days. After the various exposures, the blood glucose, liver and muscle glycogen contents were determined using standard methods. The results of the study showed that the median lethal concentration of petrol (96 hours LC50) was 4.5ml/l and sub-lethal concentration of petrol caused mortality of animals. Exposure to petrol solutions for 3 days had no significant effect on blood glucose level of the animals but caused significant decrease in the liver and muscle glycogen levels at high concentrations. In the animals exposed to petrol solutions for 14 days, there was a significant increase in glucose levels and significant reduction in liver and muscle glycogen levels at high concentrations when compared with the control. The results show that sub-lethal concentrations of petrol can cause mortality of animals, hyperglycemia and reduction in liver and muscle glycogen levels. The effects of petrol exposure on carbohydrate metabolism depend on the concentration and duration of exposure.

  12. Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad's coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis.

  13. ENVENENAMENTO DE CÃES POR BUFADIENOLÍDEOS (Substâncias encontradas na secreção das glândulas paratóides dos sapos do gênero Bufo POISONING OF DOGS BY BUFADIENOLIDES (SUBSTANCES FOUND IN THE PARATOID GLAND SECRETION OF FROGS OF THE GENUS Bufo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Pereira Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Os autores estudaram o efeito da aplicação na mucosa bucal de cães, do produto secretado pelas glândulas paratóides de sapos do gênero Bufo. Os cães apresentaram sinais de graves intoxicações, imediatamente após a aplicação do referido produto.

    In the present paper, the authors report the effects of toad’s poison in dogs. This is the first case describe in Goiás.

  14. The effect of soil composition and hydration on the bioavailability and toxicity of cadmium to hibernating juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stacy M.; Little, Edward E.; Semlitsch, Raymond D.

    2004-01-01

    The soil ecotoxicology literature has focused primarily on a few major taxa, to the neglect of other fossorial organisms such as amphibians. We selected cadmium (Cd) and the American toad (Bufo americanus) as a model contaminant and biological species to assess the impact of soil contamination on amphibian hibernation survival and post-hibernation condition. Soil sand composition (50, 70, 90%) and hydration (100, 150% water holding capacity (WHC)) were manipulated in addition to Cd concentration (0, 56, 165, 483 μg/g) to determine whether these soil properties affect toxicity. Soil Cd concentration significantly reduced survival and locomotor performance, and was correlated negatively with percent mass loss and positively with whole body Cd concentration. Higher sand content resulted in less mass loss and greater Cd uptake. Toads that were hibernated in 50% sand hydrated to 100% WHC had higher survival, less mass loss, and better sprint performance than those hibernated in 50% sand, 150% WHC. This study demonstrates that concentrations of Cd found in soil at highly contaminated sites can be bioaccumulated by hibernating amphibians and may reduce fitness. Differences in microhabitat use may cause species to vary in their exposure and susceptibility to soil contamination. The toxicity of Cd to amphibians could be greater in natural systems where there are multiple stressors and fluctuations in environmental variables.

  15. Geographic variation in life-history traits: growth season affects age structure, egg size and clutch size in Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen Bo; Luo, Yi; Lou, Shang Ling; Lu, Di; Jehle, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Environmental variation associated with season length is likely to promote differentiation in life-history traits, but has been little studied in natural populations of ectotherms. We investigated patterns of variation in egg size, clutch size, age at sexual maturity, maximum age, mean age, growth rate and adult body size in relation to growth season length among 17 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi) at different latitudes and altitudes in the Hengduan Mountains, western China. We found that egg size, age at sexual maturity, and mean age increased with decreasing length of the growth season, whereas clutch size showed a converse cline. Body size did not increase with decreasing length of the growth season, but was tightly linked to lifetime activity (i.e. the estimated number of active days during lifetime). Males and females differed in their patterns of geographic variation in growth rates, which may be the result of forces shaping the trade-off between growth and reproduction in different environments. Our findings suggest that growth season plays an important role in shaping variation in life-history traits in B. andrewsi across geographical gradients.

  16. Drift Rather than Selection Dominates MHC Class II Allelic Diversity Patterns at the Biogeographical Range Scale in Natterjack Toads Bufo calamita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisset, Inga; Beebee, Trevor J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci has gained great popularity in recent years, partly due to their function in protecting vertebrates from infections. This is of particular interest in amphibians on account of major threats many species face from emergent diseases such as chytridiomycosis. In this study we compare levels of diversity in an expressed MHC class II locus with neutral genetic diversity at microsatellite loci in natterjack toad (Bufo (Epidalea) calamita) populations across the whole of the species’ biogeographical range. Variation at both classes of loci was high in the glacial refugium areas (REF) and much lower in postglacial expansion areas (PGE), especially in range edge populations. Although there was clear evidence that the MHC locus was influenced by positive selection in the past, congruence with the neutral markers suggested that historical demographic events were the main force shaping MHC variation in the PGE area. Both neutral and adaptive genetic variation declined with distance from glacial refugia. Nevertheless, there were also some indications from differential isolation by distance and allele abundance patterns that weak effects of selection have been superimposed on the main drift effect in the PGE zone. PMID:24937211

  17. Different morphologic formation patterns of dark patches in the black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata) and the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangming, Gan; Tao, Zhao; Chao, Li; Moyan, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    The black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata) and Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans), two relatively distantly related species, live in different habitats with different adaptive dark patches. To explain the formation of dark patches, the distribution patterns of melanin granules were examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Melanin granules were produced and gathered into the "cap" structures on top of the nuclei in most epidermal cells. The "cap" structures may play a role in forming the dorsal dark patches coupled with three-layer melanophores, which can give rise to three layers of interconnected melanin networks in the dorsal dermis in P. nigromaculata. Epidermal melanocytes are rare and do not have a definitive role in forming dorsal dark patches in either P. nigromaculata or B. gargarizans. In B. gargarizans, the dermal melanophores only give rise to a single-layered melanin network, which hardly results in dark patches in the dorsal skin. However, the dermal melanophores migrate twice and form into pseudostratified networks, leading to dark patch formation in the ventral skin in B. gargarizans. The melanin granules precisely coregulate dark patches in the dermis and/or epidermis in P. nigromaculata and B. gargarizans. The dark patch formation depends on melanin granules in the epidermis or/and dermis in P. nigromaculata and B. gargarizans.

  18. Structural aspects of the Eberth-Katschenko layer of Bufo ictericus integument: histochemical characterization and biochemical analysis of the cutaneous calcium (Amphibian, Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Rodrigo Alves; Pelli, Adriana Alves; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio; de Jesus Santana, Andréa Souza; Felsemburgh, Flávia; de Brito-Gitirana, Lycia

    2005-01-01

    Anuran, such as Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus Spix, 1824, possess a calcified dermal layer called the Eberth-Katschenko (EK) layer located between the stratum spongiosum and the stratum compactum. It has been regarded as a protective barrier against desiccation or involved in storage and mobilization of calcium, or a barrier for the interchange of substances between the animal's internal and external environment. The B. ictericus integument was removed from the ventral and dorsal regions and examined by light microscopy, using histochemical techniques, and also submitted to biochemical calcium analysis. The intermediate layer is strongly basophilic and metachromatic. In the EK layer Alcian blue at different critical electrolytic concentration revealed hyaluronic acid, which coexists with the dermal calcium. We conclude that the EK layer of B. ictericus is a discontinuous layer and is formed of hyaluronic acid and a sulfated GAG different from chondroitin sulfate, heparin and heparan sulfate or keratan sulfate. The amount of cutaneous calcium is independent of region and sex. GAGs may play an important role in dermal hydric balance, protecting the animal against desiccation, and hyaluronic acid is probably able to anchor dermal calcium. Thus, all compounds of the EK layer are essential for integument integrity and functionality.

  19. Chloromyxum aegypticus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Chloromyxidae) infecting the testicular tissue of the Egyptian toad, Bufo regularis (Amphibia: Bufonidae), and its pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Enayat Salem Ahmed

    2010-11-01

    A new myxosporean, Chloromyxum aegypticus n. sp., is described from the testes of the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis, captured from El Mansoura locality. C. aegypticus is identified on the basis of cytology, electron microscopy and histopathology. It is distinguished from all previously reported Chloromyxum spp. by its shape, dimensions of the mature spore (9.1 ± 0.1 (9.0-9.2) μm in length  × 7.9 ± 0.1 (7.8-8.0) μm in width), polar capsules, external ridge, sporoplasm nuclei, undulating suture, locality and host. Accumulation of several hundreds of plasmodia (0.8 ± 0.3 (0.5-1.1) mm in length × 0.5 ± 0.3 (0.2-0.7) mm in width) in the testes causes their enlargement. Parasites cause destruction of the seminiferous tubule cells and complete loss of spermatozoa. Since spermatogenesis stops, this seems to be a form of "parasitic castration". This is the first known record of the genus Chloromyxum in amphibian testes.

  20. Effects of temperature on embryonic and larval development and growth in the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita in a semi-arid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanuy, D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature affects the duration of embryonic and larval periods in amphibians. Plasticity in time to metamorphosis is especially important in amphibian populations of Mediterranean semi-arid zones where temperatures are high and precipitation is low, increasing the rate of pond desiccation. In order to test the influence of water temperature on the larval development and growth of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita, we collected two spawns in a semi¿arid zone at Balaguer (Lleida, NE Iberian peninsula. Approximately 50 (+/-10 eggs (stage 14-16 were raised in the lab at different temperature conditions: 10, 15, 20, 22.5 and 25ºC with 12:12 photoperiod. The results show a lengthening of development time with decreasing temperatures and a better survival performance of B. calamita to high temperatures. However, mean size at metamorphosis was not different across treatments, thus, suggesting that this population of B. calamita requires a minimum size to complete the metamorphosis. This study is the first approach to examine the effects that climatic factors have on the growth and development of B. calamita in semi-arid zones.

  1. Quality Assessment of Serially Ultradiluted and Agitated Drug Digitalis purpurea by Emission Spectroscopy and Clinical Analysis of Its Effect on the Heart Rate of Indian Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of ultradiluted (homeopathic drugs is extremely interesting and challenging, and from that point of view this study shows novelty. A study of in vivo changes in heart rate of the Indian Bufo melanostictus caused by commercially available serially ultra-diluted and agitated extract of Digitalis purpurea has been tried in order to understand their pharmacological role. RR interval (of ECG was compared after intraperitoneal administration of serially diluted and agitated Digitalis purpurea extract, diluent rectified spirit, and Digoxin in anesthetized animals. The study revealed statistically significant changes in the heart rate after application of these drugs except in case of Digoxin and the 200th serial dilution of Digitalis purpurea. The duration of RR intervals after application of the drugs was corroborative of the effect of Digoxin and Digitalis purpurea extract up to 30th dilution. Emission spectra were obtained for the experimental ultra-diluted Digitalis purpurea extract and Digoxin to identify and characterize them. The observed RR pattern and emission spectra show an association. The quality assessment of the commercial ultra-diluted organic drugs obtained from natural products may be initiated by monitoring in vivo studies on animal models.

  2. Drift rather than selection dominates MHC class II allelic diversity patterns at the biogeographical range scale in natterjack toads Bufo calamita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Zeisset

    Full Text Available Study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC loci has gained great popularity in recent years, partly due to their function in protecting vertebrates from infections. This is of particular interest in amphibians on account of major threats many species face from emergent diseases such as chytridiomycosis. In this study we compare levels of diversity in an expressed MHC class II locus with neutral genetic diversity at microsatellite loci in natterjack toad (Bufo (Epidalea calamita populations across the whole of the species' biogeographical range. Variation at both classes of loci was high in the glacial refugium areas (REF and much lower in postglacial expansion areas (PGE, especially in range edge populations. Although there was clear evidence that the MHC locus was influenced by positive selection in the past, congruence with the neutral markers suggested that historical demographic events were the main force shaping MHC variation in the PGE area. Both neutral and adaptive genetic variation declined with distance from glacial refugia. Nevertheless, there were also some indications from differential isolation by distance and allele abundance patterns that weak effects of selection have been superimposed on the main drift effect in the PGE zone.

  3. Testicular myxosporidiasis and ultrastructural characteristics of Myxobolus bufonis (Myxobolidae) infecting the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis (Bufonidae). A light and electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Kareem; Semmler, Margit; Al-Olayan, Ebtsam; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-11-01

    The phylum Myxozoa comprises more than 2180 species, almost all of which are considered to be obligate parasites of aquatic fishes and amphibians. They are dangerous pathogens responsible for severe economic losses. From March to September 2014, 40 adult male Bufo regularis (Bufonidae) captured from different areas at Giza province, Egypt, were surveyed for myxosporean parasitic infection. Of these, 22 (55%) were infected by histozoic plasmodia, which produced spores after rupture belonging to Myxosporidia. The present investigation introduced a new data for the recorded parasite observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The infection was diagnosed as large clusters of macroscopic plasmodia embedded in the testicular tissue causing distortion at the site of infection. The host reaction was manifested by the encapsulation of the plasmodia with a thick layer of connective tissue. Plasmodia were whitish in color, elliptical to ovoid in shape measuring 0.54 ± 0.2 (0.34-0.63) mm in diameter. The spores were subspherical, reaching 7.1 ± 0.2 (6.2-8.4) μm in length and 6.3 ± 0.2 (5.8-7.0) μm in width with two equal-sized polar capsules regularly arranged at the anterior pole of each spore. They were 3.4 ± 0.2 (3.0-4.2) μm in length and 1.9 ± 0.2 (1.6-2.4) in width with 6-8 turns of polar filaments. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the plasmodia were surrounded by a plasma membrane with numerous projections and pinocytotic channels extended toward the host cell. The generative cells and the different developmental stages were arranged at the periphery of the plasmodia while immature and mature spores were centrally arranged. Sporogenesis, capsulogenesis, valvogenesis, and spore maturation of the present parasite were also described.

  4. Development of Nuclear Microsatellite Loci and Mitochondrial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms for the Natterjack Toad, Bufo (Epidalea) calamita (Bufonidae), Using Next Generation Sequencing and Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Leslie; Godé, Cécile; Arnaud, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are undergoing a major decline worldwide and the steady increase in the number of threatened species in this particular taxa highlights the need for conservation genetics studies using high-quality molecular markers. The natterjack toad, Bufo (Epidalea) calamita, is a vulnerable pioneering species confined to specialized habitats in Western Europe. To provide efficient and cost-effective genetic resources for conservation biologists, we developed and characterized 22 new nuclear microsatellite markers using next-generation sequencing. We also used sequence data acquired from Sanger sequencing to develop the first mitochondrial markers for KASPar assay genotyping. Genetic polymorphism was then analyzed for 95 toads sampled from 5 populations in France. For polymorphic microsatellite loci, number of alleles and expected heterozygosity ranged from 2 to 14 and from 0.035 to 0.720, respectively. No significant departures from panmixia were observed (mean multilocus F IS = -0.015) and population differentiation was substantial (mean multilocus F ST = 0.222, P < 0.001). From a set of 18 mitochondrial SNPs located in the 16S and D-loop region, we further developed a fast and cost-effective SNP genotyping method based on competitive allele-specific PCR amplification (KASPar). The combination of allelic states for these mitochondrial DNA SNP markers yielded 10 different haplotypes, ranging from 2 to 5 within populations. Populations were highly differentiated (G ST = 0.407, P < 0.001). These new genetic resources will facilitate future parentage, population genetics and phylogeographical studies and will be useful for both evolutionary and conservation concerns, especially for the set-up of management strategies and the definition of distinct evolutionary significant units. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Strong reproductive barriers in a narrow hybrid zone of West-Mediterranean green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) with Plio-Pleistocene divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background One key question in evolutionary biology deals with the mode and rate at which reproductive isolation accumulates during allopatric speciation. Little is known about secondary contacts of recently diverged anuran species. Here we conduct a multi-locus field study to investigate a contact zone between two lineages of green toads with an estimated divergence time of 2.7 My, and report results from preliminary experimental crosses. Results The Sicilian endemic Bufo siculus and the Italian mainland-origin B. balearicus form a narrow hybrid zone east of Mt. Etna. Despite bidirectional mtDNA introgression over a ca. 40 km North-South cline, no F1 hybrids could be found, and nuclear genomes display almost no admixture. Populations from each side of the contact zone showed depressed genetic diversity and very strong differentiation (FST = 0.52). Preliminary experimental crosses point to a slightly reduced fitness in F1 hybrids, a strong hybrid breakdown in backcrossed offspring (F1 x parental, with very few reaching metamorphosis) and a complete and early mortality in F2 (F1 x F1). Conclusion Genetic patterns at the contact zone are molded by drift and selection. Local effective sizes are reduced by the geography and history of the contact zone, B. balearicus populations being at the front wave of a recent expansion (late Pleistocene). Selection against hybrids likely results from intrinsic genomic causes (disruption of coadapted sets of genes in backcrosses and F2-hybrids), possibly reinforced by local adaptation (the ranges of the two taxa roughly coincide with the borders of semiarid and arid climates). The absence of F1 in the field might be due to premating isolation mechanisms. Our results, show that these lineages have evolved almost complete reproductive isolation after some 2.7 My of divergence, contrasting sharply with evidence from laboratory experiments that some anuran species may still produce viable F1 offspring after > 20 My of divergence. PMID

  6. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis) Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchen, Jörn F.; Reichert, Samuel J.; Röhr, Johannes T.; Dieterich, Christoph; Kloas, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis) specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%), many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues) provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species. PMID:27232626

  7. Inferring the degree of incipient speciation in secondary contact zones of closely related lineages of Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresnes, C; Bonato, L; Novarini, N; Betto-Colliard, C; Perrin, N; Stöck, M

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive isolation between lineages is expected to accumulate with divergence time, but the time taken to speciate may strongly vary between different groups of organisms. In anuran amphibians, laboratory crosses can still produce viable hybrid offspring >20 My after separation, but the speed of speciation in closely related anuran lineages under natural conditions is poorly studied. Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) offer an excellent system to address this question, comprising several lineages that arose at different times and form secondary contact zones. Using mitochondrial and nuclear markers, we previously demonstrated that in Sicily, B. siculus and B. balearicus developed advanced reproductive isolation after Plio-Pleistocene divergence (2.6 My, 3.3–1.9), with limited historic mtDNA introgression, scarce nuclear admixture, but low, if any, current gene flow. Here, we study genetic interactions between younger lineages of early Pleistocene divergence (1.9 My, 2.5–1.3) in northeastern Italy (B. balearicus, B. viridis). We find significantly more, asymmetric nuclear and wider, differential mtDNA introgression. The population structure seems to be molded by geographic distance and barriers (rivers), much more than by intrinsic genomic incompatibilities. These differences of hybridization between zones may be partly explained by differences in the duration of previous isolation. Scattered research on other anurans suggests that wide hybrid zones with strong introgression may develop when secondary contacts occur <2 My after divergence, whereas narrower zones with restricted gene flow form when divergence exceeds 3 My. Our study strengthens support for this rule of thumb by comparing lineages with different divergence times within the same radiation. PMID:24713825

  8. Phylogeographic and population insights of the Asian common toad (Bufo gargarizans in Korea and China: population isolation and expansions as response to the ice ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaël Borzée

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ice ages on speciation have been well documented for many European and North American taxa. In contrast, very few studies have addressed the consequences of such environmental and topographical changes in North East Asian species. More precisely, the Korean Peninsula offers a unique model to assess patterns and processes of speciation as it hosts the northern- and eastern-most distribution limit of some widespread Asian taxa. Despite this, studies addressing phylogeographic patterns and population genetics in the peninsula and surrounding countries are few and studies for most families are lacking. Here we inferred the phylogenetic relationships of the common toad (Bufo gargarizans from South Korea and their North East Asian counterpart populations, based on mitochondrial data. Korean B. gargarizans GenBank BLASTs matched few individuals from nearby China, but the presence of a Korean clade suggests isolation on the Korean Peninsula, previous to the last glacial maximum, linked to sea level resurgence. Molecular clock calibrations within this group were used to date the divergence between clades and their relationship to paleo-climatic events in the area. Lack of genetic structure among South Korean populations and strong homogeneity between the Korean and some Chinese localities suggest weak isolation and recent expansion. Geographical projection of continuous coalescent maximum-clade-credibility trees shows an original Chinese expansion towards the Korean Peninsula through the Yellow Sea circa two million years ago with colonisation events dating circa 800 thousand years ago (K. y. a.. Following this colonisation, the data point to outgoing Korean Peninsula dispersal events throughout different periods, towards the North through land, and West through land bridge formations over the Yellow Sea during sea level falls. In accordance, demographic analyses revealed a population expansion in the Koran Peninsula circa 300 K. y. a

  9. Phylogeographic and population insights of the Asian common toad (Bufo gargarizans) in Korea and China: population isolation and expansions as response to the ice ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzée, Amaël; Santos, Joana L; Sánchez-RamÍrez, Santiago; Bae, Yoonhyuk; Heo, Kyongman; Jang, Yikweon; Jowers, Michael Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ice ages on speciation have been well documented for many European and North American taxa. In contrast, very few studies have addressed the consequences of such environmental and topographical changes in North East Asian species. More precisely, the Korean Peninsula offers a unique model to assess patterns and processes of speciation as it hosts the northern- and eastern-most distribution limit of some widespread Asian taxa. Despite this, studies addressing phylogeographic patterns and population genetics in the peninsula and surrounding countries are few and studies for most families are lacking. Here we inferred the phylogenetic relationships of the common toad ( Bufo gargarizans ) from South Korea and their North East Asian counterpart populations, based on mitochondrial data. Korean B. gargarizans GenBank BLASTs matched few individuals from nearby China, but the presence of a Korean clade suggests isolation on the Korean Peninsula, previous to the last glacial maximum, linked to sea level resurgence. Molecular clock calibrations within this group were used to date the divergence between clades and their relationship to paleo-climatic events in the area. Lack of genetic structure among South Korean populations and strong homogeneity between the Korean and some Chinese localities suggest weak isolation and recent expansion. Geographical projection of continuous coalescent maximum-clade-credibility trees shows an original Chinese expansion towards the Korean Peninsula through the Yellow Sea circa two million years ago with colonisation events dating circa 800 thousand years ago (K. y. a.). Following this colonisation, the data point to outgoing Korean Peninsula dispersal events throughout different periods, towards the North through land, and West through land bridge formations over the Yellow Sea during sea level falls. In accordance, demographic analyses revealed a population expansion in the Koran Peninsula circa 300 K. y. a., likely attributed

  10. Nomenclatural availability of the names applied to “varieties” of the green toad (Bufo viridis subgroup in the Italian territory, with emphasis on the variety lineata of Ninni (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Novarini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular investigations on Eurasian green toads led to the recognition of distinct lineages and to the establishment of new taxa within the former Bufo viridis; as a consequence, significant range-wide nomenclatural changes have been proposed, although some uncertainties remained on the available names applicable within the Italian territory. In order to contribute to clarify the matter, we evaluated, under the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the nomenclatural availability of all the names that have been applied to infrasubspecific entities of the Bufo viridis subgroup within the Italian territory. We also provided a historical overview of the usage of all these names, as well as detailed information on the original material upon which the variety lineata of A.P. Ninni was established. Our analysis supports the view that only the names crucigera Eichwald, 1831 and balearica Boettger, 1880 are available, the former being however junior synonym of B. viridis Laurenti, 1768, whereas the names acutirostris and obtusirostris of Lessona, lineata of Ninni, concolor and maculata of Camerano, and nardoi of Paolucci, Fuhn and Bruno are all not available.

  11. PIGMENTOS EN LOS TESTÍCULOS DE CINCO ANFIBIOS ENDÉMICOS DE CUBA (Eleutherodactylus turquinensis, E. cuneatus, E. glamyrus, Bufo longinasus longinasus y B. longinasus cajalbanensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanz-Ochotorena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los vertebrados ectotérmicos pueden presentar un sistema pigmentario de función desconocida, aunque en algunos casos se han descrito los centros de melanomacrófagos con evidente función fagocítica; sin embargo, no es frecuente encontrar las gónadas pigmentadas en los anfibios anuros. El objetivo fundamental del presente trabajo es informar y analizar la presencia de pigmentos en los testículos de tres especies de ranas endémicas cubanas y en un sapo cubano, también endémico. Se estudiaron las especies Eleutherodactylus turquinensis, E. cuneatus, E. glamyrus y Bufo longinasus (subespecies B. l. longinasus y B. l. cajalbanensis, las cuales fueron colectadas en las zonas occidental y oriental de la Isla de Cuba. Los ejemplares se anestesiaron con éter una vez que se trasladaron al laboratorio. Se extrajeron las gónadas y se procesaron para microscopía óptica y en el caso de B. longinasus también para microscopía electrónica de transmisión. Los resultados indican una morfología de los testículos similar a otro anuros, se observó una organización cística de las células sexuales en los túbulos seminíferos y todos los ejemplares estaban en espermatogénesis total. Los testículos de todas las especies estudiadas mostraron una pigmentación oscura y abundante en la túnica albugínea y en el tejido intersticial. Se observaron muchos melanosomas. Se analiza en el trabajo que la causa de la fuerte pigmentación testicular pueda ser una respuesta a la contaminación, asimismo, se propone que los pigmentos son producidos por otro tipo celular quizás similar a los melanomacrófagos y no por melanocitos.

  12. Genetic structure and origin of a tetraploid toad species Bufo danatensis Pisanetz, 1978 (Amphibia, Bufonidae) from central Asia: Description of biochemical polymorphism and comparison of heterozygosity levels in diploid and tetraploid species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezhzherin, S.V.; Pisanets, E.M. [Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of individual variation at 24 biochemical loci in members of the species complex of Palearctic green toads showed that the heterozygosity of the tetraploid species Bufo danatensis (H{sub obs} = 0.45) was significantly higher than that of the diploid species B. viridis, B. sp., and B. raddei (H{sub obs} = 0.009 - 0.103). Such difference can be explained only by a hybrid origin of the tetraploid species. Individual electrophoretic variability of the polyploid toad species is associated with an allelic variation that is manifested in constantly heterozygous spectra as the gene dosage effect. At the population level, this phenomenon found in Pamir toads is caused by irregular meiosis in founders of the population or by directional changes in gene regulation. Genotypic distributions in zones of contact of the diploid and tetraploid taxons demonstrate the possibility of restricted introgressive hybridization.

  13. How complex is the Bufo bufo species group?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; Recuero, E.; Canestrelli, D.; Martínez-Solano, I.

    2013-01-01

    Species delineation remains one of the most challenging tasks in the study of biodiversity, mostly owing to the application of different species concepts, which results in contrasting taxonomic arrangements. This has important practical consequences, since species are basic units in fields like

  14. (Bufo regularis) ES AJIBOLA*, A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    percentage twitch height depression a finding which suggested that both effects could be mediated through the same receptor. Tetanic fade or Wendesky inhibition is the failure of a muscle to sustain tension during high frequency motor nerve stimulation in the presence of a non depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug.

  15. Lack of bufadienolides in the skin secretion of red bellied toads, Melanophryniscus spp. (Anura, Bufonidae), from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebs, Dietrich; Wagner, Moritz G; Pogoda, Werner; Maneyro, Raul; Kwet, Axel; Kauert, Gerold

    2007-01-01

    The South-American red bellied toads (Melanophryniscus spp.) belonging to the Bufonidae family contain toxic alkaloids in their skin, predominantly of the pumiliotoxin group. Whole animal methanolic extracts of individual specimens of three species (Melanophryniscus atroluteus, M. devincenzii, and M. montevidensis) were analyzed for the presence of toad specific bufadienolides and indolalkylamines (serotonin derivatives) by HPLC-electrospray (ESI)-MS-TOF. No bufadienolides, but few bufotenines, mainly dehydrobufotenine, were detected in the extracts in variable amounts. The concentration of the dehydrobufotenine in the extracts seems to be species specific. Whereas M. atroluteus and M. montevidensis contain very low or trace amounts, M. devincenzii specimens exhibit high concentrations of this indolalkylamine. In comparison, analysis of extracts from Bufo arenarum (Uruguay) and from B. bufo (Germany) confirmed the presence of bufadienolides as well as of bufotenine derivatives. Tadpoles of both species exhibited a different pattern: extracts from B. arenarum tadpoles contained only dehydrobufotenine, but those from B. bufo tadpoles bufotoxin and two alkylamines. Melanophryniscus toads appear not to be able to compensate the high variability of toxic skin alkaloids by producing defensive bufadienolides.

  16. The genetics of amphibian decline: population substructure and molecular differentiation in the Yosemite toad, Bufo canorus (Anura, Bufonidae) based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, H. Bradley; Fellers, Gary M.; Magee, Allison; Voss, S. Randal

    2000-01-01

    We present a comprehensive survey of genetic variation across the range of the narrowly distributed endemic Yosemite toad Bufo canorus, a declining amphibian restricted to the Sierra Nevada of California. Based on 322 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data, we found limited support for the monophyly of B. canorus and its closely related congener B. exsul to the exclusion of the widespread western toad B. boreas. However, B. exsul was always phylogenetically nested within B. canorus, suggesting that the latter may not be monophyletic. SSCP (single-strand conformation polymorphism) analysis of 372 individual B. canorus from 28 localities in Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks revealed no shared haplotypes among these two regions and lead us to interpret these two parks as distinct management units for B. canorus. Within Yosemite, we found significant genetic substructure both at the level of major drainages and among breeding ponds. Kings Canyon samples show a different pattern, with substantial variation among breeding sites, but no substructure among drainages. Across the range of B. canorus as well as among Yosemite ponds, we found an isolation-by-distance pattern suggestive of a stepping stone model of migration. However, in Kings Canyon we found no hint of such a pattern, suggesting that movement patterns of toads may be quite different in these nearby parklands. Our data imply that management for B. canorus should focus at the individual pond level, and effective management may necessitate reintroductions if local extirpations occur. A brief review of other pond-breeding anurans suggests that highly structured populations are often the case, and thus that our results for B. canorus may be general for other species of frogs and toads.

  17. Uso de la Rana de la Sabana de Bogotá (Hyla Labialis en el Diagnostico del Embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Montes Duque

    1950-10-01

    Full Text Available Presentado a la Sociedad de Biología en su sesión del día 6 de octubre de 1950. Desde la introducción de la prueba de Hogben para el diagnóstico del embarazo mediante la inyección de orina en las hembras de una especie de sapo africana, el Xenophns loevis, y la de Galli Mainini, usando el sapo macho Bufo Arenarum Hensel de la Argentina, se han hecho sucesivos ensayos para utilizar otros batracios.

  18. Uso de la rana de la sabana de bogotá (hyla labialis) en el diagnostico del embarazo

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Duque, Gonzalo; Ramírez Barrero, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Presentado a la Sociedad de Biología en su sesión del día 6 de octubre de 1950. Desde la introducción de la prueba de Hogben para el diagnóstico del embarazo mediante la inyección de orina en las hembras de una especie de sapo africana, el Xenophns loevis, y la de Galli Mainini, usando el sapo macho Bufo Arenarum Hensel de la Argentina, se han hecho sucesivos ensayos para utilizar otros batracios.

  19. Amphibian cross-fertilization and polyspermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, M I; Cabada, M O

    1994-09-01

    A string of oocytes from Bufo arenarum (Ba) was inseminated with spermatozoa from Ba, Leptodactylus chaquensis (Lch), or Bufo paracnemis (Bp). Homologous insemination resulted in monospermic eggs and normal development, while in the case of heterologous fertilization both polyspermy and abnormal development were the rule. Oocytes from Ba inseminated with homologous spermatozoa, when reinseminated 30 sec after the first insemination with heterologous spermatozoa, exhibit a high rate of polyspermy and abnormal development. A lower rate of abnormalities was observed when reinsemination was carried out 60 sec after the first insemination. Normal development and an absence of polyspermy were observed in the case of eggs reinseminated 300 sec after initial insemination. This result indicated that the electrophysiological blockage of fertilization either was not triggered or was ineffective. The establishment of the permanent blockage of polyspermy, either by artificial activation of oocytes or as a result of their incubation with the products of the cortical granules, inhibited penetration of Ba eggs by heterologous sperm.

  20. BUFO PARDALIS (ANURA: BUFONIDAE): MATING CALL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W. Frank Blair. Austin & London: Univ. of. Texas Press. PASSMORE, N. 1.1972. Intergrading between mem- bers of the 'regularis group' of toads in. South Africa. J. Zool., Lond., 167: 143-151. POYNTON, J. c. 1964. The Amphibia 0/ Southern. Africa. Cape Town: Purnell & Sons. TANDY, M. & KI!lTH, R. 1972. 'Bu/o of Africa. In.

  1. Induced Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  2. Influence of nitric oxide on histamine and carbachol – induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to determine the influence of nitric oxide (NO) on the action of histamine and carbachol on acid secretion in the common African toad – Bufo regularis. Gastric acidity was determined by titration method. The acid secretion was determined when nitric oxide was absent following administration of NO synthase ...

  3. A New Indole Alkaloid from the Toad Venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying-Hui; Shen, Bo; Xia, Ming-Yu; Wang, An-Dong; Chen, Yu-Lin; Liu, Dong-Chun; Wang, Dong

    2016-03-16

    A new indole alkaloid named bufobutarginine (1), along with three known bufotenines, namely, serotonin (2), bufotenidine (3), and bufotenine (4), were isolated from the water extract of toad venom. Their structures were elucidated by spectral methods. This is the first time that arginine has been found to be involved in the biosynthesis of bufotenines in parotid of toad. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds have been assayed against A375 and A549 cell lines by the MTT method; however, they showed no cytotoxic activities.

  4. Phalangeal bone anomalies in the European common toad Bufo bufo from polluted environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarski, Mikołaj; Kolenda, Krzysztof; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Sośnicka, Wioletta

    2016-11-01

    Every spring, many of amphibians are killed by motor vehicles on roads. These road-killed animals can be used as valuable material for non-invasive studies showing the effect of environmental pollution on amphibian populations. The aims of our research were to check whether the phalanges of road-killed toads may be useful as material for histological analysis, and whether various degrees of human impact influence the level in bone abnormalities in the common toad. We also examined whether the sex and age structure of toads can differ significantly depending in the different sites. We chose three toad breeding sites where road-killed individuals had been observed: near the centre of a city, the outskirts of a city, and a rural site. We collected dead individuals during spring migration in 2013. The sex of each individual was determined and the toes were used to determine age using the skeletochronology method. While performing age estimates, we looked for abnormalities in relation to normal bone tissue structure. In urban site, females dominate males (sex ratio 2.6:1), but in populations from rural and semi-urban sites, sex ratio was reverse (1:2.2 and 1:1.4, respectively). However, we did not find any significant differences between age structure of all populations (average age of each population: approximately 4 years). We observed abnormalities in more than 80 % of all toads from the city, compared to approximately 20 % from the rural and semi-urban sites. In particular, we found hypertrophic bone cells, misaligned intercellular substance, and irregular outer edges of bones. We suggest that these malformations are caused by different pollution, e.g. with heavy metals.

  5. Immunolocation of mitochondria-rich cells in epidermis of the common toad, Bufo bufo L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spies, Ingrid B.M.

    1997-01-01

    Adult toads, skin, flask-shaped cells, cytoskeleton, keratin expression, immunohistochemistry, differentiation.......Adult toads, skin, flask-shaped cells, cytoskeleton, keratin expression, immunohistochemistry, differentiation....

  6. Properties of a conductive cellular chloride pathway in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Kristensen, P

    1978-01-01

    Two types of chloride current response to a step-wise hyperpolarization of the toad skin is demonstrated: (1) An "instantaneous" response observed immediately upon voltage change, and (2) a subsequent slow response, the time course of which is sigmoidal. The slow response is due to an increase......-state phenomenon: In skins hyperpolarized for a few minutes, the "instantaneous" I-V curves show that the chloride pathway in the conducting state allows a large inward chloride current (outward chloride flux) to pass in the voltage range 40 mV greater than V greater than 0 mV. Calculations based on a three...

  7. Photobleaching correction in fluorescence microscopy images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, Nathalie B; Diaz Zamboni, Javier E; Adur, Javier F; Paravani, Enrique V; Casco, Victor H [Microscopy Laboratory, School of Engineering - Bioengineering, National University of Entre Rios (UNER), Ruta 11, Km 10 (3101), Oro Verde, Entre Rios (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Fluorophores are used to detect molecular expression by highly specific antigen-antibody reactions in fluorescence microscopy techniques. A portion of the fluorophore emits fluorescence when irradiated with electromagnetic waves of particular wavelengths, enabling its detection. Photobleaching irreversibly destroys fluorophores stimulated by radiation within the excitation spectrum, thus eliminating potentially useful information. Since this process may not be completely prevented, techniques have been developed to slow it down or to correct resulting alterations (mainly, the decrease in fluorescent signal). In the present work, the correction by photobleaching curve was studied using E-cadherin (a cell-cell adhesion molecule) expression in Bufo arenarum embryos. Significant improvements were observed when applying this simple, inexpensive and fast technique.

  8. Synergistic Effects of Copper and Butylic Ester of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (Esternon Ultra on Amphibian Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herkovits

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cu2+ and butylic ester of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as Esternon Ultra (2,4-D toxicity on Bufo arenarum embryos were evaluated by means of a short-term chronic toxicity test (AMPHITOX. The NOEC values for Cu and 2,4-D were 0.02 mg/L and 2 mg/L respectively. The toxicity profile curves for Cu and 2,4-D were reported. The interactions of the metal and the herbicide were evaluated by combined treatments with different concentrations of Cu and 2,4-D. Although in all cases, a synergistic effect between these chemicals was observed, the combination of concentrations exerting low level effects in isolated treatments resulted in more adverse embryonic survival. Considering that both products are extensively used in agroecosystems, this fact could be of concern for non target species like amphibians.

  9. Morphological and molecular data to describe a hybrid population of the Common toad (Bufo bufo) and the Spined toad (Bufo spinosus) in western France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo, T.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, J.; Arntzen, J.W.; Martínez-Solano, I.

    2017-01-01

    The use of hyper-variable markers across species is often hindered by low cross-species amplification success, a reduced level of polymorphism or a high frequency of null alleles. However, optimizing sets of reliable and informative markers that can be consistently amplified and scored across taxa

  10. Inducing labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000625.htm Inducing labor To use the sharing features on this page, ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  11. Caracterización morfológica de larvas de anuros del Noroeste argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrezi, Marissa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan caracteres morfológicos en larvas de catorce especies de anuros. Las especies analizadas son Bufo arenarum, B. paracnemis, Leptodadylus chaquensis, L. latinasus, Odontophrynus americanus, O. lavillai, Phrynohyas venulosa, Phyllomedusa sauvagii, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuqui, Pleurodema borellii, P. tucumana, Scinax fuscovaria y S. nasica. Estas especies se desarrollan en charcas temporarias del Noroeste de Argentina. Se caracterizan las larvas de cada especie por el análisis de la morfología externa e interna, caracteres de la cavidad oral, condrocráneo y arcos viscerales. Algunos de estos aspectos morfológicos se discuten con las hipótesis propuestas acerca de larvas generalizadas. We have analyzed morphological characters in tadpoles of fourteen anuran species. The species considered are Bufo arenaum, B. paracnemis, Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. latinasus, Odontopbynus americanus, O.lavillai, Phrynohyas venulosa, Phyllomedusa sauvagii, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuqui, Pleurodema borellii, P. tucumana, Scinax fuscovaria and S. nasica. They develop in similar temporary ponds of Northwestern of Argentina. We characterized the larvae of each species by the analyses on external morphology, internal oral features, chondrocranium and visceral archs. Some of these morphological aspects have been discussed with proposal hypotheses about generalized tadpoles.

  12. La identidad de Bufo missionum Berg, 1896 (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faivovich, Julián

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Habiendo individualizado el ejemplar sobre el que Berg realizó la descripción de B. missionum, ahora es posible discutir su identidad. El ejemplar en cuestión está un poco deshidratado y oscurecido, sin embargo, en el mismo son evidentes varias características propias de B. ictericus Spix, 1824 que lo diferencian de B. rufus, como ser la presencia de cresta supratimpanica y la forma de la cabeza, ancha y triangular. Comparado con un lote de jóvenes de B. ictericus, B. missionum resulta muy similar en tamaño, proporciones y disposición de las manchas dorsales. Todas estas observaciones nos llevan a concluir que B. missionum Berg, 1894 es un sinónimo de B. ictericus Spix, 1824.

  13. Glucose tolerance in Bufo gutturalis (power) after destruction of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on amphibian islet cells, but Nace, Blair & Dass (1965) found that an intracardiac injection of 200 mg alloxan/ kg body mass raised the blood glucose level in Amphiuma and reduced the number of pancreatic fJ-cells. In addi- tion, doses of up to 800 mg alloxan/kg body mass, ad- ministered intra peritoneally , failed to raise ...

  14. Glucose tolerance in the toad Bufo gutturalis (power)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tions in blood glucose levels amongst different species of amphibians (Marvin & Frye 1974). The significance of these variations is difficult to evaluate in view of different experimental conditions and methods of analysis employed by investigators. There is a great disparity in the number of investiga- tions on sugar tolerance ...

  15. The distribution of Bufo poweri in southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-03-13

    Mar 13, 1990 ... BROADLEY, D.G. 1983. FitzSimons' Snakes of Southern. I>frica. Delta Books, Johannesburg, 376pp. DE WAAL, S.W.P. 1978. The Squamata (Reptilia) of the Orange. Free State, South Africa. Mem. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 11: 1-160. DOWUNG, H.G. 1951. A proposed standard system of counting.

  16. Purification of bufadienolides from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor with positively charged C18 column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolong; Guo, Zhimou; Wang, Chaoran; Shen, Aijin; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Xiuli; Zhao, Weijie; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-04-01

    As a kind of promising anticancer compounds, the preparation of bufadienolides is a hot study spot. However, due to the complexity of biological sample, the purification of bufadienolides from a crude sample (toad skin) is a tough work. In this paper, we reported a new way based on positively charged C18 material (XCharge C18) to quickly separate and purify bufadienolides from toad skin. By this method, the different ionic feature of the amino acid conjugated bufadienolides (AACBs) and the free form bufadienolides (AAUBs) was firstly utilized to obtain distinct separation selectivity on the XCharge C18 column. Additionally, the peak tailing problem of AACBs on conventional C18 was resolved and better resolutions were achieved on the XCharge C18, thus, two kinds of bufadienolides on one column were successfully purified respectively. Taking F13 as an example, the method was validated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and then 4 AACBs as well as 4 AAUBs were simultaneously purified by preparative XCharge C18. In addition, the application of this method in other fractions was also validated. The results suggested that the developed method is a practical and promising tool for efficient separation and purification of bufadienolides from toad skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Individual variation in the development of the common toad, Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae): 2. Diagnostic characters of the axial skeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E E; Kruzhkova, Iu I

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of individual variation in diagnostic characters of the axial skeleton has been performed in all offspring (1633 ind.) from the same spawn of one pair of common toads under conditions of laboratory rearing, with natural elimination being reduced to a minimum. More than 50 skeletal anomalies have been recorded. Factual data are presented that characterize deviations from the species norm in the frequency of "background anomalies" (Kovalenko, 2003). Correlations between manifestations of different variants of character states are considered. The problem of norm and anomaly in individual variation is discussed.

  18. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series...... of inhibitors (thiocyanate, furosemide, phloretin, and acetazolamide) also affects chloride exchange diffusion, hyperpolarization current as well as chloride influx during hyperpolarization. Although in some cases, effects on the short circuit current were also observed none of the effects on chloride transport....... On the basis of these findings, and the results reported in the previous paper (Hviid Larsen and Kristensen 1977) it is considered probable that the membrane molecules responsible to chloride exchange diffusion under short circuit conditions, are rearranged under the influence of a hyperpolarizing clamping...

  19. Function and cytology of the normal and autotransplanted pars distalis of the hypophysis in the toad Bufo bufo (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, W.J. van; Barker Jørgensen, C.; Olesen Larsen, Lis; Rosenkilde, Per; Lofts, Brian; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    The functional activity of the pars distalis following heterotopic and homoiotopic autotransplantation has been studied in adult toads of both sexes in the spring, about a month after breeding, and in the autumn on toads with mature gonads. Gonadotropic Function. In males, the homoiotopic

  20. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  1. [Induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S

    1987-09-01

    It is recommended that adopt an Abortion Law in place of its Eugenic Protection Law. At present 560,000 cases of abortion are performed yearly in Japan in spite of the fact that 90% of married couples are practicing birth control. That means that each year 1 out of 50 women at childbearing age (between 15-44 years of age) has an abortion. Induced abortion is illegal in Japan in accordance with Article 29 of the Criminal Law which came into effect in 1881. However, based on the Eugenic Protection Law put into effect in 1948, induced abortions performed by Eugenic Protection Law designated doctors are legal. Since the 1975 Declaration of International Year of Women Projects in 38% of the countries around the world, legalized abortion is available during the 1st trimester. In such countries as England, Sweden, and East Germany a woman's right to abortion is protected by an Abortion Law. Japan should follow their steps. Abortion, however, does leave emotional as well as physical scars on women. More expanded sex education which deals with teenage pregnancy, male/female relationships leading to unwanted pregnancy, morality of sex, contraception, etc., is needed.

  2. Effect of guaianolides in the meiosis reinitiation of amphibian oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Martínez, J; Sánchez-Toranzo, G; Chaín, F; Catalán, C A N; Bühler, M I

    2017-02-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) are a large and structurally diverse group of plant metabolites generally found in the Asteraceae family. STLs exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities and it is generally accepted that their major mechanism of action is the alkylation of the thiol groups of biological molecules. The guaianolides is one of various groups of STLs. Anti-tumour and anti-migraine effects, an allergenic agent, an inhibitor of smooth muscle cells and of meristematic cell proliferation are only a few of the most commonly reported activities of STLs. In amphibians, fully grown ovarian oocytes are arrested at the beginning of meiosis I. Under stimulus with progesterone, this meiotic arrest is released and meiosis progresses to metaphase II, a process known as oocyte maturation. There are previous records of the inhibitory effect of dehydroleucodin (DhL), a guaianolide lactone, on the progression of meiosis. It has been also shown that DhL and its 11,13-dihydroderivative (2H-DhL; a mixture of epimers at C-11) act as blockers of the resumption of meiosis in fully grown ovarian oocytes from the amphibian Rhinella arenarum (formerly classified as Bufo arenarum). The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of four closely related guaianolides, i.e., DhL, achillin, desacetoxymatricarin and estafietin as possible inhibitors of meiosis in oocytes of amphibians in vitro and discuss some structure-activity relationships. It was found that the inhibitory effect on meiosis resumption is greater when the lactone has two potentially reactive centres, either a α,β-α',β'-diunsaturated cyclopentanone moiety or an epoxide group plus an exo-methylene-γ-lactone function.

  3. Thrombocytopenia - drug induced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-induced thrombocytopenia; Immune thrombocytopenia - drug ... Drug-induced thrombocytopenia occurs when certain medicines destroy platelets or interfere with the body's ability to make enough of them. There ...

  4. Extrachromosomal inducible expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, Douwe M; Van Haastert, Peter J M

    2013-01-01

    Inducible expression systems are very convenient for proteins that induce strong side effects such as retardation of growth or development and are essential for the expression of toxic proteins. In this chapter we describe the doxycycline-inducible expression system, optimized for the controlled

  5. Cavitation-resistant inducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Charlton; Subbaraman, Maria R.

    1989-01-01

    An improvement in an inducer for a pump wherein the inducer includes a hub, a plurality of radially extending substantially helical blades and a wall member extending about and encompassing an outer periphery of the blades. The improvement comprises forming adjacent pairs of blades and the hub to provide a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow area which cross-sectional flow area decreases from the inlet end of the inducer to a discharge end of the inducer, resulting in increased inducer efficiency improved suction performance, reduced susceptibility to cavitation, reduced susceptibility to hub separation and reduced fabrication costs.

  6. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  7. Drug induced aseptic meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-09-29

    Sep 29, 2013 ... Drug induced aseptic meningitis can mimic an infectious process as well as meningitis secondary to systemic disorders for which treatment of these drugs were used. 6,9,10. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis may develop in a pa- tient who initially was able to tolerate the causative drug. The patients in our ...

  8. Diet induced thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  9. Bleomycin-induced pneumonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sleijfer (Stefan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe cytotoxic agent bleomycin is feared for its induction of sometimes fatal pulmonary toxicity, also known as bleomycin-induced pneumonitis (BIP). The central event in the development of BIP is endothelial damage of the lung vasculature due to bleomycin-induced

  10. Diet induced thermogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. METHODS: Measuring

  11. Induced affine inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azri, Hemza; Demir, Durmuş

    2018-02-01

    Induced gravity, metrical gravity in which gravitational constant arises from vacuum expectation value of a heavy scalar, is known to suffer from Jordan frame vs Einstein frame ambiguity, especially in inflationary dynamics. Induced gravity in affine geometry, as we show here, leads to an emergent metric and gravity scale, with no Einstein-Jordan ambiguity. While gravity is induced by the vacuum expectation value of the scalar field, nonzero vacuum energy facilitates generation of the metric. Our analysis shows that induced gravity results in a relatively large tensor-to-scalar ratio in both metrical and affine gravity setups. However, the fact remains that the induced affine gravity provides an ambiguity-free framework.

  12. Reacción de Galli Mainini para el diagnóstico precoz del embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Angel Mejía

    1949-11-01

    el diagnóstico precoz del embarazo, se deriva del conjunto de trabajos realizados por Houssay y su escuela, quienes desde el año de 1922 venían trabajando en forma intensa e ininterrumpida, sobre anatomía histología y fisiología gonadales, observando las relaciones entre éstas y las gonadotrofinas en diversos batracios. En el año de 1929 hallaron la liberación de los espermatozoides en el testículo del Bufo arenarum Hensel, por la estimulación de las gonadotrofinas hipofisiarias y aunque numerosos trabajos se publicaron al respecto en los años posteriores, sólo en marzo de 1947 Carlos Galli Mainini publicó su primer trabajo, realizado sobre 19 casos, marcando el primer eslabón en esta reacción que ha sustituído a cuantas se han aplicado para el diagnóstico precoz del embarazo, por su exactitud y rapidez.

  13. [Anuran fauna from Salta city, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Rebeca; Mesones, Rosa Vera; Núñez, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    The loss and transformation of habitat by anthropogenic activities is one of the main causes of biodiversity decrease. Amphibians are declining all over the world and one of the causes of this decline is thought to be habitat reduction. However, there are anuran populations in highly disturbed habitats, like cities. This study presents the ecological baseline needed to understand anuran communities in urban environments, for Salta City. Argentina (ca. 502,000 inhabitants). The sample was stratified by environments defined by infrastructure and geographic location. The species were identified by visual encounter techniques and by auditory transect during the 2002-2003 reproductive period. Three families, seven genera and twelve species were recorded and the species richness decreased from city border to center. Similarity index values among geographic areas was higher East-West (94.7) than South-West (33.3). Bufo arenarum was the only species recorded in all environments. Hyla andina and Odontophrynus americanus had a restricted distribution and are here considered vulnerable. The border effect can explain some distribution pattern in these populations. A map of the potential distribution of recorded species for Salta is provided.

  14. Amniotomy to induce labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busowski, J D; Parsons, M T

    1995-06-01

    Amniotomy to induce labor is used frequently. The potential risks compared with potential benefits of artificial rupture of membranes have caused the popularity of amniotomy to vary in the last two centuries. Although there are little data available from prospective randomized studies regarding the effectiveness of amniotomy alone to induce labor, several series have showed success in its use. In addition, no well-accepted, prospectively randomized study is available comparing the effectiveness of amniotomy to oxytocin for induction of labor. The most effective combination of amniotomy with uterotonic agents to induce labor is still a fertile area for investigation.

  15. [Early stages of development of Trypanosoma rotatorium (Mayer, 1843) from peripheral blood and internal organs of Anurans Bufo bufo (Linnaeus) and Rana sp. (Anura)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysheva, M N

    2014-01-01

    The data on the fauna of trypanosomes of Anura of the Leningrad Province are given. The initial development stages of Trypanosoma rotatorium in peripheral blood and internal organs of the frog are described for the first time.

  16. [Individual variation in the development of the common toad, Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae): I. Timing of development and anomalies of external structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E E; Kruzhkova, Iu I

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of development have been analyzed in all offspring (1633 ind.) from the same spawn of one pair of common toads under conditions of laboratory rearing, with natural elimination being reduced to a minimum. The results show that the range of developmental options for the species is much wider than it follows from the standard tables of development. "Background anomalies" (Kovalenko, 2003) in the external structure of developing larvae are described and their probable frequencies under nearly optimal conditions are indicated.

  17. [Individual variation in the development of the common toad, Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae): 3. Limitations of individual variation and their causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E E; Kruzhkova, Iu I

    2013-01-01

    The results of studies on the axial skeleton of the common toad (a model species) have been used to analyze factual limitations of individual variations. The results show that the states of the studied characters do not freely combine with each other but are subject to certain morphogenetic limitations. The causes of most these limitations have been revealed during the study. Classification of the main factors limiting individual variation in the course of development is presented.

  18. OnderhoudsPad : beheer en onderhoud van mitigerende maatregelen voor de gewone pad (Bufo bufo) aan de Horalaan en in het Horapark in de gemeente Ede

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottburg, F.G.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Voor de herontwikkeling van het voormalige bedrijventerrein ENKA tot een nieuwbouwlocatie hebben Grondbank Bennekomseweg Ede CV en de gemeente Ede mitigerende- en compenserende maatregelen genomen voor de aanwezige paddenpopulatie. Zo zijn er paddentunnels, paddenschermen en paddenpoelen aangelegd

  19. K+ transport in the mesonephric collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo : microelectrode recordings from isolated and perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2002-01-01

    V, respectively (N=11; 11). This conductance could also be inhibited by Ba(2+), which depolarized a V(bl) of -71+/-5 mV by 9+/-3 mV (N=5). The pump inhibitor ouabain (1 mmol l(-1)) depolarized V(bl), but addition of furosemide to bath solution did not affect V(bl). The [K(+)] in urine varied from 1.3 to 22.8 mmol...

  20. Injection-induced earthquakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-01-01

    ...s. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids...

  1. Beam induced RF heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Berrig, O; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Bregliozzi, G; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Garlasche, M; Gentini, L; Goddard, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Kononenko, O; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Muller, J E; Nosych, A A; Nougaret, J L; Persichelli, S; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    After the 2011 run, actions were put in place during the 2011/2012 winter stop to limit beam induced radio frequency (RF) heating of LHC components. However, some components could not be changed during this short stop and continued to represent a limitation throughout 2012. In addition, the stored beam intensity increased in 2012 and the temperature of certain components became critical. In this contribution, the beam induced heating limitations for 2012 and the expected beam induced heating limitations for the restart after the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) will be compiled. The expected consequences of running with 25 ns or 50 ns bunch spacing will be detailed, as well as the consequences of running with shorter bunch length. Finally, actions on hardware or beam parameters to monitor and mitigate the impact of beam induced heating to LHC operation after LS1 will be discussed.

  2. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000036.htm Exercise-induced asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... such as running, basketball, or soccer. Use Your Asthma Medicine Before you Exercise Take your short-acting, ...

  3. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-pro/resources/lung/naci/discover/action-plans.htm. Accessed Sept. 12, 2014. Mickleborough TD, et al. Exercise-induced asthma: Nutritional management. Current ...

  4. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Daanen, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cold-induced metabolism. van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Daanen HA. Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering

  5. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.; Daanen, Hein A M

    Purpose of review: Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic

  6. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat and depigmented, but maintains the ...

  7. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, W. van Marken; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic

  8. Terahertz Induced Electromigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    We report the first observation of THz-field-induced electromigration in subwavelength metallic gap structures after exposure to intense single-cycle, sub-picosecond electric field transients of amplitude up to 400 kV/cm....

  9. Terahertz Induced Electromigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    We report the first observation of THz-field-induced electromigration in subwavelength metallic gap structures after exposure to intense single-cycle, sub-picosecond electric field transients of amplitude up to 400 kV/cm....

  10. Terahertz field induced electromigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    We report the first observation of THz-field-induced electromigration in sub-wavelength metallic gap structures after exposure to intense single-cycle, sub-picosecond electric field transients of amplitude up to 400 kV/cm....

  11. Trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancha, Elizabeth D; Gonzalez, Luis S

    2014-08-01

    Coagulopathy is the inability of blood to coagulate normally; in trauma patients, it is a multifactorial and complex process. Seriously injured trauma patients experience coagulopathies during the acute injury phase. Risk factors for trauma-induced coagulopathy include hypothermia, metabolic acidosis, hypoperfusion, hemodilution, and fluid replacement. In addition to the coagulopathy induced by trauma, many patients may also be taking medications that interfere with hemostasis. Therefore, medication-induced coagulopathy also is a concern. Traditional laboratory-based methods of assessing coagulation are being supported or even replaced by point-of-care tests. The evidence-based management of trauma-induced coagulopathy should address hypothermia, fluid resuscitation, blood components administration, and, if needed, medications to reverse identified coagulation disorders. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  12. Contrast-induced nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. García Hernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced nephropathy is an important complication associated with the use of contrast media. Favoring factors for the development of contrast-induced nephronpathy have been widely described, being diabetes mellitus and previous renal disease the greatest risk. The pathophysiology is a complex process where the medullary hypoxia represents the trigger element. Previous hydration and the use of low osmolality contrast are the most recommended measures to prevent its development.

  13. Diet induced thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Westerterp KR

    2004-01-01

    Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Resu...

  14. [Exercise-induced anaphylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylon, K; Hompes, S; Worm, M

    2013-02-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis is a mast cell dependent reaction, which is induced by allergen exposure in combination with physical activity. Typically, the reaction occurs within 2 hours after allergen exposure followed by physical activity. Not only food allergens but all kinds of allergens including drugs can induce this form of anaphylaxis. The clinical symptoms of exercise-induced anaphylaxis are the same as in any other type of anaphylaxis. Thus not only the skin and mucosa but also other organ systems like the lungs, cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract can be affected. The diagnostic work up should cover a detailed clinical history including the assessment of symptoms and possible trigger factors including suspected allergens. Besides classical allergy diagnostics like skin prick tests and specific IgE determination, tryptase should be measured for the differential diagnosis to exclude mast cell dependent diseases. The diagnosis of exercise-induced anaphylaxis is made by the means of a double-blind placebo-controlled provocation test. Both, a sufficient amount of allergen and of physical activity must be achieved for a valid test. After the diagnosis is made, patients should be extensively counseled and provided with an emergency kit including an epinephrine auto injector.

  15. Induced plant resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašić Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved different strategies to protect themselves against pathogen infections. These strategies are classified as either passive or active, depending on whether they are constitutive barriers or triggered upon pathogen attack. Induced plant resistance is a type of active resistance and is defined as a state of enhanced defensive capacity developed by a plant when appropriately stimulated by biological agents or environmental stress. Different types of induced resistance have been defined based on differences in signaling pathways and spectra of effectiveness. First type is Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR which occurs in plants following activation of defense mechanisms triggered by contact with a plant pathogenic or feeding agent. SAR requires accumulation of signal molecule salicylic acid and is associated with the induction of pathogenesis-related (PR proteins. In contrast, second type - Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR is induced by selected strains of non-pathogenic plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR and regulated by jasmonic acid and ethylene. Both SAR and ISR require the function of the regulatory protein NPR1. In addition to biological agents, some chemical compounds can induce resistance of plants as well. Great progress has been made in recent years in understanding the physiological and biochemical basis of SAR and ISR, which led to their commercial use in plant protection.

  16. [Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogazzi, Fausto; Tomisti, Luca; Di Bello, Vitantonio; Martino, Enio

    2017-03-01

    Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction occurs in about 15-20% of patients under amiodarone therapy. Amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism (AIH) can develop in patients with an apparently normal thyroid gland or in those with an underlying chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. On a clinical ground, AIH is not challenging and can be easily treated with L-thyroxine therapy. Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) can occur in patients with (AIT 1) or without (AIT 2) an underlying thyroid disease. AIT 1 is a true iodine-induced hyperthyroidism occurring in patients with an underlying thyroid autonomy while AIT 2 is a drug-induced destructive thyroiditis. According to the different pathogenetic mechanism, AIT 2 is treated with glucocorticoids while AIT 1 usually responds to thionamides. Thyroidectomy should be considered when AIT represents an imminent risk for cardiac conditions, when patients require a prompt resolution of thyrotoxicosis or when they do not respond to the medical therapy. An effective collaboration between cardiologists and endocrinologists is crucial in each part of the management of AIT patients, including the evaluation of cardiological conditions with regard to thyroid hormone excess and whether, or not, it is necessary to continue amiodarone therapy.

  17. Stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Torrey A; Lee, Vivien H; Bleck, Thomas P

    2015-03-01

    Reversible stress-induced cardiac dysfunction is frequently seen as a complication of a multitude of acute stress states, in particular neurologic injuries. This dysfunction may be difficult to distinguish between that caused by myocardial ischemia and may impact both the treatment strategies and prognosis of the underlying condition. Critical care practitioners should have an understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, precipitating conditions, differential diagnosis, and proposed treatments for stress-induced cardiomyopathy. MEDLINE database search conducted from inception to August 2014, including the search terms "tako-tsubo," "stress-induced cardiomyopathy," "neurogenic cardiomyopathy," "neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy," and "transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome". In addition, references from pertinent articles were used for a secondary search. After review of peer-reviewed original scientific articles, guidelines, and reviews resulting from the literature search described above, we made final selections for included references and data based on relevance and author consensus. Stress-induced cardiomyopathy occurs most commonly in postmenopausal women. It can be precipitated by emotional stress, neurologic injury, and numerous other stress states. Patients may present with symptoms indistinguishable from acute coronary syndrome or with electrocardiogram changes and wall motion abnormalities on echocardiogram following neurologic injury. Nearly all patients will have an elevated cardiac troponin. The underlying etiology is likely related to release of catecholamines, both locally in the myocardium and in the circulation. Differential diagnosis includes myocardial infarction, myocarditis, neurogenic pulmonary edema, and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Although the natural course of stress-induced cardiomyopathy is resolution, treatment strategies include sympathetic blockade and supportive care. Stress-induced

  18. Food-induced anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferoni, Antonella; Muraro, Antonella

    2012-02-01

    Food-induced anaphylaxis (FIA) is a serious allergic reaction that may cause death rapidly in otherwise healthy individuals. There is no universal agreement on its definition or criteria for diagnosis. Hospital admissions for FIA have more than doubled in the last decade. Food is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis, with most surveys indicating that food-induced reactions account for 30% to 50% of cases. The most commonly implicated foods are peanut, tree nuts, milk, eggs, sesame seeds, fish, and shellfish. The only life-saving treatment for anaphylaxis is allergen avoidance, and epinephrine injection if an anaphylactic event occurs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Airbag induced corneal ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearza, Ali A; Koufaki, Fedra N; Aslanides, Ioannis M

    2008-02-01

    To report a case of airbag induced corneal ectasia. Case report. A patient 3 years post-LASIK developed bilateral corneal ectasia worse in the right eye following airbag deployment in a road traffic accident. At last follow up, best corrected vision was 20/40 with -4.00/-4.00 x 25 in the right eye and 20/25 with -1.25/-0.50 x 135 in the left eye. This is a rare presentation of trauma induced ectasia in a patient post-LASIK. It is possible that reduction in biomechanical integrity of the cornea from prior refractive surgery contributed to this presentation.

  20. Rosuvastatin-induced pemphigoid.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murad, Aizuri A

    2012-01-01

    Statins are widely prescribed medications and very well tolerated. Rosuvastatin is another member of this drug used to treat dyslipidaemia. It is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Immunobullous disease is usually idiopathic but can be drug-induced. Both idiopathic and iatrogenic forms share common clinical and immunohistological features. The authors report a case of pemphigoid induced by rosuvastatin, a commonly prescribed medication. To our knowledge, there is limited report on rosuvastatin associated with pemphigoid in the literature.

  1. Induced Norm Control Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, Eric Bengt

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the basic nature of the InducedNorm Control Toolbox (INCT). The toolbox is a set of Matlab-filesusing LMITOOL and the Semidefinite Programming package(SP). Thetoolbox is public domain. The INCT provides a series of analysisand synthesis tools for continuous time-invariant lin......This paper describes the basic nature of the InducedNorm Control Toolbox (INCT). The toolbox is a set of Matlab-filesusing LMITOOL and the Semidefinite Programming package(SP). Thetoolbox is public domain. The INCT provides a series of analysisand synthesis tools for continuous time...

  2. Tumor-induced osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan de Beur, Suzanne M

    2005-09-14

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic form of renal phosphate wasting that results in severe hypophosphatemia, a defect in vitamin D metabolism, and osteomalacia. This debilitating disorder is illustrated by the clinical presentation of a 55-year-old woman with progressive fatigue, weakness, and muscle and bone pain with fractures. After a protracted clinical course and extensive laboratory evaluation, tumor-induced osteomalacia was identified as the basis of her clinical presentation. In this article, the distinctive clinical characteristics of this syndrome, the advances in diagnosis of TIO, and new insights into the pathophysiology of this disorder are discussed.

  3. Pyrazinamide induced thrombocytopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya; Verma, Sanjay Kumar; Gupta, Vaibhav; Anand, Sunish C.; Prasad, Rajendra

    2010-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of certain antitubercular drugs and is characterized by rapid destruction of platelets whenever offending drug is taken by a susceptible person. We report a case of pyrazinamide-induced thrombocytopenia in a patient receiving anti tubercular drugs. PMID:20711377

  4. Calotropis procera -induced keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Nidhi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera produces copious amounts of latex, which has been shown to possess several pharmacological properities. Its local application produces intense inflammatory response. In the 10 cases of Calotropis procera -induced keratitis reported here, the clinical picture showed corneal edema with striate keratopathy without any evidence of intraocular inflammation. The inflammation was reversed by the local application of steroid drops.

  5. Bowthruster-induced damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokking, L.A.; Janssen, P.C.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    The stability of stones in propeller-induced jet wash is still difficult to predict. Especially the trend of bowthrusters increasing in size and power in sea going ships (especially ferries) over the last years may be a reason for concern when dealing with the protection of slopes and beds. But also

  6. Inducible laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvorsen, Thomas; Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Bucca, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Inducible laryngeal obstruction (ILO) describes an inappropriate, transient, reversible narrowing of the larynx in response to external triggers. ILO is an important cause of a variety of respiratory symptoms and can mimic asthma. Current understanding of ILO has been hampered by imprecise nomenc...

  7. Calotropis procera -induced keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nidhi; Chandrakar, A K; Garg, M L; Patel, Santosh Singh

    2009-01-01

    Calotropis procera produces copious amounts of latex, which has been shown to possess several pharmacological properities. Its local application produces intense inflammatory response. In the 10 cases of Calotropis procera -induced keratitis reported here, the clinical picture showed corneal edema with striate keratopathy without any evidence of intraocular inflammation. The inflammation was reversed by the local application of steroid drops.

  8. Sirolimus-induced lymphoedema

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kidney transplant for end-stage renal disease secondary to type 1 diabetes mellitus. Before the transplant, he had ... lymphatic obstruction, the patient was diagnosed with sirolimus- induced lymphoedema. Initially the ... improvement in the lymphoedema with physiotherapy and cone compression bandaging. Discussion.

  9. Mild induced hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria Egede; Jensen, Jens Ulrik Stæhr; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    trial; The Cooling And Surviving Septic shock (CASS) study. Patients suffering severe sepsis/septic shock are allocated to either mild induced hypothermia (cooling to 32-34°C for 24hours) or control (uncontrolled temperature). TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01455116. Thrombelastography (TEG) is performed three...

  10. XTC-induced hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oranje, W.A.; van Pol, V.; van der Wurff, A.A.; Zeijen, R.N.; Stockbrügger, R.W.; Arends, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    XTC-induced hepatitis. Oranje WA, von Pol P, vd Wurff A, Zeijen RN, Stockbrugger RW, Arends JW. Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Maastricht, Netherlands. An increasing number of severe complications associated with the use of XTC is being reported. After 11 earlier case reports

  11. Induced Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses, classically and quantum mechanically, the angular momentum induced in the bound motion of an electron by an external magnetic field. Calculates the current density and its magnetic moment, and then uses two methods to solve the first-order perturbation theory equation for the required eigenfunction. (Author/GA)

  12. Hyperthermia-induced apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, E.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes a number of studies that investigated several aspects of heat-induced apoptosis in human lymphoid malignancies. Cells harbour both pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and the balance between these proteins determines whether a cell is susceptible to undergo apoptosis. In this

  13. Drug-induced uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A number of medications have been associated with uveitis. This review highlights both well-established and recently reported systemic, topical, intraocular, and vaccine-associated causes of drug-induced uveitis, and assigns a quantitative score to each medication based upon criteria originally described by Naranjo and associates. PMID:23522744

  14. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... January 2014 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Can Kids and Teens With Asthma Play Sports? Asthma Center When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma Kids and Exercise Asthma Triggers Word! Exercise-Induced Asthma ...

  15. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it…

  16. Understanding induced seismicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsworth, Derek; Spiers, Christopher J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829323; Niemeijer, Andre R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370832132

    2016-01-01

    Fluid injection–induced seismicity has become increasingly widespread in oil- and gas-producing areas of the United States (1–3) and western Canada. It has shelved deep geothermal energy projects in Switzerland and the United States (4), and its effects are especially acute in Oklahoma, where

  17. Advertising-Induced Embarrassment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puntoni, S.; Hooge, de I.E.; Verbeke, W.J.M.I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consumer embarrassment is a concern for many advertisers. Yet little is known about ad-induced embarrassment. The authors investigate when and why consumers experience embarrassment as a result of exposure to socially sensitive advertisements. The theory distinguishes between viewing

  18. Plume-induced subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerya, T.; Stern, R. J.; Baes, M.; Sobolev, S. V.; Whattam, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Dominant present-day subduction initiation mechanisms require acting plate forces and/or pre-existing zones of lithospheric weakness, which are themselves consequences of plate tectonics. In contrast, recently discovered plume-induced subduction initiation could have started the first subduction zone without pre-existing plate tectonics. Here, we investigate this new mechanism with high-resolution 3D numerical thermomechanical modeling experiments. We show that typical plume-induced subduction dynamics is subdivided into five different stages: (1) oceanic plateau formation by arrival of a mantle plume head; (2) formation of an incipient trench and a descending nearly-circular slab at the plateau margins; (3) tearing of the circular slab; (4) formation of several self-sustained retreating subduction zones and (5) cooling and spreading of the new lithosphere formed between the retreating subduction zones. At the final stage of plume-induced subduction initiation, a mosaic of independently moving, growing and cooling small oceanic plates heading toward individual retreating subduction zones forms. The plates are separated by spreading centers, triple junctions and transform faults and thus the newly formed multi-slab subduction system operates as an embryonic plate tectonic cell. We demonstrate that three key physical factors combine to trigger self-sustained plume-induced subduction: (1) old negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere; (2) intense weakening of the lithosphere by plume-derived magmas; and (3) lubrication of the forming subduction interface by hydrated oceanic crust. We furthermore discuss that plume-induced subduction, which is rare at present day conditions, may have been common in the Precambrian time and likely started global plate tectonics on Earth.

  19. Uterine contraction induced by Tanzanian plants used to induce abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Tine; Nielsen, Frank; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect.......Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect....

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alada, ARA. Vol 20, No 1 (2005) - Articles Influence of nitric oxide on histamine and carbachol – induced gastric acid secretion in the common African toad – Bufo regularis. Abstract PDF · Vol 24, No 1 (2009) - Articles Effects Of Caffeine And Ethanolic Extract Of Kolanut On Glucose Uptake In The Canine Hindlimb At Rest ...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salahdeen, HM. Vol 20, No 1 (2005) - Articles Influence of nitric oxide on histamine and carbachol – induced gastric acid secretion in the common African toad – Bufo regularis. Abstract PDF · Vol 24, No 1 (2009) - Articles Effects Of Caffeine And Ethanolic Extract Of Kolanut On Glucose Uptake In The Canine Hindlimb At ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Idolor, GO. Vol 20, No 1 (2005) - Articles Influence of nitric oxide on histamine and carbachol – induced gastric acid secretion in the common African toad – Bufo regularis. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0794-859X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  3. Hypoxia-Inducible Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Gerecht, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen is vital for the existence of all multicellular organisms, acting as a signaling molecule regulating cellular activities. Specifically, hypoxia, which occurs when the partial pressure of oxygen falls below 5%, plays a pivotal role during development, regeneration, and cancer. Here we report a novel hypoxia-inducible (HI) hydrogel composed of gelatin and ferulic acid that can form hydrogel networks via oxygen consumption in a laccase-mediated reaction. Oxygen levels and gradients within the hydrogels can be accurately controlled and precisely predicted. We demonstrate that HI hydrogels guide vascular morphogenesis in vitro via hypoxia-inducible factors activation of matrix metalloproteinases and promote rapid neovascularization from the host tissue during subcutaneous wound healing. The HI hydrogel is a new class of biomaterials that may prove useful in many applications, ranging from fundamental studies of developmental, regenerative and disease processes through the engineering of healthy and diseased tissue models towards the treatment of hypoxia-regulated disorders. PMID:24909742

  4. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Andersen, M; Hansen, P B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical picture and the course of thrombocytopenia induced by non-cytotoxic drugs, and to evaluate a possible therapeutic effect of corticosteroids. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 309 well-documented cases of drug-induced thrombocytopenia was performed. Data sources...... were reports from the files of the Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions and discharge summaries. RESULTS: The median length of exposure to the offending drug, before development of thrombocytopenia, was 21 days. The median nadir platelet count was 11 x 10(9).l-1, and 74% of the patients had...... treatment was corticosteroids, which were administered in 53% of the cases. No difference in recovery between corticosteroid-treated and untreated patients was observed. No other clinical parameter affected the recovery rate. The mortality rate due to haemorrhage was 3.6%. CONCLUSION: Thrombocytopenia...

  5. Topiramate Induced Excessive Sialorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersel Dag

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that drugs such as clozapine and lithium can cause sialorrhea. On the other hand, topiramate has not been reported to induce sialorrhea. We report a case of a patient aged 26 who was given antiepileptic and antipsychotic drugs due to severe mental retardation and intractable epilepsy and developed excessive sialorrhea complaint after the addition of topiramate for the control of seizures. His complaints continued for 1,5 years and ended after giving up topiramate. We presented this case since it was a rare sialorrhea case induced by topiramate. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of sialorrhea development which causes serious hygiene and social problems when they want to give topiramate to the patients using multiple drugs.

  6. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...... polarization response when compared to traditional integral chargeability inversion. The quality of the inversion results has been assessed by a complete uncertainty analysis of the model parameters; furthermore, borehole information confirm the outcomes of the field interpretations. With this new accurate...

  7. Cocaine-Induced Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Berman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of cocaine continues to grow worldwide. One of the possible side-effects of cocaine is vasculitis. Two distinct vasculitic syndromes have been described due to cocaine. One is cocaine-induced midline destructive lesion, secondary to a direct vasoconstrictor effect of cocaine, inducing ischemic necrosis of the septal cartilage and perforation of the nasal septum, mimicking findings of granulomatosis with polyangiitis in the upper airways. The other is ANCA-associated vasculitis, attributed to the levamisole component that contaminates about 70% of the cocaine. This type of vasculitis may be myeloperoxidase (MPO and proteinase 3 (PR3 positive, and its main manifestations are typical cutaneous findings, arthralgia, otolaryngologic involvement, and agranulocytosis. A high degree of suspicion and awareness is needed in order properly to diagnose and treat these patients.

  8. Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, S; Biesheuvel, P M; Bercovici, M

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, which leads to rapid and significant deionization of ionic species from a volume which is on the scale of the particle. We show by theory and experiment that the transient response around a cylindrical particle results in spatially non-uniform charging and non-steady growth of depletion regions which emerge around the particle's poles. Potentially, ICCDI can be useful in applications where fast concentration changes of ionic species are required over large volumes.

  9. Chemotherapeutic drug induced pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.; Brugger, E.

    1981-09-01

    A series of chemotherapeutic drugs is known to induce interstitial lung disease of letal outcome. Diffuse fibrosing interstitial pneumonias are more frequently observed due to Busulfan, Bleomycin, BCNU or Methotrexat therapy. As well literature as our own investigations demonstrate low sensitivity of X-ray controlls in diagnosing beginning changes. Lung function tests including diffusion capacity analysis are more practicable to recognize early phases of disease. Nevertheless, clinical practice shows patients being moust sensitive in decovering beginning decreases of lung function. Exercise induced dyspnea, raw cough and often fever, dyspnea at rest and finally pulmonary insufficiency will be the climax of symptoms. All patients treated with Busulfan, Bleomycin, BCNU and probably Methotrexat should regulary be controlled by lung function analysis.

  10. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 1999 guidelines on contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the definition of CIN, the choice of contrast medium, the prophylactic...... measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  11. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 1999 guidelines on contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the definition of CIN, the choice of contrast medium, the prophylactic...... measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR = 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  12. Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhesi, Sumandeep; Chu, Michael P.; Blevins, Gregg; Paterson, Ian; Larratt, Loree; Oudit, Gavin Y.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide is increasingly used to treat various types of cancers and autoimmune conditions. Higher doses of this drug may produce significant cardiac toxicity, including fatal hemorrhagic myocarditis. In this review, we present a case of cyclophosphamide-induced cardiomyopathy requiring mechanical circulatory support. We also describe the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and risk factors for this important clinical entity and propose early detection and management strategies. PMID:26425570

  13. Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumandeep Dhesi MD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide is increasingly used to treat various types of cancers and autoimmune conditions. Higher doses of this drug may produce significant cardiac toxicity, including fatal hemorrhagic myocarditis. In this review, we present a case of cyclophosphamide-induced cardiomyopathy requiring mechanical circulatory support. We also describe the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and risk factors for this important clinical entity and propose early detection and management strategies.

  14. OXYTOCIN INDUCED NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most common causes of health problems, observed in 60% of term and 80% of preterm infants in the first week of life . Hyperbilirubinemia leads to neurotoxicity in severe condition. Some studies suggests that liberal use of oxytocin for inducing labour is one of the factor which lead to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of oxytocin and neonatal bilirubin levels with spontaneous vaginal delivery . MATERIALS AND METHOD S : 100 full term parturients were selected for this study. The subjects were divided into two groups. 50 healthy babies of women who had oxytocin induced labour and 50 healthy babies of women with normal vaginal delivery following spontaneous onset of labour formed the control group. Neon atal serum bilirubin was measured on day 1, 3 and 5 after delivery. Bilirubin was measured by spectrophotometry. Data was analysed in ms excel sheet using spss 19.0v. Statistical analysis was done by using unpaired‘t’ test. RESULTS: There was significant i ncrease in bilirubin level in oxytocin induced group compared to control group on day 1 and 3. There was insignificant increase in bilirubin level in oxytocin induced group on day 5. However the level of serum bilirubin is within normal limits as bilirubin level normally rises on till 4 th day and decreases thereafter. CONCLUSION: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia may be due to oxytocin administration by continues IV infusion which results in erythrocyte swell and rupture. Increase in bilirubin level in oxytocin i nduced group is within physiological limits

  15. Polarization induced doped transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  16. Inducement Prizes and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Brunt, Liam; Lerner, Josh; Nicholas, Tom

    2008-01-01

    We examine prizes as an inducement for innovation using a novel dataset of awards for inventiveness offered by the Royal Agricultural Society of England from 1839 to 1939. At annual shows the RASE held competitive trials and awarded medals and monetary prizes (exceeding one million pounds in current prices) to spur technological development. We find large effects of the prizes on contest entries, especially for the Society’s gold medal. Matching award and patent data, we also detect large eff...

  17. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    OpenAIRE

    Dai Jin Kim; Sungwon Roh; Hamin Lee

    2009-01-01

    For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS). However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory ...

  18. Nivolumab induced myxedema crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Uqba; Rizvi, Humaira; Sano, Dahlia; Chiu, Jane; Hadid, Tarik

    2017-01-01

    Background Nivolumab is an anti-programmed cell death (anti-PD-1) monoclonal antibody that is approved by Food and Drug Administration for treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, metastatic melanoma, relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma and advanced renal cell cancer. We report a rare case of myxedema crisis induced by nivolumab in a patient with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of lung. Case presentation Fifty three-year old woman with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma currently on treat...

  19. Amitriptyline induced cervical dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand B Hiremath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, such as amitriptyline, have many side effects. But extrapyramidal tract symptom is an uncommon side effect of these drugs. Here, we report a case of a 28-year-old male who is suffering from amitriptyline induced cervical dystonia. Though rare, this side effect is an uncomfortable condition and may influence drug compliance. So clinicians should be aware of this side effect while treating a patient with amitriptyline.

  20. [Ceftriaxone-induced cholelithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccherini, M; Borlini, G; Branchi, M; Barbonetti, C; Moretti, P; Bonora, G

    1998-01-01

    The formation of biliary sludge and cholelithiasis after ceftriaxone administration is not uncommon. Prompt resolution of sludge has been demonstrated with discontinuation of the drug. Despite this, cholecystectomy has been performed in symptomatic patients. Ceftriaxone is popular drug in pediatrics, but the complication is not widely appreciated in the gastroenterology and surgical literature. For this adverse effect and for cost ceftriaxone should be used with more caution. We describe two cases of children with ceftriaxone induced cholelithiasis.

  1. Glucocorticoid-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Julie E; Geller, David S

    2012-07-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced hypertension is a common clinical problem that is poorly understood, thus rendering treatment strategies sub-optimal. This form of hypertension has been commonly thought to be mediated by excess sodium and water reabsorption by the renal mineralocorticoid receptor. However, experimental and clinical data in both humans and animal models suggest important roles for the glucocorticoid receptor as well, in both the pathogenesis and maintenance of this hypertension. The glucocorticoid receptor is widely expressed in a number of organ systems relevant to blood pressure regulation, including the kidney, the brain and the vasculature. In vitro studies in isolated kidney tissues as well as in vascular smooth muscle and vascular endothelial cells have attempted to elucidate the molecular physiology of glucocorticoid-induced hypertension, but have generally been limited by the inability to study signaling pathways in an intact organism. More recently, the power of mouse genetics has been employed to examine the tissue-specific contributions of vascular and extra-vascular tissues to this form of hypertension. Here we review recent developments in our understanding of the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced hypertension.

  2. [Postoperative induced astigmatism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicula, C; Nicula, D

    2000-01-01

    Is to evaluate the astigmatism induced by cataract surgery, ethiological factors and ways of prophilaxies and treatment. We followed a number of 211 eyes operated for cataract by planned extracapsular extraction with intraocular lens implantation, in Ophthalmological Clinic from Cluj-Napoca. All the pacients had limbal incision and the suture was performed with 9.0 suture, after the operation the treatment consisted in local drops with steroids. REZULTS: The astigmatism induced by the surgery was direct in 53.08% of cases and indirect in 46.92%. The position of the axes was 0-900 in 72.51% and oblique in 27.48%. The optical correction of astigmatism was with combined spherocylinder glases in 57.34% and only with cilinder in 42.65% of cases. 1. The induced astigmatism by cataract surgery is in relation with the incision, suture and IOL. 2. Correction of astigmatism is possible with optical correction, repearing the suture or with refractive surgery. 3. The prevention of astigmatism over 1.5 D is by using Troutmann keratometer and to evidence the congenital astigmatism.

  3. Olanzapine-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebraugh, C J; Flockhart, D A; Yasuda, S U; Woosley, R L

    2001-09-01

    To report a possible case of olanzapine-induced rhabdomyolysis with concomitant lithium-induced pseudo-infarction electrocardiogram changes. A 13-year-old white boy was admitted to the hospital with profound weakness and electrocardiogram (EGG) changes suggestive of myocardial damage after starting olanzapine and lithium. An adverse medication effect was not considered at the time of the patient's admission. The time course of onset of weakness was coincident with administration of olanzapine. ECG abnormalities are a known manifestation of lithium therapy This is a case description of olanzapine-induced rhabdomyolysis. Although other antipsychotic agents have been reported to cause rhabdomyolysis, an adverse drug reaction was not initially part of this patient's differential diagnosis. The patient had begun reporting rnyalgias six days after starting olanzapine. Fourteen days later, these symptoms forced him to bed rest; lithium was added for behavior misinterpreted as disobedience and oppositional disorder. Only when medications were considered as cause of the weakness and EGG changes, was the true nature of the patient's illness discovered. Olanzapine, like other neuroleptic agents, can cause rhabdomyolysis. Lithium can cause multiple EGG changes that can be misinterpreted as myocardial damage. Medication effects and adverse effects must always be considered in any disease complex.

  4. Induced QCD I: theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Bastian B. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe-University of Frankfurt,60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg,93040 Regensburg (Germany); Lohmayer, Robert; Wettig, Tilo [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg,93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-11-14

    We explore an alternative discretization of continuum SU(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills theory on a Euclidean spacetime lattice, originally introduced by Budzcies and Zirnbauer. In this discretization the self-interactions of the gauge field are induced by a path integral over N{sub b} auxiliary boson fields, which are coupled linearly to the gauge field. The main progress compared to earlier approaches is that N{sub b} can be as small as N{sub c}. In the present paper we (i) extend the proof that the continuum limit of the new discretization reproduces Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions from gauge group U(N{sub c}) to SU(N{sub c}), (ii) derive refined bounds on N{sub b} for non-integer values, and (iii) perform a perturbative calculation to match the bare parameter of the induced gauge theory to the standard lattice coupling. In follow-up papers we will present numerical evidence in support of the conjecture that the induced gauge theory reproduces Yang-Mills theory also in three and four dimensions, and explore the possibility to integrate out the gauge fields to arrive at a dual formulation of lattice QCD.

  5. Drug-induced liver injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-02

    Jun 2, 2011 ... Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a term increasingly being used by most clinicians and is synonymous with drug-induced hepatotoxicity. A succinct definition of a DILI is 'a liver injury induced by a drug or herbal medicine resulting in liver test abnormalities or liver dysfunction with a reasonable exclusion of ...

  6. Ventilatory behaviors of the toad Bufo marinus revealed by coherence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Coelho

    Full Text Available Breathing in amphibians is a remarkably complex behavior consisting of irregular breaths that may be taken singly or in bouts that are used to deflate and inflate the lungs. The valves at the two outlets of the buccal cavity (nares and glottis need to be finely controlled throughout the bout for the expression of these complex respiratory behaviors. In this study, we use a technique based on the calculation of the coherence spectra between respiratory variables (buccal pressure; narial airflow; and lung pressure. Coherence was also used to quantify the effects of chemoreceptor and pulmonary mechanoreceptor input on narial and glottal valve behavior on normoxic, hypoxic, and hypercapnic toads with both intact and bilaterally sectioned pulmonary vagi. We found a significant reduction in narial coherence in hypoxic vagotomized toads indicating that pulmonary mechanoreceptor feedback modulates narial opening duration. An unexpectedly high coherence between Pl and Pb during non-respiratory buccal oscillations in hypercapnic toads indicated more forceful use of the buccal pump. We concluded that the coherence function reveals behaviors that are not apparent through visual inspection of ventilatory time series.

  7. Ventilatory behaviors of the toad Bufo marinus revealed by coherence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho F. C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Breathing in amphibians is a remarkably complex behavior consisting of irregular breaths that may be taken singly or in bouts that are used to deflate and inflate the lungs. The valves at the two outlets of the buccal cavity (nares and glottis need to be finely controlled throughout the bout for the expression of these complex respiratory behaviors. In this study, we use a technique based on the calculation of the coherence spectra between respiratory variables (buccal pressure; narial airflow; and lung pressure. Coherence was also used to quantify the effects of chemoreceptor and pulmonary mechanoreceptor input on narial and glottal valve behavior on normoxic, hypoxic, and hypercapnic toads with both intact and bilaterally sectioned pulmonary vagi. We found a significant reduction in narial coherence in hypoxic vagotomized toads indicating that pulmonary mechanoreceptor feedback modulates narial opening duration. An unexpectedly high coherence between Pl and Pb during non-respiratory buccal oscillations in hypercapnic toads indicated more forceful use of the buccal pump. We concluded that the coherence function reveals behaviors that are not apparent through visual inspection of ventilatory time series.

  8. Ventilatory behaviors of the toad Bufo marinus revealed by coherence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, F C; Baker, T L; Smatresk, N J

    2003-02-01

    Breathing in amphibians is a remarkably complex behavior consisting of irregular breaths that may be taken singly or in bouts that are used to deflate and inflate the lungs. The valves at the two outlets of the buccal cavity (nares and glottis) need to be finely controlled throughout the bout for the expression of these complex respiratory behaviors. In this study, we use a technique based on the calculation of the coherence spectra between respiratory variables (buccal pressure; narial airflow; and lung pressure). Coherence was also used to quantify the effects of chemoreceptor and pulmonary mechanoreceptor input on narial and glottal valve behavior on normoxic, hypoxic, and hypercapnic toads with both intact and bilaterally sectioned pulmonary vagi. We found a significant reduction in narial coherence in hypoxic vagotomized toads indicating that pulmonary mechanoreceptor feedback modulates narial opening duration. An unexpectedly high coherence between Pl and Pb during non-respiratory buccal oscillations in hypercapnic toads indicated more forceful use of the buccal pump. We concluded that the coherence function reveals behaviors that are not apparent through visual inspection of ventilatory time series.

  9. Ventilatory behaviors of the toad Bufo marinus revealed by coherence analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, F. C.; Baker, T. L.; Smatresk, N. J.

    2003-01-01

    Breathing in amphibians is a remarkably complex behavior consisting of irregular breaths that may be taken singly or in bouts that are used to deflate and inflate the lungs. The valves at the two outlets of the buccal cavity (nares and glottis) need to be finely controlled throughout the bout for the expression of these complex respiratory behaviors. In this study, we use a technique based on the calculation of the coherence spectra between respiratory variables (buccal pressure; narial airfl...

  10. Soil organic matter content effects on dermal pesticide bioconcentration in American toads (Bufo americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides have been implicated as a major factor in global amphibian declines and may pose great risk to terrestrial phase amphibians moving to and from breeding ponds on agricultural landscapes. Dermal uptake from soil is known to occur in amphibians, but predicting pesticide a...

  11. Evidence of decline for Bufo boreas and Rana luteiventris in and around the northern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wente, W.; Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    A method is described for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in tissue samples. Cleanup by hexane-aceto-nitrile partitioning and Florisil column chromatography are performed on samples before oxidative treatment to convert DDE to DCBP. PCB components are then determined semi-quantitatively by TLC. No prior separation of PCB from chlorinated pesticides is required. The lower limit of sensitivity is 0.2 ?g.

  12. Morphological re-evaluation of the parotoid glands of Bufo ictericus (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, de P.G.; Felsemburgh, F.A.; Azevedo, R.A.; Brito-Gitirana, de L.

    2007-01-01

    Multicellular glands in the amphibian integument represent a signifi cant evolutionary advance over those of fi shes. Bufonids have parotoid glands, symmetrically disposed in a post-orbital position. Their secretion may contribute to protection against predators and parasites. This study provides a

  13. The ontogeny of kin recognition in tadpoles of the toad Bufo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    When tested in tanks with empty end compartments, the test tadpoles showed random distribution and thus no bias for the apparatus or the procedure. In the presence of kin/non-kin in the end compartments a significantly greater number of test tadpoles spent the majority of the time near familiar or unfamiliar kin rather than ...

  14. ULTRAESTRUCTURA DE LA GÓNADA DEL MACHO DE DOS SUBESPECIES DE Bufo longinasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanz-Ochotorena

    2009-01-01

    organización quística, es decir, forman grupos de células asociadas a las células de Sertoli, que son los cistos espermatogenéticos o espermatocistos dentro de los túbulos seminíferos. Los espermatozoides se caracterizan por una extraordinaria compactación nuclear y se observó la presencia de una membrana ondulante.

  15. Determining the effects of cattle grazing treatments on Yosemite toads (Anaxyrus [=Bufo] canorus in montane meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K McIlroy

    Full Text Available Amphibians are experiencing a precipitous global decline, and population stability on public lands with multiple uses is a key concern for managers. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains (California, USA, managers have specifically identified livestock grazing as an activity that may negatively affect Yosemite toads due to the potential overlap of grazing with toad habitat. Grazing exclusion from Yosemite toad breeding and rearing areas and/or entire meadows have been proposed as possible management actions to alleviate the possible impact of cattle on this species. The primary objective of this study was to determine if different fencing treatments affect Yosemite toad populations. We specifically examined the effect of three fencing treatments on Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy, tadpoles, and young of the year (YOY. Our hypothesis was that over the course of treatment implementation (2006 through 2010, Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy and early life stage densities would increase within two fencing treatments relative to actively grazed meadows due to beneficial changes to habitat quality in the absence of grazing. Our results did not support our hypothesis, and showed no benefit to Yosemite toad presence or early life stages in fenced or partially fenced meadows compared to standard USDA Forest Service grazing levels. We found substantial Yosemite toad variation by both meadow and year. This variation was influenced by meadow wetness, with water table depth significant in both the tadpole and YOY models.

  16. Spatial and temporal ecology of oak toads (Bufo quercicus) on a Florida landscape.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT: We used data from 10 years of continuous, concurrent monitoring of oak toads at eight isolated, ephemeral ponds in Florida longleaf pine-wiregrass uplands to address: (1) did weather variables affect movement patterns of oak toads?; (2) did pond hydrology and the condition of surrounding uplands affect pond selection by adults or juvenile recruitment?; (3) were population trends evident?; and (4) did a classical metapopulation model best represent their population ecology? Of 4076 oak toads captured, 92.2% were adults. Substantial (n _ 30 exiting juveniles) recruitment occurred only three times (once each at three ponds during two years). Males outnumbered females (average for all years 2.3:1). Most captures occurred during May–September. Adult captures during June–August increased with heavier rainfall but were not influenced by the durations of preceding dry periods. Movement patterns of metamorphs suggested that oak toads emigrated when moisture conditions become favorable. Pond use by adults was correlated with maximum change in pond depth (May–September). Juvenile recruitment was negatively correlated with minimum pond depth and the number of weeks since a pond was last dry, and positively correlated with the maximum number of weeks a pond held water continuously. The number of breeding adults and juvenile recruitment were highest at ponds within the hardwood-invaded upland matrix. The direction of most immigrations and emigrations was nonrandom, but movement occurred from all directions, and the mean direction of pond entry and exit did not always correspond. A total of 21.1% of individuals was recaptured; 13.3% of first captures were recaptured during the same year, and 7.7% during a subsequent year. Only 1.9% of captured oak toads moved among ponds, mostly within a distance of 132 m. We did not detect adult population trends over the 10- yr studied. Presence or absence at ponds in any given year was a poor indicator of overall use. We saw little evidence of local extinction or ‘‘rescue,’’ but were unable to determine whether juveniles returned to natal ponds or colonized new ponds for breeding as adults. Oak toad conservation can best be ensured by maintaining multiple ponds within a landscape to increase the probability of recruitment within the landscape neighborhood during at least some years and at some ponds, and to increase the likelihood of interpond movement.

  17. ESTRUCTURA Y ULTRAESTRUCTURA DE LA GÓNADA DE LOS MACHOS DE Bufo fustiger (ANURA: BUFONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanz-Ochotorena

    2008-01-01

    espermátidas en diferenciación y espermatozoides están dispuestas en cistos de forma similar a otros anuros lo cual indica una conservación de esta característica dentro de los anfibios y los anamniotas. Se observan espermátidas al MET en el proceso de espermiogénesis con la presencia de mitocondrias y la formación del acrosoma. El espermatozoide es delgado, con la cabeza cónica. La cola tiene un axonema con el patrón microtubular 9 + 2 y se observaron espermatozoides con dos colas. No se detectó la presencia de membrana ondulante. Esto resultados pudieran contribuir a esclarecer la sistemática del grupo.

  18. The ontogeny of kin recognition in tadpoles of the toad Bufo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Eggs of each clutch were placed separately in plastic containers with. 5 litres aged (dechlorinated) tap water until hatching or until subjecting them to different rearing conditions. The eggs usually hatched ... different parental lines (20/egg mass) and for the late tests ... separated at stage 12 (yolk plug formation) and reared.

  19. Radiation Induced Genomic Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, William F.

    2011-03-01

    Radiation induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the radiation induced events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. The cell system we have used to study radiation induced genomic instability utilizes human hamster GM10115 cells. These cells have a single copy of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes. Instability is evaluated in the clonal progeny of irradiated cells and a clone is considered unstable if it contains three or more metaphase sub-populations involving unique rearrangements of the human chromosome (Marder and Morgan 1993). Many of these unstable clones have been maintained in culture for many years and have been extensively characterized. As initially described by Clutton et al., (Clutton et al. 1996) many of our unstable clones exhibit persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (Limoli et al. 2003), which appear to be due dysfunctional mitochondria (Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2006). Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, our unstable clones do not demonstrate a “mutator phenotype” (Limoli et al. 1997), but they do continue to rearrange their genomes for many years. The limiting factor with this system is the target – the human chromosome. While some clones demonstrate amplification of this chromosome and thus lend

  20. Trauma Induced Coagulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Johansson, Per; Meyer, Martin Abild Stengaard

    2013-01-01

    It remains debated whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a different coagulopathy compared to non-TBI. This study investigated traditional coagulation tests, biomarkers of coagulopathy and endothelial damage in trauma patients with and without TBI. Blood from 80 adult trauma patients were...... sampled (median of 68 min (IQR 48-88) post-injury) upon admission to our trauma centre. Plasma/serum were retrospectively analysed for biomarkers reflecting sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline, noradrenaline), coagulation activation/inhibition and fibrinolysis (protein C, activated protein C, tissue...

  1. Catatonia induced by disulfiram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HK Goswami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia is a clinical syndrome with varieties of psychomotor abnormalities of retardation and excitement. It can occur both in psychiatric and medical conditions. The aetiology of catatonia has not been fully described. Many researchers suggest that catatonia can occur due to deficiency of cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA which is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Disulfiram is an agent that is being used in the treatment of alcohol dependence by its aversive effect. It has been seen that disulfiram is one of the causes of catatonia. This paper aimed to report a case of catatonia induced by disulfiram with no past history of any psychiatric or medical illness.

  2. High pressure induced superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, K.; Shimizu, K

    2003-10-15

    We have developed complex extreme condition of very low temperature down to 30 mK and ultra high pressure exceeding 200 GPa by assembling compact diamond anvil cell (DAC) on a powerful {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He dilution refrigerator. We have also developed measuring techniques of electrical resistance, magnetization and optical measurement for the sample confined in the sample space of the DAC. Using the newly developed apparatus and techniques, we have searched for superconductivity in various materials under pressure. In this paper, we will shortly review our newly developed experimental apparatus and techniques and discuss a few examples of pressure induced superconductivity which were observed recently.

  3. Cannabis induced asystole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancheau, Daniel; Blanco, Jessica; Gholkar, Gunjan; Patel, Brijesh; Machado, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis or marijuana is the most used recreational, and until recently illegal, drug in the United States. Although cannabis has medicinal use, its consumption has been linked to motor vehicle accidents in dose dependent fashion. Marijuana and other cannabinoids produce a multitude of effects on the human body that may result in these motor vehicle accidents. Some of the effects that marijuana has been known to cause include altered sensorium, diminished reflexes, and increased vagal tone. We present a case of cannabis induced asystole from hypervagotonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cephalexin Induced Cholestatic Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cephalexin is a very commonly prescribed orally administered antibiotic which has many potential side effects. Amongst these cholestatic jaundice has been infrequently reported as an adverse reaction. We present a case of a 57-year-old male who exhibited features of cholestatic jaundice including elevated liver function tests (LFTs after taking cephalexin and showed improvement on removal of the offending agent. During this time he was symptomatically treated with cholestyramine. Complete resolution of LFTs was seen in four weeks. Cephalexin induced cholestasis is rare and hence requires a high degree of clinical suspicion for prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Pancreatitis Induced by Cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Pablo Chapela

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatitis is one of the commonest diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by epigastric pain of moderate to severe intensity, which radiates to the back, elevation of pancreatic lipase and amylase enzymes, and changes in pancreatic parenchyma in imaging methods. The most common etiologies vary, generally the most frequent being biliary lithiasis and alcohol, followed by hypertriglyceridemia. Among the less frequent causes is drug-induced pancreatitis. We report a case of acute pancreatitis caused by cocaine, rarely described in literature.

  6. Xerostomia induced by radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimi D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available David Alimi Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAWe read with great interest the excellent review on xerostomia induced by radiotherapy, by Pinna et al.1 The authors should be congratulated for a very detailed review of the physiopathology, clinical symptoms, and therapeutic management of an extremely difficult condition. Although we agree that the use of anticholinergic medication represents treatment, it requires the patient to have residual salivary gland function. Unfortunately, it is well established that in most cases radiotherapy destroys most of the salivary gland and associated salivary secretions.     

  7. Man-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1994-01-01

    concerned with spectator-induced vertical vibrations on grandstands. The idea is to use impulse response analysis and base the load description on the load impulse. If the method is feasable, it could be used in connection with the formulation of requirements in building codes. During the last two decades...... work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...

  8. [Trauma-induced coagulopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, A A; Rahe-Meyer, N

    2014-02-01

    The main cause of death in the patient group less than 45 years is trauma. Beside severe traumatic brain injury, bleeding remains a leading cause of death in this group. For a causal therapy, it is necessary to understand the pathophysiology of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC). Beside the well-known lethal triad of trauma (hypothermia, acidosis, and coagulopathy), dilution and hypoperfusion with activation of the protein C pathway play a crucial role. TIC is a complex independent syndrome which may be present without initial hypercoagulopathy. A rapid and differentiated diagnosis and goal-directed therapy is crucial for causal therapy.

  9. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Cleva; Kross, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that “antioxidant-induced stress” results when antioxidants overwhelm the body’s free radicals. PMID:22408440

  10. Sulphasalazine Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Şanlı

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS is one of the most dangerous drug reactions. Mortality and morbidity is increased by consequent systemic organ involvement. Maculopapular eruptions are the most common lesions accompanying DIHS, however, the morphology of skin lesions may vary. The most common cause of DIHS is the use of aromatic anticonvulsant drugs. However, one must not forget that other drugs may also cause DIHS. Early recognition of the condition is the most important step in the treatment. Herein, we present a case of DIHS triggered by sulphasalazine and associated with pustular eruption and maculopapular eruption.

  11. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Kross

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that “antioxidant-induced stress” results when antioxidants overwhelm the body’s free radicals.

  12. Method for inducing hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Lance B [Chicago, IL; Hoek, Terry Vanden [Chicago, IL; Kasza, Kenneth E [Palos Park, IL

    2008-09-09

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  13. Method for inducing hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2005-11-08

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  14. Method for inducing hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Lance B. (Chicago, IL); Hoek, Terry Vanden (Chicago, IL); Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL)

    2003-04-15

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  15. Evaluation and Validation of a Semiautomatic Image Analysis Method: Quantification of Nares Cell Proliferation of Rhinella arenarum (Anura Detected with the Avidin-Biotin Complex/Peroxidase, DAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Eduardo Diaz Zamboni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current report presents the development and application of a novel methodological approach for computer-based methods of processing and analysis of proliferative tissues labeled by ABC-peroxidase method using 3, 3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB as chromogen. This semiautomatic method is proposed to replace the classical manual approach, widely accepted as gold standard. Our method is based on a visual analysis of the microscopy image features from which a computational model is built to generate synthetic images which are used to evaluate and validate the methods of image processing and analysis. The evaluation allows knowing whether the computational methods applied are affected by the change of the image characteristics. Validation allows determining the method’s reliability and analyzing the concordance between the proposed method and a gold standard one. Additional strongness of this new approach is that it may be a framework adaptable to other studies made on any kind of microscopy.

  16. Telencephalic Neuronal Activation Associated with Spatial Memory in the Terrestrial Toad Rhinella arenarum: Participation of the Medial Pallium during Navigation by Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, María Inés; Daneri, M Florencia; Bingman, Verner Peter; Muzio, Rubén N

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are central to discussions of vertebrate evolution because they represent the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life, a transition with profound consequences for the selective pressures shaping brain evolution. Spatial navigation is one class of behavior that has attracted the interest of comparative neurobiologists because of the relevance of the medial pallium/hippocampus, yet, surprisingly, in this regard amphibians have been sparsely investigated. In the current study, we trained toads to locate a water goal relying on the boundary geometry of a test environment (Geometry-Only) or boundary geometry coupled with a prominent, visual feature cue (Geometry-Feature). Once learning had been achieved, the animals were given one last training session and their telencephali were processed for c-Fos activation. Compared to control toads exposed to the test environment for the first time, geometry-only toads were found to have increased neuronal labeling in the medial pallium, the presumptive hippocampal homologue, while geometry-feature toads were found to have increased neuronal labeling in the medial, dorsal, and lateral pallia. The data indicate medial pallial participation in guiding navigation by environmental geometry and lateral, and to a lesser extent dorsal, pallial participation in guiding navigation by a prominent visual feature. As such, participation of the medial pallium/hippocampus in spatial cognition appears to be a conserved feature of terrestrial vertebrates even if their life history is still tied to water, a brain-behavior feature seemingly at least as ancient as the evolutionary transition to life on land. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Brimonidine Induced Anterior Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Jacqueline; Zamir, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    To present the largest series reported so far of brimonidine induced granulomatous anterior uveitis. Retrospective chart review of patients with chronic glaucoma on treatment with brimonidine presenting with anterior uveitis. 19 eyes of 12 patients with chronic glaucoma developed anterior uveitis with granulomatous keratic precipitates after being treated with brimonidine for periods of 7 days to 5 years (mean 19.7 months, +18.6 months). One patient had a gap of 1 year between onset in one eye and onset in the other. Ten eyes (52.6%) had concurrent granulomatous conjunctivitis; 16 eyes were pseudophakic. Stopping brimonidine led to complete, rapid resolution of uveitis in all patients, in most cases (11 eyes, 58%) without topical corticosteroids. No recurrences have occurred after withdrawal of brimonidine, over a follow-up period of 12-52 months (mean 27.9 months, +13.8 months). Ophthalmologists should be aware of this easily reversible uveitis syndrome that is induced by a common glaucoma medication. Familiarity with this entity is essential in making the correct diagnosis and avoiding unnecessary investigations and interventions.

  18. Colchicine-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomershine, Kellie H

    2002-05-01

    To report a case of rhabdomyolysis occurring during treatment with colchicine. A 44-year-old African American man was admitted to the hospital due to persistent diarrhea, vomiting, and diffuse weakness. Past medical history was significant for renal failure requiring peritoneal dialysis, gout, and a new skin lesion. Approximately 2 months prior to admission, he had been started on colchicine and allopurinol. Creatine kinase concentration on admission was >14 000 U/L. Liver function tests were elevated 5 times the upper limit of normal. Colchicine was discontinued on admission. Creatine kinase concentrations decreased significantly, and strength and ambulation improved throughout hospitalization. Colchicine was thought to be the causative factor for rhabdomyolysis in conjunction with chronic renal failure and elevated liver function tests. After discontinuation of colchicine, creatinine kinase concentrations declined and the patient's ability to walk improved. Limited case reports of colchicine-induced rhabdomyolysis have been published. Chronic renal failure in conjunction with elevated liver function tests appear to increase the possibility of colchicine-induced toxicity, specifically, rhabdomyolysis.

  19. Vacuum induced photoresist outgassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Justin; Mbanaso, Chimaobi; Denbeaux, Gregory

    2008-03-01

    In order to continue the trend toward smaller feature sizes in lithography, new methods of lithography will be needed. A likely method for printing features 32 nm and smaller is extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. EUV allows for features to be printed that are smaller than the current methods can achieve. However, outgassing of the photoresist is a concern for EUV lithography. The outgassed components can lead to contamination of the optics, degrading the reflectivity and hence lowering throughput of the exposure tools. Outgassing due to EUV exposure has been investigated by many groups. However, there were no complete investigations available of vacuum induced outgassing. In this paper, several methods were employed to investigate the outgassing due to vacuum. It was found that the vacuum induced outgassing outgassed a similar number of molecules as the outgassing due to EUV exposure. Furthermore, almost all of the outgassing was completed after about two minutes in vacuum. To mitigate the potential concern of outgassing due to vacuum causing contamination of optics, this work shows that photoresist coated silicon wafers only require about two minutes of pumping prior to insertion near the optics within EUV lithography tools.

  20. Nivolumab induced myxedema crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Uqba; Rizvi, Humaira; Sano, Dahlia; Chiu, Jane; Hadid, Tarik

    2017-01-01

    Nivolumab is an anti-programmed cell death (anti-PD-1) monoclonal antibody that is approved by Food and Drug Administration for treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, metastatic melanoma, relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma and advanced renal cell cancer. We report a rare case of myxedema crisis induced by nivolumab in a patient with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of lung. Fifty three-year old woman with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma currently on treatment with nivolumab presented with diffuse facial and tongue swelling, slurred speech, depressed mentation, fatigue and weakness. Initial evaluation revealed severe hypothyroidism with thyroid stimulating hormone of 237 micro Unit/mL (Normal Reference range: 0.27-4.20 micro unit/mL) and undetectable free T4. Patient was diagnosed with nivolumab induced myxedema crisis. She was treated successfully with levothyroxine with complete resolution of her symptoms. Nivolumab was safely restarted once the symptoms of myxedema resolved. Nivolumab can cause immune-mediated endocrinopathies including thyroiditis, hypophysitis, adrenal insufficiency and type 1 diabetes mellitus. High index of suspicion and periodic measurement of thyroid function tests are recommended in patients receiving nivolumab therapy. Our case also suggests that once the myxedema crisis is treated and symptoms are resolved, nivolumab can be safely re-challenged.

  1. Oxalate induces breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellaro, Andrés M; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L; Pucci, Oscar A; Gil, German A

    2015-10-22

    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  2. Drug-Induced Hematologic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Mintzer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Drugs can induce almost the entire spectrum of hematologic disorders, affecting white cells, red cells, platelets, and the coagulation system. This paper aims to emphasize the broad range of drug-induced hematological syndromes and to highlight some of the newer drugs and syndromes. Methods. Medline literature on drug-induced hematologic syndromes was reviewed. Most reports and reviews focus on individual drugs or cytopenias. Results. Drug-induced syndromes include hemolytic anemias, methemoglobinemia, red cell aplasia, sideroblastic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, polycythemia, aplastic anemia, leukocytosis, neutropenia, eosinophilia, immune thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic syndromes, hypercoagulability, hypoprothrombinemia, circulating anticoagulants, myelodysplasia, and acute leukemia. Some of the classic drugs known to cause hematologic abnormalities have been replaced by newer drugs, including biologics, accompanied by their own syndromes and unintended side effects. Conclusions. Drugs can induce toxicities spanning many hematologic syndromes, mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Physicians need to be alert to the potential for iatrogenic drug-induced hematologic complications.

  3. Paliperidone palmitate-induced sialorrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Cengisiz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrapyramidal, metabolic, and cardiac side effects were reported for atypical antipsychotics; although a few resources show paliperidone-induced sialorrhea, there are no resources that show paliperidone palmitate-induced sialorrhea. In this paper, we present the paliperidone palmitate-induced sialorrhea side effects of a patient who applied on our clinic [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(0.100: 8-13

  4. Polyanionic Cyclodextrin Induced Supramolecular Nanoparticle

    OpenAIRE

    He-Lue Sun; Ying-Ming Zhang; Yong Chen; Yu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Ionizable cyclodextrins have attracted increasing attention in host?guest chemistry and pharmaceutical industry, mainly due to the introduction of favorable electrostatic interactions. The ionizable cyclodextrins could not only enhance its own solubility but also induce oppositely charged guests to form more stable complex. However, the aggregation induced by charged cyclodextrins has rarely been reported. In this work, guided by the concept of molecular-induced aggregation, a series of carbo...

  5. Cytokinin activity induced by thidiazuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J C; Katterman, F R

    1986-06-01

    The diphenylurea derivative thidiazuron induces a variety of cytokinin responses. Levels above 5 x 10(-9) molar and 4 x 10(-7) molar stimulate maximum soybean callus growth and radish cotyledon expansion, respectively. A wider range of dose response related effects follows thidiazuron induced tobacco plant regeneration. Analysis of soybean callus extracts strongly suggests that thidiazuron treatment creates an accumulation and/or synthesis of purine cytokinins, able to induce the growth, expansion and regeneration, mentioned above.

  6. [Steroid-induced myopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Serge; Le Jeunne, Claire

    2012-04-01

    Steroid muscle-related involvement is a frequent but often underestimated adverse effect of steroid treatment. Clinical presentation may differentiate two features: the less frequent, represented by acute myopathy, essentially observed in resuscitation, in patients treated with high dosages, and the more frequent feature, insidious, painless, chronic myopathy, characterized by a progressive proximal deficit. Diagnosis is mostly based on the clinic, muscle biopsy should remain exceptional, performed to detect other myopathies, since there are no specific anatomopathological findings. Muscle enzymes are rarely increased, electrophysiological analyses demonstrate unspecific and variable abnormalities. Pathophysiology of steroid-induced myopathy is multifactorial, related to protein metabolism modifications (change of both metabolism and catabolism), cellular transcription, growth factors (IGF-1, myostatine). Treatment is unspecific, mostly based on the prevention that should firstly consider steroid dosage reduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  8. Aripiprazole-induced priapism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya K Trivedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Priapism is a urologic emergency representing a true disorder of penile erection that persists beyond or is unrelated to sexual interest or stimulation. A variety of psychotropic drugs are known to produce priapism, albeit rarely, through their antagonistic action on alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. We report such a case of priapism induced by a single oral dose of 10 mg aripiprazole, a drug with the least affinity to adrenergic receptors among all atypical antipsychotics. Polymorphism of alpha-2A adrenergic receptor gene in schizophrenia patients is known to be associated with sialorrhea while on clozapine treatment. Probably, similar polymorphism of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor gene could contribute to its altered sensitivity and resultant priapism. In future, pharmacogenomics-based approach may help in personalizing the treatment and effectively prevent the emergence of such side effects.

  9. Virus-induced chalazion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, A M; Chan, C-C; Crawford, M A; Tabbarah, Z A; Shen, D; Haddad, W F; Salti, I; Ghazi, N G

    2006-02-01

    To investigate a viral etiology in certain chalazia. A prospective study over 7.5 years of all newly presenting chalazia associated with diffuse follicular conjunctivitis but without any other aetiological factors. Patients were investigated for ocular or systemic infections by history, physical exam, slit-lamp exam, and/or histology of conjunctival biopsy (including transmission electron microscopy). A total of 27 patients developed follicular conjunctivitis without meibomian gland dysfunction, blepharitis, or sexually transmitted diseases. Evidence for a viral aetiology included: recent systemic viral illness (15/27), recent contact with subjects with chalazia or follicular conjunctivitis (5/27), preauricular lymphadenopathy (4/27), viral corneal disease (4/27), or viral particles by ultrastructure (4/4). Chalazia may be associated with viral conjunctivitis. Intralesional corticosteroids should be considered with great caution for viral-induced chalazia.

  10. Migraine induced by hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik Winther; Britze, Josefine

    2016-01-01

    Migraine with aura is prevalent in high-altitude populations suggesting an association between migraine aura and hypoxia. We investigated whether experimental hypoxia triggers migraine and aura attacks in patients suffering from migraine with aura. We also investigated the metabolic and vascular...... response to hypoxia. In a randomized double-blind crossover study design, 15 migraine with aura patients were exposed to 180 min of normobaric hypoxia (capillary oxygen saturation 70-75%) or sham on two separate days and 14 healthy controls were exposed to hypoxia. Glutamate and lactate concentrations...... in the visual cortex were measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The circumference of cranial arteries was measured by 3 T high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography. Hypoxia induced migraine-like attacks in eight patients compared to one patient after sham (P = 0.039), aura in three...

  11. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  12. Irinotecan-Induced Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Albertine J.; van der Mijn, Johannes C.; Aalders, IJke J.; Rinkel, Rico N.P.M.; van der Vliet, Hans J.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinomas are among the most common tumor types and are generally treated with palliative chemotherapy in case of metastatic disease. Here, we describe the case of a 46-year-old patient with metastatic rectal carcinoma who received second-line therapy with irinotecan and developed isolated transient dysarthria (with normal MR imaging of the brain) following each administration of irinotecan. Neurological and logopedical evaluation revealed that the dysarthria predominantly resulted from a reduced capacity in fine-tuning of motor functions of the tip of the tongue and a minimal reduction in the power of speech at labiodental contact. As hypoglossal nerve activity has been reported to be especially susceptible to cholinergic stimulation and irinotecan can cause cholinergic side effects by binding to and inactivating acetylcholinesterase, we suspect this mechanism to be responsible for irinotecan-induced dysarthria. PMID:22379477

  13. [Complications of induced abortions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprez, D; Fortuna, P

    1989-02-01

    All physicians should be aware of the possible complications of induced abortions if only because the procedure is so commonplace. Some 250,000 induced abortions occur annually in France, amounting to 24.4 abortions per 100 live births. The rates of different complications of induced abortions before 12 weeks are .5-5/1000 for uterine perforation, .5-3.4% for hemorrhage with or without placental retention, 1% for endometritis, .3% for salpingitis .5% for continuing pregnancy, and .006 to .3/10,000 for death. A well done curettage is preferable to a poorly performed aspiration procedure. If an aspiration is done, the practitioner should bear in mind that retention of 50-200 cc of blood clots may occur if dilatation is insufficient. Symptoms appear 1-5 days after the abortion and end with expulsion of the clots or aspiration. Curettage is useless, as the clots do not represent a true retention. Uterine contractions during the aspiration can occasionally prompt a premature decision that evacuation is complete. Retention is difficult to diagnose immediately after aspiration but can be sonographically confirmed after the 8th day. Aspiration should be done after the 6th week and before the 12th week. Aspiration before the 6th week is often painful and is associated with higher rates of partial retention and of complete failure. Endouterine aspiration, regardless of technical proficiency, establishes a pathway between the vagina and the uterine cavity, which exposes the latter to the risk of trauma, endometrial lesions, and perforation. Induced abortion promotes infection by 2 mechanisms. Latent infections that were not detected in the medical history or physical examination can emerge and cause endometritis, which should be treated by ice, rest, and antibiotics. Or contamination of the passage by an infected cervical mucus can lead to salpingitis, abscess, and pelviperitonitis, or even general peritonitis. More often, these conditions develop from inadequately treated

  14. Amantadine-induced coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchio, G J; Ito, V; Sahgal, V

    1993-10-01

    Amantadine has found use primarily as an antiviral agent and in the symptomatic treatment of parkinsonism. However, the use of amantadine for the subjective alleviation of fatigue in multiple sclerosis and in the treatment of agitated aggressive behavior in the traumatic brain injured patient has also been described. Side effects of amantadine are primarily related to the central nervous system and include hallucinations, confusion, and nightmares. Toxic manifestations include acute psychosis, coma, cardiovascular toxicity, and death. Amantadine toxicity is a particular problem in patients with renal insufficiency because 90% of an oral dose is excreted unchanged in the urine. We present a case of amantadine-induced coma in a patient with multiple sclerosis and end-stage renal disease. Moreover, this degree of amantadine toxicity was profoundly apparent at a drug level usually not associated with such a severe presentation.

  15. [Cannabis-induced disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, M; Preuss, U; Hoch, E

    2017-03-01

    Use and misuse of cannabis and marihuana are frequent. About 5% of the adult population are current users but only 1.2% are dependent. The medical use of cannabis is controversial but there is some evidence for improvement of chronic pain and spasticity. The somatic toxicity of cannabis is well proven but limited and psychiatric disorders induced by cannabis are of more relevance, e.g. cognitive disorders, amotivational syndrome, psychoses and delusional disorders as well as physical and psychological dependence. The withdrawal symptoms are usually mild and do not require pharmacological interventions. To date there is no established pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention. Psychosocial interventions include psychoeducation, behavioral therapy and motivational enhancement. The CANDIS protocol is the best established German intervention among abstinence-oriented therapies.

  16. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  17. Pemetrexed induced pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Dhakal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pemetrexed is an antifolate chemotherapy agent that is active in malignant mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Pneumonitis is a rare side effect of Pemetrexed. We report the case of 72-year-old female with metastatic poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma. She was placed on maintenance pemetrexed and developed gradual progressive dyspnea after first cycle of maintenance of pemextrexed. The computed tomography (CT of the chest showed ground glass opacity in both lung fields. Transbronchial lung biopsy showed uniform interstitial widening by a cellular chronic infiltrate with areas of type II pneumocyte and exudation of pale eosinophilic edema fluid; features consistent with acute lung injury. Patient improved both clinically and radiological after stopping pemetrexed and starting prednisone. Although pemetrexed induced lung injury is relatively rare, with the increasing use of pemetrexed in first-line treatment and in maintenance therapy of non-small cell lung cancer, awareness of this potential adverse effects is important.

  18. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  19. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan Mircea Radu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  20. Tachycardia-induced Cardiomyopathy (Tachycardiomyopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The term tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy or tachycardiomyopathy refers to impairment in left ventricular function secondary to chronic tachycardia, which is partially or completely reversible once the tachyarrhythmia is controlled. Tachycardia- induced cardiomyopathy has been shown to occur both in experimental ...

  1. Tachycardia-induced Cardiomyopathy (Tachycardiomyopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy is usually made following observation of marked improvement in systolic function after normalization of heart rate. Clinicians should be aware that patients with unexplained systolic dysfunction may have tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy, and that controlling the ...

  2. Congruence properties of induced representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Dieter; Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    In this paper we study representations of the projective modular group induced from the Hecke congruence group of level 4 with Selberg's character. We show that the well known congruence properties of Selberg's character are equivalent to the congruence properties of the induced representations...

  3. Geomagnetically Induced Currents: Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Denny M.; Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.

    2017-10-01

    The geospace, or the space environment near Earth, is constantly subjected to changes in the solar wind flow generated at the Sun. The study of this environment variability is called Space Weather. Examples of effects resulting from this variability are the occurrence of powerful solar disturbances, such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The impact of CMEs on the Earth's magnetosphere very often greatly perturbs the geomagnetic field causing the occurrence of geomagnetic storms. Such extremely variable geomagnetic fields trigger geomagnetic effects measurable not only in the geospace but also in the ionosphere, upper atmosphere, and on and in the ground. For example, during extreme cases, rapidly changing geomagnetic fields generate intense geomagnetically induced currents (GICs). Intense GICs can cause dramatic effects on man-made technological systems, such as damage to high-voltage power transmission transformers leading to interruption of power supply, and/or corrosion of oil and gas pipelines. These space weather effects can in turn lead to severe economic losses. In this paper, we supply the reader with theoretical concepts related to GICs as well as their general consequences. As an example, we discuss the GIC effects on a North American power grid located in mid-latitude regions during the 13-14 March 1989 extreme geomagnetic storm. That was the most extreme storm that occurred in the space era age.

  4. Temozolomide-Induced Myelodysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan A. Natelson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient who had received temozolomide (TMZ as a single agent in treatment of malignant glioma developed therapy-induced myelodysplasia (T-MDS. TMZ is an orally active imidazotetrazine which methylates guanine residues in DNA, ultimately causing single and double-strand DNA breaks leading to apoptotic cell death. TMZ does not chemically cross-link DNA and is considered a nonclassical alkylating agent, similar in structure and activity to dacarbazine. Observations on this patient, and on similarly treated others, suggest that the cumulative dose threshold (CDT for TMZ that predisposes to T-MDS and which may potentially lead to acute myeloid leukemia (T-AML is around 18000 to 20000 mg/sq m. Although the incidence of T-MDS and the predisposing CDT of TMZ may differ from that of other potentially leukemogenic compounds currently and formerly used as chemotherapeutic agents, all alkylating agents, including TMZ, should be considered potentially leukemogenic when administered long term.

  5. Contrast-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenzi, Giancarlo; Cabiati, Angelo; Milazzo, Valentina; Rubino, Mara

    2012-10-01

    Radiological procedures utilizing intravascular iodinated contrast media are being widely applied for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and represent one of the main causes of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) and hospital-acquired renal failure. Although the risk of CIN is low (0.6-2.3 %) in the general population, it may be very high (up to 50 %) in selected subsets, especially in patients with major risk factors such as advanced chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus, and in those undergoing emergency percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Due to the lack of any effective treatment, prevention of this iatrogenic disease, which is associated with significant in-hospital and long-term morbidity and mortality and increased costs, is the key strategy. However, prevention of CIN continues to elude clinicians and is a main concern during PCI, as patients undergoing these procedures often have multiple comorbidities. The purpose of this study is to examine the pathophysiology, risk factors and clinical course of CIN, as well as the most recent studies dealing with its prevention and potential therapeutic interventions, especially during PCI.

  6. Donepezil-induced mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jonathan G

    2014-03-01

    To report a case of mania associated with the titration of donepezil in an elderly patient. A 400-bed academic acute care psychiatric facility. A 70-year-old male with a history of paranoid schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, and mild cognitive impairment was admitted after concerns that he was responding to internal stimuli and exhibited increased disorganization. The patient was initiated on quetiapine, titrated to 500 mg at bedtime, to address disorganization, hallucinations, and poor sleep. After improvement of psychotic symptoms and assessment of cognitive function, donepezil 5 mg daily was initiated and titrated to 10 mg daily after two weeks. Days following the increase of donepezil to 10 mg daily, the patient exhibited symptoms of mania and became hyperverbal with elevated mood and agitation. A decreased need for sleep with an increase in cleaning activities throughout the day was noted. Donepezil was suspected to have induced the new symptoms and was discontinued. Following discontinuation, the manic symptoms completely resolved over a two-week period. The titration of donepezil was associated with the onset of mania. Previous trials involving off-label donepezil use in patients with bipolar disorder, but not schizophrenia, have reported the development of manic symptoms. Although rare, there is mounting evidence that donepezil is associated with the emergence of mania. Clinicians should be aware of this potential side effect in all patients treated with donepezil.

  7. Ceftazidime-induced thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Chiva, E; Díaz-Rangel, M; Monsalve-Naharro, J Á; Cuesta-Montero, P; Catalá-Ripoll, J V; García-Martínez, E M

    2017-12-01

    Ceftazidime is an antibiotic belonging to the group of third generation cephalosporins, frequently used in clinical practice for its broad antibacterial spectrum. A case report is presented on a 78-year-old man who entered the intensive care unit due to respiratory failure secondary to nosocomial pneumonia in the postoperative period of a laparoscopic hepatic bisegmentectomy for a hepatocarcinoma. It required invasive mechanical ventilation and was treated with ceftazidime, developing a progressive decrease in platelet count after the onset of this drug and after re-exposure to it, not coinciding with the introduction of other drugs. The adverse reaction was reported to the Spanish pharmacosurveillance system and according to the Naranjo algorithm the causal relationship was probable. Since no case of ceftazidime-induced thrombocytopenia was found in the literature, we consider knowledge of it relevant as an adverse effect to be taken into account given its potential severity, especially when it cannot be explained by other causes. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbimazole-induced agranulocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Anisha; Joseph, Siby; Sidharthan, Neeraj; Murali, Dhanya

    2015-01-01

    A 47 year old lady with hyperthyroidism for past 1½ years was initially on Carbimazole 20 mg orally then changed to 30 mg (during Hysterectomy) but was taking 10 mg for last 1 year. She had intermittent fever with severe B/L bifrontal headache since 3 weeks. Routine investigations showed anaemia, neutropenia, leucopenia and CRP elevation. Peripheral smear showed normocytic normochromic anaemia with Rouleaux formation, leucopenia with 2% atypical cells and mild thrombocytosis. Widal test, RA factor (Rheumatoid factor) test, Ig M (Immunoglobulin M) dengue, Ig M Lepto, TORCH infections (Toxoplasmosis, Other (Syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19), Cytomegalovirus and Herpes infections), ANA (Antinuclear antibody) screen cANCA (Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) and pANCA (Perinuclear Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies) tests were negative. Bone marrow aspiration showed normo to hypercellular marrow with 15% atypical cells and plasma cells. Multiple myeloma workup was done. Carbimazole was withheld. Drug induced agranulocytosis occurs with in 1-2 months of taking the antithyroid medication but onset delayed by 1½ year. De-challenge resulted normalization of blood parameters.

  9. Methaemoglobinemia Induced by MDMA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. W. Verhaert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Case. A 45-year-old man with a blank medical history presented at the emergency room with dizziness and cyanosis. Physical examination showed cyanosis with a peripheral saturation (SpO2 of 85%, he did not respond to supplemental oxygen. Arterial blood gas analysis showed a striking chocolate brown colour. Based on these data, we determined the arterial methaemoglobin concentration. This was 32%. We gave 100% oxygen and observed the patient in a medium care unit. The next day, patient could be discharged in good condition. Further inquiry about exhibitions and extensive history revealed that the patient used MDMA (3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine, the active ingredient of ecstasy. Conclusion. Acquired methaemoglobinemia is a condition that occurs infrequently, but is potentially life threatening. Different nutrients, medications, and chemicals can induce methaemoglobinemia by oxidation of haemoglobin. The clinical presentation of a patient with methaemoglobinemia is due to the impossibility of O2 binding and transport, resulting in tissue hypoxia. Important is to think about methaemoglobin in a patient who presents with cyanosis, a peripheral saturation of 85% that fails to respond properly to the administration of O2. Because methaemoglobin can be reduced physiologically, it is usually sufficient to remove the causative agent, to give O2, and to observe the patient.

  10. Doxycycline induced Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Karakus Yilmaz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Esophagitis is a hazardous condition such as acid reflux of esophageal mucosa, infection, systemic diseases, radiation, drugs and trauma. Drug- induced esophagial injury (DIEI is a disease with the use of variety of drugs that caused serious damage and ulcer in the mucosa of the esophagus. The most commonly implicated drugs are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, chloride and especially antibiotics. Thirty-six year-old female patient presented to the emergency department with odynophagia during swallowing and complaining of retrosternal pain. One week before 100 mg doxycycline (2x1 PO for therapeutic abortion were prescribed. It was learned that in the third day of the initiation of medication, the patient\\'s symptoms began and stopped using drug by the fourth day due to advers effect of drugs, but her symptoms didn’t regressed although she didn’t use them. Endoscopy appointment was taken, proton pump inhibitor and antiacid treatment was given, than patient was discharged from the emergency department. In the endoscopy, 20 mm segment esophageal ulcer was seen approximately in the 30.th cm of the esophagius. DIEI is a relatively common, although under-recognized, so this case was presented for remainding DIEI to emergency medicine personals and reweiving its diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

  11. Epigenetic Reprogramming Induced Pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to reprogram mature cells to an embryonic-like state by nuclear transfer or by inducing the expression of key transcription factors has provided us with critical opportunities to linearly map the epigenetic parameters that are essential for attaining pluripotency. CONTENT: Epigenetic reprogramming describes a switch in gene expression of one kind of cell to that of another unrelated cell type. Early studies in frog cloning provided some of the first experimental evidence for reprogramming. Subsequent procedures included mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion, induction of pluripotency by ectopic gene expression, and direct reprogramming. Through these methods it becomes possible to derive one kind of specialized cell (such as a brain cell from another, more accessible tissue, such as skin in the same individual. This has potential applications for cell replacement without the immunosuppression treatments commonly required when cells are transferred between genetically different individuals. SUMMARY: Reprogramming with transcription factors offers tremendous promise for the future development of patient-specific pluripotent cells and for studies of human disease. The identification of optimized protocols for the differentiation of iPS cells and ES cells into multiple functional cell types in vitro and their proper engraftment in vivo will be challenged in the coming years. Given that the first small molecule approaches aimed at activating pluripotency genes have already been devised and that murine iPS cells have recently been derived by using non-integrative transient expression strategies of the reprogramming factors, we expect that human iPS cells without permanent genetic alterations will soon be generated. KEYWORDS: epigenetics, reprogramming, pluripotency, stem cells, iPS cells, chromatin, DNA methylation.

  12. Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jeffrey W; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Pierce, Bert

    2014-09-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death among people under the age of 44. Hemorrhage is a major contributor to deaths related to trauma in the first 48 h. Accordingly, the management of these patients is a time-sensitive and critical affair that anesthesiologists responsible for surgical resuscitation will face. Coagulopathy associated with trauma exists in one-third of all severely injured patients upon presentation to the hospital. Trauma patients presenting with coagulopathy have significantly higher mortality. This trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) must be managed adroitly in the resuscitation of these patients. Recent advancements in our understanding of TIC have led to new protocols and therapy guidelines. Anesthesiologists must be aware of these to effectively manage this form of shock. TIC driven by a combination of endogenous biological processes, as well as iatrogenic causes, can ultimately lead to the lethal triad of hypothermia, acidemia, and coagulopathy. Providers should understand how to promptly diagnose TIC and be aware of the early indicators of massive transfusion. The use of common laboratory studies and patient vital signs serve as our current guide, but the importance of each is still under debate. Thromboelastography is a tool used often in the diagnosis of TIC and can be used to guide blood product transfusion. Certain pharmaceutical strategies and non-transfusion strategies also exist, which aid in the management of hemorrhagic shock. Damage control surgery, rewarming, tranexamic acid, and 1:1:1 transfusion protocols are promising methods used to treat the critically wounded. Though protocols have been developed, controversies still exist on the optimal resuscitation strategy.

  13. Traffic forecasts ignoring induced demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Nicolaisen, Morten Skou; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of induced traffic has been theorized for more than 60 years and is now widely accepted among transport researchers, the traffic-generating effects of road capacity expansion are still often neglected in transport modelling. Such omission can lead to serious bias...... performance of a proposed road project in Copenhagen with and without short-term induced traffic included in the transport model. The available transport model was not able to include long-term induced traffic resulting from changes in land use and in the level of service of public transport. Even though...... ways of dealing with congestion and environmental problems in urban areas....

  14. Drug-Induced Metabolic Acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Amy Quynh Trang; Xu, Li Hao Richie; Moe, Orson W.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis could emerge from diseases disrupting acid-base equilibrium or from drugs that induce similar derangements. Occurrences are usually accompanied by comorbid conditions of drug-induced metabolic acidosis, and clinical outcomes may range from mild to fatal. It is imperative that clinicians not only are fully aware of the list of drugs that may lead to metabolic acidosis but also understand the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. In this review, we categorized drug-induced metabolic acidosis in terms of pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as individual drugs’ characteristics. PMID:26918138

  15. Bioacustical and etho-ecological features in amphibian communities of Southern Cordoba province (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas, Nancy E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de las características del canto de los anfibios constituye un importante elemento para la identificación de las especies que puede ser empleado como herramienta para prácticas estandarizadas de monitoreo. En el presente trabajo se resaltan las diferencias eto-ecológicas más notables (hábitat de reproducción, sitio de canto, actividad estacional y diaria de aquellas especies que integran las comunidades del sur de la Provincia Córdoba y se proporciona una clasificación de los cantos nupciales. La batracofauna del área de llanura del sur-este de la provincia de Córdoba está representada por 9 especies de leptodactílidos correspondientes a 5 géneros (Leptodactylus gracilis, L. mystacinus, L. latinasus latinasus, L. ocellatus, Pleurodema tucumanum, Physalaemus biligonigerus, Odontophrynus americanus, Ceratophrys cranwelli y C. ornata, 2 especies de bufónidos (Bufo arenarum y B. fernandezae y un hílido (Hyla pulchella pulchella. Los registros acústicos obtenidos en el campo durante el período reproductivo fueron analizados a través de programas de análisis digital de sonido, comparándose los siguientes parámetros: frecuencia dominante, duración del canto, intervalo entre cantos; se realizaron además descripciones respecto del tipo de canto y su modulación. Se reconocieron tres tipos de cantos básicos segun su duración, categoría que fue subdividida por la forma de la imagen oscilográfica. El resultado de este análisis establece que existen notables diferencias entre los cantos nupciales, principalmente a nivel de rangos de frecuencia dominante y duración de las emisiones. Esta partición del espacio sonoro representa un mecanismo de aislamiento reproductivo que minimiza la interacción entre especies simpátricas cuya reproducción muestra también un solapamiento temporal. Knowledge of the characteristics of amphibian calls is essential for species identification, and may be used as a tool in

  16. Fauna de anuros en la ciudad de Salta, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Acosta

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida y transformación del hábitat generado por actividades humanas es una de las principales causas de disminución de biodiversidad. Los anfibios constituyen un grupo en franca declinación a nivel global debido a múltiples motivos, entre ellos la reducción de sus hábitats; sin embargo, se observan poblaciones de anuros en ambientes altamente antropizados como las ciudades. El objetivo del trabajo fue recabar información de base ecológicamente necesaria para comprender la distribución de las comunidades de anuros en estos ambientes. Para ello, se efectuó el inventario de la fauna de anuros del ejido urbano de la Ciudad de Salta, Argentina, con una población estimada en 502 316 habitantes. Se diseñó el muestreo por ambientes, caracterizándolos en función del tipo de infraestructura urbana y su ubicación por zonas geográficas. La identificación de las especies se realizó a partir de técnicas de encuentro visual y transecta auditiva, abarcando la temporada reproductiva 2002-2003. Se detectaron tres familias, siete géneros y doce especies, observando una disminución de la riqueza desde los bordes hacia el centro del ejido urbano. El índice de similitud entre zonas geográficas fue mayor para el par Este-Oeste (94.7, mientras que el menor fue para el par Sur-Oeste (33.3. Bufo arenarum fue la especie presente en todos los ambientes caracterizados, mientras que Hyla andina y Odontophrynus americanus son las especies con distribución más restringida y por lo tanto más vulnerables. Con los datos obtenidos, se generó un mapa de distribución potencial de las especies en la ciudad analizando las posibles causas de las diferencias observadas.Anuran fauna from Salta City, Argentina. The loss and transformation of habitat by anthropogenic activities is one of the main causes of biodiversity decrease. Amphibians are declining all over the world and one of the causes of this decline is thought to be habitat reduction. However

  17. An invasive species induces rapid adaptive change in a native predator: cane toads and black snakes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ben L; Shine, Richard

    2006-06-22

    Rapid environmental change due to human activities has increased rates of extinction, but some species may be able to adapt rapidly enough to deal with such changes. Our studies of feeding behaviour and physiological resistance to toxins reveal surprisingly rapid adaptive responses in Australian black snakes (Pseudechis porphyriacus) following the invasion of a lethally toxic prey item, the cane toad (Bufo marinus). Snakes from toad-exposed localities showed increased resistance to toad toxin and a decreased preference for toads as prey. Separate laboratory experiments suggest that these changes are not attributable to learning (we were unable to teach naive snakes to avoid toxic prey) or to acquired resistance (repeated sub-lethal doses did not enhance resistance). These results strongly suggest that black snake behaviour and physiology have evolved in response to the presence of toads, and have done so rapidly. Toads were brought to Australia in 1935, so these evolved responses have occurred in fewer than 23 snake generations.

  18. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Florenzano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome clinically characterized by bone pain, fractures and muscle weakness. It is caused by tumoral overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 that acts primarily at the proximal renal tubule, decreasing phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25 hydroxyvitamin D, thus producing hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. Lesions are typically small, benign mesenchymal tumors that may be found in bone or soft tissue, anywhere in the body. In up to 60% of these tumors, a fibronectin-1(FN1 and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1 fusion gene has been identified that may serve as a tumoral driver. The diagnosis is established by the finding of acquired chronic hypophosphatemia due to isolated renal phosphate wasting with concomitant elevated or inappropriately normal blood levels of FGF23 and decreased or inappropriately normal 1,25-OH2-Vitamin D (1,25(OH2D. Locating the tumor is critical, as complete removal is curative. For this purpose, a step-wise approach is recommended, starting with a thorough medical history and physical examination, followed by functional imaging. Suspicious lesions should be confirmed by anatomical imaging, and if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23. If the tumor is not localized, or surgical resection is not possible, medical therapy with phosphate and active vitamin D is usually successful in healing the osteomalacia and reducing symptoms. However, compliance is often poor due to the frequent dosing regimen and side effects. Furthermore, careful monitoring is needed to avoid complications such us secondary/tertiary hyperparathyroidism, hypercalciuria, and nephrocalcinosis. Novel therapeutical approaches are being developed for TIO patients, such as image-guided tumor ablation and medical treatment with the anti-FGF23 monoclonal antibody KRN23 or anti FGFR medications. The case of a patient with TIO is presented to

  19. Tachycardia-induced Cardiomyopathy (Tachycardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The term tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy or tachycardiomyopathy refers to impairment in left ventricular function secondary to chronic tachycardia, which is partially or completely reversible once the tachyarrhythmia is controlled. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy has been shown to occur both in experimental models and in patients with incessant tachyarrhythmia.Data from several studies and from case reports have shown that rate control by means of cardioversion, negative chronotropic agents, and surgical or catheter-based atrioventricular node ablation, resulted in significant improvement of systolic function.The diagnosis of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy is usually made following observation of marked improvement in systolic function after normalization of heart rate. Clinicians should be aware that patients with unexplained systolic dysfunction may have tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy, and that controlling the arrhythmia may result in improvement of systolic function.

  20. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing Loss Homepage Facts Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Genetics of Hearing Loss Screening & Diagnosis Types of Hearing Loss About Sound Treatment & Intervention Services Learning Language Bacterial Meningitis Studies Data & Statistics EHDI Annual Data 2015 ...

  1. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use it again if I begin to have exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. True False True: Many people are concerned about the standard prescription: "2 puffs of albuterol before exercise and every ...

  2. Eigenvalue Conditions for Induced Subgraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harant Jochen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Necessary conditions for an undirected graph G to contain a graph H as induced subgraph involving the smallest ordinary or the largest normalized Laplacian eigenvalue of G are presented.

  3. Plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ueno, Kosei; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Shi, Xu; Zhong, Yuqing; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    We have successfully developed a plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis system that uses a gold nanoparticle-loaded oxide semiconductor electrode to produce useful chemical energy as hydrogen and ammonia...

  4. Pregnancy Induced Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanker B

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Prophyria cutanea tarda induced by pregnancy in a 20 year old primi is described along with clinical, biochemical and histological features. All the lesions expect hypertrichosis resolved following childbirth.

  5. [Medical induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettahar, K; Pinton, A; Boisramé, T; Cavillon, V; Wylomanski, S; Nisand, I; Hassoun, D

    2016-12-01

    Updated clinical recommendations for medical induced abortion procedure. A systematic review of French and English literature, reviewing the evidence relating to the provision of medical induced abortion was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library and international scientific societies recommendations. The effectiveness of medical abortion is higher than 95% when the protocols are adjusted to gestational age (EL1). Misoprostol alone is less effective than a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol (EL1). Gemeprost is less effective than misoprostol (EL2). The dose of 200mg of mifepristone should be preferred to 600mg (NP1, Rank A). Mifepristone can be taken at home (professional agreement). The optimum interval between mifepristone and misoprostol intake should be 24 to 48 hours (EL1, grade A). Before 7 weeks LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol should be given orally (EL1, grade A) eventually repeated after 3hours if no bleeding occurs. For optimal effectiveness between 7 and 14 LMP, the interval between mifepristone and misoprostol should not be shortened to less than 8hours (grade 1). An interval of 24 to 48hours will not affect the effectiveness of the method provided misoprostol dosage is 800μg (EL1). Vaginal, sublingual or buccal routes of administration are more effective and better tolerated than the oral route, which should be abandoned (EL1). An amount of 800μg sublingual or buccal misoprostol route has the same effectiveness than the vaginal route but more gastrointestinal side effects (EL1, grade A). Between 7 and 9 LMP, it does not seem necessary to repeat misoprostol dose whereas it should be repeated beyond 9 SA (grade B). Between 9 and 14 LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol given either vaginally, buccally or sublingually should be repeated every 3hours if needed (with a maximum of 5 doses) (EL2, grade B). There is no strong evidence supporting routine antibiotic prophylaxis for medical abortion (professional agreement). Rare contraindications

  6. Bullous Pemphigoid Induced by Vildagliptin

    OpenAIRE

    Bengür Taşkıran Bahattin; Erdoğan Canan Solak; Şişman Güven; Barış Cansu

    2016-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an uncommon chronic, autoimmune, and subepidermal disease. Tense blisters occur on normal or erythematous skin. It can be induced by medications. There is a number of reports on BP induced by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (vildagliptin, sitagliptin, saxagliptin). DPP-4 (CD26), present as a cell surface molecule on immune cells, also plays an important costimulatory role in immune activation. BP more commonly affects elderly men. We present a case of BP i...

  7. Steroid induced huge mediastinal lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Min; Chung, Suk Tae; Kang, Eun Young; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-04-15

    Mediastinal lipomatosis induced by steroid is an unusual byproduct of such therapy and has been reported after prolonged and large doses of steroid therapy. The radiologic findings of mediastinal lipomatosis in simple chest film are nonspecific, but with the advent of CT scan, differentiation the fatty lesion from other mediastinal decreases can be made easily. Recently we expended steroid induced huge mediastinal lipomatosis and report the case with review including radiologic findings.

  8. Amylin induces hypoglycemia in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Guerreiro, Luiz H.; Daniel DA Silva; Mauro Sola-Penna; Mizurini, Daniella M.; Lima,Luís M.T.R.

    2013-01-01

    Amylin is a 37-aminoacid pancreatic protein that exerts control over several metabolic events such as glycemia and lacticemia. Amylin has long been shown to induce increases in arterial plasma glucose. We decided to investigate whether amylin plays additional roles in the glucose metabolism. We evaluated glucose homeostasis using whole blood from the tail tip of fasting, conscious, unrestrained normal and streptozotocyn-induced diabetic mice following subcutaneous administration of mouse amyl...

  9. Holographic Two-Photon Induced Photopolymerization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Holographic two-photon-induced photopolymerization (HTPIP) offers distinct advantages over conventional one-photon-induced photopolymerization and current techniques...

  10. Ketoprofen-induced photoallergic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Yvonne Loh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced photosensitivity reactions are significant adverse effects. Ketoprofen is one of the most common drugs that can cause skin rash in sun-exposed areas. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as ketoprofen, are often used for a variety of symptoms, including pain and fever. An understanding of the presentation and clinical course of ketoprofen-induced photosensitivity is necessary to correctly diagnose and manage this condition. Ketoprofen-induced photosensitivity reactions usually present as photoallergic dermatitis, which is a cell-mediated immune process. The benzophenone moiety in ketoprofen plays a major role in ketoprofen′s ability to act as a photosensitizer. Several agents, such as fenofibrate and octocrylene have been found to be associated with aggravation of ketoprofen-induced photoallergic dermatitis or cross-photosensitization, and these reactions result from structural similarities with ketoprofen. Treatment of ketoprofen-induced photoallergic dermatitis includes discontinuation of ketoprofen, topical or systemic corticosteroids and avoidance of sun exposure and agents known to exacerbate dermatitis. In conclusion, photoallergic dermatitis is a significant adverse effect of ketoprofen. Some agents known to worsen dermatitis may be found in sun protection products (notably, octocrylene in sunscreen. Educating the patient to avoid these products is critical to treatment. Since NSAIDs, such as ketoprofen, are used commonly for a variety of illnesses, drug-induced photoallergic dermatitis should be high on the differential in individuals using these medications who present with acute onset of a rash in sun-exposed areas.

  11. Polyanionic Cyclodextrin Induced Supramolecular Nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, He-Lue; Zhang, Ying-Ming; Chen, Yong; Liu, Yu

    2016-12-23

    Ionizable cyclodextrins have attracted increasing attention in host-guest chemistry and pharmaceutical industry, mainly due to the introduction of favorable electrostatic interactions. The ionizable cyclodextrins could not only enhance its own solubility but also induce oppositely charged guests to form more stable complex. However, the aggregation induced by charged cyclodextrins has rarely been reported. In this work, guided by the concept of molecular-induced aggregation, a series of carboxyl modified cyclodextrins were synthesized via "click" and hydrolysis reaction. Then, UV-vis spectrum was used to investigate the aggregating behaviors induced by these cyclodextrins towards the cationic guest molecules. The results showed that only the hepta-carboxyl-β-cyclodextrin could induce the guest molecules to self-assemble into supramolecular spherical nanoparticles. Meanwhile, it could form stable inclusion complex with amantadine, a drug for anti-Parkinson and antiviral. The assembly behaviors were investigated by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, transmission electron microscope and NMR spectroscopy. The supramolecular nanoparticles induced by hepta-carboxyl-β-CD and its inclusion with amantadine could be used to encapsulate the model drug and achieve its controlled releasing behaviors.

  12. Mitochondrial Swelling Induced by Glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehninger, Albert L.; Schneider, Marion

    1959-01-01

    Reduced glutathione, in concentrations approximating those occurring in intact rat liver, causes swelling of rat liver mitochondria in vitro which is different in kinetics and extent from that yielded by L-thyroxine. The effect is also given by cysteine, which is more active, and reduced coenzyme A, but not by L-ascorbate, cystine, or oxidized glutathione. The optimum pH is 6.5, whereas thyroxine-induced swelling is optimal at pH 7.5. The GSH-induced swelling is not inhibited by DNP or dicumarol, nor by high concentrations of sucrose, serum albumin, or polyvinylpyrrolidone, in contrast to thyroxine-induced swelling. ATP inhibits the GSH swelling, but ADP and AMP are ineffective. Mn-+ is a very potent inhibitor, but Mg++ is ineffective. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate is also an effective inhibitor of GSH-induced swelling. The respiratory inhibitors amytal and antimycin A do not inhibit the swelling action of GSH, but cyanide does; these findings are consistent with the view that the oxidation-reduction state of the respiratory chain between cytochrome c and oxygen is a determinant of GSH-induced swelling. Reversal of GSH-induced swelling by osmotic means or by ATP in KCl media could not be observed. Large losses of nucleotides and protein occur during the swelling by GSH, suggesting that the action is irreversible. The characteristically drastic swelling action of GSH could be prevented if L-thyroxine was also present in the medium. PMID:13630941

  13. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the behaviour of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non- Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope.

  14. [Hallucinogen-induced psychological disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermle, L; Kovar, K-A; Hewer, W; Ruchsow, M

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the current research on hallucinogen induced psychiatric disorders. In addition to LSD and psilocybin hallucinogens of biologic origin are increasingly used by adolescents and young adults. Relevant literature and related articles were identified by means of a computerized MEDLINE search including the years 1997 - 2007. As keywords "hallucinogen induced psychosis", "hallucinogen induced flashback", "hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD)" were used. Finally, 64 journal articles and books out of 103 were included in the review. Acute psychotic syndromes in adolescents are rarely due to intoxications with hallucinogenic drugs. However, clinical relevance of flashback phenomena as post-hallucinogenic psychiatric disorder has to be disputed. Because of the high popularity of biogenic hallucinogens and LSD knowledge of intoxications and resulting psychiatric disorders as well as medical complications and therapeutical approaches are clinically important. Especially intoxications with drugs of herbal origin like tropanalcaloids play an important role in emergency situations.

  15. Hydroxyurea-Induced Replication Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenza Lahkim Bennani-Belhaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloom's syndrome (BS displays one of the strongest known correlations between chromosomal instability and a high risk of cancer at an early age. BS cells combine a reduced average fork velocity with constitutive endogenous replication stress. However, the response of BS cells to replication stress induced by hydroxyurea (HU, which strongly slows the progression of replication forks, remains unclear due to publication of conflicting results. Using two different cellular models of BS, we showed that BLM deficiency is not associated with sensitivity to HU, in terms of clonogenic survival, DSB generation, and SCE induction. We suggest that surviving BLM-deficient cells are selected on the basis of their ability to deal with an endogenous replication stress induced by replication fork slowing, resulting in insensitivity to HU-induced replication stress.

  16. Metal-induced crystallization fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zumin; Mittemeijer, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Metal-Induced CrystallizationAtomic Mechanisms and Interface Thermodynamics of Metal-Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Semiconductors at Low TemperaturesThermodynamics and Kinetics of Layer Exchange upon Low-Temperature Annealing Amorphous Si/Polycrystalline Al Layered StructuresMetal-Induced Crystallization by Homogeneous Insertion of Metallic Species in Amorphous SemiconductorsAluminum-Induced Crystallization: Applications in Photovoltaic TechnologiesApplications of Metal-Induced Crystallization for Advanced Flat-Panel DisplaysLaser-Assisted Meta

  17. Uterine contraction induced by Ghanaian plants used to induce abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birgitte HV; Soelberg, Jens; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Ethnomedicinal observations from the time of the Atlantic slave trade show women in Ghana historically used plants as emmenagogues (menstruation stimulants) and to induce abortion. This study investigates the effect of four of these plants on uterine contraction. The historically used plants were...

  18. Drug-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  19. [Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, A; Berg, M; Stopp, M; Ukena, D; Schieffer, H

    1997-12-01

    Amiodarone is highly effective in suppressing ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The most serious adverse reaction is pulmonary toxicity. The mechanisms involved in amiodarone-induced pulmonary injury are incompletely understood. Several forms of pulmonary disease occur including interstitial pneumonitis, fibrosis or organizing pneumonia. The incidence is generally lower with lower maintenance doses (amiodarone. The diagnosis of amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity is one of exclusion. Treatment consists primarily of stopping amiodarone application. Corticosteroid therapy can be life-saving for severe cases and for patients in whom withdrawl of amiodarone is not possible.

  20. Food-Induced Red Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgin, Susan G

    2017-07-01

    This article addresses the etiology of red eyes and a novel case of food-induced red eye. An 82-year-old white male patient reported 50 years of episodes of severe unilateral bulbar injection in either eye following ingestion of certain foods. Thinned scleras in this particular patient made the injection in his eyes more observable. Photodocumentation of this reaction after he ingested these foods is shown. It is hypothesized that this is a new explanation for an intermittent, unilateral, self-limited red eye-a food-induced red eye.

  1. Drug-induced Brugada syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshino Minoura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brugada syndrome (BrS is an inherited cardiac disorder that is associated with an electrocardiogram pattern of ST segment elevation on right precordial leads and a high incidence of sudden death. Diagnosis requires documentation of a coved-type ST segment that occurs spontaneously or in the presence of a class IA or IC antiarrhythmic agent. A wide variety of other drugs, including antianginals, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and antihistamines, have been reported to unmask or induce the electrocardiographic and arrhythmic manifestations of BrS. This review focuses on drug-induced BrS phenotypes, prevalence, and underlying mechanisms.

  2. Amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed; Ayoub, Walaa; Hassan, Mona; Wisgerhof, Max

    2014-04-12

    A 62-year-old man was found to have bradycardia, hypothermia and respiratory failure 3 weeks after initiation of amiodarone therapy for atrial fibrillation. Thyroid-stimulating hormone was found to be 168 μIU/mL (nl. 0.3-5 μIU/mL) and free thyroxine (FT4) was amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma in the literature report patient death despite supportive therapy and thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents the most thoroughly investigated case of amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma with a history significant for subclinical thyroid disease.

  3. [Imatinib-induced pulmonary toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúd; Morales-Victorino, Neisser

    2009-01-01

    Antineoplasic agent-induced pulmonary toxicity is an important cause of respiratory failure. These novel antineoplastic agents include imatinib mesylate, a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is encoded by the Bcr-Abl gen created by the Philadelphia chromosome abnormality in chronic myeloid leukemia. Pulmonary toxicity of imatinib is directly related to the dose used. The more severe pulmonary manifestations include pleural effusion by water retention and interstitial pneumonitis. We report the first case published in Mexico ofimatinib-induced pulmonary toxicity and its management in the intensive care unit of the Medica Sur Clinic Foundation.

  4. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

  5. Airbag-induced corneal flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Sidath E; Mearza, Ali A

    2009-02-01

    To describe a case of airbag-induced corneal flap in a previously normal cornea. Case report. A 27-year-old woman presented with complete loss of vision in her left eye following a road traffic accident which involved airbag deployment. There was no previous ocular history. Examination revealed a large corneal flap of 6mm in diameter, extending to the depth of anterior stroma. This was accompanied by a traumatic optic neuropathy. One month follow-up revealed complete reattachment of the corneal flap. This is the first reported case of a corneal flap induced by airbag deployment in a cornea with previously normal architecture.

  6. Trainability of cold induced vasodilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Stoop, M.

    2007-01-01

    Peripheral cold injuries are often reported in mountaineers. Not only low ambient temperatures, but also the hypobaric circumstances are known to be major environmental risk factors. When the fingers are exposed to extreme cold for several minutes, cold induced vasodilation (CIVD) occurs, that is

  7. Drug-induced renal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced renal toxicity into four major renal syndromes: • acute renal failure. • chronic renal failure. • glomerulonephritis. • tubulopathies. These major renal syndromes are discussed in further detail below (see summary in Table I). Acute renal failure. Drugs can cause acute renal failure by causing pre-renal, intrinsic or.

  8. Calotropis procera-induced keratitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Nidhi; Chandrakar, A K; M.L. Garg; Patel, Santosh Singh

    2009-01-01

    Calotropis procera produces copious amounts of latex, which has been shown to possess several pharmacological properities. Its local application produces intense inflammatory response. In the 10 cases of Calotropis procera-induced keratitis reported here, the clinical picture showed corneal edema with striate keratopathy without any evidence of intraocular inflammation. The inflammation was reversed by the local application of steroid drops.

  9. Conflict-Induced Perceptual Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In a variety of conflict paradigms, target and distractor stimuli are defined in terms of perceptual features. Interference evoked by distractor stimuli tends to be reduced when the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials is decreased, suggesting conflict-induced perceptual filtering (i.e., adjusting the processing weights assigned to stimuli…

  10. Plasma generation induced by triboelectrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Michelsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    A gas discharge plasma can be induced by triboelectrification around a sliding contact. The detailed physical mechanism of triboelectrification is unknown, but an empirical classification scheme can be referred to in practice. It is reported that intense ultra-violet emission from a plasma...

  11. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  12. Solvent Induced Conformational Kinetics (SICK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, Leffert; Kommandeur, Jan

    1970-01-01

    Specific conformations of molecules may be induced by the solvent when a large free volume is associated with the oonformational change. The conformational energy barrier is then a property of the solvent, rather than of the molecule. Such effects are reported for several substituted

  13. Transdermal hyoscine induced unilateral mydriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, Breffni

    2012-03-20

    The authors present a case of unilateral mydriasis in a teenager prescribed transdermal hyoscine hydrobromide (scopolamine) for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. The authors discuss the ocular side-effects associated with this particular drug and delivery system and the potential use of transdermal hyoscine as an antiemetic agent in this group.

  14. Food-Induced Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Murli; Verma, Alok K; Upparahalli Venkateshaiah, Sathisha; Goyal, Hemant; Mishra, Anil

    2017-12-01

    Food allergy, a commonly increasing problem worldwide, defined as an adverse immune response to food. A variety of immune-related effector cells such as mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and T cells are involved in food-related allergic responses categorized as IgE mediated, non-IgE mediated, and mixed (IgE and non-IgE) depending upon underlying immunological mechanisms. The dietary antigens mainly target the gastrointestinal tract including pancreas that gets inflamed due to food allergy and leads acute pancreatitis. Reports indicate several food proteins induce pancreatitis; however, detailed underlying mechanism of food-induced pancreatitis is unexplored. The aim of the review is to understand and update the current scenario of food-induced pancreatitis. A comprehensive literature search of relevant research articles has been performed through PubMed, and articles were chosen based on their relevance to food allergen-mediated pancreatitis. Several cases in the literature indicate that acute pancreatitis has been provoked after the consumption of mustard, milk, egg, banana, fish, and kiwi fruits. Food-induced pancreatitis is an ignored and unexplored area of research. The review highlights the significance of food in the development of pancreatitis and draws the attention of physicians and scientists to consider food allergies as a possible cause for initiation of pancreatitis pathogenesis.

  15. SPS Ion Induced Desorption Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    This experiment will give a study about the induced desorption from heavy ion (Indium ion run from week 45 in SPS T4-H8 area) impacting LHC type graphite collimator. 4 different samples are located in the 4 chambers 90° one to each other: pure graphite, graphite with copper coating, graphite with NEG coating, 316LN stainless steal (reference).

  16. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  17. Modeling Flow-Induced Crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozemond, Peter C.; van Drongelen, Martin; Peters, Gerrit W.M.; Auriemma, Finizia; Alfonso, Giovanni Carlo; de Rosa, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    A numerical model is presented that describes all aspects of flow-induced crystallization of isotactic polypropylene at high shear rates and elevated pressures. It incorporates nonlinear viscoelasticity, including viscosity change as a result of formation of oriented fibrillar crystals (shish),

  18. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hypothyroidism where patients hail from iodine-replete or excess areas. The mechanism of amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism may be mediated by excess iodide. The large amount of iodide released by metabolism of amiodarone inhibits thyroid hormone biosynthesis (the Wolff-Chaikoff. Divisions of Endocrinology and ...

  19. Pregestational Obesity-Induced Embryopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Román, Gipsis; Fernández-Romero, Tammy; Perera-Calderín, Alfredo J; Rodríguez-Sosa, Víctor M; Arranz, Celeste; Hernández, Sonia Clapés

    2016-09-01

    Several epidemiologic studies in humans have shown a relationship between pregestational obesity and congenital malformations in offsprings. However, there are no experimental evidence in animal models of obesity and pregnancy that reproduce the teratogenesis induced by this pathological condition. To evaluate the effect of monosodium glutamate-induced obesity on embryonic development. Female rats received subcutaneously (4 mg/g body weight) monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution or saline solution 0.9% (vehicle control) at days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 of life. At 90 days of age, all animals were mated, and on day 11 of pregnancy, the animals were killed. Biochemical variables (glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and insulin) were determined in plasma of dams and embryo homogenates (DNA and protein content, advanced oxidation protein products). Embryos were evaluated for malformations, crown-rump length, and somite number. Obese rats presented higher triglyceride levels as compared to nonobese rats. Increased proportion of malformed embryos, decreased crown-rump length, somite number, DNA, and protein content were observed in offspring of obese rats. The model of obesity induced with MSG reproduces the maternal obesity-induced teratogenesis. The hypertriglyceridemia observed in MSG obese pregnant rats could be related to increased birth defect. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Exorcising ghosts in induced gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narain, Gaurav [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China (KITPC), Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-10-15

    Unitarity of the scale-invariant coupled theory of higher-derivative gravity and matter is investigated. A scalar field coupled with a Dirac fermion is taken as the matter sector. Following the idea of induced gravity the Einstein-Hilbert term is generated via dynamical symmetry breaking of scale invariance. The renormalisation group flows are computed and one-loop RG improved effective potential of scalar is calculated. The scalar field develops a new minimum via the Coleman-Weinberg procedure inducing the Newton constant and masses in the matter sector. The spin-2 problematic ghost and the spin-0 mode of the metric fluctuation get a mass in the broken phase of the theory. The energy dependence of the vacuum expectation value in the RG improved scenario implies a running for the induced parameters. This sets up platform to ask whether it is possible to evade the spin-2 ghost by keeping its mass always above the running energy scale? In broken phase this question is satisfactorily answered for a large domain of coupling parameter space where the ghost is evaded. The spin-0 mode can be made physically realisable or not depending upon the choice of the initial parameters. The induced Newton constant is seen to vanish in the ultraviolet case. By properly choosing parameters it is possible to make the matter fields physically unrealisable. (orig.)