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Sample records for buffered metal tapes

  1. Buffer layers on metal alloy substrates for superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Groves, James R.

    2004-10-05

    An article including a substrate, at least one intermediate layer upon the surface of the substrate, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the at least one intermediate layer, and a layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer is provided together with additional layers such as a HTS top-layer of YBCO directly upon the layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material layer. With a HTS top-layer of YBCO upon at least one layer of the SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material in such an article, J.sub.c 's of up to 1.3.times.10.sup.6 A/cm.sup.2 have been demonstrated with projected I.sub.c 's of over 200 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide.

  2. Buffer layers on metal alloy substrates for superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Groves, James R.

    2004-06-29

    An article including a substrate, a layer of an inert oxide material upon the surface of the substrate, a layer of an amorphous oxide or oxynitride material upon the inert oxide material layer, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the amorphous oxide material layer, and a layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer is provided together with additional layers such as a HTS top-layer of YBCO directly upon the layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material layer. With a HTS top-layer of YBCO upon at least one layer of the SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material in such an article, J.sub.c 's of up to 1.3.times.10.sup.6 A/cm.sup.2 have been demonstrated with projected IC's of over 200 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide.

  3. A possibility of enhancing Jc in MgB2 film grown on metallic hastelloy tape with the use of SiC buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have grown MgB2 on SiC buffer layer by using metallic Hastelloy tape as the substrate. Hastelloy tape was chosen for its potential practical applications, mainly in the power cable industry. SiC buffer layers were deposited on Hastelloy tapes at 400, 500, and 600 degrees C by using a pulsed laser deposition method, and then by using a hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition technique, MgB2 films were grown on the three different SiC buffer layers. An enhancement of critical current density values were noticed in the MgB2 films on SiC/Hastelloy deposited at 500 and 600 degrees C. From the surface analysis, smaller and denser grains of MgB2 tapes are likely to cause this enhancement. This result infers that the addition of SiC buffer layers may contribute to the improvement of superconducting properties of MgB2 tapes.

  4. Study of the Nucleation and Growth of YBCO on Oxide Buffered Metallic Tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav

    2009-04-10

    The CRADA collaboration concentrated on developing the scientific understanding of the factors necessary for commercialization of high temperature superconductors (HTS) based on the YBCO coated conductor technology for electric power applications. The project pursued the following objectives: 1. Establish the correlations between the YBCO nuclei density and the properties of the CeO{sub 2} layer of the RABiTS{trademark} template; 2. Compare the nucleation and growth of e-beam and MOD based precursors on the buffered RABiTS{trademark} templates and clarify the materials science behind the difference; and 3. Explore routes for the optimization of the nucleation and growth of thick film MOD precursors in order to achieve high critical current densities in thick films. The CRADA work proceeded in two steps: 1. Detailed characterization of epitaxial ceria layers on “model” substrates, such as (001) YSZ and on RABiTS tapes; and 2. Study of YBCO nucleation on well-defined substrates and on long-length RABiTS.

  5. Pulsed laser deposition of YBCO films on ISD MgO buffered metal tapes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, B; Koritala, R E; Fisher, B L; Markowitz, A R; Erck, R A; Baurceanu, R; Dorris, S E; Miller, D J; Balachandran, U

    2003-01-01

    Biaxially textured magnesium oxide (MgO) films deposited by inclined-substrate deposition (ISD) are desirable for rapid production of high-quality template layers for YBCO-coated conductors. High-quality YBCO films were grown on ISD MgO buffered metallic substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Columnar grains with a roof-tile surface structure were observed in the ISD MgO films. X-ray pole figure analysis revealed that the (002) planes of the ISD MgO films are tilted at an angle from the substrate normal. A small full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of approx 9deg was observed in the phi-scan for ISD MgO films deposited at an inclination angle of 55deg . In-plane texture in the ISD MgO films developed in the first approx 0.5 mu m from the substrate surface, and then stabilized with further increases in film thickness. Yttria-stabilized zirconia and ceria buffer layers were deposited on the ISD MgO grown on metallic substrates prior to the deposition of YBCO by PLD. YBCO films with the c-axis parallel to the...

  6. Pulsed laser deposition of YBCO films on ISD MgO buffered metal tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaxially textured magnesium oxide (MgO) films deposited by inclined-substrate deposition (ISD) are desirable for rapid production of high-quality template layers for YBCO-coated conductors. High-quality YBCO films were grown on ISD MgO buffered metallic substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Columnar grains with a roof-tile surface structure were observed in the ISD MgO films. X-ray pole figure analysis revealed that the (002) planes of the ISD MgO films are tilted at an angle from the substrate normal. A small full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of ∼9deg was observed in the φ-scan for ISD MgO films deposited at an inclination angle of 55deg . In-plane texture in the ISD MgO films developed in the first ∼0.5 μm from the substrate surface, and then stabilized with further increases in film thickness. Yttria-stabilized zirconia and ceria buffer layers were deposited on the ISD MgO grown on metallic substrates prior to the deposition of YBCO by PLD. YBCO films with the c-axis parallel to the substrate normal have a unique orientation relationship with the ISD MgO films. An orientation relationship of YBCO(100)||MgO(111) and YBCO(010)||MgO(110) was measured by x-ray pole figure analyses and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. A Tc of 91 K with a sharp transition and transport Jc of 5.5 x 105 A cm-2 at 77 K in self-field were measured on a YBCO film that was 0.46 μm thick, 4 mm wide and 10 mm long

  7. Fabrication of Y1-xRE xBa2Cu3O y films on single crystalline substrates and IBAD buffered metallic tapes by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated Y1-xSm xBa2Cu3O y and YSm xBa2Cu3O y (YSmBCO) films on SrTiO3 (STO) single crystalline substrates and IBAD buffered metallic tapes (PLD-CeO2/IBAD-GZO/Hastelloy) by the advanced TFA-MOD process by mixing TFA salts of Y, Sm, Ba and Cu naphthenate, and tried to improve the superconductivity properties compared with those of the pure YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO). As a result, J c values of Y1-xSm xBa2Cu3O y films with x = 0.05 or 0.3, which were fabricated on STO substrates, were improved under the high magnetic fields compared with those of the YBCO without substitution. However, Sm segregation was detected near the STO substrate which was obtained by the TEM-EDS (transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis. On the other hand, Y1-xSm xBa2Cu3O y films with x = 0.05 and YSm xBa2Cu3O y films with x = 0.3, which were fabricated on IBAD buffered metallic substrates, also improved I c value under the high magnetic fields compared with those of the YBCO without substitution. Moreover, from the TEM-EDS analysis, Y or Sm segregation was not found. The difference in the Sm segregation behavior between the film on STO and CeO2 buffered substrates could be explained by the difference in the ratios of the misfit parameters between YBCO/substrate and SmBCO/substrate. Additionally, it was considered that the above phenomenon might be unique in the MOD system and could not be observed in the PLD system, because of the difference in the crystal growth mechanism. In the film of YSm0.3Ba2Cu3O y, we observed the grains of (Y, Sm)2O3 and (Y, Sm)2Cu2O5 by TEM observation. We will further investigate the origin of pinning centers

  8. Electrically conducting oxide buffer layers on biaxially textured nickel alloy tapes by reel-to-reel MOCVD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reel-to-reel MOCVD process for continuous growth of electrically conducting buffer layers on biaxially textured Ni5W tapes has been developed. The new buffer layer architechture is presented: 200 nm (La, Ba)2CuO4/40 nm (La, Ba)MnO3/Ni5W. Constituting layers with high structural quality have been grown on moving tapes (in plane FWHM ≤ 60 and out of plane FWHM ≤ 30)

  9. Clad buffer rod sensors for liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clad buffer rods, consisting of a core and a cladding, have been developed for ultrasonic monitoring of liquid metal processing. The cores of these rods are made of low ultrasonic-loss materials and the claddings are fabricated by thermal spray techniques. The clad geometry ensures proper ultrasonic guidance. The lengths of these rods ranges from tens of centimeters to 1m. On-line ultrasonic level measurements in liquid metals such as magnesium at 700 deg C and aluminum at 960 deg C are presented to demonstrate their operation at high temperature and their high ultrasonic performance. A spherical concave lens is machined at the rod end for improving the spatial resolution. High quality ultrasonic images have been obtained in the liquid zinc at 600 deg C. High spatial resolution is needed for the detection of inclusions in liquid metals during processing. We also show that the elastic properties such as density, longitudinal and shear wave velocities of liquid metals can be measured using a transducer which generates and receives both longitudinal and shear waves and is mounted at the end of a clad buffer rod. (author)

  10. In-plane textured oxide buffer layer for the TFA-MOD method on {0 0 1} Ni tapes using MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a low cost process, the so-called all-MOD process, whereby we used MOD to deposit both YBCO and oxide buffer layers on {1 0 0} Ni tapes. Highly in-plane textured and crack-free Ce-Gd-O (CGO) buffer layers on the cube-textured Ni tapes were achieved by the MOD process. Highly in-plane textured YBCO films on the CGO-buffered Ni tapes were also observed. Long tapes were made by applying a 1 m long CGO buffer layer on the Ni tapes and firing in a batch-type furnace. The CGO films were made by a continuous bead coating process and firing under an Ar-H2 atmosphere. The 1 m CGO-on-Ni tape was highly in-plane textured. RI(200) and FWHM of phi-scan values were 88-96% and 7.0-8.5 deg., respectively. We determined the degree of (n 0 0)-orientation: RI(n00) [≡I(n00)/{I(n00)+I(mmm)}x100(%)], where I(n00) and I(mmm) peaks represent the X-ray θ-2θintensities. These results indicate that buffered Ni tapes made by the MOD process are useful for TFA-MOD fabrication of long-length YBCO coated conductors

  11. YBCO coated conductors on highly textured Pd-buffered Ni-W tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High critical current density YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coated conductors were obtained on cube textured Ni-W. The use of a Pd transient layer as a first buffer led to a sharp out-of-plane grains alignment of the CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 buffer layer. YBCO films grown on this template exhibit an out-of-plane orientation with a full width at half maximum of about 30, less than 50% of the respective starting Ni-W value. Despite the complete interdiffusion between Ni-W and Pd after the YBCO film deposition, the coated conductors exhibit good film adherence as well as a crack free and smooth surface of the YBCO film. YBCO thin films show critical temperature values above than 88 K and a critical current density of 2.1 MA/cm2 at 77 K and self field

  12. YBCO coated conductors on highly textured Pd-buffered Ni-W tape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celentano, G [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Galluzzi, V [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Mancini, A [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Rufoloni, A [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Vannozzi, A [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Augieri, A [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Petrisor, T [Technical University of Cluj Napoca (Romania); Ciontea, L [Technical University of Cluj Napoca (Romania); Gambardella, U [INFN-LFN, Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2006-06-01

    High critical current density YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) coated conductors were obtained on cube textured Ni-W. The use of a Pd transient layer as a first buffer led to a sharp out-of-plane grains alignment of the CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/CeO{sub 2} buffer layer. YBCO films grown on this template exhibit an out-of-plane orientation with a full width at half maximum of about 3{sup 0}, less than 50% of the respective starting Ni-W value. Despite the complete interdiffusion between Ni-W and Pd after the YBCO film deposition, the coated conductors exhibit good film adherence as well as a crack free and smooth surface of the YBCO film. YBCO thin films show critical temperature values above than 88 K and a critical current density of 2.1 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and self field.

  13. The Improved Transient Stabilities of HTS Coils by Removing the Insulation and Inserting the Metal Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. B.; Kajikawa, H.; Ikoma, H.; Joo, J. H.; Jo, J. M.; Han, Y. J.; Jeong, H. S.

    NMR/MRI magnets have a protection device to prevent the damages due to a quench. On the other hand, the protection device design of HTS coils or magnets are very difficult because it has a very low normal zone propagation velocity (NZPV) and complicate behaviors of quench. We have studied the methods to improve the self-protection ability of HTS coils by removing the turn-to-turn insulation and inserting the metal tape instead of insulation. In this paper, the improved transient stabilities and self- protection abilities of HTS coils by removing the insulation and inserting metal tapes will be presented by minimum quench energy (MQE).

  14. Fabrication of Ni-5 at. %W Long Tapes with CeO2 Buffer Layer by Reel-to-Reel Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Lin; Tian, Hui; Yue, Zhao;

    2015-01-01

    A 10-m-long homemade textured Ni-5at.%W (Ni5W) long tape with a CeO2 buffer layer has been prepared successfully by means of rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrate (RABiTS) route followed by a chemical solution deposition method in a reel-to-reel manner. Globally, the Ni5W substrate and CeO2...... film exhibit high homogeneity in terms of biaxial texture over the tape. The average values of full width at half maximum of in-plane and out-of-plane texture are 7.2° and 6.1° in Ni5W substrate, 7.6° and 6.1° in CeO2 buffer layer, respectively, all of those with a small standard deviation. On a...... microlevel, the CeO2 film epitaxially grows well on top of the Ni5W tape. A continuous, smooth, and crack-free morphology was observed on the CeO2 film and the fraction of low-angle grain boundaries (≤ 10°) is about 98 %. This process is a potential possibility for producing long-length textured CeO2/Ni5W...

  15. Textured tape substrates from binary copper alloys with vanadium and yttrium for the epitaxial deposition of buffer and superconducting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Rodionov, D. P.; Egorova, L. Yu.; Suaridze, T. R.

    2016-05-01

    The structure of tapes of binary Cu-0.6 wt % V and Cu-1 wt % Y alloys and texturing process of them in the course of cold deformation by rolling to 99% and subsequent recrystallizing annealing have been studied. The possibility of achieving the perfect cube texture in thin tapes made from binary copper-based alloys with vanadium and yttrium additions has in principle been shown. This opens the prospect of using them as substrates when manufacturing tapes of second-generation high-temperature superconductors. Optimum annealing conditions for the studied alloys have been determined, which have made it possible to produce the perfect biaxial texture with a content of cube {001} ± 10° grains on the surfaces of textured tapes of more than 95%.

  16. Elastic strain relief in nitridated Ga metal buffer layers for epitaxial GaN growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallium nitride epitaxial layers were grown on sapphire by molecular-beam epitaxy using nitridated gallium metal films as buffer layers. The mechanical properties of the buffer layers were investigated and correlated with their chemical composition as determined by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy. Biaxial tension experiments were performed by bending the substrates in a pressure cell designed for simultaneous photoluminescence measurements. The shift of the excitonic luminescence peak was used to determine the stress induced in the main GaN epilayer. The fraction of stress transferred from substrate to main layer was as low as 27% for samples grown on nitridated metal buffer layers, compared to nearly 100% for samples on conventional low-temperature GaN buffer layers. The efficiency of stress relief increased in proportion to the fraction of metallic Ga in the nitridated metal buffer layers. These findings suggest GaN films containing residual metallic Ga may serve as compliant buffer layers for heteroepitaxy

  17. Polarization Manipulation via Orientation Control in Polycrystalline BiFeO3 Thin Films on Biaxially Textured, Flexible Metallic Tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Junsoo [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Heatherly Jr, Lee [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    (111)-, (101)-, and (001)-oriented polycrystalline BiFeO3 films were fabricated on rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates (RABiTS) with appropriate, buffer layer engineering of heteroepitaxially grown buffer multilayers on RABiTS. The crystallographic orientation and polarization direction were confirmed using X-ray diffraction and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), respectively. All the films exhibited excellent ferroelectric properties. Switching spectroscopy PFM demonstrated that the switching polarization in (111)-oriented polycrystalline BiFeO3 films is higher than (101) or (001) oriented films. These high-quality, BiFeO3 films on low-cost, flexible, biaxially textured metallic tapes with controllable orientation and polarization are attractive for application in flexible ferroelectric devices.

  18. Accelerated testing of metal foil tape joints and their effect of photovoltaic module reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, N. Robert; Quintana, Michael A.; Puskar, Joseph D.; Lucero, Samuel J.

    2009-08-01

    A program is underway at Sandia National Laboratories to predict long-term reliability of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The vehicle for the reliability predictions is a Reliability Block Diagram (RBD), which models system behavior. Because this model is based mainly on field failure and repair times, it can be used to predict current reliability, but it cannot currently be used to accurately predict lifetime. In order to be truly predictive, physics-informed degradation processes and failure mechanisms need to be included in the model. This paper describes accelerated life testing of metal foil tapes used in thin-film PV modules, and how tape joint degradation, a possible failure mode, can be incorporated into the model.

  19. The effect of the carbon nanotube buffer layer on the performance of a Li metal battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-05-01

    Lithium (Li) metal is one of the most promising candidates as an anode for the next-generation energy storage systems because of its high specific capacity and lowest negative electrochemical potential. But the growth of Li dendrites limits the application of the Li metal battery. In this work, a type of modified Li metal battery with a carbon nanotube (CNT) buffer layer inserted between the separator and the Li metal electrode was reported. The electrochemical results show that the modified batteries have a much better rate capability and cycling performance than the conventional Li metal batteries. The mechanism study by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that the modified battery has a smaller charge transfer resistance and larger Li ion diffusion coefficient during the deposition process on the Li electrode than the conventional Li metal batteries. Symmetric battery tests show that the interfacial behavior of the Li metal electrode with the buffer layer is more stable than the naked Li metal electrode. The morphological characterization of the CNT buffer layer and Li metal lamina reveals that the CNT buffer layer has restrained the growth of Li dendrites. The CNT buffer layer has great potential to solve the safety problem of the Li metal battery.Lithium (Li) metal is one of the most promising candidates as an anode for the next-generation energy storage systems because of its high specific capacity and lowest negative electrochemical potential. But the growth of Li dendrites limits the application of the Li metal battery. In this work, a type of modified Li metal battery with a carbon nanotube (CNT) buffer layer inserted between the separator and the Li metal electrode was reported. The electrochemical results show that the modified batteries have a much better rate capability and cycling performance than the conventional Li metal batteries. The mechanism study by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that the modified battery has a

  20. The effect of the carbon nanotube buffer layer on the performance of a Li metal battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-06-01

    Lithium (Li) metal is one of the most promising candidates as an anode for the next-generation energy storage systems because of its high specific capacity and lowest negative electrochemical potential. But the growth of Li dendrites limits the application of the Li metal battery. In this work, a type of modified Li metal battery with a carbon nanotube (CNT) buffer layer inserted between the separator and the Li metal electrode was reported. The electrochemical results show that the modified batteries have a much better rate capability and cycling performance than the conventional Li metal batteries. The mechanism study by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that the modified battery has a smaller charge transfer resistance and larger Li ion diffusion coefficient during the deposition process on the Li electrode than the conventional Li metal batteries. Symmetric battery tests show that the interfacial behavior of the Li metal electrode with the buffer layer is more stable than the naked Li metal electrode. The morphological characterization of the CNT buffer layer and Li metal lamina reveals that the CNT buffer layer has restrained the growth of Li dendrites. The CNT buffer layer has great potential to solve the safety problem of the Li metal battery. PMID:27181758

  1. Influence of electrode, buffer gas and control gear on metal halide lamp performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the influence of electrode composition, buffer gas fill pressure and control gear on the performance of metal halide lamps is investigated. It is shown that pure tungsten electrodes improve lumen maintenance and reduce voltage rise over lamp life. An optimum buffer gas fill pressure condition is discovered which allows for reduced electrode erosion during lamp starting as well as under normal operating conditions. Use of electronic control gear is shown to improve the performance of metal halide lamps

  2. Light Confinement by a Cylindric Metallic Waveguide in Dense Buffer Gas Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Vogl, Ulrich; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin; Solovev, Alexander; Mei, Yongfeng; Schmidt, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    We report on the implementation of metallic microtubes in a system of rubidium vapour at 230\\,bar of argon buffer gas. The high buffer gas pressure leads to a widely pressure broadened linewidth of several nanometers, interpolating between the sharp atomic physics spectra and the band structure of solid state systems. Tube-like metallic waveguide structures have been inserted in the high pressure buffer gas system, allowing for an enhancement of the atom-light interaction over an optical guiding length in the tube of up to 1\\,mm. The system holds promise for nonlinear optics experiments and the study of atom-light polariton condensation.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of graded impedance impactors for gas gun experiments from tape cast metal powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication of compositionally graded structures for use as light-gas gun impactors has been demonstrated using a tape casting technique. Mixtures of metal powders in the Mg-Cu system were cast into a series of tapes with uniform compositions ranging from 100% Mg to 100% Cu. The individual compositions were fabricated into monolithic pellets for characterization by laminating multiple layers together, thermally removing the organics, and hot-pressing to near-full density. The pellets were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and measurement of density and sound wave velocity. The density and acoustic impedance were observed to vary monotonically (and nearly linearly) with composition. Graded structures were fabricated by stacking layers of different compositions in a sequence calculated to yield a desired acoustic impedance profile. The measured physical properties of the graded structures compare favorably with those predicted from the monolithic pellet characteristics. Fabrication of graded impactors by this technique is of significant interest for providing improved control of the pressure profile and impactor planarity in gas gun experiments

  4. Ligand-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Iannelli, Renato; Losito, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The suitability of electrokinetic remediation for removing heavy metals from dredged marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity was investigated. Laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments were carried out by applying two different voltage gradients to the sediment (0.5 and 0.8 V/cm) while circulating water or two different chelating agents at the electrode compartments. Tap water, 0.1 M citric acid and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were used respectively. The investigated metals were Zn, Pb, V, Ni and Cu. In the unenhanced experiment, the acid front could not propagate due to the high acid buffering capacity of the sediments; the production of OH(-) ions at the cathode resulted in a high-pH environment causing the precipitation of CaCO3 and metal hydroxides. The use of citric acid prevented the formation of precipitates, but solubilisation and mobilisation of metal species were not sufficiently achieved. Metal removal was relevant when EDTA was used as the conditioning agent, and the electric potential was raised up to 0.8 V/cm. EDTA led to the formation of negatively charged complexes with metals which migrated towards the anode compartment by electromigration. This result shows that metal removal from sediments with high acid buffering capacity may be achieved by enhancing the electrokinetic process by EDTA addition when the acidification of the medium is not economically and/or environmentally sustainable. PMID:26490900

  5. Palladium buffer-layered high performance ionic polymer–metal composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new IPMC fabrication method—that is not a repetitive reduction processes—and a new supporting electrode material that is responsible for this procedure are described in this paper. A palladium metal, acting as a buffer layer, was deposited before plating the platinum electrode in order to articulate the surface morphology and the interfacial effect between the electrode and the membrane. The platinum layer was sequentially grown using an electroless chemical deposition on a palladium buffer layer on the polymer membrane. The surface morphology and conductivity of the electrode were enhanced by depositing a buffer layer. Under the same applied voltage, when compared to IPMCs without a buffer layer, the IPMCs with a palladium buffer layer showed a greater bending tendency and had a higher blocking force. The results also indicated that such IPMCs do not exhibit the back relaxation phenomenon under a sustained DC voltage. The amplitude of the transduction signal produced by the Pt/Pd IPMC shows much larger amplitude of the signal produced by the Pt IPMC. Thus, the IPMC with a palladium buffer layer has the potential for future applications as an actuator and transducer

  6. Effect of noble metal buffer layers on superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 thin films have been prepared by using a magnetron sputtering system in the single-source mode. Samples deposited on [100] single-crystal MgO with and without a Au buffer layer all show high transition temperatures (82--87 K). The use of a Au buffer layer significantly improves the superconducting properties, particularly the Meissner effect and critical current density (3.3 x 106 A/cm2 at T = 2 K and 3.5 x 104 A/cm2 at T = 77 K). The Au films remain metallic after high-temperature annealing in an oxygen atmosphere. We propose to use Au buffer layers as current shunts to protect superconducting films and devices

  7. The W-W02 Oxygen Fugacity Buffer at High Pressures and Temperatures: Implications for f02 Buffering and Metal-silicate Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofner, G. A.; Campbell, A. J.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen fugacity (fO2) controls multivalent phase equilibria and partitioning of redox-sensitive elements, and it is important to understand this thermodynamic parameter in experimental and natural systems. The coexistence of a metal and its oxide at equilibrium constitutes an oxygen buffer which can be used to control or calculate fO2 in high pressure experiments. Application of 1-bar buffers to high pressure conditions can lead to inaccuracies in fO2 calculations because of unconstrained pressure dependencies. Extending fO2 buffers to pressures and temperatures corresponding to the Earth's deep interior requires precise determinations of the difference in volume (Delta) V) between the buffer phases. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction data were obtained using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and a multi anvil press (MAP) to measure unit cell volumes of W and WO2 at pressures and temperatures up to 70 GPa and 2300 K. These data were fitted to Birch-Murnaghan 3rd-order thermal equations of state using a thermal pressure approach; parameters for W are KT = 306 GPa, KT' = 4.06, and aKT = 0.00417 GPa K-1. Two structural phase transitions were observed for WO2 at 4 and 32 GPa with structures in P21/c, Pnma and C2/c space groups. Equations of state were fitted for these phases over their respective pressure ranges yielding the parameters KT = 190, 213, 300 GPa, KT' = 4.24, 5.17, 4 (fixed), and aKT = 0.00506, 0.00419, 0.00467 GPa K-1 for the P21/c, Pnma and C2/c phases, respectively. The W-WO2 buffer (WWO) was extended to high pressure by inverting the W and WO2 equations of state to obtain phase volumes at discrete pressures (1-bar to 100 GPa, 1 GPa increments) along isotherms (300 to 3000K, 100 K increments). The slope of the absolute fO2 of the WWO buffer is positive with increasing temperature up to approximately 70 GPa and is negative above this pressure. The slope is positive along isotherms from 1000 to 3000K with increasing pressure up to at least 100 GPa. The WWO buffer is at

  8. Improved heteroepitaxial MBE GaN growth with a Ga metal buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yihwan; Subramanya, Sudhir G.; Krueger, Joachim; Siegle, Henrik; Shapiro, Noad; Armitage, Robert; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kisielowski, Christian; Yang, Yi; Cerrina, Franco

    2000-05-15

    We demonstrate that the use of pure gallium (Ga) as a buffer layer results in improved crystal quality of GaN epilayers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-plane sapphire. The resulting epilayers show electron Hall mobilities as high as 400 cm 2 /Vs at a background carrier concentration of 4 x 10 17 cm -3 , an outstanding value for an MBE-grown GaN layer on sapphire. Structural properties are also improved; the asymmetric (101) X-ray rocking curve width is drastically reduced with respect to that of the reference GaN epilayer grown on a low-temperature GaN buffer layer. Nitrided Ga metal layers were investigated for different Ga deposition time. These layers can be regarded as templates for the subsequent Ga main layer growth. It was found that there is an optimum Ga metal layer deposition time for improving the electron mobility in the epilayer. Heating of the Ga metal layer to the epilayer growth temperature under nitrogen plasma is found to be sufficient to produce highly oriented GaN crystals. However, nonuniform surface morphology and incomplete surface coverage were observed after nitridation of comparatively thick Ga metal layers. This is shown to be the reason for the decreasing electron mobility of the epilayers as the Ga metal layer thickness exceeds the optimum value.

  9. Improved heteroepitaxial MBE GaN growth with a Ga metal buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that the use of pure gallium (Ga) as a buffer layer results in improved crystal quality of GaN epilayers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-plane sapphire. The resulting epilayers show electron Hall mobilities as high as 400 cm 2 /Vs at a background carrier concentration of 4 x 10 17 cm -3 , an outstanding value for an MBE-grown GaN layer on sapphire. Structural properties are also improved; the asymmetric (101) X-ray rocking curve width is drastically reduced with respect to that of the reference GaN epilayer grown on a low-temperature GaN buffer layer. Nitrided Ga metal layers were investigated for different Ga deposition time. These layers can be regarded as templates for the subsequent Ga main layer growth. It was found that there is an optimum Ga metal layer deposition time for improving the electron mobility in the epilayer. Heating of the Ga metal layer to the epilayer growth temperature under nitrogen plasma is found to be sufficient to produce highly oriented GaN crystals. However, nonuniform surface morphology and incomplete surface coverage were observed after nitridation of comparatively thick Ga metal layers. This is shown to be the reason for the decreasing electron mobility of the epilayers as the Ga metal layer thickness exceeds the optimum value

  10. YBCO superconducting tapes by magnetron IBAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Large-scale commercial applications of high-temperature superconductors in power devices and systems operating at liquid nitrogen temperatures (77 K) require flexible wire or tape with high critical current density, Jc = 104 - 106 A cm-2, that can be sustained in moderate to high magnetic field, ie. ≤ 0.2 T for transmission cables, 2 - 4 T for motors and transformers, 2 - 10 T for energy storage devices and superconducting magnets. These requirements cannot be met with the silver-sheathed Bi-2223/Ag composite tapes because of inherent materials constraints (eg. low flux pinning, granularity) and various processing difficulties. Recent efforts to produce high-current YBCO superconducting tapes (YBa2Cu3O7/buffer/metal) based on high quality epitaxial c-axis YBa2Cu3O7 thin films deposited on buffered Ni-based alloy substrates have demonstrated Jc = 105 - 106 A cm-2 and unsurpassed magnetic field performance at 77 K. From an existing platform in ion beam and thin film technologies we are developing in situ processes to address scale-up issues to produce YBCO tape. Here we discuss the deposition by magnetron IBAD and the properties of YBCO tapes. Biaxially aligned YSZ and CeO2 buffer layers are deposited at room temperature on polished Hastelloy substrates. Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7 thin films, 200 - 400 nm thick, are deposited at 750 deg C by sputtering a stoichiometric YBa2Cu3O7 ceramic target in an argon/oxygen plasma. X-ray θ-2θ diffraction, rocking curves (ω scans), φ scans and pole figures are used to determine the crystalline quality and biaxial alignment of films. Typical YSZ and CeO2 buffer layers have (111) poles in the direction of the ion beam (55 deg) and full width at half maximum FWHM = 24 - 30 deg. The YBCO tapes have (103) pole FWHM = 24 deg, Δω = 2 deg and Jc ∼ 3x105 A cm-2 at 77 K Similar YBa2Cu3O7 films deposited on MgO (100) substrates have Jc = (1 - 4)x106 A cm-2

  11. Metal-clad superconducting tapes with high critical current density in the Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting powders representing the Y-Ba-Cy-O (YBCO) and Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BPSCCO) systems were used either alone or combining them with different amounts of silver powder to fabricate metal-clad superconducting tapes by the powder-in-tube method. The metallic tubes used were nickel for the YBCO system and silver for the BPSCCO system. The initial tapes were produced by cold-rolling the tubes to various thicknesses and then processed following rigorous regimens of sintering, annealing and oxygenation schedules. The YBCO tapes were generally processed by a gradientless melt-texturizing process in an oxygen atmosphere, and the BPSCCO tapes were processed by a combination of rolling and sintering operations in air and in low oxygen partial pressure. This paper reports on the effects of various compositional and processing variables on the superconductive properties of the tapes measured by the DC magnetization, AC susceptibility and direct transport current measurements. Transport critical currents greater than 600 A at 4.2K were routinely carried by the YBCO tapes. Also, for the YBCO system, the effects of silver addition to control oxygenation and nickel poisoning of the superconducting phase were studied in detail with the help of magnetization measurements. Addition of silver up to 5 wt% was found to be beneficial for critical current density in YBCO tapes. However, direct contact of the superconductor with oxygen was essential for optimum current density. On the other hand, homogenization of the precursor powder by repeated calcination and the tapes of the lowest thickness offered the most improved critical current density values of the BPSCCO system

  12. A resin-buffered nutrient solution for controlling metal speciation in the algal bottle assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verheyen, L., E-mail: liesbeth.verheyen@ees.kuleuven.be [Division of Soil and Water Management, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, K.U.Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 - box 2459, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Merckx, R.; Smolders, E. [Division of Soil and Water Management, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, K.U.Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 - box 2459, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2012-06-15

    Metal speciation in solution is uncontrolled during algal growth in the traditional algal bottle assay. A resin-buffered nutrient solution was developed to overcome this problem and this was applied to test the effect of chloride (Cl{sup -}) on cadmium (Cd) uptake. Standard nutrient solution was enriched with 40 mM of either NaNO{sub 3} or NaCl, and was prepared to contain equal Cd{sup 2+} but varying dissolved Cd due to the presence of CdCl{sub n}{sup 2-n} complexes. Both solutions were subsequently used in an algal assay in 100 mL beakers that contained only the solution (designated '-R') or contained the solution together with a cation exchange sulfonate resin (2 g L{sup -1}, designated '+R') as a deposit on the bottom of the beaker. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was grown for 72 h (1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5}-1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cells mL{sup -1}) in stagnant solution and shaken three times a day. Growth was unaffected by the presence of the resin (p > 0.05). The Cd concentrations in solution of the -R devices decreased with 50-58% of initial values due to Cd uptake. No such changes were found in the +R devices or in abiotic controls. Cd uptake was unaffected by either NaNO{sub 3} or NaCl treatment in the +R device, confirming that Cd{sup 2+} is the preferred Cd species in line with the general concept of metal bioavailability. In contrast, Cd uptake in the -R devices was two-fold larger in the NaCl treatment than in the NaNO{sub 3} treatment (p < 0.001), suggesting that CdCl{sub n}{sup 2-n} complexes are bioavailable in this traditional set-up. However this bioavailability is partially, but not completely, an apparent one, because of the considerable depletion of solution {sup 109}Cd in this set-up. Resin-buffered solutions are advocated in the algal bottle assay to control trace metal supply and to better identify the role of metal complexes on bioavailability.

  13. A resin-buffered nutrient solution for controlling metal speciation in the algal bottle assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal speciation in solution is uncontrolled during algal growth in the traditional algal bottle assay. A resin-buffered nutrient solution was developed to overcome this problem and this was applied to test the effect of chloride (Cl−) on cadmium (Cd) uptake. Standard nutrient solution was enriched with 40 mM of either NaNO3 or NaCl, and was prepared to contain equal Cd2+ but varying dissolved Cd due to the presence of CdCln2−n complexes. Both solutions were subsequently used in an algal assay in 100 mL beakers that contained only the solution (designated “−R”) or contained the solution together with a cation exchange sulfonate resin (2 g L−1, designated “+R”) as a deposit on the bottom of the beaker. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was grown for 72 h (1.4 × 105–1.4 × 106 cells mL−1) in stagnant solution and shaken three times a day. Growth was unaffected by the presence of the resin (p > 0.05). The Cd concentrations in solution of the −R devices decreased with 50–58% of initial values due to Cd uptake. No such changes were found in the +R devices or in abiotic controls. Cd uptake was unaffected by either NaNO3 or NaCl treatment in the +R device, confirming that Cd2+ is the preferred Cd species in line with the general concept of metal bioavailability. In contrast, Cd uptake in the −R devices was two-fold larger in the NaCl treatment than in the NaNO3 treatment (p n2−n complexes are bioavailable in this traditional set-up. However this bioavailability is partially, but not completely, an apparent one, because of the considerable depletion of solution 109Cd in this set-up. Resin-buffered solutions are advocated in the algal bottle assay to control trace metal supply and to better identify the role of metal complexes on bioavailability.

  14. Fabrication of YBCO films on metal tapes by the TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YBCO thin films on metal substrates were prepared by the metal-organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD). To compensate the loss of Ba element from the precursor films due to the reaction with CeO2cap layer, we have employed Ba-excessive precursor solutions of YBa2+xCu3O7-δ (0≤x≤0.1). The precursor solutions were dip-coated on the metal substrates with CeO2cap layer, initially heated up to 400 degree C, and finally fired at the various high temperatures for 2 h in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. With this approach, YBCO films possessing critical temperature over 85 K could be successfully prepared on the metal substrates. The highest Tc,zero value of 86 K was obtained from the Ba-excessive YBCO film of x=0.005 in YBa2+xCu3O7-δ fired at 750 degree C for 2 h. However, unexpected Tc suppression even in Ba-excessive YBCO samples requires further identification.

  15. AC losses in arrays of superconducting strips on buffered metallic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The effect of subdividing superconducting YBCO films on YSZ-buffered hastelloy substrates into arrays of parallel strips on the AC loss was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The hysteretic and eddy current contributions to the AC loss of such arrays were calculated as a function of temperature and applied AC magnetic field amplitude and frequency for different width and lateral separation of the strips as well as substrate and film thickness. It is shown that subdivision of a strip into sub-strips reduces the hysteretic loss proportional to the number of sub-strips. Measurements of the loss component of the AC susceptibility, X'', confirm the theoretical predictions. When the film is subdivided into N parallel strips, the frequency-independent hysteretic contribution to X'', which is dominant at lower frequencies (f ∼ 100 Hz), decreases to 1/N of its original value. As the strips become wider or their separation becomes smaller, the hysteretic X'' increases. The eddy current contribution to X'', which originates from the metallic substrate, becomes prominent as the frequency increases, approaching a linear frequency dependence at high frequencies. Its weak temperature dependence reflects that of the hastelloy resistivity

  16. Graphene on a metal surface with an h-BN buffer layer: gap opening and N-doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Lu, Yunhao; Feng, Y. P.

    2016-04-01

    Graphene grown on a metal surface, Cu(111), with a boron-nitride (h-BN) buffer layer is studied. Our first-principles calculations reveal that charge is transferred from the copper substrate to graphene through the h-BN buffer layer which results in n-doped graphene in the absence of a gate voltage. More importantly, a gap of 0.2 eV, which is comparable to that of a typical narrow gap semiconductor, opens just 0.5 eV below the Fermi level at the Dirac point. The Fermi level can be easily shifted inside this gap to make graphene a semiconductor, which is crucial for graphene-based electronic devices. A graphene-based p-n junction can be realized with graphene eptaxially grown on a metal surface.

  17. Improved high temperature integration of Al2O3 on MoS2 by using a metal oxide buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We deposited a metal oxide buffer layer before atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 onto exfoliated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) in order to accomplish enhanced integration. We demonstrate that even at a high temperature, functionalization of MoS2 by means of a metal oxide buffer layer can effectively provide nucleation sites for ALD precursors, enabling much better surface coverage of Al2O3. It is shown that using a metal oxide buffer layer not only allows high temperature ALD process, resulting in highly improved quality of Al2O3/MoS2 interface, but also leaves MoS2 intact

  18. Aspartate buffer and divalent metal ions affect oxytocin in aqueous solution and protect it from degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avanti, Christina; Oktaviani, Nur Alia; Hinrichs, Wouther L.J.;

    2013-01-01

    favorable. These interactions may explain the protection of the disulfide bridge against intermolecular reactions that lead to dimerization.Mg or Zn, using 2D NOESY, TOCSY, H-C HSQC and H- N HSQC NMR spectroscopy. Almost all H, C and N resonances of oxytocin could be assigned using HSQC spectroscopy....... Furthermore, LC–MS (MS) measurements indicated that the combination of aspartate buffer and Zn2+ in particular suppressed intermolecular degradation reactions near the Cys1,6 disulfide bridge. These results lead to the hypothesis that in aspartate buffer, Zn2+ changes the conformation of oxytocin in such a...... way that the Cys1,6 disulfide bridge is shielded from its environment thereby suppressing intermolecular reactions involving this region of the molecule. To verify this hypothesis, we investigate here the conformation of oxytocin in aspartate buffer in the presence of Mg2+ or Zn2+, using 2D NOESY...

  19. Thermodynamic studies on complexation of divalent transition metal ions with some zwitterionic buffers for biochemical and physiological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction between the zwitterionic buffers (3-[N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-2-hydroxy propane sulfonic acid, N-(2-actamido)-2-aminoethane sulfonic acid, and 3-[(1,1-dimethyl-2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-2-hydroxy propane sulfonic acid) with some divalent transition metal ions (CuII, NiII, CoII, ZnII, and MnII) were studied at different temperatures (298.15 to 328.15) K at ionic strength I = 0.1 mol . dm-3 NaNO3 and in the presence of 10%, 30%, and 50% (w/w) dioxene by using potentiometry. The thermodynamic stability constants were calculated as well as the free energy change for the 1:1 binary complexation. The protonation constants of the zwitterionic buffers were also determined potentiometrically under the above conditions

  20. Transport performance of a HTS current lead prepared by the TFA-MOD processed YBCO tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superconducting current lead has been prepared using 12 tapes of the trifluoroacetates - metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y1Ba2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors with critical current (Ic) of about 100 A at 77 K in self-field. The tapes are 4.5 mm in width, 220 mm in length and about 120 μm in overall thickness. The 1 μm thick superconducting YBCO layer was formed through the TFA-MOD process on HastelloyTM substrate tapes with two buffer oxide layers of Gd2Zr2O7 (GZO) and CeO2. The 12 YBCO tapes were arrayed on the both sides (six tapes on each side) of a stainless steel board with 3 mm in thickness for a board type shape. They were similarly soldered to copper caps at the both ends. The transport current of 1000 A was stably applied for 10 min in the liquid nitrogen temperature without any voltage generation in all tapes. Although some voltage in some YBCO tapes generated at the applied currents of about 1100 A, the transport current of 1200 A was successfully applied without quenching. The voltage between both copper caps linearly increased with increasing the transport current, and it was about 300 μV at an applied current of 1000 A. A low joint resistance between the YBCO tapes and the copper caps resulted in small amounts of the Joule heating at the joints when 1000 A was applied. The overall (effective) thermal conductivity of the current leads composed of YBCO tapes and the stainless steel board was much lower than that of Non-superconducting current leads. Therefore, the present current leads with small heat leakage seemed to be practically promising for superconducting magnets.

  1. The effect of metal-buffer bilayer drain/source electrodes on the operational stability of the organic field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we have investigated experimentally the effect of different drain/source (D/S) electrodes and charge injection buffer layers on the electrical properties and operational stability of a stilbene organic field effect transistor (OFET). The results show that the organic buffer layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) considerably improves the electrical properties of the transistors, but has a negligible effect on their temporal behavior. On the other hand, inorganic metal-oxide buffer layer of molybdenum oxide (MoO3) drastically changes both the electrical properties and operational stability. The functionalities of this metal-oxide tightly depend on the properties of the D/S metallic electrodes. OFETs with Al/MoO3 as the bilayer D/S electrodes have the best electrical properties: field effect mobility μeff = 0.32 cm2 V−1 s−1 and threshold voltage VTH = − 5 V and the transistors with Ag/MoO3 have the longest operational stability. It was concluded that the chemical stability of the metal/metal-oxide or metal/organic interfaces of the bilayer D/S electrodes determine the operational stability of the OFETs. - Highlights: • The effect of buffer layers on the performance of the stilbene OFETs has been investigated. • Inorganic buffer layer improved the electrical and temporal behaviors simultaneously. • Organic buffer layer only changes the electrical properties. • Chemical stability of the interfaces determines the operational stability of the transistor

  2. Aspartate buffer and divalent metal ions affect oxytocin in aqueous solution and protect it from degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avanti, Christina; Oktaviani, Nur Alia; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Mulder, Frans A A

    2013-01-01

    Oxytocin is a peptide drug used to induce labor and prevent bleeding after childbirth. Due to its instability, transport and storage of oxytocin formulations under tropical conditions is problematic. In a previous study, we have found that the stability of oxytocin in aspartate buffered formulation

  3. Tape transport mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device is provided for transporting, in a stepwise manner, tape between a feed reel and takeup reel. An indexer moves across the normal path of the tape displacing it while the tape on the takeup reel side of the indexer is braked. After displacement, the takeup reel takes up the displaced tape while the tape on the feed reel side of the indexer is braked, providing stepwise tape transport in precise intervals determined by the amount of displacement caused by the indexer

  4. Effects of the buffering capacity of the soil on the mobilization of heavy metals. Equilibrium and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villen-Guzman, Maria; Paz-Garcia, Juan M; Amaya-Santos, Gema; Rodriguez-Maroto, Jose M; Vereda-Alonso, Carlos; Gomez-Lahoz, Cesar

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the possible pH-buffering processes is of maximum importance for risk assessment and remediation feasibility studies of heavy-metal contaminated soils. This paper presents the results about the effect of the buffering capacity of a polluted soil, rich in carbonates, on the pH and on the leaching evolution of its main contaminant (lead) when a weak acid (acetic acid) or a strong one (nitric acid) are slowly added. In both cases, the behavior of lead dissolution could be predicted using available (scientifically verified freeware) models assuming equilibrium between the solid and the aqueous phase. However, the experimental results indicate that the dissolution of calcium and magnesium carbonates is kinetically controlled. These kinetic limitations affect the overall behavior, and should be considered to understand also the response of the metals under local equilibrium. The well-known BCR sequential extraction procedure was used before- and after-treatment, to fractionate the lead concentration in the soil according to its mobility. The BCR results were also in agreement with the predictions of the equilibrium model. This agreement allows new insights about the information that could be derived from the BCR fractionation analysis. PMID:25781866

  5. The effect of metal-buffer bilayer drain/source electrodes on the operational stability of the organic field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi-Alavijeh, H.R., E-mail: h.karimi@eng.ui.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, A. [Department of Electrical and Avionics Engineering, Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we have investigated experimentally the effect of different drain/source (D/S) electrodes and charge injection buffer layers on the electrical properties and operational stability of a stilbene organic field effect transistor (OFET). The results show that the organic buffer layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) considerably improves the electrical properties of the transistors, but has a negligible effect on their temporal behavior. On the other hand, inorganic metal-oxide buffer layer of molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}) drastically changes both the electrical properties and operational stability. The functionalities of this metal-oxide tightly depend on the properties of the D/S metallic electrodes. OFETs with Al/MoO{sub 3} as the bilayer D/S electrodes have the best electrical properties: field effect mobility μ{sub eff} = 0.32 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} and threshold voltage V{sub TH} = − 5 V and the transistors with Ag/MoO{sub 3} have the longest operational stability. It was concluded that the chemical stability of the metal/metal-oxide or metal/organic interfaces of the bilayer D/S electrodes determine the operational stability of the OFETs. - Highlights: • The effect of buffer layers on the performance of the stilbene OFETs has been investigated. • Inorganic buffer layer improved the electrical and temporal behaviors simultaneously. • Organic buffer layer only changes the electrical properties. • Chemical stability of the interfaces determines the operational stability of the transistor.

  6. Mechanism of buffer gases influence on the rate of photostimulated laser-chemical deposition from vapors on transition metal carbonyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is proposed for deactivation of the excited state of molecules of transitional-metal carbonyls due to collisions with atoms or molecules of buffer gas, enabling the explanation of the experimental results of the photostimulated laser-chemical deposition (LCD). The model is constructed according to which deactivation of the excited state as a result of a translational relaxation of the kinetic energy of fragments in the molecule during the transition. The conclusion is drawn that owing to a high correlation of the experimental results and the model calculations it is possible to use the LCD method as an analytical tool for quantitative measurements of the parameters of photochemical reactions proceeding under the action of laser radiation, in particular, constants of monomolecular decay of excited molecules

  7. High current density electropolishing in the preparation of highly smooth substrate tapes for coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreiskott, Sascha (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM); Bronisz, Lawrence E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-03-31

    A continuous process of forming a highly smooth surface on a metallic tape by passing a metallic tape having an initial roughness through an acid bath contained within a polishing section of an electropolishing unit over a pre-selected period of time, and, passing a mean surface current density of at least 0.18 amperes per square centimeter through the metallic tape during the period of time the metallic tape is in the acid bath whereby the roughness of the metallic tape is reduced. Such a highly smooth metallic tape can serve as a base substrate in subsequent formation of a superconductive coated conductor.

  8. Enhanced Lifetime of Polymer Solar Cells by Surface Passivation of Metal Oxide Buffer Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Ngo, Evan; Khatiwada, Devendra; Zhang, Cheng; Qiao, Qiquan

    2015-07-29

    The role of electron selective interfaces on the performance and lifetime of polymer solar cells were compared and analyzed. Bilayer interfaces consisting of metal oxide films with cationic polymer modification namely poly ethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) were found to enhance device lifetime compared to bare metal oxide films when used as an electron selective cathode interface. Devices utilizing surface-modified metal oxide layers showed enhanced lifetimes, retaining up to 85% of their original efficiency when stored in ambient atmosphere for 180 days without any encapsulation. The work function and surface potential of zinc oxide (ZnO) and ZnO/PEIE interlayers were evaluated using Kelvin probe and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) respectively. Kelvin probe measurements showed a smaller reduction in work function of ZnO/PEIE films compared to bare ZnO films when aged in atmospheric conditions. KPFM measurements showed that the surface potential of the ZnO surface drastically reduces when stored in ambient air for 7 days because of surface oxidation. Surface oxidation of the interface led to a substantial decrease in the performance in aged devices. The enhancement in the lifetime of devices with a bilayer interface was correlated to the suppressed surface oxidation of the metal oxide layers. The PEIE passivated surface retained a lower Fermi level when aged, which led to lower trap-assisted recombination at the polymer-cathode interface. Further photocharge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (Photo-CELIV) measurements were performed on fresh and aged samples to evaluate the field required to extract maximum charges. Fresh devices with a bare ZnO cathode interlayer required a lower field than devices with ZnO/PEIE cathode interface. However, aged devices with ZnO required a much higher field to extract charges while aged devices with ZnO/PEIE showed a minor increase compared to the fresh devices. Results indicate that surface modification can act as a

  9. Substrate surface treatment and YSZ buffer layers by IBAD method for coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, an Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) system was utilized to fabricate Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) template films for coated conductors. The surface of the Hastelloy C276 substrate was modified by rolling and electropolishing. The effect of the electropolishing parameters of the substrate on the texture of the YSZ buffer layers was studied. The electropolishing current and time were optimized for short samples of 1 cmx1 cm square shape as 1 A and 60 s, respectively. And the relationship between the roughness of the substrate surface and the texture of the YSZ layer is discussed. Reel-to-reel metal tape moving apparatus was installed and used to produce meter-long buffer layer for coated conductors. The YSZ template film was deposited by IBAD method on meter-long Hastelloy tape with tape shifting speed of 15-20 m/h, and the thickness of the buffer layer was up to about 1.7 μm. The Hastelloy substrate surface was measured by Atomic Force Microscope. The thickness of the YSZ films over length was measured by Thermal Field Emission Scan Electronic Microscopy. X Ray Diffraction Ω-scan and φ-scan measurements were performed in order to examine the out-of-plane and in-plane texture of the YSZ buffer layers, respectively.

  10. Substrate surface treatment and YSZ buffer layers by IBAD method for coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, F.; Liu, R.; Chen, H.; Shi, K.; Wang, Z.; Wu, W.; Han, Z.

    2009-10-01

    In this work, an Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) system was utilized to fabricate Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) template films for coated conductors. The surface of the Hastelloy C276 substrate was modified by rolling and electropolishing. The effect of the electropolishing parameters of the substrate on the texture of the YSZ buffer layers was studied. The electropolishing current and time were optimized for short samples of 1 cm×1 cm square shape as 1 A and 60 s, respectively. And the relationship between the roughness of the substrate surface and the texture of the YSZ layer is discussed. Reel-to-reel metal tape moving apparatus was installed and used to produce meter-long buffer layer for coated conductors. The YSZ template film was deposited by IBAD method on meter-long Hastelloy tape with tape shifting speed of 15-20 m/h, and the thickness of the buffer layer was up to about 1.7 μm. The Hastelloy substrate surface was measured by Atomic Force Microscope. The thickness of the YSZ films over length was measured by Thermal Field Emission Scan Electronic Microscopy. X Ray Diffraction Ω-scan and ϕ-scan measurements were performed in order to examine the out-of-plane and in-plane texture of the YSZ buffer layers, respectively.

  11. Substrate surface treatment and YSZ buffer layers by IBAD method for coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, F. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, R. [Innova Superconductor Technology Co., Ltd., 7 Rongchang Dongjie, Longsheng Industrial Park, Beijing Economic and Technological Developemnt Area, Beijing 100176 (China); Chen, H. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shi, K., E-mail: shikai@tsinghua.edu.c [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Z. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wu, W.; Han, Z. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-10-15

    In this work, an Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) system was utilized to fabricate Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) template films for coated conductors. The surface of the Hastelloy C276 substrate was modified by rolling and electropolishing. The effect of the electropolishing parameters of the substrate on the texture of the YSZ buffer layers was studied. The electropolishing current and time were optimized for short samples of 1 cmx1 cm square shape as 1 A and 60 s, respectively. And the relationship between the roughness of the substrate surface and the texture of the YSZ layer is discussed. Reel-to-reel metal tape moving apparatus was installed and used to produce meter-long buffer layer for coated conductors. The YSZ template film was deposited by IBAD method on meter-long Hastelloy tape with tape shifting speed of 15-20 m/h, and the thickness of the buffer layer was up to about 1.7 mum. The Hastelloy substrate surface was measured by Atomic Force Microscope. The thickness of the YSZ films over length was measured by Thermal Field Emission Scan Electronic Microscopy. X Ray Diffraction OMEGA-scan and phi-scan measurements were performed in order to examine the out-of-plane and in-plane texture of the YSZ buffer layers, respectively.

  12. Nature of Y1Ba2Cu3O7 nucleation centers on ceria buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Develos-Bagarinao, Katherine; Li, Qiang; Qing, Jie; Zhou, Juan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to enhance properties of the second-generation wires by increasing the density of Y1Ba2Cu3O7 (YBCO) nucleation centers on the surface of the ceria buffer. To identify the nature of the nucleation centers, we compare nucleation kinetics and performance of YBCO layers deposited by the metal-organic process on a standard RABiTS tape to YBCO on ceria buffers with well-controlled structure and surface morphology. The structure of the YBCO layer at the early stage of nucleation and growth is determined by high-flux synchrotron x-ray diffraction. It is shown that the best buffers exhibit high YBCO nucleation rates and produce YBCO nuclei with the least cation disorder. The high YBCO nucleation rate is associated with a high density of threading dislocation outcrops. A strategy for buffer optimization is identified.

  13. High critical current density superconducting tapes by epitaxial deposition of YBa2Cu3Ox thick films on biaxially textured metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to obtain long lengths of flexible, biaxially oriented substrates with smooth, chemically compatible surfaces for epitaxial growth of high-temperature superconductors is reported. The technique uses well established, industrially scalable, thermomechanical processes to impart a strong biaxial texture to a base metal. This is followed by vapor deposition of epitaxial buffer layers (metal and/or ceramic) to yield chemically compatible surfaces. Epitaxial YBa2Cu3Ox films grown on such substrates have critical current densities exceeding 105 A/cm2 at 77 K in zero field and have field dependencies similar to epitaxial films on single crystal ceramic substrates. Deposited conductors made using this technique offer a potential route for the fabrication of long lengths of high-Jc wire capable of carrying high currents in high magnetic fields and at elevated temperatures. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  14. Tape dig selv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bente Annie Sørine; Neergaard, Christian; Seest, Kristian

    Håndbog med over 50 tape-teknikker, hvor den klassiske hvide sportstape (Dream Tape) og den originale kinesiotape (Kinesio Tex Gold) bruges. Konkrete anvisninger og praktiske råd gives......Håndbog med over 50 tape-teknikker, hvor den klassiske hvide sportstape (Dream Tape) og den originale kinesiotape (Kinesio Tex Gold) bruges. Konkrete anvisninger og praktiske råd gives...

  15. Effect of noble metal buffer layers on superconducting YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7/ thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, C.L.; Xiao, G.; Streitz, F.H.; Gavrin, A.; Cieplak, M.Z.

    1987-12-21

    Superconducting YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7/ thin films have been prepared by using a magnetron sputtering system in the single-source mode. Samples deposited on (100) single-crystal MgO with and without a Au buffer layer all show high transition temperatures (82--87 K). The use of a Au buffer layer significantly improves the superconducting properties, particularly the Meissner effect and critical current density (3.3 x 10/sup 6/ A/cm/sup 2/ at T = 2 K and 3.5 x 10/sup 4/ A/cm/sup 2/ at T = 77 K). The Au films remain metallic after high-temperature annealing in an oxygen atmosphere. We propose to use Au buffer layers as current shunts to protect superconducting films and devices.

  16. Development of a four-zone carousel process packed with metal ion-imprinted polymer for continuous separation of copper ions from manganese ions, cobalt ions, and the constituent metal ions of the buffer solution used as eluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Se-Hee; Park, Chanhun; Yi, Sung Chul; Kim, Dukjoon; Mun, Sungyong

    2011-08-19

    A three-zone carousel process, in which Cu(II)-imprinted polymer (Cu-MIP) and a buffer solution were employed as adsorbent and eluent respectively, has been developed previously for continuous separation of Cu²⁺ (product) from Mn²⁺ and Co²⁺ (impurities). Although this process was reported to be successful in the aforementioned separation task, the way of using a buffer solution as eluent made it inevitable that the product stream included the buffer-related metal ions (i.e., the constituent metal ions of the buffer solution) as well as copper ions. For a more perfect recovery of copper ions, it would be necessary to improve the previous carousel process such that it can remove the buffer-related metal ions from copper ions while maintaining the previous function of separating copper ions from the other 2 impure heavy-metal ions. This improvement was made in this study by proposing a four-zone carousel process based on the following strategy: (1) the addition of one more zone for performing the two-step re-equilibration tasks and (2) the use of water as the eluent of the washing step in the separation zone. The operating conditions of such a proposed process were determined on the basis of the data from a series of single-column experiments. Under the determined operating conditions, 3 runs of carousel experiments were carried out. The results of these experiments revealed that the feed-loading time was a key parameter affecting the performance of the proposed process. Consequently, the continuous separation of copper ions from both the impure heavy-metal ions and the buffer-related metal ions could be achieved with a purity of 91.9% and a yield of 92.8% by using the proposed carousel process based on a properly chosen feed-loading time. PMID:21764065

  17. Influence of Zr and Ce doping on electromagnetic properties of (Gd,Y)-Ba-Cu-O superconducting tapes fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox tapes have been fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with Zr-doping levels of 0-15 mol.% and Ce doping levels of 0-10 mol.% in 0.4 μm thick films. The critical current density (Jc) of Zr-doped samples at 77 K, 1 T applied in the orientation of H -parallel c is found to increase with Zr content and shows a maximum at 7.5% Zr doping. The 7.5% Zr-doped sample exhibits a critical current density (Jc) of 0.95 MA/cm2 at H -parallel c which is more than 70% higher than the Jc of the undoped sample. The peak in Jc at H -parallel c is 83% of that at H -parallel a-b in the 7.5% Zr-doped sample which is more than twice as that in the undoped sample. Superconducting transition temperature (Tc) values as high as about 89 K have been achieved in samples even with 15% Zr and 10% Ce. Ce-doped samples with and without Ba compensation are found to exhibit substantially different Jc values as well as angular dependence characteristics.

  18. Pembuatan Kerupuk Tape Singkong

    OpenAIRE

    Siagian, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi tape singkong dan konsentrasi baking powder terhadap mutu kerupuk tape singkong. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode rancangan acak lengkap dengan dua faktor, yaitu konsentrasi tape singkong (K) : (20%, 30%, 40 % dan 50%) dengan konsentrasi baking powder (B) : (0,1%, 0,2%, 0,3% dan 0,4%). Parameter yang dianalisa adalah kadar air, kadar abu, kadar lemak, kadar asam lemak bebas, nilai organoleptik (warna, aroma dan rasa...

  19. Effect of heavy metals on pH buffering capacity and solubility of Ca, Mg, K, and P in non-spiked and heavy metal-spiked soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Sarvenaz; Jalali, Mohsen

    2016-06-01

    In many parts of the world, soil acidification and heavy metal contamination has become a serious concern due to the adverse effects on chemical properties of soil and crop yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pH (in the range of 1 to 3 units above and below the native pH of soils) on calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P) solubility in non-spiked and heavy metal-spiked soil samples. Spiked samples were prepared by cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) as chloride salts and incubating soils for 40 days. The pH buffering capacity (pHBC) of each sample was determined by plotting the amount of H(+) or OH(-) added (mmol kg(-1)) versus the related pH value. The pHBC of soils ranged from 47.1 to 1302.5 mmol kg(-1) for non-spiked samples and from 45.0 to 1187.4 mmol kg(-1) for spiked soil samples. The pHBC values were higher in soil 2 (non-spiked and spiked) which had higher calcium carbonate content. The results indicated the presence of heavy metals in soils generally decreased the solution pH and pHBC values in spiked samples. In general, solubility of Ca, Mg, and K decreased with increasing equilibrium pH of non-spiked and spiked soil samples. In the case of P, increasing the pH to about 7, decreased the solubility in all soils but further increase of pH from 7, enhanced P solubility. The solubility trends and values for Ca, Mg, and K did not differed significantly in non-spiked and spiked samples. But in the case of P, a reduction in solubility was observed in heavy metal-spiked soils. The information obtained in this study can be useful to make better estimation of the effects of soil pollutants on anion and cation solubility from agricultural and environmental viewpoints. PMID:27168329

  20. Segmented superconducting tape having reduced AC losses and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Holesinger, Terry G. (Los Alamos, NM); Wang, Haiyan (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-09-22

    A superconducting tape having reduced AC losses. The tape has a high temperature superconductor layer that is segmented. Disruptive strips, formed in one of the tape substrate, a buffer layer, and the superconducting layer create parallel discontinuities in the superconducting layer that separate the current-carrying elements of the superconducting layer into strips or filament-like structures. Segmentation of the current-carrying elements has the effect of reducing AC current losses. Methods of making such a superconducting tape and reducing AC losses in such tapes are also disclosed.

  1. Influence of double AlN buffer layers on the qualities of GaN films prepared by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhi-Yu; Hao Yue; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Zhou Hao; Li Xiao-Gang; Meng Fan-Na; Zhang Lin-Xia; Ai Shan; Xu Sheng-Rui; Zhao Yi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report that the GaN thin film is grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition on a sapphire (0001) substrate with double AlN buffer layers.The buffer layer consists of a low-temperature (LT) AlN layer and a high-temperature (HT) AlN layer that are grown at 600 ℃ and 1000 ℃,respectively.It is observed that the thickness of the LT-AlN layer drastically influences the quality of GaN thin film,and that the optimized 4.25-min-LT-AlN layer minimizes the dislocation density of GaN thin film.The reason for the improved properties is discussed in this paper.

  2. Levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovskiy, S. V.; Ermolaev, Y. S.; Rudnev, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Due to the considerable development of the technology of second generation high-temperature superconductors and a significant improvement in their mechanical and transport properties in the last few years it is possible to use HTS tapes in the magnetic levitation systems. The advantages of tapes on a metal substrate as compared with bulk YBCO material primarily in the strength, and the possibility of optimizing the convenience of manufacturing elements of levitation systems. In the present report presents the results of the magnetic levitation force measurements between the stack of HTS tapes containing of tapes and NdFeB permanent magnet in the FC and ZFC regimes. It was found a non- linear dependence of the levitation force from the height of the array of stack in both modes: linear growth at small thickness gives way to flattening and constant at large number of tapes in the stack. Established that the levitation force of stacks comparable to that of bulk samples. The numerical calculations using finite element method showed that without the screening of the applied field the levitation force of the bulk superconductor and the layered superconductor stack with a critical current of tapes increased by the filling factor is exactly the same, and taking into account the screening force slightly different.

  3. Investigation of ZnO thin films deposited on ferromagnetic metallic buffer layer by molecular beam epitaxy toward realization of ZnO-based magnetic tunneling junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposition of ZnO thin films on a ferromagnetic metallic buffer layer (Co3Pt) by molecular beam epitaxy technique was investigated for realization of ZnO-based magnetic tunneling junctions with good quality hexagonal ZnO films as tunnel barriers. For substrate temperature of 600 °C, ZnO films exhibited low oxygen defects and high electrical resistivity of 130 Ω cm. This value exceeded that of hexagonal ZnO films grown by sputtering technique, which are used as tunnel barriers in ZnO-MTJs. Also, the effect of oxygen flow during deposition on epitaxial growth conditions and Co3Pt surface oxidation was discussed.

  4. Control of metamorphic buffer structure and device performance of InxGa1−xAs epitaxial layers fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a step-graded (SG) buffer structure via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, we demonstrate a high suitability of In0.5Ga0.5As epitaxial layers on a GaAs substrate for electronic device application. Taking advantage of the technique’s precise control, we were able to increase the number of SG layers to achieve a fairly low dislocation density (∼106 cm−2), while keeping each individual SG layer slightly exceeding the critical thickness (∼80 nm) for strain relaxation. This met the demanded but contradictory requirements, and even offered excellent scalability by lowering the whole buffer structure down to 2.3 μm. This scalability overwhelmingly excels the forefront studies. The effects of the SG misfit strain on the crystal quality and surface morphology of In0.5Ga0.5As epitaxial layers were carefully investigated, and were correlated to threading dislocation (TD) blocking mechanisms. From microstructural analyses, TDs can be blocked effectively through self-annihilation reactions, or hindered randomly by misfit dislocation mechanisms. Growth conditions for avoiding phase separation were also explored and identified. The buffer-improved, high-quality In0.5Ga0.5As epitaxial layers enabled a high-performance, metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor on a GaAs substrate. The devices displayed remarkable capacitance–voltage responses with small frequency dispersion. A promising interface trap density of 3 × 1012 eV−1 cm−2 in a conductance test was also obtained. These electrical performances are competitive to those using lattice-coherent but pricey InGaAs/InP systems. (paper)

  5. Fabrication and properties of epitaxial buffer layers on nonmagnetic textured Ni based alloy substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaxially aligned YBCO thick films on oxide buffered metallic substrates is a promising route toward the fabrication of superconducting tapes operating at liquid nitrogen temperature. The role of buffer layer is to reduce the lattice mismatch between the substrate and the YBCO film, to adapt the thermal expansion coefficient, to hamper the diffusion of Ni in YBCO film and to prevent the oxidation of the metallic substrate surface. This paper presents a study regarding CeO2 buffer layer deposition on a new nonmagnetic (001)[100] textured Ni-V alloy substrates. The deposition of CeO2 was performed by both pulsed laser ablation and e-beam evaporation techniques. The θ-2θ X-ray diffraction pattern mainly exhibits the (00 ell) peaks of CeO2, indicating that the films are epitaxially grown with the c axis perpendicular to the substrate. Rocking curves through the CeO2 (002) peak have a FWHM of about 6 degree. The SEM studies have shown that the surface is smooth, continuous and free of cracks. Texture analysis reveals a good in-plane orientation for the ablated CeO2 film, whereas the electron beam evaporated CeO2 shows two textures in the growth plane. Further efforts are focused on the deposition of YBCO thick film on the as buffered nonmagnetic metallic substrate

  6. Fabrication and properties of epitaxial buffer layers on nonmagnetic textured Ni based alloy substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celentano, G.; Boffa, V.; Ciontea, L.; Fabbri, F.; Galluzzi, V.; Mancini, A.; Petrisor, T. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy); Ceresara, S. [Centro Innovazione Lecco (Italy); Scardi, P. [Univ. di Trento (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dei Materiali

    1999-04-20

    Biaxially aligned YBCO thick films on oxide buffered metallic substrates is a promising route toward the fabrication of superconducting tapes operating at liquid nitrogen temperature. The role of buffer layer is to reduce the lattice mismatch between the substrate and the YBCO film, to adapt the thermal expansion coefficient, to hamper the diffusion of Ni in YBCO film and to prevent the oxidation of the metallic substrate surface. This paper presents a study regarding CeO{sub 2} buffer layer deposition on a new nonmagnetic (001)[100] textured Ni-V alloy substrates. The deposition of CeO{sub 2} was performed by both pulsed laser ablation and e-beam evaporation techniques. The {theta}-2{theta} X-ray diffraction pattern mainly exhibits the (00{ell}) peaks of CeO{sub 2}, indicating that the films are epitaxially grown with the c axis perpendicular to the substrate. Rocking curves through the CeO{sub 2} (002) peak have a FWHM of about 6{degree}. The SEM studies have shown that the surface is smooth, continuous and free of cracks. Texture analysis reveals a good in-plane orientation for the ablated CeO{sub 2} film, whereas the electron beam evaporated CeO{sub 2} shows two textures in the growth plane. Further efforts are focused on the deposition of YBCO thick film on the as buffered nonmagnetic metallic substrate.

  7. Textured substrate tape and devices thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2006-08-08

    A method for forming a sharply biaxially textured substrate, such as a single crystal substrate, includes the steps of providing a deformed metal substrate, followed by heating above the secondary recrystallization temperature of the deformed substrate, and controlling the secondary recrystallization texture by either using thermal gradients and/or seeding. The seed is selected to shave a stable texture below a predetermined temperature. The sharply biaxially textured substrate can be formed as a tape having a length of 1 km, or more. Epitaxial articles can be formed from the tapes to include an epitaxial electromagnetically active layer. The electromagnetically active layer can be a superconducting layer.

  8. Cost-effective electrodeposition of an oxide buffer for high-temperature superconductor coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is demonstrated that electrodeposition is a promising cost-effective technique to grow oxide buffer on metallic tapes. The resultant layer of CeO2 shows the biaxial texture of FWHM = 5.5° as well as a smooth surface of RMS = 2.0 nm, and YBa2Cu3O7−δ coated conductor with such a buffer exhibits the critical current density of 1.85 MA cm−2 at 77 K. Of more interest is that the CeO2 film thickness reaches a high value of more than 200 nm without any cracks, while it is very hard to achieve a thickness of more than 70 nm in the conventional vapor deposition methods employed. (paper)

  9. Supplemental TV Taped Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Robert G.; Frank, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Videotapes were developed as supplemental material for a course in chemical engineering thermodynamics. Describes the course, videotapes produced (includes list by topics as related to course content), and effectiveness of the tapes. Although no significant improvement in test performance was noted, students indicated they learned material faster…

  10. Modification of opto-electronic properties of ZnO by incorporating metallic tin for buffer layer in thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the effect of incorporation of metallic tin (Sn) on opto-electronic properties of ZnO thin films is presented. ZnO thin films were deposited through ‘automated chemical spray pyrolysis’ (CSP) technique; later different quantities of ‘Sn’ were evaporated on it and subsequently annealed. Vacuum annealing showed a positive effect on crystallinity of films. Creation of sub band gap levels due to ‘Sn’ diffusion was evident from the absorption and PL spectra. The tin incorporated films showed good photo response in visible region. Tin incorporated ZnO thin films seem to satisfy the desirable criteria for buffer layer in thin film solar cells

  11. Modification of opto-electronic properties of ZnO by incorporating metallic tin for buffer layer in thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deepu, D. R.; Jubimol, J.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Louis, Godfrey; Vijayakumar, K. P., E-mail: kpv@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-682022 (India); Kumar, K. Rajeev [Department of Instrumentation, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-682022 (India)

    2015-06-24

    In this report, the effect of incorporation of metallic tin (Sn) on opto-electronic properties of ZnO thin films is presented. ZnO thin films were deposited through ‘automated chemical spray pyrolysis’ (CSP) technique; later different quantities of ‘Sn’ were evaporated on it and subsequently annealed. Vacuum annealing showed a positive effect on crystallinity of films. Creation of sub band gap levels due to ‘Sn’ diffusion was evident from the absorption and PL spectra. The tin incorporated films showed good photo response in visible region. Tin incorporated ZnO thin films seem to satisfy the desirable criteria for buffer layer in thin film solar cells.

  12. Structural and magentic characterization of rare earth and transition metal films grown on epitaxial buffer films on semiconductor substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural and magnetic data are presented and discussed for epitaxial films of rare earth metals (Dy, Ho, Er) on LaF3 films on the GaAs(TTT) surface and Fe on Ag films on the GaAs(001) surface. Both systems exhibit unusual structural characteristics which influence the magnetic properties of the metal films. In the case of rare earth epitaxy on LaF3 the authors present evidence for epitaxy across an incommensurate or discommensurate interface. Coherency strain is not transmitted into the metal which behaves much like bulk crystals of the rare earths. In the case of Fe films, tilted epitaxy and long-range coherency strain are confirmed by X- ray diffractometry. Methods of controlling some of these structural effects by modifying the epitaxial structures are presented

  13. Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7 films on rolled-textured metals for high temperature superconducting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The epitaxial growth of high temperature superconducting (HTS) films on rolled-textured metal represents a viable approach for long-length superconducting tapes. Epitaxial, 0.5 microm thick YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) films with critical current densities, Jc, greater than 1 MA/cm2 have been realized on rolled-textured (001) Ni tapes with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/CeO2 oxide buffer layers. This paper describes the synthesis using pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) of epitaxial oxide buffer layers on biaxially-textured metal that comprise the so-called rolling-assisted biaxially-textured substrates (RABiTs trademark). The properties of the buffer and YBa2Cu3O7 films on rolled-textured Ni are discussed, with emphasis given to the crystallographic and microstructural properties that determine the superconducting properties of these multilayer structures

  14. Tamper tape seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamper tapes are appealing for many applications due to their ease of use and relative robustness. Applications include seals for temporary area denial, protection of sensitive equipment, chain-of-custody audit trails, and inventory control practices. A next generation of adhesive tamper tapes is being developed that combines the best features of commercially available devices with additional state-of-the-art features in tamper indication, tamper-resistance, and counterfeit-resistance. The additional features are based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research and development (R ampersand D) activities that were originally associated with preparations for the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START). New features include rapid-set, chemical-cure adhesive systems that allow user-friendly application and layered levels of counterfeit-resistance based on unique open-quotes fingerprintclose quotes characteristics that can be accessed as desired

  15. Growth and Characterization of Doped CeO2 Buffers on Ni-W Substrates for Coated Conductors Using Metal Organic Deposition Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yao; ZHOU Lian; YU Zeming; LI Chengshan; LI Jinshan; JIN Lihu; LU Yafen

    2012-01-01

    CeO2 and Ce0 8Mo2O2-d films (M =Mn,Y,Gd,Sin,Nd and La) with (001) preferred orientation have been prepared on biaxially textured Ni-W substrates by metal organic decomposition (MOD) method.The factors influencing the formation of cracks on the surface of these CeO2 and doped CeO2 films on Ni-W substrates were explored by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis,atomic force microscopy (AFM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).The results indicate that many factors,such as the change of the ionic radii of doping cations,the transformation of crystal structure and the formation of oxygen vacancies in lattices at high annealing temperature,may be related to the formation of cracks on the surface of these films.However,the crack formation shows no dependence on the crystal lattice mismatch degree of the films with Ni-W substrates.Moreover,the suppression of surface cracks is related to the change of intrinsic elasticity of CeO2 film with doping of cations with a larger radius.SEM and AFM investigations of Ce08Mo2O2-d(M =Y,Gd,Sm,Nd and La) films reveal the dense,smooth and crack-free microstructure,and their lattice parameters match well with that of YBCO,illuminating that they are potentially suitable to be as buffer layer,especially as cap layer in multi-layer architecture of buffer layer for coated conductors.

  16. Tape Placement Head for Applying Thermoplastic Tape to an Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Ralph D. (Inventor); Funck, Steve B. (Inventor); Gruber, Mark B. (Inventor); Lamontia, Mark A. (Inventor); Johnson, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A tape placement head for applying thermoplastic tape to an object includes a heated feeder which guides the tape/tow to a heated zone. The heated zone has a line compactor having a single row of at least one movable heated member. An area compactor is located in the heated zone downstream from the line compactor. The area compactor includes a plurality of rows of movable feet which are extendable toward the tape/tow different distances with respect to each other to conform to the shape of the object. A shim is located between the heated compactors and the tape/tow. A chilled compactor is in a chilled zone downstream from the heated zone. The chilled zone includes a line chilled compactor and an area chilled compactor. A chilled shim is mounted between the chilled compactor and the tape/tow.

  17. Red Tape, Corruption and Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Blackburn; Rashmi Sarmah

    2006-01-01

    We study the effects of red tape and corruption in a model of occupational choice, entry regulation and imperfect capital markets. Red tape is the set of rules and regulations that private agents are obliged to comply with in order to engage in entrepreneurial activity. Corruption is the payment of bribes to public officials for the purpose of circumventing red tape. Capital market imperfections are the asymmetries of information between borrowers and lenders about the returns to entrepreneur...

  18. Adhesive tape exfoliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Single-crystal graphite can be cleaved by the use of an adhesive tape. This was also the initial route for obtaining graphene, a one-layer thick graphite slab. In this letter a few simple and fun considerations are presented in an attempt to shed some light on why this procedure is successful. In...... particular on the nature of the surprisingly small number of repetitive steps that are needed in order to obtain a single-layer slab. Two frameworks for exfoliation are investigated: parallel exfoliation involving repetitive simultaneous cleaving, the other, serial exfoliation, which involves the repetitive...

  19. Multifilamentary niobium tin superconductor tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbin, P. H.; Coles, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    In the method proposed for fabricating multifilamentary Nb3Sn tape, filamentary superconducting paths are produced in standard commercial superconductor tape by chemical milling of separator slots through the Nb3Sn layer. The multifilament configuration features a matrix of ten 1.2 mm wide parallel helical superconducting paths along the length of the tape. The paths are spaced 0.4 mm apart. Tapes tested as small pancake coils demonstrated the integrity and continuity of the matrix, and showed that critical current was sustained in direct proportion to retained superconductor.

  20. Preparation of a YBCO superconducting tape by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high current density YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) superconducting thick film on a flexible NiCr alloy substrate tape with ZrO2 + 10%Y2O3 (YSZ) as buffer layer was prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The buffer layer YSZ of thickness 0.3 microm was formed on the NiCr alloy substrate tape of length 6.0 cm by ion-assisted pulsed laser deposition (ISPLD). The YBCO superconducting thick film with thickness 1.5 microm was deposited on the YSZ/NiCr alloy substrate tape by a KrF Laser. The X-ray diffraction pattern indicates that the YBCO superconducting thick film is with strongly C-axis oriented. The critical current densities versus temperature and magnetic film is with strongly C-axis oriented. The critical current densities versus temperature and magnetic field were measured by standard four-point probe method, the values of critical current density and the critical temperature of the YBCO/YSZ/NiCr alloy superconducting tape are 8.75 x 104 A/cm2 (at 77 K, 0 T) and 88.7 K, respectively

  1. Biaxially aligned YSZ and CeO2 buffer layers on hastelloy prepared by magnetron IBAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The development of high-current, flexible superconducting YBCO tapes is based on a metal substrates overcoated with a biaxially aligned oxide buffer layer to serve as a template for the epitaxial growth of c-axis oriented Yba2Cu3O7 thin films. A secondary function of the buffer is to act as a diffusion barrier to metal species to prevent them from poisoning the superconducting film. Widely studied oxide buffer layers include yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) and cerium oxide (CeO2) produced by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD). We have combined IBAD with magnetron sputtering to deposit biaxially aligned YSZ and CeO2 on Hastelloy C276 substrates held at room temperature. The ion beam is directed at 55deg to the normal of the film plane. In addition, we achieved room temperature epitaxial growth of CeO2 films on IBAD YSZ films by bias sputtering to form biaxially aligned CeO2/YSZ bilayers. The crystalline quality and inplane orientation of the films (200 nm thick) were investigated by x-ray diffraction techniques including ω and φ scans and pole figures. The IBAD YSZ and CeO2 films have a (111) pole in the ion beam direction with a full width at half maximum, FWHM = 24 - 30 deg; the CeO2/YSZ bilayer is similarly aligned with FWHM = 32 deg

  2. New developments for the investigation of hard X-rays emitted by peeling adhesive tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, D; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D; Lühmann, B; Keite-Telgenbüscher, K; Frahm, R

    2013-05-01

    We realized an advanced apparatus for the investigation of emitted X-rays produced by peeling adhesive tape rolls under vacuum conditions. Two stepper motors can unwind and rewind a tape roll, and an additional roller with an optical encoder provides measurement and control of the tape speed. This way reproducible and consecutive experiments are feasible without having to change the tape or break the vacuum. The dependence of the X-ray emission on tape speed, gas pressure, type of adhesive tape, and detector angle has been investigated. The resulting spectra are continuous and span an X-ray energy range of typically 2-60 keV with high intensity. Furthermore, the new apparatus allows the in situ metalization of adhesive tape rolls by a gold sputter source. A significantly increased X-ray emission was observed for adhesive tapes with a metal coating. Thin metal foils have been placed between the tape and the detector, different K- and L-absorption edges could be measured. A considerable enhancement of the emission was achieved under the influence of the magnetic field of an NdFeB permanent magnet. PMID:23742586

  3. Tape extensometer sensitivity and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax is a test of retrievable storage in granite of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The rock has been instrumented to measure temperatures, stress changes, and displacements. Periodic tape extensometer readings provide test drift convergence data. Vertical and horizontal tape readings are made at five locations in each of two 3.4m x 3.4m (11 ft x 11 ft) drifts and six locations in a 4.6m x 6.2m (15 ft x 20.5 ft) drift. The sensitivity of the readings to temperature effects, errors in temperature corrections, change of steel tape, and change of operator has been examined. Calculated corrections for temperature-induced changes in distance range from 0.001 in. to 0.003 in./0C. A tape changeout evidenced both a systematic error apparently due to slight changes in tape registration during punching and to nonidentical location of punched holes in the two tapes and a random error due to variability of reading and punching operations. These errors were corrected by making duplicate measurements for the tapes. Tape readings by the same operator have been repeatable within +-0.001 in. in the smaller drifts and +-0.002 in. in the larger. Different operators have been able to repeat readings to within +-0.004 in. (usually within +-0.002 in.) with generally consistent direction of offset between operators. Corrections of readings and review of plotted data show the tape extensometer to be a reliable instrument for tunnel convergence measurements

  4. Superconducting tape characterization under flexion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, A.; Suárez, P.; Cáceres, D.; Pérez, B.; Cordero, E.; Castaño, A.

    2002-08-01

    Electrotechnical applications of high temperature superconducting materials are limited by the difficulty of constructing classical windings with ceramic materials. While Bi-2223 tape may be a solution, it cannot be bent to radii less than a certain value since its superconducting capacity disappears. We describe an automated measurement system of the characteristics of this tape under flexion. It consists of a device that coils the tape over cylinders with different radii. At the same time, the parameters of its superconducting behaviour (e.g. resistance) are taken and processed. This system was developed at the “Benito Mahedero Laboratory of Superconducting Electrical Applications” in the University of Extremadura.

  5. Less red tape; Weniger Bremskloetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristau, Oliver

    2011-07-01

    Since July 2009, the PV Legal initiative funded by the European Commission has brought greater transparency and less red tape to photovoltaic projects in Europe. The remaining obstacles will be resolved by the new initiative, PV Grid.

  6. Tape Storage and CRC Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ha, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Over 100 Petabytes of data is stored on several kind of physical support, namely disks and tapes. Data on any physical support or traveling on a data link (network, fibre channel...) can be subject to silent data corruption. A possible improvement is introducing end-to-end data integrity from the filesystem down to the tape layer. For the tape back-end it can be done by using Logical Block Protection, which computes and compares CRC checksum of every single block of data. During my work, I improved on-the-fly CRC calculation for the tape storage system, which was achieved by introducing a multithreaded implementation - a technique applicable to arbitrary CRC algorithm. Finally, I per...

  7. How to Tape an Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Tape a Toe How to Stretch Your Ankle After A Sprain How to Strengthen Your Ankle After a Sprain How to Prepare for Orthopaedic Foot or Ankle Surgery: Part III How to Prepare for Orthopaedic ...

  8. Tape write-efficiency improvements in CASTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CERN Advanced STORage manager (CASTOR) is used to archive to tape the physics data of past and present physics experiments. For reasons of physical storage space, all of the tape resident data in CASTOR are repacked onto higher density tapes approximately every two years. Improving the performance of writing files smaller than 2GB to tape is essential in order to keep the time needed to repack all of the tape resident data within a period of no more than 1 year. This paper reports on the solution to writing efficiently to tape that is currently in its early deployment phases at CERN.

  9. Tape edge study in a linear tape drive with single-flanged guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldade, A.V.; Bhushan, Bharat E-mail: bhushan.2@osu.edu

    2004-05-01

    Improved tape guiding and tape dimensional stability are essential for magnetic tape linear recoding formats to take advantage of vastly increased track density and thereby achieve higher storage capacities. Tape guiding is dependent on numerous parameters, such as type of the guides and tape path geometry, quality of virgin tape edge, drive operating parameters (e.g., tape speed and tape tension), mechanical properties of the tape, and tape geometry (e.g., cupping and curvature). The objective of the present study is to evaluate guiding and tribological performance of single-flanged guides with porous air bearings in a linear tape drive. A comparison of guiding performance of the dual flanged stationary guides and single-flanged guides with porous air bearings is performed. The effect of tape path geometry, drive operating conditions (speed and tension) and tape edge quality of factory-slit tapes on tape guiding are evaluated during short-term tests. A lateral force measurement technique is used to measure the force exerted by the tape edge on the guide flange. A technique for the lateral tape motion measurement is used to study the effect of continuous sliding on tape guiding. Wear tests up to 5000 cycles are conducted and coefficient of friction and lateral tape motion are monitored to study the effect of drive operating conditions (speed and tension), edge quality of factory-slit tapes and tape thickness on tape guiding. Optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are employed to study and quantify the quality of tape edge.

  10. Superconducting flat tape cable magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayasu, Makoto

    2015-08-11

    A method for winding a coil magnet with the stacked tape cables, and a coil so wound. The winding process is controlled and various shape coils can be wound by twisting about the longitudinal axis of the cable and bending following the easy bend direction during winding, so that sharp local bending can be obtained by adjusting the twist pitch. Stack-tape cable is twisted while being wound, instead of being twisted in a straight configuration and then wound. In certain embodiments, the straight length should be half of the cable twist-pitch or a multiple of it.

  11. Colloidal processing, tape casting and sintering of PLZT for development of piezoceramic/polymer interlayered composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jian-Huei

    , flat and crack-free PLZT tapes can be sintered with low PbO loss. It was found that both sintering time and PbO loss affected the fracture mode and electrical properties of PLZT materials. "Buffer sheets" containing low solids loading of setter powders were also developed for mass production of PLZT tapes.

  12. Anisotropic thermal transport in Bi2223/Ag superconducting tape with sandwiched structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Anisotropic thermal conductivity of the Bi2223/Ag tape was measured. ► Thermal conductivity was analyzed using an equivalent heat current circuit. ► Thermal transports along the length and width directions were nearly the same. -- Abstract: The thermal conductivity, κ(T), of the Bi2223/Ag tape reinforced by metal tapes (stainless steel (SS) or copper-based alloy (CA)) from both side was evaluated along the length (l) and width (w) directions. κ(T) along the l-direction was measured directly using a single tape and that along the w-direction was estimated from the κ(T) measured for a stacked bundle which consists of several sandwiched Bi2223/Ag tapes. We analyzed the obtained κ(T) curves using an equivalent heat current circuit, and found that the heat transports along both directions were nearly the same and that the route of heat-flow depended on the species of the reinforcing metal. The absolute values of κ(T) at 77 K along the l- and w- directions for the Bi2223/Ag-SS tape were 174 and 140 W m−1 K−1 and those for the Bi2223/Ag-CA tape were 206 and 206 W m−1 K−1, respectively, the values of which were approximately 30–40% and 10–15% smaller than those of the standard Bi2223/Ag tape

  13. Effect of maleic anhydride-aniline derivative buffer layer on the properties of flexible substrate heterostructures: Indium tin oxide/nucleic acid base/metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanculescu, A., E-mail: sanca@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Socol, M. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Girtan, M. [Laboratoire de Photonique d' Angers, Universite d' Angers, 2, Bd. Lavoisier, 49045, Angers (France); Preda, N. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Albu, A.-M. [Department of Polymer Science, University ' Politehnica' of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); Stanculescu, F. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Str. Atomistilor nr.405, P.O. Box MG-11, Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 (Romania)

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the properties of guanine (G) and cytosine (C) based heterostructures deposited on flexible substrates. The effects of two types of maleic anhydride-aniline derivatives (maleic anhydride-cyano aniline or maleic anhydride-2,4 dinitroaniline) buffer layer, deposited between indium tin oxide and (G) or (C) layer, on the optical and electrical properties of the heterostructures have been identified. The heterostructures containing a film of maleic anhydride-2,4 dinitroaniline have shown a good transparency and low photoluminescence in visible range. This buffer layer has determined an increase in the conductance only in the heterostructures based on (G) and (C) deposited on biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate substrate.

  14. Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small surgical cut (incision) is made inside your vagina. Two small cuts are made in your belly ... tape is passed through the cut inside the vagina. The tape is then positioned under your urethra. ...

  15. EROS to universal tape conversion processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, S. O. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The function of the EROS processor is to allow a user to select a specific area from a full frame LANDSAT image which is written on tape in the EROS format. The area of interest is read from the EROS formatted tape and converted to the JSC Universal format and written onto another tape. This tape can then be read by the IMDACS processing system and normal analysis can be performed.

  16. Taping in sports: a brief update

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Athletic taping is an adjunct mechanism adopted as a preventive measure of injuries or post-injury rehabilitation and prophylaxis. The tape is chosen properly so that it could be able to properly strap the body parts, e.g., ankle, wrist, finger, etc. There are certain principles, guidelines, rules and regulations based on which taping has to be done. Besides injury prevention, taping is also used in sports as conservative management of pain, biomechanical effects, effects on balance, posture ...

  17. Mary Tape, An Outspoken Woman. Primary Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OAH Magazine of History, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Provides reproductions of primary documents pertaining to Mary Tape, a Chinese immigrant in San Francisco who fought to have her children admitted to public school, including a letter from Mary Tape to the Board of Education and an article about Mary Tape that appeared in the "Morning Call" (23 November 1892). (CMK)

  18. The Effect of the Kinesio Taping and Spiral Taping on Menstrual Pain and Premenstrual Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Chaegil; Park, Yongnam; Bae, Youngsook

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Kinesio taping and spiral taping on menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome, to investigate the efficacy of the two types of taping as methods for alleviating menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 34 unmarried women. The subjects were randomly divided into a Kinesio taping group, a spiral taping group and a control group. Subjects with a regular menstrual cycle underwe...

  19. In situ high rate growth of high temperature superconductor tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, M. R. B. (Malcom R. Beasley); Peng, L. S. (Luke S.); Wang, W. (Weizhi); Jo, W.; Ohnishi, T. (Tsuyoshi); Marshall, A. F. (Ann F.); Hammond, R. H. (Robert H.); Beasley, M. R. (Malcom R.); Peterson, E. J. (Eric J.); Ericson, R. (Richard)

    2001-01-01

    In situ high rate growth of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} superconducting films has been carried out using e-beam deposition. A deposition flux controller is developed to monitor and control the deposition rates using tunable diode laser based atomic absorption. Wide range of temperatures, deposition rates, and oxygen fluxes including atomic and molecular oxygen, as well as ozone, have been explored in order to understand both kinetic and thermodynamic stability. Critical current density above 1 MA/cm{sup 2} has been achieved on SrTiO{sub 3} substrate samples in growth rate up to 75 {angstrom}/sec. Samples prepared on IBAD YSZ/Ni tapes exhibit similar R(T)s and x-ray diffraction patterns. However, critical current densities of the tapes are around kA/cm{sup 2} or lower. The poor critical current density of the tape is attributed to interaction between the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} film and the YSZ buffer layer.

  20. HTS twisted stacked-tape cable conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of high field magnet applications of the twisted stacked-tape cabling method with 2G YBCO tapes has been investigated. An analysis of torsional twist strains of a thin HTS tape has been carried out taking into account the internal shortening compressive strains accompanied with the lengthening tensile strains due to the torsional twist. The model is benchmarked against experimental tests using YBCO tapes. The critical current degradation and current distribution of a four-tape conductor was evaluated by taking account of the twist strain, the self-field and the termination resistances. The critical current degradation for the tested YBCO cables can be explained by the perpendicular self-field effect. It is shown that the critical current of a twisted stacked-tape conductor with a four-tape cable does not degrade with a twist pitch length as short as 120 mm. Current distribution among tapes and hysteresis losses are also investigated. A compact joint termination method for a 2G YBCO tape cable has been developed. The twisted stacked-tape conductor method may be an attractive means for the fabrication of highly compact, high current cables from multiple flat HTS tapes.

  1. Pinning Mechanisms in YBCO Tapes

    CERN Document Server

    Spera, Marcello; Ballarino, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis work, a study on flux pinning mechanisms of commercial YBCO tapes is presented. This study has been performed via critical current characterization using transport (via direct I-V curves) and magnetization (via a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer) measurements. The latter ones turned out to be better concerning the comprehension of the pinning landscape of the provided samples, as a wider range of magnetic fields and temperatures is available for those measurements in the setup I used. The comparison of the experimental data with existing theoretical models allowed me to draw a picture of the pinning mechanisms underlying in each sample, and they turned out to be quite different one another. Moreover, for high-performance research tapes, another interesting feature has been found: the counterplay between the self-field critical current and the in-field one. Very well engineered artificial pinning structures limit the self-field critical current density due to the hi...

  2. Fabrication of W/Cu FGM By Aqueous Tape Casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tungsten Copper-based metals (W/Cu) were extensively used as electrical contact materials in switching systems for the electric power industry. In this paper, a novel investigation to prepare Tungsten Copper-based metal composite materials according to functionally graded material (FGM) concept and the method of tape casting was reported. Cu-coated W powders with different Cu weight fraction were synthesized via electricless plain in methanol-water solvent. The green tapes with different composition and thickness were laminated and then sintered to prepare W-Cu functionally graded materials. XRD, EDS, SEM and metallographic analyses were used to characterize the material microstructure and combination between different layers. The results showed that the Cu-coated W powders had grate compressibility leading to wettability of powders. The parallelism and flatness of intermediate layer were good and the combination was tight.

  3. Standard Practice for Sampling for Particulate Contamination by Tape Lift

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for sampling surfaces to determine the presence of particulate contamination, 5 m and larger. The practice consists of the application of a pressure-sensitive tape to the surface followed by the removal of particulate contamination with the removal of the tape. The tape with the adhering particles is then mounted on counting slides. Counting and measuring of particles is done by standard techniques. 1.2 This practice describes the materials and equipment required to perform sampling of surfaces for particle counting and sizing. 1.3 The criteria for acceptance or rejection of a part for conformance to surface cleanliness level requirements shall be determined by the user and are not included in this practice. 1.4 This practice is for use on surfaces that are not damaged by the application of adhesive tape. The use of this practice on any surface of any material not previously tested or for which the susceptibility to damage is unknown is not recommended. In general, metal...

  4. Thermomechanical Analysis of Shape-Memory Composite Tape Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Wang, L. Y.

    2013-06-01

    Intelligent materials and structures have been extensively applied for satellite designs in order to minimize the mass and reduce the cost in the launch of the spacecraft. Elastic memory composites (EMCs) have the ability of high-strain packaging and shape-memory effect, but increase the parts and total weight due to the additional heating system. Shape-memory sandwich structures Li and Wang (J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 22(14), 1605-1612, 2011) can overcome such disadvantage by using the metal skin acting as the heating element. However, the high strain in the micro-buckled metal skin decreases the deployment efficiency. This paper aims to present an insight into the folding and deployment behaviors of shape-memory composite (SMC) tape springs. A thermomechanical process was analyzed, including the packaging deformation at an elevated temperature, shape frozen at the low temperature and shape recovery after reheating. The result shows that SMC tape springs can significantly decrease the strain concentration in the metal skin, as well as exhibiting excellent shape frozen and recovery behaviors. Additionally, possible failure modes of SMC tape springs were also analyzed.

  5. Area estimate for buffer area of loading/unloading site for metal-concrete casks with BN-350 spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation results are presented for radiation fields induced by BN-350 spent nuclear fuel transported in seven-pack metal-concrete cask. The results are used to evaluate dose load on personnel and population at the cask loading/unloading operations. For the purpose of calculations, MCNP code was applied. (author)

  6. Programmes associated with WIMS library tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of, and details of data preparation for the programmes WIMLIB, WIMCON, WINGAL, WIMRES and WIMMIX are given. All these are KDF9 programs with the exception of WIMGAL which is available both on KDF9 tape writing program, and may be used either to write a completely new library tape or to produce a revised version of an existing WIMS library tape. WIMCON takes an existing library tape together with appropriate condensation spectra in order to produce a condensed library tape in fewer energy groups. WIMGAL, WIMRES and WIMMIX are programs for preparing data for WIMLIB from GALAXY ITS2 tapes from resonance parameters, and by mixing other WIMLIB data, respectively. (U.K.)

  7. Buffer design 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva's spent nuclear fuel disposal is based on the KBS-3V concept and on the characteristics of the Olkiluoto site. In this concept single canisters containing spent nuclear fuel surrounded by a bentonite buffer are emplaced in individual vertical boreholes drilled in the floor of deposition tunnels in bedrock at about 420 m depth below ground level. Disk type bentonite blocks are installed at the bottom of the hole and on the top of the disposal canister. Ring type bentonite blocks surround the canisters. This report describes the detailed design of the buffer for a KBS-3V repository. The report presents the design basis, the reference design, and summarises the performance analyses carried out for the design. This report addresses aspects concerning the manufacture, quality control, mechanical strength, chemical resistance, thermal dimensioning, handling of buffer components and material ageing phenomena including the effect of radiation. Interaction of buffer and other engineered barriers are included in the study. The long-term evolution of the repository and its effective drivers are considered if they have an impact on the buffer performance but operational safety aspects are also included because they may affect long-term safety. (orig.)

  8. Kinesio Taping technique and Kinesio Tex

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Brăteanu

    2009-01-01

    Kinesio Taping is a method of application of a special tape, adhesive and elastic, which imitates the qualities of the skin.Taping tape is named Kinesio Tex, is made of cotton with acrylic adhesive and it applies directly on skin, on affected musclelength and/or around some joints depending on affection, having the quality of not modifing the biomechanical movement andto facilitate the blood and limphatic circulation of the respective area. It is easy supported on skin/by skin, reduces the pa...

  9. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number...... of available processor cores compared to its sequential counterpart, thereby taking full advantage of multicore parallelism. The parallel buffer tree is a search tree data structure that supports the batched parallel processing of a sequence of N insertions, deletions, membership queries, and range queries...... in the optimal OhOf(psortN + K/PB) parallel I/O complexity, where K is the size of the output reported in the process and psortN is the parallel I/O complexity of sorting N elements using P processors....

  10. Placement suitability criteria of composite tape for mould surface in automated tape placement

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Peng; Sun Ronglei; Zhao Xueying; Hu Lingjin

    2015-01-01

    Automated tape placement is an important automated process used for fabrication of large composite structures in aeronautical industry. The carbon fiber composite parts realized with this process tend to replace the aluminum parts produced by high-speed machining. It is difficult to determine the appropriate width of the composite tape in automated tape placement. Wrinkling will appear in the tape if it does not suit for the mould surface. Thus, this paper deals with establishing placement su...

  11. Performance Comparison of Twisted Tape and Screw Tape Inserts in Square Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Vinaya Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of insertion of a full length twisted tape and full length screw tape insert in a concentric double pipe heat exchanger ,square duct inner, and circular annulus on heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics were experimentally studied. Experiments were carried out under constant wall temperature using water as working fluid. Stainless steel twisted tape and screw tape inserts have equal twist ratio(y=4.0.Cold water flows through inner square duct, and hot water flows through circular annulus, in counter current fashion. Screw tape inserts found better over twisted tape from thermal performance point of view. Results of the Isothermal friction factor for the present twisted tape and helical screw-tape are higher than those for the plain duct around 7.7 times and 14 times respectively. Experiments were conducted well within laminar region. Over entire investigated laminar range, mean Nusselt number for the present twisted tape and helical screw tape are higher than those for the plain duct around 2.85 times and 5.3 times respectively. Further, Thermal performance ratio of twisted tape and screw tape inserts were found 2.81 and 3.52 times the plain square duct on constant pumping power respectively.

  12. RIGID TAPE VERSUS KINESIO TAPE ON SCAPULAR ROTATION AND FORWARD HEAD ANGLE IN SUBACROMIAL IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A. Embaby

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rigid and kinesio taping is commonly used in the rehabilitation and prevention of subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS. It is proposed to have positive effects on shoulder function and scapular kinematics. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding the effectiveness of rigid versus elastic taping on scapular upward rotation and forward head posture (FHP, which is commonly adopted in SIS. Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the effect of taping with postural correction on the scapular kinematics and forward head angle (FHA in patients with SIS when two different taping materials are used: rigid versus a kinesio tape application. Methods: Eleven female patients with SIS participated in this study. Their age, weight and height ranged from 30 to 60 years, 56 to 90 kg and 155 to 175 cm, respectively. The participants were randomly assigned to Group I (Kinesio tape (KT, n=6 and Group II (Rigid tape (RT, n=5. Thoracic and scapular taping with posture correction was applied to both groups. Scapular upward rotation at 0°, 60°, 90° and 120° and FHA were measured before and immediately after the taping. Results: Both taping materials significantly increased the scapular upward rotation at 90° and 120° shoulder elevation. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in the FHA in the RT group. Conclusion: Both tapings are effective in restoring scapular kinematics. The corrective effect of rigid taping on FHA is substantiated.

  13. One-step Tape Casting of Composites via Slurry on Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Henry C., III

    2001-01-01

    A process by which metal matrix composites can be made was presented. The process involves putting a powder slurry on fibers to make a precursor green tape. These green tapes are cut, stacked and hot pressed to form the fully dense composite. A computer program was presented which enables complete quantification and control of the process. Once some easily obtained properties of the slurry and its behavior are determined (such as the shrinkage from the wet to green state, and the density of the green tape) modification of the fiber spacing and blade height give the maker precise control of fiber volume fraction, and fiber architecture in the composite. The process was shown to be accurate and flexible through the production of a wide variety of volume fraction fiber composites made from a wide variety of fibers and powders. The most time consuming step of the tape casting process (other than hot pressing) was winding the fiber on the drum. The tape casting techniques developed resulted in high quality metal matrix composites, with ultimate tensile strength in the range of 215 ksi (1477 MPa), a strain at failure of 1.15 percent, and in fatigue at room temperature 0 to 120 ksi, n = 0.3 Hz, a 4-ply Ti-24Al-11Nb/SCS-6, 32 vol% fiber tape cast composite lasted 202,205 cycles with a maximum strain on the 100th cycle of 0.43 percent.

  14. EFFECT OF KINESIO TAPING VERSUS ATHLETIC TAPING ON PAIN AND MUSCLE PERFORMANCE IN LATERAL EPICONDYLALGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashi Goel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lateral epicondylalgia is a degenerative musculoskeletal pain state characterised by pain over the lateral humeral epicondyle resulting in absenteeism from work and daily living activities. It is most prevalent in jobs requiring repetitive manual activities of the upper extremity. Literature describes different treatment options for lateral Epicondylalgia but there is no consensus about the most efficacious intervention strategy. Taping (athletic/kinesio has been used successfully in various musculoskeletal conditions with successful results. To date, no study has investigated the effect of kinesio taping in lateral epicondylalgia. The purpose of the study was to investigate and compare the effects of kinesio taping and athletic taping on pain and muscle performance in patients with lateral epicondylalgia. 16 patients (9 males, 7 females within age group of 18 – 50 years participated in the study. It was a cross over design. VAS, digital al goniometer and Jamar Dynamometer were used to quantify pain, pressure pain threshold and pain free grip strength. These were evaluated pre taping, immediately after taping and after 30 minutes of each taping application selected randomly for two consecutive days. Repeated measures ANOVA and percentage change were used to examine differences in outcome measures. Bonferroni correction was applied to correct for repeated testing. The results showed significant pain reduction and increase in grip strength after both the taping techniques but no statistically significant differences for any outcome measure between the two taping techniques (p>0.05. Also the immediate pain reduction was more after athletic taping (21% than kinesio taping (10% that corresponded to the immediate increase in pain free grip strength more after athletic taping (14.5% than kinesio taping (9.7%. 30 minutes later both the outcome measures gave similar percentage changes . The present study concludes with the recommendation of both

  15. Monofilamentary Ag/Bi:2212 tapes - effects of silver powder addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system has been one of the most studied superconducting ceramic materials for industry applications. The most of the studies with this aim are on silver/ceramic composites, due to the benefits and great compatibility of this metal with the oxide. Tapes made by the powder in tube (PIT) method have been successfully tested in pilot power plants in many countries but in Brazil. In this paper, 5, 10, and 20-wt% silver powders are introduced to compose the core of the tape along with the Bi:2212 ceramic powder. The results of electrical experiments are compared with those made with no silver addition Ag tapes. The best current density, at 60 K and no applied magnetic field, was found for the 10-wt% silver proportion, doubling the value obtained for the tape with no silver in the core. (orig.)

  16. Effects of ankle eversion taping using kinesiology tape in a patient with ankle inversion sprain

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to report the effects of ankle eversion taping using kinesiology tape on ankle inversion sprain. [Subject] The subject was a 21-year-old woman with Grade 2 ankle inversion sprain. [Methods] Ankle eversion taping was applied to the sprained left ankle using kinesiology tape for 4 weeks (average, 15 h/day). [Results] Ankle instability and pain were reduced, and functional dynamic balance was improved after ankle eversion taping for 4 weeks. The Cumberland Ank...

  17. Multiple Generations on Video Tape Recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Jacob H.

    Helical scan video tape recorders were tested for their dubbing characteristics in order to make selection data available to media personnel. The equipment, two recorders of each type tested, was submitted by the manufacturers. The test was designed to produce quality evaluations for three generations of a single tape, thereby encompassing all…

  18. Interactions at the head-tape interface of a linear tape system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the recent improvements in the capacity of data cartridge systems have been achieved through the use of narrower tracks, higher linear densities and continuous servo tracking with multi-channel heads. These changes have produced new tribological problems at the head/tape interface. It is crucial that the tribology of such systems is understood and this will continue since increasing storage capacities and faster transfer rates are constantly being sought. Chemical changes in the surface of single and dual layer MP tape have been correlated to signal performance. An accelerated tape tester, consisting of a custom made cycler (loop tester), was used to ascertain if results could be produced that were representative of a real tape drive system. A second set of experiments used a modified tape drive (Georgens cycler), which allowed the effects of the tape transport system on the tape surface to be studied. To isolate any effects on the tape surface due to the head/tape interface, read/write heads were not fitted to the cycler. Two further sets of experiments were conducted which included a head in the tape path. This allowed the effects of the head/tape interface on the physical and chemical properties of the head and tape surfaces to be investigated. It was during the final set of experiments that the effect on the head/tape interface, of an energised MR element, was investigated. The effect of operating each cycler at extreme relative humidity and temperature was investigated through the use of an environmental chamber. Extensive use was made of surface specific analytical techniques such as XPS, AFM, AES and SEM to study the physical and chemical changes that occur at the head/tape interface. Results showed that cycling improved the signal performance of all the tapes tested. The data cartridge drive belt had an effect on the chemical properties of the tape surface on which it was in contact. Also binder degradation occurred for each tape and appeared to be

  19. Buffer layers for REBCO films for use in superconducting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A superconducting article includes a substrate having a biaxially textured surface. A biaxially textured buffer layer, which can be a cap layer, is supported by the substrate. The buffer layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different transition metal cations. A biaxially textured superconductor layer is deposited so as to be supported by the buffer layer. A method of making a superconducting article is also disclosed.

  20. White House Tapes of the Nixon Administration, 1971 to 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This dataset provides information about the Nixon Administration's White House Tapes. The White House Tapes contain sound recordings of President Richard Nixon's...

  1. Kinesio Taping Fundamentals for the Equine Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Sybille

    2016-04-01

    The Kinesio taping method was developed in Japan for use in humans in 1979. The use of complementary therapies is becoming common in equine athletes and the discovery of Kinesio taping potential brought it into the animal world. Kinesio taping can be used to treat a wide range of clinical conditions, from tendon injuries to neurologic disorders and from muscle contractures to postural insufficiencies. Its use in veterinary medicine is promising, but relies heavily on evidence-based clinical reports. Further scientific research is needed to fully understand the real effectiveness of application. PMID:26898963

  2. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles with Buffer-Dependent Variations of Size and Morphology in Biological Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Rahin; Oh, Sangjin; Baba, Rina; Zhou, Hongjian; Hwang, Sungu; Lee, Jaebeom; Park, Enoch Y.

    2016-02-01

    The demand for biologically compatible and stable noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) has increased in recent years due to their inert nature and unique optical properties. In this article, we present 11 different synthetic methods for obtaining gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) through the use of common biological buffers. The results demonstrate that the sizes, shapes, and monodispersity of the NPs could be varied depending on the type of buffer used, as these buffers acted as both a reducing agent and a stabilizer in each synthesis. Theoretical simulations and electrochemical experiments were performed to understand the buffer-dependent variations of size and morphology exhibited by these Au NPs, which revealed that surface interactions and the electrostatic energy on the (111) surface of Au were the determining factors. The long-term stability of the synthesized NPs in buffer solution was also investigated. Most NPs synthesized using buffers showed a uniquely wide range of pH stability and excellent cell viability without the need for further modifications.

  3. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles with Buffer-Dependent Variations of Size and Morphology in Biological Buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Rahin; Oh, Sangjin; Baba, Rina; Zhou, Hongjian; Hwang, Sungu; Lee, Jaebeom; Park, Enoch Y

    2016-12-01

    The demand for biologically compatible and stable noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) has increased in recent years due to their inert nature and unique optical properties. In this article, we present 11 different synthetic methods for obtaining gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) through the use of common biological buffers. The results demonstrate that the sizes, shapes, and monodispersity of the NPs could be varied depending on the type of buffer used, as these buffers acted as both a reducing agent and a stabilizer in each synthesis. Theoretical simulations and electrochemical experiments were performed to understand the buffer-dependent variations of size and morphology exhibited by these Au NPs, which revealed that surface interactions and the electrostatic energy on the (111) surface of Au were the determining factors. The long-term stability of the synthesized NPs in buffer solution was also investigated. Most NPs synthesized using buffers showed a uniquely wide range of pH stability and excellent cell viability without the need for further modifications. PMID:26847691

  4. Progress in Jc and magnetic field performance of Bi-2223/Ag composite tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The application of high-temperature superconductors to electric power systems is actively pursued by several commercial teams around the world. A promising candidate is the Bi-2223/Ag composite superconductor. For large scale commercial applications the conductor must meet certain engineering specifications including high current capacity in the presence of a self-generated magnetic field ranging from a few hundred mT in transmission cables to 1-2 T in transformers and current limiters, and to much higher fields in the case of superconducting coils for energy storage and magnets. In the last two years, a commercial consortium consisting of Metal Manufactures Ltd, University of Wollongong and CSIRO has focused on the development of Bi-2223/Ag composite tape suitable for use in electric power applications. The powder-in-tube process is used to produce conventional single filament and multifilament tapes and twisted conductors. An appropriate measure of 'process capability' is routine running of the process and evaluation of tape performance. In this paper we report on the electrical properties of Bi-2223/Ag composite tapes produced as part of the long-length product development. The transport critical current density of tapes is measured in magnetic fields up to 9 T (H parallel and H perpendicular tape-plane) and as a function of temperature (4 - 80 K). Transport ac losses are determined at 77 K and 60 Hz, and the bend strain performance is determined at 77 K for strains up to 1.5 %

  5. The magnetic stability of face-cooled composite tape superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes the concept of face-cooled composite tape to stabilize high critical current entities in Nb3Sn, V3Ga and oxides. The stability is promoted by the combined action of the dynamic stability and the transient cryogenic stability. The expression of the limiting current density of stability is derived as functions of pertinent parameters of superconductor, stabilizing normal metal and the coolant. An experimental proof of the analysis is given on Nb3Sn-Cu system. The specimens are made by stacking strips of Nb3Sn and copper alternatively

  6. Ankle inversion taping using kinesiology tape for treating medial ankle sprain in an amateur soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to report the effects of ankle inversion taping using kinesiology tape in a patient with a medial ankle sprain. [Subject] A 28-year-old amateur soccer player suffered a Grade 2 medial ankle sprain during a match. [Methods] Ankle inversion taping was applied to the sprained ankle every day for 2 months. [Results] His symptoms were reduced after ankle inversion taping application for 2 months. The self-reported function score, the reach distances in the Star Excursion Balance Test, and the weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion were increased. [Conclusion] This study showed that ankle inversion taping using kinesiology tape may be an effective therapy for a patient with a medial ankle sprain. PMID:26311991

  7. Effects of ankle eversion taping using kinesiology tape in a patient with ankle inversion sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to report the effects of ankle eversion taping using kinesiology tape on ankle inversion sprain. [Subject] The subject was a 21-year-old woman with Grade 2 ankle inversion sprain. [Methods] Ankle eversion taping was applied to the sprained left ankle using kinesiology tape for 4 weeks (average, 15 h/day). [Results] Ankle instability and pain were reduced, and functional dynamic balance was improved after ankle eversion taping for 4 weeks. The Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool score and reach distances in the Y-Balance and lunge tests were increased. [Conclusion] Repeated ankle eversion taping may be an effective treatment intervention for ankle inversion sprain. PMID:27064668

  8. RIGID TAPE VERSUS KINESIO TAPE ON SCAPULAR ROTATION AND FORWARD HEAD ANGLE IN SUBACROMIAL IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Eman A. Embaby; Eman M.A. Abdalgwad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rigid and kinesio taping is commonly used in the rehabilitation and prevention of subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS). It is proposed to have positive effects on shoulder function and scapular kinematics. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding the effectiveness of rigid versus elastic taping on scapular upward rotation and forward head posture (FHP), which is commonly adopted in SIS. Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the effect of taping with post...

  9. Superconducting properties of multilayered Ag/Bi(Pb)-2223 tapes prepared using pretextured monolayered tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilayered Ag/Bi(Pb)-2223 tapes with high critical current densities (Jc) have been fabricated using partially heat treated, textured monolayered tapes. Cut sections of the monolayered tapes have been stacked one over the other and folded together using high-purity silver foil and further rolled and heat treated to obtain multilayered tapes of different thickness with an HTS layer thickness varying from 9 to 20 μm. A comparison of the superconducting properties of the multilayered tapes with those of monolayered tapes prepared under identical heat treatment conditions shows that the Jc(multi)/Jc(mono) ratio at 77 K is as high as 0.57. The ratio is found to decrease with a decrease in the HTS core thickness of the multilayered tapes. XRD studies of 'banana peeled' samples show that the monolayered tapes at the folding stage acquire a good degree of texturing. The relatively high value of the Jc(multi)/Jc(mono) ratio obtained in the present case compared with those reported by the existing techniques is attributed to the use of pretextured monolayered tapes. (author)

  10. Effects of Kinesio taping and Mcconnell taping on balance and walking speed of hemiplegia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yong-Kyu; Park, Young-Han; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the overlap effect of the PNF following the application of Kinesio taping and the McConnell taping, and also the impact of the taping application method on the balance and walking speed of the patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-six patients who were diagnosed with hemiplegia due to stroke were selected as subjects of this study. They were randomly and evenly divided into experiment group 1 (Kinesio taping group), experiment grou...

  11. Ankle inversion taping using kinesiology tape for treating medial ankle sprain in an amateur soccer player

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to report the effects of ankle inversion taping using kinesiology tape in a patient with a medial ankle sprain. [Subject] A 28-year-old amateur soccer player suffered a Grade 2 medial ankle sprain during a match. [Methods] Ankle inversion taping was applied to the sprained ankle every day for 2 months. [Results] His symptoms were reduced after ankle inversion taping application for 2 months. The self-reported function score, the reach distances in the S...

  12. Aligned Carbon Nanotube Tape for Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.

    2013-01-01

    For this effort, will concentrate on three applications: Vibration Gyroscope utilizes piezoelectric properties of the tape and Coriolis effect Accelerometer utilizes the piezoresistive property Strain Gauge utilizes piezoresistive property Accelerometer and Strain Gauge can also utilize piezoelectric effect Test piezoelectric properties using facilities at the Microfabrication Laboratory (AMRDEC) . Enhance piezoelectric effect using polyvinylidine fluoride and P(VDF ]TrFE) which is readily polarizable .Spray matrix solution while winding fiber; Sandwich of CNT tape and PVDF film (DOE .Two Level) . Construct and test prototype vibration gyroscope . Construct and test prototype accelerometer using cantilever design . Test strain sensitivity of CNT tape against industrial strain gauge . Embed CNT tape in composite samples as well as on surface and test to failure (4 ]point bend) A piezoelectric device exhibits an electrical response from a mechanical applied stress. . A piezoelectric device has both capacitance and resistance properties in which by applying an electric field from a waveform will exert a mechanical stress that can be monitored for a response. . The typical waveform applied is a sinusoidal waveform of a defined voltage for a defined period. The defined voltage is driven from 0 volts to the positive defined volts then back to 0 and driven to negative defined volts then back to 0. . Example. Vmax set to 10V and period set to 10 ms. . Voltage will start at zero, go to 10 volts, return to zero, go to ]10 volts and return to zero during 10 ms. . Applying this electrical field to a DUT, the capacitance response and resistance response can be observed. CNT tape is easier to manufacture and cheaper than micromachining silicon or other ceramic piezoelectric used in gyroscopes and accelerometers CNT tape properties can be modified during manufacture for specific application CNT tape has enhanced mechanical and thermal properties in addition to unique electrical

  13. Effectiveness of taping and bracing in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Sykaras, Evaggelos; Costa, Frosoula; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2002-04-01

    Taping and bracing are thought to be effective methods in restricting the ankle's joint motion and assisting prevention of injuries. Research evidence suggests that taping and bracing enhance both the mechanical support and the proprioception of the ankle. However, there is little research concerning the influence of taping and bracing on sport performance. Research has mainly examined tasks with demands on the frontal plane. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of taping and bracing on the performance of a task with demands on the frontal plane. A sample of 30 physical education students (Mage=21.9 yr.) performed a balance task requiring estimation of balance and both right and left deviations. The subjects performed the balance task on four different conditions, with tape, with Swede-O (a lace-up, boot style stabilizer), with Aircast (an inflatable cast), and without any stabilizer. There were no significant differences among the conditions. These findings indicate that taping and bracing do not have negative effects on balance in the frontal plane. This study created concerns regarding the appropriate stabilizer for different tasks, bilateral coordination after the application of a stabilizer, and the influence of psychological factors on prevention of injury. PMID:12027354

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.508 - Electronic data processing (EDP) tape and instrumentation tape (wide and intermediate band).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Electronic data processing (EDP) tape and instrumentation tape (wide and intermediate band). 101-26.508 Section 101-26.508... Programs § 101-26.508 Electronic data processing (EDP) tape and instrumentation tape (wide and...

  15. Kinesio Taping effects on knee extension force among soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Maysa V. G. B.; Vieira, Edgar R.; Denis Brunt; Goethel, Márcio F.; Mauro Gonçalves; Paulo R. V. Quemelo

    2015-01-01

    Background : Kinesio Taping (KT) is widely used, however the effects of KT on muscle activation and force are contradictory. Objective : To evaluate the effects of KT on knee extension force in soccer players. Method: This is a clinical trial study design. Thirty-four subjects performed two maximal isometric voluntary contractions of the lower limbs pre, immediately post, and 24 hours after tape application on the lower limbs. Both lower limbs were taped, using K-Tape and 3M Micropore tape ra...

  16. Enhancement of critical current density and strain tolerance in Ag-sheathed BSCCO (2223) tapes by continuous silver reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used a modified powder-in-tube technique in various configurations to demonstrate significant improvement in the transport properties and strain tolerance of Ag-sheathed BSCCO superconducting tapes. In this process, the BSCCO core has been reinforced with a silver rod placed concentrically within the silver tube and then processed into approx. 250 μm thick tapes by established metal-working techniques. A noticeable improvement in critical current density, Jc, was observed as a result of this modification. This increase is attributed to increased texturing, decrease in thickness of BSCCO layers, increase in the length of the Ag/BSCCO interface, and decrease in the volume fraction of the superconducting core which is less effective in contributing towards the overall critical current of the tape. Further improvements have been made to this configuration by incorporating another ring of superconductor into the core. The improved configurations led to a significant increase in Jc over that of monolithic BSCCO tapes. Critical current densities of approx. 40 kA cm-2 at 77 K and self-field have been consistently achieved in 150 μm thick tapes after 150 h of sintering. Analysis of critical current through various sections of the tape indicates that 80% of the critical current is carried by the centre section of the core within which the Ag rod is located. The bend strain tolerance of the tapes containing a silver core was found to be significantly better than that of the monolithic tapes. At an applied surface bend strain of 1.0%, about 98% of initial Jc was retained in Ag-reinforced tapes, compared with only 54% in monolithic tapes. (author)

  17. Strategy for robot motion and path planning in robot taping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qilong; Chen, I.-Ming; Lembono, Teguh Santoso; Landén, Simon Nelson; Malmgren, Victor

    2016-05-01

    Covering objects with masking tapes is a common process for surface protection in processes like spray painting, plasma spraying, shot peening, etc. Manual taping is tedious and takes a lot of effort of the workers. The taping process is a special process which requires correct surface covering strategy and proper attachment of the masking tape for an efficient surface protection. We have introduced an automatic robot taping system consisting of a robot manipulator, a rotating platform, a 3D scanner and specially designed taping end-effectors. This paper mainly talks about the surface covering strategies for different classes of geometries. The methods and corresponding taping tools are introduced for taping of following classes of surfaces: Cylindrical/extended surfaces, freeform surfaces with no grooves, surfaces with grooves, and rotational symmetrical surfaces. A collision avoidance algorithm is introduced for the robot taping manipulation. With further improvements on segmenting surfaces of taping parts and tape cutting mechanisms, such taping solution with the taping tool and the taping methodology can be combined as a very useful and practical taping package to assist humans in this tedious and time costly work.

  18. Strategy for robot motion and path planning in robot taping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qilong; Chen, I.-Ming; Lembono, Teguh Santoso; Landén, Simon Nelson; Malmgren, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Covering objects with masking tapes is a common process for surface protection in processes like spray painting, plasma spraying, shot peening, etc. Manual taping is tedious and takes a lot of effort of the workers. The taping process is a special process which requires correct surface covering strategy and proper attachment of the masking tape for an efficient surface protection. We have introduced an automatic robot taping system consisting of a robot manipulator, a rotating platform, a 3D scanner and specially designed taping end-effectors. This paper mainly talks about the surface covering strategies for different classes of geometries. The methods and corresponding taping tools are introduced for taping of following classes of surfaces: Cylindrical/extended surfaces, freeform surfaces with no grooves, surfaces with grooves, and rotational symmetrical surfaces. A collision avoidance algorithm is introduced for the robot taping manipulation. With further improvements on segmenting surfaces of taping parts and tape cutting mechanisms, such taping solution with the taping tool and the taping methodology can be combined as a very useful and practical taping package to assist humans in this tedious and time costly work.

  19. Buffer moisture protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the present knowledge, bentonite blocks have to be protected from the air relative humidity and from any moisture leakages in the environment that might cause swelling of the bentonite blocks during the 'open' installation phase before backfilling. The purpose of this work was to design the structural reference solution both for the bottom of the deposition hole and for the buffer moisture protection and dewatering system with their integrated equipment needed in the deposition hole. This report describes the Posiva's reference solution for the buffer moisture protection system and the bottom plate on basis of the demands and functional requirements set by long-term safety. The reference solution with structural details has been developed in research work made 2010-2011. The structural solution of the moisture protection system has not yet been tested in practice. On the bottom of the deposition hole a copper plate which protects the lowest bentonite block from the gathered water is installed straight to machined and even rock surface. The moisture protection sheet made of EPDM rubber is attached to the copper plate with an inflatable seal. The upper part of the moisture protection sheet is fixed to the collar structures of the lid which protects the deposition hole in the disposal tunnel. The main function of the moisture protection sheet is to protect bentonite blocks from the leaking water and from the influence of the air humidity at their installation stage. The leaking water is controlled by the dewatering and alarm system which has been integrated into the moisture protection liner. (orig.)

  20. Buffer moisture protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Peura, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-11-15

    With the present knowledge, bentonite blocks have to be protected from the air relative humidity and from any moisture leakages in the environment that might cause swelling of the bentonite blocks during the 'open' installation phase before backfilling. The purpose of this work was to design the structural reference solution both for the bottom of the deposition hole and for the buffer moisture protection and dewatering system with their integrated equipment needed in the deposition hole. This report describes the Posiva's reference solution for the buffer moisture protection system and the bottom plate on basis of the demands and functional requirements set by long-term safety. The reference solution with structural details has been developed in research work made 2010-2011. The structural solution of the moisture protection system has not yet been tested in practice. On the bottom of the deposition hole a copper plate which protects the lowest bentonite block from the gathered water is installed straight to machined and even rock surface. The moisture protection sheet made of EPDM rubber is attached to the copper plate with an inflatable seal. The upper part of the moisture protection sheet is fixed to the collar structures of the lid which protects the deposition hole in the disposal tunnel. The main function of the moisture protection sheet is to protect bentonite blocks from the leaking water and from the influence of the air humidity at their installation stage. The leaking water is controlled by the dewatering and alarm system which has been integrated into the moisture protection liner. (orig.)

  1. Effects of kinesio tape compared with non-elastic tape on hand grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Seong Yeol

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Many assumptions have been made about taping and several studies have considered tape application methods; however, the true effect of taping on muscle strength remains unclear. Most previous studies compared application techniques using Kinesio tape (KT), but studies that compared muscle strength using non-elastic tape (NT) are limited. Moreover, no studies have applied KT and NT in the same way to assess grip strength in normal subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of application of two tapes with different elastic properties on maximal grip strength in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy adults were divided into two groups (KT and NT). Maximal grip strength was measured with a dynamometer. Forearm extensor muscles of the dominant hand were then taped and subjects were immediately asked to perform hand grip movement with maximum strength in the same standardized manner. [Results] In the KT group, maximal grip strength was significantly increased compared to the initial value; however, in the NT group, there was no significant difference in maximal grip strength. [Conclusion] This study suggests that only Kinesio tape can increase maximal grip strength immediately after application on the extensor region of the forearm. PMID:27313372

  2. Buffer capacity of biologics--from buffer salts to buffering by antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, Anne R; Bahrenburg, Sven; Garidel, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Controlling pH is essential for a variety of biopharmaceutical process steps. The chemical stability of biologics such as monoclonal antibodies is pH-dependent and slightly acidic conditions are favorable for stability in a number of cases. Since control of pH is widely provided by added buffer salts, the current study summarizes the buffer characteristics of acetate, citrate, histidine, succinate, and phosphate buffers. Experimentally derived values largely coincide with values calculated from a model that had been proposed in 1922 by van Slyke. As high concentrated protein formulations become more and more prevalent for biologics, the self-buffering potential of proteins becomes of relevance. The current study provides information on buffer characteristics for pH ranges down to 4.0 and up to 8.0 and shows that a monoclonal antibody at 50 mg/mL exhibits similar buffer capacity as 6 mM citrate or 14 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). Buffer capacity of antibody solutions scales linearly with protein concentration up to more than 200 mg/mL. At a protein concentration of 220 mg/mL, the buffer capacity resembles the buffer capacity of 30 mM citrate or 50 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). The buffer capacity of monoclonal antibodies is practically identical at the process relevant temperatures 5, 25, and 40°C. Changes in ionic strength of ΔI=0.15, in contrast, can alter the buffer capacity up to 35%. In conclusion, due to efficient self-buffering by antibodies in the pH range of favored chemical stability, conventional buffer excipients could be dispensable for pH stabilization of high concentrated protein solutions. PMID:23296746

  3. Universal buffers for use in biochemistry and biophysical experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewey Brooke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of buffers that mimic biological solutions is a foundation of biochemical and biophysical studies. However, buffering agents have both specific and nonspecific interactions with proteins. Buffer molecules can induce changes in conformational equilibria, dynamic behavior, and catalytic properties merely by their presence in solution. This effect is of concern because many of the standard experiments used to investigate protein structure and function involve changing solution conditions such as pH and/or temperature. In experiments in which pH is varied, it is common practice to switch buffering agents so that the pH is within the working range of the weak acid and conjugate base. If multiple buffers are used, it is not always possible to decouple buffer induced change from pH or temperature induced change. We have developed a series of mixed biological buffers for protein analysis that can be used across a broad pH range, are compatible with biologically relevant metal ions, and avoid complications that may arise from changing the small molecule composition of buffers when pH is used as an experimental variable.

  4. Thermally Conductive Tape Based on Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Ali

    2011-01-01

    To increase contact conductance between two mating surfaces, a conductive tape has been developed by growing dense arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTs, graphite layers folded into cylinders) on both sides of a thermally conductive metallic foil. When the two mating surfaces are brought into contact with the conductive tape in between, the CNT arrays will adhere to the mating surface. The van der Waals force between the contacting tubes and the mating surface provides adhesion between the two mating surfaces. Even though the thermal contact conductance of a single tube-to-tube contact is small, the tremendous amount of CNTs on the surface leads to a very large overall contact conductance. Interface contact thermal resistance rises from the microroughness and the macroscopic non-planar quality of mating surfaces. When two surfaces come into contact with each other, the actual contact area may be much less than the total area of the surfaces. The real area of contact depends on the load, the surface roughness, and the elastic and inelastic properties of the surface. This issue is even more important at cryogenic temperatures, where materials become hard and brittle and vacuum is used, which prevents any gas conduction through the interstitial region. A typical approach to increase thermal contact conductance is to use thermally conducting epoxies or greases, which are not always compatible with vacuum conditions. In addition, the thermal conductivities of these compounds are often relatively low. The CNTs used in this approach can be metallic or semiconducting, depending on the folding angle and diameter. The electrical resistivity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been reported. MWCNTs can pass a current density and remain stable at high temperatures in air. The thermal conductivity of a MWCNT at room temperature is measured to be approximately 3,000 W/m-K, which is much larger than that of diamond. At room temperature, the thermal conductance of a 0.3 sq cm

  5. Tape casting using fine ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses tape casting technology, developed for the production of ceramic composites using fine powders of alumina and zirconia with an average particle size in the range 0.25-0.3 μm. These powders require careful control of the dispersant/solids ratio in order to minimize the slip viscosity, and to prevent the rejection of excess dispersant during solvent evaporation. In this regard phosphate ester has been found to be an effective dispersant. The choice of solvent is also important, with a non-polar solvent exhibiting more forgiving behavior. The use of such fine powders lowers the solids loading permitted in the tape casting slip to about 22 vol. %, with a resulting green density of less than 54% of theoretical. However, high sintered densities can be achieved in both single tapes and laminates. Constraints imposed on the tape during solvent evaporation lead to a difference in green density within the tapes, and strategies need to be developed to counteract this

  6. Kinesio Taping technique and Kinesio Tex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Brăteanu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinesio Taping is a method of application of a special tape, adhesive and elastic, which imitates the qualities of the skin.Taping tape is named Kinesio Tex, is made of cotton with acrylic adhesive and it applies directly on skin, on affected musclelength and/or around some joints depending on affection, having the quality of not modifing the biomechanical movement andto facilitate the blood and limphatic circulation of the respective area. It is easy supported on skin/by skin, reduces the painand swelling, lets the skin to breathe, can be worn 3 to 5 days continuously, and a roll can be used for 6 to 10 applications.The method can be used for the majority of affections of the locomotion system and not only; can be used by anyone at anyage. Development of the technique started at the Olympic Games in Seul, 1988, beeing used by athlets. At this moment thetape is recomended and used frequently by the doctors and athlets from Japan, USA, Europe, South America, Australia andother asian countries. Kinesio Taping technique should be applied under the advice of a practician, the efficient results aregoing to be obtained only by corectly appliance in different situations.

  7. GaN Epitaxial Layer Grown with Conductive Al(x)Ga(1-x)N Buffer Layer on SiC Substrate Using Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Byeongchan; Lee, Kyungbae; Lee, Kyungjae; Heo, Cheon; Pyeon, Jaedo; Ko, Kwangse; Jang, Jongjin; Nam, Okhyun

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated GaN epitaxial layer growth with a conductive Al(x)Ga(1-x)N buffer layer on n-type 4H-SiC by high-temperature metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (HT-MOCVD). The Al composition of the Al(x)Ga(1-x)N buffer was varied from 0% to 100%. In terms of the crystal quality of the GaN layer, 79% Al was the optimal composition of the Al(x)Ga(1-x)N buffer layer in our experiment. A vertical conductive structure was fabricated to measure the current voltage (I-V) characteristics as a function of Al composition, and the I-V curves showed that the resistance increased with increasing Al concentration of the Al(x)Ga(1-x)N buffer layer. PMID:27483845

  8. Adhesion enhancement of hard coatings deposited on flexible plastic substrates using an interfacial buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Day-Shan; Wu, Cheng-Yang, E-mail: dsliu@sunws.nfu.edu.t [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Huwei, Taiwan 63201 (China)

    2010-05-05

    An interfacial buffer layer has been developed to improve the silicon oxide (SiO{sub x}) hard coating adhered to a flexible plastic substrate through a consecutive plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition process, using the same organosilicon precursor. The adhesion of the hard coating structure, correlated with the buffer layer thickness, was rated by the standard tape-peeling test. An excellent adhesion (rank 5B) was available for the hard coating structure with an interfacial buffer layer deposited on polycarbonate and polymethylmethacrylate substrates. The degree of adhesion strength for the hard coating structures was measured by the standard scratch test. The increase in the critical loads determined from the scratch test was well correlated with the tape-peeling test results. The hard coating structure showed excellent adhesion and also corresponded to a minimum residual stress. The mechanisms responsible for the adhesion enhancement were linked to the specific chemical bonds of the hydrocarbon C-H bond, and cross-linking Si-C bond appeared in the interfacial buffer layer. The C-H bond was recognized as a hydrophobic group that was favourable for minimizing the adsorption of ambient contaminants potentially arising during deposition, while the cross-linking Si-C bond functioned to compensate the large tensile stress residing in the SiO{sub x} hard coating. As a consequence, a close contact and progressive morphology resulting in excellent adhesion were observed at the interface of the hard coating structure with an interfacial buffer layer.

  9. Preparation o Y123 superconducting tape by organic acid salts; Yukisanen tofu netsubunkaiho ni yoru Y123 chodendo senzai no sakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    Critical current characteristics in the magnetic field is excellent in the Y system oxide superconducting wire rod, and it is expected as next generation wire rod, because the magnetic field dependence is good even in the liquid nitrogen temperature. We have carried out the examination of the Bi system superconductor tape wire rod by the applicator in respect of organic metal raw material on the metal tape state backing since the convention continue. This time, we newly made the octyl acid salt to be a raw material, and we examined the Y system superconductive film manufacture on the polycrystal Ag tape substrate. (NEDO)

  10. BUFFERS AND VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffers and filter strips are areas of permanent vegetation located within and between agricultural fields and the water courses to which they drain. These buffers are intended to intercept and slow runoff thereby providing water quality benefits. In addition, in many settings they are intended to...

  11. Interactions at the head-tape interface of a linear tape system

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, M A

    2001-01-01

    temperature was investigated through the use of an environmental chamber. Extensive use was made of surface specific analytical techniques such as XPS, AFM, AES and SEM to study the physical and chemical changes that occur at the head/tape interface. Results showed that cycling improved the signal performance of all the tapes tested. The data cartridge drive belt had an effect on the chemical properties of the tape surface on which it was in contact. Also binder degradation occurred for each tape and appeared to be greater at higher humidity. Lubricant was generally seen to migrate to the tape surface with cycling. Any surface changes likely to affect signal output occurred at the head surface rather than the tape. Many of the recent improvements in the capacity of data cartridge systems have been achieved through the use of narrower tracks, higher linear densities and continuous servo tracking with multi-channel heads. These changes have produced new tribological problems at the head/tape interface. It is cr...

  12. Effects of Kinesio taping and Mcconnell taping on balance and walking speed of hemiplegia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong-Kyu; Park, Young-Han; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the overlap effect of the PNF following the application of Kinesio taping and the McConnell taping, and also the impact of the taping application method on the balance and walking speed of the patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-six patients who were diagnosed with hemiplegia due to stroke were selected as subjects of this study. They were randomly and evenly divided into experiment group 1 (Kinesio taping group), experiment group 2 (McConnell taping group), and the control group; each group had 12 patients. [Results] The Berg balance scale (BBS) was used to evaluate balance, and the ability in this study. A 10 m walking test (10MWT) was performed to measure the walking speed. Experiment group 1 showed a statistically significant improvement in balance and walking speed compared to experiment group 2, and the control group in week 4 and week 8. [Conclusion] Application of Kinesio taping had a more beneficial effect on the balance and walking speed than joint-fixation taping of the patients with stroke. PMID:27190448

  13. Placement suitability criteria of composite tape for mould surface in automated tape placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Peng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Automated tape placement is an important automated process used for fabrication of large composite structures in aeronautical industry. The carbon fiber composite parts realized with this process tend to replace the aluminum parts produced by high-speed machining. It is difficult to determine the appropriate width of the composite tape in automated tape placement. Wrinkling will appear in the tape if it does not suit for the mould surface. Thus, this paper deals with establishing placement suitability criteria of the composite tape for the mould surface. With the assumptions for ideal mapping and by applying some principles and theorems of differential geometry, the centerline trajectory of the composite tape is identified to follow the geodesic. The placement suitability of the composite tape is examined on three different types of non-developable mould surfaces and four criteria are derived. The developed criteria have been used to test the deposition process over several mould surfaces and the appropriate width for each mould surface is obtained by referring to these criteria.

  14. Efeitos do Kinesio Taping no Desporto

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    O médico japonês, Dr. Kenzo Kase criou, em 1973, o kinesio taping, uma nova aplicação de ligadura adesiva, tendo como objectivo melhorar a função da musculatura, sem limitar os movimentos, reduzir a dor, edema e os espasmos musculares. Parece ter também a capacidade de prevenir lesões no desporto, sendo por isso uma técnica comummente utilizada para este efeito. Objetivo: Esta revisão bibliográfica teve como propósito destacar os principais dados publicados sobre o efeito do Kinesio Taping no...

  15. CLEARANCE OF ARCHIVE TAPE VAULT (BUILDING 186)

    CERN Multimedia

    EP Division

    1999-01-01

    The archive tape vault is being cleared to make way for the LHC experiments silicon facility.Experiments were contacted in February to arrange for the extended storage or destruction of archived volumes. Any who have not yet done so are asked to contactR. Minchin/IT immediately.This is also an opportunity to clear unused tapes or cartridges from around the site and have them destroyed ecologically. Please contact ep.smi.helpdesk@cern.ch to arrange for collection.A.E. Ball/EP-SMI

  16. Insulation coating of silver tapes using an organometallic solution of Zr and Ca for application to Bi-based superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver tapes were spray coated using an organometallic solution as the carrier liquid. When this solution was annealed in air at 825 deg C, ∼4% of its total weight remained as CaZrO3. Mixtures of Bi2O3, SrCO3 and CaCO3 have been prepared with seven different stoichiometries. An organometallic solution was mixed with ceramic oxide powders and spray coated onto silver tapes. Electrical insulation tests were performed applying a dc potential, and insulation survived more than 30 V. Coated tapes were coiled to progressively decreasing diameters down to 1 mm diameter with no sign of cracking, indicating the possibility of metallic bonding and diffusion. This technique appears to be suitable for use in the insulation of Bi-based superconducting tapes and wires, since it does not contain any element that is chemically reactive to this system

  17. The fabrication and high temperature stability of biaxially textured Ni tape by ion beam structure modification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the conventional rolling assisted biaxially textured metallic substrate (RABiTS) process, a large degree of cold rolling deformation and a subsequent high temperature annealing procedure are required to obtain adequately biaxially textured Ni tape. Recently, we have reported a newly developed process, named as ion beam structure modification (ISM), for fabricating biaxially textured Ni tape by use of low energy argon ion beam bombardment. In this paper, the biaxial texture of ISM processed Ni tape and its thermal stability at high temperatures are investigated. Results show that Ni tape processed under optimum ISM conditions, the (2 0 0) rocking curve FWHM is less than 5.7 deg. , and the (1 1 1) phi-scan FWHM is less than 7.5 deg. . High temperature annealing does not impair the biaxial-texture already developed in ISM processed Ni foils, although ISMs should not be regarded as a complete equilibrium process

  18. Elastic therapeutic tape: do they have the same material properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonkerd, Chuanpis; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] Elastic therapeutic tape has been widely used for rehabilitation and treatment of sports injuries. Tapes with different elastic properties serve different treatment purposes with inappropriate tension reducing tape effectiveness. Many tapes are available in the market, but studies on tape properties are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the material properties of elastic therapeutic tape. [Subjects and Methods] Brands of elastic therapeutic tape included KinesioTex(®), ATex, Mueller, 3M, and ThaiTape. The Material Testing System Insight(®) 1 Electromechanical Testing Systems was used to apply a tensile force on elastic therapeutic tape. Ten specimens of each brand were tested. Stress, load, and Young's modulus at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and maximum point were collected. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc testing was used to analyze tape parameters. [Results] Maximum elongation and Young's modulus at all percentages were significantly different between brands. There were no differences in maximum load and maximum stress. [Conclusion] Mechanical properties are different for commercial elastic therapeutic tapes. Physiotherapists and other clinicians should be aware of mechanical tape properties to correctly apply kinesio tape. PMID:27190472

  19. Elastic therapeutic tape: do they have the same material properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonkerd, Chuanpis; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Elastic therapeutic tape has been widely used for rehabilitation and treatment of sports injuries. Tapes with different elastic properties serve different treatment purposes with inappropriate tension reducing tape effectiveness. Many tapes are available in the market, but studies on tape properties are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the material properties of elastic therapeutic tape. [Subjects and Methods] Brands of elastic therapeutic tape included KinesioTex®, ATex, Mueller, 3M, and ThaiTape. The Material Testing System Insight® 1 Electromechanical Testing Systems was used to apply a tensile force on elastic therapeutic tape. Ten specimens of each brand were tested. Stress, load, and Young’s modulus at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and maximum point were collected. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc testing was used to analyze tape parameters. [Results] Maximum elongation and Young’s modulus at all percentages were significantly different between brands. There were no differences in maximum load and maximum stress. [Conclusion] Mechanical properties are different for commercial elastic therapeutic tapes. Physiotherapists and other clinicians should be aware of mechanical tape properties to correctly apply kinesio tape. PMID:27190472

  20. Buffering capacity: its relevance in soil and water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigliani, W.M. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Buffering capacities in soils are essential for neutralizing or immobilizing inputs of acids and heavy metals. There are four major buffering regimes, each of which operates in a defined pH range. When the rate of pollutant inputs exceeds the rate of natural replenishment of the buffer in a specific regime, the supply of buffer will be exhausted over time, and the soil may switch to a regime at lower pH. As the pH of the soil declines, so does its capacity to immobilize heavy metals. If the soil initially has a moderately high buffering capacity, the time scale before exhaustion is on the order of decades to a century. Over this time there may be no observable environmental effects. When the effects do become obvious, it may be too late to reverse the damage. The importance of buffering capacity as a valued environmental resource must be recognized, and its preservation must be a major component of long-term soil protection policies. (Author). 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A Tape-Lecture Course in Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, P.

    1978-01-01

    Investigates the possibility of using audio-tapes for self-study courses in technical colleges. This article presents: (1) description of the electrochemistry course taught; (2) results of the assessment of student reaction to the course; and (3) conclusions. (HM)

  2. Artificial Intelligence Controls Tape-Recording Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Otamura, Roy M.; Zottarelli, Lawrence J.

    1989-01-01

    Developmental expert-system computer program intended to schedule recording of large amounts of data on limited amount of magnetic tape. Schedules recording using two sets of rules. First set incorporates knowledge of locations for recording of new data. Second set incorporates knowledge about issuing commands to recorder. Designed primarily for use on Voyager Spacecraft, also applicable to planning and sequencing in industry.

  3. Idea Bank: Duct Tape Note Twister

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Molly

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she observed a middle school math teacher deliver a miserable class. She realized that she did the same thing to her music students. To engage her students, she developed "Note Twister," a music reading game using duct tape to form musical notes and the basic premise behind the game, "Twister." She finds…

  4. AC loss in superconducting tapes and cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Marijn Pieter

    High-temperature superconductors are developed for use in power-transmission cables, transformers and motors. The alternating magnetic field in these devices causes AC loss, which is a critical factor in the design. The study focuses on multi-filament Bi-2223/Ag tapes exposed to a 50-Hz magnetic field at 77 K. The AC loss is measured with magnetic, electric and calorimetric methods. The results are compared to theoretical predictions based mainly on the Critical-State Model. The loss in high- temperature superconductors is affected by their characteristic properties: increased flux creep, high aspect ratio and inhomogeneties. Filament intergrowths and a low matrix resistivity cause a high coupling-current loss especially when the filaments are fully coupled. When the wide side of the tape is parallel to the external magnetic field, the filaments are decoupled by twisting. In a perpendicular field the filaments can be decoupled only by combining a short twist pitch with a transverse resistivity much higher than that of silver. The arrangement of the inner filaments determines the transverse resistivity. Ceramic barriers around the filaments cause partial decoupling in perpendicular magnetic fields at power frequencies. The resultant decrease in AC loss is greater than the accompanying decrease in critical current. With direct transport current in alternating magnetic field, the transport-current loss is well described with a new model for the dynamic resistance. The Critical- State Model describes well the magnetisation and total AC loss in parallel magnetic fields, at transport currents up to 0.7 times the critical current. When tapes are stacked face-to-face in a winding, the AC-loss density in perpendicular fields is greatly decreased due to the mutual shielding of the tapes. Coupling currents between the tapes in a cable cause an extra AC loss, which is reduced by a careful cable design. The total AC loss in complex devices with many tapes is generally well

  5. Editing of EIA coded, numerically controlled, machine tool tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Editing of numerically controlled (N/C) machine tool tapes (8-level paper tape) using an interactive graphic display processor is described. A rapid technique required for correcting production errors in N/C tapes was developed using the interactive text editor on the IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system and two special programs resident on disk. The correction technique and special programs for processing N/C tapes coded to EIA specifications are discussed.

  6. Fabrication of long Y123 coated conductor tape by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal organic deposition (MOD) process of YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) using metal trifluoro acetate (TFA) precursors is thought to be promising since YBCO films with high Jc can be fabricated by this process inexpensively. However it is difficult to maintain high Jc throughout long tapes. We have improved Ic values and longitudinal Ic distribution for a long coated conductor tape by the advanced TFA-MOD method. It was clarified that a humid atmosphere degraded as-coated films. The Ba-poor composition precursor from the 1:2:3 cationic ratio improved Jc/Ic significantly. As a result, a 86 m long coated conductor was obtained with Ic values higher than 200 A/cm-w throughout the tape except for one small region. Almost of the tape has as high Ic as 300 A/cm-w and the end-to-end Ic x L value was 14 000 Am (Ic 250 A, L = 56 m)

  7. Heat conductivity of buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the thermal conductivity of bentonite based buffer materials. An improved technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of buffer materials is described. Measurements of FLAC calculations applying this technique have led to a proposal of how standardized tests should be conducted and evaluated. The thermal conductivity of bentonite with different void ratio and degree of water saturation has been determined in the following different ways: * Theoretically according to three different investigations by other researchers. * Laboratory measurements with the proposed method. * Results from back-calculated field tests. Comparison and evaluation showed that these results agreed very well, when the buffer material was almost water saturated. However, the influence of the degree of saturation was not very well predicted with the theoretical methods. Furthermore, the field tests showed that the average thermal conductivity in situ of buffer material (compacted to blocks) with low degree of water saturation was lower than expected from laboratory tests. 12 refs, 29 figs, 11 tabs

  8. Studies of selected properties of high-temperature superconducting tape 2G HTS SF series - the example: tape SF12050

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jędryka; M. Szota; M. Nabiałek; A. Łukaszewicz; Bukowska, A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In presented paper were characterized selected properties of high-temperature superconducting tape 2G HTS SF series - the example of the tape SF12050. Design/methodology/approach: As part of the study smples of tape SF12050 were made. At first made to measure of chemical compsition and compared with manufacturer’s information about that kind of tape. Second step of researcher were research about adhesion of the individual layers of SF12050. After then research was ...

  9. Evaluation of methods for application of epitaxial buffer and superconductor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-30

    The recent achievements of critical currents exceeding million amperes per square centimeter at 77K in YBCO deposited over suitably textured substrate have stimulated interest in the potential applications of coated conductors at high temperatures and in high magnetic fields. Currently, ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD), and rolling assisted bi-axially textured substrate (RABiTS), represent two available options for obtaining textured substrates. For applying suitable coatings of buffer and high temperature superconductor (HTS) material over textured substrates, several options are available which include sputtering, electron-beam evaporation, laser ablation, electrophoresis, chemical vapor deposition (including metal organics chemical vapor deposition), sol-gel, metal organics decomposition, electrodeposition and aerosol/spray pyrolysis. A commercial continuous long-length wire/tape manufacturing scheme developed out of any suitable combination of the above techniques would consist of operations involving preparation of the substrate and application of buffer, HTS and passivation/insulation materials and special treatment steps such as post-annealing. These operations can be effected by various process parameters that can be classified into chemistry, materials, engineering and environmental related parameters. Under the DOE-sponsored program, to carry out an engineering evaluation, first, the process flow schemes were developed for various candidate options identifying the major operating steps, process conditions, and process streams. Next, to evaluate quantifiable parameters such as process severity (e.g. temperature and pressure), coating thickness and deposition rate for HTS material, achieved maximum J{sub c} value (for films >1{micro}m thick) and cost of chemical and material utilization efficiency, the multi-attribute method was used to determine attributes/merits for various parameters and candidate options. To determine similar attribute values for the

  10. Transaction aware tape-infrastructure monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Administrating a large scale, multi protocol, hierarchical tape infrastructure like the CERN Advanced STORage manager (CASTOR)[2], which stores now 100 PB (with an increasing step of 25 PB per year), requires an adequate monitoring system for quick spotting of malfunctions, easier debugging and on demand report generation. The main challenges for such system are: to cope with CASTOR's log format diversity and its information scattered among several log files, the need for long term information archival, the strict reliability requirements and the group based GUI visualization. For this purpose, we have designed, developed and deployed a centralized system consisting of four independent layers: the Log Transfer layer for collecting log lines from all tape servers to a single aggregation server, the Data Mining layer for combining log data into transaction context, the Storage layer for archiving the resulting transactions and finally the Web UI layer for accessing the information. Having flexibility, extensibility and maintainability in mind, each layer is designed to work as a message broker for the next layer, providing a clean and generic interface while ensuring consistency, redundancy and ultimately fault tolerance. This system unifies information previously dispersed over several monitoring tools into a single user interface, using Splunk, which also allows us to provide information visualization based on access control lists (ACL). Since its deployment, it has been successfully used by CASTOR tape operators for quick overview of transactions, performance evaluation, malfunction detection and from managers for report generation.

  11. Thermophysical tests of buffer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H. [ITC, Tokyo (Japan); Taniguchi, Wataru

    1999-03-01

    Thermodynamic properties of buffer materials were measured for putting in order thermodynamic constants to be used in the near-field thermal analysis. The thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were measured as functions of the water content and temperature to deduce the specific heat. The thermal conductivity and specific heat varied significantly as the water content changed. Obtained values of the specific heat agreed well the expected values calculated based on the constituents of the buffer material. Temperature dependence of the thermodynamic constants was found small below 90degC. From the findings, the thermal conductivity and specific heat of the buffer material were formulated as functions of the water content. Thermodynamic study of powdery bentonite was carried out as well with a purpose of use for filling apertures in the artificial barrier. (H. Baba)

  12. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  13. Effects of Kinesio Taping versus McConnell Taping for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Chen, Fu-Chen; Lee, Chia-Lun; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To conduct a systematic review comparing the effects of Kinesio taping with McConnell taping as a method of conservative management of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Methods. MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, AMED, and the Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials electronic databases were searched through July 2014. Controlled studies evaluating the effects of Kinesio or McConnell taping in PFPS patients were retrieved. Results. Ninety-one articles were selected from the articles that were retrieved from the databases, and 11 articles were included in the analysis. The methods, evaluations, and results of the articles were collected, and the outcomes of patellar tapings were analyzed. Kinesio taping can reduce pain and increase the muscular flexibility of PFPS patients, and McConnell taping also had effect in pain relief and patellar alignment. Meta-analysis showed small effect in pain reduction and motor function improvement and moderate effect in muscle activity change among PFPS patients using Kinesio taping. Conclusions. Kinesio taping technique used for muscles can relieve pain but cannot change patellar alignment, unlike McConnell taping. Both patellar tapings are used differently for PFPS patients and substantially improve muscle activity, motor function, and quality of life. PMID:26185517

  14. Effects of Kinesio Taping versus McConnell Taping for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Dien Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To conduct a systematic review comparing the effects of Kinesio taping with McConnell taping as a method of conservative management of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS. Methods. MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, AMED, and the Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials electronic databases were searched through July 2014. Controlled studies evaluating the effects of Kinesio or McConnell taping in PFPS patients were retrieved. Results. Ninety-one articles were selected from the articles that were retrieved from the databases, and 11 articles were included in the analysis. The methods, evaluations, and results of the articles were collected, and the outcomes of patellar tapings were analyzed. Kinesio taping can reduce pain and increase the muscular flexibility of PFPS patients, and McConnell taping also had effect in pain relief and patellar alignment. Meta-analysis showed small effect in pain reduction and motor function improvement and moderate effect in muscle activity change among PFPS patients using Kinesio taping. Conclusions. Kinesio taping technique used for muscles can relieve pain but cannot change patellar alignment, unlike McConnell taping. Both patellar tapings are used differently for PFPS patients and substantially improve muscle activity, motor function, and quality of life.

  15. Buffering in cyclic gene networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyzin, S. D.; Kolesov, A. Yu.; Rozov, N. Kh.

    2016-06-01

    We consider cyclic chains of unidirectionally coupled delay differential-difference equations that are mathematical models of artificial oscillating gene networks. We establish that the buffering phenomenon is realized in these system for an appropriate choice of the parameters: any given finite number of stable periodic motions of a special type, the so-called traveling waves, coexist.

  16. Self-field ac losses in biaxially aligned Y endash Ba endash Cu endash O tape conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-field ac losses were measured by the conventional ac four-probe method in biaxially aligned Y endash Ba endash Cu endash O tapes using polycrystalline Hastelloy tapes with textured yttria-stabilized-zirconia buffer layers. The ac losses increased in proportion to the fourth power of transport current in the high Jc sample, and agreed well with Norris close-quote equation for thin strip conductors. However, the low Jc sample had rather higher losses than Norris close-quote prediction, suggesting excessive magnetic flux penetration caused by percolated current paths. The results confirmed Norris close-quote prediction of the low ac losses for thin strip conductors, and indicated the importance of removing percolated structures of current paths to avoid higher ac losses than the theoretical predictions based on uniform conductors. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    This video, Part 1 of 4, shows the activities of the STS-109 crew (Scott Altman, Commander; Duane Carey, Pilot; John Grunsfeld, Payload Commander; Nancy Currie, James Newman, Richard Linnehan, Michael Massimino, Mission Specialists) during flight days 1 through 3. The activities from other flight days can be seen on 'STS 109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 2 of 4 (internal ID 2002137664), 'STS 109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 3 of 4 (internal ID 2002139471), and 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 4 of 4 (internal ID 2002137577). The main activity recorded during flight day 1 is the liftoff of Columbia. Attention is given to suit-up, boarding, and pre-flight procedures. The pre-launch crew meal has no sound. The crew members often wave to the camera before liftoff. The jettisoning of the solid rocket boosters is shown, and the External Tank is seen as it falls to Earth, moving over African dunes in the background. There are liftoff replays, including one from inside the cockpit. The opening of the payload bay doors is seen from the rear of the shuttle's cockpit. The footage from flight day 2 shows the Flight Support System for bearthing the HST (Hubble Space Telescope). Crew preparations for the bearthing are shown. Flight day 3 shows the tracking of and approach to the HST by Columbia, including orbital maneuvers, the capture of the HST, and its lowering onto the Flight Support System. Many views of the HST are shown, including one which reveals an ocean and cloud background as the HST retracts a solar array.

  18. 3-D Numerical Simulations of Twisted Stacked Tape Cables

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Philipp A. C.; Zermeño, Victor M. R.; Takayasu, Makoto; Grilli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Different magnet applications require compact high current cables. Among the proposed solutions, the Twisted Stacked Tape Cable (TSTC) is easy to manufacture and has very high tape length usage efficiency. In this kind of cables the tapes are closely packed, so that their electromagnetic interaction is very strong and determines the overall performance of the cable. Numerical models are necessary tools to precisely evaluate this interaction and to predict the cable's behavior, e.g. in terms o...

  19. Faceted ceramic fibers, tapes or ribbons and epitaxial devices therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2013-07-09

    A crystalline article includes a single-crystal ceramic fiber, tape or ribbon. The fiber, tape or ribbon has at least one crystallographic facet along its length, which is generally at least one meter long. In the case of sapphire, the facets are R-plane, M-plane, C-plane or A-plane facets. Epitaxial articles, including superconducting articles, can be formed on the fiber, tape or ribbon.

  20. Influence on ankle taping on dynamic balance performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Ian; Wu, Can; McEvoy, Johnson

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed This research aimed to investigate the effect of ankle taping on dynamic balance performance. Eighteen recreational athletes without any previous ankle sprain history performed six star excursion balance tests on each leg; randomly three trials with taped ankles and three trials without. A three-layer modified closed-basket inelastic taping technique was used. Normalised (by leg length) reaching distance was measured. It was found 1.Movement direction significantl...

  1. Tape-cast sensors and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, Rangachary; Brosha, Eric L.; Garzon, Fernando H.

    2009-08-18

    A method of making electrochemical sensors in which an electrolyte material is cast into a tape. Prefabricated electrodes are then partially embedded between two wet layers of the electrolyte tape to form a green sensor, and the green sensor is then heated to sinter the electrolyte tape around the electrodes. The resulting sensors can be used in applications such as, but not limited to, combustion control, environmental monitoring, and explosive detection. A electrochemical sensor formed by the tape-casting method is also disclosed.

  2. Molten carbonate fuel cell integral matrix tape and bubble barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A molten carbonate fuel cell matrix material is described made up of a matrix tape portion and a bubble barrier portion. The matrix tape portion comprises particles inert to molten carbonate electrolyte, ceramic particles and a polymeric binder, the matrix tape being flexible, pliable and having rubber-like compliance at room temperature. The bubble barrier is a solid material having fine porosity preferably being bonded to the matrix tape. In operation in a fuel cell, the polymer binder burns off leaving the matrix and bubble barrier providing superior sealing, stability and performance properties to the fuel cell stack

  3. Dual mode logic buffers for VLSI interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ilakkiya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Buffer insertion is a mechanism widely used to increase the performance of VLSI digital circuits. Buffer insertion has a strong impact on reliability in terms of delay and power dissipation of synchronous systems, since the clock distribution system requires reduced or controlled clock skew, being the buffer insertion and buffer sizing becomes an important aspect. Buffer insertion has also been used to reduce the noise generation, especially in heavy loaded nets, since the inclusion of buffer helps to desynchronize signal transitions.

  4. Effects of Kinesio Taping versus McConnell Taping for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Dien Chang; Fu-Chen Chen; Chia-Lun Lee; Hung-Yu Lin; Ping-Tung Lai

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To conduct a systematic review comparing the effects of Kinesio taping with McConnell taping as a method of conservative management of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Methods. MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, AMED, and the Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials electronic databases were searched through July 2014. Controlled studies evaluating the effects of Kinesio or McConnell taping in PFPS patients were retrieved. Results. Ninety-one articles were selected from...

  5. Studies of selected properties of high-temperature superconducting tape 2G HTS SF series - the example: tape SF12050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jędryka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In presented paper were characterized selected properties of high-temperature superconducting tape 2G HTS SF series - the example of the tape SF12050. Design/methodology/approach: As part of the study smples of tape SF12050 were made. At first made to measure of chemical compsition and compared with manufacturer’s information about that kind of tape. Second step of researcher were research about adhesion of the individual layers of SF12050. After then research was made about tensile strengtht what is the justification utility, as these tapes are subjected to tension at the time of their formation and winding on the transformer core. Findings: As a result of research obtained information on the chemical composition, scratch resistance, adhesion of coating on the tape and about tensile strength. On the last step studies were conducted about critical currents - Ic. Research limitations/implications: These results allow to identify the suitability of these tapes for use on a wide scale - in particular, the winding of the transformer cores. Originality/value: On the basis of studies have demonstrated applications for which the tape may be used SF12050. Given its properties – scratch resistance and tensile strenght reistance, and information about critical current, was indicated best use of that tape for trnasformers production.

  6. A Capital Adequacy Buffer Model

    OpenAIRE

    David Allen; Michael McAleer

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new capital adequacy buffer model (CABM) which is sensitive to dynamic economic circumstances. The model, which measures additional bank capital required to compensate for fluctuating credit risk, is a novel combination of the Merton structural model which measures distance to default and the timeless capital asset pricing model (CAPM) which measures additional returns to compensate for additional share price risk.

  7. Static Switching Dynamic Buffer Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, A. K.; R. A. Mishra; R. K. Nagaria

    2013-01-01

    We proposed footless domino logic buffer circuit. It minimizes redundant switching at the dynamic and the output nodes. The proposed circuit avoids propagation of precharge pulse to the output node and allows the dynamic node which saves power consumption. Simulation is done using 0.18 µm CMOS technology. We have calculated the power consumption, delay, and power delay product of the proposed circuit and compared the results with the existing circuits for different logic function, loading co...

  8. Buffer erosion in dilute groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One scenario of interest for repository safety assessment involves the loss of bentonite buffer material in contact with dilute groundwater flowing through a transmissive fracture interface. In order to examine the extrusion/erosion behavior of bentonite buffer material under such circumstances, a series of experiments were performed in a flow-through, 1 mm aperture, artificial fracture system. These experiments covered a range of solution chemistry (salt concentration and composition), material composition (sodium montmorillonite and admixtures with calcium montmorillonite), and flow velocity conditions. No erosion was observed for sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions from 0.5 g/L to 10 g/L NaCl. No erosion was observed for 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against 0.5 g/L NaCl. Erosion was observed for both sodium montmorillonite and 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions ≤ 0.25 g/L NaCl. The calculated erosion rates for the tests with the highest levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under the most dilute conditions (ionic strength (IS) < ∼1 mM), were well-correlated to flow velocity, whereas the calculated erosion rates for the tests with lower levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under somewhat less dilute conditions (∼1 mM < IS < ∼4 mM), were not similarly correlated indicating that material and solution composition can significantly affect erosion rates. In every experiment, both erosive and non-erosive, emplaced buffer material extruded into the fracture and was observed to be impermeable to water flowing in the fracture effectively forming an extended diffusive barrier around the intersecting fracture/buffer interface. Additionally, a model which was developed previously to predict the rate of erosion of bentonite buffer material in low ionic strength water in rock fracture environments was applied to three different cases: sodium montmorillonite expansion in a vertical tube, a

  9. Buffer-aided multihop wireless communications

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Chen

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we propose a suite of buffer-aided transmission schemes designed for a multihop link or for a three-node network by exploiting the characteristics of buffer-aided transmissions. Our objective is to improve the end-to-end BER, outage probability, throughput and energy dissipation. Specifically, we firstly proposed and studied a buffer-aided multihop link (MHL), where all the relay nodes (RNs) are assumed to have buffers for temporarily storing their received packets. Hence,...

  10. Low-cost tape system measures velocity of acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenstein, R.

    1964-01-01

    By affixing perforated magnetic recording tape to the falling end of a body, acceleration and velocity were measured. The measurement was made by allowing the tape to pass between a light source and a photoelectric sensor. Data was obtained from a readout device.

  11. [Adhesive tape on the face--criminalistic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomforde, Anja; Tsokos, Michael; Anders, Sven; Püschel, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Under forensic differential diagnostic aspects postmortem findings of adhesive tape in the face suggest either suicide, an autoerotic accident or homicide, in which case the adhesive tape could have been used for sealing the mouth or as a means to commit the homicide itself. 9 autopsy cases are described as examples with this constellation and discussed under criminological aspects. PMID:12872683

  12. Increasing the efficiency of tape-based storage backends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HSM systems such as the CERN's Advanced STORage manager (CASTOR) [1] are responsible for storing Petabytes of data which is first cached on disk and then persistently stored on tape media. The contents of these tapes are regularly repacked from older, lower-density media to new-generation, higher-density media in order to free up physical space and ensure long term data integrity and availability. With the evolution of price decay and higher capacity of disk (and flash memory) based storage, our future vision for tape usage is to move away from serving on demand, random, per-file access to non-disk cached files, and to move towards loosely coupled, efficient bulk data transfers where large-volume data sets are stored and retrieved in aggregations, fully exploiting the stream-based nature of tape media. Mechanisms for grouped migration policies and priorities have been implemented, and an innovative tape format optimized for data aggregations is being developed. This new tape format will also allow for increasing the performance of repacking data from old to newer generation tape media with substantially reduced hardware costs. In this paper, we will describe the improvements for migration policies and priorities, as well as the proposed tape format and the changes which will be applied to the architecture of the CASTOR mass storage system.

  13. Multilayer tape cast SOFC – Effect of anode sintering temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Birkl, Christoph; Brodersen, Karen; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Multilayer tape casting (MTC) is considered a promising, cost-efficient, up-scalable shaping process for production of planar anode supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Multilayer tape casting of the three layers comprising the half cell (anode support/active anode/electrolyte) can potentially...

  14. BUFFER CAPACITY IN HETEROGENEOUS MULTICOMPONENT SYSTEMS. REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Spinu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative basis of the theory of buffer properties for two-phase acid-base buffer systems and for multicomponent heterogeneous systems has been derived. The analytical equations with respect to all components for diverse multicomponent systems were deduced. It has been established, that the buffer capacities of components are mutually proportional.

  15. BUFFER CAPACITY IN HETEROGENEOUS MULTICOMPONENT SYSTEMS. REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Oxana Spinu; Igor Povar

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative basis of the theory of buffer properties for two-phase acid-base buffer systems and for multicomponent heterogeneous systems has been derived. The analytical equations with respect to all components for diverse multicomponent systems were deduced. It has been established, that the buffer capacities of components are mutually proportional.

  16. Effect of buffer layer on the voltage responsivity of the pyroelectric thermal sensors prepared with PZT ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon-Ho; Hwang, Ha R.; Bae, Seong-Ho

    1997-08-01

    The pyroelectric thermal detectors were prepared with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics, where a signal electrode had a structure of Au/metallic buffer/(PZT ceramic). The effect of buffer layer on the voltage responsivity was investigated with a response to step signal, taken by dynamic pyroelectric measurement. Pyroelectric ceramic wafer was prepared by mixed oxide technique. Au layer (thickness: 50 nm) and metallic buffers (thickness: 0 - 20 nm) of Cr, NiCr (80/20), and Ti were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering. In order to improve the light absorptivity, an Au-black was coated on Au signal electrode by thermal evaporation. At steady state, the output voltage (Vo) was decreased with increasing chopping frequency in the range of 1 - 100 Hz. A sensor without buffer showed the severe time-drift and instability in the output signal. However, the sensors with buffer layer showed the stable outputs. For step radiations, rising time (tp), peak voltage (Vp), and initial slope (k) of the output voltage were dependent upon the thickness and materials of buffer layer. The mechanical and electrical contacts between Au electrode and PZT ceramics were improved by inserting the metallic buffer layer. Considering the characteristics of the output voltage, the optimum thickness of buffer layer was about 15 - 20 nm, and the sensors with Ti buffer of 15 - 20 nm in thickness showed the good detectivity. Therefore, the stability and reliability of the thermal sensors could be improved by use of appropriate buffer layer.

  17. Recent development of Bi(2223)/Ag tapes for practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors report about some of the major developments of Ag sheathed Bi(2223) tapes that are actually under study in view of a possible practical application of these conductors. Efforts on improving the tape behavior in presence of alternating currents and high magnetic fields have to be done together with a severe optimization of the Powder-In-Tube method. A clear reduction of the magnetic AC losses is observed by AC susceptibility measurements performed on twisted Bi(2223) tapes prepared at the University of Geneva, with a resistive barrier capable of reducing the coupling losses between filaments. Finally, the authors report on multifilamentary tapes developed with a special configuration that can be of great interest when a magnetic field is applied to the tape at a significant angle with respect to the a-b planes of the superconductor

  18. Effect of adduct formation with molecular nitrogen on the measured collisional cross sections of transition metal-1,10-phenanthroline complexes in traveling wave ion-mobility spectrometry: N2 is not always an "inert" buffer gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijs, Nicole J; Weiske, Thomas; Schlangen, Maria; Schwarz, Helmut

    2015-10-01

    The number of separations and analyses of molecular species using traveling wave ion-mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (TWIMS-MS) is increasing, including those extending the technique to analytes containing metal atoms. A critical aspect of such applications of TWIMS-MS is the validity of the collisional cross sections (CCSs) measured and whether they can be accurately calibrated against other ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS) techniques. Many metal containing species have potential reactivity toward molecular nitrogen, which is present in high concentration in the typical Synapt-G2 TWIMS cell. Here, we analyze the effect of nitrogen on the drift time of a series of cationic 1,10-phenanthroline complexes of the late transition metals, [(phen)M](+), (M = Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, and Hg) in order to understand potential deviations from expected drift time behaviors. These metal complexes were chosen for their metal open-coordination site and lack of rotameric species. The target species were generated via electrospray ionization (ESI), analyzed using TWIMS in N2 drift gas, and the observed drift time trends compared. Theoretically derived CCSs for all species (via both the projection approximation and trajectory method) were also compared. The results show that, indeed, for metal containing species in this size regime, reaction with molecular nitrogen has a dramatic effect on measured drift times and must not be ignored when comparing and interpreting TWIMS arrival time distributions. Density-functional theory (DFT) calculations are employed to analyze the periodic differences due to the metal's interaction with nitrogen (and background water) in detail. PMID:26378338

  19. Investigating Delamination Migration in Composite Tape Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, James G.; DeCarvalho, Nelson V.

    2014-01-01

    A modification to a recently developed test specimen designed to investigate migration of a delamination between neighboring ply interfaces in tape laminates is presented. The specimen is a cross-ply laminated beam consisting of 40 plies with a polytetrafluoroethylene insert spanning part way along its length. The insert is located between a lower 0-degree ply (specimen length direction) and a stack of four 90-degree plies (specimen width direction). The modification involved a stacking sequence that promotes stable delamination growth prior to migration, and included a relocation of the insert from the specimen midplane to the interface between plies 14 and 15. Specimens were clamped at both ends onto a rigid baseplate and loaded on their upper surface via a piano hinge assembly, resulting in a predominantly flexural loading condition. Tests were conducted with the load-application point positioned at various locations along a specimen's span. This position affected the sequence of damage events during a test.

  20. Mouse Simulation Using Two Coloured Tapes

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Vikram; Mahe, Swapnil; Vyawahare, Swapnil; 10.5121/ijist.2012.2206

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for Human Computer Interaction (HCI) where, we control cursor movement using a real-time camera. Current methods involve changing mouse parts such as adding more buttons or changing the position of the tracking ball. Instead, our method is to use a camera and computer vision technology, such as image segmentation and gesture recognition, to control mouse tasks (left and right clicking, double-clicking, and scrolling) and we show how it can perform everything as current mouse devices can. The software will be developed in JAVA language. Recognition and pose estimation in this system are user independent and robust as we will be using colour tapes on our finger to perform actions. The software can be used as an intuitive input interface to applications that require multi-dimensional control e.g. computer games etc.

  1. Uniform texture in meter-long YBa2Cu3O7 tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reel-to-reel tape handler mounted on a four-circle diffractometer is used to provide a characterization by X-ray diffraction of the entire 1 m length of a YBa2Cu3O7/CeO2/YxZr1-xO2/CeO2/Pd/Ni (YBCO/CeO2/YSZ/CeO2/Pd/Ni) tape. Cube-textured Ni was formed by rolling and annealing; epitaxial CeO2/YSZ/CeO2/Pd buffer layers were deposited by reactive sputtering; YBCO was converted ex situ from Y, BaF2, and Cu codeposited by e-beam evaporation. Rocking curve FWHM (mean±standard deviation) for 95 segments of 1 cm length are: YBCO(0 0 5)=6.2±0.5 deg., YSZ(0 0 2)=10.4±0.4 deg., and Ni(0 0 2)=7.6±0.3 deg. phi scan FWHM are: YBCO(1 1 3)=9.6±0.4 deg., YSZ(1 1 1)=13.0±0.4 deg., and Ni(1 1 1)=10.6±0.4 deg. Greater than 95% of the tape at each point is cube textured from Ni to YBCO. The critical current density Jc is 0.36±0.04 MA/cm2 at 77 K and is inversely correlated with the rocking curve FWHM. Calculations suggest that Jc might be increased by a factor of 2.1 by producing a sharper texture and that the uniformity of the texture will support scaling to kilometer lengths

  2. EFFECT OF KINESIO TAPING VERSUS ATHLETIC TAPING ON PAIN AND MUSCLE PERFORMANCE IN LATERAL EPICONDYLALGIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rashi Goel; Ganesh Balthilaya; Ravi Shankar Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Lateral epicondylalgia is a degenerative musculoskeletal pain state characterised by pain over the lateral humeral epicondyle resulting in absenteeism from work and daily living activities. It is most prevalent in jobs requiring repetitive manual activities of the upper extremity. Literature describes different treatment options for lateral Epicondylalgia but there is no consensus about the most efficacious intervention strategy. Taping (athletic/kinesio) has been used successfully in various...

  3. Nickel-copper alloy tapes as textured substrates for YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NiCuCo alloy tape was studied as textured substrates for YBCO coated conductors application. The addition of a small amount of cobalt was pursued in order to enhance the microstructure of the NiCu alloy. The use of different thermal treatments during the recrystallization process permitted to obtain area densities of cube orientation as high as 95%. The substrate was thoroughly characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, EBSD and SEM analyses. Further, the mechanical properties and the magnetic behaviour of this substrate have been investigated and compared with those exhibited by Ni, NiW and NiCu tapes. The suitability of this alloy substrate for YBCO coated conductors has been tested through the deposition of a conventional CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 buffer layer architecture using a Pd transient layer. Apart from passivating Ni-Cu-Co substrate, the use of a Pd transient layer produces a relevant texture sharpening in the out-of-plane orientation and the full width at half maximum of the ω-scan drops from about 90 of NiCuCo to 20 of Pd layer. This sharp texture is transferred to the YBCO film and the results indicate that NiCuCo alloy is a promising alternative substrate for the realization of YBCO coated conductors

  4. Nickel-copper alloy tapes as textured substrates for YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannozzi, A; Celentano, G; Angrisani, A; Augieri, A; Colantoni, I; Galluzzi, V; Mancini, A; Rufoloni, A [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Ciontea, L; Petrisor, T; Thalmaier, G [Techn. University of Cluj Napoca, Str. C. Daicoviciu 15, 3400 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Gambardella, U [INFN-LFN, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy)], E-mail: vannozzi@frascati.enea.it

    2008-02-15

    NiCuCo alloy tape was studied as textured substrates for YBCO coated conductors application. The addition of a small amount of cobalt was pursued in order to enhance the microstructure of the NiCu alloy. The use of different thermal treatments during the recrystallization process permitted to obtain area densities of cube orientation as high as 95%. The substrate was thoroughly characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, EBSD and SEM analyses. Further, the mechanical properties and the magnetic behaviour of this substrate have been investigated and compared with those exhibited by Ni, NiW and NiCu tapes. The suitability of this alloy substrate for YBCO coated conductors has been tested through the deposition of a conventional CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/CeO{sub 2} buffer layer architecture using a Pd transient layer. Apart from passivating Ni-Cu-Co substrate, the use of a Pd transient layer produces a relevant texture sharpening in the out-of-plane orientation and the full width at half maximum of the {omega}-scan drops from about 9{sup 0} of NiCuCo to 2{sup 0} of Pd layer. This sharp texture is transferred to the YBCO film and the results indicate that NiCuCo alloy is a promising alternative substrate for the realization of YBCO coated conductors.

  5. Structural and optical properties of nearly stress-free m-plane ZnO film on (1 0 0) {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} with a GaN buffer layer by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Hui, E-mail: linh8112@163.com [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China) and Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Shengming, E-mail: zhousm@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Teng Hao; Hou Xiaorui; Jia Tingting [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gu Shulin; Zhu Shunming; Xie Zili; Han Ping; Zhang Rong [Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials, and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu Ke [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China)

    2009-08-30

    (101-bar 0)m-plane ZnO film was epitaxially deposited on (1 0 0) {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition at 600 deg. C with a GaN buffer layer. The epitaxial relationships between ZnO and GaN, GaN and (1 0 0) {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} were determined by X-ray diffraction {Phi}-scans. There exhibits very small decrease for the E{sub 2} mode shift (0.3 cm{sup -1}) of ZnO in the Raman spectrum, which indicates the epitaxial ZnO film was under a slight tensile stress (5.77 x 10{sup 7} Pa). Unlike the highly strained a-plane ZnO, temperature dependent photoluminescence spectra show that the free A exiton emission was observed with the temperature {<=}138 K.

  6. Superconducting Bi-2223/Ag tapes for power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Power applications of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) require the conductor to meet the following engineering specifications: (i) Jc ≥ 104 A cm-2 in the presence of a self-generated magnetic field ranging from 200 mT for power transmission cables and transformers to several tesla for superconducting magnets for mineral separation; (ii) low ac power losses, e.g. -1 for 2 kA power cables; and (iii) a strain tolerance or irreversible strain limit εIrr ≥ 0.2%. We report measurements of the electrical transport properties of Bi-2223/Ag composite conductors produced as part of the long-length product development by the Metal Manufactures Ltd - University of Wollongong - CSIRO consortium. The powder-in-tube (PIT) process was used to manufacture conductors 200 m to 1 km in length with various filament configurations including monofilament and multifilament tapes with untwisted and twisted filaments and round wires. The transport critical current Ic was measured as a function of temperature (T 4 - 80 K) and magnetic field (B = 0-9 T) for different field orientations. Self-field transport ac losses were determined at 77 K and 60 Hz as a function of ac current amplitude (0 - 100 A rms). The strain performance was evaluated at 77 K for applied bend strains from zero to 1.5 %. Scanning Hall probe magnetometry was used to image the flow of dc transport current and its distribution with increasing current to about 2Ic

  7. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  8. Tape cast second generation orthorhombic-based titanium aluminide alloys for MMC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium metal matrix composites (TMCs) utilizing continuous SiC fiber reinforcement are considered important, if not, enabling materials for advanced Air Force propulsion systems, wherein combinations of high specific strength and elevated temperature capability are prerequisites to obtain desired increases in thrust-to-weight ratios and decreased specific fuel consumption. One such class of TMCs being assessed for use in rotating engine components are those based upon the orthorhombic titanium aluminide phase, Ti2AlNb. These orthorhombic titanium matrix composites (O TMCs) are being examined for sustained use at temperatures up to 700 C. Previous studies have primarily focused on O TMCs made using the foil-fiber-foil fabrication process. More recently the Materials and Manufacturing Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory has been focusing attention on an alternative powder metallurgy approach for fabrication of O TMCs via tape casting. This latter approach has the potential to produce significant cost reduction (<$70/lb) for the matrix input material (powder). Unfortunately, little work has been done to understand the effects of powder microstructures and the tape casting process itself on the mechanical performance of O TMCs. Therefore, the first objective of this study is to examine the microstructural evolution and mechanical performance (with and without heat treatment) of three unreinforced heat orthorhombic-based titanium aluminide matrices made via tape casting. A second objective is to assess the viability of powder metallurgy processing for the fabrication of O TMCs

  9. Downscaled tests on buffer behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of tests, nicknamed X-Boy (bentonite sample diameter 350 mm, sample height 800 mm) and Transu (sample diameter 269 mm, sample height 800 mm), were performed to investigate the early saturation behavior of the buffer at mock-up scale using distinct point inflows at 0.1 L/min across a range of solution salinity from tap water to 35 g/L. Specifically, swelling pressure development, piping and erosion due to groundwater inflow and the extent of the homogenization process from the initial heterogeneous state (i.e., compacted blocks and either an empty or pellet-filled gap between the blocks and test device wall) were followed. For all test formats a set of consistent observations were made. No significant resistance to inlet water pressure was observed for any of the tests, due to developments occurring within the test cylinders, indicating that flow pathways through the buffer system remained open. Effluent solids concentrations above background levels were observed over the course of all of the tests indicating continuous erosion. Relatively low swelling pressures (both axial and radial) were observed during all of the tests. Non-uniform, radial swelling pressure development and saturation (from post-mortem sampling) were observed for all of the tests. (orig.)

  10. Downscaled tests on buffer behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintado, X.; Adesola, F.; Turtiainen, M. [B and Tech Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-10-15

    Two types of tests, nicknamed X-Boy (bentonite sample diameter 350 mm, sample height 800 mm) and Transu (sample diameter 269 mm, sample height 800 mm), were performed to investigate the early saturation behavior of the buffer at mock-up scale using distinct point inflows at 0.1 L/min across a range of solution salinity from tap water to 35 g/L. Specifically, swelling pressure development, piping and erosion due to groundwater inflow and the extent of the homogenization process from the initial heterogeneous state (i.e., compacted blocks and either an empty or pellet-filled gap between the blocks and test device wall) were followed. For all test formats a set of consistent observations were made. No significant resistance to inlet water pressure was observed for any of the tests, due to developments occurring within the test cylinders, indicating that flow pathways through the buffer system remained open. Effluent solids concentrations above background levels were observed over the course of all of the tests indicating continuous erosion. Relatively low swelling pressures (both axial and radial) were observed during all of the tests. Non-uniform, radial swelling pressure development and saturation (from post-mortem sampling) were observed for all of the tests. (orig.)

  11. Reflectance characterization of tape-based plasma mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, B. H.; Steinke, S.; van Tilborg, J.; Leemans, W. P.

    2016-06-01

    Specular reflections of relativistic laser pulses from an overdense plasma mirror (PM) were studied experimentally. The pointing stability of the PM and reflectance of the input laser were characterized. The solid material used for the PM was a VHS tape. This study was done for the magnetic and plastic sides of the VHS tape, and for input light of both s and p-polarizations. The laser pulse fluence was varied by changing the focus position relative to the tape surface, which changed the spot size at the tape. The pointing fluctuations of the reflected pulses caused by the PM were ≃1 mrad. A peak reflectance of 82% was obtained from the plastic surface of the VHS tape when focusing s-polarized light 4 mm from the tape surface (the wavefront quality was confirmed to be conserved). An analytic model was developed to understand the physics of the interaction for each tape material and polarization. Fitting of our model parameters to the experimental results allowed an estimate of the key plasma parameters such as plasma expansion velocity, ionization intensity, and fraction of absorbed laser energy.

  12. Aqueous Tape Casting Process with Styrene-acrylic Latex Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xue-min; OUYANG Shi-xi; HUANG Yong; YU Zhi-yong; ZHAO Shi-ke; WANG Chang-an

    2004-01-01

    A commercial styrene-acrylic latex binder has been investigated as a good binder for aqueous Al2O3 suspensions tape-casting process. This paper focuses on the forming film mechanism of latex binder, the rheological behaviors of the suspensions, physical properties of green tapes and drying process of aqueous slurries with latex binder system. The drying process of the alumina suspensions is shown to follow a two-stage mechanism (the first stage: evaporation controlled process; and the second stage: diffusion controlled process). During the drying stage of the suspensions, the compressive force presses the latex particles and makes them be distorted, which results in cross-linking structure in contacted latex particles of the solidified tapes.A smooth-surface and high-strength green tape was fabricated by aqueous tape casting with latex binder system. The results from the SEM images of the crossing section microstructure of green tapes show that the latex is a very suitable binder for aqueous tape casting.

  13. Empirically Bounding of Space Booms with Tape Spring Hinges

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, A. L.; Black, J; C. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Self-deploying structures seek to provide a compact launch package for large, lightweight satellite booms. One self-deploying method is a foldable tape spring. This paper examines the large scale behavior of a boom attached by a tape spring hinge during mock deployments. A boom attached by tape spring to a rigid stand was released and the boom bounced up to 60° before coming to rest (as opposed to snap-through behavior). These large amplitude bounces can cause the boom to collide with sensors...

  14. Experimental Tape Casting of Adjacently Graded Materials for Magnetic Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina

    graded thin films. The motivation to create such adjacently segmented structures stemmed from a search of material and a materials design alternative to the expensive rare earth element gadolinium which is widely used as a magnetic regenerator in the emerging magnetic refrigeration technology....... Conventional tape casting involves the preparation of specially formulated slurry, which is cast by a blade to a thin flat tape, then dried into flexible so-called green solid tape and can be subsequently sintered into a hard ceramic material. The principal difference and, at the same time, a challenge...

  15. Microstructure and properties of Bi-2223/Ag/Ni tapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    To reduce the production cost of Bi-2223 superconducting tapes, Bi-2223/Ag/Ni tapes were fabricated by the powder-in-tube process. The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and critical current of the Bi-2223/Ag/Ni tapes were studied. The phase compositions of the samples were characterized using XRD. The microstructure was observed using SEM. Experimental results indicate that higher temperature is more conducive to the formation of Bi-2223 phase at an atmosphere of 8.5% O 2 . After the two-step h...

  16. Time Complexity of Tape Reduction for Reversible Turing Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2012-01-01

    Studies of reversible Turing machines (RTMs) often differ in their use of static resources such as the number of tapes, symbols and internal states. However, the interplay between such resources and computational complexity is not well-established for RTMs. In particular, many foundational results...... in reversible computing theory are about multitape machines with two or more tapes, but it is non-obvious what these results imply for reversible complexity theory. Here, we study how the time complexity of multitape RTMs behaves under reductions to one and two tapes. For deterministic Turing...

  17. Texture of YBCO/Ag PIT-tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paturi, P.; Kulmala, T.; Raittila, J.;

    2004-01-01

    YBCO/Ag tapes prepared using nanosized YBCO powder are currently the best powder-in-tube YBCO tapes with their I-c = 5.02 A and J(c) = 3300 A/cm(2) in self-field and at 77 K. The texture of these tapes was studied by removing the silver with mercury and then measuring the texture of the surface......-section should have even higher I-c. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Preparing superconducting nanopowder based YBCO/Ag tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paturi, P.; Raittila, J.; Grivel, J.C.; Huhtinen, H.; Seifi, B.; Laiho, R.; Andersen, N.H.

    YBCO nanopowder consisting of 1-3 nm thick and 40 nm wide particles has been used to make silver clad superconducting tapes. After annealing in nitrogen at 945 degreesC for 10 h a critical current of 5.02 A (3300 A/cm(2)) was attained, Annealing in mixed atmosphere of oxygen and nitrogen was also...... carried out and this procedure produced tapes with a critical current of 2.83 A (2200 A/cm(2)). These tapes show very good characteristics in magnetic fields. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. An automated magnetic tape vault at CERN computer center

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly changing data processing landscape the underlying long-term storage technology remains the tried and tested magnetic tape. This robust and mature technology is used to store the complete LHC data set, from which a fraction of the data is copied to overlying disk caches for fast and widespread access. The handling of the magnetic tape cartridges is now fully automated, as they are racked in vaults where they are moved between the storage shelves and the tape drives by robotic arms.

  20. VLSI scaling methods and low power CMOS buffer circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Device scaling is an important part of the very large scale integration (VLSI) design to boost up the success path of VLSI industry, which results in denser and faster integration of the devices. As technology node moves towards the very deep submicron region, leakage current and circuit reliability become the key issues. Both are increasing with the new technology generation and affecting the performance of the overall logic circuit. The VLSI designers must keep the balance in power dissipation and the circuit's performance with scaling of the devices. In this paper, different scaling methods are studied first. These scaling methods are used to identify the effects of those scaling methods on the power dissipation and propagation delay of the CMOS buffer circuit. For mitigating the power dissipation in scaled devices, we have proposed a reliable leakage reduction low power transmission gate (LPTG) approach and tested it on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) buffer circuit. All simulation results are taken on HSPICE tool with Berkeley predictive technology model (BPTM) BSIM4 bulk CMOS files. The LPTG CMOS buffer reduces 95.16% power dissipation with 84.20% improvement in figure of merit at 32 nm technology node. Various process, voltage and temperature variations are analyzed for proving the robustness of the proposed approach. Leakage current uncertainty decreases from 0.91 to 0.43 in the CMOS buffer circuit that causes large circuit reliability. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. Tellurium addition as a solution to improve compactness of ex-situ processed MgB2-SiC superconducting tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, V.; Aldica, G.; Popa, S.; Enculescu, Monica; Badica, P.

    2016-06-01

    Ex-situ spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used to obtain dense MgB2-based tapes in a Fe sheath with the starting composition (MgB2)0.975 + (SiC)0.025 + Te0.01. Prior to the SPS procedure of tape formation, the samples were submitted to a series of cold working processes typical for the powder-in-tube technique. The tapes were compared with optimal doped bulk samples (having the same starting composition) and a pristine MgB2 tape. The morphology of the composite samples, the phase structure of both the core and the inner face of the metallic sheath shows the formation of a plethora of traces as a result of interaction between MgB2, additives, and the Fe sheath. Important critical parameters, like critical current density and the irreversibility field, show that there is a field and temperature range where the SiC and Te-added tapes display better critical parameters comparative to either pristine MgB2 tapes in the Fe sheath or SiC and Te doped MgB2 bulk samples.

  2. Wings of Stretched Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelken, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson that allows students to make bird ornaments using a metal tooling as it can be textured, cut, and colored. In this lesson, students choose a bird and sketch it on a piece of paper. Once the sketches are complete, students copy their pictures on a second piece of paper by taping the sketch over a sheet of blank paper…

  3. Aspects of the SrO-CuO-TiO2 Ternary System Related to the Deposition of SrTiO3 and Copper-Doped SrTiO3 Thin-Film Buffer Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Ayala

    2004-12-20

    YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) coated conductors are promising materials for large-scale superconductivity applications. One version of a YBCO coated conductor is based on ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) of magnesium oxide (MgO) onto polycrystalline metal substrates. SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) is often deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods as a buffer layer between the YBCO and IBAD MgO due to its chemical stability and lattice mismatch of only {approx}1.5% with YBCO. In this work, some aspects of the stability of STO with respect to copper (Cu) and chemical solution deposition of STO on IBAD MgO templates were examined. Solubility limits of Cu in STO were established by processing Cu-doped STO powders by conventional bulk preparation techniques. The maximum solubility of Cu in STO was {approx}1% as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Rietveld refinements of x-ray diffraction (XRD) data. XRD analysis, performed in collaboration with NIST, on powder compositions on the STO/SrCuO{sub 2} tie line did not identify any ternary phases. SrCu{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}O{sub y} buffer layers were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and CSD on IBAD MgO flexible metallic textured tapes. TEM analysis of a {approx}100 nm thick SrCu{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}O{sub y} buffer layer deposited by PLD showed a smooth Cu-doped STO/MgO interface. A {approx}600 nm thick YBCO film, deposited onto the SrCu{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}O{sub y} buffer by PLD, exhibited a T{sub c} of 87 K and critical current density (J{sub c}) of {approx}1 MA/cm{sup 2}. STO and Cu-doped STO thin films by CSD were {approx}30 nm thick. The in plane alignment (FWHM) after deposition of the STO improved by {approx}1{sup o} while it degraded by {approx}2{sup o} with the SrCu{sub 0.05}TiO{sub y} buffer. YBCO was deposited by PLD on the STO and SrCu{sub 0.05}TiO{sub y} buffers. The in plane alignment (FWHM) of the YBCO with the STO buffer layer slightly improved while that of the

  4. Characterization of the mechanical properties of LTCC ``Green Tape``{trademark} for the MC4352 MET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe, F.; Garrett, S.; Monroe, S.; Burchett, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-03-01

    During the qualification of Low Temperature Cofire Ceramic (LTCC) as an enabling WR packaging technology for manufacturing the MC4352 (MET), issues pertaining to the mechanical performance of the DuPont 951 ``Green Tape{trademark}`` tape were investigated. Understanding the fundamental mechanical performance of the DuPont 951 substrate material, including the effect of surface metallization in STS environments, is required to determine MC4352 survivability. Both fast fracture and slow crack growth behavior were characterized for the MET configuration. A minimum stress threshold of 6.5 Kpsi for slow crack growth was established for substrates containing surface conductors, resistors, and resistor glaze. Finite element analysis was used to optimize the MET substrate thickness and to design the supporting structures to limit mechanical loading of the populated substrate below the slow crack growth threshold. Additionally, test coupons that failed during environmental testing are discussed. The root cause of electrical failures was attributed to solder leaching of the thick film metallization. Changes to solder pad configuration were incorporated to reduce the solder-metallization intermetallic from reaching the substrate interface. Finally, four-point bend tests revealed that the YAG laser approach for sizing LTCC substrates induced flaws, which substantially reduced the overall strength of the test samples as compared to samples sized using a diamond saw.

  5. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Guerrero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed.

  6. Impact limiter retention using a tape joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask for the transportation of up to a megacurie of radiation source capsules. This work was done under contract to the Department of Energy. The BUSS cask employs polyurethane foam impact limiters that fit onto the ends of the cask. A foam impact limiter takes energy out of the system during a hypothetical accident condition by allowing foam crush and large deformations to occur. This, in turn, precludes high stresses or deformations from occurring in the cask. Depending on the nature of the impact limiters and large deformations experienced, retaining the limiters on a cask during a 9 meter regulatory drop poses a design challenge. Impact limiter retention becomes a concern to ensure the cask does not experience higher decelerations during secondary impacts without impact limiters in place. During the 9 meter drop, the impact limiters absorb the energy required to confine the cask deceleration to acceptable levels. However, if the impact limiters were removed from the cask due to initial impact, higher cask stress levels could occur during any secondary or rebound effects. A tape joint has been designed to solve the problem of retaining impact limiters onto the BUSS cask during impact loadings

  7. Shuttle-Data-Tape XML Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    JSDTImport is a computer program for translating native Shuttle Data Tape (SDT) files from American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format into databases in other formats. JSDTImport solves the problem of organizing the SDT content, affording flexibility to enable users to choose how to store the information in a database to better support client and server applications. JSDTImport can be dynamically configured by use of a simple Extensible Markup Language (XML) file. JSDTImport uses this XML file to define how each record and field will be parsed, its layout and definition, and how the resulting database will be structured. JSDTImport also includes a client application programming interface (API) layer that provides abstraction for the data-querying process. The API enables a user to specify the search criteria to apply in gathering all the data relevant to a query. The API can be used to organize the SDT content and translate into a native XML database. The XML format is structured into efficient sections, enabling excellent query performance by use of the XPath query language. Optionally, the content can be translated into a Structured Query Language (SQL) database for fast, reliable SQL queries on standard database server computers.

  8. Hybrid solar cells based on CuInS2 and organic buffer-sensitizer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid solar cells on the basis of CuInS2 (CIS) photoabsorber on Cu-tape (CISCuT) in combination with organic buffer layers of Zn-phthalocyanine (ZnPc), ZnPc:fullerene (ZnPc:C60) composite and conductive polymer buffer layers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) were prepared using vacuum evaporation and spin-casting techniques. To prepare solar cells with an active area of 2 cm2, the appropriate deposition parameters and thickness of ZnPc, ZnPc:C60 and PEDOT-PSS layers were selected experimentally. For preparation of semitransparent contact-window layers, chromium and gold were evaporated on the surface of ZnPc, ZnPc:C60 and PEDOT-PSS films. It was found that an intermediate chromium layer improves PV properties of the structures with organic buffer layers. The photosensitivity at small illumination intensities of complete structures with ZnPc and ZnPc:C60 layers increased more than one order of magnitude in comparison with the structures where the PEDOT-PSS buffer layer was deposited. The presence of C60 in the composite-buffer layer results in increased photoconductivity. The best structure with composite ZnPc:C60 buffer layer showed an open-circuit voltage of 560 mV, a short-circuit current density of around 10 mA/cm2 and a photoconversion efficiency of around 3.3% under the light illumination with an intensity of 100 mW/cm2 from a tungsten-halogen lamp. The low transmission of the semitransparent chromium-gold window layer is the reason for relatively low current density

  9. A scrambling technique for protecting video images recorded on tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that some of the present unattended video surveillance systems record short sequences of video images or scenes on tape. Each of these scenes consist of short bursts of 6 to 8 video frames. The Video Scrambling System can be inserted in the input to the video recorder to scramble the video image prior to recording. The video tape will then contain a series of scrambled scenes each of which has been scrambled differently. The video tape with the scrambled images must now be played back through the Video Scrambling System to descramble the images for viewing. The images cannot be unscrambled without the proper codes having been inserted into the equipment. An attempt to insert false images into the tape can be easily detected since the equipment will not descramble an image that has not been properly scrambled. The equipment will demonstrate the scrambling and unsrambling technique and how the resulting images look when descrambled

  10. Scotch-Tape Mirror for Hard X-rays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project is to build a grazing incidence mirror for hard X-rays (E>20 keV) using a “scotch-tape” design, in which a thin plastic tape with a...

  11. Cheap Tape May Keep Blisters Off Runners' Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_158250.html Cheap Tape May Keep Blisters Off Runners' Feet Researchers find an easy, effective ... 11, 2016 MONDAY, April 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Blisters are the bane of every runner, but a ...

  12. OXREPT: ORINC and experimental data to RELAP plot tape interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program which transforms THTF experimental data and ORINC output data into the RELAP4/MOD5 plot/restart tape format is described. Input requirements and program characteristics are discussed

  13. Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this research is to provide durable and long-term water management solutions using exterior insulating sheathing as part of the water management system. It is possible to tape or seal the joints in insulating sheathing to create a drainage plane and even an air control layer. There exists the material durability component of the tape as well as the system durability component being the taped insulating sheathing as the drainage plane. This measure guideline provides best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and homebuilders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant issues were discussed with the group, which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long-term, and durable drainage plane: horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible; where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials; and frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation.

  14. ICI optical data storage tape: An archival mass storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    At the 1991 Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, ICI Imagedata presented a paper which introduced ICI Optical Data Storage Tape. This paper placed specific emphasis on the media characteristics and initial data was presented which illustrated the archival stability of the media. More exhaustive analysis that was carried out on the chemical stability of the media is covered. Equally important, it also addresses archive management issues associated with, for example, the benefits of reduced rewind requirements to accommodate tape relaxation effects that result from careful tribology control in ICI Optical Tape media. ICI Optical Tape media was designed to meet the most demanding requirements of archival mass storage. It is envisaged that the volumetric data capacity, long term stability and low maintenance characteristics demonstrated will have major benefits in increasing reliability and reducing the costs associated with archival storage of large data volumes.

  15. SMART Tape For Structural Health Monitoring of Rocket Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Acellent Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a SMART Tape system that can be used to perform rapid non-destructive evaluation in real time and provide long-term...

  16. Smart Tape For Structural Health Monitoring of Rocket Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Acellent Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a SMART TAPE system that can be used to perform rapid non-destructive evaluation in real time and provide long-term...

  17. Moisture Buffering in the Indoor Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Svennberg, Kaisa

    2006-01-01

    Moisture buffering in the indoor environment is the ability, through absorption and desorption, of surface materials to attenuate the moisture variations of the indoor air. Moisture buffering plays an important role in understanding the risks for biological growth in surface materials in the indoor environment, e.g., mold growth on walls and house dust mites in beds, and thereby also have an impact on the health of the inhabitants. Apart from the health aspects, moisture buffering is also imp...

  18. The development and testing of rail-vehicle buffers filled with elastomer spring packages

    OpenAIRE

    Legat, Janko; Gubeljak, Nenad; Predan, Jožef

    2015-01-01

    The decision of the Slovenian Railway Company to modernise the shock absorbing and traction equipment of its existing rolling stock initiated the development of novel spring packages consisting of elastomer-metal-based elements. The crash testing of rail vehicles represents an important part of the testing of spring packages after their installation into buffers. The collision of a loaded rail vehicle with another loaded rail vehicle at a standstill is used to evaluate the capacity of buffers...

  19. DICOM implementation on online tape library storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komo, Darmadi; Dai, Hailei L.; Elghammer, David; Levine, Betty A.; Mun, Seong K.

    1998-07-01

    The main purpose of this project is to implement a Digital Image and Communications (DICOM) compliant online tape library system over the Internet. Once finished, the system will be used to store medical exams generated from U.S. ARMY Mobile ARMY Surgical Hospital (MASH) in Tuzla, Bosnia. A modified UC Davis implementation of DICOM storage class is used for this project. DICOM storage class user and provider are implemented as the system's interface to the Internet. The DICOM software provides flexible configuration options such as types of modalities and trusted remote DICOM hosts. Metadata is extracted from each exam and indexed in a relational database for query and retrieve purposes. The medical images are stored inside the Wolfcreek-9360 tape library system from StorageTek Corporation. The tape library system has nearline access to more than 1000 tapes. Each tape has a capacity of 800 megabytes making the total nearline tape access of around 1 terabyte. The tape library uses the Application Storage Manager (ASM) which provides cost-effective file management, storage, archival, and retrieval services. ASM automatically and transparently copies files from expensive magnetic disk to less expensive nearline tape library, and restores the files back when they are needed. The ASM also provides a crash recovery tool, which enable an entire file system restore in a short time. A graphical user interface (GUI) function is used to view the contents of the storage systems. This GUI also allows user to retrieve the stored exams and send the exams to anywhere on the Internet using DICOM protocols. With the integration of different components of the system, we have implemented a high capacity online tape library storage system that is flexible and easy to use. Using tape as an alternative storage media as opposed to the magnetic disk has the great potential of cost savings in terms of dollars per megabyte of storage. As this system matures, the Hospital Information Systems

  20. MgO buffer layers on rolled nickel or copper as superconductor substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan; Goyal, Amit; Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederic A.

    2001-01-01

    Buffer layer architectures are epitaxially deposited on biaxially-textured rolled-Ni and/or Cu substrates for high current conductors, and more particularly buffer layer architectures such as MgO/Ag/Pt/Ni, MgO/Ag/Pd/Ni, MgO/Ag/Ni, MgO/Ag/Pd/Cu, MgO/Ag/Pt/Cu, and MgO/Ag/Cu. Techniques used to deposit these buffer layers include electron beam evaporation, thermal evaporation, rf magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), combustion CVD, and spray pyrolysis.

  1. Method for making MgO buffer layers on rolled nickel or copper as superconductor substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan; Goyal, Amit; Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederic A.

    2002-01-01

    Buffer layer architectures are epitaxially deposited on biaxially-textured rolled-Ni and/or Cu substrates for high current conductors, and more particularly buffer layer architectures such as MgO/Ag/Pt/Ni, MgO/Ag/Pd/Ni, MgO/Ag/Ni, MgO/Ag/Pd/Cu, MgO/Ag/Pt/Cu, and MgO/Ag/Cu. Techniques used to deposit these buffer layers include electron beam evaporation, thermal evaporation, rf magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), combustion CVD, and spray pyrolysis.

  2. Tape Stripping Technique for Stratum Corneum Protein Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maja-Lisa Clausen; H.-C. Slotved; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Tove Agner

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of protein in stratum corneum in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and healthy controls, using tape stripping technique. Furthermore, to compare two different methods for protein assessment. Tape stripping was performed in AD patients and healthy controls to collect stratum corneum samples and subsequently analysed with two different methods: Squame Scan, which gives an estimate of total protein (soluble and insoluble) and Micro BCA protein de...

  3. AC power losses in Bi-2223/Ag HTS tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We report measurements at 77 K of the transport ac losses of Bi-2223/Ag composite tapes. The investigated tapes vary from single filament to multifilament construction and include both conventional tapes and other conductor shapes with twisted filaments. The self-field ac losses were determined at 77 K and 60 Hz as a function of ac current amplitude (0 - 100 A). We observe different behaviour among tapes depending on their quality and strain history. For 'good' virgin tapes the experimental data are well described by the Norris equations for the dependence of power loss P on the amplitude Im of the transport current. The data of good monofilament tapes are fitted to the Norris equation P ∼ Imn for an elliptical cross section (ie. n = 3) and the data of good multifilament tapes are fitted to the Norris equation for a rectangular strip (ie. n = 4). Many specimens, however, show a range of behaviour with lower values of n. Based on our work on the effect of strain on the dc transport properties of tapes, we carried out detailed investigations of the effect of controlled applied bend strain on the ac loss. Our results show that irreversible damage to superconducting filaments (ie. cracks) cause the ac loss to rise and n to decrease with increasing strain. In addition, applied strains much greater than the irreversible strain limit cause the ac loss to increase by several orders of magnitude and become ohmic in character with n = 2. Theoretical work is in progress to model the observed behaviour

  4. Retrieval analysis of a failed TriboFit polycarbonate urethane acetabular buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biant, Leela C; Gascoyne, Trevor C; Bohm, Eric R; Moran, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the failure mechanisms and damage features of a TriboFit acetabular buffer implanted directly against a native, prepared acetabulum which was revised after 11months. Retrieval analyses were carried out via light microscopy, gravimetric wear assessment, and observer scoring of visible damage features on the buffer. The volume of material abraded from the backside of the buffer was estimated via three-dimensional reconstruction using a laser scanner. Scanning electron microscopy was used to confirm damage features and mechanisms. Severe abrasion to the backside of the buffer was the primary damage feature, while stippling damage was seen on the articular surface of the buffer. Material loss due to backside abrasion was approximated to be between 0.13360.085 g (gravimetric analyses) and 0.19360.053 g (three-dimensional reconstruction). Implantation of the TriboFit buffer against the patient's native acetabulum without a metal backing allowed for significant movement of the buffer against the bone, resulting in the abrasion seen on this implant. The stippling damage on the articular surface indicates an adhesive wear mechanism which exacerbates movement of the buffer against the acetabulum, thereby increasing backside abrasion. PMID:26833696

  5. Increasing the efficiency of tape-based storage backends

    CERN Document Server

    Bessone, N; Murray, S; Taurelli, G; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    HSM systems such as the CERN’s Advanced STORage manager (CASTOR) [1] are responsible for storing Petabytes of data which is first cached on disk and then persistently stored on tape media. The contents of these tapes are regularly repacked from older, lower-density media to new-generation, higher-density media in order to free up physical space and ensure long term data integrity and availability. With the evolution of price decay and higher capacity of disk (and flash memory) based storage, our future vision for tape usage is to move away from serving on demand, random, per-file access to non-disk cached files, and to move towards loosely coupled, efficient bulk data transfers where large-volume data sets are stored and retrieved in aggregations, fully exploiting the stream-based nature of tape media. Mechanisms for grouped migration policies and priorities have been implemented, and an innovative tape format optimized for data aggregations is being developed. This new tape format will also allow for incre...

  6. AC losses in circular arrangements of parallel superconducting tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten; Däumling, Manfred; Olsen, Søren Krüger; Tønnesen, Ole

    The DC and AC properties of superconducting tapes connected in parellel and arranged in a single closed layer on two tubes (correspondig to power cable models with infinite pitch) with different diameters are compared. We find that the DC properties, i.e. the critical currents of the two arrangem......The DC and AC properties of superconducting tapes connected in parellel and arranged in a single closed layer on two tubes (correspondig to power cable models with infinite pitch) with different diameters are compared. We find that the DC properties, i.e. the critical currents of the two...... arrangements, scale with the number of tapes and hence appear to be independent of the diameter.However, the AC loss per tape (for a given current per tape) appears to decrease with increasing diameter of the circular arrangement. Compared to a model for the AC loss in a continuous superconducting layer...... (Monoblock model) the measured values are about half an order of magnitude higher than expected for the small diameter arrangement. When compared to the AC loss calculated for N individual superconducting tapes using a well known model ( Norris elliptical) the difference is slightly smaller....

  7. The effect of Kinesio Taping on handgrip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Thiago Vilela; Pereira, Kelice Cristina; Protássio, Carina Celedonio; Lucas, Lorrane Barbosa; Matheus, Joao Paulo C

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was to evaluate the change in muscle function induced by a Kinesio Tape application with no or moderate tension, to the dominant and non-dominant arms. [Subjects and Methods] This research was a quantitative study, in which 75 women participated. The subjects, aged 18-30 years, were divided into 3 groups, Kinesio, Kinesio without Tension, and Control, and they were assessed before the taping intervention and after 30 minutes, 24 hours, and 48 hours of taping. [Results] The Kinesio group subjects demonstrated an increase in handgrip strength after 30 minutes, 24 hours, and 48 hours of tape application compared to control. A statistically significant increase in strength was observed in the Kinesio group comparison to the Control after 24 hours and 48 hours for the right hand, and after 48 hours for the left hand. Improvement in the Kinesio group compared to the Kinesio without Tension was observed only after 24 hours of taping application, and only in the right hand. [Conclusion] The Kinesio Taping method augmented the handgrip strength of healthy women, and the increase in grip strength was maintained for 48 hours after its application; the dominant hand demonstrated the greatest strength values. PMID:25931682

  8. Kinesio Taping effects on knee extension force among soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa V. G. B. Serra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Kinesio Taping (KT is widely used, however the effects of KT on muscle activation and force are contradictory. Objective : To evaluate the effects of KT on knee extension force in soccer players. Method: This is a clinical trial study design. Thirty-four subjects performed two maximal isometric voluntary contractions of the lower limbs pre, immediately post, and 24 hours after tape application on the lower limbs. Both lower limbs were taped, using K-Tape and 3M Micropore tape randomly on the right and left thighs of the participants. Isometric knee extension force was measured for dominant side using a strain gauge. The following variables were assessed: peak force, time to peak force, rate of force development until peak force, time to peak rate of force development, and 200 ms pulse. Results : There were no statistically significant differences in the variables assessed between KT and Micropore conditions (F=0.645, p=0.666 or among testing sessions (pre, post, and 24h after (F=0.528, p=0.868, and there was no statistical significance (F=0.271, p=0.986 for interaction between tape conditions and testing session. Conclusion: KT did not affect the force-related measures assessed immediately and 24 hours after the KT application compared with Micropore application, during maximal isometric voluntary knee extension.

  9. Open data tapes of ROSA-II tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests simulating a postulated loss-of-coolant accident and performance of ECCS in a PWR were carried out with the ROSA-II test facility. The test data were already published as data reports (No.1 -- 13 and 2 for UHI tests). For the purpose of general use of the ROSA-II test data, open data tapes recording the data are made available in the calculation center of JAERI. Following the procedures in the present manual, anyone who utilizes the calculation center can obtain the test data as figures and numerical tables. On the other hand, anyone who wishes to process the open data tapes with other computer system than that in the calculation center may apply to Reactor Safety Laboratory 1, JAERI, for reproduction of the tapes and can obtain the same after suitable conversion of the calculation program for that computer system. The present manual should be followed in order to obtain the data properly and to avoid elimination and damage of the open tapes. By arrangements with the calculation center, test data on the open tapes will be eliminated in future; when, however, the same data tapes in Reactor Safety Laboratory 1 will be made available for general use. (author)

  10. AC losses in circular arrangements of parallel superconducting tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten; Däumling, Manfred;

    1998-01-01

    The DC and AC properties of superconducting tapes connected in parellel and arranged in a single closed layer on two tubes (correspondig to power cable models with infinite pitch) with different diameters are compared. We find that the DC properties, i.e. the critical currents of the two arrangem......The DC and AC properties of superconducting tapes connected in parellel and arranged in a single closed layer on two tubes (correspondig to power cable models with infinite pitch) with different diameters are compared. We find that the DC properties, i.e. the critical currents of the two...... arrangements, scale with the number of tapes and hence appear to be independent of the diameter.However, the AC loss per tape (for a given current per tape) appears to decrease with increasing diameter of the circular arrangement. Compared to a model for the AC loss in a continuous superconducting layer...... (Monoblock model) the measured values are about half an order of magnitude higher than expected for the small diameter arrangement. When compared to the AC loss calculated for N individual superconducting tapes using a well known model ( Norris elliptical) the difference is slightly smaller....

  11. Substrate dependent buffer-layer assisted growth of nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honolka, Jan; Sessi, Violetta; Hertenberger, Simon; Kern, Klaus [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang, Jian [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); School of Material Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, TianJin (China); Enders, Axel [Department of Physics and Astronomy and NCMN, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The role of the substrate on the morphology of nanometer size clusters fabricated by buffer layer assisted growth (BLAG) was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy. Clusters of Fe and Co were deposited on Ag(111), Cu(100), Rh(111), and Pt(111) surfaces using identical BLAG parameters, which are temperature, as well as metal and buffer layer coverage. Semi-hemispherical clusters are found on Ag(111) and Cu(100), while flat monolayer high islands are observed on Rh(111) and Pt(111) due to complete wetting. The results of this study are in agreement with the common notion that BLAG is useful to deposit clusters of virtually any material on any substrate, however, the shape, size, and lateral distribution of the resulting clusters depend strongly on the substrate surface free energy and diffusion processes. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Temperature buffer test. Dismantling operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite in the usual way, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a ring of sand. The test was dismantled and sampled during a period from the end of October 2009 to the end of April 2010, and this report describes this operation. Different types of samples have been obtained during this operation. A large number of diameter 50 mm bentonite cores have been taken for analysis of water content and density. Large pieces, so-called big sectors, have been taken for hydro-mechanical and chemical characterizations. Finally, there has been an interest to obtain different types of interface samples in which bentonite were in contact with sand, iron or concrete. One goal has been to investigate the retrievability of the upper heater, given the possibility to remove the surrounding sand shield, and a retrieval test has therefore been performed. The sand in the shield was first removed with an industrial vacuum cleaner after loosening the material through mechanical means (with hammer drill and core machine). A front loader was subsequently used for applying a sufficient lifting force to release the heater from the bentonite underneath. The experiment has been documented in different aspects: measurements of the coordinate (height or radius) of different interfaces (between bentonite blocks and between bentonite and sand); verification of sensor positions and retrieval of sensors for subsequent

  13. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  14. Učinkovitost uporabe elastičnih lepilnih trakov (kinesio taping): The effectiveness of kinesio taping:

    OpenAIRE

    Zalar, Metka

    2011-01-01

    After the Olympic Games in Beijing in 2008, kinesio taping has spread widely all over the world. This therapeutic procedure is used in combination with other terapeutic procedures in the treatment of various musculosceletal and neuromuscular disorders. The purpose of this article was to examine a variety of studies examining the effectiveness of kinesio taping. The articles were retrieved from scientific journals and web pages. The article reviews 18 studies. Opinions of the authors about the...

  15. Ultrasonic monitoring of material processing using clad buffer rod sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Franca, Demartonne

    Ultrasonic sensors and techniques are developed for in-line monitoring of polymer extrusion, cleanliness of molten metals and liquid flow speed at elevated temperature. Pulse-echo mode is used for the first two processes, while the through-transmission mode is applied in the third one. The ultrasonic probe consists of high performance clad buffer rods with different dimensions to thermally isolate the commercial ultrasonic transducer from materials at high temperature. The clad buffer rods are made of steel, polymer and ceramic. Steel clad buffer rods are introduced for in-line monitoring of polymer extrusion processes. Owing to its superior performance in pulse-echo mode, for the first time such a probe is installed and performs ultrasonic monitoring in the die of a co-extrusion machine and in the barrel section of a twin-screw extruder. It can reveal a variety of information relevant to process parameters, such as polymer layer thickness, interface location and adhesion quality, stability, or polymer composition change. For the ultrasonic monitoring of polymer processes, probes with acoustic impedance that matches that of the processed polymer may offer certain advantages such as quantitative viscoelastic evaluation; thus high temperature polymer clad buffer rods, in particular PEEK, are developed. It is demonstrated that this new probe exhibits unique advantages for in-line monitoring of the cure of epoxies and polymer extrusion process. Long steel clad buffer rods with a spherical focus lens machined at the probing end are proposed for cleanliness evaluation of molten metals. The potential of this focusing probe is demonstrated by means of high-resolution imaging and particles detection in molten zinc at temperatures higher than 600°C, using a single probe operated at pulse-echo mode. A contrapropagating ultrasonic flowmeter employing steel clad buffer rods is devised to operate at high temperature. It is demonstrated that these rods guide ultrasonic signals

  16. Comparison of three buffers used in the formulation of buffered charcoal yeast extract medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelstein, P H; Edelstein, M A

    1993-01-01

    Growth of Legionella spp. on buffered charcoal yeast extract medium supplemented with alpha-ketoglutarate and formulated with 3-(n-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), 3-(n-morpholino)-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic acid (MOPSO), or n-(2-acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (ACES) buffer was similar. With three exceptions, growth was no different in buffered yeast extract broth supplemented with alpha-ketoglutarate and formulated with MOPS or ACES buffer.

  17. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine...

  18. Obituary: Gerald Frederick Tape, 1915-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert E.

    2007-12-01

    Gerald Frederick Tape, a distinguished science statesman and administrator, died on November 20, 2005. Jerry, as he was known to all, took on many diverse and important responsibilities throughout his life and dealt with them with quiet authority and grace. This was the hallmark of his life. The Board of Trustees of Associated Universities, Inc., which he served for many years, expressed this in its condolences, writing "Jerry personified integrity, thoroughness and dedication. His sensitivity for the views of others, his sincerity, his personal commitment, his calm approach and his unfailing good humor were all greatly admired and respected." Jerry was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan on May 29, 1915 but grew up in Milan, a nearby country farm community, and in Ypsilanti where his father was Principal of Michigan State Normal College, which later became Eastern Michigan University (EMU). It was there that he first became interested in physics. It was there also that he met and courted Josephine Waffen, who later would become his wife for more than sixty-six years and fill their lives with three loving sons, Walter, James, and Thomas. Upon graduation from EMU, Jerry was awarded a scholarship that took him to the University of Michigan where he earned a Ph.D. in Physics, researching the decay modes of the radioisotopes of iodine. In the Fall of 1939, during the waning days of the Great Depression, he was offered an Instructorship in the Physics Department of Cornell University, a promising start for a fruitful academic career. He brought his bride Jo to Ithaca and joined the cyclotron group under Robert Bacher and Willy Higginbotham while devising a laboratory course in nuclear techniques for graduate students. Bacher and Higginbotham soon left Cornell to join a new wartime laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and many other colleagues were "drafted" for war work. Bacher persuaded Jerry to join him at the MIT Radiation Laboratory in February

  19. 46 CFR 58.25-45 - Buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buffers. 58.25-45 Section 58.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-45 Buffers. For each vessel on an ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  20. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  1. Shock buffer for nuclear control assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shock buffer is provided for the gradual deceleration of a rapidly descending control element assembly in a nuclear reactor. The interactive buffer components are associated respectively with the movable control element assembly and part of the upper guide structure independent of and spaced from the fuel assemblies of the reactor

  2. Buffer sizing for multi-hop networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-28

    A cumulative buffer may be defined for an interference domain in a wireless mesh network and distributed among nodes in the network to maintain or improve capacity utilization of network resources in the interference domain without increasing packet queuing delay times. When an interference domain having communications links sharing resources in a network is identified, a cumulative buffer size is calculated. The cumulative buffer may be distributed among buffers in each node of the interference domain according to a simple division or according to a cost function taking into account a distance of the communications link from the source and destination. The network may be monitored and the cumulative buffer size recalculated and redistributed when the network conditions change.

  3. Effectiveness of vegetation buffers surrounding playa wetlands at contaminant and sediment amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2016-10-01

    Playa wetlands, the dominant hydrological feature of the semi-arid U.S. High Plains providing critical ecosystem services, are being lost and degraded due to anthropogenic alterations of the short-grass prairie landscape. The primary process contributing to the loss of playas is filling of the wetland through accumulation of soil eroded and transported by precipitation from surrounding cultivated watersheds. We evaluated effectiveness of vegetative buffers surrounding playas in removing metals, nutrients, and dissolved/suspended sediments from precipitation runoff. Storm water runoff was collected at 10-m intervals in three buffer types (native grass, fallow cropland, and Conservation Reserve Program). Buffer type differed in plant composition, but not in maximum percent removal of contaminants. Within the initial 60 m from a cultivated field, vegetation buffers of all types removed >50% of all measured contaminants, including 83% of total suspended solids (TSS) and 58% of total dissolved solids (TDS). Buffers removed an average of 70% of P and 78% of N to reduce nutrients entering the playa. Mean maximum percent removal for metals ranged from 56% of Na to 87% of Cr. Maximum removal was typically at 50 m of buffer width. Measures of TSS were correlated with all measures of metals and nutrients except for N, which was correlated with TDS. Any buffer type with >80% vegetation cover and 30-60 m in width would maximize contaminant removal from precipitation runoff while ensuring that playas would continue to function hydrologically to provide ecosystem services. Watershed management to minimize erosion and creations of vegetation buffers could be economical and effective conservation tools for playa wetlands. PMID:27423768

  4. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  5. Preparation of Y123 superconducting tape by organic acid salt (2); Yukisan'en tofu netsubunkai ho ni yoru Y123 chodendo senzai no sakusei (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-05-29

    A method of forming superconductive film by firing substrate coated organ solution consisting of organic metal compound and organic solvent was investigated. After spin coating of octyl acid salt solution on Ag tape, YBCO film was produced by heat treatment at 920 degrees of centigrade for 10-60 minutes. Three kinds of Ag tapes with different of surface roughness was used, but oriented film in film plane of them could not be obtained. However, oriented YBCO film in film plane could be obtained on (100) substrate of LaAlO{sub 3}. (NEDO)

  6. Characterization of epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-δ films deposited by metal propionate precursor solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YBa2Cu3O7-δ(YBCO) films were deposited with a low-fluorine modified trifluoroacetate metalorganic deposition (TFA-MOD) method on SrTiO3 single crystals and buffered Ni-W metallic tape with a thickness ranging from 450 to 600 nm. The method consists in the substitution of yttrium and copper trifluoroacetates with Cu and Y acetates dispersed in propionic acid. A reduced pyrolysis time with respect to the usual TFA method is obtained. Apart from CuO, no traces of second phases are revealed by x-ray measurements. The films are compact without cracks, and exhibit a slight superficial porosity, but they still remain well connected, and therefore the observed porosity does not affect either the critical current density or the normal state resistivity values, which are indicative of high-quality YBCO films. Moreover, YBCO films were also obtained on Pd-buffered Ni-W, with a CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 buffer layer architecture. These films show good morphological, structural, and superconductive properties with high critical temperature (higher than 91 K) and critical current density higher than 1 MA cm-2 at 77 K in self-field.

  7. Temperature buffer test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report is the final report and a summary of all work performed within the TBT project. The design and the installation of the different components are summarized: the depositions hole, the heating system, the bentonite blocks with emphasis on the initial density and water content in these, the filling of slots with sand or pellets, the retaining construction with the plug, lid and nine anchor cables, the artificial saturation system, and finally the instrumentation. An overview of the operational conditions is presented: the power output from heaters, which was 1,500 W (and also 1,600 W) from each heater during the first {approx}1,700 days, and then changed to 1,000 and 2,000 W, for the upper and lower heater respectively, during the last {approx}600 days. From the start, the bentonite was hydrated with a groundwater from a nearby bore-hole, but this groundwater was replaced with de-ionized water from day {approx}1,500, due to the high flow resistance of the injections points in the filter, which implied that a high filter pressure couldn't be sustained. The sand shield around the upper heater was hydrated from day {approx}1,500 to day {approx}1

  8. Temperature buffer test. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report is the final report and a summary of all work performed within the TBT project. The design and the installation of the different components are summarized: the depositions hole, the heating system, the bentonite blocks with emphasis on the initial density and water content in these, the filling of slots with sand or pellets, the retaining construction with the plug, lid and nine anchor cables, the artificial saturation system, and finally the instrumentation. An overview of the operational conditions is presented: the power output from heaters, which was 1,500 W (and also 1,600 W) from each heater during the first ∼1,700 days, and then changed to 1,000 and 2,000 W, for the upper and lower heater respectively, during the last ∼600 days. From the start, the bentonite was hydrated with a groundwater from a nearby bore-hole, but this groundwater was replaced with de-ionized water from day ∼1,500, due to the high flow resistance of the injections points in the filter, which implied that a high filter pressure couldn't be sustained. The sand shield around the upper heater was hydrated from day ∼1,500 to day ∼1,800. The sensors data concerning

  9. Materials for Heated Head Automated Thermoplastic Tape Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Kinney, Megan C.; Cano, Roberto J.; Grimsley, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is currently pursuing multiple paths to develop out of autoclave (OOA) polymeric composite materials and processes. Polymeric composite materials development includes the synthesis of new and/or modified thermosetting and thermoplastic matrix resins designed for specific OOA processes. OOA processes currently under investigation include vacuum bag only (VBO) prepreg/composite fabrication, resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) and heated head automated thermoplastic tape placement (HHATP). This paper will discuss the NASA Langley HHATP facility and capabilities and recent work on characterizing thermoplastic tape quality and requirements for quality part production. Samples of three distinct versions of APC-2 (AS4/PEEK) thermoplastic dry tape were obtained from two materials vendors, TENCATE, Inc. and CYTEC Engineered Materials** (standard grade and an experimental batch). Random specimens were taken from each of these samples and subjected to photo-microscopy and surface profilometry. The CYTEC standard grade of APC-2 tape had the most voids and splits and the highest surface roughness and/or waviness. Since the APC-2 tape is composed of a thermoplastic matrix, it offers the flexibility of reprocessing to improve quality, and thereby improve final quality of HHATP laminates. Discussions will also include potential research areas and future work that is required to advance the state of the art in the HHATP process for composite fabrication.

  10. Bending strain study of Bi-2223/Ag tapes using Hall sensor magnetometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of room temperature bending on critical current (Ic) of Bi-2223/Ag tapes is studied by Hall sensor magnetometry, four-point method and scanning electron microscopy. Hall sensor magnetometry allows one to assess tape homogeneity and the amount of mechanical damage caused by bending. The microstructure of the Bi-2223 ceramic is found to strongly affect the tape behavior under bending strain. In a tape with moderate Ic = 6.1 A at 77 K and a porous ceramic core, crack propagation took place normal to the Ag-ceramic interface, whereas in tapes with dense core, Ic above 10 A at 77 K, cracks propagated in the tape plane. In monofilamentary tapes core homogeneity correlated with good bending strain performance. In multifilamentary tapes crack propagation between filaments was prohibited by the Ag matrix, thus leading to enhanced strain tolerance. In the high Ic tapes studied, bending to 25 mm radius resulted in 1%--2% Ic degradation

  11. Electrophoretic mobilities of erythrocytes in various buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, L. D.; Kunze, M. E.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The calibration of space flight equipment depends on a source of standard test particles, this test particle of choice is the fixed erythrocyte. Erythrocytes from different species have different electrophoretic mobilities. Electrophoretic mobility depends upon zeta potential, which, in turn depends upon ionic strength. Zeta potential decreases with increasing ionic strength, so cells have high electrophoretic mobility in space electrophoresis buffers than in typical physiological buffers. The electrophoretic mobilities of fixed human, rat, and rabbit erythrocytes in 0.145 M salt and buffers of varying ionic strength, temperature, and composition, to assess the effects of some of the unique combinations used in space buffers were characterized. Several effects were assessed: glycerol or DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) were considered for use as cryoprotectants. The effect of these substances on erythrocyte electrophoretic mobility was examined. The choice of buffer depended upon cell mobility. Primary experiments with kidney cells established the choice of buffer and cryoprotectant. A nonstandard temperature of EPM in the suitable buffer was determined. A loss of ionic strength control occurs in the course of preparing columns for flight, the effects of small increases in ionic strength over the expected low values need to be evaluated.

  12. Numerical analysis of the influence of buffer layer thickness on the residual stresses in YBCO/La2Zr2O7/Ni superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper addresses a numerical investigation of the influence of buffer layer thickness on the residual stress in YBCO/La2Zr2O7/Ni architectured materials under cryogenic conditions by using classical lamination theory (CLT) and finite element method (FEM) for coated conductor applications. YBCO/La2Zr2O7 multilayer films were fabricated on Ni tape substrate using reel-to-reel sol-gel and pulse laser deposition (PLD) systems. The microstructural evolution of high temperature superconducting YBCO film and buffer layers with La2Zr2O7 configuration grown on textured Ni tape substrates was investigated by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thermal stress analysis of YBCO/La2Zr2O7/Ni multilayer sample was performed by using CLT in the temperature range of 298-175 K in liquid helium media. The YBCO/La2Zr2O7/Ni sample strip was solved by using FEM for linear or nonlinear cases in the temperature range of 298-3 K in liquid helium media. SEM observations revealed that crack-free, pinhole-free, continuous superconducting film and buffer layer were obtained by sol-gel and PLD systems. In addition to microstructural observations, it was found that the largest compressive stresses and failure occur in La2Zr2O7 buffer layer due to its smallest thermal expansion coefficient. The thickness of La2Zr2O7 buffer layer affects the failure. The stress component of σ x is the smallest in Ni tape substrate due to its largest thickness

  13. Buffer protection in the installation phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development of the design and construction of the SKB's repository for final disposal of spent reactor fuel is conducted along several paths ('lines'). Issues concerning the bedrock are dealt with in the 'rock line' and those related to buffer and backfill in deposition holes and tunnels are considered in the 'buffer line' and 'backfill line', respectively. These lines also deal with sub-activities that are coupled to several other lines. One of them includes development of techniques for protecting buffer blocks from moisture and water in the installation phase. Techniques and methods for placement and removal of the 'buffer protection sheet' are dealt with in the 'buffer line'. The removal is, however, considered as being part of the backfilling sequence. Since the performance of the sheet is of fundamental importance to the placement and function of the buffer it deserves particular attention. Thus, the removal of the rubber sheet that serves to protect the buffer blocks in the installation phase may be difficult and can cause significant problems that may require retrieval of already placed canister, buffer and backfill. These matters are in focus in the present report. Arrangements for protecting already placed buffer blocks from moist air and water have been tested in earlier large-scale experiments, i.e. the Prototype Repository project at Aespoe but the experience from them has called for more effective protection of the clay blocks as described in the present report. Focus is on the construction of foundation components at the bottom of the deposition holes required for establishing a tight seal between rock and buffer blocks, and on the protection sheet and arrangements for limiting water pressure on it. Special attention is paid to the drainage of the space between rock and protection sheet that is necessary for avoiding failure of the sheet and to systems for achieving this and for providing alarm signals if the allowed pressure is

  14. Surface Water Protection by Productive Buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin

    Vegetated riparian buffer zones are a widely recommended best management practice in agriculture for protecting surface and coastal waters from diffuse nutrient pollution. On the background of the EU funded research project NitroEurope (NEU; www.NitroEurope.eu), this study concentrates...... on the mitigation of nitrogen pollution in surface and groundwater, using riparian buffer zones for biomass production. The objectives are to map suitable areas for buffer implementation across the six NEU study landscapes, model tentative N-loss mitigation, calculate biomass production potential and economic...... designed for local conditions could be a way of protecting water quality attractive to many stakeholders....

  15. Magnetic characterization of multifilamentary BSCCO (2223) - Ag tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twisted and not twisted multifilamentary BSCCO (2223) - Ag tapes, prepared by the PIT technique, have been characterized by SQUID magnetometry with the magnetic field applied both parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis. From these measurements and estimation of the critical current densities Jab with Hext parallel to the c-axis Jab planes and Jc is obtained. These values are in fairly good agreement with those obtained by transport measurements. The tapes turned out to be very homogeneous and practically no difference was found in the hysteresis loops of twisted and not twisted tapes, which suggests that the mean grain alignment is the same in the two types of samples and the current path probably follows the 'brick wall' model

  16. Direct observation of magnetic patterns in audio tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magneto-optical imaging has become a powerful technique for the measurement of local magnetic fields. The technique consists in measuring the rotation in the light polarization plane when light travels through a transparent sensitive garnet (Ytrium Iron Garnet, YIG). The rotation angle is a function of the magnetic field at the YIG location. We have studied commercial audio tapes in which computer generated functions were recorded. We present a study of the stray field of periodically magnetized tapes with square and sawtooth waveforms. Observations are described modeling the magnetized tapes as an array of coaxial circular coils where the current in each coil reproduces the recorded functions. The effect of the magnetic field components, normal and parallel to the YIG surface, is discussed

  17. Experimental Investigations of Woven Textile Tape as Strain Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaian, T.; Naveen, V. S.; Muthukumar, N.; Thilagavathi, G.

    2015-10-01

    In this article, a strain sensitive textile based elastomeric tape sensor has been developed and process parameters for sensor development are optimized. Polyester yarns are used as base threads and rubber threads are used as elastomer for the sensor development. The sensor has been developed with the help of narrow width tape loom by introducing the silver coated nylon yarn in the middle of the tape structure. The influence of weave structure, number of conductive threads and rubber thread tension on sensor development has been optimized by using the Box-Behnken method and the results are analyzed using the Design expert software. From the results, it is found that six numbers of conductive threads in a plain weave structure with rubber thread tension of 750 g is suitable for the sensor to give high gauge factor of 1.626.

  18. Preparation of MgB2 superconducting tapes using electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J. D.; Wang, S. F.; Zhou, Y. B.; Zhou, Y. L.; Chen, Z. H.; Cui, D. F.; Lu, H. B.; He, M.; Dai, S. Y.; Yang, G. Z.

    2002-08-01

    Superconducting MgB2/Ta tapes with a critical temperature of 34 K have been prepared successfully by ex situ annealing of electrophoresis-grown boron in the presence of Mg vapour at 920 °C. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology of the MgB2/Ta tapes, and well-formed MgB2 crystals with sizes up to 2 μm were observed. The x-ray diffraction patterns showed randomly orientated growth of MgB2 phase in the tapes. Estimates using hysteresis loops and the Bean model give a value of 6.8 × 105 A cm-2 for the critical current density.

  19. Folding, stowage, and deployment of viscoelastic tape springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of the folding, stowage, and deployment behavior of viscoelastic tape springs. Experiments show that during folding the relationship between load and displacement is nonlinear and varies with rate and temperature. In particular, the limit and...... propagation loads increase with the folding rate but decrease with temperature. During stowage, relaxation behavior leads to a reduction in internal forces that significantly impacts the subsequent deployment dynamics. The deployment behavior starts with a short, dynamic transient that is followed by a steady...... deployment and ends with a slow creep recovery. Unlike elastic tape springs, localized folds in viscoelastic tape springs do not move during deployment. Finite-element simulations based on a linear viscoelastic constitutive model with an experimentally determined relaxation modulus are shown to accurately...

  20. Stick-slip substructure in rapid tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2010-10-15

    The peeling of adhesive tape is known to proceed with a stick-slip mechanism and produces a characteristic ripping sound. The peeling also produces light and when peeled in a vacuum, even X-rays have been observed, whose emissions are correlated with the slip events. Here we present direct imaging of the detachment zone when Scotch tape is peeled off at high speed from a solid surface, revealing a highly regular substructure, during the slip phase. The typical 4-mm-long slip region has a regular substructure of transverse 220 μm wide slip bands, which fracture sideways at speeds over 300 m/s. The fracture tip emits waves into the detached section of the tape at ∼100 m/s, which promotes the sound, so characteristic of this phenomenon.

  1. Critical Current Measurements in Commercial Tapes, Coils, and Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, D. U.; Soulen, R. J., Jr.; Fuller-Mora, W. W.; Francavilla, T. L.

    1996-03-01

    We have measured a number of tapes, coils, and magnets produced by commercial vendors and determined their properties as functions of magnetic field and temperature. The tapes were measured at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in magnetic fields to 20 tesla and at temperatures of 4.2 K, 27 K, 65 K, and 77 K. For the tapes we report critical currents and current-voltage characteristics. Six inch diameter coils were measured at NRL in zero magnetic field. Critical currents, current-voltage characteristics, and reliability studies are reported for the coils. Larger 10 inch diameter coils, which are to be used in a 200 hp superconducting motor, were also measured and results will be presented. The talk will also review the status of the most recent tests of the superconducting motor.

  2. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szikszai, Z., E-mail: szikszai@atomki.h [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Kertesz, Zs. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Bodnar, E. [Department of Dermatology, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen (Hungary); Major, I. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Borbiro, I. [Abiol Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary); Kiss, A.Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Hunyadi, J. [Department of Dermatology, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2010-06-15

    Ultrafine metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are widely used in cosmetic and health products like sunscreens. These oxides are potent UV filters and the small particle size makes the product more transparent compared to formulations containing coarser particles. In the present work the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin was investigated using nuclear microprobe techniques, such as proton induced X-ray spectroscopy and scanning transmission ion microscopy. Our results indicate that the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide, in a hydrophobic basis gel with 48 h application time, is limited to the stratum corneum layer of the intact skin. Removing the stratum corneum partially or entirely by tape-stripping did not cause the penetration of the particles into the deeper dermal layers; the zinc particles remained on the surface of the skin.

  3. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikszai, Z.; Kertész, Zs.; Bodnár, E.; Major, I.; Borbíró, I.; Kiss, Á. Z.; Hunyadi, J.

    2010-06-01

    Ultrafine metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are widely used in cosmetic and health products like sunscreens. These oxides are potent UV filters and the small particle size makes the product more transparent compared to formulations containing coarser particles. In the present work the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin was investigated using nuclear microprobe techniques, such as proton induced X-ray spectroscopy and scanning transmission ion microscopy. Our results indicate that the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide, in a hydrophobic basis gel with 48 h application time, is limited to the stratum corneum layer of the intact skin. Removing the stratum corneum partially or entirely by tape-stripping did not cause the penetration of the particles into the deeper dermal layers; the zinc particles remained on the surface of the skin.

  4. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafine metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are widely used in cosmetic and health products like sunscreens. These oxides are potent UV filters and the small particle size makes the product more transparent compared to formulations containing coarser particles. In the present work the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin was investigated using nuclear microprobe techniques, such as proton induced X-ray spectroscopy and scanning transmission ion microscopy. Our results indicate that the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide, in a hydrophobic basis gel with 48 h application time, is limited to the stratum corneum layer of the intact skin. Removing the stratum corneum partially or entirely by tape-stripping did not cause the penetration of the particles into the deeper dermal layers; the zinc particles remained on the surface of the skin.

  5. Mirror-Touch and Ticker Tape Perceptions in Synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Anne Chun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia’s connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person’s arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one’s own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker’s mouth. To explore synesthesia’s associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n=3,743 was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1,017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However effect size was small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2 to 4% and sequence-space synesthesia (9 to 14%. Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect

  6. The new CERN tape software - getting ready for total performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, E.; Murray, S.; Kruse, D. F.; Kotlyar, V.; Côme, D.

    2015-12-01

    CASTOR (the CERN Advanced STORage system) is used to store the custodial copy of all of the physics data collected from the CERN experiments, both past and present. CASTOR is a hierarchical storage management system that has a disk-based front-end and a tape-based back-end. The software responsible for controlling the tape back-end has been redesigned and redeveloped over the last year and was put in production at the beginning of 2015. This paper summarises the motives behind the redesign, describes in detail the redevelopment work and concludes with the short and long-term benefits.

  7. Deuton-M Magnetic Tapes and Sheets for Cards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic stripe is one of the major applications of magnetic materials. As a key component of the present card technologies magnetic stripes play reliable components for electronic data interchange in worldwide electronic payment systems such as financial cards, transit tickets and phone cards, etc. Magnetic stripes are available in various coercivity materials, widths, lengths, structures and colors with each types of transferable, lamination and pressure sensitive magnetic tapes of Deuton-M. Manufacturing process, structure and characteristics of Deuton-M magnetic tape and sheet are described.

  8. Inadvertent Eyelid Irritant Contact Dermatitis from Hypoallergenic Surgical Tape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Chuang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoallergenic surgical tapes are generally considered hypoallergic in nature as theircommercial trademarks suggest. However, we report a case of a patient, after receiving therapeuticlaparoscopy, developing symptoms and signs suggestive of not allergic but irritantcontact dermatitis in the recovery room after an uneventful general anesthetic course.Hypoallergenic MicroporeTM Surgical Tape (3MTM Health Care had been applied to each ofthe patient’s eyelids for eye protection. The skin lesions had a strong relation to the use ofcosmetic chemical peeling agents on the patient’s periorbital region.

  9. Engineering Critical Current Density Improvement in Ag- Bi-2223 Tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W. G.; Seifi, Behrouz; Eriksen, Morten; Skov-Hansen, Peder; Grivel, J. -C.; Vase, Per

    Ag alloy sheathed Bi-2223 multifilament tapes were produced by the powder-in-tube method. Engineering critical current density improvement has been achieved through both enhancement of critical current density by control of the thermal behavior of oxide powder and by an increase of the filling...... superconductor composite sustaining large proportional oxide ceramics in the composite during drawing and rolling process. By optimization of the thermal and mechanical process, a Je of 12 kA/cm2 has been achieved in a 0.183.1 mm2 size tape which carried 67 A...

  10. Magneto-optical investigations of multifilamentary Bi-2223 tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koblischka, M.R.; Johansen, T.H.; Larsen, B.H.; Andersen, N.H.; Wu, H.; Skov-Hansen, P.; Bentzon, M.; Vase, P.

    Flux distributions of multifilamentary Bi-2223 tapes with a varying number of filaments (14 to 55 filaments) are investigated by magneto-optic (MO) imaging at various temperatures (10 less than or equal to T less than or equal to 77 K) and in different field orientations (field applied perpendicu......Flux distributions of multifilamentary Bi-2223 tapes with a varying number of filaments (14 to 55 filaments) are investigated by magneto-optic (MO) imaging at various temperatures (10 less than or equal to T less than or equal to 77 K) and in different field orientations (field applied...

  11. The effect of Kinesio Taping on handgrip strength

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, Thiago Vilela; Pereira, Kelice Cristina; Protássio, Carina Celedonio; Lucas, Lorrane Barbosa; Matheus, Joao Paulo C.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was to evaluate the change in muscle function induced by a Kinesio Tape application with no or moderate tension, to the dominant and non-dominant arms. [Subjects and Methods] This research was a quantitative study, in which 75 women participated. The subjects, aged 18–30 years, were divided into 3 groups, Kinesio, Kinesio without Tension, and Control, and they were assessed before the taping intervention and after 30 minutes, 24 hours, and 48 hours of ta...

  12. The new CERN tape software - getting ready for total performance

    CERN Document Server

    Cano, E; Kruse, D F; Kotlyar, V; Côme, D

    2015-01-01

    CASTOR (the CERN Advanced STORage system) is used to store the custodial copy of all of the physics data collected from the CERN experiments, both past and present. CASTOR is a hierarchical storage management system that has a disk-based front-end and a tape-based back-end. The software responsible for controlling the tape back-end has been redesigned and redeveloped over the last year and was put in production at the beginning of 2015. This paper summarises the motives behind the redesign, describes in detail the redevelopment work and concludes with the short and long-term benefits.

  13. Moisture Buffer Value of Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut; Time, Berit;

    2007-01-01

    When building materials are in contact with indoor air they have some effect to moderate the variations of indoor humidity in occupied buildings. But so far there has been a lack of a standardized quantity to characterize the moisture buffering capability of materials. It has been the objective of...... a recent Nordic project to define such a quantity, and to declare it in the form of a NORDTEST method. The Moisture Buffer Value is the figure that has been developed in the project as a way to appraise the moisture buffer effect of materials, and the value is described in the paper. Also explained...... is a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested for determination of their Moisture Buffer Value. Finally, the paper presents some of the results of a Round Robin Test on various typical building materials that has been carried out in the project....

  14. Study on buffering characteristics of hydraulic absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control rod hydraulic drive mechanism (CRHDM) is a new type of in-vessel control rod drive technology. Hydraulic absorber is one of the key parts of control rod hydraulic drive line. It is used to buffer control rod when the rod scrams to prevent the cross-blades of control rod from deformation and damage. Based on the working process of the hydraulic absorber, a theoretical model of the buffering process was established. Calculation results of the theoretical model agree well with the experiment results. The trend of pressure change in absorber cylinder, the displacement and velocity of the piston and buffering force during the buffering process were obtained from the calculation results of the theoretical model. Then influence parameters about cushioning characteristics were analyzed, which laid foundation for optimal design of the hydraulic absorber. (authors)

  15. Marriage a Buffer Against Drinking Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158887.html Marriage a Buffer Against Drinking Problems? Study found protective ... aware of the potentially important protective effects of marriage on alcohol problems, our study puts this observation ...

  16. ARC Filters with Diamond Transistors and Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    T. Dostal

    1998-01-01

    Active RC first and second order filters using diamond transistors (voltage controlled current sources) and voltage diamond buffers (voltage controlled voltage sources) are given in this paper. Circuits are simulated and experimentally compared.

  17. How Might New Neurons Buffer Against Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 99 items) How Might New Neurons Buffer Against Stress? Clues Emerging from Studies in New Porter Neuroscience ... role in the action of antidepressants , resilience to stress , the benefits of exercise and enriched environments , and ...

  18. Moisture buffer capacity of different insulation materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2004-01-01

    lead to more durable constructions. In this paper, a large range of very different thermal insulation materials have been tested in specially constructed laboratory facilities to determine their moisture buffer capacity. Both isothermal and nonisothermal experimental set-ups have been used...... are discussed, and different ways are presented how to determine the moisture buffer capacity of the materials using partly standard material parameters and partly parameters determined from the actual measurements. The results so far show that the determination of moisture buffer capacity is very sensitive...... to the used analysis method and therefore great care has to be taken when comparing results of different experiments. This paper discusses this issue and will come with a recommendation of a simple and consistent way to present the moisture buffer capacity of the materials in contact with the indoor air...

  19. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2010-06-15

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  20. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2006-10-31

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  1. Lucas Heights buffer zone: plan of management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan is being used by the Commission as a guide for its management of the Lucas Heights buffer zone, which is essentially a circular area having a 1-6 km radius around the HIFAR reactor. Aspects covered by this plan include past uses, current use, objectives for buffer zone land management, emergency evacuation, resource conservation, archaeology, fire, access, rehabilitation of disturbed areas, resource management and plan implementation

  2. The Determinants of Capital Buffers in CEECs

    OpenAIRE

    D'Arack, Francesco; Levasseur, Sandrine

    2007-01-01

    Banking capital ratios show a steadily decline in almost Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) since 2001, despite unchanged capital adequacy rules. Using a dynamic panel-analysis based on country-level data for CEECs, we empirically assess the determinants of capital buffers. Main results are as follows. First, there are large and significant adjustment costs in raising capital. Second, banks behave pro-cyclically, depleting their buffers in upturns to benefit from unanticipated inv...

  3. Required buffer capacities in assembly systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Krenczyk

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the realised analysis is the determination of the set of conditions. The fulfilment of those conditions enables the synchronisation of the assembly system work into the steady state. It is necessary to specify the rules controlling the assembly system work. Rhythmic concurrent production with wide assortment in the considered assembly system is realised.Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical roots of the considerations presented in that paper include theory of constraints. The presented approach is consistent with the authority method called Requirements and Possibilities Balance Method (RPBMFindings: Two kinds of system buffers: the entrance buffers and the inter-resources buffers are considered in that paper. The number of buffers elements needed for production during first steady state of the given system has been determined. Mathematical formulas specifying the minimal capacity of the buffers allocated in the assembly system have been outworked.Research limitations/implications: The formulas specifying the minimal buffer capacity constitute the first step towards formulation of the automatic method. That method is designed for the automatic construction of rules controlling the system work during transient phases between two different steady states. The process enables automation of the introduction filling of the system buffers.Practical implications: The presented formulas can become an integrated part of existing authority software. The developed computer system aids the decision-making process connected with production planning and ensures effective utilisation of production resources. Moreover, the formulas correctness during computer simulations has been verified.Originality/value: To develop the formulas specifying the minimal capacity of the system buffers is the main achievement of the given paper. The presented approach permits to solve the problem concerning the synchronisation of the assembly system work

  4. Delamination behaviour in differently copper laminated REBCO coated conductor tapes under transverse loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorospe, Alking [Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, 1375 Kyungdong-Ro, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Engineering, Aurora State College of Technology, Baler Aurora 3200 (Philippines); Nisay, Arman [Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, 1375 Kyungdong-Ro, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyung-Seop, E-mail: hsshin@andong.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, 1375 Kyungdong-Ro, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • I{sub c} degradation behavior under transverse tension loading in different CC tape structure. • Weibull distribution analysis applied on delamination mechanism of CC tape. • Delamination mechanism on CC tapes depending on copper lamination type. • SEM and WDS mapping analysis of delamination sites under transverse loading. - Abstract: Laminated HTS coated conductor (CC) tapes having a unique multi-layer structure made them vulnerable when exposed to transverse loading. Electromechanical transport properties of these CC tapes can be affected by excessive transverse stresses. Due to the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch and incompatibility among constituent materials used in coil applications, delamination among layers occurs and causes critical current, I{sub c} degradation in the CC tapes. In this study, the delamination behaviors in copper (Cu) solder-laminated CC tapes by soldering and surround Cu-stabilized ones by electroplating under transverse tension loading were investigated. Similarly to the surround Cu-stabilized CC tapes in our previous reports, the Cu solder-laminated CC tapes also showed an abrupt and gradual I{sub c} degradation behavior. However, the Cu solder-laminated CC tapes showed different delamination morphologies as compared to the surround Cu-stabilized CC tapes; the superconducting side and the substrate side of the Cu solder laminated CC tapes were totally separated by delamination. On the other hand, the brass laminate did not show any significant effect on the delamination strength when it is added upon the surround Cu-stabilized CC tapes.

  5. Delamination behaviour in differently copper laminated REBCO coated conductor tapes under transverse loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ic degradation behavior under transverse tension loading in different CC tape structure. • Weibull distribution analysis applied on delamination mechanism of CC tape. • Delamination mechanism on CC tapes depending on copper lamination type. • SEM and WDS mapping analysis of delamination sites under transverse loading. - Abstract: Laminated HTS coated conductor (CC) tapes having a unique multi-layer structure made them vulnerable when exposed to transverse loading. Electromechanical transport properties of these CC tapes can be affected by excessive transverse stresses. Due to the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch and incompatibility among constituent materials used in coil applications, delamination among layers occurs and causes critical current, Ic degradation in the CC tapes. In this study, the delamination behaviors in copper (Cu) solder-laminated CC tapes by soldering and surround Cu-stabilized ones by electroplating under transverse tension loading were investigated. Similarly to the surround Cu-stabilized CC tapes in our previous reports, the Cu solder-laminated CC tapes also showed an abrupt and gradual Ic degradation behavior. However, the Cu solder-laminated CC tapes showed different delamination morphologies as compared to the surround Cu-stabilized CC tapes; the superconducting side and the substrate side of the Cu solder laminated CC tapes were totally separated by delamination. On the other hand, the brass laminate did not show any significant effect on the delamination strength when it is added upon the surround Cu-stabilized CC tapes

  6. Buffer regulation of calcium puff sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puffs are localized Ca2+ signals that arise in oocytes in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). They are the result of the liberation of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum through the coordinated opening of IP3 receptor/channels clustered at a functional release site. The presence of buffers that trap Ca2+ provides a mechanism that enriches the spatio–temporal dynamics of cytosolic calcium. The expression of different types of buffers along the cell's life provides a tool with which Ca2+ signals and their responses can be modulated. In this paper we extend the stochastic model of a cluster of IP3R-Ca2+ channels introduced previously to elucidate the effect of buffers on sequences of puffs at the same release site. We obtain analytically the probability laws of the interpuff time and of the number of channels that participate of the puffs. Furthermore, we show that under typical experimental conditions the effect of buffers can be accounted for in terms of a simple inhibiting function. Hence, by exploring different inhibiting functions we are able to study the effect of a variety of buffers on the puff size and interpuff time distributions. We find the somewhat counter-intuitive result that the addition of a fast Ca2+ buffer can increase the average number of channels that participate of a puff. (paper)

  7. Buffer material applying method and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A powdery buffer material which can be solidified under pressure is charged into a disposing hole, an expandable/shrinkable hydraulic bag is inserted to the powdery buffer material, and then highly pressurized water is injected to expand the hydraulic bag and the powdery buffer material is urged to the inner wall surface of the disposing hole by expansion pressure to solidify and form a solid buffer material. Namely, a movable truck main body comprises a means for elevating an elevating plate so as to open/close an opening, an expandable/shrinkable hydraulic bag disposed to the lower surface of the elevating plate and a highly pressurized water-injection means for injecting highly pressurized water into the hydraulic bag. The buffer material is thus manufactured and applied simultaneously by transporting the heavy weighted buffer material in the form of a powder to a site and press-molding it in the disposing hole thereby capable of reducing the time, labor and cost required for transporting operation remarkably. (N.H.)

  8. Inhomogeneity of current distribution in multifilamentary BiSCCO-2223 tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short samples of BiSCCO-2223/Ag-alloy 55-filament tapes have been studied by transport techniques at 77 K. The nominal critical current Ic of the tapes was 40 A (77 K, self-field). By using multiple current and voltage taps on the sample, it was possible to assess the conductor inhomogeneity on a scale of a few millimetres. A scatter of up to 50% in the values of both the critical current Ic and the voltage-current characteristic power law, α, was observed, but with significant correlation between the two. This suggests that the inhomogeneity is caused mainly by cracks in the filaments, which the current has to bypass via the normal metal of the matrix. The effect on the transport properties of superconducting connections between filaments was studied using a simple numerical model. We have developed an experimental protocol for detection of these interconnections and their assessment. The estimated critical current density of the interconnections is an order of magnitude lower than that of the filaments Jc, and the power law of their V(I) characteristic is low. (author)

  9. Low noise buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators for precise time and frequency measurement and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, R. A.; Dachel, P.; Miller, W. H.; Ingold, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Extremely low noise, high performance, wideband buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators were developed. These buffer amplifiers are designed to distribute reference frequencies from 30 KHz to 45 MHz from a hydrogen maser without degrading the hydrogen maser's performance. The buffered phase comparators are designed to intercompare the phase of state of the art hydrogen masers without adding any significant measurement system noise. These devices have a 27 femtosecond phase stability floor and are stable to better than one picosecond for long periods of time. Their temperature coefficient is less than one picosecond per degree C, and they have shown virtually no voltage coefficients.

  10. A Foundation of Programming a Multi-Tape Quantum Turing machine

    OpenAIRE

    Yamakami, Tomoyuki

    1999-01-01

    The notion of quantum Turing machines is a basis of quantum complexity theory. We discuss a general model of multi-tape, multi-head Quantum Turing machines with multi final states that also allow tape heads to stay still.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow in the Tape Casting Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2011-01-01

    The flow behavior of the fluid in the tape casting process is analyzed. A simple geometry is assumed for running the numerical calculations in ANSYS Fluent and the main parameters are expressed in non-dimensional form. The effect of different values for substrate velocity and pressure force on the...

  12. Recent development of an HTS power cable using YBCO tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overcurrent characteristics and reduction of AC loss are essential for high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable in a real grid. AC loss in an HTS conductor using YBCO could be potentially small but protection for overcurrent was needed. A 0.1 mm thick copper tape soldered to the YBCO tape was effective as protection from overcurrent and did not affect the increase in AC loss. The 2 m HTS conductor with Cu strands of 250 mm2 and YBCO tapes with copper was fabricated. This conductor could withstand overcurrent of 31.5 kA for 2 s. To reduce AC loss, 10 mm wide YBCO tapes were divided into five strips using YAG laser. Using narrower strips and decreasing the space between the strips were effective in reducing AC loss. In consideration of this configuration, a three-layer conductor was fabricated, and AC loss of 0.054 W/m at 1 kA rms was achieved even though it had a small outer diameter of 19.6 mm

  13. Kinematics of ankle taping after a training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, M; Alegre, L M; Elvira, J L L; Aguado, X

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to test the effectiveness of ankle taping on the limitation of forced supination during a change of direction, as well as the losses of effectiveness after a 30-minute training session. Fifteen young men with no ankle injury volunteered for the study. The static and dynamic ranges of movement (ROM) were measured before and after a training session. The dynamic measurements were recorded using high-speed 3D photogrammetry. The differences between static and dynamic measures of ankle supination and plantar flexion were significant. The losses of effectiveness during supination and ankle plantar flexion restriction were 42.3 % and 47.6 %, respectively. Ankle taping was effective in restricting the maximal static ROMs before a training session, but the effectiveness decreased after 30 min of training. The present study shows the necessity of performing dynamic ROM analysis of sports techniques involved in the ankle sprain mechanism in order to determine the degree of tape restriction after a training session, because there were differences between static and dynamic ankle ROMs. The lack of effects on the restriction of the dynamic plantar flexion would bring into question the necessity of ankle taping in subjects without previous injuries. PMID:17614032

  14. Extendable nickel complex tapes that reach NIR absorptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audi, Hassib; Chen, Zhongrui; Charaf-Eddin, Azzam; D'Aléo, Anthony; Canard, Gabriel; Jacquemin, Denis; Siri, Olivier

    2014-12-14

    Stepwise synthesis of linear nickel complex oligomer tapes with no need for solid-phase support has been achieved. The control of the length in flat arrays allows a fine-tuning of the absorption properties from the UV to the NIR region. PMID:25348258

  15. Two-tape finite automata with quantum and classical states

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Shenggen; Qiu, Daowen

    2011-01-01

    {\\it Two-way finite automata with quantum and classical states} (2QCFA) were introduced by Ambainis and Watrous, and {\\it two-way two-tape deterministic finite automata} (2TFA) were introduced by Rabin and Scott. In this paper we study 2TFA and propose a new computing model called {\\it two-way two-tape finite automata with quantum and classical states} (2TQCFA). First, we give efficient 2TFA algorithms for recognizing languages which can be recognized by 2QCFA. Second, we give efficient 2TQCFA algorithms to recognize several languages whose status vis-a-vis 2QCFA have been posed as open questions, such as $L_{square}=\\{a^{n}b^{n^{2}}\\mid n\\in \\mathbf{N}\\}$. Third, we show that $\\{a^{n}b^{n^{k}}\\mid n\\in \\mathbf{N}\\}$ can be recognized by {\\it $(k+1)$-tape deterministic finite automata} ($(k+1)$TFA). Finally, we introduce {\\it $k$-tape automata with quantum and classical states} ($k$TQCFA) and prove that $\\{a^{n}b^{n^{k}}\\mid n\\in \\mathbf{N}\\}$ can be recognized by $k$TQCFA.

  16. A Microcomputer Program for Matrix Multiplication Using a Tape Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Ralph Mason

    1976-01-01

    A microcomputer program using a tape unit for multiplying two matrices as large as 41 x 42 apiece is presented. Advantages and limitations are discussed. A verbal description of the logic is presented to facilitate the use of the program on different brands of computers. (Author/JKS)

  17. A Microcomputer Program for ANOVA Using a Tape Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Ralph Mason

    1976-01-01

    A microcomputer program for two-way analysis of variance is described. Both the program and cell entries are stored on tape. Output consists of both intermediate and final products. Advantages and limitations of the program are discussed; the program cannot handle nested or mixed designs. (Author/JKS)

  18. Experiences and challenges running CERN's high capacity tape archive

    CERN Document Server

    Cancio, Germ; Kruse, Daniele Francesco; Leduc, Julien; Cano, Eric; Murray, Steven

    2015-01-01

    CERN's tape-based archive system has collected over 70 Petabytes of data during the first run of the LHC. The Long Shutdown is being used for migrating the complete 100 Petabytes data archive to higher-density tape media. During LHC Run 2, the archive will have to cope with yearly growth rates of up to 40-50 Petabytes. In this contribution, we describe the scalable setup for coping with the storage and long-term archival of such massive data amounts. We also review the challenges resulting and mechanisms devised for measuring and enhancing availability and reliability, as well as ensuring the long-term integrity and bit-level preservation of the complete data repository. The procedures and tools for the proactive and efficient operation of the tape infrastructure are described, including the features developed for automated problem detection, identification and notification. Finally, we present an outlook in terms of future capacity requirements growth and how it matches the expected tape technology evolution...

  19. Experiences and challenges running CERN's high capacity tape archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancio, Germán; Bahyl, Vladimír; Kruse, Daniele Francesco; Leduc, Julien; Cano, Eric; Murray, Steven

    2015-12-01

    CERN's tape-based archive system has collected over 70 Petabytes of data during the first run of the LHC. The Long Shutdown is being used for migrating the complete 100 Petabytes data archive to higher-density tape media. During LHC Run 2, the archive will have to cope with yearly growth rates of up to 40-50 Petabytes. In this contribution, we describe the scalable setup for coping with the storage and long-term archival of such massive data amounts. We also review the challenges resulting and mechanisms devised for measuring and enhancing availability and reliability, as well as ensuring the long-term integrity and bit-level preservation of the complete data repository. The procedures and tools for the proactive and efficient operation of the tape infrastructure are described, including the features developed for automated problem detection, identification and notification. Finally, we present an outlook in terms of future capacity requirements growth and how it matches the expected tape technology evolution.

  20. Heat conduction and thermal stabilization in YBCO tape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ziauddin Khan; Subrata Pradhan; Irfan Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) coated conductors are widely used in the conduction-cooled superconducting magnets with rapid development in refrigeration technologies at present. `Quench’ is a state that refers to the irreversible and uncontrolled superconductor to resistive transitions in the superconductor. The propagation of ‘quench’ or `normal zone’ has different characteristics in these high temperature superconductors (HTS) compared to low temperature superconductors. The superconductor to normal index, known as `’ is much flatter in HTS. The hot spot emerging in local region due to quench and non-uniform critical current may cause permanent damage to whole HTS tape and hence the magnet winding pack. Thus it is necessary to determine the temperature profile along the length of HTS tape under a given energy (joule heating) such that propagation of the hot spot developed locally can be prevented early. In this study, a one dimensional, time dependent heat diffusion equation with appropriate boundary conditions are used to describe the consequences of the normal zone propagation resulting in the temperature diffusion in a HTS tape. The results demonstrate the necessity of adequate cooling of the edges of the flat HTS tapes to prevent irreversible normal zone transitions.

  1. Tape casting and partial melting of Bi-2212 thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To produce Bi-2212 thick films with high critical current densities tape casting and partial melting is a promising fabrication method. Bi-2212 powder and organic additives were mixed into a slurry and tape casted onto glass by the doctor blade tape casting process. The films were cut from the green tape and partially molten on Ag foils during heat treatment. We obtained almost single-phase and well-textured films over the whole thickness of 20 μm. The orientation of the (a,b)-plane of the grains were parallel to the substrate with a misalignment of less than 6 degrees. At 77K/OT a critical current density of 15'000 A/cm2 was reached in films of the dimension 1cm x 2cm x 20μm (1μV/cm criterion, resistively measured). At 4K/OT the highest value was 350'000 A/cm2 (1nV/cm criterion, magnetically measured)

  2. The Taped Monologue as Narrative Technique for Reflective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Keith

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I describe how an EFL teacher engaged in a process of reflective practice. As she looked back on her teaching career, she explored the critical incidents, principles, and practices that have informed her present teaching identity. I focus on how a taped monologue narrative technique was used, and on the rationale, practice, and…

  3. Experimental research on tape spring supported space inflatable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Andrew J.; Walker, Scott J. I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents experimental research that continues the development of inflatable hybrid structures for space applications. Inflatables provide a concept with much scope for further incorporation into the structures of future spacecraft. They offer considerable savings in mass and stowed volume for spacecraft, providing possible reductions in satellite costs. Existing boom configurations make use of inflatables including solar arrays and the NGST sunshield. However these typically soft systems could be improved by incorporating tape springs as structural stiffeners along the length of the boom, creating hybrid structures. This research builds on previous experimental work undertaken at the University of Southampton looking at cantilever inflatable and hybrid booms. The focus of this research is to identify the structural performance improvement of adding tape springs to cantilever inflatable booms. This is achieved by tip deflection testing to determine the bending moment and rigidity performances of these structures allowing a comparison between the two technologies. Several hybrid booms are created and tested in various orientations to identify the optimal tape spring effectiveness. It was found that adding a pair of tape springs will increase stiffness of the hybrid structure by up to 4.9 times for an increase of 2.4 times the boom mass.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF KINESIO TAPING ON PROPRIOCEPTION AT THE ANKLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark DeBeliso

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to determine if KinesioTM taping the anterior and lateral portion of the ankle would enhance ankle proprioception compared to the untaped ankle. 30 subjects, 15 men, 15 women, ages 18-30 participated in this study. Exclusion criteria: Ankle injury < 6 months prior to testing, significant ligament laxity as determined through clinical evaluation by an ATC, or any severe foot abnormality. Experiment utilized a single group, pretest and posttest. Plantar flexion and inversion with 20° of plantar flexion reproduction of joint position sense (RJPS was determined using an ankle RJPS apparatus. Subjects were barefooted, blindfolded, and equipped with headphones playing white noise to eliminate auditory cues. Subjects had five trials in both plantar flexion and inversion with 20° plantar flexion before and after application of the KinesioTM tape to the anterior/lateral portion of the ankle. Constant error and absolute error were determined from the difference between the target angle and the trial angle produced by the subject. The treatment group (KinesioTM taped subjects showed no change in constant and absolute error for ankle RJPS in plantar flexion and 20º of plantar flexion with inversion when compared to the untaped results using the same motions. The application of KinesioTM tape does not appear to enhance proprioception (in terms of RJPS in healthy individuals as determined by our measures of RJPS at the ankle in the motions of plantar flexion and 20º of plantar flexion with inversion.

  5. Influence of technology on magnetic tape storage device characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniewek, John J.; Vogel, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    There are available today many data storage devices that serve the diverse application requirements of the consumer, professional entertainment, and computer data processing industries. Storage technologies include semiconductors, several varieties of optical disk, optical tape, magnetic disk, and many varieties of magnetic tape. In some cases, devices are developed with specific characteristics to meet specification requirements. In other cases, an existing storage device is modified and adapted to a different application. For magnetic tape storage devices, examples of the former case are 3480/3490 and QIC device types developed for the high end and low end segments of the data processing industry respectively, VHS, Beta, and 8 mm formats developed for consumer video applications, and D-1, D-2, D-3 formats developed for professional video applications. Examples of modified and adapted devices include 4 mm, 8 mm, 12.7 mm and 19 mm computer data storage devices derived from consumer and professional audio and video applications. With the conversion of the consumer and professional entertainment industries from analog to digital storage and signal processing, there have been increasing references to the 'convergence' of the computer data processing and entertainment industry technologies. There has yet to be seen, however, any evidence of convergence of data storage device types. There are several reasons for this. The diversity of application requirements results in varying degrees of importance for each of the tape storage characteristics.

  6. Tape casting and partial melting of Bi-2212 thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhl, D.; Lang, T.; Heeb, B. [Nichtmetallische Werkstoffe, Zuerich (Switzerland)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    To produce Bi-2212 thick films with high critical current densities tape casting and partial melting is a promising fabrication method. Bi-2212 powder and organic additives were mixed into a slurry and tape casted onto glass by the doctor blade tape casting process. The films were cut from the green tape and partially molten on Ag foils during heat treatment. We obtained almost single-phase and well-textured films over the whole thickness of 20 {mu}m. The orientation of the (a,b)-plane of the grains were parallel to the substrate with a misalignment of less than 6{degrees}. At 77K/OT a critical current density of 15`000 A/cm{sup 2} was reached in films of the dimension 1cm x 2cm x 20{mu}m (1{mu}V/cm criterion, resistively measured). At 4K/OT the highest value was 350`000 A/cm{sup 2} (1nV/cm criterion, magnetically measured).

  7. Researchers wrangle petabytes of data storage with NAS, tape

    CERN Multimedia

    Pariseau, Beth

    2007-01-01

    "Much is made in the enterprise data storage industry about the performance of disk systems over tape drives, but the managers of one data center that has eached the far limits of capacity say otherwise. Budget and performance demands forced them to build access protocols and data management tools for disk systems from scratch."

  8. Static mechanical properties of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The buffer material is expected to maintain its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. over a long period of time. Natural clay is mentioned as a material that can relatively satisfy above. Among the kinds of natural clay, bentonite when compacted is superior because (i) it has exceptionally low water permeability and properties to control the movement of water in buffer, (ii) it fills void spaces in the buffer and fractures in the host rock as it swells upon water uptake, (iii) it has the ability to exchange cations and to adsorb cationic radioelements. In order to confirm these functions for the purpose of safety assessment, it is necessary to evaluate buffer properties through laboratory tests and engineering-scale tests, and to make assessments based on the ranges in the data obtained. This report describes the procedures, test conditions, results and examinations on the buffer material of unconfined compression tests, one-dimensional consolidation tests, consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests and consolidated-undrained triaxial creep tests that aim at getting hold of static mechanical properties. We can get hold of the relationship between the dry density and tensile stress etc. by Brazilian tests, between the dry density and unconfined compressive strength etc. by unconfined compression tests, between the consolidation stress and void ratio etc. by one-dimensional consolidation tests, the stress pass of each effective confining pressure etc. by consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests and the axial strain rate with time of each axial stress etc. by consolidated-undrained triaxial creep tests. (author)

  9. Characterization of epitaxial YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} films deposited by metal propionate precursor solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armenio, A Angrisani; Augieri, A; Galluzzi, V; Mancini, A; Rufoloni, A; Vannozzi, A; Celentano, G [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati Research Centre, Via Enrico Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Ciontea, L; Petrisor, T [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Strada Constantin Daicoviciu 15, 3400 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Contini, G [Istituto di Struttura della Materia-CNR, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Davoli, I [Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: celentano@frascati.enea.it

    2008-12-15

    YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}(YBCO) films were deposited with a low-fluorine modified trifluoroacetate metalorganic deposition (TFA-MOD) method on SrTiO{sub 3} single crystals and buffered Ni-W metallic tape with a thickness ranging from 450 to 600 nm. The method consists in the substitution of yttrium and copper trifluoroacetates with Cu and Y acetates dispersed in propionic acid. A reduced pyrolysis time with respect to the usual TFA method is obtained. Apart from CuO, no traces of second phases are revealed by x-ray measurements. The films are compact without cracks, and exhibit a slight superficial porosity, but they still remain well connected, and therefore the observed porosity does not affect either the critical current density or the normal state resistivity values, which are indicative of high-quality YBCO films. Moreover, YBCO films were also obtained on Pd-buffered Ni-W, with a CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/CeO{sub 2} buffer layer architecture. These films show good morphological, structural, and superconductive properties with high critical temperature (higher than 91 K) and critical current density higher than 1 MA cm{sup -2} at 77 K in self-field.

  10. A beta test of linear tape-open (LTO) ultrium data storage technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cholia, Shreyas; Meyer, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    NERSC is participating in several HPSS (High Performance Storage System) research and development projects as part of the Probe testbed. One of these projects involved beta testing of the IBM 3584 UltraScalable Tape Library, which uses the new ultra-high-density Linear Tape-Open (LTO) Ultrium tape drives. Ultrium tape cartridges have a capacity of up to 300 GB of compressed data, greatly reducing the number of cartridges needed to store massive scientific datasets. NERSC's preliminary p...

  11. The Therapeutic Effects Of Kinesio Tape on a Grade I Lateral Ankle Sprain

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrick, Carrie Rayette

    2010-01-01

    The Therapeutic Effects OF Kinesioâ ¢ Tape On A Grade I Lateral Ankle Sprain? By Carrie Rayette Hendrick ABSTRACT Ankle taping and bracing are important components in the world of sports medicine and athletic training. There are different types of tape that are used for athletes by athletic trainers. However, little research has compared the performance of Kinesioâ ¢ Tape and an ASO ankle brace on a lateral grade...

  12. Temporary ectropion therapy by adhesive taping: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habermann Anke

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Various surgical procedures are available to correct paralytic ectropion, which are applied in irreversible facial paresis. Problems occur when facial paresis has an unclear prognosis, since surgery of the lower eyelid is usually irreversible. We propose a simple method to correct temporary ectropion in facial palsy by applying an adhesive strip. Patients and methods Ten patients with peripheral facial paresis and paralytic ectropion were treated with an adhesive strip to correct paralytic ectropion. We used "Steri-Strips" (45 × 6.0 mm, which were taped on the carefully cleaned skin of the lower eyelid and of the adjacent zygomatic region until the prognosis of the paresis was clarified. In addition to the examiner's evaluation of the lower lacrimal point in the lacrimal lake, subjective improvement of the symptoms was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS, 1–10. Results 9 patients reported a clear improvement of the symptoms after adhesive taping. There was a clear regression of tearing (VAS (median = 8; 1 = no improvement, 10 = very good improvement, the cosmetic impairment of the adhesive tape was low (VAS (median = 2.5; 1 = no impairment, 10 = severe impairment and most of the patients found the use of the adhesive strip helpful. There was slight reddening of the skin in one case and well tolerated by the facial skin in the other cases. Conclusion The cause and location of facial nerve damage are decisive for the type of surgical therapy. In potentially reversible facial paresis, procedures should be used that are easily performed and above all reversible without complications. Until a reliable prognosis of the paresis can be made, adhesive taping is suited for the temporary treatment of paralytic ectropion. Adhesive taping is simple and can be performed by the patient.

  13. The Variation of Interface Formation with Slurry Viscosity Change in Side-By-Side Tape Casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina; Jabbari, Masoud; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Bahl, Christian

    -bindering and sintering were studied. Solvent and binder concentrations were varied in order to optimize co-casting flow, as well as the drying and sintering shrinkage. Tapes were evaluated in terms of rheological behavior of the slurries, the green and sintered tape microstructure, the quality of the interface...... area, and the mechanical properties of the green tapes...

  14. Back to the Basics Through Teacher-Made Tapes for Primary Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrle, Carl C.

    A simple step-by-step procedure for making individual tapes for primary-school children is outlined. Sample scripts of "Teaching the Letter 'A'", "The Five Little Pigs,""Ears To Hear" and "A Tongue To Taste" are included. Behavioral objectives and materials needed for each tape also are given. Pitfalls in tape construction and methods for making…

  15. Effect of two different kinesio taping techniques on knee kinematics and kinetics in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Senem; Alsancak, Serap; Koz, Mitat

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The application of kinesio taping may improve strength and performance, inhibit and facilitate motor activity, and increase range of motion. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of kinesio taping facilitation and inhibition applications on spatiotemporal knee kinematics and kinetics during walking activity in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] A three-dimensional quantitative gait evaluation was performed without tape and with, facilitation and inhibition kinesio taping application on the knee. Sixteen healthy female college students (age, 19.7 ± 0.4 years; height, 1.64 ± 3.4 cm; body mass, 51.5 ± 4.8 kg) participated in the study. [Results] Spatiotemporal parameters (cadence, walking speed, stride length) were significantly different among the trials. Knee joint sagittal plane range of motion was not different with either kinesio taping application. Knee external flexion moment during the early stance phase decreased significantly with facilitation kinesio taping and increased with the inhibition kinesio taping. Knee external extension moment during the mid-stance phase increased with facilitation kinesio taping. Knee power parameters, eccentric activity in the rectus femoris during the pre-swing phase was significantly increased with inhibition kinesio taping application, while eccentric activity of the hamstrings during the terminal swing of gait was decreased. [Conclusion] These findings showed that facilitation kinesio taping application affected the terminal stance phase and that inhibition kinesio taping influenced the terminal swing phase compared with the no tape condition. PMID:26644651

  16. Transport currents in Bi-2223/Ag tapes made using the tape-in-rectangular tube process, current distribution and Ic stress degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovác, P.; Husek, I.; Melisek, T.; Metz, A.; van Eck, H. J. N.; ten Haken, B.

    2002-04-01

    Using the tape-in-rectangular tube (TIRT) process, we have made multi-core Bi-2223/Ag tapes with various numbers of filaments (10-162), and with different filament architectures and orientations. We have measured the angular dependence of the transport current of the tape samples with 'parallel' and 'perpendicular' filaments. The transversal Ic distribution obtained by spatially resolved transport measurements ('magnetic knife') illustrates that the filament quality of the TIRT tapes is better at the tape edges than in the centre. The tapes were stressed by two types of tensioning set-up (a short straight sample and a U-shaped spring) and by bending at 77 K. The Ic degradation shows different behaviour for parallel and perpendicular filaments, which is attributed to the difference in filament density and crack propagation.

  17. Transport currents in Bi-2223/Ag tapes made using the tape-in-rectangular tube process, current distribution and Ic stress degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the tape-in-rectangular tube (TIRT) process, we have made multi-core Bi-2223/Ag tapes with various numbers of filaments (10-162), and with different filament architectures and orientations. We have measured the angular dependence of the transport current of the tape samples with 'parallel' and 'perpendicular' filaments. The transversal Ic distribution obtained by spatially resolved transport measurements ('magnetic knife') illustrates that the filament quality of the TIRT tapes is better at the tape edges than in the centre. The tapes were stressed by two types of tensioning set-up (a short straight sample and a U-shaped spring) and by bending at 77 K. The Ic degradation shows different behaviour for parallel and perpendicular filaments, which is attributed to the difference in filament density and crack propagation. (author)

  18. Undergraduate Chemistry Students' Perceptions of and Misconceptions about Buffers and Buffer Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, MaryKay; Sutherland, Aynsley

    2008-01-01

    Both upper- and lower-level chemistry students struggle with understanding the concept of buffers and with solving corresponding buffer problems. While it might be reasonable to expect general chemistry students to struggle with this abstract concept, it is surprising that upper-level students in analytical chemistry and biochemistry continue to…

  19. Method and device for electromagnetic pumping by conduction of liquid metals having low electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention is related to a method for pumping of liquid metals having a low electrical conductivity. To lower the resistance of the conductive spire containing liquid metal to be pumped, a tape formed by a conductive metal such as copper or nickel is inserted in that spire. The tape is interrupted at the level of the air gap of the main magnetic circuit at least when the conductive spire passes through that air gap

  20. Buffer construction technique using granular bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffer construction using bentonite pellets as filling material is a promising technology for enhancing the ease of repository operation. In this study, a test of such technology was conducted in a full-scale simulated disposal drift, using a filling system which utilizes a screw conveyor system. The simulated drift, which contained two dummy overpacks, was configured as a half-cross-section model with a height of 2.22 m and a length of 6.0 m. The average dry density of the buffer obtained in the test was 1.29 Mg/m3, with an angle of repose of 35 to 40 degrees. These test results indicate that buffer construction using a screw conveyor system for pellet emplacement in a waste disposal drift is a promising technology for repositories for high level radioactive wastes. (author)

  1. Buffer Overflow Detection on Binary Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yan-fei; LI Hui; CHEN Ke-fei

    2006-01-01

    Most solutions for detecting buffer overflow are based on source code. But the requirement for source code is not always practical especially for business software. A new approach was presented to detect statically the potential buffer overflow vulnerabilities in the binary code of software. The binary code was translated into assembly code without the lose of the information of string operation functions. The feature code abstract graph was constructed to generate more accurate constraint statements, and analyze the assembly code using the method of integer range constraint. After getting the elementary report on suspicious code where buffer overflows possibly happen, the control flow sensitive analysis using program dependence graph was done to decrease the rate of false positive. A prototype was implemented which demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the new approach.

  2. Buffer management optimization strategy for satellite ATM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Rong; Cao Zhigang

    2006-01-01

    ECTD (erroneous cell tail drop), a buffer management optimization strategy is suggested which can improve the utilization of buffer resources in satellite ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) networks. The strategy, in which erroneous cells caused by satellite channel and the following cells that belong to the same PDU (protocol data Unit) are discarded, concerns non-real-time data services that use higher layer protocol for retransmission. Based on EPD (early packet drop) policy, mathematical models are established with and without ECTD. The numerical results show that ECTD would optimize buffer management and improve effective throughput (goodput), and the increment of goodput is relative to the CER (cell error ratio) and the PDU length. The higher their values are, the greater the increment. For example,when the average PDU length values are 30 and 90, the improvement of goodput are respectively about 4% and 10%.

  3. Effect of the Kinesio tape to muscle activity and vertical jump performance in healthy inactive people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Szu-Ching

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elastic taping applied on the triceps surae has been commonly used to improve the performance of lower extremities. However, little objective evidence has been documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of elastic taping on the triceps surae during a maximal vertical jump. It was hypothesized that elastic taping to the triceps surae would increase muscle activity and cause positive effect to jump height. Methods Thirty-one healthy adults (19 males and 12 females with mean age, body weight and height for 25.3 ± 3.8 years old, 64.1 ± 6.2 kg, and 169.4 ± 7.3 cm, respectively were recruited. All participants performed vertical jump tests prior to (without taping and during elastic taping. Two elastic tapes, Kinesio tape and Mplacebo tape from two different manufacturers, were applied to the participants, respectively. Results The results showed that the vertical ground reaction force increased when Kinesio tape was applied even when the height of jump remained about constant. However, the height of the jump decreased, and there was no difference on the vertical ground reaction force in Mplacebo taping group. Although the EMG activity of medial gastrocnemius tended to increase in Kinesio taping group, we did not see differences in EMG activity for the medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and soleus muscles in either group. Conclusions Based on the varied effects of Kinesio tape and Mplacebo tape, different intervention technique was suggested for specific purpose during vertical jump movement. Mplacebo tape was demanded for the benefits of stabilization, protection, and the restriction of motion at the ankle joint. On the other hand, the findings may implicate benefits for medial gastrocnemius muscle strength and push-off force when using Kinesio tape.

  4. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane Vindt, Steffen; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-01-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading to a...... of addition of a buffer to such systems. It is shown that a 56 % higher dynamic storage capacity may be achieved, simply by controlling the buffer capacity of the electrolyte. The model system used, is based on a well-known commercial activated carbon (NORIT™ A SUPRA) as the electrode material...

  5. Buffer of Events as a Markovian Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Particle and Asro-Particle Physics experiments, the events which get trough the detectors are read and processes on-line before they are stored for a more detailed processing and future Physics analysis. Since the events are read and, usually, processed sequentially, the time involved in these operations can lead to a significant lose of events which is, to some extent, reduced by using buffers. We present an estimate of the optimum buffer size and the fraction of events lost for a simple experimental condition which serves as an introductory example to the use of Markow Chains.(Author)

  6. Emplacement of small and large buffer blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes emplacement of a buffer structure encircling a spent fuel canister to be deposited in a vertical hole. The report deals with installability of various size blocks and with an emplacement gear, as well as evaluates the achieved quality of emplacement and the time needed for installing the buffer. Two block assembly of unequal size were chosen for examination. A first option involved small blocks, the use of which resulted in a buffer structure consisting of small sector blocks 200 mm in height. A second option involved large blocks, resulting in a buffer structure which consists of eight blocks. In these tests, the material chosen for both block options was concrete instead of bentonite. The emplacement test was a three-phase process. A first phase included stacking a two meter high buffer structure with small blocks for ensuring the operation of test equipment and blocks. A second phase included installing buffer structures with both block options to a height matching that of a canister-encircling cylindrical component. A third phase included testing also the installability of blocks to be placed above the canister by using small blocks. In emplacement tests, special attention was paid to the installability of blocks as well as to the time required for emplacement. Lifters for both blocks worked well. Due to the mass to be lifted, the lifter for large blocks had a more heavy-duty frame structure (and other lifting gear). The employed lifters were suspended in the tests on a single steel wire rope. Stacking was managed with both block sizes at adequate precision and stacked-up towers were steady. The stacking of large blocks was considerably faster. Therefore it is probably that the overall handling of the large blocks will be more convenient at a final disposal site. From the standpoint of reliability in lifting, the small blocks were safer to install above the canister. In large blocks, there are strict shape-related requirements which are

  7. High-definition tape-to-film transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helt, Francois

    1992-08-01

    With the collaboration of Thomson Broadcast Ex Machina has developed a full digital tape-to-film transfer process. This system accepts as input any European Analog or Digital formats: 1 inch B. T. S. 4xDl. . . It is based on a fully computerized image processing and is fully automated from the loading of the Dl tapes to the 35mm negative output. This process includes spatial and temporal filtering to get full scan 35 mmimage quality. As the input format is 50 fields per second (non-square pixels) and the output format is 24 frames per second (square pixels) the key point was to obtain a good spatial resolution without dynamic artefacts like excessive blur moving images or patterns at vertical edges. Steps of the process are as follows: - Digital copy on four 4:2:2 tapes as necessary - Transfer on computer network - Adaptive filtering by software - Gamma correction and output on 35mmfilm recorder. The processing speed has been improved by controlling four processes in parallel. High Definition tape to film transfer is available right now. The transfer capacity is 30 minutes per week since the end of last year. 1 - PRESENTATION OF THE PROJECT With the collaboration of THOMSON Broadcast Ex Machina has developed a fully digital High Definition tape-to-film transfer process. This sytem is designed to permit transfer on 35mm film of productions made with the European High Definition Standard. As a computer graphics production company Ex Machina has been producing sequences on various media including digital video high definition video 35 mm film and has finished recently a 3 mn film on 70 mm IMAX format. Two ongoing projects use this same standard with one having been designed for stereoscopic projection. Building on this expertise Ex Machina proposed to realize a tape to film transfer system for the European Economic Interest Grouping (EIIG) Vision 1250 in co-operation with another european organisation Eureka 95. For the development of such a system the company

  8. A software package to process an INIS magnetic tape on the VAX computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a software package whose function is to process the magnetic tapes distributed by the Atomic Energy Agency, on the VAX computers. These tapes contain abstracts of papers in the different branches of nuclear field and is supplied from the international Nuclear Information system (INIS). Two goals are aimed from this paper. First it gives a procedure to process any foreign magnetic tape on the VAX computers. Second, it solves the problem of reading the INIS tapes on a non IBM computer and thus allowing the specialists to gain from the large amount of information contained in these tapes. 11 fig

  9. On the Complexity of Buffer Allocation in Message Passing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brodsky, Alex; Pedersen, Jan B.; Wagner, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Message passing programs commonly use buffers to avoid unnecessary synchronizations and to improve performance by overlapping communication with computation. Unfortunately, using buffers makes the program no longer portable, potentially unable to complete on systems without a sufficient number of buffers. Effective buffer use entails that the minimum number needed for a safe execution be allocated. We explore a variety of problems related to buffer allocation for safe and efficient execution ...

  10. The effect of high-pressure processing on unsealed Bi-2223/Ag tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. C.; Qu, T.-M.; Zhao, L.; Li, P.; Han, Z.

    2007-10-01

    High-pressure (HP) processing of Ag-sheathed Bi2Si2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) tape was investigated. In Bi-2223/Ag tapes, the outer Ag sheath might act as a sealing barrier against the penetration of the high-pressure atmosphere. In this work, short tapes after final heat treatment (FHT) were not sealed hermetically with Ag foil when HP processing was applied. The results show that the average thickness of tapes after HP processing is 2.5% lower than that of FHT tapes. However, the critical current Ic for tapes is not improved by HP processing. There are still many cracks and porosity in the superconducting core and coarse superconducting filaments are sometimes observed in transverse cross section of HP processed tapes.

  11. The effect of high-pressure processing on unsealed Bi-2223/Ag tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-pressure (HP) processing of Ag-sheathed Bi2Si2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) tape was investigated. In Bi-2223/Ag tapes, the outer Ag sheath might act as a sealing barrier against the penetration of the high-pressure atmosphere. In this work, short tapes after final heat treatment (FHT) were not sealed hermetically with Ag foil when HP processing was applied. The results show that the average thickness of tapes after HP processing is 2.5% lower than that of FHT tapes. However, the critical current Ic for tapes is not improved by HP processing. There are still many cracks and porosity in the superconducting core and coarse superconducting filaments are sometimes observed in transverse cross section of HP processed tapes

  12. ROLE OF LOW DYE TAPING FOR SHORT TERM TREATMENT OF PLANTAR FASCIITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of foot discomfort. Different treatment modalities exist for its treatment. Low dye taping is often used in conjunction with other treatment options. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Purpose of the study was to evaluate therapeutic effect of low dye taping in plantar fasciitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this prospective study, 56 patients were included. Low dye taping applied for one week. First step pain (Measured on VAS scale and Foot Health Status Questionnaire domain of foot pain, foot function and general foot health were used to evaluate the patient prior to taping and after one week of low dye taping. RESULT Patient treated with low dye taping reported significant improvement in first step pain and Foot Health Questionnaires Score after one week of treatment. Five patients experienced an adverse event. CONCLUSION Low dye taping is effective in short term basis.

  13. STS-103 Mission Highlights Resource Tape (2 of 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-103 flight crew, Commander Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Scott J. Kelly, Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale, John M. Grunsfeld, Claude Nicollier, and Jean-Francois Clervoy, are seen passing over the Yucatan and Florida Peninsulas. Smith and Grunsfeld replace and change the S-band single transmission cables during the third and final space walk of this mission. Crewmembers are also seen taking video documentation of the solar arrays. Footage presented includes the release of the Hubble Space Telescope, thruster firing and orbit adjust burn over the Central Indian Ocean and Australia. Also shown is the night landing of Discovery at Kennedy Space Center, crew departure from the vehicle, and short statements made by the crew. This is tape 2 of 2; tape 1 has a report number of NONP-NASA-VT-2000036030.

  14. Multi-measuring tape-recording systems with statistical equalizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One likely way of increasing the number of channels of multi-measuring recording systems is the multi-track recording on magnetic tape of information presented in binary form. A 25-track recording system is briefly described and the fundamental technical characteristics and potentialities of such systems are indicated. A special feature of the recording system described is the use of an ''equalizing unit'', with which one can obtain a uniform tape recording of input pulses with a statistical time distribution. The main circuit of the equalizing system is given, and a means of determining its required capacity for a different spectrum shape described. The question of extracting data from multi-measuring systems is discussed. (author)

  15. Kinesthetic taping improves walking function in patients with stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeskov, Birgitte; Carver, Line Tornehøj; von Essen-Leise, Anders; Henriksen, Marius

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is an important cause of severe disability and impaired motor function. Treatment modalities that improve motor function in patients with stroke are needed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of kinesthetic taping of the anterior thigh and knee on maximal...... walking speed and clinical indices of spasticity in patients with stroke. METHODS: Thirty-two patients (9 women) receiving rehabilitation after stroke (average, 50 days since stroke) who had impaired walking ability were recruited. Primary outcome was maximal walking speed measured by the 10-meter walk......, although a trend was observed indicating a lesser degree of spasticity. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that kinesthetic taping of the anterior thigh and knee provides an immediate improvement in walking function in patients with stroke. Such a positive effect on motor function could be a...

  16. An Improvement in Thermal Modelling of Automated Tape Placement Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoplastic tape placement process offers the possibility of manufacturing large laminated composite parts with all kinds of geometries (double curved i.e.). This process is based on the fusion bonding of a thermoplastic tape on a substrate. It has received a growing interest during last years because of its non autoclave abilities.In order to control and optimize the quality of the manufactured part, we need to predict the temperature field throughout the processing of the laminate. In this work, we focus on a thermal modeling of this process which takes in account the imperfect bonding existing between the different layers of the substrate by introducing thermal contact resistance in the model. This study is leaning on experimental results which inform us that the value of the thermal resistance evolves with temperature and pressure applied on the material.

  17. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindt, Steffen T.; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-02-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading to a change in the redox potential of water in opposite directions on the two electrodes, resulting in the wider stability window. The magnitude of this effect is suggested to be dependent on the buffer capacity, rather than the intrinsic pH value of the electrolyte. This is confirmed by studying the impact of addition of a buffer to such systems. It is shown that a 56 % higher dynamic storage capacity may be achieved, simply by controlling the buffer capacity of the electrolyte. The model system used, is based on a well-known commercial activated carbon (NORIT™ A SUPRA) as the electrode material, aqueous potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system.

  18. A Discovery Chemistry Experiment on Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulevich, Suzanne E.; Herrick, Richard S.; Mills, Kenneth V.

    2014-01-01

    The Holy Cross Chemistry Department has designed and implemented an experiment on buffers as part of our Discovery Chemistry curriculum. The pedagogical philosophy of Discovery Chemistry is to make the laboratory the focal point of learning for students in their first two years of undergraduate instruction. We first pose questions in prelaboratory…

  19. Buffer gas cooling of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cooling action of a buffer gas on ions contained within it can be used to cool an ion beam, thereby greatly improving its emittance and energy spread. It can also be used to greatly enhance the collection of an ion beam in an electromagnetic trap. The basic principles will be introduced in the context of a prototype system for such a beam cooler

  20. Analysis and Study of Buffer Overflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Sidong; Zen TaoYu; Yongquan

    2009-01-01

    Buffer overflow attack is one of the most threatening attack types and it jeopardizes security a lot. According to the principle of the attack, this paper demonstrates how it works, and emphasizes the importance of writing code that does not permit such attacks.

  1. Regulatory fit buffers against disidentification from groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamstra, Melvyn R.W.; Sassenberg, Kai; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric F.

    2015-01-01

    Disidentification refers to people’s active psychological distancing from a group due to a negative self-defining affiliation with the group. Because disidentification can threaten group survival and group functioning, it is important to gain insight into factors that potentially buffer its occurren

  2. Multiscale Stick-Slip Dynamics of Adhesive Tape Peeling

    OpenAIRE

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Ciccotti, Matteo; Vanel, Loic; Santucci, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    Using a high-speed camera, we follow the propagation of the detachment front during the peeling of an adhesive tape from a flat surface. In a given range of peeling velocity, this front displays a multiscale unstable dynamics, entangling two well-separated spatiotemporal scales, which correspond to microscopic and macroscopic dynamical stick-slip instabilities. While the periodic release of the stretch energy of the whole peeled ribbon drives the classical macro-stick-slip, we show that the m...

  3. Rate Dependent Adhesion Energy and Nonsteady Peeling of Inextensible Tapes

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalchik, Christopher; Molinari, Alain; Ravichandran, Guruswami

    2014-01-01

    Elastomer based pressure sensitive adhesives used in various peeling applications are viscoelastic and expected to be rate sensitive. The effects of varying peel velocity on adhesion energy and its dependence on the peel angle and rate of peeling are investigated. Experiments are conducted on an adhesive tape using a displacement-controlled peel test configuration. By adjusting the peel arm length, the peel velocity can be continuously varied though the extremity of the film is displaced at a...

  4. THE EFFECT OF FUNCTIONAL FASCIAL TAPING ON MORTON'S NEUROMA

    OpenAIRE

    Spina, Rita; Cameron, Melainie; Alexander, Ron

    2002-01-01

    Objective and Background: Morton’s neuroma is essentially a benign tumor in the foot, which may cause extreme pain and disability. Both conservative and surgical modalities have been used, but as yet, neither has been successful in resolving the condition. This report introduces Functional Fascial Taping (FFT) developed by Alexander, as a new treatment regime and examines its effectiveness in the management of Morton’s neuroma. Discussion: Functional Foot Index (FFI) was used to assess the ef...

  5. The Effects of Kinesio™ Taping on Proprioception at the Ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Mark DeBeliso; Ross Vaughn; Jeff Lien; McChesney, John W.; Travis Halseth

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was designed to determine if KinesioTM taping the anterior and lateral portion of the ankle would enhance ankle proprioception compared to the untaped ankle. 30 subjects, 15 men, 15 women, ages 18-30 participated in this study. Exclusion criteria: Ankle injury < 6 months prior to testing, significant ligament laxity as determined through clinical evaluation by an ATC, or any severe foot abnormality. Experiment utilized a single group, pretest and posttest. Plantar flexion and in...

  6. Kinesio taping effect on biceps brachii muscle strength

    OpenAIRE

    Králová Dagmar; Novotný Jan; Řezaninová Jana

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed at presenting the idea of inventor Dr. Kenzo Kase that kinesio tape application with proximal base leads to muscle contraction facilitation and application with distal base leads to muscle contraction inhibition. Twenty male volleyball players with the dominant shoulder girdle muscle imbalance between the ages of 25 and 30 participated in this study. There were compared two techniques which were placed on biceps brachii muscle in shoulder and elbow joint extension. Isokinetic ...

  7. Tape casting of cobalt ferrite from nonaqueous slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, Gang, E-mail: jiangang456@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); MOE Engineering Research Center for Information Functional Ceramics, Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhou, Dongxiang, E-mail: dxzhou@mail.hust.edu.cn [MOE Engineering Research Center for Information Functional Ceramics, Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang, Junyou [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Fu, Qiuyun [MOE Engineering Research Center for Information Functional Ceramics, Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-12-15

    This paper describes the fabrication of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thick films using the tape casting method from nonaqueous slurry. CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles with average size of {approx}800 nm were prepared by the solid-state reaction method. Sediment volumes and viscosity were tested to study the effects of dispersant in reducing aggregations in slurry. Slurry with 0.25 wt% dispersant amounts and 41.3 wt% solid content showed the optimal stability and rheological properties. A tape velocity of 8 cm/s was used in this study considering the non-Newtonian flow behavior at low shear rate. CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramic films sintered at 1150 Degree-Sign C for 2 h have dense structure (relative density of 94%) and exhibited ferromagnetic properties with in-plane saturation magnetization of {approx}324 emu/cm{sup 3}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thick films were fabricated by the nonaqueous tape casting method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slurry with 0.25 wt% dispersant amounts and 41.3 wt% solid content showed the optimal stability and rheological properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cold isostatic pressed CIP treatment enhanced the structure of green tapes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramic films sintered at 1150 Degree-Sign C for 2 h exhibited optimal structure and properties.

  8. External reinforcing of fiber concrete constructions by carbon fiber tapes

    OpenAIRE

    S.V. Klyuyev; Yu.V. Guryanov

    2013-01-01

    Strengthening the concrete and reinforced concrete structures with carbon fiber tapes is very actively applied in Europe nowadays. In Russia composites based on carbon fiber have also widely spread recently. The main advantages of these materials for strengthening structures are its high specific strength (strength-weight ratio) and strength-to-density ratio.Experimental studies on strengthening and restoration of the constructions were held. Flexible fiber concrete constructions based on man...

  9. Reactive-Transport Model of Buffer Cementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Randy; Wei Zhou [Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Thermal gradients during the early, non-isothermal period of near-field evolution in a KBS-3 repository for spent nuclear fuel could alter the mineralogy of the bentonite buffer and cause the constituent clay particles to become cemented together by mineral precipitates. Cementation is a potential concern because it could alter the ductility, mechanical strength and swelling pressure of the buffer, thereby possibly adversely affecting the primary performance function of this key barrier to provide a stable diffusional transport pathway between the canister and rock. The present study uses the TOUGHREACT computer program to simulate reactive-transport processes that are thought to control buffer cementation. TOUGHREACT is generally applicable to problems involving non-isothermal, multiphase reactive transport in variably saturated media. For cementation problems, the modeling approach must account specifically for the temperature dependence of equilibrium and kinetic constraints on dissolution/precipitation reactions involving the primary smectite clays and accessory phases in bentonite, and for diffusive transport of aqueous reactants and products along concentration gradients that are aligned with, or in opposition to, the direction of decreasing temperatures across the near field. The modeling approach was evaluated in two stages. A conceptual model of buffer cementation was first calibrated using observations from field tests carried out at the Stripa mine and Aespoe HRL (LOT pilot experiments). The calibrated model was then used to simulate the geochemical evolution of the KBS-3 buffer during the non-isothermal period of repository evolution. This model accounts for the imbibition of groundwater from a granitic host rock into initially unsaturated buffer materials under capillary and hydraulic pressure gradients, and uses realistic time-temperature constraints on the thermal evolution of the near-field. Preliminary results suggest that the total extent of

  10. Reactive-Transport Model of Buffer Cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal gradients during the early, non-isothermal period of near-field evolution in a KBS-3 repository for spent nuclear fuel could alter the mineralogy of the bentonite buffer and cause the constituent clay particles to become cemented together by mineral precipitates. Cementation is a potential concern because it could alter the ductility, mechanical strength and swelling pressure of the buffer, thereby possibly adversely affecting the primary performance function of this key barrier to provide a stable diffusional transport pathway between the canister and rock. The present study uses the TOUGHREACT computer program to simulate reactive-transport processes that are thought to control buffer cementation. TOUGHREACT is generally applicable to problems involving non-isothermal, multiphase reactive transport in variably saturated media. For cementation problems, the modeling approach must account specifically for the temperature dependence of equilibrium and kinetic constraints on dissolution/precipitation reactions involving the primary smectite clays and accessory phases in bentonite, and for diffusive transport of aqueous reactants and products along concentration gradients that are aligned with, or in opposition to, the direction of decreasing temperatures across the near field. The modeling approach was evaluated in two stages. A conceptual model of buffer cementation was first calibrated using observations from field tests carried out at the Stripa mine and Aespoe HRL (LOT pilot experiments). The calibrated model was then used to simulate the geochemical evolution of the KBS-3 buffer during the non-isothermal period of repository evolution. This model accounts for the imbibition of groundwater from a granitic host rock into initially unsaturated buffer materials under capillary and hydraulic pressure gradients, and uses realistic time-temperature constraints on the thermal evolution of the near-field. Preliminary results suggest that the total extent of

  11. Electromechanical characterization of superconducting wires and tapes at 77 K

    CERN Document Server

    Bjoerstad, Roger

    The strain dependency of the critical current in state-of-the-art cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTS) has been characterized. A universal test machine (UTM) combined with a critical current measurement system has been used to characterize the mechanical and the superconducting properties of conductors immersed in an open liquid nitrogen dewar. A set-up has been developed in order to perform simultaneous measurements of the superconductor lattice parameter changes, critical current, as well as the stress and strain at 77 K in self-field in a high energy synchrotron beamline. The HTS tapes and wires studied were based on YBCO, Bi-2223 and Bi-2212. The YBCO tapes were produced by SuperPower and American Superconductors (AMSC). Two types of Bi-2223 tapes, HT and G, were produced by Sumitomo Electric Industries (SEI). The Bi-2212 wires were produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) using Nexans granulate precursor, before undergoing a specialized over pressure (OP) processing and heat treatmen...

  12. Empirically Bounding of Space Booms with Tape Spring Hinges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Jennings

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-deploying structures seek to provide a compact launch package for large, lightweight satellite booms. One self-deploying method is a foldable tape spring. This paper examines the large scale behavior of a boom attached by a tape spring hinge during mock deployments. A boom attached by tape spring to a rigid stand was released and the boom bounced up to 60° before coming to rest (as opposed to snap-through behavior. These large amplitude bounces can cause the boom to collide with sensors, other booms or arrays causing damage or preventing full deployment. Results show the first bounce of deployment is nearly bounded by a four parameter ellipse. The ellipses of similar folds are similar also, suggesting that a model can be developed. Free-fall tests simulating the free-free condition found in microgravity also show similar elliptical motion. Envelopes that bound the extents of the boom motion allow for collisions to be prevented by adjustment of the design.

  13. 'Twisted tape sign': Its significance in recurrent sigmoid volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Sigmoid volvulus is a common cause of intestinal obstruction in the elderly. Mild attacks of sigmoid volvulus may be more difficult to diagnose due to the lack of severity of symptoms which may resolve spontaneously only to recur after an interval. This study was a review of patients to assess the incidence of the 'twisted tape sign' and to evaluate the significance of its presence in cases of recurrent sigmoid volvulus. Methods and materials: A retrospective study over eight years revealed six cases of surgically confirmed recurrent sigmoid volvulus. Case records and barium enemas of all patients were reviewed. Results: Six patients were identified, including four men and two women, with a median age of 56 years. Diagnostic difficulties were encountered in four (67%) patients with a delay ranging between 10 and 37 months with a mean 17.3 months. Twisted tape sign was confirmed on all barium examinations retrospectively. Conclusion: Recognition of twisted tape sign on barium enema examination along with an appropriate clinical history would suggest a diagnosis of recurrent sigmoid volvulus

  14. Joining ceramics to metals using metallic foam

    OpenAIRE

    Shirzadi, A. A.; Zhu, Y.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2008-01-01

    A general method for brazing ceramics to metals using a compliant metallic foam as a buffer layer has been developed. Using stainless steel foams, bonds between alumina and 316 stainless steel with shear strengths up to 33 MPa have been achieved. The resultant ductility enhances the resistance of the joint to thermal cycling; AlN-Inconel 600 bonds exhibited good thermal shock resistance. Alumina - stainless steel bonds withstood more that 60 thermal cycles between 200 and 800°C in air.

  15. Digital Linear Tape (DLT) technology and product family overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignos, Demetrios

    1994-01-01

    The demand that began a couple of years ago for increased data storage capacity continues. Peripheral Strategies (a Santa Barbara, California, Storage Market Research Firm) projects the amount of data stored on the average enterprise network will grow by 50 percent to 100 percent per year. Furthermore, Peripheral Strategies says that a typical mid-range workstation system containing 30GB to 50GB of storage today will grow at the rate of 50 percent per year. Dan Friedlander, a Boulder, Colorado-based consultant specializing in PC-LAN backup, says, 'The average NetWare LAN is about 8GB, but there are many that have 30GB to 300GB.....' The substantial growth of storage requirements has created various tape technologies that seek to satisfy the needs of today's and, especially, the next generations's systems and applications. There are five leading tape technologies in the market today: QIC (Quarter Inch Cartridge), IBM 3480/90, 8mm, DAT (Digital Audio Tape) and DLT (Digital Linear Tape). Product performance specifications and user needs have combined to classify these technologies into low-end, mid-range, and high-end systems applications. Although the manufacturers may try to position their products differently, product specifications and market requirements have determined that QIC and DAT are primarily low-end systems products while 8mm and DLT are competing for mid-range systems applications and the high-end systems space, where IBM compatibility is not required. The 3480/90 products seem to be used primarily in the IBM market, for interchangeability purposes. There are advantages and disadvantages for each of the tape technologies in the market today. We believe that DLT technology offers a significant number of very important features and specifications that make it extremely attractive for most current as well as emerging new applications, such as Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM). This paper will demonstrate why we think that the DLT technology and family

  16. Influence of intermediate-temperature buffer layer on flicker noise characteristics of MBE-grown GaN thin films and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallium nitride epitaxial layers were grown by rf-plasma MBE on different buffer layer structures. Type I buffer layer consists of a conventional AlN high-temperature buffer layer (HTBL). Type II buffer layer consists of a GaN intermediate-temperature buffer layer (ITBL) grown on top an AlN HTBL. Measurement of flicker noise in metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures on type II buffer layers exhibited close to two orders of magnitude reduction in the noise level compared to those fabricated on type I buffer structures. This shows that GaN thin films grown with the use of ITBL have significantly lower number of interface traps at the metal-semiconductor interface, which is attributed to be the main cause of the observed improvements in the optical properties of the devices. We also performed systematic studies on hot-electron degradation of the devices through the application of a large voltage bias. The data demonstrate substantial improvement in the hot-electron hardness for devices fabricated on type II buffer layer structures

  17. Power-Gating Technique for Network-on-Chip Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Zamboni, Maurizio; Yadav, Manoj Kumar; Casu, Mario Roberto

    2013-01-01

    A new approach to reducing leakage power in network-on-chip buffers is presented. The non-uniformity of buffer utilisation is leveraged across the network and power-gating is applied to scarcely utilised buffers. Instead of turning-off the buffers completely, a buffer portion is kept turned-on. This design choice has a significant performance benefit because the buffer is always able to receive network packets. Design aspects and trade-offs in a 45 nm CMOS technology are discussed and results...

  18. Effective thickness of CeO2 buffer layer for YBCO coated conductor by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YBCO films were fabricated on PLD-CeO2/IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy substrates using the advanced TFA-MOD process. The effective thickness of the CeO2 buffer layer for obtaining high Ic was investigated in short samples of YBCO films. The CeO2 buffer layer was epitaxially grown on an IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7 template tape with 18 deg. of Δφ by a reel-to-reel PLD system. The in-plane grain alignment of PLD-CeO2 buffer layers rapidly improved with the thickness and saturated at a critical thickness of 0.8 μm. The size of CeO2 grains was about 1 μm at the saturated thickness of Δφ. YBCO films with the thickness of 1 μm were deposited by the TFA-MOD on the CeO2 buffer layer with different thickness films. Improvement of the CeO2 in-plane grain alignment resulted in increase of Ic. The Ic values of 250-290 A were obtained with the CeO2 layer thicker than 0.8 μm. The CeO2 thickness, at which the intensity ratio of the BaCeO3 was saturated, corresponded to the critical thickness. From the view points of achieving higher production rates and to obtain the CeO2 Δφ value of 5 deg. as well as considering the reaction between YBCO and CeO2, the optimum thickness of the CeO2 buffer layer on the IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7 with 18 deg. of Δφ was found to be at least 0.8 μm

  19. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  20. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  1. Microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratto, M.; Itavaara, M.

    2012-07-01

    The proposed disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes involves storing the wastes underground in copper-iron containers embedded in buffer material of compacted bentonite. Hydrogen sulphide production by sulphate-reducing prokaryotes is a potential mechanism that could cause corrosion of waste containers in repository conditions. The prevailing conditions in compacted bentonite buffer will be harsh. The swelling pressure is 7-8 MPa, the amount of free water is low and the average pore and pore throat diameters are small. This literature study aims to assess the potential of microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature on the environmental limits of microbial life in extreme conditions and the occurrence of sulphatereducing prokaryotes in extreme environments is reviewed briefly and the results of published studies characterizing microbes and microbial processes in repository conditions or in relevant subsurface environments are presented. The presence of bacteria, including SRBs, has been confirmed in deep groundwater and bentonite-based materials. Sulphate reducers have been detected in various high-pressure environments, and sulphate-reduction based on hydrogen as an energy source is considered a major microbial process in deep subsurface environments. In bentonite, microbial activity is strongly suppressed, mainly due to the low amount of free water and small pores, which limit the transport of microbes and nutrients. Spore-forming bacteria have been shown to survive in compacted bentonite as dormant spores, and they are able to resume a metabolically active state after decompaction. Thus, microbial sulphide production may increase in repository conditions if the dry density of the bentonite buffer is locally reduced. (orig.)

  2. Social buffering: relief from stress and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Kikusui, Takefumi; Winslow, James T.; Mori, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Communication is essential to members of a society not only for the expression of personal information, but also for the protection from environmental threats. Highly social mammals have a distinct characteristic: when conspecific animals are together, they show a better recovery from experiences of distress. This phenomenon, termed ‘social buffering’, has been found in rodents, birds, non-human primates and also in humans. This paper reviews classical findings on social buffering and focuses...

  3. Microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes involves storing the wastes underground in copper-iron containers embedded in buffer material of compacted bentonite. Hydrogen sulphide production by sulphate-reducing prokaryotes is a potential mechanism that could cause corrosion of waste containers in repository conditions. The prevailing conditions in compacted bentonite buffer will be harsh. The swelling pressure is 7-8 MPa, the amount of free water is low and the average pore and pore throat diameters are small. This literature study aims to assess the potential of microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature on the environmental limits of microbial life in extreme conditions and the occurrence of sulphatereducing prokaryotes in extreme environments is reviewed briefly and the results of published studies characterizing microbes and microbial processes in repository conditions or in relevant subsurface environments are presented. The presence of bacteria, including SRBs, has been confirmed in deep groundwater and bentonite-based materials. Sulphate reducers have been detected in various high-pressure environments, and sulphate-reduction based on hydrogen as an energy source is considered a major microbial process in deep subsurface environments. In bentonite, microbial activity is strongly suppressed, mainly due to the low amount of free water and small pores, which limit the transport of microbes and nutrients. Spore-forming bacteria have been shown to survive in compacted bentonite as dormant spores, and they are able to resume a metabolically active state after decompaction. Thus, microbial sulphide production may increase in repository conditions if the dry density of the bentonite buffer is locally reduced. (orig.)

  4. Predicted metal binding sites for phytoremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Ashok; Roy, Sudeep; Tripathi, Kumar Parijat; Roy, Pratibha; Mishra, Manoj; Khan, Feroz; Meena, Abha

    2009-01-01

    Metal ion binding domains are found in proteins that mediate transport, buffering or detoxification of metal ions. The objective of the study is to design and analyze metal binding motifs against the genes involved in phytoremediation. This is being done on the basis of certain pre-requisite amino-acid residues known to bind metal ions/metal complexes in medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP's). Earlier work on MAP's have shown that heavy metals accumulated by aromatic and medicinal plants do no...

  5. AC loss in stacks of Bi-2223/Ag tapes modified with ferromagnetic covers at the edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safran, S; Goemoery, F [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 842 39 Bratislava (Slovakia); Gencer, Ali [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara University, Tandogan, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    We investigated the magnetization loss of stacked Bi-2223/Ag tapes with a ferromagnetic cover on the edges. Such modification has been found recently to reduce the AC loss of a single tape; however, the behavior in a coil winding could be different. With experiments and numerical calculations we show that a ferromagnetic cover on the edges of a superconducting tape could reduce its magnetization loss also when the tapes are arranged in a stack. The effect is weaker for larger numbers of tapes but nevertheless remained significant in a stack of four tapes, which was the maximum number studied here. The effects observed experimentally are nicely explained by the results of numerical calculations.

  6. Fabrication and AC transport losses for Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 tapes using rectangular deformation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AC transport losses in self-field at 77 K have been investigated for the Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 multifilamentary tapes prepared by rectangular deformation process. The rectangular wires with 20 (5 x 4 arrangement) filaments and different aspect ratio of their cross-section were fabricated by two-axial rolling machine, and subsequently they were converted to the tape-form conductors by the one-axial flat rolling and heat treatments. The initial configurations of rectangular wires before applying the flat rolling affect the filament shape near the tape edge in the final tapes. Furthermore, transport loss behaviors for investigated tapes also depend on the initial configurations of rectangular wires, although the main contribution to the losses comes from the hysteresis loss of the superconductor. This may be caused by the difference in filament shape and lateral Jc distributions in the cross-section of each tape samples

  7. Effects of Kinesio taping on joint position sense of the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Do; Kim, Min-Young; Choi, Jung-Eun; Lim, Ga-Hee; Jung, Seong-In; Park, So-Hyun; Cheon, Song-Hee; Lee, Hae-Yong

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Kinesio taping on the joint position sense of the ankle. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 26 nomal adults who had experienced ankle sprain. Kinesio taping was applied over the ankle medial ligament and ankle lateral ligament with eight pattern reinforcement taping. Joint position sense was measured using isokinetic equipment (Biodex System 4 pro dynamometer, Biodex Medical systems Inc., USA) during dorsiflexion/plantarflexion and inversion/eversion, before and after taping. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0 for Windows. [Results] Joint position sense after Kinesio taping was improved in the dorsiflexion and inversion positions. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, Kinesio taping of the ankle is effective for the prevention of ankle sprain. PMID:27190446

  8. Uso da kinesio taping na dor lombar: revisão sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Vargas Batista

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different treatments are proposed to treating back pain, including the kinesio taping. Objective: To verify the use of kinesio taping for low back pain treatment. Methods: A systematic review was conducted, consulting the databases: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro and ACP Journal Club. We used the descriptors: kinesiotaping, kinesio taping, kinesio tape or kinesiotape. We included clinical trials that focused on the use of kinesio taping in the treatment of low back pain. The Jadad score and the PEDro score were used to assess the methodological quality. Results: Three manuscripts were included in the review. By the PEDro score, two manuscripts were considered of high methodological quality, and one of these also by the Jadad score. Conclusions: Despite the quality of two studies, the results showed no effectiveness of kinesio taping in low back pain.

  9. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Neeta Pandey; Bharat Choudhary; Kirti Gupta; Ankit Mittal

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL) tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are id...

  10. Optimization of Rolling Process for Bi(2223)/Ag Superconducting Tapes by a Statistical Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ag-sheathed (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox tapes were prepared by the powder-in-tube method. The influences of rolling parameters on superconducting characteristics of Bi(2223)/Ag tapes were analyzed qualitatively with a statistical method. The results demonstrate that roll diameter and reduction per pass significantly influence the properties of superconducting tapes while roll speed does less and working friction the least. An optimized rolling process was therefore achieved according to the above results.

  11. Microstructure, texture and critical current of Ag-sheathed 2223 multifilament tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Y.L.; Wang, W.G.; Poulsen, H.F.;

    1999-01-01

    An Ag-sheathed 2223 multifilament tape was produced by the powder-in-tube method. The various parts of the tape were heat treated at different temperatures under reduced oxygen partial pressure. The microstructure and the texture were characterized by synchrotron x-ray diffraction and SEM and...... within the multifilament tape were characterized. The influence of the inhomogeneous structure on J(c) is discussed....

  12. Effect of the Kinesio tape to muscle activity and vertical jump performance in healthy inactive people

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Szu-Ching; Hsieh Tsung-Hsun; Huang Chen-Yu; Su Fong-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Elastic taping applied on the triceps surae has been commonly used to improve the performance of lower extremities. However, little objective evidence has been documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of elastic taping on the triceps surae during a maximal vertical jump. It was hypothesized that elastic taping to the triceps surae would increase muscle activity and cause positive effect to jump height. Methods Thirty-one healthy adults (19 males ...

  13. Effect of two different kinesio taping techniques on knee kinematics and kinetics in young females

    OpenAIRE

    Guner, Senem; Alsancak, Serap; Koz, Mitat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The application of kinesio taping may improve strength and performance, inhibit and facilitate motor activity, and increase range of motion. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of kinesio taping facilitation and inhibition applications on spatiotemporal knee kinematics and kinetics during walking activity in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] A three-dimensional quantitative gait evaluation was performed without tape and with, facilitation and inhibition kinesio t...

  14. Kinesio Taping for Shoulder Impingement: a Practical Lesson for Physiotherapy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Rask, Henri

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to implement a practical lesson of kinesio taping for shoulder impingement for physiotherapy students in Satakunta University of Applied Sciences. The aim was to provide the attendants of the lesson a preparedness to use kinesio taping as a part of a physiotherapeutic treatment for shoulder impingement. The purpose was to gather information about kinesio taping, shoulder structure and shoulder impingement. After teaching the basic information about the three ...

  15. Effects of Kinesio taping on joint position sense of the ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hyun-Do; Kim, Min-Young; Choi, Jung-Eun; Lim, Ga-Hee; Jung, Seong-In; Park, So-Hyun; Cheon, Song-Hee; Lee, Hae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Kinesio taping on the joint position sense of the ankle. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 26 nomal adults who had experienced ankle sprain. Kinesio taping was applied over the ankle medial ligament and ankle lateral ligament with eight pattern reinforcement taping. Joint position sense was measured using isokinetic equipment (Biodex System 4 pro dynamometer, Biodex Medical systems Inc., USA) during dorsifle...

  16. Hi fi digital audio tape to SUN workstation transfer system for digital audio data

    OpenAIRE

    Gartenlaub, Arie Gal

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes a subsystem developed to provide for the transfer of digital audio signals from a SUN SPARCstation 10 workstation to a digital audio tape (DAT) and vice versa. The new system expands the audio recording/reproduction options available in the laboratory by integrating an analog tape deck and a digital tape deck with the SUN workstation. The desired connection enables working with a larger audio bandwidth to achieve better audio performance and resolution in comparison to t...

  17. Fabrication and characterization of the joining of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the effects of the joining process on the electrical and mechanical properties of Bi-2223 superconductor tape fabricated by the powder-in-tube technique. The joining of tapes was carried out by a lap-joint method. In the process, tapes were masked and etched to expose the superconductor cores in windows located near or at the end of the tape. The exposed cores of the two tapes were brought into contact, uniaxially pressed in the range 140-4000 MPa and sintered. The current carrying capacity of the jointed tape was evaluated as a function of uniaxial pressure and the shape of windows. It was observed that the current carrying capacity was reduced in the transition region of the jointed tape because of the non-uniform microstructure during the pressing. In addition, the current carrying capacity was significantly dependent on the uniaxial pressure. The highest current carrying capacity was obtained to be ∼90% for the jointed tape to the tape itself by optimizing the window shape and pressure. It is believed that the highest value of current carrying capacity results from improvements in interface uniformity, core density, contacting area and grain alignment. The strain tolerance of the jointed tape was also evaluated, and the irreversible strain was measured to be 0.1%, which is lower than that of the unjointed tape. The decrease in the strain tolerance for jointed tape is believed to be due to the irregular interface and Ag intrusion in the transition region which acts as a stress concentration. (author)

  18. Influence of AlGaN Buffer Growth Temperature on GaN Epilayer based on Si(lll) Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigated the influence of AlGaN buffer growth temperature on strain status and crystal quality of the GaN film on Si(111) sbustrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. It was demonstrated by the optical microscopy that AlGaN buffer gorwth temperature had a remarkable effect on compensating tensil stress in top GaN layer and preventing the formation of cracks. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy analysis showed crystal quality and surface morphology of the GaN epilayer could be improved through increasing AlGaN buffer growth temperature. 1μm crack-free GaN epilayer on Si (111) substrates was obtained with graded AlGaN buffer layer at optimized temperature of 1050 deg. C. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that a significant reduction in threading dislocations was achieved in GaN epilayer.

  19. Influence of AlGaN Buffer Growth Temperature on GaN Epilayer based on Si(lll) Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Meng; Wang Xiaoliang; Pan Xu; Xiao Hongling; Wang Cuimei; Zhang Minglan [Materials Science Center, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang Zhanguo, E-mail: mengw@semi.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-02-01

    This paper investigated the influence of AlGaN buffer growth temperature on strain status and crystal quality of the GaN film on Si(111) sbustrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. It was demonstrated by the optical microscopy that AlGaN buffer gorwth temperature had a remarkable effect on compensating tensil stress in top GaN layer and preventing the formation of cracks. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy analysis showed crystal quality and surface morphology of the GaN epilayer could be improved through increasing AlGaN buffer growth temperature. 1{mu}m crack-free GaN epilayer on Si (111) substrates was obtained with graded AlGaN buffer layer at optimized temperature of 1050 deg. C. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that a significant reduction in threading dislocations was achieved in GaN epilayer.

  20. Exchangeability of bentonite buffer and backfill materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay-based buffer and tunnel backfill materials are important barriers in the KBS-3 repository concept for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. One issue that is relevant to material properties is the degree to which different bentonite compositions can be regarded as interchangeable. In Posiva's current repository design, the reference bentonite composition is MX-80, a sodium montmorillonite dominated clay. Posiva would like to be able to use bentonite with Ca-montmorillonite as the dominant clay mineral. However, at this stage, it is not clear what supporting data need to be acquired/defined to be able to place the state of knowledge of Ca-bentonite at the same level as that of Na-bentonite. In this report, the concept of bentonite exchangeability has been evaluated through consideration of how bentonite behaviour may be affected in six key performance-relevant properties, namely (1) mineralogical composition and availability of materials, (2) hydraulic conductivity, (3) mechanical and rheological properties, (4) long-term alteration, (5) colloidal properties, and (6) swelling pressure. The report evaluates implications for both buffer and backfill. Summary conclusions are drawn from these sections to suggest how bentonite exchangeability may be addressed in regulatory assessments of engineered barrier design for a future geological repository for spent fuel in Finland. Some important conclusions are: (a) There are some fundamental differences between Ca- and Na-bentonites such as colloidal behaviour, pore structure and long-term alteration that could affect the exchangeability of these materials as buffer or backfill materials and which should be further evaluated; (b) Additional experimental data are desirable for some issues such as long-term alteration, hydraulic properties and swelling behaviour, (c) The minor mineral content of bentonites is very variable, both between different bentonites and within the same bentonite type, it is not clear

  1. Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling

    OpenAIRE

    Marston, Jeremy O.; Riker, Paul W.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20 kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50 kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as be...

  2. Occupational exposure to asbestos in the drywall taping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, D K; Middleton, C G

    1980-04-01

    Studies of airborne asbestos fiber concentrations associated with various operations of the drywall taping process have been undertaken in the province of Alberta, Canada. The results show that mixing, sanding and sweeping created high levels of airborne asbestos dust. The measured concentrations were frequently in excess of occupational health standards. Sanding in particular was assessed the most hazardous operation. The results are discussed in light of present and proposed Occupational Health Standards, and in terms of its implications for other workers, household contacts, and consumer's risk. Measures to reduce and control the health hazards associated with the process are described. PMID:7395743

  3. Depuration Times of Donax trunculus and Tapes decussatus

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Arik Çolakolu; Mine Çardak; Serhat Çolakoglu; Ibrahim Ender Künili

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the depuration time and ability of Donax trunculus (Wedge Clam) and Tapes decussatus (Carpet Shell) contaminated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Clams were contaminated with each bacterium at the level of 7.0 - 8.0 Log10 cfu/g. After contamination, clams were analyzed every 3 h in the first 24 h time period and every 6 h until the 72nd hour. During the depuration process of...

  4. Programming input-output operations in FORTRAN on magnetic tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokov, V. N.

    1980-01-01

    The subprogram MTCFF was designed for carrying out input-output operations in FORTRAN on magnetic tape within the framework of the DOS ES EVM operation system. It is possible, by means of this subprogram, to perform any input-output operations of interest to the programmer such as recording and reading various control operations in the direct and reverse directions, even though for these purposes the facilities of the language FORTRAN itself are limited. The subprogram can also be used in programs written in other programming languages.

  5. Strategic flat rolling of Ag/BSCCO-2223 tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Storgård; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Eriksen, Morten;

    2002-01-01

    In the process of single-step flat rolling of multifilament Ag/BSCCO-2223 wire to tape previous work has shown the optimum strategy giving maximum critical current density to be it balance between the length and width strain, so they are of equal size i.e. so, that the logarithmic strain ratio, LSR......, reaches zero. In order to investigate the possible improvements by using multistep flat rolling, a new strategy to control the LSR in each individual step. i.e. to control the differential logarithmic strain ratio DLSR, has been investigated. The present paper shows that appropriate choice of the...

  6. Patterns of sediment and phosphorus accumulation in a riparian buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffers prevent sediment and phosphorus (P) from reaching streams, but their accumulation in buffers is seldom measured. This study's objectives were to determine accumulations of sediment and P in a multi-species riparian buffer, and characterize spatial-temporal patterns of P in soil wate...

  7. Analysis of diffusive mass transport in a cracked buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the disposal vault design for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, cylindrical containers of used nuclear fuel would be placed in vertical boreholes in rock and surrounded with a bentonite-based buffer material. The buffer is expected to absorb and/or retard radionuclides leaching from the fuel after the containers fail. There is some evidence, however, that the buffer may be susceptible to cracking. In this report we investigate numerically the consequences of cracking on uranium diffusion through the buffer. The derivation of the mass-transport equations and the numerical solution method are presented for the solubility-limited diffusion of uranium in a cracked buffer system for both swept-away and semi-impermeable boundary conditions at the rock-buffer interface. The results indicate that for swept-away boundary conditions the total uranium flux through the cracked buffer system is, as expected, greater than through the uncracked buffer. The effect of the cracks is strongly dependent on the ratio D/Deff, where D and Deff are the pore-water and the effective buffer diffusion coefficient, respectively. However, although a decrease in Deff enhances the effect of cracks on the total cumulative flux (relative to the uncracked buffer), it also decreases the total cumulative flux through the cracked buffer system (relative to a cracked buffer with a larger Deff value). Finally, for semi-impermeable boundary conditions, the effect of cracks on the total radionuclide flux is relatively small

  8. Towards Optimal Buffer Size in Wi-Fi Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Showail, Ahmad J.

    2016-01-19

    Buffer sizing is an important network configuration parameter that impacts the quality of data traffic. Falling memory cost and the fallacy that ‘more is better’ lead to over provisioning network devices with large buffers. Over-buffering or the so called ‘bufferbloat’ phenomenon creates excessive end-to-end delay in today’s networks. On the other hand, under-buffering results in frequent packet loss and subsequent under-utilization of network resources. The buffer sizing problem has been studied extensively for wired networks. However, there is little work addressing the unique challenges of wireless environment. In this dissertation, we discuss buffer sizing challenges in wireless networks, classify the state-of-the-art solutions, and propose two novel buffer sizing schemes. The first scheme targets buffer sizing in wireless multi-hop networks where the radio spectral resource is shared among a set of con- tending nodes. Hence, it sizes the buffer collectively and distributes it over a set of interfering devices. The second buffer sizing scheme is designed to cope up with recent Wi-Fi enhancements. It adapts the buffer size based on measured link characteristics and network load. Also, it enforces limits on the buffer size to maximize frame aggregation benefits. Both mechanisms are evaluated using simulation as well as testbed implementation over half-duplex and full-duplex wireless networks. Experimental evaluation shows that our proposal reduces latency by an order of magnitude.

  9. In-field performances of commercial REBCO tapes below liquid nitrogen temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Jc(H, θ) for four commercial REBCO tapes were measured between 30 and 77 K. •The in-field Jc characteristics of Zr-doped REBCO tape vary among spools. •Different REBCO tapes show very different in-field performances. •The relative superiority of REBCO tapes varies with temperature. -- Abstract: We investigated critical current density (Jc) characteristics of commercial REBCO tapes of four manufacturers at temperatures between 30 and 77 K in magnetic fields up to 5 T. We first examined variation in the Jc characteristics of two Zr-doped REBCO tapes (SuperPower) of the same specifications, which are found to be quite different, indicating that the in-field Jc characteristics due to artificial pinning centers vary among spools or along the length of tape. We then investigated in-field performances of four different commercial REBCO tapes (AMSC, Fujikura, SuNAM, SuperPower), calculating performances of coils using their magnetic-field angle dependences of Jc. The REBCO tapes are found to give very different in-field performances depending on the strength and direction of field they experience, and their relative superiority is observed to vary with temperature

  10. Aggregation and adhesion of gold nanoparticles in phosphate buffered saline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In applications in medicine and more specifically drug delivery, the dispersion stability of nanoparticles plays a significant role on their final performances. In this study, with the use of two laser technologies, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), we report a simple method to estimate the stability of nanoparticles dispersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Stability has two features: (1) self-aggregation as the particles tend to stick to each other; (2) disappearance of particles as they adhere to surrounding substrate surfaces such as glass, metal, or polymer. By investigating the effects of sonication treatment and surface modification by five types of surfactants, including nonylphenol ethoxylate (NP9), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), human serum albumin (HSA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and citrate ions on the dispersion stability, the varying self-aggregation and adhesion of gold nanoparticles dispersed in PBS are demonstrated. The results showed that PVP effectively prevented aggregation, while HSA exhibited the best performance in avoiding the adhesion of gold nanoparticle in PBS onto glass and metal. The simple principle of this method makes it a high potential to be applied to other nanoparticles, including virus particles, used in dispersing and processing.

  11. Aggregation and adhesion of gold nanoparticles in phosphate buffered saline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Shangfeng, E-mail: s.du@bham.ac.uk; Kendall, Kevin; Toloueinia, Panteha; Mehrabadi, Yasamin; Gupta, Gaurav; Newton, Jill [University of Birmingham, School of Chemical Engineering (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    In applications in medicine and more specifically drug delivery, the dispersion stability of nanoparticles plays a significant role on their final performances. In this study, with the use of two laser technologies, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), we report a simple method to estimate the stability of nanoparticles dispersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Stability has two features: (1) self-aggregation as the particles tend to stick to each other; (2) disappearance of particles as they adhere to surrounding substrate surfaces such as glass, metal, or polymer. By investigating the effects of sonication treatment and surface modification by five types of surfactants, including nonylphenol ethoxylate (NP9), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), human serum albumin (HSA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and citrate ions on the dispersion stability, the varying self-aggregation and adhesion of gold nanoparticles dispersed in PBS are demonstrated. The results showed that PVP effectively prevented aggregation, while HSA exhibited the best performance in avoiding the adhesion of gold nanoparticle in PBS onto glass and metal. The simple principle of this method makes it a high potential to be applied to other nanoparticles, including virus particles, used in dispersing and processing.

  12. Selective laser densification of lithium aluminosilicate glass ceramic tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Selective laser densification of glass-ceramic tapes has been investigated. ► A possible application to the layerwise-slurry deposition process was evaluated. ► The effect of a few percent organic in the slurry was also studied. ► A range of parameters was identified to densify layers without macroscopic defects. - Abstract: Tapes, cast by blade deposition of a lithium aluminosilicate glass slurry, were sintered using a YAG-fiber laser, with the aim of finding suitable parameters for an additive manufacturing process based on layer-wise slurry deposition and selective laser densification. The influence of the laser parameters (output power and scan velocity) on the sintering was evaluated, by scanning electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction, on the basis of the quality of the processed layer. Well densified samples could be obtained only in a small window of values for the output power and the scan velocity. The measurement of the width of a set of single scanned lines allowed also to estimate the minimum resolution of the system along the layer plane.

  13. Critical currents in uranium-doped BiSCCO-tapes

    CERN Document Server

    Toenies, S

    2000-01-01

    region, H subleft brace gb-p right brace depends on the direction of the applied field, the temperature and also the fluence. The position of this transition field was investigated. Large enhancements of the critical current densities were achieved with this irradiation method. Due to the strong activation of the silver-sheath of the samples, the applications of these tapes may be limited. But we could determine the limiting mechanisms of the critical current density in BiSCCO-tapes for the first time. regions in the (H,T)-plane, where J sub c is limited by pinning. Irradiation improves only the pinning in the grains but not the intergranular currents. Regions, where no enhancement is found, are limited by the intergranular currents. The inter- and intragranular currents were determined quantitatively from SQUID measurements of the remanent magnetic moment. Also the grain sizes were determined by this method. The influence of the irradiation on the structure of the samples depended on the uranium content: in ...

  14. STS-108 Mission Highlights Resource Tape. Part 2 of 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This video is a continuation of 'STS-108 Mission Highlights Resource Tape: Part 1 of 3' (Internal ID 2002049331). Flight day four footage continues with a video tour of the International Space Station (ISS). During flight day five, an exterior view of the Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) is seen, followed by the crew unloading the supplies and equipment from the MPLM. Commander Dominic Gorie and Mission Specialist Linda Godwin are seen making preparations for the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) scheduled for the following day. Footage of an exterior view of the ISS is also shown. Flight day six footage includes Godwin and Mission Specialist Daniel Tani suiting up for their EVA and the installation of thermal blankets around the solar array wings of the ISS. Expedition 3 Commander Frank Culbertson is seen working in the ISS laboratory during flight day seven. Views are shown of Saudi Arabia and the Red Sea, the western coast of Australia, Cuba and Florida, and Switzerland and Northern Italy. During flight day eight, the crew is seen stowing objects in the MPLM for return to earth. The video concludes with footage of the treadmill used by the astronauts for physical exercise. Flight days nine through twelve are included in 'STS-108 Mission Highlights Resource Tape: Part 3 of 3' (Internal ID 2002049329).

  15. Process for preparing tapes from thermoplastic polymers and carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tai-Shung (Inventor); Furst, Howard (Inventor); Gurion, Zev (Inventor); McMahon, Paul E. (Inventor); Orwoll, Richard D. (Inventor); Palangio, Daniel (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The instant invention involves a process for use in preparing tapes or rovings, which are formed from a thermoplastic material used to impregnate longitudinally extended bundles of carbon fibers. The process involves the steps of (a) gas spreading a tow of carbon fibers; (b) feeding the spread tow into a crosshead die; (c) impregnating the tow in the die with a thermoplastic polymer; (d) withdrawing the impregnated tow from the die; and (e) gas cooling the impregnated tow with a jet of air. The crosshead die useful in the instant invention includes a horizontally extended, carbon fiber bundle inlet channel, means for providing melted polymer under pressure to the die, means for dividing the polymeric material flowing into the die into an upper flow channel and a lower flow channel disposed above and below the moving carbon fiber bundle, means for applying the thermoplastic material from both the upper and lower channels to the fiber bundle, and means for withdrawing the resulting tape from the die.

  16. Heat Transfers Enhancement with Different Square Jagged Twisted Tapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. A.V.Gawandare

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental work are carried out with copper twisted tape inserts 3mm with 5.2,4.2 and 3.2 twists respectively. The inserts when placed in the path of the flow of the fluid, create a high degree of turbulence resulting in an increase in the heat transfer rate and the pressure drop. The work includes the determination of friction factor and heat transfer coefficient for various twisted wire inserts with varying twists and different materials. The Reynolds number is varied from 5000 to 16000. Correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor are developed for the twisted wire inserts from the obtained results. The results of varying twists in square jagged tape with different pitches have been compared with the values for the smooth tube. The 3mm thick with 3.2 twists copper insert shows increase in Nusselt number values by 76% however there is increase in friction factor by only 19.5% as compared to the smooth tube values.

  17. Electronic transport through tape-porphyrin molecular bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated theoretically how molecular conjugation affects current-voltage (I-V) curves through three types of oligoporphyrin molecules, i.e., the tape-porphyrin, the butadiyne-linked porphyrin, and the edge-fused porphyrin molecules. Among these, the tape-porphyrin molecule is found to be the most conductive due to its extremely small HOMO-LUMO energy gap. Furthermore, the I-V curves through this type of molecule are found to depend considerably on atomic sites to which electrodes are connected. In particular, as long as the applied bias is weak, the current is found to flow strongest when both electrodes are connected to the atomic sites referred to as meso sites. This feature is caused by the fact that the HOMO relevant to resonant tunneling has a higher charge density on the meso sites. These findings indicate that designing not only molecules but also contact structures is highly significant for realizing a desirable function in single molecular devices

  18. Electromagnetic properties of Bi-2223/Ag concentric tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that near the silver interface highly textured Bi-2223 layers compared to the inner ceramic core may be obtained. Thus Bi-2223 multilayered concentric tapes with silver matrix are very promising in increasing transport critical current densities. In the present work the authors report on the electromagnetic characterization of short tapes having in their cross-section a very thin HTS flattened ring with Ag inside and outside of it. The samples were prepared by the powder in tube method and have self-field critical current densities Jc of the order of 3 x 104 A/cm2 at 77 K. Transport and SQUID magnetization measurements revealed weak link nature of the samples in low magnetic fields. Large transport Jc(B) hysteresis was observed at 4.2 K and magnetic fields up to 20 T. Magnetic field profiles measurements with miniature Hall sensors are in qualitative accordance with model calculations supposing homogeneous current density distribution across the superconducting core

  19. Growth of b-axis oriented VO2 thin films on glass substrates using ZnO buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VO2 thin films are grown on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition using vanadium metal as a target. In this study, a ZnO thin film was used as a buffer layer for the growth of VO2 thin films on glass substrates. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the VO2 thin film had b-axis preferential orientation on a c-axis oriented ZnO buffer layer. The thickness of the ZnO buffer layer and the oxygen pressure during VO2 deposition were optimized to grow highly b-axis oriented VO2 thin films. The metal-insulator transition properties of the VO2 film samples were investigated in terms of infrared reflectance and electrical resistance with varying temperatures.

  20. Continuous Processing of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Studded Carbon Fiber Tapes for Enhanced Through-Thickness Thermal Diffusivity Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, John D; Qian, Dali; Lester, Catherine; Matthews, JohnJ; Mansfield, J Patrick W; Foedinger, Richard; Weisenberger, Matthew C

    2015-09-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites offer advantages over traditional metallic structures, particularly specific strength and stiffness, but at much reduced thermal conductivity. Moreover, fiber-to-fiber heat conduction in the composite transverse directions is significantly lower. When these structures contain electronics (heat generators), shortfalls in heat transport can be problematic. Here we report the achievement of a continuous, reel-to-reel process for growing short multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on the surfaces of spread-tow carbon fiber tapes. These tapes were subsequently prepregged with an epoxy matrix, and laid up into multi-ply laminate panels, cured and tested for through-thickness thermal diffusivity. The results showed up to a 57% increase in through thickness thermal diffusivity compared to the baseline composite with no MWCNT. PMID:26716256

  1. Advances in development of Ag-clad Bi-based superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Significant advances in development of the Ag-clad Bi-based superconducting tapes have been recently achieved by the Wollongong group. These include understanding of the effect of initial phase composition on sintering temperature, formation mechanism of high Tc phase, control of sausaging formation during rolling and effect of atmosphere on microstructure of the tapes. Techniques such as 'sandwich rolling' process have been developed to prevent the formation of sausaging and cracks in longitudinal direction of the Ag-clad Bi-based superconducting tapes. High Jc for Ag/Bi-2212 tapes achieved through MTG in the alternating oxygen and nitrogen atmosphere. While N2 annealing on cooling ensures high Tc, O2 treatment during melting period enhances the stability of 2212, allowing for grain growth with ample liquid formation. Direct observation of the interface achieved by removing Ag sheath with Hg alloy shows highly dense, textured and thin-film like structure. Ca2PbO4 was found to have significant effect of sintering temperature. Incorporation of Ca2PbO4 into 2212 phase can reduce the duration of 2223 tape process to below 100 h, resulting high Jc with a record performance in magnetic field. 23.4% of zero field Jc value was retained in 1T. Grain growth in 2223 tape must be well controlled in order to optimise Jc. Features of 2212 tape and 2223 tape are compared in terms of their processing, microstructure and electromagnetic properties. Potential strong links in the tape are proposed to be the low angle tilt boundaries where the Cu-O planes are well connected. The pinning potential, Uo, for 2223 tape, determined by using magnetoresistance measurements, is larger than that for the best 2212 tape and epitaxial thin films while Uo for the latter is, in turn, higher than 2212 single crystal. This may be attributed to the difference in dislocation density in these materials

  2. Current evidence does not support the use of Kinesio Taping in clinical practice: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia do Carmo Silva Parreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Questions: Is Kinesio Taping more effective than a sham taping/placebo, no treatment or other interventions in people with musculoskeletal conditions? Is the addition of Kinesio Taping to other interventions more effective than other interventions alone in people with musculoskeletal conditions? Design: Systematic review of randomised trials. Participants: People with musculoskeletal conditions. Intervention: Kinesio Taping was compared with sham taping/placebo, no treatment, exercises, manual therapy and conventional physiotherapy. Outcome measures: Pain intensity, disability, quality of life, return to work, and global impression of recovery. Results: Twelve randomised trials involving 495 participants were included in the review. The effectiveness of the Kinesio Taping was tested in participants with: shoulder pain in two trials; knee pain in three trials; chronic low back pain in two trials; neck pain in three trials; plantar fasciitis in one trial; and multiple musculoskeletal conditions in one trial. The methodological quality of eligible trials was moderate, with a mean of 6.1 points on the 10-point PEDro Scale score. Overall, Kinesio Taping was no better than sham taping/placebo and active comparison groups. In all comparisons where Kinesio Taping was better than an active or a sham control group, the effect sizes were small and probably not clinically significant or the trials were of low quality. Conclusion: This review provides the most updated evidence on the effectiveness of the Kinesio Taping for musculoskeletal conditions. The current evidence does not support the use of this intervention in these clinical populations. PROSPERO registration: CRD42012003436. [Parreira PdCS, Costa LdCM, Hespanhol Junior LC, Lopes AD, Costa LOP (2014 Current evidence does not support the use of Kinesio Taping in clinical practice: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 31–39

  3. Competitive Buffer Management with Class Segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Bawani, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new model for buffer management of network switches with Quality of Service (QoS) requirements and give a tight analysis. Specifically, each network packet is associated with a numerical value, called Class of Service (CoS), which represents its priority. We are furthermore given a network switch with $m$ queues that have individual capacities. Each queue stores packets of a certain CoS, only. A stream of packets arrives over time at the switch and an online algorithm has to decide on the admission and transmission of packets. The objective is to maximize the total CoS-value of the transmitted packets. Our main contribution is a natural online $\\GREEDY$ algorithm, which accepts any arriving packet, if the corresponding CoS-queue is not full. It always sends a buffered packet with highest value. We show that this algorithm is 2-competitive. This result is essentially best-possible since we also show a lower bound of $2 - v_m / (\\sum_{i=1}^m v_i)$ on the competitiveness of any deterministic onlin...

  4. Properties of PTFE tape as a semipermeable membrane in fluorous reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon A. Parsons

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a PTFE tape phase-vanishing reaction (PV-PTFE, a delivery tube sealed with PTFE tape is inserted into a vessel which contains the substrate. The reagent diffuses across the PTFE tape barrier into the reaction vessel. PTFE co-polymer films have been found to exhibit selective permeability towards organic compounds, which was affected by the presence of solvents. In this study, we attempted to establish general trends of permeability of PTFE tape to different compounds and to better describe the process of solvent transport in PV-PTFE bromination reactions. Though PTFE tape has been reported as impermeable to some compounds, such as dimethyl phthalate, solvent adsorption to the tape altered its permeability and allowed diffusion through channels of solvent within the PTFE tape. In this case, the solvent-filled pores of the PTFE tape are chemically more akin to the adsorbed solvent rather than to the PTFE fluorous structure. The solvent uptake effect, which was frequently observed in the course of PV-PTFE reactions, can be related to the surface tension of the solvent and the polarity of the solvent relative to the reagent. The lack of pores in bulk PTFE prevents solvents from altering its permeability and, therefore, bulk PTFE is impermeable to most solvents and reagents. However, bromine, which is soluble in liquid fluorous media, diffused through the bulk PTFE. A better understanding of the PTFE phase barrier will make it possible to further optimize the PV-PTFE reaction design.

  5. Effect of pore formers on properties of tape cast porous sheets for electrochemical flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Cristine Grings; Kammer Hansen, Kent; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Fu, Zongwen; Roosen, Andreas; Kaiser, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) electrolytes for electrochemical flue gas purification multilayers were fabricated by tape casting and sintering using different types, shapes and sizes of pore formers. The resulting tapes (with thickness of about 400μm) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, g...

  6. Preparation of magnetic tapes for the transfer of information to/from other computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the method by which a magnetic tape may be written on the CRNL CYBER 170 Model 175/6600 computer system in order to transfer information (source programs and/or coded data) to other computer systems. It will also enable a user to provide the specifications for an incoming magnetic tape which is to be written on another computer system

  7. Properties of PTFE tape as a semipermeable membrane in fluorous reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Brendon A; Smith, Olivia Lin; Chae, Myeong; Dragojlovic, Veljko

    2015-01-01

    In a PTFE tape phase-vanishing reaction (PV-PTFE), a delivery tube sealed with PTFE tape is inserted into a vessel which contains the substrate. The reagent diffuses across the PTFE tape barrier into the reaction vessel. PTFE co-polymer films have been found to exhibit selective permeability towards organic compounds, which was affected by the presence of solvents. In this study, we attempted to establish general trends of permeability of PTFE tape to different compounds and to better describe the process of solvent transport in PV-PTFE bromination reactions. Though PTFE tape has been reported as impermeable to some compounds, such as dimethyl phthalate, solvent adsorption to the tape altered its permeability and allowed diffusion through channels of solvent within the PTFE tape. In this case, the solvent-filled pores of the PTFE tape are chemically more akin to the adsorbed solvent rather than to the PTFE fluorous structure. The solvent uptake effect, which was frequently observed in the course of PV-PTFE reactions, can be related to the surface tension of the solvent and the polarity of the solvent relative to the reagent. The lack of pores in bulk PTFE prevents solvents from altering its permeability and, therefore, bulk PTFE is impermeable to most solvents and reagents. However, bromine, which is soluble in liquid fluorous media, diffused through the bulk PTFE. A better understanding of the PTFE phase barrier will make it possible to further optimize the PV-PTFE reaction design. PMID:26199652

  8. Two-dimensional and transient thermal model of the continuous tape laying process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skandali, M.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Koussios, S.; Sinke, J.; Benedictus, R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to simulate the two-dimensional, transient and continuous heat transfer during the thermoset Automated Tape Laying (ATL) process. The heat transfer analysis is coupled with a cure kinetics model of the thermoset prepreg tapes used for the process. Unlike most studies, th

  9. Elongated grains in cube textured nickel substrate tapes and flat wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cube textured nickel substrate tapes and flat wires with an increased grain aspect ratio were prepared from nickel micro-alloyed with silver plus yttrium and silver, respectively. Whereas the maximum grain aspect ratio for the tapes was about 6, this value reached up to 14 for the flat wires

  10. 36 CFR 1275.64 - Reproduction of tape recordings of Presidential conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reproduction of tape... § 1275.64 Reproduction of tape recordings of Presidential conversations. (a) To ensure the preservation... locations established by the Archivist in accordance with § 1275.62. (d) The reproduction for members of...

  11. Homogeneous Current Distribution in Multi-laminated HTS Tape Conductor for Pancake Coil of SMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, T.; Chiba, Y.; Atomura, N.; Takahashi, T.; Miyagi, D.; Tsuda, M.; Shikimachi, K.; Hirano, N.; Nagaya, S.

    A multi-laminated HTS tape conductor has been recently developed to fabricate large pancake coils such as SMES. If the HTS tapes are simply laminated to form the conductor, the current distribution in the laminated tape conductor of the coil is unbalanced because of different inductances of all tapes. The pancake coil has been widely used for large magnet, because the pancake coil is tightly wound and endures large electromagnetic force. The tape transpositions at both ends of the pancake coil are effective for the coil fabrication, because it cannot damage the conductor. It is very important to analyze current distribution in the multi-laminated tape conductor used for the pancake coil. In this paper, we analyze the current distribution in the tape conductor by using circuit model, and then propose a relationship between the laminated tape number of the conductor and the pancake coil number to obtain the homogeneous current distribution. We fabricated the double pancake coil based on the relation, tested it to verify the relation and demonstrated the homogeneous current distribution in the conductor.

  12. Effects of Managers’ Work Motivation and Networking Activity on Their Reported Levels of External Red Tape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torenvlied, R.; Akkerman, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study brings together two perspectives on managers’ reported levels of red tape. The work motivation perspective explains how managers’ characteristics, such as work engagement (alienation) or commitment, affect their reported levels of red tape. The external control perspective explains how ma

  13. Effects of Tape-Recorded Aural Models on Sight-Reading and Performance Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James N.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the effect of using tape-recorded aural models for home practice on selected sight-reading and performance skills of sixth-grade clarinet students. The tape recordings had no observed effects on the selected music skills, nor did the students using them complete more music exercises, as had been hypothesized. (Author/SJL)

  14. Analytical investigation in bending characteristic of twisted stacked-tape cable conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayasu, Makoto; Chiesa, Luisa

    2015-12-01

    An analytical model to evaluate bending strains of a twisted stack-tape cable (TSTC) conductor has been developed. Through a comparison with experimental results obtained for a soldered 32-tape YBCO TSTC conductor, it has been found that a Perfect-Slip Model (PSM) taking into account the slipping between tapes in a stacked-tape cable during bending gives much better estimation of the bending performance compared to a No-Slip Model (NSM). In the PSM case the tapes can slip so that the internal longitudinal axial strain can be released. The longitudinal strains of compression and tension regions along the tape are balanced in one twist-pitch and cancel out evenly in a long cable. Therefore, in a cable the strains due to bending can be minimized. This is an important advantage of a TSTC conductor. The effect of the cable diameter size on the bending strain is also expected to be minor, and all tapes composing a TSTC conductor have the same strain response under bending, therefore the cable critical current can be characterized from a single tape behaviour.

  15. Effects of low-dye taping on plantar pressure pre and post exercise: an exploratory study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nolan, Damien

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-Dye taping is used for excessive pronation at the subtalar joint of the foot. Previous research has focused on the tape\\'s immediate effect on plantar pressure. Its effectiveness following exercise has not been investigated. Peak plantar pressure distribution provides an indirect representation of subtalar joint kinematics. The objectives of the study were 1) To determine the effects of Low-Dye taping on peak plantar pressure immediately post-application. 2) To determine whether any initial effects are maintained following exercise. METHODS: 12 asymptomatic subjects participated; each being screened for excessive pronation (navicular drop > 10 mm). Plantar pressure data was recorded, using the F-scan, at four intervals during the testing session: un-taped, baseline-taped, post-exercise session 1, and post-exercise session 2. Each exercise session consisted of a 10-minute walk at a normal pace. The foot was divided into 6 regions during data analysis. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess regional pressure variations across the four testing conditions. RESULTS: Reduced lateral forefoot peak plantar pressure was the only significant difference immediately post tape application (p = 0.039). This effect was lost after 10 minutes of exercise (p = 0.036). Each exercise session resulted in significantly higher medial forefoot peak pressure compared to un-taped; (p = 0.015) and (p = 0.014) respectively, and baseline-taped; (p = 0.036) and (p = 0.015) respectively. Medial and lateral rearfoot values had also increased after the second session (p = 0.004), following their non-significant reduction at baseline-taped. A trend towards a medial-to-lateral shift in pressure present in the midfoot immediately following tape application was still present after 20 minutes of exercise. CONCLUSION: Low-Dye tape\\'s initial effect of reduced lateral forefoot peak plantar pressure was lost after a 10-minute walk. However, the tape continued

  16. Preparation of Lanthanum-Doped Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Ceramics Sheets by Tape Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The physical and electrical properties of lanthanum doped Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramic sheets (PLZT) which were prepared by tape casting method were carried out. Tape casting of lanthanum modified PZT was performed using commercial cellulose acetate binders and poly(ethylene glycol) plasticizers in ethanol solvent. Tapes from these slips were casted on a polymer substrate. The PLZT green tapes were stacked for 5 units and sintered in air at 1050℃ for 1 h with heating rate 5℃/min. SEM micrographs show that the tape is dense (90.26% of theoretical density) and rather uniform with grain size of approximately 1.1 ? m. The dielectric permittivity and loss tangent of PLZT ceramics as a function of temperature at 1 kHz suggest that the compounds exhibit a phase transition of diffuse type. The transition temperature (Tm) and piezoelectric coefficient (d33) were 110℃ and 117 pC/N, respectively.

  17. Mechanical Behavior of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Aqueous Cast Tapes and Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous tape casting was used to produce yttria-stabilized zirconia films for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC. Tape casting slurries were prepared varying the binder content between 20 and 25 wt%. A commercial acrylic emulsion served as binder. Rheological measurements of the two slurries were performed. Both slurries showed a shear-thinning behavior. Tapes with 25 wt% binder exhibited adequate flexibility and a smooth and homogeneous surface, free of cracks and other defects. Suitable conditions of lamination were found and a theoretical density of 54% in the laminates was achieved. Laminated tapes showed higher tensile strength compared to single sheets. Tape orientation has a significant influence on the mechanical properties. Tensile strength, elongation to strain, and Young’s modulus measured in samples produced in the direction of casting showed higher property values.

  18. Powder metallurgy for the fabrication of bi-axially textured Ni tapes for YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi-axially textured Ni tapes for YBCO coated conductors were fabricated by forming, sintering, cold rolling and heat treatment of Ni powder compacts. The powder metallurgy process consists of filling of fine Ni powders in a rubber mold, cold isostatical pressing in a water chamber and sintering of the powder compacts. The sintered compacts were cold-rolled and made into tapes with a thickness of 100 micron and then heat-treated at 1000 deg. C for various time periods for the development of the (2 0 0) texture. The (2 0 0) texture of Ni tape was successfully formed through the optimization of the recrystallization heat treatment condition for the cold rolled Ni tapes. The full width half maximum of the Ni tapes was 8-10 deg. and the atomic force microscopy surface roughness was 3-5 nm

  19. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy for the Characterization of Magnetic Tape Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Weber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Music Archive of the Ethnological Museum (National Museums Berlin, Germany houses a large number of recordings on phonograph cylinders and magnetic tapes. The project ILKAR (Integrated Solutions for Preservation, Archiving and Conservation of Endangered Magnetic Tapes and Cylinders aims at prioritising the digitisation of the more than 10,000 magnetic tapes of the Archive. In this contribution, the usefulness of Attenuated Total Reflectance - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for the characterisation of the constituent materials of magnetic tapes is discussed. The final aim of the research is the characterisation of the most endangered materials of the Archive's collection and the evaluation of their conservation state. A range of complementary techniques should aid in the characterisation of the main tape types housed in the archive and will help to achieve a better understanding of their decay processes.

  20. Characteristics of joint resistance with different kinds of HTS tapes for heater trigger switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Je Yull; Park, Young Gun; Lee, Woo Seung; Jo, Hyun Chul; Ko, Tae Kuk [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yong Soo [Shin Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Recently, many researches on the system of superconducting power supply and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) using high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes has been progressed. Those kinds of superconducting devices use the heater trigger switches that have a control delay problem at moments of heating up and cooling down. One way to reduce the time delay is using a different HTS tape at trigger part. For example, HTS tape having lower critical temperature can reduce time delay of heating up and heating down stage for heater trigger operation. This paper deals with resistances joint with different kinds of HTS tapes which have different properties to verify usefulness of the suggested method. Three kinds of commercial HTS tapes with different specifications are selected as samples and two kinds of solders are used for comparison. Joint is performed with temperature and pressure controllable joint machine and the joint characteristics are analyzed under the repeatable conditions.

  1. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping and Cross Taping Application in the Treatment of Latent Upper Trapezius Trigger Points: A Prospective, Single-Blind, Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Halski, Tomasz; Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Słupska, Lucyna; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Dymarek, Robert; Taradaj, Jakub; Bidzińska, Gabriela; Marczyński, Daniel; Cynarska, Aleksandra; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Kinesio taping (KT) may be a new treatment in patients with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). A new method available for taping practitioners is cross taping (CT). The main objective was to determine how CT, KT, and medical adhesive tape (sham group) affect the subjective assessment of resting bioelectrical activity and pain of the upper trapezius muscle (UT) in patients with MTrPs. 105 volunteers were recruited to participate. The primary outcome was resting bioelectrical activity of UT mus...

  2. Effects of the annealing duration of the ZnO buffer layer on structural and optical properties of ZnO rods grown by a hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the effects of the annealing duration of a zinc oxide (ZnO) buffer layer on structural and optical properties of ZnO rods grown by a hydrothermal process are discussed. A ZnO buffer layer was deposited on p-type Si (1 1 1) substrates by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. After that, ZnO rods were grown on the ZnO-buffer/Si (1 1 1) substrate by a hydrothermal process. In order to determine the optimum annealing duration of the buffer layer for the growth of ZnO rods, durations ranging from 0.5 to 30 min were tried. The morphology and crystal structure of the ZnO/ZnO-buffer/Si (1 1 1) were measured by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) measurement.

  3. Effect of dual buffer layer structure on the epitaxial growth of AlN on sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, D.G., E-mail: dgzhao@red.semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, D.S.; Wu, L.L.; Le, L.C.; Li, L.; Chen, P.; Liu, Z.S. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhu, J.J.; Wang, H.; Zhang, S.M. [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China); Yang, H. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dual AlN buffer layer structure is proposed to grow AlN films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AlN films could be improved obviously by using the dual AlN buffer layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The physical mechanism are discussed. - Abstract: A dual AlN buffer layer structure, including an isolated layer and a nucleation layer, is proposed to improve the growth of AlN films on sapphire substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. This method is aimed to weaken the negative nitridation effect and improve lateral growth condition in the initial growth stage. It is found that suitably increasing the thickness of the nucleation layer is in favor of a better structural quality of the AlN film. An examination of surface morphology by atomic force microscopy suggests that the thicker the dual AlN buffer layer, the rougher the surface, and a higher quality of AlN epilayer is resulted.

  4. Effect of dual buffer layer structure on the epitaxial growth of AlN on sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A dual AlN buffer layer structure is proposed to grow AlN films. ► AlN films could be improved obviously by using the dual AlN buffer layer. ► The physical mechanism are discussed. - Abstract: A dual AlN buffer layer structure, including an isolated layer and a nucleation layer, is proposed to improve the growth of AlN films on sapphire substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. This method is aimed to weaken the negative nitridation effect and improve lateral growth condition in the initial growth stage. It is found that suitably increasing the thickness of the nucleation layer is in favor of a better structural quality of the AlN film. An examination of surface morphology by atomic force microscopy suggests that the thicker the dual AlN buffer layer, the rougher the surface, and a higher quality of AlN epilayer is resulted.

  5. Characterization of BLT thin films using MgO buffer layer for MFIS-FET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BLT thin film and MgO buffer layer were fabricated using a metalorganic decomposition method and the DC sputtering technique. The MgO thin film was deposited as a buffer layer on SiO2/Si and Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 (BLT) thin films were used as a ferroelectric layer. The electrical of the metal ferroelectric insulator semiconductor (MFIS) structure were investigated by varying the MgO layer thickness. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows no interdiffusion and reaction that suppressed by using the MgO film as a buffer layer. The width of the memory window in the C-V curves for the MFIS structure decreased with increasing thickness of the MgO layer. Leakage current density decreased by about three orders of magnitude after using MgO buffer layer. The results show that the BLT and MgO-based MFIS structure is suitable for non-volatile memory FETs with large memory window

  6. Characterization of BLT thin films using MgO buffer layer for MFIS-FET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Tae [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chungang University, 221, Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Mi [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chungang University, 221, Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sang-Hun [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chungang University, 221, Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang-Il [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chungang University, 221, Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: cikim@cau.ac.kr

    2005-03-22

    The BLT thin film and MgO buffer layer were fabricated using a metalorganic decomposition method and the DC sputtering technique. The MgO thin film was deposited as a buffer layer on SiO{sub 2}/Si and Bi{sub 3.25}La{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BLT) thin films were used as a ferroelectric layer. The electrical of the metal ferroelectric insulator semiconductor (MFIS) structure were investigated by varying the MgO layer thickness. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows no interdiffusion and reaction that suppressed by using the MgO film as a buffer layer. The width of the memory window in the C-V curves for the MFIS structure decreased with increasing thickness of the MgO layer. Leakage current density decreased by about three orders of magnitude after using MgO buffer layer. The results show that the BLT and MgO-based MFIS structure is suitable for non-volatile memory FETs with large memory window.

  7. Modelling the in situ performance of bentonite-sand buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management concept, a number of engineered barriers, such as the bentonite-sand buffer which surrounds the waste container in the emplacement boreholes, are used to inhibit the transport of radionuclides. The buffer material is also required to effectively conduct heat from the fuel-waste containers to the surrounding rock. To a large extent, in situ buffer performance will depend on the degree of moisture within the buffer. The moisture content will in turn depend on temperature, temperature gradients, and buffer initial and moisture flux boundary conditions. Modelling of coupled heat and moisture transport in the buffer before resaturation is necessary to assess in situ buffer performance. This paper describes the results of a parametric study using the Philip and de Vries coupled heat and moisture transport model to assess the effects of variations in the moisture diffusivity parameters and the boundary conditions on buffer performance. The results show that the thermal performance of the buffer is affected by heat-induced moisture movement. In particular, the thermal vapor diffusivity, DTvap, has the most significant effect on thermal drying in a closed system. Work is currently underway to improve capability to model coupled heat and moisture transport in buffer. Laboratory experiments are in progress to more accurately define the moisture diffusivity parameters and the model is being modified to include the effects of boundary moisture fluxes and pressure potentials so that the resaturation process may be modelled

  8. Buffer Sizing in 802.11 Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, Kamran

    2011-10-01

    We analyze the problem of buffer sizing for TCP flows in 802.11-based Wireless Mesh Networks. Our objective is to maintain high network utilization while providing low queueing delays. The problem is complicated by the time-varying capacity of the wireless channel as well as the random access mechanism of 802.11 MAC protocol. While arbitrarily large buffers can maintain high network utilization, this results in large queueing delays. Such delays may affect TCP stability characteristics, and also increase queueing delays for other flows (including real-time flows) sharing the buffer. In this paper we propose sizing link buffers collectively for a set of nodes within mutual interference range called the \\'collision domain\\'. We aim to provide a buffer just large enough to saturate the available capacity of the bottleneck collision domain that limits the carrying capacity of the network. This neighborhood buffer is distributed over multiple nodes that constitute the network bottleneck; a transmission by any of these nodes fully utilizes the available spectral resource for the duration of the transmission. We show that sizing routing buffers collectively for this bottleneck allows us to have small buffers (as low as 2 - 3 packets) at individual nodes without any significant loss in network utilization. We propose heuristics to determine these buffer sizes in WMNs. Our results show that we can reduce the end-to-end delays by 6× to 10× at the cost of losing roughly 5% of the network capacity achievable with large buffers.

  9. Fabrication of the cube textured NiO buffer layer by line-focused infrared heating for coated conductor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epitaxial growth of NiO on the bi-axially textured Ni-3 at.%W (Ni-3W) substrate as seed layer for coated conductor were studied. The bi-axially textured NiO was formed on the Ni-3W tapes using a line-focused infrared heater by oxidizing the surface of the substrate at 800-950 deg. C for 15-120 s in oxygen atmosphere. The thickness of the NiO layer could be controlled by changing heat-treatment, which was estimated as approximately 200-500 nm in the cross-sectional SEM micrographs of the NiO/Ni template. This thickness is enough to block the diffusion of the Ni in the substrate to the superconducting layer. The samples showed strong texture development of NiO layer. The sample oxidized at 900 deg. C with the tape transferring speed of 30 mm/h exhibited ω-scan full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for Ni-3W(2 0 0) and NiO(2 0 0) were 3.97 deg., and 3.67 deg., and φ-scan FWHM values for Ni-3W(1 1 1) and NiO(1 1 1) were 9.58 deg., and 8.79 deg., respectively. Also, the (1 1 1) pole-figure of the NiO buffer layer showed the good symmetry of the four peaks, securing the epitaxial growth of the buffer layers on the NiO layer. Also NiO layer exhibited root-mean-square roughness value of 39 nm by AFM (10 x 10 μm) investigation

  10. Characterization of AlInN/AlN/GaN Heterostructures with Different AlN Buffer Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çörekçi, S.; Dugan, S.; Öztürk, M. K.; Çetin, S. Ş.; Çakmak, M.; Özçelik, S.; Özbay, E.

    2016-07-01

    Two AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures with 280-nm- and 400-nm-thick AlN buffer grown on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence (PL) and Hall-effect measurements. The symmetric (0002) plane with respect to the asymmetric (10bar{1}2) plane in the 280-nm-thick AlN buffer has a higher crystal quality, as opposed to the 400-nm-thick buffer. The thinner buffer improves the crystallinity of both (0002) and (10bar{1}2) planes in the GaN layers, it also provides a sizeable reduction in dislocation density of GaN. Furthermore, the lower buffer thickness leads to a good quality surface with an rms roughness of 0.30 nm and a dark spot density of 4.0 × 108 cm-2. The optical and transport properties of the AlInN/AlN/GaN structure with the relatively thin buffer are compatible with the enhancement in its structural quality, as verified by XRD and AFM results.

  11. Pulsed laser deposition of thick BaHfO3-doped YBa2Cu307-δ films on highly alloyed textured Ni-W tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films with a thickness of up to 3 μm containing nano-sized BaHfO3 (BHO) have been grown on Y2O3/Y-stabilized ZrO2/CeO2 buffered Ni-9at% W tapes by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Structural characterization by means of X-ray diffraction confirmed that the YBCO layer grew epitaxial. A superconducting transition temperature Tc of about 89 K with a transition width of 1 K was determined, decreasing with increasing BHO content. Critical current density in self-field and at 0.3 T increased with increasing dopant level.

  12. Compressive anneal processing (CAP) of Bi2223 superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional processing of oxide powder-in-tube Bi2223 superconductor tapes involves iterative cycles of mechanical deformation to develop texture and reduce porosity, followed by thermal annealing to react components, relieve stress and heal cracks. However, texture and deformation hardening and cracking may limit the ability to obtain the desired grain texture through deformation alone. In addition, desintering of the oxide core occurs during annealing. We have developed a compressive anneal processing (CAP) technique in which a continuous uniaxial pressure is applied during the annealing. The new process is found to promote texture formation, enhance reaction kinetics and prevent desintering and bloating. Our initial results show that the CAP technique significantly improves the critical current density. (author)

  13. Template-directed biopolymerization: tape-copying Turing machines

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Ajeet K; 10.1142/S1793048012300083

    2013-01-01

    DNA, RNA and proteins are among the most important macromolecules in a living cell. These molecules are polymerized by molecular machines. These natural nano-machines polymerize such macromolecules, adding one monomer at a time, using another linear polymer as the corresponding template. The machine utilizes input chemical energy to move along the template which also serves as a track for the movements of the machine. In the Alan Turing year 2012, it is worth pointing out that these machines are "tape-copying Turing machines". We review the operational mechanisms of the polymerizer machines and their collective behavior from the perspective of statistical physics, emphasizing their common features in spite of the crucial differences in their biological functions. We also draw attention of the physics community to another class of modular machines that carry out a different type of template-directed polymerization. We hope this review will inspire new kinetic models for these modular machines.

  14. Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy O.

    2014-03-21

    We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20 kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50 kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure "fracture" bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions.

  15. VHS-tape system for general purpose computer. For next generation mass storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass storage is one of the key technology of next generation computer system. A huge amount of data is produced on a field of particle and nuclear physics. These data are raw data of experiments, analysis data, Monte Carlo simulations data, etc. We search a storage device for these data at the point of view of capacity, price, size, transfer speed, etc. We have selected a VHS-tape (12.7 mm-tape, helical scan) from many storage devices. Characteristics of the VHS-tape are as follows; capacity of 14.5 GB, size of 460 cm3, price of 1,000 yen (S-VHS tape for video use), and 1.996 MB/sec transfer speed at a sustained mode. Last year, we succeeded to operate the VHS-tape system on a workstation as a I/O device with read/write speed of 1.5 MB/sec. We have tested a VHS-tape system by connecting to the channel of the general purpose computer (Fujitsu M-780/10S) in our institute. We obtained a read and write speeds of 1.07 MB/sec and 1.72 MB/sec by FORTRAN test programs, respectively. Read speeds of an open reel tape and a 3480 type cassete tape by the same test programs are 1.13 MB/sec and 2.54 MB/sec, respectively. Speeds of write operation are 1.09 MB/sec and 2.54 MB/sec for the open reel and 3480 cassete tape, respectively. A start motion of the VHS-tape for read/write operations needs about 60 seconds. (author)

  16. Investigation Of Heat Transfer Augmentation In A Tube With Different Modified Twisted Tape Inserts Under The Same Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gürlek, Gökhan; Özbalta, Necdet

    2013-01-01

    The swirl flow devices like twisted tape, winglet, groove, conical ring, wire coil etc. have been used as passive heat transfer augmentation technique. Especially, twisted tape devices have been applied in thermal engineering systems such as boilers, heat exchangers, water heater. Many researches using swirl flow devices particularly twisted tape with different geometries for heat transfer enhancement have been published. In this paper, different modified twisted tapes which had examined in p...

  17. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6, appendix G: GSFC HDT-AM inventory tape (GHIT-AM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The data format specifications of the Goddard HDT inventory tapes (GHITS), which accompany shipments of archival digital multispectral scanner image data (HDT-AM tapes), are defined. The GHIT is a nine-track, 1600-BPI tape which conforms to the ANSI standard and serves as an inventory and description of the image data included in the shipment. The archival MSS tapes (HDT-AMs) contain radiometrically corrected but geometrically uncorrected image data plus certain ancillary data necessary to perform the geometric corrections.

  18. Microscopic optical buffering in a harmonic potential

    CERN Document Server

    Sumetsky, M

    2015-01-01

    In the early days of quantum mechanics, Schr\\"odinger noticed that oscillations of a wave packet in a one-dimensional harmonic potential well are periodic and, in contrast to those in anharmonic potential wells, do not experience distortion over time. This original idea did not find applications up to now since an exact one-dimensional harmonic resonator does not exist in nature and has not been created artificially. However, an optical pulse propagating in a bottle microresonator (a dielectric cylinder with a nanoscale-high bump of the effective radius) can exactly imitate a quantum wave packet in the harmonic potential. Here, we propose a tuneable microresonator that can trap an optical pulse completely, hold it as long as the material losses permit, and release it without distortion. This result suggests the solution of the long standing problem of creating a microscopic optical buffer, the key element of the future optical signal processing devices.

  19. Liquid growth hormone: preservatives and buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Anders, Bojesen; Skydsgaard, Karen; Sjögren, I; Laursen, Torben

    Abstract Growth hormone (GH) treatment is a successful medical therapy for children and adults with GH deficiency as well as for growth retardation due to chronic renal disease, Turner syndrome and in children born small for gestational age. For all of these conditions, treatment is long term and...... patients receive daily subcutaneous injections of GH for many years. Patient compliance is therefore of critical importance to ensure treatment benefit. One of the major factors influencing compliance is injection pain. Besides the injection device used, pain perception and local tissue reaction following...... injection are dependent on the preservative used in the formulation and the concentration of GH. Injection pain may also be related to the buffer substance and injection volume. A liquid formulation of GH, Norditropi SimpleXx, has been developed that dispenses with the need for reconstitution before...

  20. Moisture buffering capacity of highly absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerolini, S.; D' Orazio, M.; Stazi, A. [Department of Architecture, Construction and Structures (DACS), Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy); Di Perna, C. [Department of Energetics, Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy)

    2009-02-15

    This research investigates the possibility to use highly absorbing materials to dampen indoor RH% variations. The practical MBV of sodium polyacrylate, cellulose-based material, perlite and gypsum is evaluated for a daily cyclic exposure that alternates high (75%) and low (33%) RH% levels for 8 h and 16 h, respectively. The adjustment velocity to RH% variations and the presence of hysteretic phenomena are also presented. The cellulose-based material proves to be the most suitable for moisture buffering applications. Starting from this material's properties, the effect of thickness, vapour resistance factor ({mu}) and mass surface exchange coefficient (Z{sub v}) on sorption capacity is evaluated by the use of a numerical model. (author)

  1. Cost of riparian buffer zones: A comparison of hydrologically adapted site-specific riparian buffers with traditional fixed widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, T.; Lundström, J.; Kuglerová, L.; Laudon, H.; Öhman, K.; Ågren, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Traditional approaches aiming at protecting surface waters from the negative impacts of forestry often focus on retaining fixed width buffer zones around waterways. While this method is relatively simple to design and implement, it has been criticized for ignoring the spatial heterogeneity of biogeochemical processes and biodiversity in the riparian zone. Alternatively, a variable width buffer zone adapted to site-specific hydrological conditions has been suggested to improve the protection of biogeochemical and ecological functions of the riparian zone. However, little is known about the monetary value of maintaining hydrologically adapted buffer zones compared to the traditionally used fixed width ones. In this study, we created a hydrologically adapted buffer zone by identifying wet areas and groundwater discharge hotspots in the riparian zone. The opportunity cost of the hydrologically adapted riparian buffer zones was then compared to that of the fixed width zones in a meso-scale boreal catchment to determine the most economical option of designing riparian buffers. The results show that hydrologically adapted buffer zones were cheaper per hectare than the fixed width ones when comparing the total cost. This was because the hydrologically adapted buffers included more wetlands and low productive forest areas than the fixed widths. As such, the hydrologically adapted buffer zones allows more effective protection of the parts of the riparian zones that are ecologically and biogeochemically important and more sensitive to disturbances without forest landowners incurring any additional cost than fixed width buffers.

  2. High aspect ratio problem in simulation of a fault current limiter based on superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velichko, A V; Coombs, T A [Electrical Engineering Division, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    We are offering a solution for the high-aspect-ratio problem relevant to the numerical simulation of AC loss in superconductors and metals with high aspect (width-to-thickness) ratio. This is particularly relevant to simulation of fault current limiters (FCLs) based on second generation YBCO tapes on RABiTS. By assuming a linear scaling of the electric and thermal properties with the size of the structure, we can replace the real sample with an effective sample of a reduced aspect ratio by introducing size multipliers into the equations that govern the physics of the system. The simulation is performed using both a proprietary equivalent circuit software and a commercial FEM software. The correctness of the procedure is verified by simulating temperature and current distributions for samples with all three dimensions varying within 10{sup -3}-10{sup 3} of the original size. Qualitatively the distributions for the original and scaled samples are indistinguishable, whereas quantitative differences in the worst case do not exceed 10%.

  3. High aspect ratio problem in simulation of a fault current limiter based on superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are offering a solution for the high-aspect-ratio problem relevant to the numerical simulation of AC loss in superconductors and metals with high aspect (width-to-thickness) ratio. This is particularly relevant to simulation of fault current limiters (FCLs) based on second generation YBCO tapes on RABiTS. By assuming a linear scaling of the electric and thermal properties with the size of the structure, we can replace the real sample with an effective sample of a reduced aspect ratio by introducing size multipliers into the equations that govern the physics of the system. The simulation is performed using both a proprietary equivalent circuit software and a commercial FEM software. The correctness of the procedure is verified by simulating temperature and current distributions for samples with all three dimensions varying within 10-3-103 of the original size. Qualitatively the distributions for the original and scaled samples are indistinguishable, whereas quantitative differences in the worst case do not exceed 10%

  4. Developing suitable buffers to capture transport cycling behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas; Schipperijn, Jasper; Christiansen, Lars Breum;

    2014-01-01

    The association between neighborhood built environment and cycling has received considerable attention in health literature over the last two decades, but different neighborhood definitions have been used and it is unclear which one is most appropriate. Administrative or fixed residential spatial...... buffers for transport cycling. The percentage of GPS points per square meter was used as indicator of the effectiveness of a series of different buffer types, including home-based network buffers, shortest route to city center buffers, and city center-directed ellipse-shaped buffers. The results show that...... GPS tracks can help us understand where people go and stay during the day, which can help us link built environment with cycling. Analysis showed that the further people live from the city center, the more elongated are their GPS tracks, and the better an ellipse-shaped directional buffer captured...

  5. Pediatric Tape: Accuracy and Medication Delivery in the National Park Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle D. Campagne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective is to evaluate the accuracy of medication dosing and the time to medication administration in the prehospital setting using a novel length-based pediatric emergency resuscitation tape. Methods: This study was a two-period, two-treatment crossover trial using simulated pediatric patients in the prehospital setting. Each participant was presented with two emergent scenarios; participants were randomized to which case they encountered first, and to which case used the National Park Service (NPS emergency medical services (EMS length-based pediatric emergency resuscitation tape. In the control (without tape case, providers used standard methods to determine medication dosing (e.g. asking parents to estimate the patient’s weight; in the intervention (with tape case, they used the NPS EMS length-based pediatric emergency resuscitation tape. Each scenario required dosing two medications (Case 1 [febrile seizure] required midazolam and acetaminophen; Case 2 [anaphylactic reaction] required epinephrine and diphenhydramine. Twenty NPS EMS providers, trained at the Parkmedic/Advanced Emergency Medical Technician level, served as study participants. Results: The only medication errors that occurred were in the control (no tape group (without tape: 5 vs. with tape: 0, p=0.024. Time to determination of medication dose was significantly shorter in the intervention (with tape group than the control (without tape group, for three of the four medications used. In case 1, time to both midazolam and acetaminophen was significantly faster in the intervention (with tape group (midazolam: 8.3 vs. 28.9 seconds, p=0.005; acetaminophen: 28.6 seconds vs. 50.6 seconds, p=0.036. In case 2, time to epinephrine did not differ (23.3 seconds vs. 22.9 seconds, p=0.96, while time to diphenhydramine was significantly shorter in the intervention (with tape group (13 seconds vs. 37.5 seconds, p<0.05. Conclusion: Use of a length-based pediatric emergency

  6. Anisotropy of the critical current in MgB2 tapes made of high energy milled precursor powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hässler, W.; Kovac, P.; Eisterer, M.;

    2010-01-01

    For applications of MgB2 wires or tapes, high critical currents in high magnetic fields are essential. By using tapes in superconducting coils the anisotropic behaviour of the critical current, i.e. the dependence on the direction of the external field in relation to the tape surface, has to be...

  7. Buffering Implications for the Design Space of Streaming MEMS Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib, Mohammed G.; Abelmann, Leon; Preas, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Emerging nanotechnology-based systems encounter new non-functional requirements. This work addresses MEMS storage, an emerging technology that promises ultrahigh density and energy-efficient storage devices. We study the buffering requirement of MEMS storage in streaming applications. We show that capacity and lifetime of a MEMS device dictate the buffer size most of the time. Our study shows that trading off 10% of the optimal energy saving of a MEMS device reduces its buffer capacity by up ...

  8. A study on manufacturing and construction method of buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Sugita, Yutaka [Tokai Works, Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Waste Isolation Research Division, Barrier Performance Group, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Amemiya, Kiyoshi [Hazama Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    As an engineered barrier system in the geological disposal of high-level waste, multibarrier system is considered. Multibarrier system consists of the vitrified waste, the overpack and the buffer. Bentonite is one of the potential material as the buffer because of its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. In order to evaluate the functions of buffer, a lot of experiments has been conducted. The evaluations of these functions are based on the assumption that the buffer is emplaced or constructed in the disposal tunnel (or disposal pit) properly. Therefore, it is necessary to study on the manufacturing / construction method of buffer. As the manufacturing / construction technology of the buffer, the block installation method and in-situ compaction method, etc, are being investigated. The block installation method is to emplace the buffer blocks manufactured in advance at the ground facility, and construction processes of the block installation method at the underground will be simplified compared with the in-situ compaction method. On the other hand, the in-situ compaction method is to introduce the buffer material with specified water content into the disposal tunnel and to make the buffer with high density at the site using a compaction machine. In regard to the in-situ compaction method, it is necessary to investigate the optimum finished thickness of one layer because it is impossible to construct the buffer at one time. This report describes the results of compaction property test and the summary of the past investigation results in connection with the manufacturing / construction method. Then this report shows the construction method that will be feasible in the actual disposal site. (J.P.N.)

  9. LATENCY-AWARE WRITE BUFFER RESOURCE CONTROL IN MULTITHREADED CORES

    OpenAIRE

    Shane Carroll; Wei-Ming Lin

    2016-01-01

    In a simultaneous multithreaded system, a core’s pipeline resources are sometimes partitioned and otherwise shared amongst numerous active threads. One mutual resource is the write buffer, which acts as an intermediary between a store instruction’s retirement from the pipeline and the store value being written to cache. The write buffer takes a completed store instruction from the load/store queue and eventually writes the value to the level-one data cache. Once a store is buffere...

  10. Heat transfer characteristics in micro-fin tube equipped with double twisted tapes: Effect of twisted tape and micro-fin tube arrangements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EIAMSA-ARD S.; WONGCHAREE K.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the influence of double twisted-tape inserts (DTs) in micro-fin tubes (MFs) on heat transfer,friction factor and thermal performance factor characteristics of the compound devices in the following configurations:(1) twisted tapes acted in the same direction (for co-swirl) while MF and twisted tapes acted in the same (parallel) direction (MF-CoDTs:P),(2) twisted tapes acted in the same direction (for co-swirl) while micro-fin tube and twisted tapes acted in opposite directions (MF-CoDTs:O) and (3) twisted tapes acted in opposite directions for counter swirl (MF-CDTs).The MF alone and the MF equipped with a single twisted tape in parallel/opposite arrangement were also considered for comparison.The experiments were conducted for the flows with the Reynolds numbers between 5 650 and 17 000,under uniform heat flux condition.The experimental results indicate that MF-CDTs induce stronger swirl/turbulence flow,resulting in higher heat transfer rate,friction factor and thermal performance factor than other combined devices.The thermal performance factors associated with the use of MF-CDTs were found to be higher than those associated with the uses of MF-CoDTs:P,MF-CoDTs:O and MF alone up to 9.3%,6.5% and 56.4%,respectively.The empirical correlations developed using the present experimental data for the Nusselt number,friction factor and thermal performance factor are also reported.

  11. Effects of node buffer and capacity on network traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study the optimization of network traffic by considering the effects of node buffer ability and capacity. Two node buffer settings are considered. The node capacity is considered to be proportional to its buffer ability. The node effects on network traffic systems are studied with the shortest path protocol and an extension of the optimal routing [Phys. Rev. E 74 046106 (2006)]. In the diagrams of flux—density relationships, it is shown that a nodes buffer ability and capacity have profound effects on the network traffic

  12. BUFFER SIZING FOR THE CRITICAL CHAIN PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Geekie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Methods for sizing project and feeding buffers for critical chain project management are investigated. Experiments indicate that – in the absence of bias, and for certain classes of bias – buffer consumption is independent of the mean duration of a chain. Generally the popular method – a buffer size equal to 50% of the longest path leading to it – gives rise to excessively large buffers. Buffers sized according to the square root of the sum of squares perform well in the absence of bias, but with bias present the performance is unacceptably poor. A new approach to buffer sizing is proposed.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Metodes vir groottebepaling van projek- en saamvloeibuffers vir kritieke-ketting projekbestuur word ondersoek. Eksperimente dui daarop dat – in die afwesigheid van onewewigtigheid, en vir sekere tipes onewewigtigheid – bufferverbruik onafhanklik is van die gemiddelde lengte van ’n ketting. Oor die algemeen veroorsaak die metode van buffergrootte – gelyk aan 50% van die langste pad wat tot die buffer lei – onnodige groot buffers. Buffers bepaal met die metode van die vierkantswortel van die som van kwadrate, vaar goed in die afwesigheid van onewewigtigheid, maar vaar onaanvaarbaar swak wanneer onewewigtigheid teenwoordig is. ’n Nuwe metode vir die bepaling van buffergrootte word voorgestel.

  13. How Do Stream Buffers Reduce the Offsite Impact of Pollution?

    OpenAIRE

    Easton, Zachary M.

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes the importance of buffers to reduce pollution and specifically examines where they can be used, how they work, their limitations, required maintenance, performance levels, and expected cost.

  14. Buffers for biomass production in temperate European agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    Buffer strips on agricultural land have been shown to protect surface water quality by reducing erosion and diffuse pollution. They can also play a key role in nature conservation and flood risk mitigation as well as in the design of bioenergy landscapes resilient to changes in climate....... This paper reviews the biophysical knowledge on buffer functioning and associated ecosystem services. It describes how a three-zone buffer design, with arable fields buffered in combination by grassland, short rotation forestry (SRF) or coppice (SRC) and undisturbed vegetation along water courses, can...

  15. Prevention of Buffer overflow Attack Blocker Using IDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj B. Pawar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Now a day internet threat takes a blended attack form, targetingindividual users to gain control over networks and data. BufferOverflow which is one of the most occurring securityvulnerabilities in a Computer’s world. Buffer Overflow occurswhile writing data to a buffer and it overruns the buffer'sboundary and overwrites it to a adjacent memory. The techniquesto exploit buffer overflow vulnerability vary per architecture,Operating system and memory region. There are variousexploitation which causes to buffer overflow attack as stackbased exploitation, heap based exploitation and choice ofprogramming language and many more. Which may result inerratic program behavior, including memory access errors,incorrect results, a crash or a breach of system security. C andC++ are the two programming languages which do not check thatdata has overwritten to an array that results to an buffer overflow.There are many more techniques which has been used forprotecting the Computer from buffer overflow attack We areproposing a novel techniques for preventing data loss duringthe transmission of images of different formats. In this paper wehave discuss and compare certain tools and techniques whichprevent buffer overflows. We have also discuss some moderntools and techniques with their pros and cons.

  16. Ventilation system with improved heat buffer; Ventilatieinrichting met verbeterde warmtebuffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkerman, H.

    1995-10-02

    The invention concerns heat buffers of a ventilation system in combination with heat recovery. Hot and a cold air flows through the buffer elements alternately, regulated by a valve. The buffer elements are placed in an improved framework by which the surface area (and thus the efficiency) is increased. Also rain caps can be integrated such that freezing up does not occur anymore and the pollution slows down, which also improves the efficiency and reduces the number of maintenance inspections. Finally, coupling pieces can be installed, by which chinks can be prevented, which again reduces the loss of efficiency between the heat buffer modules. 2 figs.

  17. Investigation of CeO2 Buffer Layer Effects on the Voltage Response of YBCO Transition Edge Bolometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohajeri, Roya; Nazifi, Rana; Wulff, Anders Christian;

    2016-01-01

    The effect on the thermal parameters of superconducting transition edge bolometers produced on a single crystalline SrTiO3 (STO) substrate with and without a CeO2 buffer layer was investigated. Metal organic deposition was used to deposit the 20 nm CeO2 buffer layer, while RF magnetron sputtering...... made by fitting the thermal parameters in the model with and without an additional CeO2 layer were found to be in agreement with the experimental observations....

  18. Temperature buffer test. Installation of buffer, heaters and instruments in the deposition hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Barcena, Ignacio; Garcia-Sineriz, Jose Luis [Aitemin, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    During 2003 the Temperature Buffer Test was installed in Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Temperature, water pressure, relative humidity, total pressure and displacements etc. are measured in numerous points in the test. Most of the cables from the transducers are led in the deposition hole through slots in the rock surface of the deposition hole in watertight tubes to the data collection system in a container placed in the tunnel close to the deposition hole. This report describes the work with the installations of the buffer, heaters, and instruments and yields a description of the final location of all instruments. The report also contains a description of the materials that were installed and the densities yielded after placement.

  19. ANKLE TAPING DOES NOT IMPAIR PERFORMANCE IN JUMP OR BALANCE TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Abián-Vicén

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the influence of prophylactic ankle taping on two balance tests (static and dynamic balance and one jump test, in the push off and the landing phase. Fifteen active young subjects (age: 21.0 ± 4.4 years without previous ankle injuries volunteered for the study. Each participant performed three tests in two different situations: with taping and without taping. The tests were a counter movement jump, static balance, and a dynamic posturography test. The tests and conditions were randomly performed. The path of the center of pressures was measured in the balance tests, and the vertical ground reaction forces were recorded during the push-off and landing phases of the counter movement jump. Ankle taping had no influence on balance performance or in the push off phase of the jump. However, the second peak vertical force value during the landing phase of the jump was 12% greater with ankle taping (0.66 BW, 95% CI -0.64 to 1.96. The use of prophylactic ankle taping had no influence on the balance or jump performance of healthy young subjects. In contrast, the taped ankle increased the second peak vertical force value, which could be related to a greater risk of injury produced by the accumulation of repeated impacts in sports where jumps are frequently performed

  20. Thermal performance of tubular heat exchanger with multiple twisted-tape inserts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suriya Chokphoemphun; Monsak Pimsarn; Chinaruk Thianpong; Pongjet Promvonge

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an experimental investigation on enhanced heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics by using single, double, triple, and quadruple twisted-tape inserts in a round tube having a uniform heat-fluxed wal . The investigation has been conducted in the heat exchanger tube inserted with various twisted-tape numbers for co-and counter-twist arrangements for the turbulent air flow, Reynolds number (Re) from 5300 to 24000. The typical single twisted-tape inserts at two twist ratios, y/w=4 and 5, are used as the base case, while the other multiple twisted-tape inserts are at y/w=4 only. The experimental results of heat transfer and pressure drop in terms of Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor (f), respectively, reveal that Nu increases with the increment of Re and of twisted-tape number. The values of Nu for the inserted tube are in a range of 1.15–2.12 times that for the plain tube while f is 1.9–4.1 times. The thermal enhancement factor of the inserted tube under similar pumping power is evaluated and found to be above unity except for the single and the double co-twisted tapes. The quadruple counter-twisted tape insert provides the maximum thermal performance.

  1. Degradation characteristics of 2G HTS tapes with respect to an electrical breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical insulation design for a superconducting coil system is important for developing high voltage superconducting apparatuses. Also, the degraded characteristics of superconducting tapes due to an electrical breakdown should be considered for superconducting coils design. In this study, the degradation characteristics of 2G high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes were studied with respect to electrical breakdown tests. The degradation tests of 2G HTS tapes were performed with various stabilizer materials. The degradation characteristics of 2G HTS tapes such as critical current(Ic) and index number were observed by performing electrical breakdown tests. It was found that the characteristics such as Ic and index number can be degraded by an electrical breakdown. Moreover, it was concluded that the degradation characteristics of 2G HTS tapes were affected by a stabilizer material and applied breakdown voltage. The cross sectional view of 2G HTS tapes was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). As results, it is found that the degradation characteristics of 2G HTS tapes are concerned with hardness and electrical resistivity of stabilizer layers

  2. Critical current density and pinning energy in Ag-clad BPSCCO tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, S.X. [Wollongong Univ. (Australia). Centre for Supercond. and Electron. Mater.; Liu, H.K. [Wollongong Univ. (Australia). Centre for Supercond. and Electron. Mater.; Ionescu, M. [Wollongong Univ. (Australia). Centre for Supercond. and Electron. Mater.; Wang, W.G. [Wollongong Univ. (Australia). Centre for Supercond. and Electron. Mater.; Babic, E. [Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, 41001, Zagreb (Croatia); Kusevic, I. [Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, 41001, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1996-01-01

    A ``sandwich rolling`` process was developed to prevent the formation of sausaging and cracks in the longitudinal direction since the stress-strain state of the tape in ``sandwich`` rolling is the same as that of uniaxial pressed tape. Critical current densities of 3.2 x 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and 2.7 x 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at 4.2 K and zero field Ag-sheathed Bi-based 2212 tapes have been achieved using a melt and atmosphere-controlled process. The comparison of pinning potential U{sub 0}(B)=U(T=0, B) for Bi-2212 tape and Bi-2223 tapes consisting of different fractions of the 2212 phase as well as Bi-2212 and Bi-2223 thin films shows that, for the same fields, the U{sub 0} for good quality 2223 tapes is at least 1.3 times that for the best 2212 tape and epitaxial thin films, indicating that in BSCCO compounds, in addition to anisotropy, the specific pinning centres such as dislocations, introduced during processing, affect the flux motion at lower B. (orig.).

  3. Thermal Edge-Effects Model for Automated Tape Placement of Thermoplastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costen, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    Two-dimensional thermal models for automated tape placement (ATP) of thermoplastic composites neglect the diffusive heat transport that occurs between the newly placed tape and the cool substrate beside it. Such lateral transport can cool the tape edges prematurely and weaken the bond. The three-dimensional, steady state, thermal transport equation is solved by the Green's function method for a tape of finite width being placed on an infinitely wide substrate. The isotherm for the glass transition temperature on the weld interface is used to determine the distance inward from the tape edge that is prematurely cooled, called the cooling incursion Delta a. For the Langley ATP robot, Delta a = 0.4 mm for a unidirectional lay-up of PEEK/carbon fiber composite, and Delta a = 1.2 mm for an isotropic lay-up. A formula for Delta a is developed and applied to a wide range of operating conditions. A surprise finding is that Delta a need not decrease as the Peclet number Pe becomes very large, where Pe is the dimensionless ratio of inertial to diffusive heat transport. Conformable rollers that increase the consolidation length would also increase Delta a, unless other changes are made, such as proportionally increasing the material speed. To compensate for premature edge cooling, the thermal input could be extended past the tape edges by the amount Delta a. This method should help achieve uniform weld strength and crystallinity across the width of the tape.

  4. DNA-Catalyzed Henry Reaction in Pure Water and the Striking Influence of Organic Buffer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Häring

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript we report a critical evaluation of the ability of natural DNA to mediate the nitroaldol (Henry reaction at physiological temperature in pure water. Under these conditions, no background reaction took place (i.e., control experiment without DNA. Both heteroaromatic aldehydes (e.g., 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde and aromatic aldehydes bearing strong or moderate electron-withdrawing groups reacted satisfactorily with nitromethane obeying first order kinetics and affording the corresponding β-nitroalcohols in good yields within 24 h. In contrast, aliphatic aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes having electron-donating groups either did not react or were poorly converted. Moreover, we discovered that a number of metal-free organic buffers efficiently promote the Henry reaction when they were used as reaction media without adding external catalysts. This constitutes an important observation because the influence of organic buffers in chemical processes has been traditionally underestimated.

  5. Improvement of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction by introducing a Ta buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report systematic measurements of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (iDMI) by employing Brillouin light scattering in Pt/Co/AlOx and Ta/Pt/Co/AlOx structures. By introducing a tantalum buffer layer, the saturation magnetization and the interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are significantly improved due to the better interface between heavy metal and ferromagnetic layer. From the frequency shift between Stokes- and anti-Stokes spin-waves, we successively obtain considerably larger iDM energy densities (Dmax = 1.65 ± 0.13 mJ/m2 at tCo = 1.35 nm) upon adding the Ta buffer layer, despite the nominally identical interface materials. Moreover, the energy density shows an inverse proportionality with the Co layer thickness, which is the critical clue that the observed iDMI is indeed originating from the interface between the Pt and Co layers

  6. An InGaAs graded buffer layer in solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses an InGaAs graded buffer layer to solve the problem of lattice mismatch and device performance degradation. In the graded buffer layer, we choose the ''transition layer'' and the ''cover layer'' to accommodate the 3.9% mismatch. No threading dislocations were observed in the uppermost part of the epitaxial layer stack when using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). We analyze the factors which influence the saturation current. Simulation data shows that the cells grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) have considerable open circuit voltage, short circuit current, and photoelectric conversion efficiency. Finally we propose that InP may have great development potential as a substrate material. (semiconductor devices)

  7. Performance enhancement of pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor by inserting a WO3 buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pentacene-based organic field effect transistor (OFET) with a thin transition metal oxide (WO3) layer between pentacene and metal (Al) source/drain electrodes was fabricated. Compared with conventional OFET with only metal Al source/drain electrodes, the introduction of the WO3 buffer layer leads to the device performance enhancement. The effective field-effect mobility and threshold voltage are improved to 1.90 cm2/(V·s) and 13 V, respectively. The performance improvements are attributed to the decrease of the interface energy barrier and the contact resistance. The results indicate that it is an effective approach to improve the OFET performance by using a WO3 buffer layer. (semiconductor devices)

  8. Development of high-performance iron-based superconducting wires and tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We review key properties and technical progress in high Jc pnictide wires during the last few years. • Providing a snapshot of these recent developments and a sense of their significance for applications. • Using the scalable rolling process, the 11 m long 122/Ag tapes with high Jc were produced for the first time. - Abstract: Conventional powder-in-tube (PIT) method has been the most effective technique for fabricating iron-based superconducting wires and tapes. Tremendous advances have been made during the last few years, especially for 122 family pnictide tapes. Here we review some of the most recent and significant developments in making high-performance iron-based tapes by the ex-situ PIT process, paying particular attention to several fabrication techniques to realize high-field Jc performance in terms of increase of core density and improvement of texture. At 4.2 K, the practical level transport Jc up to 0.12 MA/cm2 in 10 T and 0.1 MA/cm2 in 14 T have been achieved in the K-doped 122/Ag tapes. As for multifilamentary 122 iron-based wires and tapes, the highest Jc values reached so far are 61 kA/cm2 and 35 kA/cm2 at 4.2 K and 10 T, respectively for 7- and 19-core Sr-122 tapes. Recently, high Jc Cu-cladded and stainless steel/Ag double-sheathed 122 tapes have also been produced in order to improve either mechanical properties or thermal stability. More importantly, the scalable rolling process has been used for the first time to demonstrate high Jc values in 122 conductor tapes of 11 m in length

  9. Kinesio Taping to generate skin convolutions is not better than sham taping for people with chronic non-specific low back pain: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia do Carmo Silva Parreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Question: For people with chronic low back pain, does Kinesio Taping, applied according to the treatment manual to create skin convolutions, reduce pain and disability more than a simple application without convolutions? Design: Randomised trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinded assessment of some outcomes. Participants: 148 participants with chronic non-specific low back pain. Intervention: Experimental group participants received eight sessions (over four weeks of Kinesio Taping applied according to the Kinesio Taping Method treatment manual (ie, 10 to 15% tension applied in flexion to create skin convolutions in neutral. Control group participants received eight sessions (over four weeks of Kinesio Taping with no tension, creating no convolutions. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measures were pain intensity and disability after the four-week intervention. Secondary outcomes were pain intensity and disability 12 weeks after randomisation, and global perceived effect at both four and 12 weeks after randomisation. Results: Applying Kinesio Tape to create convolutions in the skin did not significantly change its effect on pain (MD–0.4 points, 95% CI–1.3 to 0.4 or disability (MD–0.3 points, 95% CI–1.9 to 1.3 at four weeks. There was a small difference in favour of the experimental group for the secondary outcome of global perceived effect (MD 1.4 points, 95% CI 0.3 to 2.5 at four weeks. No significant between-group differences were observed for the other secondary outcomes. Conclusion: Kinesio Taping applied with stretch to generate convolutions in the skin was no more effective than simple application of the tape without tension for the outcomes measured. These results challenge the proposed mechanism of action of this therapy. Trial registration: Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials, RBR-7ggfkv. [Parreira PCS, Costa LCM, Takahashi R, Hespanhol Junior LC, da Luz Junior MA, da Silva TM, Costa LOP

  10. Buffer Insertion for Bridges and Optimal Buffer Sizing for Communication Sub-System of Systems-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Kallakuri, Sankalp S; Feinberg, Eugene A

    2011-01-01

    We have presented an optimal buffer sizing and buffer insertion methodology which uses stochastic models of the architecture and Continuous Time Markov Decision Processes CTMDPs. Such a methodology is useful in managing the scarce buffer resources available on chip as compared to network based data communication which can have large buffer space. The modeling of this problem in terms of a CT-MDP framework lead to a nonlinear formulation due to usage of bridges in the bus architecture. We present a methodology to split the problem into several smaller though linear systems and we then solve these subsystems.

  11. The buffer/container experiment: results, synthesis, issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large in-ground experiment has examined how heat affects the performance of the dense sand bentonite 'buffer' that has been proposed for use in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The experiment was performed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at its Underground Research Laboratory, Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba between 1991 and 1994. The experiment placed a full-size heater representing a container of nuclear fuel waste in a 1.24-m diameter borehole filled with buffer below the floor of a room excavated at 240-m depth in granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The buffer and surrounding rock were extensively instrumented for temperatures, total pressures, water pressures, suctions, and rock displacements. Power was provided to the heater for almost 900 days. The experiment showed that good rock conditions can be pre-selected, a borehole can be drilled, and buffer can be placed at controlled densities and water contents. The instrumentation generally worked well, and an extensive data base was successfully organized. Drying was observed in buffer close to the heater. This caused some desiccation cracking. However the cracks only extended approximately one third of the distance to the buffer-rock interface and did not form an advective pathway. Following sampling at the time of decommissioning, cracked samples of buffer were transported to the laboratory and given access to water. The hydraulic conductivities and swelling pressures of these resaturated samples were very similar to those of uncracked buffer. A good balance was achieved between the mass of water flowing into the experiment from the surrounding rock and the increased mass of water in the buffer. A good understanding was developed of the relationships between suctions, water contents, and total pressures in buffer near the buffer-rock interface. Comparisons between measurements and predictions of measured parameters show that a good understanding has been developed of the processes operating

  12. The buffer/container experiment: results, synthesis, issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J. [Univ. of Manitoba, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Chandler, N.A.; Dixon, D.A.; Roach, P.J.; To, T.; Wan, A.W.L

    1997-12-01

    A large in-ground experiment has examined how heat affects the performance of the dense sand bentonite 'buffer' that has been proposed for use in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The experiment was performed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at its Underground Research Laboratory, Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba between 1991 and 1994. The experiment placed a full-size heater representing a container of nuclear fuel waste in a 1.24-m diameter borehole filled with buffer below the floor of a room excavated at 240-m depth in granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The buffer and surrounding rock were extensively instrumented for temperatures, total pressures, water pressures, suctions, and rock displacements. Power was provided to the heater for almost 900 days. The experiment showed that good rock conditions can be pre-selected, a borehole can be drilled, and buffer can be placed at controlled densities and water contents. The instrumentation generally worked well, and an extensive data base was successfully organized. Drying was observed in buffer close to the heater. This caused some desiccation cracking. However the cracks only extended approximately one third of the distance to the buffer-rock interface and did not form an advective pathway. Following sampling at the time of decommissioning, cracked samples of buffer were transported to the laboratory and given access to water. The hydraulic conductivities and swelling pressures of these resaturated samples were very similar to those of uncracked buffer. A good balance was achieved between the mass of water flowing into the experiment from the surrounding rock and the increased mass of water in the buffer. A good understanding was developed of the relationships between suctions, water contents, and total pressures in buffer near the buffer-rock interface. Comparisons between measurements and predictions of measured parameters show that a good understanding has been developed of the processes

  13. Automatic storing of single gamma spectra on magnetic tape. Programs LONGO, DIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program LONGO provides the block size and the block number in a binary file on magnetic tape. It has been applied to analyse the structure of the nine-track magnetic tapes storing single or coincidence gamma spectra files, recorded in octet form by a MULTI-8 minicomputer in the Nuclear Spectrometry Laboratory of J.E.N. Then the program DIRE has been written to transform the single gamma spectra into a new FASTRAND disk file, storing the information in-36 bit words. A copy of this file is obtained on magnetic tape and the single gamma spectra are then available by standard FORTRAN V reading sentences. (Author) 3 refs

  14. Effects of low-dye taping on plantar pressure pre and post exercise: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan Damien

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-Dye taping is used for excessive pronation at the subtalar joint of the foot. Previous research has focused on the tape's immediate effect on plantar pressure. Its effectiveness following exercise has not been investigated. Peak plantar pressure distribution provides an indirect representation of subtalar joint kinematics. The objectives of the study were 1 To determine the effects of Low-Dye taping on peak plantar pressure immediately post-application. 2 To determine whether any initial effects are maintained following exercise. Methods 12 asymptomatic subjects participated; each being screened for excessive pronation (navicular drop > 10 mm. Plantar pressure data was recorded, using the F-scan, at four intervals during the testing session: un-taped, baseline-taped, post-exercise session 1, and post-exercise session 2. Each exercise session consisted of a 10-minute walk at a normal pace. The foot was divided into 6 regions during data analysis. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to assess regional pressure variations across the four testing conditions. Results Reduced lateral forefoot peak plantar pressure was the only significant difference immediately post tape application (p = 0.039. This effect was lost after 10 minutes of exercise (p = 0.036. Each exercise session resulted in significantly higher medial forefoot peak pressure compared to un-taped; (p = 0.015 and (p = 0.014 respectively, and baseline-taped; (p = 0.036 and (p = 0.015 respectively. Medial and lateral rearfoot values had also increased after the second session (p = 0.004, following their non-significant reduction at baseline-taped. A trend towards a medial-to-lateral shift in pressure present in the midfoot immediately following tape application was still present after 20 minutes of exercise. Conclusion Low-Dye tape's initial effect of reduced lateral forefoot peak plantar pressure was lost after a 10-minute walk. However, the tape

  15. The effect of tape casting operational parameters on the quality of adjacently graded ceramic film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina; Gudik-Sørensen, Mads; Della Negra, Michela;

    2016-01-01

    For small length tape casting of ceramic slurries varying green film thickness is often a problem. To optimise this, the following parameters were investigated: single blade, double blade, using a pump system and a modelled speed change mode have been analysed. Advantages and limitations of every...... method are described here. The tape casting experiments were built to be generic in order to allow the control of various processing conditions. From these results, the single-blade technique was chosen for a study of side-by-side tape casting. The influence of the geometric parameters of partitioning...

  16. Electromechanical behaviour of REBCO tape lap splices under transverse compressive loading

    CERN Document Server

    Grether, A; Ballarino, A.; Bottura, L.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the influence of transverse compressive stress on the resistance and critical current (Ic) of soldered REBCO tape lap splices. Internal contact resistances dominate the overall REBCO lap splice resistances. Application of transverse compressive stress up to 250 MPa during the resistance measurements does not alter the resistance and Ic of the soldered REBCO splices that were studied. The resistance of unsoldered REBCO tape lap splices depends strongly on the contact pressure. At a transverse compressive stress of 100 MPa to which Roebel cables are typically exposed in high field magnets, the crossover splice contact resistance is comparable to the internal tape resistances.

  17. Numerical prediction of stability of high Tc superconducting tape in transient magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of high Tc superconducting tape against AC loss was evaluated numerically considering the change of transport current distribution when external transient magnetic fields were applied perpendicular to the tape. The process of the temperature increase and the recovery to the temperature of coolant was predicted, and it was confirmed that the increase of temperature is mainly dependent of the change rate of external fields. The numerical results indicate high Tc superconducting tape is exceedingly stable and the quench cannot occur even in the intense fields conditions. (orig.)

  18. Preparation of (Tl,Pb)-1223 multilayer tapes by use of an electrophoretic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prepared multilayer taped from (Tl,Pb)-1223 thick films electrophoretically deposited on silver tapes. A multilayer tape was rolled in the transverse direction, pressed and sintered. The transport current was 33 A at 77 K and 80 A at 30 K, corresponding to a critical current density of about 104 A cm-2 at 77 K. In a magnetic field of 0.1 T the critical current density decreased by a factor of 20 and remained nearly constant at higher fields. The critical current density derived from magnetization data was 7x105 A cm-2 at 10 K and 8x104 A cm-2 at 77 K. (author)

  19. Electromechanical behaviour of REBCO tape lap splices under transverse compressive loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, A.; Scheuerlein, C.; Ballarino, A.; Bottura, L.

    2016-07-01

    We have studied the influence of transverse compressive stress on the resistance and critical current (I c ) of soldered REBCO tape lap splices. Internal contact resistances dominate the overall REBCO lap splice resistances. Application of transverse compressive stress up to 250 MPa during the resistance measurements does not alter the resistance and I c of the soldered REBCO splices that were studied. The resistance of unsoldered REBCO tape lap splices depends strongly on the contact pressure. At a transverse compressive stress of 100 MPa, to which Roebel cables are typically exposed in high field magnets, the crossover splice contact resistance is comparable to the internal tape resistances.

  20. Preparation of (Bi, Pb)-2223/Ag tapes by high temperature sintering and post-annealing process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, L.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Andersen, L.G.; Tschentscher, T.; Wang, W.G.; Hansen, J.B.

    A novel heat treatment process was developed to fabricate (Bi, Pb)-2223/Ag tapes with high critical current density (J(c)). The process can be divided into two parts: reformation and post-annealing. Tapes were first heated to the maximum temperature (830-860 degreesC) followed by slow cooling...... (reformation). Then, tape, were annealed between 760 and 820 degreesC (post-annealing). Reformation is expected to produce a large amount of liquid phase which may heat microcracks, decrease porosity, and improve grain growth. However, since the sintering temperature is beyond the Bi-2223 single-phase region...