Strickland, M.D.; Johnson, G.D.; Erickson, W.P. [WEST Inc., Cheyenne, WY (United States)] [and others
Northern States Power (NSP) plans development of a 425 MW windpowered electrical generation facility within the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area (WRA) in southwestern Minnesota. In 1996, Western EcoSystems Technology (WEST, Inc.) was contracted by NSP to develop an avian monitoring protocol for the Buffalo Ridge windplant. This protocol was developed and peer-reviewed by numerous individuals representing the wind energy industry, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and conservation groups prior to finalization. The WRA currently consists of three phases of development. Phase I, constructed by Kenetech in 1994, consists of 73 Model 33 M-VS turbines and related facilities, including distribution lines, meteorological towers, communication systems, transformers, substations, roads, and operations and maintenance facilities in the approximate center of the WRA, and generates 25 MW of electricity. Phase II, consisting of 143 turbines and related facilities sufficient to generate 100 MW of electricity, will be constructed by Zond Systems, Inc. beginning in the spring of 1997. Phase II will be located in the northwestern portion of the WRA. Phase III facilities capable of generating an additional 100 MW are planned for the southeast portion of the WRA. Plans call for the eventual production of 425 MW of electricity within the WRA. Studies were conducted in these three areas and a permanent reference area not scheduled for windpower development located along Buffalo Ridge northwest of the WRA in Brooking County South Dakota.
This report represents the Phase II Site Investigation Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2337-U at the Buffalo Mountain Repeater Station, a signal repeater for Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This report documents the results of investigations, conducted subsequent to the (Phase I) Site Investigation Report, concerning petroleum releases from the UST, characterization of the release site, and recommendations for future action. This report also constitutes a summary and review of all activities at the site related to the discovery and investigation of the leak in Tank 2337-U. This report is written in accordance with regulatory requirements of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-1-15.06 and with the equivalent United State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations
Reppe, Thomas H.C.
Population growth and commercial and industrial development in the Red River of the North Basin in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota have prompted the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, to evaluate sources of water to sustain this growth. Nine surficial-glacial (surficial) aquifers (Buffalo, Middle River, Two Rivers, Beach Ridges, Pelican River, Otter Tail, Wadena, Pineland Sands, and Bemidji-Bagley) within the Minnesota part of the basin were identified and evaluated for their ground-water resources. Information was compiled and summarized from published studies to evaluate the availability of ground water. Published information reviewed for each of the aquifers included location and extent, physical characteristics, hydraulic properties, ground-water and surface-water interactions, estimates of water budgets (sources of recharge and discharge) and aquifer storage, theoretical well yields and actual ground-water pumping data, recent (2003) ground-water use data, and baseline ground-water-quality data.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Statewide minor watershed delineations with major/minor watershed identifiers and names for provinces, major watersheds, and basins. Also included are watershed...
J. Reggeti G.
Water buffalo was introduced into Venezuela 85 years ago, but real growth and development started in the 70’s. ASOBUFALO, the Venezuelan buffalo breeder’s society, was formed in 1985, at the start buffalo were bred for beef, very soon their milking potential was realized and most farmers opted for a dual purpose milk/meat operation. Milk production and milk processing have become the principal operation of buffalo breeders. There are over 669 buffalo farmers in the country Our pri...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — State trails maintained by Minnesota DNR Division of Parks and Trails. These have multiple use status with specific activities supported in designated sections....
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This shapefile describes water trails in the State of Minnesota as designated through legislation and recognized by the Department of Natural Resources. The...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography...
J. Kh. ALsaedy
Full Text Available Buffaloes in Iraq represent the most productive animal since its domestication in Mesopotamia about pre-historic era recently, domesticated buffaloes all over country go through drastic factors from (1980_2006, such as (gulf wars, marsh drainage, rinder pest plaque, economic blockade which are attributed to widely changes in animal environment ,geographical sites, and dangerous decline in buffalo population accompanied by reduced fertility and feed shortage, resulted in switch of buffalo raising and started to work on another easy jobs .lastly American war in 2003 lead to marsh return and finally ethnic-fighting release, so thousands of buffalo breeders (Madan started a big mass moving from hot-spot area around Baghdad countryside villages nearer to conflicting sectors in Anbar and sallah aldin provinces towards southern marshes (natural habitats before along time. This new theater encouraged Iraqi government represented by Ministry of agriculture through three involved companies to put strategic plane for buffalo development in future.
Sitting in a buffalo shed under a village house, Alan Macfarlane reflects on the origins of settled agriculture and the role of animals and technology. He also considers some of the effects of growing wealth on equality and work.
Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important a...
In the book “Buffalo Production and Research”,edited by Antonio Borghese by FAO Regional Office for Europe,REU Technical Series 67,the state of art of the research,development, products and market of buffalo species in the world,is presented.The 14 chapters analyse sin- gle themes of principal problems concerning the breeding,the selection,the reproduction,the feeding,the milk and meat quality,the buffalo’s pathologies.
There is more than snow in Minnesota: Summer brings the Aquatennial with sandcastle competitions, milk-carton-boat races and a torchlight parade, and the St. Paul Winter Carnival has ice carving and snow sculptures and another torchlight parade. But natives and visitors alike note that their favorite season is autumn, which in Minnesota brings…
The South Branch of the Buffalo River is part of the larger Red River Basin, MN. In 1996 the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) performed water quality assessments for selected rivers and lakes in the Red River Basin, with impairment of streams primarily being found to be caused by high level...
Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — 1:100,000 scale geomorphology data describing a wide variety of conditions related to surficial geology within a hierarchical classification scheme that was devised...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the second level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the first level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the third level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...
The Minnesota wolf (Canis lupus) population was estimated by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources at 2,450 during winter 1997-1998 and had increased at an average annual rate of 4.5% since winter 1988-1989. The population may be removed from the federal endangered species list by 2002, and management would then return to the state. A federal recovery team recommended a population goal of 1,250
Christoph Winckler; Fabio Napolitano; Corrado Pacelli; Fernando Grasso; Giuseppe De Rosa
The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behavioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animalrelated indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening assessed with Body Condition Score (BCS) systems; cleanliness (the presence of mud may be conside...
Perera, B M A O
The domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has an important role in the agricultural economy of many developing countries in Asia, providing milk, meat and draught power. It is also used in some Mediterranean and Latin American countries as a source of milk and meat for specialized markets. Although the buffalo can adapt to harsh environments and live on poor quality forage, reproductive efficiency is often compromised by such conditions, resulting in late sexual maturity, long postpartum anoestrus, poor expression of oestrus, poor conception rates and long calving intervals. The age at puberty is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate, and under favourable conditions occurs at 15-18 months in river buffalo and 21-24 months in swamp buffalo. The ovaries are smaller than in cattle and contain fewer primordial follicles. Buffalo are capable of breeding throughout the year, but in many countries a seasonal pattern of ovarian activity occurs. This is attributed in tropical regions to changes in rainfall resulting in feed availability or to temperature stress resulting in elevated prolactin secretion, and in temperate regions to changes in photoperiod and melatonin secretion. The mean length of the oestrous cycle is 21 days, with greater variation than observed in cattle. The signs of oestrus in buffalo are less overt than in cattle and homosexual behaviour between females is rare. The duration of oestrus is 5-27 h, with ovulation occurring 24-48 h (mean 34 h) after the onset of oestrus. The hormonal changes occurring in peripheral circulation are similar to those observed in cattle, but the peak concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol-17β are less. The number of follicular waves during an oestrous cycle varies from one to three and influences the length of the luteal phase as well as the inter-ovulatory interval. Under optimal conditions, dairy types managed with limited or no suckling resume oestrus cyclicity by 30-60 days after calving
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Minnesota. Number of columns is 404 and number of rows is 463. The order of the data is from the lower left to...
... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation... Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA), for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, under the...
Gabriela Capriogli Oliveira
Full Text Available The low productivity of buffalo herds and condemnation of carcasses in slaughterhouses due to tuberculosis lesions have resulted in increasing economic losses because these animals cannot be treated and must be destroyed by sanitary slaughter. Tuberculosis is a widely distributed zoonosis that affects the beef supply chain of the Brazilian agribusiness economically and socially. Like cattle, buffaloes are sensitive to Mycobacterium bovis, which is the main causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. Tuberculosis in buffaloes has been reported in several countries, including Brazil. In order to control and eradicate this disease among cattle and buffaloes in Brazil, the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply created the National Program for the Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis with the main objective of finding a significant number of disease-free herds throughout the national territory using reliable methods. This review summarizes the main data on the history of occurrence of M. bovis in Brazilian herds and the diagnostic methods for the disease in buffaloes. Little information is available on buffalo tuberculosis. Due to the increasing population of buffaloes and their economic importance, more studies investigating the occurrence and identification of tuberculosis in this species are clearly needed.
Full Text Available Chinese buffalo is of swamp type, mainly distributed in countryside of 18 provinces in southern China. China has the third population of buffalo in the world. There are 22.75 million buffaloes in China in 2005, representing 17.37% of all cattle in the whole country. Historically Chinese buffalo is mainly used for drought since their milk production is very low with an annual milk yield of 500-700 kg. Therefore, it is important to improve them to change into dairy buffalo through crossbreeding with exotic river type dairy buffalo breeds. Murrah and Nili-Ravi, the most famous river type dairy buffalo breeds in the world, were introduced from India and Pakistan in 1957 and 1974, respectively and used to crossbreed with indigenous Chinese buffalo for genetic improvement. The effect is very prominent that the performance of crossbred has been improved significantly after several decades and the milk yield reaches 1200-2000 kg. Recent years in countryside of China, buffalo rearing has been changed from extensive and dispersive model in the past into specialized small or medium dairy herd model for the present along with the rapid development of dairy buffalo breeding and the model of dairy buffalo breeding sub-district has been formed. This article introduces briefly that the system of dairy buffalo breeding as well as producing, processing and selling of buffalo milk under the current condition and the prospects of dairy buffalo development in countryside of China.
Miller, Mary H.; Armstrong, Michelle K.
The Upper Buffalo Wilderness and Buffalo Addition Roadless Area covers about 19 sq mi in the Ozark National Forest, Newton County, Arkansas. No metal-bearing minerals were observed during geologic mapping, and analyses for zinc and lead contents in surface rock and sediment samples from the study area are not anomalous. Exploratory drilling into the Boone Formation and (or) the Everton Formation will be necessary to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of zinc and lead in the study area.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Geomorphology of Minnesota - Isolated Landform Structures are essentially cartographic arcs representing isolated glacial features that were mapped in conjunction...
Soliman, Ibrahim; Bassiony, Hala
Although buffalo populations expand in 43 courtiers in the world, only four countries are producing more than 98% of the world buffalo milk in 2007 and around 73% of the world buffalo meat in the same year. These are China, India, Pakistan, and Egypt. Egypt is almost the only country in Africa that raises buffalo. There was a growth rate in the number of milking buffaloes and the percentage of milking buffaloes in the total stock is around 44%. The average annual milk yield per head increased...
This study was conducted to investigate anatomical and histological structure of vomeronasal organ in buffalo. To perform this, fifty one heads from buffalo were used. From anatomical point of view, the mean length of vno was 189±15 mm. This organ is encapsulated in an incomplete cartilaginous capsule. Concerning the histological structure, two different epithelium were lined the vno lumen; pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium in lateral wall and pseudostratified nonciliated c...
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate anatomical and histological structure of vomeronasal organ in buffalo. To perform this, fifty one heads from buffalo were used. From anatomical point of view, the mean length of vno was 189±15 mm. This organ is encapsulated in an incomplete cartilaginous capsule. Concerning the histological structure, two different epithelium were lined the vno lumen; pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium in lateral wall and pseudostratified nonciliated columnar in medial wall.
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo... temporary safety zone in the Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY for the Boom Days Fireworks. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from Doug's Dive, the NFTA small boat harbor and a portion of the...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo River. 117.773 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.773 Buffalo River. (a) The draw of the Michigan Avenue bridge, mile 1.3, at Buffalo, shall operate as follows: (1) From March 22 through...
Siegel, Donald I.
Seven test holes drilled in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands indicate that the thickness of surficial materials along a north-south traverse parallel to Minnesota Highway 72 ranges from 163 feet near Blackduck, Minnesota to 57 feet about 3 miles south of Upper Red Lake. Lenses of sand and gravel occur immediately above bedrock on the Itasca moraine and are interbedded with lake clay and till under the peatlands. Vertical head gradients measured in a piezometer nest near Blackduck on the moraine are downward, indicative of recharge to the regional ground-water-flow system. Vertical head gradients are upward in a piezometer nest on a sand beach ridge in the peatlands 12 miles north of Upper Red Lake. Numerical sectional models indicate that this discharge probably comes from local flow systems recharged from ground-water mounds located under large raised bogs.
Full Text Available Butter obtained from buffalo milk was compared with commercial products obtained from cow milk. One buffalo butter and two cow butters were subjected to sensory analysis using non-trained panelists. The acceptance related to sensorial characteristics (color, flavor, and firmness was evaluated through a 9 point structured hedonic scale varying from “I displeased extremely” to “I liked extremely”. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to evaluate the sensory characteristics and the means were compared by Tukey’s Test at 5% of significance. The buffalo butter received lower scores than the others for all attributes. The greatest difference was observed for color, as the buffalo butter exhibited a white color contrasting with the yellow color of commercial butters, which is the pattern expected by the consumers. For flavor and firmness attributes, the buffalo butter received scores similar to the commercial products. These results show. These results shows that the buffalo’s butter has a good acceptance on local market, and this could be improved through the correction of product’s color, what can be obtained by adding a dye.
G N Purohit; Mitesh Gaur; Amit Kumar; Chandra Shekher; Swati Ruhil
Cesarean section in buffaloes is an emergency operative procedure being performed prinicipally for uncorrectable uterine torsions and for delivery of fetal monsters. Left paramedian (lateral and parallel to the milk vein) and oblique ventrolateral (above arcus cruralis) are the two common operative sites used for buffalo caesarean section. Although many anesthetic combinations including intravenous and inhalation anesthetic procedures have been experimented in the buffalo species yet most caesarean sections in buffaloes are satisfactorily performed in right lateral recumbency under mild sedation and local infiltration analgesia or paravertebral nerve blocks. The history, indications, anesthesia, operative procedures, post operative complications and future fertility following caesarean section in buffalo are described.
Yang, C; Qin, J.; X. L.Q. Zeng; Yang, B
Chinese buffalo is of swamp type, mainly distributed in countryside of 18 provinces in southern China. China has the third population of buffalo in the world. There are 22.75 million buffaloes in China in 2005, representing 17.37% of all cattle in the whole country. Historically Chinese buffalo is mainly used for drought since their milk production is very low with an annual milk yield of 500-700 kg. Therefore, it is important to improve them to change into dairy buffalo through crossbreeding...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Statewide lake watershed delineations for all lakes that have a surface area of 100 acres in size or larger. Data includes major watershed identifiers and USGS...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Statewide lake watershed delineations for all lakes that have a surface area of 100 acres in size or larger. Data includes major watershed identifiers and USGS...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the locations of wildfires for which the DNR was the primary responding agency. These include fires not only on state lands, but also rural private...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data shows the approximate locations of boat accesses in the state. This is not a comprehensive list but one that was generated through a cooperative effort....
Full Text Available The most buffaloes in Bangladesh are indigenous in origin. There are 5 populations of buffaloes in Bangladesh. Karyotypic experiment indicated that Bangladesh East population had 48 chromosomes while other populations had 50 chromosomes. Blood protein polymorphism study revealed the existence of polymorphism for 7 loci: albumin, transferrin, hemoglobin-α, hemoglobin-β, carbonic anhydrase, alkaline phosphatase and peptidase-B. AlbX, gene for typical swamp buffalo, was detected in populations of BDE and BDS. Another gene of swamp buffalo viz., TfA was found only in the population of BDE. mtDNA study further confirmed the occurrence of haplotypes for swamp buffaloes in BDE. Swamp buffaloes are distributed in the northeastern part of Bangladesh. River buffaloes are distributed other parts of Bangladesh.
Full Text Available The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behavioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animalrelated indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening assessed with Body Condition Score (BCS systems; cleanliness (the presence of mud may be considered positively, whereas a thick and compact layer of dung may be regarded negatively; health status (lameness, hoof overgrowth, injuries, etc.; social, aggressive, oral abnormal behaviours; animal-human relationship (avoidance distance at manger; positive indicators (qualitative assessment of behaviour, etc.; housing factors. The indicators are discussed on the basis of their validity (meaningful with respect to animal welfare, reliability (reflecting the tendency to give the same results on repeated measurements and feasibility (concerning time and money consumed. For some aspects, the differences between buffalo and dairy cattle are also highlighted.
Although buffalo population is about 1/10 of that of cattle, buffaloes interest a larger human population, especially in the east countries. For this reason, this species is of great economic importance. Two main species of buffalo are found in the world: the Asiatic (water) buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). These two different species have both two different sub-species differing in diploid number but interbreeding within the same genus. The water buffalo, ...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Minnesota Walk-In Access site (WIA) GIS data represents areas of private land that have been made open to the public for the purpose of walk-in (foot travel)...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This shapefile covers the trails in the State of Minnesota Parks, Recreation Areas, and Waysides as designated through legislation and recognized by the Department...
Lisa Praharani; E Juarini; Chalid Thalib; Ashari
Buffalo is a potential large ruminant that its contribution in national program on beef self sufficiency has been unrecognized in Indonesia. In rural community, buffalo has similar functions as cattle, it is used as draught animal, meat (beef) producer, saving, milk producer, sacrificial ritual animal to social status. The peak of buffalo population was on 1925, 3.227 million heads in Java and 1.10 million in outside Java. The centers of cattle production sites for national program of self su...
Michelizzi, Vanessa N.; Dodson, Michael V.; Pan, Zengxiang; Amaral, M. Elisabete J.; Michal, Jennifer J.; McLean, Derek J.; Womack, James E.; Jiang, Zhihua
The water buffalo is vital to the lives of small farmers and to the economy of many countries worldwide. Not only are they draught animals, but they are also a source of meat, horns, skin and particularly the rich and precious milk that may be converted to creams, butter, yogurt and many cheeses. Genome analysis of water buffalo has advanced significantly in recent years. This review focuses on currently available genome resources in water buffalo in terms of cytogenetic characterization, who...
Kumar Niraj; Sandhu Jasmeet S; Nagarajan Muniyandi; Kumar Satish; Behl Vandana
Abstract Background The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight breeds from eight different locations in In...
Full Text Available Hoerl and Kennard (1970a introduced the ridge regression estimator as an alternative to the ordinary least squares (OLS estimator in the presence of multicollinearity. In ridge regression, ridge parameter plays an important role in parameter estimation. In this article, a new method for estimating ridge parameters in both situations of ordinary ridge regression (ORR and generalized ridge regression (GRR is proposed. The simulation study evaluates the performance of the proposed estimator based on the mean squared error (MSE criterion and indicates that under certain conditions the proposed estimators perform well compared to OLS and other well-known estimators reviewed in this article.
Perišić P.; Bogdanović V.; Mekić C.; Ružić-Muslić D.; Stanojević D.; Popovac M.; Stepić S.
This research paper gives an analysis on the size of world’s domestic buffalo populations, their milk production and the size of buffalo population in Serbia. Population of domestic buffalo in the world is constantly increasing so that in 2013 there were 199 783 549 individuals, out of which in India in the same year they raised 57.77% of buffalo world population, in Pakistan 18.87%, and in China 11.64%. The share of total world production of buffalo milk i...
Full Text Available Buffalo is a potential large ruminant that its contribution in national program on beef self sufficiency has been unrecognized in Indonesia. In rural community, buffalo has similar functions as cattle, it is used as draught animal, meat (beef producer, saving, milk producer, sacrificial ritual animal to social status. The peak of buffalo population was on 1925, 3.227 million heads in Java and 1.10 million in outside Java. The centers of cattle production sites for national program of self sufficiency on beef were formly as noted the centers of buffalo production. The introduction of Bali cattle to those former buffalo centers particularly in outside of Java depressed buffalo population and then dominated by Bali cattle. Then Bali cattle were noted to be the major beef animal supplier beside buffalo to the centers of consumers for domestic and export. This article aims to discuss the depleting buffalo population and to formulate development strategy. Historical approaches system and critical evaluation population, SWOT (strength, weaknesses, opportunity and threat analysis were used as tools for analyzing. Two case studies on herd survival from Banten indicated depleting population of buffalo. Despite low reproductive profile, strategic diseases and farmers’ institution needed to be optimized on services. Understanding criticizing on ecological habitats in the potential regions, the need of spatial planning for its development, zoning program for strategic diseases free, reproductive problems and village institution are the important areas of improvement for buffalo development in supporting beef self sufficiency and the welfare of rural people with their buffalo in sustainable beef production.
The rapidly gentrifying western edge of downtown Minneapolis,Minnesota is still dotted by the sort of small manufacturers that drove the US and world economy for much of the 20th century. One of these - National Purityoccupies a single-story combined warehouse and office space just north of the Farmer's Market. For eighty years, this
The water buffalo is one of the most important domestic animals in Southeast Asia including Thailand. As the Thai swamp buffalo population declined during the last two decades, the swamp buffalo reproductive performance needs to be improved. Lack of knowledge on swamp buffalo reproduction, improper
Madan, M L; Prakash, B S
Buffalo, as the major livestock species for milk and meat production, contribute significantly to the economy of many countries in south & south-east Asia, South America, Africa and the Mediterranean. Improved buffalo production could significantly enhance the economy and the living standards of farmers in countries where buffaloes predominate; particularly, in countries with a tropical climate. The major factors limiting the efficient utilization of buffaloes in countries with a tropical climate are: late maturity; poor estrus expressivities, particularly in summer months; long postpartum calving intervals; low reproductive efficiencies and fertility rates which are closely linked with environmental stress; as well as managerial problems. As good reproductive performance is essential for efficient livestock production, the female buffalo calves must grow rapidly to attain sexual maturity, initiate estrous cycles, ovulate and be mated by fertile males or inseminated with quality semen to optimize conception and production. In the last two decades, considerable attention has been focused on understanding some of the causes for the inherent limitations in reproduction among buffaloes by studying their reproductive endocrinology as well as developing biotechniques for augmenting their reproductive efficiency. This review provides an overview of buffalo reproductive endocrinology and also of the research done to date towards the enhancement of buffalo reproductive efficiency through endocrine and embryo biotechniques.
Yue, Xiang-Peng; Li, Ran; Xie, Wen-Mei; Xu, Ping; Chang, Ti-Cheng; Liu, Li; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Run-Feng; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chu-Zhao
To further probe into whether swamp buffaloes were domesticated once or multiple times in China, this survey examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (D-loop) diversity of 471 individuals representing 22 populations of 455 Chinese swamp buffaloes and 16 river buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chinese swamp buffaloes could be divided into two distinct lineages, A and B, which were defined previously. Of the two lineages, lineage A was predominant across all populations. For predominant lineage A, Southwestern buffalo populations possess the highest genetic diversity among the three hypothesized domestication centers (Southeastern, Central, and Southwestern China), suggesting Southwestern China as the most likely location for the domestication of lineage A. However, a complex pattern of diversity is detected for the lineage B, preventing the unambiguous pinpointing of the exact place of domestication center and suggesting the presence of a long-term, strong gene flow among swamp buffalo populations caused by extensive migrations of buffaloes and frequent human movements along the Yangtze River throughout history. Our current study suggests that Southwestern China is the most likely domestication center for lineage A, and may have been a primary center of swamp buffalo domestication. More archaeological and genetic evidence is needed to show the process of domestication.
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Bayou. 117.955 Section 117.955 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.955 Buffalo Bayou. (a) The draw of...
This article describes the Buffalo Prep program. Housed at University of Buffalo, the program identifies disadvantaged but talented minority children, places them in academic-enrichment classes, and then finds them spots at private schools and a more selective public high school in the area to complete their precollegiate careers. In addition to…
Full Text Available The number of buffaloes in the American continent is growing at the explosive rate of 12.7 % a year, well above all other continents. Within this context the different situations of the southern part of South America are described, those countries that two hundred years ago were part of the River Plate Viceroyship and the Chile General Command, both of them part of the Spanish empire. The first steps of buffaloes in Paraguay, Bolivia and Uruguay. The expansion of buffaloes in Argentina and their recent start up in Chile. The production systems in the region are described, principally Argentina and Paraguay. The major changes and expansion of agriculture in Argentina are displacing cattle production from the North towards the Tropics, where buffalo has proven to be very superior in productivity compared to cattle production thanks to its very good adaptation to the local conditions. In Paraguay, a totally subtropical country, something very similar is happening. Paraguay has consolidated its sales of buffalo hides and beef. Argentina is well on its way to having a very efficient buffalo beef marketing competing with cattle of the highest quality. Buffalo milk production is still not mature in these countries, although there are several projects underway in Uruguay, Bolivia and Argentina.
The future of the Minnesota Geological Survey is up in the air until January 1992, when the state legislature reconvenes. On June 4, Governor Arne H. Carlson vetoed a line-item of the 2-year University of Minnesota budget that contains funding for the MGS. If funds are not restored by special legislative appropriation and approved by the governor during the spring of 1992, MGS will be abolished effective July 1992.The possibility of closing the survey reflects a financial decision, according to Robert A. Schroeder, assistant to the governor. It is not based on the usefulness of the survey's work. “The governor's objective with his line-item vetoes was to control overall spending, not to target specific programs,” he said. Since MGS is university-affiliated, it is funded under Minnesota's Higher Education bill, rather than as a state agency. Because of overspending in 1991, the state has had to cut back funds, and the university is one area hit by budget cuts. The university may still choose to fund the program and has the flexibility to reallocate funds within the system.
Steven J. TAFF
This publication is a snapshot of the Minnesota Farm Real Estate Sales web site (http://www.apec.umn.edu/faculty/sjtaff/salesstudy) as of May 5, 2002. It will be formally "reissued" (the web site will be recaptured) each Spring, as new sales data become available. We no longer distribute a separate farm real estate report in the Minnesota Agricultural Economist (now the Minnesota Applied Economist). The site consists largely of graphs and tables summarizing sales over the past decade. It prov...
Steven J. TAFF
This publication is a snapshot of the Minnesota Farm Real Estate Sales web site (http://www.apec.umn.edu/faculty/sjtaff/salesstudy) as of May 2, 2003. It will be formally "reissued" (the web site will be recaptured) each Spring, as new sales data become available. We no longer distribute a separate farm real estate report in the Minnesota Agricultural Economist (now the Minnesota Applied Economist). The site consists largely of graphs and tables summarizing sales over the past decade. It prov...
G N Purohit
Full Text Available Parturition related mammary gland pathologies in the buffalo appear to be low on accord of anatomic (longer teat length, thicker streak canal and physiologic (lower cisternal storage of secreted milk, lower milk production differences with cattle. Hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia usually occur in the buffalo due to physiologic changes around parturition however mastitis involves pathologic changes in the udder and teats; the incidence of mastitis is however lower compared to cattle. The incidence and therapy of hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia are mentioned and the risk factors, incidence, diagnosis, therapy and prevention for mastitis in buffalo are also described.
The genetic improvement through artificial insemination in buffaloes is presented. The semen cryopreservation method is used; is a technique for freezing the semen for the use of spermatozoa of buffalo in assisted reproduction. Knowledge of the physiology of the male genital tract is shown, the different chemical compounds that can serve as substrates. Also, cryoprotectants of antimicrobial agents are focused, nutrition and protection to spermatozoa during different stages of the process, in order to obtain viable cells in post-freezing
Full Text Available Abstract Background The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight breeds from eight different locations in India along with published sequences of Mediterranean buffalo. Results The maximum parsimony tree showed one major clade with six internal branches. Reduced median network revealed expansion from more than one set of haplotypes indicating complex domestication events for this species. In addition, we found several singleton haplotypes. Using rho statistics, we obtained a time estimate of 6300 years BP for the expansion of one set of hapltoypes of the Indian domestic buffalo. A few breed specific branches in the network indicated an ancient time depth of differentiation of some of the maternal lineages of river buffalo breeds. The multidimensional display of breed pairwise FST values showed significant breed differentiation. Conclusion Present day river buffalo is the result of complex domestication processes involving more than one maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from the wild populations after the initial domestication events. Our data are consistent with the available archaeological information in supporting the proposition that the river buffalo was likely to be domesticated in the Western region of the Indian subcontinent, specifically the present day breeding tracts of the Mehsana, Surati and Pandharpuri breeds.
... Counties: Cottonwood, Jackson, Murray, Nobles, Rock. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage... ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Minnesota (FEMA- 4113-DR), dated 05/03/2013. Incident: Severe Winter Storm. Incident Period:...
Blank, Uel; Olson, Robert P.
This report provides basic data about Minnesota's food service industry. It is based upon a comprehensive study of the industry and provides the first overall analysis available. As such it affords major new insights into the scope, complexity and contribution of this industry to Minnesota's society and economy.
Alexander, E. C.; Broberg, J. S.; Kehren, A. R.; Graziani, M. M.; Turri, W. L.
Bellechester, Minnesota, is a small community of approximately 155 residents located on the county line between Goodhue and Wabasha counties in southeast Minnesota's karst region. Bellechester is served by a 21-year-old wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) consisting of three waste-stabilization ponds. On 28 April 1992 six sinkholes were discovered to have drained cell 2 of the WWTF resulting in the loss of approximately 8.7×106 1 of partially treated effluent and about 600 m3 of soil into previously undetected subsurface voids of unknown dimensions. In the week following the collapse, approximately 200 water wells located within a 5-km radius of the WWTF were sampled in an after-the-fact, emergency sampling program. Twelve samples with elevated fecal coliform levels, 18 samples with nitrate-nitrogen greater than the 10 mg/1 standard, and no samples with elevated chlorides were found. However, the elevated levels could not be unambiguously attributed to the WWTF collapse. This is the third WWTF to fail by sinkhole collapse in southeast Minnesota since 1974. All three collapsed lagoons have been located in similar geomorphic and stratigraphic settings. However, at least two lagoons have collapsed in the adjacent area in northeast Iowa, and these lagoons are located at different stratigraphic positions. Twenty-two WWTFs constructed in southeast Minnesota's karst region in the last 25 years have been identified as subject to potential sinkhole collapse. An unknown but significant number of manure storage lagoons, flood control structures, etc., have also been constructed in the karst region and are at risk. Public agencies are beginning to develop plans to deal with the risk associated with existing and future waste lagoons in this environment. The critical hydrogeologic parameters that can be used to prioritize the risk of collapse at existing facilities include: (1) the lithology of the first bedrock beneath each lagoon, (2) the thickness of surficial materials
... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...
25. veebruaril Morgan restoranis Buffalo Eestlaste Koondise ja E.E.L.K. Buffalo Pauluse koguduse korraldusel. Avasõna koondise esimehelt Peeter Ojalt, koraali esitas Andres Raudsepp, vaimulik Hannes Aasa palvele järgnes eeskava
Jane Schmitt; Richard Deitz; Ramon Garcia
The June 6 conference "Manufacturing Matters" was sponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Buffalo Branch in conjunction with the Western New York Technology Development Center and the Buffalo Niagara Partnership's Manufacturers Council.
D.A.A. Oliveira; E. Bastianetto; C.S Teixeira; L.V. Teixeira
The Laboratory of Genetics of the Veterinary School and the Buffalo Study Group of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) are developing analysis techniques from buffalo DNA to verify the purity of products derived from buffalo meat. Samples of 30 buffalos (Murrah) and 30 bovines (B. indicus and B. taurus) were collected at slaughter and DNA samples were extracted. The primers used amplify the cytochrome b regions, specific of mammals of the artiodactyles order. By using restriction en...
Samanchai Suwanamphai; Songkoon Chantachon; Kosit Paengsoi; Niwat Thongwol
Problem statement: The use of water buffalo labor for farming and the tie between rice farmers and water buffaloes at present are greatly decreasing because rice farmers give more importance to modern ploughing machines than water buffaloes. Therefore, water buffalo raising and traditions and rituals involving them which have been useful to humans for a very long time almost all disappear from Isan (Northeast Thailand). The purposes were to examine current conditions and problems and indigeno...
The water buffalo is one of the most important domestic animals in Southeast Asia including Thailand. As the Thai swamp buffalo population declined during the last two decades, the swamp buffalo reproductive performance needs to be improved. Lack of knowledge on swamp buffalo reproduction, improper management and failure to use genetic superior males and females in breeding programs are the major factors to be considered. Artificial insemination was applied in Thailand but is inefficient due ...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as...
Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Nimisha, Koodali; Kumar, Satish
River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is a large bovine species frequently used livestock in southern Asia. It is believed that the river buffalo was domesticated from Bubalus arnee, the wild buffalo of mainland Asia, a few thousand years ago, probably during the period of Indus Valley civilization. However, the domestication history of the river buffalo has been the subject of debate for many decades mainly due to the lack of clear archeological evidence and the divisive conclusions of the genetic ...
Umberger, Mary L.
In 1987, Frank and Deborah Popper, a planner/geographer team from Rutgers University, proposed the Buffalo Commons. If implemented, the Buffalo Commons would have preserved a large area of the Great Plains, including land in ten states, in a national park to be used by exiting Native American reservations, and for the reintroduction of buffalo.
Vanessa N. Michelizzi, Michael V. Dodson, Zengxiang Pan, M Elisabete J Amaral, Jennifer J. Michal, Derek J. McLean, James E. Womack, Zhihua Jiang
Full Text Available The water buffalo is vital to the lives of small farmers and to the economy of many countries worldwide. Not only are they draught animals, but they are also a source of meat, horns, skin and particularly the rich and precious milk that may be converted to creams, butter, yogurt and many cheeses. Genome analysis of water buffalo has advanced significantly in recent years. This review focuses on currently available genome resources in water buffalo in terms of cytogenetic characterization, whole genome mapping and next generation sequencing. No doubt, these resources indicate that genome science comes of age in the species and will provide knowledge and technologies to help optimize production potential, reproduction efficiency, product quality, nutritional value and resistance to diseases. As water buffalo and domestic cattle, both members of the Bovidae family, are closely related, the vast amount of cattle genetic/genomic resources might serve as shortcuts for the buffalo community to further advance genome science and biotechnologies in the species.
Michelizzi, Vanessa N; Dodson, Michael V; Pan, Zengxiang; Amaral, M Elisabete J; Michal, Jennifer J; McLean, Derek J; Womack, James E; Jiang, Zhihua
The water buffalo is vital to the lives of small farmers and to the economy of many countries worldwide. Not only are they draught animals, but they are also a source of meat, horns, skin and particularly the rich and precious milk that may be converted to creams, butter, yogurt and many cheeses. Genome analysis of water buffalo has advanced significantly in recent years. This review focuses on currently available genome resources in water buffalo in terms of cytogenetic characterization, whole genome mapping and next generation sequencing. No doubt, these resources indicate that genome science comes of age in the species and will provide knowledge and technologies to help optimize production potential, reproduction efficiency, product quality, nutritional value and resistance to diseases. As water buffalo and domestic cattle, both members of the Bovidae family, are closely related, the vast amount of cattle genetic/genomic resources might serve as shortcuts for the buffalo community to further advance genome science and biotechnologies in the species.
Haque, M. A.; Rashid, M.H.; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.
This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The United States National Grid (USNG) is a nonproprietary alphanumeric referencing system derived from the Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) that is being...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the fourth level of the Ecological Classification System. Polygon boundaries were delineated at a scale of 1:100,000 with a...
Bruno, Robert J.
Voucher plans that involve payments of tax funds to private schools are suspect on both constitutional and public policy grounds. Analyzes the constitutional issues raised by a recent attempt at voucher legislation in Minnesota. (MLF)
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This station safety plan should be viewed as a "working tool" for all employees of Minnesota Valley NWR. It contains information and instructions for emergencies,...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer is a digital inventory of individual forest stands. The data is collected by DNR Foresters in each DNR Forestry Administrative Area, and is updated on a...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — What are the facts about these animals in Minnesota? Here also they sometimes prey upon livestock and upon the game we like to hunt ourselves. Should they be...
Møller, Per Grau
Ridge and furrow is a specific way of ploughing which makes fields of systematic ridges and furrows like a rubbing washboard. They are part of an overall openfield system, but the focus in this paper is on the functionality of the fields. There are many indications that agro-technological reasons...
THE EFFECT OF APPLICATION OF THE REGIONAL LAW N° 3 “URGENT INTERVENTIONS FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE ITALIAN MEDITERRANEAN WATER BUFFALO IN CAMPANIA” WITH REFERENCE TO FRAUDS IN THE BUFFALO MOZZARELLA CHEESE AND DOP BUFFALO MOZZARELLA CHEESE
Y.T.R. Proroga; Caligiuri, V.; R. Pellicanò; R. Gagliardi; Guarino, A.; I. La Tela; D. Bove
The Campania Region, in order to protect the Italian Mediterranean Buffalo, established a set of yearly official controls on all buffalo products manufactured in the Region. Our work demonstrates the effect of such a measure on the production of the mozzarella cheese of buffalo and that of the mozzarella cheese of buffalo campana, in favour of the commercialization of aliud pro alio.
Yin; Hong; Wang; Guiying; Yang; Yue; Liao; Guozhou; Cheng; Zhibin; Gu; Dahai; Xu; Zhiqiang; Ge; Changrong; Jia; Junjing
The Dehong buffalo( D),F1 hybrids of Dehong buffalo × Murrah buffalo( MD) and F1 hybrids of Dehong × Nili buffalo( ND) as the experimental animals to investigate their fatty acid composition and amino acid content. Five of each buffalos were bred by freely grazing and slaughtered at 35. 8-month old age to investigate the fatty acid composition and amino acid content in beef of Dehong buffalo,MD buffalo and ND buffalo. The results showed that,saturated fatty acid content of Dehong buffalo( 44. 33%) was significantly higher than that of ND buffalo( 41. 39%) and MD buffalo( 41. 48%)( P < 0. 05),and the latter two were not significantly different( P > 0. 05). The content of PUFA in Dehong buffalo( 53. 90%) was significantly lower than ND( 56. 83%) and MD( 56. 83%)( P <0. 05),however,the n- 6∶ n- 3( 4. 25) of Dehong buffalo was significantly higher than ND( 3. 14) and MD( 3. 52)( P < 0. 05). The content of amino acids in muscle was not significantly different between Dehong buffalo,MD buffalo and ND buffalo( P > 0. 05),while the acidic amino acid content of Dehong buffalo was higher than that of MD buffalo and ND buffalo.
Full Text Available Problem statement: The use of water buffalo labor for farming and the tie between rice farmers and water buffaloes at present are greatly decreasing because rice farmers give more importance to modern ploughing machines than water buffaloes. Therefore, water buffalo raising and traditions and rituals involving them which have been useful to humans for a very long time almost all disappear from Isan (Northeast Thailand. The purposes were to examine current conditions and problems and indigenous knowledge of the use of water buffaloes and to investigate the process of conservation and development of the use of water buffaloes in different forms in Isan. The study was conducted in Isan covering 8 Changwats: Nakhon Phanom, Sakon Nakhon Nong Bua Lam Phu, Udon Thani, Khon Kaen, Ubon Ratchathani, Kalasin and Roi Et. Approach: The qualitative research methodology was used. Data were collected from related literature and field studies using structured and unstructured-interview forms, workshop and focus group discussion with 199 informants. The findings were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: The findings revealed the following. The conservation and development of indigenous knowledge of the use of water buffaloes in all the 8 Changwats of Isan had increasingly changed from the past. For water buffalo conservation at present, they have formed groups in cooperation with government agencies involved according to the government policy in each period. The group members are not confident that their own group will be able to sustainably exist due to the factors which are the state policy in other parts involved. Some factors can impact the water buffalo conservation groups such as limited places for water buffalo raising, the buffalo raising places being changed to be pare tree farms, for planting eucalyptus trees and others. In developing indigenous knowledge, the uses of water buffaloes as labor and in different cultural rituals and
Linda L. Herman; Christine Bies
Haff disease, rhabdomyolysis after ingesting certain types of fish, was first reported in 1924 in Europe. There have been a limited number of cases reported in the United States. We present the case of a patient who presents with symptoms of rhabdomyolysis after eating cooked buffalo fish purchased at a suburban grocery market. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(6):664-666
We must keep in mind that health care professionals practice in an environment of legal and regulatory influences, where some patients with pain also have an addictive disease. As dentists routinely manage acute oral and dental pain by pharmacological means, people who abuse prescription medications see dentists as easy targets to "score" prescription opioids and controlled substances. This potential for deception must be balanced with our professional responsibility to prescribe and dispense controlled substances appropriately, guarding against abuse while ensuring that patients have medication available when appropriate and necessary. However, dentists also have a personal responsibility to protect themselves and their practices from becoming easy targets for drug abuse and diversion. Becoming aware of the potential signs and symptoms of drug seeking behavior and recognizing the signs of controlled substance misuse will safeguard patients, practices, and practitioners. Utilizing the services of the Minnesota Prescription Monitoring Program may help to not only improve patient care, but to facilitate appropriate pain management and help identify patients having drug seeking behaviors PMID:21667591
Gonzalez, Oswaldo Josè
The general aim of the PhD thesis, realised at the Department of Animal Science and Food Control (University of Napoli, Federico II, Italy), was to study animal performance and the nutritional characteristics of meat from Buffalo bred in Italy (Italian Mediterranean Buffalo) fed different diets. The importance of this research is to give a contribute to better characterize the buffalo infra vitam performance (i.e. weight gain, feed conversion index, etc.) and meat quality (mainly in terms of ...
A. Ashutosh; Gupta, S.K.; Kumar, A.(State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA); Singh, S. V.; Upadhyay, R. C.
Global warming is likely to impact productivity of buffaloes due to their sensitivity to temperature changes. Air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and solar radiation are the main climate variables that affect buffalo production in tropical climate. In the present study sensitivity of lactating Murrah buffaloes to sudden temperature (Tmax, Tmin) change and THI have been analyzed from milk production and climatic records (1994-2004) of Karnal. Algorithms were developed and validated on lac...
G. Cringoli; R. Condoleo; M. Schioppi; Morgoglione, M.E.; S. Pennacchio; S. Carbone; M. Santaniello; V. Veneziano
The aim of the present study was to obtain information about the presence and distribution of the suckling louse Haematopinus tuberculatus in water buffalo farms in central Italy. The survey was carried out on 127 farms (epidemiological units), selected using a grid approach within a Geographical Information System, followed by proportional allocation. In each farm 6 buffaloes were examined in order to detect the louse presence. Parasitological examinations were performed on each buffalo at p...
Aurelia Coroian; Monica Trif; Cristian Ovidiu Coroian; Vioara Mireşan; Camelia Răducu; Stelian Dărăban
FTIR is a rapid technique based on infrared which has been used to analyze the followingsamples of cheese: traditional buffalo milk cheese, mouldy cheese traditionally produced (in Mesendorf),buffalo milk cheese (Napolact) and buffalo mozzarella (Italy). Here were highlighted main wavelengths atwhich the main components were observed in cheese, namely: fat, protein, lactose and water. Thesecompounds have been outlined in terms of quality. The presence of water was observed in the region of360...
Chianese, L; Quarto, M.; Sacchi, R; Gualtieri, L.; Ferranti, P.
Buffalo breeding in Campania is aimed at milk production as the starting material for the production of Mozzarella di Bufala DOP, but it does not take into account the possibility of meat production. Buffalo meat, given its low content in fat and cholesterol, represents a good alternative to bovine meat from the dietetic standpoint. One of most interesting aspects of buffalo meat is its utilization either directly or to prepare other products. Development of these products however requires su...
Mushet, David M.
The photograph of a young boy poised to capture a wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) on page 3 of Amphibians and Reptiles in Minnesota captures perfectly the sense of awe and wonderment that one encounters throughout John Moriarty and Carol Hall’s new book. This is a spirit that most children possess naturally and that is so readily apparent when one of them comes face-to-face with one of the 53 species of frogs, toads, salamanders, turtles, lizards, or snakes that make Minnesota their home. This is a spirit that the authors have maintained in their hearts throughout almost 30 years of chasing, capturing, and studying amphibians and reptiles (a.k.a., herptiles or herps) in Minnesota. It is also the spirit that you will find reawakening in yourself as you turn from one page to the next and encounter the abundant color photos and descriptive text within this book.
... Minnesota have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Cottonwood, Jackson, Murray, Nobles, and Rock Counties for Public Assistance. All counties within the State of Minnesota are eligible... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...
Full Text Available Fertility in buffalo is low. That could be a question of species adaptation in new climate or a genetic trait. Scientists think buffaloes entered the South-est of Europe on two ways one with the Hune and Avar people coming trough the North of Black Sea up to the intra Charpathian Hils and a later one more prolonged with penetratio trough Egypt, Small Asia and Greece at the time when some people migrated up to the Danube River. Buffaloes which originated from Egypt were domesticated before the ones that came through the North of Black Sea. That means in Romania there are two different buffalo populations: the Carpathian Buffalo adapted to reproduce in a cold and wet climate, outside the area of its wild ancestors and a Danube Buffalo that underwent more influence domestication apart. These two populations reproduced separately by territorial state insulation. All buffalo breeds including the ones in the native domestication area show grouped calving. The present paper has to answer if grouped calving in buffalo is due to photoperiodic exchange along the year or to the poor feeding in some seasons. The answer to this question will decide the actions needed to improve buffalo cows’ fertility.
Full Text Available Aim of this study was to characterize the buffalo production in the Veneto region of Italy. Test day records of milk production traits (milk yield, protein, fat, and somatic cell count of 845 buffalo cows from two herds were analyzed using a linear model. The effects included in the model were herd-test-day, days in milk, and parity. Days in milk was the most important source of variation for milk yield, protein, and fat. The patterns of milk yield traits across lactation followed the typical trend of buffalo cows. Results allowed a preliminary characterization of buffalo production in north of Italy.
Full Text Available FTIR is a rapid technique based on infrared which has been used to analyze the followingsamples of cheese: traditional buffalo milk cheese, mouldy cheese traditionally produced (in Mesendorf,buffalo milk cheese (Napolact and buffalo mozzarella (Italy. Here were highlighted main wavelengths atwhich the main components were observed in cheese, namely: fat, protein, lactose and water. Thesecompounds have been outlined in terms of quality. The presence of water was observed in the region of3600-3010 cm-1, showing a high content in water for mozzarella, followed by buffalo milk cheese,traditional cheese and the lowest content being observed to mouldy cheese.
Mehta, H. H.; Patel, A K; K. N. Nandasana; U. V. Ramani; Koringa, P. G.; Shah, R. G.; D. R. Barvalia; Kelawala, N.; D. B. Patil; D.N Rank; Joshi, C. G.; K. M. Panchal; Ramesh K. Kothari
In the global dairy scenario, India has the distinction of being the largest milk producing nation of the total milk production of 100.9 million tons in 2006-2007, about 55.6% has been contributed by buffalo. Buffalo is a more efficient milk producer than an indigenous cow. The present study was carried out to study the morphological changes associated with induced lactation in buffalo mammary gland tissue. Lactation was induced in four non-pregnant, non-lactating buffaloes by subcutaneous in...
Eastward ridge jumps bring the volcanic zones of Iceland back to the centre of the hotspot in response to the absolute westward drift of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Mantellic pulses triggers these ridge jumps. One of them is occurring in Southern Iceland, whereas the exact conditions of the last ridge jump in Northern Iceland remain controversial. The diachronous evolution of these two parts of Iceland may be related to the asymmetric plume-ridge interaction when comparing Northern and Southern I...
Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Nimisha, Koodali; Kumar, Satish
River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is a large bovine species frequently used livestock in southern Asia. It is believed that the river buffalo was domesticated from Bubalus arnee, the wild buffalo of mainland Asia, a few thousand years ago, probably during the period of Indus Valley civilization. However, the domestication history of the river buffalo has been the subject of debate for many decades mainly due to the lack of clear archeological evidence and the divisive conclusions of the genetic studies. Therefore, in order to understand the domestication history and genetic relationship among the various river buffalo populations, we analyzed 492-bp region of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 414 river buffalo sampled from India, Pakistan, Egypt, and Iran along with the available 403 swamp buffalo sequences. The phylogenetic analyses of our study along with the archaeological evidence suggest that the river buffalo was domesticated in an atypical manner involving continuous introgression of wild animals to the domestic stocks in Indian subcontinent prior to mature phase of Indus Valley civilization (2600-1900 BC). Specifically, our data exclude Mesopotamian region as the place of domestication of the river buffalo. PMID:25900921
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consisted of the planning, acquisition, survey, processing and deliverable creation for 42 counties in Minnesota which include: Olmsted, Wabasha,...
Full Text Available Leptin is a protein involved in the regulation of feed intake, fat metabolism, whole body energy balance, reproduction and hematopoiesis. In cattle Leptin gene has been considered a potential QTL influencing several production traits like meat production, milk performance and reproduction. Several studies on bovine leptin gene have found association between polymorphisms and traits like milk yield, feed intake, fat content, carcass and meat quality. With the aim to assess the presence of sequences polymorphisms in the Buffalo leptin gene, we sequenced the entire coding region and part of the introns on a panel of Italian River Buffalos. In this study we identified a new set of SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism useful for association studies.
Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie
This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.
A total of 2340 mammary glands of 585 primiparous and pluriparous lactating buffaloes in different stages of lactation were examined with California Mastitis Test ( CMT) and laboratory examination was carried out to identify the most prevalent micro-organisms in clinical and sub-clinical mastitis. The physical examination revealed 2.61 per cent blind teats and CMT revealed 6.71 per cent positive quarters for mastitis. Microbiological examination of 157 sub-clinical mastitis milk samples and ...
Full Text Available Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995. In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........
Lau, S K P; Tsang, A K L; Shakeel Ahmed, S; Mahbub Alam, M; Ahmed, Z; Wong, P-C; Yuen, K-Y; Woo, P C Y
We report the complete genome sequences of a buffalo coronavirus (BufCoV HKU26) detected from the faecal samples of two domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Bangladesh. They possessed 98-99% nucleotide identities to bovine coronavirus (BCoV) genomes, supporting BufCoV HKU26 as a member of Betacoronavirus 1. Nevertheless, BufCoV HKU26 possessed distinct accessory proteins between spike and envelope compared to BCoV. Sugar-binding residues in the N-terminal domain of S protein in BCoV are conserved in BufCoV HKU26. PMID:27274850
Lau, S K P; Tsang, A.K.L.; Shakeel Ahmed, S.; Mahbub Alam, M.; Z. Ahmed; P.-C. Wong; K.-Y. Yuen; Woo, P. C. Y.
We report the complete genome sequences of a buffalo coronavirus (BufCoV HKU26) detected from the faecal samples of two domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Bangladesh. They possessed 98–99% nucleotide identities to bovine coronavirus (BCoV) genomes, supporting BufCoV HKU26 as a member of Betacoronavirus 1. Nevertheless, BufCoV HKU26 possessed distinct accessory proteins between spike and envelope compared to BCoV. Sugar-binding residues in the N-terminal domain of S protein in BCoV ...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Application Deadline Date: 05/16/2013. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Minnesota Valley NWR Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is given as well as a...
Popovich, Peter S.; And Others
Reviews more than 70 cases written by Minnesota appellate courts since 1982. Six major topics are analyzed: (1) tort liability; (2) compulsory education; (3) open meeting laws and school closings; (4) hiring and firing issues; (5) arbitration; and (6) appeal and damages. Unanswered questions are noted. (MLF)
... environmental impact statement (SDEIS). (The original NOI to prepare a draft EIS for the proposed Polymet Mining..., Minnesota Intent to prepare a supplemental draft environmental impact statement for the construction and... expected in the summer of 2011, with the final environmental impact statement anticipated...
De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Josep; Roberts, Katherine A; Feixat, Carme Barrot; Hogrebe, Gregory G; Badia, Manel Gené
Distortions of the fingermark topography are usually considered when comparing latent and exemplar fingerprints. These alterations are characterized as caused by an extrinsic action, which affects entire areas of the deposition and alters the overall flow of a series of contiguous ridges. Here we introduce a novel visual phenomenon that does not follow these principles, named fingermark ridge drift. An experiment was designed that included variables such as type of secretion (eccrine and sebaceous), substrate (glass and polystyrene), and degrees of exposure to natural light (darkness, shade, and direct light) indoors. Fingermarks were sequentially visualized with titanium dioxide powder, photographed and analyzed. The comparison between fresh and aged depositions revealed that under certain environmental conditions an individual ridge could randomly change its original position regardless of its unaltered adjacent ridges. The causes of the drift phenomenon are not well understood. We believe it is exclusively associated with intrinsic natural aging processes of latent fingermarks. This discovery will help explain the detection of certain dissimilarities at the minutiae/ridge level; determine more accurate "hits"; identify potentially erroneous corresponding points; and rethink identification protocols, especially the criteria of "no single minutiae discrepancy" for a positive identification.
... Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: At various... zone without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165... email Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard Sector Buffalo, 1 Fuhrmann Blvd., Buffalo, NY...
... Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: At various... zone without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165... Buffalo, 1 Fuhrmann Blvd., Buffalo, NY 14203; Coast Guard telephone 716-843-9343, email...
Full Text Available Bacteria and viruses can cause abortion in buffaloes. This review describes the abortigenic infectious agents found in Mediterranean buffalo cows and the microbiological methods used for their diagnosis. The abortigenic agents are: Brucella spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Chlamydophila spp., Coxiella burnetii, Bacillus licheniformis, E.coli, Leptospira spp., Bubaline Herpes Virus-1 (BuHV-1, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus.
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...
Mahmoud, K Gh M; El-Sokary, A A E; Abdel-Ghaffar, A E; Abou El-Roos, M E A; Ahmed, Y F
This study was conducted to determine chromatin integrity and DNA damage by DNA electrophoresis and comet assays of buffalo fresh and frozen semen. Semen samples were collected from four buffalo bulls and evaluated after freezing for semen motility, viability, sperm abnormalities, chromatin integrity and DNA damage. A significant variation was found in semen parameters after thawing. Highly significant differences (Partificial insemination. PMID:27175169
Govind Narayan Purohit
Full Text Available We review the causes of fetal dystocia in cows and buffalo. Two fetal causes are distinct fetal oversize and fetal abnormalities. Fetal oversize is common in heifers, cows of beef cattle breeds, prolonged gestations, increased calf birth weight, male calves and perinatal fetal death with resultant emphysema. Fetal abnormalities include monsters, fetal diseases and fetal maldispositions, and it is difficult to deliver such fetuses because of their altered shape. Although monsters are rare in cattle, a large number of monstrosities have been reported in river buffalo; yet also here, overall incidence is low. Diseases of the fetus resulting in dystocia include hydrocephalus, ascites, anasarca and hydrothorax. The most common cause of dystocia in cattle seems to be fetal maldispositions, of which limb flexion and head deviation appear to be the most frequent. We provide a brief description of the management of dystocia from different causes in cattle and buffalo. A case analysis of 192 and 112 dystocia in cattle and buffalo, respectively, at our referral center revealed that dystocia is significantly higher (P<0.05 in first and second parity cows and buffalo, and that dystocia of fetal origin is common in cows (65.62% but less frequent (40.17% in buffalo. In buffalo, the single biggest cause of dystocia was uterine torsion (53.57%. Fetal survival was significantly (P<0.05 higher both in cows and buffalo when delivery was completed within 12 h of second stage of labor.
Water buffalo are economically important animals in many regions of the world, especially in developing countries. The International Water Buffalo Consortium will sequence an Italian inbred female (33-fold coverage) to build the genome assembly and additional individuals to screen for SNPs. Based on...
The water buffalo is one of the most important domestic animals in Southeast Asia. Together with the elephant it is a national symbol in Thailand. Until two decades ago, Thailand harbored the largest buffalo population after China. Its draft power has been of high significance for agriculture, and T
Full Text Available Embryonic mortality is one of the main causes responsible of the decline in fertility that occurs in buffaloes during periods of increasing daylight length (out sexual breeding season. Transrectal ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis offers some advantages over palpation per rectum: earlier diagnosis of pregnancy/non-pregnancy, determination of embryo/fetus viability, reduction of misdiagnosis, and reduction of .potential. iatrogenic embryo/fetal attrition. Non pregnant buffaloes on Day 25 after AI showed higher Resistive Index (RI (P<0.05 and Pulsatility Index (P=0.07 values, registered on CL on Days 10 after AI, compared to pregnant buffaloes. RI values were significantly higher (P=0.02 in non pregnant buffaloes also on Day 45 after AI. Colour Doppler sonography could be used to gain specific information relating to the ovarian blood flow in predicting early embryonic loss and to describe the ultrasonographic features of early embryonic death in buffaloes.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to obtain information about the presence and distribution of the suckling louse Haematopinus tuberculatus in water buffalo farms in central Italy. The survey was carried out on 127 farms (epidemiological units, selected using a grid approach within a Geographical Information System, followed by proportional allocation. In each farm 6 buffaloes were examined in order to detect the louse presence. Parasitological examinations were performed on each buffalo at predilection sites. A total of 762 water buffaloes were examined. H. tuberculatus was found in the 11.0% (14/127 of the farms and in the 4.5% (34/762 of the animals. The presence H. tuberculatus should be routinely considered because it is a cause of serious health, production and economic damages in intensive breeding buffaloes.
Braun, M.A.; Vechernin, V.V. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Dept. of High Energy Physics, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pajares, C. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Dept. of Particles, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)
In the colour string picture with fusion and percolation it is shown that long-range azimuthal-rapidity correlations (ridge) can arise from the superposition of many events with exchange of clusters of different number of strings and not from a single event. Relation of the ridge with the flow harmonics coefficients is derived. By direct Monte Carlo simulations, in the technique previously used to calculate these coefficients, ridge correlations are calculated for AA, pA and pp collisions. The azimuthal anisotropy follows from the assumed quenching of the emitted particles in the strong colour fields inside string clusters. It is confirmed that in pp collisions the ridge structure only appears in rare events with abnormally high multiplicity. Comparison with the experimental data shows a good agreement. Good agreement is also found for pPb collisions. For AA collisions a reasonable agreement is found for both near-side and away-side angular correlations although it worsens at intermediate angles. (orig.)
THE EFFECT OF APPLICATION OF THE REGIONAL LAW N° 3 “URGENT INTERVENTIONS FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE ITALIAN MEDITERRANEAN WATER BUFFALO IN CAMPANIA” WITH REFERENCE TO FRAUDS IN THE BUFFALO MOZZARELLA CHEESE AND DOP BUFFALO MOZZARELLA CHEESE
Full Text Available The Campania Region, in order to protect the Italian Mediterranean Buffalo, established a set of yearly official controls on all buffalo products manufactured in the Region. Our work demonstrates the effect of such a measure on the production of the mozzarella cheese of buffalo and that of the mozzarella cheese of buffalo campana, in favour of the commercialization of aliud pro alio.
Saarenketo, Timo; van Deusen, David; Maijala, Pekka
During May 1998, Roadscanners Oy together with the Office of Minnesota Road Research performed a series of GPR tests in Minnesota, in order to determine the level of accuracy of the GPR technology in pavement and subgrade soil testing. The project involved a total of 195 km of GPR surveys carried out in different locations throughout Minnesota. The test sections represented a range of pavement materials, structures and soils found in the state. A number of GPR tests were performed to evaluate different types of pavement defect and ascertain their causes. The results of the Minnesota GPR Project 1998 clearly show the potential benefits that GPR techniques could offer the Minnesota Department of Transportation (DOT). The results of the Mn/ROAD tests show that GPR can be applied in measuring the layer thickness of various pavement structures. The surface reflection technique can be used to determine the signal velocity of both asphalt and concrete pavement structures. Mn/ROAD surveys also revealed evidence of some previously unknown defects in test cells, e.g. stripping, voids and moisture anomalies. A good example of the benefits the GPR technique can offer in detecting stripping is the T.H. 23, T.H. 71 Willmar case, where reference data, drill cores and FWD data matched almost perfectly with the GPR data. Another notable case presented in the paper is U.S. 52, Oronoco, where defects due to differential frost heave were located.
Goyal, Sagar M; Lauer, Dale; Friendshuh, Keith; Halvorson, David A
Avian pneumovirus (APV) causes respiratory tract infection in turkeys and was first seen in the United States in Colorado in late 1996. In early 1997, the disease was recognized in Minnesota and caused estimated losses of up to 15 million dollars per year. This virus has not been reported in the other turkey producing states. We here report the seroprevalence of APV in Minnesota from August 1998 to July 2002. The average rate of seroprevalence has been 36.3% (range = 14.2%-64.8%). A seasonal bias was observed, with peak incidences in the fall and spring. A higher rate of seropositivity was observed in counties with the highest concentration of turkeys.
Khan, M.A.; Goyal, S.M.; Diesch, S.L.; Mech, L.D.; Fritts, S.H.
Serum samples (n = 457) from wolves (Canis lupus) in northern Minnesota were collected from 1972 through 1986 and were tested for antibodies against Leptospira interrogans using a microtiter agglutination test. Twelve serovars included in the study were: australis, autumnalis, ballum, bataviae, bratislava, canicola, copenhageni, grippotyphosa, hardjo, pomona, pyrogenes, and tarassovi. Fifty-two (11%) sera had antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:50 against one or more serovars of L. interrogans. The seroprevalence of different serovars in decreasing order was: grippotyphosa, bratislava, autumnalis, canicola, pomona, ballum, pyrogenes, hardjo, and copenhageni. No antibodies were found against australis, bataviae, and tarassovi. These results indicate that L. interrogans infection may occur in wolves of Minnesota.
Galeazzi, Priscilla M; Mercadante, Maria E Z; Silva, Josineudson Aiiv; Aspilcueta-Borquis, Rúsbel R; de Camargo, Gregório M F; Tonhati, Humberto
In order to contribute to the breeding programmes of Asian water buffalo, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of genetic effects in the stayability of Murrah dairy buffaloes. The stayability trait (ST) was defined as the female's ability to stay in the herd for one (ST1), two (ST2), three (ST3), four (ST4), five (ST5) or six years (ST6) after the first calving. The same trait was also considered as continuous and was designated stayability in days up to one (STD1), two (STD2), three (STD3), four (STD4), five (STD5) or six years (STD6) after the first calving. Data from 1016 females reared in nine herds located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were analysed. Statistical models included the additive genetic effect of the animal and the fixed effects of the buffalo breeding herd, birth year and birth season. Additive effects for ST were estimated by approximate restricted maximum likelihood using a threshold model, while for STD, the additive effects were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood. Heritability estimates were lower for ST, except for ST1, (0.11+/-0.07, 0.17+/-0.06, 0.23+/-0.06, 0.16+/-0.08, 0.14+/-0.09 and 0.16+/-0.10 for ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4, ST5 and ST6, respectively) when compared with STD (0.05+/-0.06, 0.18+/-0.08, 0.40+/-0.10, 0.49+/-0.11, 0.41+/-0.11 and 0.30+/-0.13, for STD1, STD2, STD3, STD4, STD5 and STD6, respectively). Considering the values of heritability and owing to the serial nature of STD to a specific age, selection for STD3 should have a favourable influence on STD to other ages.
The Dakota Water Resources Act passed by the U.S. Congress in 2000 authorized the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a comprehensive study of future water-quantity and -quality needs of the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin in North Dakota and of possible options to meet those water needs. To obtain the river gain and loss information needed to properly account for available streamflow within the basin, available river gain and loss studies for the Sheyenne, Turtle, Forest, and Park Rivers in North Dakota and the Wild Rice, Sand Hill, Clearwater, South Branch Buffalo, and Otter Tail Rivers in Minnesota were reviewed. Ground-water discharges for the Sheyenne River in a reach between Lisbon and Kindred, N. Dak., were about 28.8 cubic feet per second in 1963 and about 45.0 cubic feet per second in 1986. Estimated monthly net evaporation losses for additional flows to the Sheyenne River from the Missouri River ranged from 1.4 cubic feet per second in 1963 to 51.0 cubic feet per second in 1976. Maximum water losses for a reach between Harvey and West Fargo, N. Dak., for 1956-96 ranged from about 161 cubic feet per second for 1976 to about 248 cubic feet per second for 1977. Streamflow gains of 1 to 1.5 cubic feet per second per mile were estimated for the Wild Rice, Sand Hill, and Clearwater Rivers in Minnesota. The average ground-water discharge for a 5.2-mile reach of the Otter Tail River in Minnesota was about 14.1 cubic feet per second in August 1994. The same reach lost about 14.1 cubic feet per second between February 1994 and June 1994 and about 21.2 cubic feet per second between August 1994 and August 1995.
Edwards, Elizabeth A.
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), a freshwater fish. The models are scaled to produce an indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Other habitat suitability models found in the literature are also included. Habitat suitability indices (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Steven J. TAFF
This publication is a snapshot of the Minnesota Farm Real Estate Sales web site (http://www.apec.umn.edu/faculty/sjtaff/salesstudy) as of May 31, 2006. It will be formally "reissued" (the web site will be recaptured) each Spring, as new sales data become available. We no longer distribute a separate farm real estate report in the Minnesota Agricultural Economist (now the Minnesota Applied Economist. The site consists largely of graphs and tables summarizing sales over the past fifteen years. ...
Steven J. TAFF
This publication is a snapshot of the Minnesota Farm Real Estate Sales web site (http://www.apec.umn.edu/faculty/sjtaff/salesstudy) as of June 2, 2005. It will be formally "reissued" (the web site will be recaptured) each Spring, as new sales data become available. We no longer distribute a separate farm real estate report in the Minnesota Agricultural Economist (now the Minnesota Applied Economist). The site consists largely of graphs and tables summarizing sales over the past fifteen years....
Amie Jo Digatono, Pharm.D. Candidat
Objective: To describe Medication Therapy Management (MTM) services in Minnesota, quantifying how many patient encountersoccur per week and compiling provider and practice site characteristics.Design: Cross‐sectional study.Setting: Minnesota practice sites surveyed in June and July 2010.Participants: MTM providers in Minnesota who are registered users of the Assurance®documentation system or are members of theMinnesota Pharmacists Association MTM Academy. Intervention: Self‐administered...
Full Text Available Buffalo breeding in Campania is aimed at milk production as the starting material for the production of Mozzarella di Bufala DOP, but it does not take into account the possibility of meat production. Buffalo meat, given its low content in fat and cholesterol, represents a good alternative to bovine meat from the dietetic standpoint. One of most interesting aspects of buffalo meat is its utilization either directly or to prepare other products. Development of these products however requires suitable technological approaches based on molecular characterization, so that product evaluation and development may be carried out on rational basis.
Stelian Sertu; Maria Voiculescu; Augustin Pop; Adrian Bota; F. Grigorie; Marcel Paraschivescu
Fertility in buffalo is low. That could be a question of species adaptation in new climate or a genetic trait. Scientists think buffaloes entered the South-est of Europe on two ways one with the Hune and Avar people coming trough the North of Black Sea up to the intra Charpathian Hils and a later one more prolonged with penetratio trough Egypt, Small Asia and Greece at the time when some people migrated up to the Danube River. Buffaloes which originated from Egypt were domesticated before the...
Averett, D.E.; Zappi, P.A.; Tatem, H.E.; Gibson, A.C.; Tominey, E.A.
The Corps of Engineers Buffalo District conducted a demonstration of equipment for dredging contaminated sediments. Several thousand cubic yards of sediment were removed from outside the Buffalo River Federal navigation channel limits using three dredge types: (1) open bucket, (2) enclosed bucket, and (3) submersible pump. The effectiveness of a silt screen deployed downstream of the dredge to reduce suspended sediment transport was also evaluated. Extensive sediment and water column monitoring and sampling were conducted during the 2-week demonstration as part of the effort to determine sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases associated with the dredging operations. Water column samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total organic carbon, PCBs, PAHs, metals, ammonia, and pH. A water column bioassay test using Daphnia magna was also performed to assess toxicity effects of the dredging operation. Results of this study were used to assess and refine techniques and laboratory tests that have been previously developed by the Corps of Engineers to predict sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases. In another phase of the study, the Bureau of Mines demonstrated the use of polyelectrolytes for rapid removal of suspended solids from a dilute dredged material slurry.
Alejandro Ojeda R.; Ricardo Londoño O.; Carlos Gutierrez R.; Angela Gonella-Diaza
ABSTRACTObjective. Characterize the follicular dynamics and luteal growth and regression pattern of multiparous (MB) and heifer (BH) Murrah buffaloes in Colombian tropical conditions. Material and methods. Ten MB and ten BH were synchronized with a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device. No artificial insemination was performed during the estrous and daily ultrasound examinations were performed 15 days later to determine the number and diameter of the structures present in both ovaries in...
It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to TSEs (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies) (same as rabbits, horses and dogs). TSEs, also called prion diseases, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of species (in humans prion diseases are (v)CJDs, GSS, FFI, and kulu etc). It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to prion diseases (as rabbits, dogs, horses). In molecular structures, these neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein, predominantly with alpha-helices, into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions, rich in beta-sheets. This paper studies the molecular structure and structural dynamics of buffalo prion protein, in order to find out the reason why buffaloes are resistant to prion diseases. We first did molecular modeling a homology structure constructed by one mutation at residue 143 from the Nuclear Magnetic Resonanc...
Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou
The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.
de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Soares, Julia Gleyci; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio
Reproductive seasonality in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is characterized by behavioral, endocrine, and reproductive changes that occur over distinct periods of the year. During the nonbreeding season (spring and summer), the greater light-dark ratio (long days) suppresses estrus behavior and the occurrence of ovulation. Anestrous buffaloes have insufficient pulsatile of LH to support the final stages of follicular development, and subsequently, estrus behavior and ovulation do not occur, limiting reproductive efficiency, especially in artificial insemination (AI) programs. A number of therapeutic strategies designed to synchronize follicular wave emergence and ovulation have allowed for the use of AI throughout the year, overcoming seasonal anestrus in buffalo. These therapies also improve reproductive performance by increasing the service rate and pregnancy per AI in buffalo herds, regardless of reproductive seasonality. PMID:27157389
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map is showing the proposed park boundary line for NiobraraBuffalo Prairie National Park in Cherry County, Brown County, and Keya Paha County, Nebraska.
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Buffalo County, WI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...
Full Text Available Meat characteristics of mature swamp buffalo fed with two different ratios of roughage and concentrate feed was studied. Twelve draught buffaloes with an average weight of 350 kg were randomly divided into two treatments and kept individually in pens. The concentrate:roughage ratio (based on dry matter was 50:50 (T1 or 30:70 (T2, respectively. All buffaloes were slaughtered at a body weight of 500 kg (± 25 and M. longissimus dorsi was removed in order to study meat quality. The meat quality in terms of color, pH and conductivity values were not significantly different between the groups. Meat color in terms of L* (lightness showed that LD of T2 group was significantly lighter when compared with T1 (P0.05. In conclusion, meat characteristic traits of buffalo fed concentrate to roughage in ratios of 50:50 or 30:70 were similar.
A hydrodynamic and water quality transport study of the Buffalo River has been conducted. sing a two-dimensional (laterally averaged) model and incorporating appropriate specification of boundary conditions, we simulated the transport of river water temperature and conductivity f...
Stafuzza, N B; Naressi, B C M; Yang, E; Cai, J J; Amaral-Trusty, M E J
River buffalo chromosome 1 (BBU1) is a sub-metacentric chromosome homologous to bovine chromosomes 1 and 27. In this study, we constructed a new framework radiation hybrid (RH) map from BBU1 using BBURH5000 panel adding nine new genes (ADRB3, ATP2C1, COPB2, CRYGS, P2RY1, SLC5A3, SLC20A2, SST, and ZDHHC2) and one microsatellite (CSSM043) to the set of markers previously mapped on BBU1. The new framework RH map of BBU1 contained 141 markers (55 genes, 2 ESTs, 10 microsatellites, and 74 SNPs) distributed within one linkage group spanning 2832.62 centirays. Comparison of the RH map to sequences from bovine chromosomes 1 and 27 revealed an inversion close to the telomeric region. In addition, we ordered a set of 34 scaffolds from the buffalo genome assembly UMD_CASPUR_WB_2.0. The RH map could provide a valuable tool to order scaffolds from the buffalo genome sequence, contributing to its annotation. PMID:26535622
Ranjeet Singh Mahla
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Water buffalo is an economically important livestock species and about half of its total world population exists in India. Development of stem cell technology in buffalo can find application in targeted genetic modification of this species. Testis has emerged as a source of pluripotent stem cells in mice and human; however, not much information is available in buffalo. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Pou5f1 (Oct 3/4 is a transcription factor expressed by pluripotent stem cells. Therefore, in the present study, expression of POU5F1 transcript and protein was examined in testes of both young and adult buffaloes by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis. Further, using the testis transplantation assay, a functional assay for spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs, stem cell potential of gonocytes/spermatogonia isolated from prepubertal buffalo testis was also determined. RESULTS: Expression of POU5F1 transcript and protein was detected in prepubertal and adult buffalo testes. Western blot analysis revealed that the POU5F1 protein in the buffalo testis exists in two isoforms; large (∼47 kDa and small (∼21 kDa. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that POU5F1 expression in prepubertal buffalo testis was present in gonocytes/spermatogonia and absent from somatic cells. In the adult testis, POU5F1 expression was present primarily in post-meiotic germ cells such as round spermatids, weakly in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and absent from elongated spermatids. POU5F1 protein expression was seen both in cytoplasm and nuclei of the stained germ cells. Stem cell potential of prepubertal buffalo gonocytes/spermatogonia was confirmed by the presence of colonized DBA-stained cells in the basal membrane of seminiferous tubules of xenotransplanted mice testis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings strongly indicate that gonocytes/spermatogonia, isolated for prepubertal buffalo testis can
... high speed intercity passenger rail connection between the Twin Cities and Chicago. The Minnesota... Plan for high-speed rail development. Significant growth in Rochester and Olmsted County has occurred... studies for the proposed Corridor have supported its independent utility to support high speed...
The interest in sperm DNA integrity evaluation and its relationship to subfertility and infertility loaded to development of several sperm DNA assays. The aim of this study was to compare several sperm DNA assays in buffaloes, bulls and stallions, and to identify the relationships between those DNA assays and traditional sperm features. In Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (IMB) bulls traditional sperm features (motility, viability, acrosome integrity and morphology), sperm DNA integrity (neutral...
AURELIA PECE; CRISTIAN COROIAN; Camelia RĂDUCU; VIOARA MIREŞAN; GHEORGHE MUREŞAN
Researches were conducted on a biologic material, a buffalo livestock, in different lactating stages and their physico-chemical parameters were determined: fat, protein, lactose, unfat dry substance, density, pH, temperature. Regarding the variation of these components, researches conducted emphasized differences determined by those conditions specific to reference seasons. Individual analysis on the buffalo livestock in the study, emphasized significant differences: fat 8.59-9.36%, protein 5...
ÖZENÇ, Erhan; VURAL, Mehmet Rıfat; Şeker, Esra; Mehmet UÇAR
Subclinical mastitis in Anatolian buffaloes (n = 71) in Afyon, Turkey was evaluated using 1637 milk samples collected monthly for 9 months. Tests applied to milk samples included the California Mastitis Test (CMT), somatic cell count (SCC), and bacteriological examination. The threshold limit for SCC was found as 130 × 103 cells/ml. Anatolian buffaloes are infected above this level and they are likely to be uninfected below this level. The highest rates of intramammary infection (IMI) per qu...
Adrian Gawedzki; K. Wayne Forsythe
Anthracene and arsenic contamination concentrations at various depths in the Buffalo River were analyzed in this study. Anthracene is known to cause damage to human skin and arsenic has been linked to lung and liver cancer. The Buffalo River is labelled as an Area of Concern defined by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between Canada and the United States. It has a long history of industrial activity located in its near vicinity that has contributed to its pollution. An ordinary kriging...
Anil Persad; Roxanne Charles; Adesiyun, Abiodun A.
Toxoplasmosis has been reported to occur in several animals and humans causing different clinical manifestations. The study was conducted to determine the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG) in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) across farms in Trinidad using a latex agglutination test. Of a total of 333 water buffalo tested, 26 (7.8%) were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was statistically significantly (P < 0.05; χ 2) higher in adult water buf...
H. A. Bachaya, Z. Iqbal1, G. Muhammad2, A. Yousaf2 and H. M. Ali3
Mastitis is the most costly disease of dairy industry throughout the world. Sub-clinical mastitis is not observed by the farmers but results in hidden losses in terms of production. The present study was conducted to determine the quarter wise and animal wise prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis in buffaloes in Attock district of Punjab, Pakistan. Milk samples were collected from apparently mastitis free 1200 quarters of 300 buffaloes. The samples were subjected to Surf Field Mastitis Test (SF...
Herman, Margo; Grant, Samantha
The University of Minnesota Extension Center for Youth Development made an organizational decision in 2011 to invest in a system-wide approach to implement youth program quality into the 4-H program using the Youth Program Quality Assessment (YPQA) tool. This article describes the four key components to the Minnesota Youth Program Quality…
Johnson, Kimberly A.; Frank, Margaret M.
This paper reports on findings and implications from a two-year evaluation of the Minnesota STudent Achievement in Reading (STAR) Project. This long-term, job-embedded, professional development activity is provided for Minnesota Adult Basic Education (ABE) practitioners serving intermediate-level adult students reading between 4.0 to 8.9 grade…
Maki, Wilbur R.; Stenberg, Peter L.; del Ninno, Carlo
This report presents local data and related discussion on the economic importance of agriculture and agriculture-related industries in Minnesota. Statistical findings show the contribution of agriculture to Minnesota's economic base and to changes in employment, income, and population in the state and its substate regions and counties.
M.I. San Andrés
Full Text Available Sulfamethazine is a sulfonamide that presents a broad spectrum of activity, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Chlamydia spp. and some protozoa and it commonly used in ruminants. The aim of our work was to study the possible inter-species differences in the pharmacokinetic behavior and pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic(PK/PD integration of sulfamethazine after intravenous administration in buffalo and bovine. A single intravenous dose of 60 mg/kg was administered to six bovine and five buffalo (3-4 month old and weighting 120±15kg. Plasma concentrations of sulfamethazine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Differences between bovine and buffalo calves were found in t½λ (buffaloes: t1/2λ =6.17±0.58h; bovine t1/2λ=7.46±1.05h, Cl (buffaloes: 45.31ml/h·kg; bovines 30.34ml/h·kg. As a consequence of the lower clearance in bovines, the AUC and t½λ values were higher in this species. Important differences between bovine and buffalo exist for microorganisms that have a MIC value<32μg/ml related to time over minimum inhibitory concentration and weighted AUC.
Campanile, Giuseppe; Neglia, Gianluca; D'Occhio, Michael J
River buffalo are able to adapt to diverse climatic zones and are widespread globally. The resource use efficiency of buffalo is highly relevant in a resource-constrained world and the increasing requirement to produce more food. Buffalo clearly have an important role in meeting the growing demand for animal protein. In the Mediterranean and higher latitudes, buffalo show annual cycles of ovarian activity, embryonic development, and pregnancy rate. In buffalo, the CL starts to develop early in the cycle, and there is also an early increase in concentrations of progesterone (P4) in circulation. This appears to be necessary for optimal embryonic development. The failure to establish a pregnancy in buffalo can occur before Day 21 (early embryonic mortality), from Day 21 to 45 (late embryonic mortality), and from Day 46 to 90 (fetal mortality) after mating. Treatment with P4, hCG, and GnRH on Day 5 after mating increases P4 in circulation and reduces early embryonic mortality in circumstances where concentrations of P4 are relatively low. The same treatments applied on Day 20 to 25 after mating can lower the occurrence of late embryonic mortality and fetal mortality. PMID:27142486
M. Anwar, N. Ullah, A. Mehmood and S.M.H. Andrabi
Full Text Available The trial was conducted to assess anoestrous problem in Nili Ravi buffaloes kept under rural and peri-urban management around Islamabad, during the months of October to December. One hundred and three buffaloes under peri-urban management and 40 buffaloes under rural management belonging to six and 21 farmers, respectively, were included in this study. Buffaloes that did not show heat signs for 6-12 months postpartum were considered anoestrus in this study. For inducing heat, two injections of cloprostenol were administered in silent oestrous buffaloes, whereas gonadotropin releasing hormone followed by cloprostenol was administered in true anoestrous buffaloes. A higher proportion of buffaloes (35% was noted in anoestrus under rural than under peri-urban management (17.5%, P=0.02. All the buffaloes diagnosed as silent oestrus responded to cloprostenol therapy by showing heat signs under both management systems. However 71% rural buffaloes diagnosed in true anoestrus showed heat symptoms compared to 100% peri-urban buffaloes followed by GnRH+cloprostenol therapy. Fixed time insemination (72 and 96 hours after 2nd cloprostenol injection resulted in a conception rate of 58% and 67% in rural and peri-urban buffaloes, respectively. An overall 33% conception rate was observed in true anoestrous compared to 83% in silent oestrous buffaloes. It is concluded that cloprostenol could be used successfully to induce heat and achieve an optimum conception rate in silent oestrous buffaloes during peak breeding season.
Almlof, Jan; Truhlar, Donald G.; Davis, H. T.; Jensen, Klavs F.; Tirrell, Matthew
The focus of cluster chemistry studies at the University of Minnesota is on the adsorption of small hydrocarbon molecules on metal and graphite surfaces, and on the substitution defects in diamond and silicon. Of particular interest is the study of very large systems such as the C60 molecule and the C150H30 molecule. Many of the properties of such clusters converge extremely slowly toward bulk values. Ultrathin films and microporous media are discussed as well as the Brownian dynamics of polymers.
Crist, D. [Minnesota Department of Corrections, St. Paul, MN (United States); Spencer, D.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
For the past few years, the Minnesota Department of Corrections, assisted by Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a set of standards for perimeter security at medium, close, and maximum custody correctional facilities in the state. During this process, the threat to perimeter security was examined and concepts about correctional perimeter security were developed. This presentation and paper will review the outcomes of this effort, some of the lessons learned, and the concepts developed during this process and in the course of working with architects, engineers and construction firms as the state upgraded perimeter security at some facilities and planned new construction at other facilities.
The diploma thesis presents an upgrade of the FingerIdent fingerprint verification system. The current version of the system uses a minutia matching procedure for comparison of two fingerprints. In order to improve the security of the system we have implemented an additional matching procedure which is based on the use of fingerprint ridges. Algorithm inputs are lists of ridge points of two fingerprints. At the beginning the algorithm searches the initial base ridge pair and matches it. Th...
Full Text Available A total of 2340 mammary glands of 585 primiparous and pluriparous lactating buffaloes in different stages of lactation were examined with California Mastitis Test ( CMT and laboratory examination was carried out to identify the most prevalent micro-organisms in clinical and sub-clinical mastitis. The physical examination revealed 2.61 per cent blind teats and CMT revealed 6.71 per cent positive quarters for mastitis. Microbiological examination of 157 sub-clinical mastitis milk samples and 46 clinical mastitis milk samples was carried out. There was high occurrence of streptococci (35.46% followed by staphylococci (33.99%, E. coli (27.09%, pseudomonas spp. ( 1.97% and Corynaebacterium pyogenes (1.48%. The in vitro sensitivity revealed kanamyciin (82.6%, highly effective against various isolates followed by gentamycin (53.0%.
Hedlund, D.C.; Wood, R.H.
Field investigations were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Colorado. On the basis of this study there is a probable mineral-resource potential for silver vein and bedding replacement deposits along the Weston Pass fault zone, for hydrothermal vein-type uranium deposits in the vicinity of the Parkdale iron pit, and for gold vein deposits in the parts of the Granite and Four Mile districts that are within the wilderness study area. A probable barite resource potential occurs at Rough and Tumbling Creek and near Spring Creek on the east side of the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the milk flow pattern in Italian Mediterranean Buffaloes in relation to parity and oxytocin administration. A total of 330 milk flow recorders were collected during morning and evening milkings by using an electronic milk flow meters (Lactocorder®. Milk flow curves were examined and subject were divided according milk flow pattern in: normal pattern, bimodal pattern and “double pattern”. Data were analysed by using ANOVA and Chi square test. Total milk yield per milking was significantly higher (P<0.01 in pluriparous and consistent with the average DIM of 205 days. No differences in milk yield and maximum milk flow were found between the oxytocin groups while both parameters were higher in bimodal and double pattern groups compared to normal milk flow pattern. Lag time was higher (P<0.01 in oxytocin treated group and in normal vs the other two pattern groups. Length of main milking phase was higher in pluriparous, oxytocin treated group (P<0.01 and in bimodal vs the normal one (P<0.05 while double pattern showed the highest value (P<0.01. Percentage of bimodal milk flow was 13.7% while a double flow pattern was 12.4%. A higher percentage of double pattern was found in oxytocin treated buffaloes vs normal and bimodal ones (18.1% vs 8.1% and 7.5% respectively; P< 0.05 and in pluriparous vs primiparous (74.4% vs 25.6%; P< 0.05.
... COMMISSION Minnesota Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application December 6, 2013. AGENCY: The.... Applicants: Minnesota Life Insurance Company (``Minnesota Life'' or ``Insurance Company''), Variable Annuity...., Washington, D.C. 20549- 1090. Applicants, c/o Daniel P. Preiner, Counsel, Minnesota Life Insurance...
Jerome Andonissamy; Singh, S. K.; Agarwal, S. K.
The present study was conducted to design and analyze the structural model of buffalo pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1 (PAG-1) using bioinformatics. Structural modeling of the deduced buffalo PAG-1 protein was done using PHYRE, CONSURF servers and its structure was subsequently constructed using MODELLER 9.9 and PyMOL softwares Buffalo PAG-1 structural conformity was analyzed using PROSA, WHATIF, and 3D-PSSM servers. Designed buffalo PAG-1 protein structure on BLAST analysis retrieved prot...
Samanchai Suwanamphai; Songkoon Chantachon; Kosit Paengsoi
Problem statement: The use of water buffalo labor for farming and tie between rice farmers and water buffaloes at present are greatly decreasing because rice farmers give more importance to modern ploughing machines than water buffaloes. Water buffalo rising and traditions and rituals involving them which have been useful to humans for a very long time almost all disappear from Isan (Northeast Thailand). The purposes were to examine current conditions and problems and...
Full Text Available Global warming is likely to impact productivity of buffaloes due to their sensitivity to temperature changes. Air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and solar radiation are the main climate variables that affect buffalo production in tropical climate. In the present study sensitivity of lactating Murrah buffaloes to sudden temperature (Tmax, Tmin change and THI have been analyzed from milk production and climatic records (1994-2004 of Karnal. Algorithms were developed and validated on lactating buffaloes during 2005-2006 at the Institute. A sudden change (rise or fall in Maximum/Minimum temperature during summer and winter was observed to affect milk production. The decline in minimum temperature (>3°C during winter and increase (>4°C during summer than normal were observed to negatively impact milk production upto 30% on the next or subsequent days after extreme event. The return to normal milk production depended on severity and time period of thermal stress/ event occurrence. The R² was very low for cool period observed during Feb- April/Sept-Nov and actual effect on milk production was minimum. This indicated that low THI had a relatively small effect on milk production performance. The lactation period of animals are shortened during extreme summer when THI were more than 80 and reproductive functions were also adversely affected. Thermal stressed buffaloes did not exhibit estrus or exhibited estrus for short period. The potential direct effects of possible climate change and global warming on summer season milk production of Murrah buffaloes were evaluated using widely known global circulation model UKMO to represent possible scenarios of future climate. Both milk production and reproductive functions of Murrah buffaloes are likely to be affected due to warming effects.
Furst, Jacob David
Shape analysis of objects is an important aspect of medical image processing. Information gained from shape analysis can be used for object segmentation, object- based registration and object visualization. One shape analysis tool is the core, defined to be a height ridge of a medial strength measure made on an image. In this dissertation I present 3D cores, defined here to be optimal scale-orientation height ridges of oriented medial strength measurements. This dissertation covers (1)a medial strength measurement, Blum- like medialness, that is robust, efficient, and insensitive to intrafigural interference, (2)a new definition for a ridge, the optimal parameter height ridge, and its properties, and (3)an algorithm, Marching Ridges, for extracting cores. The medial strength measurement uses Gaussian derivatives, so is insensitive to noise, and responds to object boundaries at points rather than on entire spheres, so is faster to calculate and less sensitive to boundaries of other image figures. The Marching Ridges algorithm uses the grid structure of the image domain to identify ridge points as zero-crossings of first derivatives and to track ridges through the image domain. I include results of this algorithm on medical images of cerebral vasculature, a skull, kidneys, and brain ventricles.
... Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 Section 165.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine... Port Buffalo. (2) Persons or vessels desiring to transit the area of the Nine Mile Point...
... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo...., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The Region...
The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus) is important to the economy of several countries, especially in Asia and Brazil. Little is known regarding the impact of coccidiosis in buffaloes. Cattle and buffaloes are considered to have common species of Eimeria, but critical cross transmissions have not been...
... Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: At various... fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. This action is necessary and intended for the... Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165.939 will be enforced on the dates and times listed in...
... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo... Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District...
... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo... Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District...
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Buffalo Bayou, Mile 4.3... removing the existing drawbridge operation regulation for the drawbridge across Buffalo Bayou, mile 4.3... Buffalo Bayou, mile 4.3, was removed and replaced with a fixed bridge in 1991. The elimination of...
Kerber, Laura; Dickson, James; Grosfils, Eric; Head, James W.
Polygonal ridge networks, also known as boxwork or reticulate ridges, are found in numerous locations and geological contexts across Mars. While networks formed from mineralized fractures hint at hot, possibly life-sustaining circulating ground waters, networks formed by impact-driven clasting diking, magmatic dikes, gas escape, or lava flows do not have the same astrobiological implications. Distinguishing the morphologies and geological context of the ridge networks sheds light on their potential as astrobiological and mineral resource sites of interest. The most widespread type of ridge morphology is characteristic of the Nili Fossae and Nilosyrtis region and consists of thin, criss-crossing ridges with a variety of heights, widths, and intersection angles. They are found in ancient Noachian terrains at a variety of altitudes and geographic locations and may be a mixture of clastic dikes, brecciated dikes, and mineral veins. They occur in the same general areas as valley networks and ancient lake basins, but they are not more numerous where these features are concentrated, and can appear in places where they morphologies are absent. Similarly, some of the ridge networks are associated with hydrated mineral detections, but some occur in locations without detections. Smaller, light-toned ridges of variable widths have been found in Gale Crater and other rover sites and are interpreted to be smaller version of the Nili-like ridges, in this case formed by the mineralization of fractures. This type of ridge is likely to be found in many other places on Mars as more high-resolution data becomes available. Hellas Basin is host to a third type of ridge morphology consisting of large, thick, light-toned ridges forming regular polygons at several superimposed scales. While still enigmatic, these are most likely to be the result of sediment-filled fractures. The Eastern Medusae Fossae Formation contains large swaths of a fourth, previously undocumented, ridge network type
This thesis investigates the mandibular reduction in height of complete denture wearers and overdenture wearers. To follow this reduction in the anterior region as well as in the lateral sections of the mandible, an accurate and reproducible measuring method is a prerequisite. A radiologic technique offers the best chance. A survey is given of the literature concerning the resorption process after the extraction of teeth. An oblique cephalometric radiographic technique is introduced as a promising method to measure mandibular ridge reduction. The reproducibility and the accuracy of the technique are determined. The reproducibility in the positioning of the mandible is improved by the introduction of a mandibular support which permits a precise repositioning of the edentulous jaw, even after long periods of investigation. (Auth.)
Perez, A. S.; Sabato, J. S.; Singer, J.; Manley, T.
The Buffalo River discharges into Lake Erie near the upper end of the Niagara River. The lower 9.2 km of the river has been designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to environmental problems associated with poor water quality, degraded riparian and river habitat, and contaminated sediments. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a navigational channel at a depth of 6.7 m below mean lake level by periodic dredging. In 2011, extensive dredging took place within the upper portions of the river to remove some of the most contaminated sediments. This dredging resulted in both widening and deepening of the channel. The Buffalo River's gradient is low and current velocities generally are Buffalo River reversing its flow. The largest episodic lake-driven flow reversals were found during strong westerly wind events that setup an elevated water level at the eastern (Buffalo) end of the lake. Lower amplitude flow reversals could also be associated with subsequent Lake Erie surface seiches or other phenomena. They also occur during times when no seiche conditions are present. The interaction between river flow and reverse (lake-driven) flow was investigated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), temperature sensors, and water level recorders deployed for the past five years at various locations in the lower 9 km of the river. The collected data record the periodic reversals associated with Lake Erie seiches, but also reveal an oscillation within the river. This 'river seiche' has a period of ~2 hours and occurs continuously, persisting even during high flow events and during times of strong lake-driven flow reversals. To better understand the characteristics and behavior of this 'river oscillation', time-series plots and Fourier power spectra were produced from the ADCP data. These data show that the magnitude of the oscillation is on the order of 5-10 cm s-1. There are three coherent spectral peaks with significant power above the noise. These peaks have
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Ninth Coast Guard District § 3.45-10 Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Buffalo's office is located in Buffalo, NY. The boundaries of...
Full Text Available Mnopedia is the recently created, born digital encyclopedia of the state of Minnesota. It is a project of the Minnesota Historical Society (MNHS, the state's leading cultural heritage institution and one of the largest and oldest historical societies in the nation. The MNHS has been in existence since 1849 and tells the story of Minnesota's past through exhibitions, extensive libraries and collections, twenty-six historic sites, educational programs, book publishing, and both financial and inkind assistance to county and local historical societies throughout the state. It provides a strong base for an encyclopedia to grow from.
G. Habib, G. Jabbar1, M. M. Siddiqui and Z. Shah2
Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during the month of May to August 2001 to diagnose hind limbs paralysis in buffaloes of Buner area of NWFP. Serum concentrations of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P in 40 buffaloes (29 affected and 11 normal from six different villages were measured together with feed and soil samples analysed for different macro and micro minerals. Serum P level was lower (P<0.001 in affected buffaloes and averaged 3.05 mg/100 ml of serum against 6.73 mg/100 ml found in the normal buffaloes. Serum Ca level was in normal range and did not differ between affected and normal buffaloes (12.16 and 12.93 mg/100 ml, respectively. Range grass hay, the main feed offered to the animals during dry season of high disease incidence, was extremely low in P (0.10mg/100g and sodium (0.03g/100g, with adequate level of Ca (0.41 g/100 g. Concentrations of potassium (K and magnesium (Mg in range grass hay were very high and averaged 5.0 and 0.34g/100 g, respectively. Copper (Cu, manganese (Mn and iron (Fe contents in the hay were 28.50, 113.0 and 242.0 g/g, respectively and were in excess of the recommended dietary requirements for cattle. However, zinc (Zn concentration (42.33 g/g in the hay was marginally adequate to meet the dietary requirement of dairy cattle. The mineral profile of hay was in close agreement with that of soil in the area. The results concluded that deficiency of P in hay, which might have resulted due to low P in soil, described low serum P in buffaloes and might be the major cause of the disease. The imbalance of other minerals in hay and soil might have also reduced the bioavailability of P to plants and animals. In vitro matter digestibility (38.1%, crude protein (5.63% in DM, and metabolizable energy (1.32 Mcal/kg DM values of the hay offered to animals were below the standard requirements and caused general emaciation of the buffaloes during dry seasons. Correction of the hind limbs paralysis in buffaloes would require
Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam
This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872
Full Text Available Pakistan being an agricultural country supports a national herd of 28.4 million buffaloe which constitutes 8-10% of the global buffaloe population. Buffaloe contributes 72% of the national milk supply. Buffaloe is intricately interwoven with the social fabric of the rural families. In these areas it is mainly raised for milk production. Pakistan is the largest buffaloe meat producer followed by India, China, Thailand and Vietnam. The share of buffaloe’s meat at national level is over 55%. Slaughtering of male young calves for meat is common which has high degree of preference among the consumers. Fattening is rarely practiced, as there is poor price structure for beef. Female calves are usually raised for future herds. Little effort has been done so far to feed them on scientific lines. Mortality is high in calves during pre-weaning age. Seasonal variation in mortality is common. Poor nutrition, health and management have been demonstrated to be the main contributory factors affecting the calves’ survival.
Laiq Ahmed Athar, Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Tauseef-ur-Rehman and Izhar Ahmad Khan1
Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the point prevalence of various helminths of cattle and buffalo population of district Toba Tek Singh, Pakistan and economic benefits of deworming with oxyclozanide. Out of 540 fecal samples examined, 205 (37.96% were found infected with helminths. Significantly higher (OR=2.2; P<0.05 prevalence of helminths was recorded in buffaloes (40%; 112/280 as compared to cattle (35.77%; 93/260. Oesophagostomum, Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloide, Ostertagia, Fasciola (F. hepatica, F. gigantica and Haemonchus contortus were the helminth species identified in the study area. Oxyclozanide medicated buffaloes (E=96.66% and cattle (E=95.64% showed a significant decrease in fecal egg counts on day 14 post-treatment. An average daily increase of 0.89 and 0.71 liters of milk along with 0.42 and 0.37% more fat per buffalo and cattle, respectively was observed in oxyclozanide medication. The economic value of reduced production of infected animals was estimated as US$ 0.47 (Pak Rupees 40 and US$ 0.41 (Pak Rupees 35 per animal per day for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. It can be concluded that single dose of oxyclozanide is effective against all bovine helminths.
The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota (Hennepin County) integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM system.
Bauer, Marvin E.; Burk, Thomas E.; Ek, Alan R.; Coppin, Pol R.; Lime, Stephen D.; Walsh, Terese A.; Walters, David K.; Befort, William; Heinzen, David F.
The methods and results of using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to classify and estimate the acreage of forest covertypes in northeastern Minnesota are described. Portions of six TM scenes covering five counties with a total area of 14,679 square miles were classified into six forest and five nonforest classes. The approach involved the integration of cluster sampling, image processing, and estimation. Using cluster sampling, 343 plots, each 88 acres in size, were photo interpreted and field mapped as a source of reference data for classifier training and calibration of the TM data classifications. Classification accuracies of up to 75 percent were achieved; most misclassification was between similar or related classes. An inverse method of calibration, based on the error rates obtained from the classifications of the cluster plots, was used to adjust the classification class proportions for classification errors. The resulting area estimates for total forest land in the five-county area were within 3 percent of the estimate made independently by the USDA Forest Service. Area estimates for conifer and hardwood forest types were within 0.8 and 6.0 percent respectively, of the Forest Service estimates. A trial of a second method of estimating the same classes as the Forest Service resulted in standard errors of 0.002 to 0.015. A study of the use of multidate TM data for change detection showed that forest canopy depletion, canopy increment, and no change could be identified with greater than 90 percent accuracy. The project results have been the basis for the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and the Forest Service to define and begin to implement an annual system of forest inventory which utilizes Landsat TM data to detect changes in forest cover.
Cruz, L. C.
There are two major types of water buffaloes in the world, the riverine type and the swamp type. The total number of Swamp buffalo is 37.6 M and represents 21.8% of the world’s buffalo population. The swamp buffaloes have played a major role in draft animal-dependent farming system. But intensified rice production became more pronounced in irrigated areas and this has led to increased utilization of small farm machineries, displacing significantly the draft buffaloes for land tillage. To some...
Iyer, S.D.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Drolia, R.K.; Ray, Dwijesh
In this article, we chronicle the events that lead to the creation of a global scientific network for midoceanic ridge research, identify areas where Indian researchers could participate and built a case to support and gain momentum within...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at a resolution of 93 meters. Original data resolution was 3 arc seconds which corresponds (approximately) to a matrix of points at a...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a map of local ecotype seed harvest zones for Iowa and Minnesota. A local ecotype zone is defined as a geographic area with generally similar...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Minnesota Valley NWR as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses environmental impacts...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Minnesota Valley NWR Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides information about...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Master Plan developed for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge proposed that a refuge administration office and maintenance facility be located on an...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) contains a limited fishery resource. Hogback Ponds, Round Lake, Bituminous Pond, and Blick Estate Stream have...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with an...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2004 fiscal year. The report begins with an...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2000 fiscal year. The report begins with an...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997 fiscal year. The report begins with an...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2001 fiscal year. The report begins with an...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1998 fiscal year. The report begins with an...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1999 fiscal year. The report begins with an...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2002 fiscal year. The report begins with an...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2003 fiscal year. The report begins with an...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Thirty emergent, seasonally to semi-permanently flooded wetlands in an intensively farmed area of west central Minnesota were sampled before and during the 1992...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals for this Wildlife Inventory Plan for Minnesota Valley NWR are: (1) to provide as good a survey method as possible to estimate population levels of key...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Minnesota Wetland Complex outlines Complex accomplishments during the 1975 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...
Teresa Cristina Alves
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of 17 buffaloes (Mediterranean, from birth to slaughter age (720 days with monthly measures of weight, thoracic perimeter, body length, and height at withers. At the end of experimental period, the animals were separated into two different groups for statistical analysis according to slaughter weight: light body weight (LBW, mean 517 kg and heavy body weight (HBW, mean 568 kg. Buffalo growth occurs in the same way up to weaning age, and after that, two distinct groups grow in different forms in the same conditions of management and feeding. Body weight can be estimated according to age, thoracic perimeter, height, and length, showing high correlations. Buffaloes show growth in a sigmoid-curve model.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if qualitative and quantitative differences exist in energy substrates and ionic components of buffalo cow oviductal fluid during dioestrus, pre-ovulatory and ovulatory phases of the oestrous cycle. Ten multiparous Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis cows at 15 days in milk were used. Cannulation of oviduct was performed as previously described by Kavanaugh et al.(1992 for cattle, adapting the technique to the smaller dimension of buffalo reproductive tract. We evaluated daily secretion rates, energy substrates and ions concentration during the three phases. Oviductal fluid secretion rates (ml/24h and glucose concentration were significantly greater in the ovulatory phase (P<0.01 and in the pre-ovulatory phase (P<0.05 than in dioestrus. No significant differences were detected between oestrous phases for the other parameters analyzed.
Full Text Available Biosaf is a thermostable live yeast concentrate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain Sc47. The trial was carried out on 35 buffalo cows subdivided in 3 groups: Group A (Control with farm standard diet; Group B (with the same diet, added with 6g Biosaf/day; Group C (with the same diet, added with 60g Biosaf/day. The trial started within the first month from calving (1st month of lactation up to the 8th month of lactation. The mean values for milk production during 8 months of trial are 8.95, 8.95 and 8.91 liters/d, respectively in Group A, B and C, without significant differences among groups. The protein percentage increased in groups receiving Biosaf. The effect was significant (P<0.05 in Group B and C at the 4th, 5th and 8th month of lactation in comparison to Control Group and in Group B at 4th month of lactation in comparison to Control Group: this indicates that Biosaf integration really increases milk protein and consequently mozzarella yield.
The recently announced oil sands development of the Wood Buffalo Region in Alberta was the focus of this power point presentation. Both mining and in situ development is expected to total $26 billion and 2.6 million barrels per day of bitumen production. This paper described the economic, social and environmental challenges facing the resource development of this region. In addition to the proposed oil sands projects, this region will accommodate the needs of conventional oil and gas production, forestry, building of pipelines and power lines, municipal development, recreation, tourism, mining exploration and open cast mining. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) was inaugurated as a non-profit association in April 2000, and includes 41 members from all sectors. Its major role is to ensure a sustainable ecosystem and to avoid any cumulative impacts on wildlife. Other work underway includes the study of soil and plant species diversity, and the effects of air emissions on human health, wildlife and vegetation. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their impacts on surface water and fish is also under consideration to ensure the quality and quantity of surface water and ground water. 3 figs
Bishop, R P; Hemmink, J.D.; Morrison, W.I.; Weir, W.; TOYE, P. G.; Sitt, T.; Spooner, P.R.; Musoke, A.J.; Skilton, R. A.; Odongo, D.O.
African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle ...
Full Text Available Objective: In order to retain an undifferentiated pluripotent state, embryonic stem (ES cells have to be cultured on feeder cell layers. However, use of feeder layers limits stem cell research, since experimental data may result from a combined ES cell and feeder cell response to various stimuli. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a buffalo ES cell line was established from in vitro derived blastocysts and characterized by the Alkaline phosphatase (AP and immunoflourescence staining of various pluripotency markers. We examined the effect of various factors like fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF and Y-27632 to support the growth and maintenance of bubaline ES cells on gelatin coated dishes, in order to establish feeder free culture systems. We also analyzed the effect of feeder-conditioned media on stem cell growth in gelatin based cultures both in the presence as well as in the absence of the growth factors. Results: The results showed that Y-27632, in the presence of FGF-2 and LIF, resulted in higher colony growth and increased expression of Nanog gene. Feeder-Conditioned Medium resulted in a significant increase in growth of buffalo ES cells on gelatin coated plates, however, feeder layer based cultures produced better results than gelatin based cultures. Feeder layers from buffalo fetal fibroblast cells can support buffalo ES cells for more than two years. Conclusion: We developed a feeder free culture system that can maintain buffalo ES cells in the short term, as well as feeder layer based culture that can support the long term maintenance of buffalo ES cells.
Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.
Recent genetic studies suggest that in northern Minnesota two species of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758 or western wolf and Canis lycaon Schreber, 1775 (= Canis rufus Audubon and Bachman, 1851) or eastern wolf) meet and hybridize. However, little morphological information is available about these two types of wolves in Minnesota. We analyzed the mass of 950 female wolves and 1006 males older than 1 year from across northern Minnesota and found that it increased from 26.30 ?? 0.56 kg (mean ?? SE) for females and 30.60 ?? 0.72 kg for males in northeastern Minnesota to 30.01 ?? 0.43 kg for females and 35.94 ?? 0.45 kg for males in northwestern Minnesota (females: r2 = 0.79, P < 0.02; males: r2 = 0.63, P = 0.06). These mass differences add morphological information to the identities of eastern and western wolves and support the view that ranges of the two species meet in Minnesota. ?? 2008 NRC.
Anthony Sabasthin; Sumanta Nandi; Venkataswamy Girish Kumar
Objective: To examine the oocytes maturation capacity of buffalo, sheep and goat using media containing sera of three different groups of buffaloes (regularly cycling, pregnant and repeat breeding). Methods: The buffalo, sheep and goat oocytes were matured under suitable conditions in medium containing sera of regularly cycling, pregnant and repeat breeding buffaloes. Results:The oocytes maturation rate containing buffalo oocytes cultured in media containing sera of the control group and regularly cycling group were not significantly different. However when oocytes cultured in the media containing sera of pregnant buffaloes the maturation rate were significantly declined. Further significant declined in maturation rate were observed when oocytes cultured in media containing sera of repeat breeding buffaloes. When sheep and goat oocytes cultured in the media containing control, pregnant and regularly cycling animals sera the oocytes maturation rate were not significantly different. A significant decline in maturation rate of sheep and goat oocytes were observed, when oocytes cultured in media containing sera of repeat breeding buffaloes. Conclusion: We may conclude that serum collected from normal cycling buffaloes can be used for oocytes maturation in both homogeneous and heterogeneous species.
Giovanni Bittante; Luigi Gallo; Massimo De Marchi; Alessio Cecchinato; Francesco Tiezzi
Aim of this study was to characterize the buffalo production in the Veneto region of Italy. Test day records of milk production traits (milk yield, protein, fat, and somatic cell count) of 845 buffalo cows from two herds were analyzed using a linear model. The effects included in the model were herd-test-day, days in milk, and parity. Days in milk was the most important source of variation for milk yield, protein, and fat. The patterns of milk yield traits across lactation followed the typica...
Full Text Available E.E. Mac Lachlan, M.R.C.V.S. in 1952 brought to the attention of the Trinidad Veterinarians that the Water Buffalo was an important animal for the Caribbean and the hot humid Tropics. In 1949 Dr Steve Bennett, DVM, Colorado, began with Mr. T. Hume Porteous the development of the Buffalypso breed for beef production in Trinidad at the Caroni Limited Sugar Company. The paper describes the development of the Buffalypso [Buffalo from Trinidad the land of the Calypso- Buffa-lypso] and highlights its traits.
Full Text Available Escherichia coli O26 is considered to be one of the most important food-borne pathogen. In this study, 120 buffalo milk samples collected in Lazio and in Apulia regions were tested for the presence of E. coli O26. One buffalo milk sample (0,8% tested positive for E. coli O26; the isolate was positive at the verocytotoxicity test and it showed resistance properties to different antimicrobial classes. These preliminary results highlight the need to monitor the foods of animal origin used for production and eaten by a wide range of persons, respect VTEC organism.
P. Lampkin; Garcia, G. W.; S. P. Bennet
E.E. Mac Lachlan, M.R.C.V.S. in 1952 brought to the attention of the Trinidad Veterinarians that the Water Buffalo was an important animal for the Caribbean and the hot humid Tropics. In 1949 Dr Steve Bennett, DVM, Colorado, began with Mr. T. Hume Porteous the development of the Buffalypso breed for beef production in Trinidad at the Caroni Limited Sugar Company. The paper describes the development of the Buffalypso [Buffalo from Trinidad the land of the Calypso- Buffa-lypso] and highlights i...
Appendices are presented for the Minnesota Project: District Heating and Cooling Through Power Plant Retrofit and Distribution Network. These are: SYNTHA results (SYNTHA II is a proprietary program of the SYNTHA Corporation); Market Survey Questionnaire: Environmental Review Procedures; Public Service Commission Regulation of District Heating; Energy Use Normalization Procedures; Power Plant Description; Letters of Commitment; Bond Opinion and Issuance; and Marvin Koeplin Letter, Chairman of Public Service Commission, Moorehead, Minnesota.
Gopal Puri; S. S. Chaudhary; Singh, V. K.; Sharma, A. K.
Aim: The aim was to assess the effects of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and estrus buffalo serum (EBS) on in vitro maturation rate of oocytes in buffalo. Materials and Methods: Maturation rate of oocytes was assessed in two maturation media supplemented with 20% FBS and EBS. Oocytes maturation rate was evaluated on the basis of cumulus cell expansion and extrusion of polar body after 24 h of in vitro culture in CO2 incubator. Results: The average percentage of in vitro matured oocytes in FBS...
Full Text Available Problem statement: The use of water buffalo labor for farming and tie between rice farmers and water buffaloes at present are greatly decreasing because rice farmers give more importance to modern ploughing machines than water buffaloes. Water buffalo rising and traditions and rituals involving them which have been useful to humans for a very long time almost all disappear from Isan (Northeast Thailand. The purposes were to examine current conditions and problems and indigenous knowledge of the use of water buffaloes and to investigate the process of conservation and development of the use of water buffaloes in different forms in Isan. The study was conducted in Isan covering 8 Changwats: Nakhon Phanom, Sakon Nakhon Nong Bua Lam Phu, Udon Thani, Khon Kaen, Ubon Ratchathani, Kalasin and Roi ET. Approach: The qualitative research methodology was used. Data was collected from related literature and field studies using structured and unstructured-interview forms, workshop and focus group discussion with 199 informants. The findings were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: The conservation and development of indigenous knowledge of the use of water buffaloes in all the 8 Changwats of Isan had increasingly changed from the past. For water buffalo conservation at present, they have formed groups in cooperation with government agencies involved according to government policy in each period. The group members are not confident that their own group will be able to sustainably exist due to the factors which are the state policy in other parts involved. Some factors can impact the water buffalo conservation groups such as limited places for water buffalo rising, the buffalo rising places being changed to be pear tree farms, for planting eucalyptus trees and others. The uses of water buffaloes as labor and in different cultural rituals and traditions have decreased because the number of water buffalo risers is small
Following the landmark 1998 settlement of the lawsuit, State of Minnesota versus Philip Morris, Inc., et al., Minnesota implemented a series of tobacco control efforts to limit the harm caused by tobacco use. In 2001, quitline services for tobacco users without health insurance coverage for cessation services were introduced and statewide mass media campaigns publicizing them were initiated. In 2005, Minnesota imposed a $0.75 per pack tax on cigarettes, followed in 2009 by a $0.62 per pack increase in federal excise tax, contributing in large part to a more than $2 increase in the average price of cigarettes. In 2007, a comprehensive, statewide smoke-free law was passed. Using surveillance data from the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey (MATS) and cigarette pack sales data, this report examines the effects of these tobacco-related public health efforts. Compared with a 15% decline in national adult smoking prevalence since 1999, adult smoking prevalence in Minnesota decreased 27.1%, from 22.1% in 1999 to 16.1% in 2010. During the same period, per capita cigarette sales in Minnesota decreased 40%. In addition, in 2010 compared with 1999, a higher percentage of adults reported that smoking was restricted in their homes (87.2% versus 64.5%), and adults were less likely to report exposure to secondhand smoke (45.6% versus 67.2%). In the past decade, Minnesota has benefited from sustained tobacco control. Future progress in decreasing adult smoking and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke will depend on a concerted effort across the public health community to keep tobacco control a priority. PMID:21307824
Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) plays a major role in pigmentation in many species.To investigate if the MC1R gene is associated with coat color in water buffalo,the coding region of MC1R gene of 216 buffalo samples was sequenced,which included 49 black river buffalo (Murrah and Nili-Ravi),136 swamp buffalo (Dehong,Diandongnan,Dechang,Guizhou,and Xilin) with white and gray body,and 31 hybrid offspring of river buffalo Nili-Ravi (or Murrah) and swamp buffalo.Among the three variation sites found,SNP684 was synonymous,while SNP310 and SNP384 were nonsynonymous,leading to p.S104G and p.I128M changes,respectively.Only Individuals carrying homozygote EBR/EBR were black.The genotype and phenotype analysis of the hybrid offspring of black river buffalo and gray swamp buffalo further revealed that the river buffalo type allele EBR or the allele carrying the amino acid p.104S was important for the full function of MC1R.The in silico functional analysis showed that the amino acid substitutions p.G104S and p.M128I had significant impact on the function of MC1R.Above results indicate that the allele EBR or the allele carrying the amino acid p.104S was associated with the black coat color in buffalo.
Singh, Shanker K; Singh, Vivek K; Yadav, Brajesh K; Nakade, Udayraj P; Kumari, Priyambada; Srivastava, Mukesh K; Sharma, Abhishek; Choudhary, Soumen; Swain, Dilip; Garg, Satish K
The present study aimed to investigate the association of cholinesterase activity with trypanosomosis in buffaloes. Thirty-three clinical cases of trypanosomosis in water buffaloes, found positive for trypomastigotes of T. evansi on blood smear examination, were divided into two groups based on clinical manifestations. Twenty diseased buffaloes revealing only common clinical signs were allocated to Group I, while the remaining 13 buffaloes showing common clinical manifestations along with neurological disturbances were allocated to Group II. Twelve clinically healthy buffaloes, free from any haemoprotozoa infection, were kept as healthy control (Group III). Blood samples were collected from buffaloes of all three groups to determine serum cholinesterase activity. Compared to buffaloes of healthy control group, cholinesterase activity in T. evansi-infected buffaloes of Group I and II was significantly (Pbuffaloes exhibiting neurological disorders and no neurological disorders. Summing up, reduced cholinesterase activity seems to be associated with the pathogenesis of natural T. evansi infection and its clinical manifestations in buffaloes possibly by evading immune response. Further studies are warranted on association of cholinesterase activity in T. evansi-infected buffaloes with neurological disorders. PMID:27369572
Ahlam A. Abou Mossallam
Full Text Available River buffalo (Bubalus bubalis bubalis with a population over 135 million heads is an important livestock. Interleukin 8 (IL-8 is a member of the chemokine family and is an important chemoattractant for neutrophils associated with a wide variety of inflammatory diseases such as endometritis. Tissue samples from the mammary gland, uterus and ovary were obtained from river buffalo (Mediterranean type with and without endometritis. Bacteriological examination showed the presence of both gram positive and negative in all buffalo with endometritis. RNA extraction and complementary DNA (cDNA synthesis were conducted from all tissues. Specific primer for IL8 full coding regions was designed using known cDNA sequences of Bubalus bubalis, Genbank accession number AY952930.1. IL-8 gene expression was investigated in buffalo tissues. Expression of IL-8 in buffalo with endometritis was found to increase significantly over buffalo without endometritis only in the uterus (P = 0.0159. PCR products from uterus tissues (target organs of buffalo with and without endometritis, were purified and sequenced. No polymorphic sites were detected in the investigated samples. IL-8 cDNA nucleotide sequences of buffalo with and without endometritis were 100% identical (accession number JX413057. Buffalo IL8 cDNAs were compared with corresponding sequences of member of subfamily Bovinae (buffalo and cattle and subfamily Caprinae (sheep and goat. IL-8 species specific differences were identified.
Full Text Available In 4 x 4 LSD, four graded Murrah buffalo bulls (6 yrs; 353 ± 8.26 kg were fed four iso-nitrogenous complete rations comprising of jowar stover (CR1, maize stover (CR2, red gram straw (CR3 and black gram straw (CR4 as roughage source and concentrate mixture in 60:40 proportion, to study the effect of feeding complete rations on nutrient utilization. The DM intake (kg/d was similar in all the groups. The digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NDF, ADF, Cellulose and Hemi-cellulose were significantly (P<0.01 higher in buffalo bulls fed CR2 while NFE digestibility was higher (P<0.05 in CR3 when compared to those fed other complete rations. All the animals were in positive N, Ca and P balances. Further, the % DCP and % TDN were significantly higher (P<0.01 in buffalo bulls fed CR2. It could be concluded that maize stover compared to other crop residues could be a superior roughage source for inclusion in complete rations for feeding buffalo bulls.
Muhammad Nisar Khan, Tauseef-ur-Rehman*, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Arfan Zaman1, Arbab Sikandar1 and Muhammad Riaz2
Full Text Available This paper describes a cross-sectional study in buffaloes of district Toba Tek Singh from April, 2009 to March, 2010 which aimed to identify prevalent species of Eimeria (E and risk factors associated with subclinical coccidiosis. Overall prevalence of Eimeria in buffaloes was 49.6%. Six species of Eimeria were identified in total infected buffaloes. E. bovis was the commonest one among the species identified during survey followed in order by E. zuernii, E. canadensis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. alabamensis and E. cylindrica. Peak prevalence was observed in August. Wet season was found favorable for Eimeria. Odds of finding oocysts were higher in young stock and females (P<0.05 as compared to those of adults and males respectively. Among management and husbandry practices, five variables were found significantly associated with status. These included housing system, feeding system, watering system, floor type and herd size. Open housing system, trough feeding, tap watering, partially cemented floor type and smaller herds showed protective effect against coccidiosis with Odds of detection being higher in closed housing system, ground feeding, pond watering, non-cemented floor type and larger herd size, respectively. Body condition and breed of buffaloes were not found associated with prevalence of Eimeria. Value of feeding in troughs, provision of clean tap water, cementing floor of farms in reducing the extent of infection should be communicated to farmers. Appropriate monitoring and control of the disease is advisable.
Anandh, M Anna; Radha, K; Lakshmanan, V; Mendiratta, S K
Cooked buffalo tripe rolls (BTRs) were prepared from a combination of buffalo tripe (75%) and buffalo meat (25%) by using mincing (M-BTR) and blade tenderization (BT-BTR). They were stored at 4±1°C and studied for various physico-chemical, sensory and microbial qualities. Significantly (Pminced buffalo meat). The product yield and drip loss percentage were significantly (P<0.01) lower in BT-BTR, whereas drip loss percentage was significantly higher in M-BTR compared to controls and BT-BTR. No significant change was noticed in protein and moisture content between the different products. All physico-chemical parameters and sensory evaluation scores of M-BTR were comparable with control. Significant (P<0.01) increases were noticed in pH, moisture content, thiobarbituric acid and tyrosine values with increasing storage period, whereas the extract release volume decreased significantly. All microbial counts and sensory evaluation scores were within the acceptable limits until 15 days of storage at 4±1°C in low-density polyethylene pouches stored aerobically. PMID:22063856
Three sediment samples taken from the Buffalo River and two soil samples taken near its bank have been analyzed for 2-propanol-extractable, basic organic compounds by using GC/MS. Eleven aromatic amines related to the commercial production of malachite green and crystal violet we...
Claveria, F G; Cruz, M J
Ultrastructural studies of sarcocysts obtained from Philippine water buffaloes revealed the presence of the commonly reported macroscopic species, Sarcocystis fusiformis, and the microscopic species Sarcocystis levinei (Dissanaike A, Kan S. Studies on Sarcocystis in Malaysia. I: Sarcocystis levinei n.sp. from the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. Z Parasitenkd 1978;55:127-38), (Huong L, Dubey J, Uggla A. Redescription of Sarcocystis levinei Dissanaike and Kan, 1978 (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). J Parasitol 1997;83:1148-52). The globular to oval microscopic cysts commonly observed in the muscles of the diaphragm and neck exhibit compartmentalized arrangement of zoites with septal partitions and measure 13-48 microns in diameter. The parasitophorous vacuolar membrane of sarcocyst bears minute and hair-like villar protrusions measuring 2.3-2.75 microns long emanating at certain distances from the primary cyst wall and lack microfilaments. Villar protrusions have expanded to dome-shaped base measuring 0.33-1.6 microns long by 0.22-1.0 micron wide, and intermediate and tapering distal segments bent approximately 90 degrees and run parallel to the cyst surface. The distal segments at some areas join to form conical tufts. The primary cyst wall bears numerous prominent undulations that are arranged in small clusters. The ground substance is 0.42-0.57 micron thick. This paper documents the first report of S. levinei in Philippine water buffaloes possessing the type 7 cyst wall. PMID:11227764
Dhakal, I P
This study was conducted to investigate the normal somatic cell count (SCC) and to define subclinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes. Data were collected from 60 clinically normal buffaloes stationed at five farms of Chitwan Nepal and Buffalo Research Center, Hissar, India. Somatic cell count was measured using the Newman-Lampert staining technique. The upper limit of SCC was determined >or=200 000/ml of milk based on the mean +/- 2SD of a total SCC. Abnormal data of the SCC was repeatedly removed, which lie beyond the values of more than mean + 2SD until all the data come to lie within (mean + 2SD). Averages of SCC of right front and right hind quarters were significantly higher than left front and left hind quarters. Nearly 94% of California mastitis test (CMT) negative quarters were having somatic cells >or=200 000/ml. The mean SCC of CMT positive quarter was significantly higher (P CMT negative quarters. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed on the basis of samples with SCCs >or=200 000/ml with positive bacterial cultures. Subclinical mastitis was found in 21.7% buffaloes and 8% of the quarter foremilk samples. Neutrophil counts were significantly higher in subclinical mastitis milk. PMID:16626405
Using a read-depth (RD) and a hybrid read-pair, split-read (RAPTR-SV) CNV detection method, we identified over 1425 unique CNVs in 14 Water Buffalo individual compared to the cattle genome sequence. Total variable sequence of the CNV regions (CNVR) from the RD method approached 59 megabases (~ 2% of...
Full Text Available The present study comprised of 602 disposal records of adult Murrah buffaloes , spread over a period of 16 years from 1985 to 2000 at NDRI, Karnal, Haryana. Analysed data showed that the reproductive problems (38.62, low milk production (24.01 and udder problems (22.76 were the three major reasons of culling in adult Murrah buffaloes . The culling of cows due to involuntary reason (reproductive problems, udder problems and locomotive disorders accounted for nearly 63.68 percent of total culling in Murrah buffaloes in the NDRI herd. The data revealed that maximum mortality occurred due to digestive problems accounting for 30.89 percent followed by cardio-vascular problems (26.02 percent, respiratory problems (21.14 percent, parasitic problems (8.13 percent and uro-genital problems (5.69 percent. The results showed that there is a scope for further improvement in production and reproductive efficiency through better monitoring of reproduction and udder health status of the buffaloes. The high involuntary culling rate not only makes the dairy enterprises economically less profitable but also reduces the genetic improvement by lowering the selection differential for milk production.
Full Text Available In order to verify the effect of a pool on behaviour and milk yield, eighty-eight lactating buffalo cows equally allocated to two treatments were used. Group WP was provided with a concrete pool of 208 m2, 36 m2/ head + 10 m2 of outdoor and indoor space allowance, respectively, whereas group NP only received 10 m2. Less animals from group WP were observed idling (P<0.05 compared to buffaloes from group NP, whereas subjects provided with a pool were more often involved in investigative activities (locomotion and exploration than cows without access to it (P< 0.01. A higher number of social interactions (sniffing and nuzzling and allogrooming were observed in group WP than in group NP (P< 0.01 and P< 0.05, respectively. The WP buffalo cows exhibited a higher yield of milk than NP subject (P< 0.05, whereas no differences between the two groups were observed for protein and fat contents. The provision of a pool can have beneficial effects on behaviour and milk production of buffaloes.
Alejandro Ojeda R.
Full Text Available Objective. Characterize the follicular dynamics and luteal growth and regression pattern of multiparous (MB and heifer (BH Murrah buffaloes in Colombian tropical conditions. Material and methods. Ten MB and ten BH were synchronized with a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device. No artificial insemination was performed during the estrous and daily ultrasound examinations were performed 15 days later to determine the number and diameter of the structures present in both ovaries in the subsequent natural estrous cycle. The Student’s T test was used to evaluate differences between MB and BH. All data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Results. The length of the estrous cycle was 22.00±4.50 days for MB and 22.00±2.70 days for BH. Follicular growth occurs in one (n=1; 5.89%, two (n=14; 82.35% or three waves (n=2; 11.76%. The first wave initiated the day after ovulation with the recruitment of 8.33±2.06 and 10.00±2.72 follicles in MB and BH, while the second wave started on day 11.00±2.00 and 10.50±2.82, presenting 8.37±2.26 and 8.00±1.51 follicles. The third wave began on day 16.21±3.10 showing 6.50±1.70 follicles, only BM had three waves. The maximum luteal diameter was 19.58±4.16 mm and 17.74±3.32 mm respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups for these variables. Conclusions. These results show that the follicular development in buffaloes occurs in waves, where two waves is the most common pattern, as previously reported by other authors.
This is the final Annual Report of the general operation of the Williams Laboratory of Nuclear Physics of the University of Minnesota. Because the report prepared in 1976 was not widely circulated, this report contains summaries of research conducted during the period from the fall of 1975 through the summer of 1977. This report begins with a brief history of the Williams Laboratory and a synopsis of the various lines of research carried on in the laboratory since the MP Tandem Van de Graaff machine was placed in operation in 1966. The major portion of the report describes the results of research programs completed or in progress during the past two years. Information is presented about modifications to the Van de Graaff machine and the on-line computer, which resulted in improved performance, and there are brief descriptions of a source for producing a triton beam and a heavy-ion counter for the magnetic spectrometer. An appendix contains a list of laboratory personnel during the time covered by this report, a list of advanced degrees granted to graduate students, and a list of recent reports and publications. (RWR)
Full Text Available Globally, rotavirus infection is the most important cause of severe diarrhea in infants and animals. In this report, we review the results of pathogenesys studies, strain surveillance and characterization studies published and discuss new insights gained from these studies on the potential mechanisms of the evolution and spread of new rotavirus strains. Early epidemiological studies in Italian buffalo herds revealed the predominance of strains with G8 specificity and detected strains with the rare, RRV-like, VP4 P genotype. In an our previous study 125 fecal samples were collected from buffalo calves affected with diarrhoea, in seven dairy farms in Southern Italy. Rotaviruses were detected in 21 samples (16.8% by an immunochromatographic assay and by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR. Analysis of the VP7 gene revealed that 57% (12 of 21 of the isolates were G6, 23.8% were G8 (5 of 21 and 19% (4 of 21 were G10. Analysis of the VP4 revealed that 71.4% (15 of 21 of the isolates were P and that 28.6% (6 of 21 were P. The most common combination of G and P types was P,G6 (57%, followed by P,G10 (19%, P,G8 (14% and P,G8 (9.5%. While P,G6 rotaviruses are very common in Italian bovine herds, the antigenic combination P,G10 is unusual and presumably derives from reassortment between P and G10 strains, that appear to be more frequent in buffaloes and bovines, respectively. The presence of bovine-like G and P serotypes suggests that in Italy the epidemiology of buffalo rotaviruses overlaps the epidemiology of bovine rotaviruses, presumably because of the strict species affinity and/or of the intermingled distribution over the same geographical areas of the buffalo and bovine herds.
Full Text Available Researches were conducted on a biologic material, a buffalo livestock, in different lactating stages and their physico-chemical parameters were determined: fat, protein, lactose, unfat dry substance, density, pH, temperature. Regarding the variation of these components, researches conducted emphasized differences determined by those conditions specific to reference seasons. Individual analysis on the buffalo livestock in the study, emphasized significant differences: fat 8.59-9.36%, protein 5.16-5.31% respective of lactation. Microbiologic determinations mainly envisioned: the number of somatic cells (NSC, number of total germs (NTG Positive Coagulanzo Stafilococii, Listeria, Salmonella, determinations which lay at the basis of the assessment of buffalo milk quality. The positive Coagulanzo stafilococus was absent, excepting sample number 15 (2 germs/ml and sample number 22 (4 germs/ml; Salmonella was absent. Regarding the total number of germs: values between 1.0-1.8 germs/ml were obtained. The detection of this microbiologic parameter in the composition of buffalo milk provides information regarding the hygienic conditions of their production and handling. Correlations between the number of somatic cells, milk production and composition are employed in dairy buffalo farms, in order to assess losses caused by mastitis and the implementing of certain measures for the control of these diseases. On the other hand, correlations between the number of somatic cells and milk composition prove useful in establishing milk processing behaviour, as the practice of setting milk-raw matter prices according to the number of somatic cells in the milk is becoming increasingly more frequent in developed countries.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a spatially comprehensive wetland inventory for east-central Minnesota. Ducks Unlimited, Inc. and the Minnesota Department of Natural...
... Earth Band of Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, Minnesota. History and Description of the Remains At an unknown... cultural materials, including ceramics. The human remains from the site are associated with the...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set integrates six different source data sets to provide a simplified overall view of Minnesota's land use / cover. The six source data sets covered...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite markers are highly polymorphic and widely used in genome mapping and population genetic studies in livestock species. River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is an economically important livestock species, though only a limited number of microsatellite markers have been reported thus far in this species. Results In the present study, using two different approaches 571 microsatellite markers have been characterized for water buffalo. Of the 571 microsatellite markers, 498 were polymorphic with average heterozygosity of 0.51 on a panel of 24 unrelated buffalo. Fisher exact test was used to detect LD between the marker pairs. Among the 137550 pairs of marker combination, 14.58% pairs showed significant LD (P Conclusion The high conservation of cattle microsatellite loci in water buffalo promises the usefulness of the cattle microsatellites markers on buffalo. The polymorphic markers characterised in this study will contribute to genetic linkage and radiation hybrid mapping of water buffalo and population genetic studies.
Full Text Available African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo, which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo, using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. ‘Deep 454 pyrosequencing’ of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo. This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo. Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo. is a distinct species from T. parva.
Full Text Available Minnesota has become a “new destination” state for Latino migrants in the United States. What has made Latinos in Minnesota successful? In a narrower sense, what has provided them with a route out of poverty and an alternative to unemployment or discrimination in the labor market? Our purpose was to (a compile characteristics associated with the Latino community and successful Latino-owned retail businesses in Minnesota, (b identify unique problems encountered by Latino retail entrepreneurs, and (c develop recommendations to overcome obstacles encountered. To meet our objectives, we employed two methods: a Delphi study with Latino community leaders and a case study with Latino retail entrepreneurs. Implications for Extension educators are discussed.
... Application to Export Electric Energy; ALLETE, Inc., d/b/a Minnesota Power AGENCY: Office of Electricity... Power (Minnesota Power) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United...-C, which authorized Minnesota Power to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada...
G.H. Mousavi; A. Hassanpour
Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of all species. In cows and buffalos cause abortion and haemolytic anaemia with an interstitial nephritis. On april 2003 a 6 years old female buffalo (azarbijan black buffalo) was observed in large animal clinic of tabriz azad university. In this case the clinical findings were: fever (39.1), depression, anorexia, decrease of milk production, anaemia , jaundice, haemoglobinuria, heart rate 82 per minute and respiratory rate 18 per minute. Kidnay, in rect...
José Diomedes Barbosa; Danillo Henrique S. Lima; Alessandra S. Belo-Reis; Cleyton P. Pinheiro; Melina G.S. Sousa; Jenevaldo B. Silva; Felipe M. Salvarani; Carlos Magno C. Oliveira
A retrospective study of the epidemiological and clinic-pathological aspects of cattle and buffaloes with degenerative joint disease (DJD) was conducted in the state of Pará, Brazil. From 1999 to 2014, eleven cattle and 24 buffaloes were evaluated. All the treated animals with suspected DJD underwent a clinical examination of the musculoskeletal system. In seven cattle and eight buffaloes with clinical signs of the disease postmortem examination was performed. The common clinical signs observ...
Singh, Inderjeet; Balhara, A K
Buffalo farming has made remarkable progress in productivity mainly because of controlled breeding with artificial insemination (AI) that has proved its worth in breed improvement and breeding managements across the livestock species. Artificial insemination is practiced very little in Europe and East Asian countries with coverage of only 5% buffaloes in Italy, 3.7% in Azerbaijan, 0.3% in Egypt, and 0.1% in Romania although in Bulgaria, 80% buffaloes in large cooperative state farms are subjected to AI. In Turkey, it began in 2002 near Hatay with Italian semen provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Network project. In India, where buffaloes are the most valuable livestock species, research on buffalo specific artificial breeding technologies and adoption of AI by buffalo owners are widely acknowledged. Resultantly, average milk yield of buffaloes in India increased from 3.4 kg in 1992 to 93 to 4.57 kg/day/buffalo in 2009 to 10. In the new millennium, mega projects such as the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding and the National Dairy Plan were initiated with focus on genetic upgradation of bovine and buffalo population through streamlining AI services and support system in the country. Artificial insemination started in India in the year 1939, and the frozen semen was introduced during late 1960s. During the year 2010 to 11, India produced 63 million bovine frozen semen straws including over one million buffalo semen straws through 49 semen stations. Artificial insemination services are provided through 71,341 AI stations clocking 52 million inseminations with overall conception rate of 35% in bovine and buffalo population. Research is being conducted for improved AI conception rates with synchronization programs and improved frozen-thawed semen quality, and success rates are at par with AI in cattle. PMID:27155729
Gurunathan Kandeepan; Anne Seet Ram Anjaneyulu; Napa Kondaiah; Sanjod Kumar Mendiratta
Background. The product quality of curry is determined by the food animal source, raw materials and the method of processing. Moreover the scientific information on processing and quality of traditional buffalo meat curry from different groups of buffaloes is not available. This study was undertaken to develop processed curry from different buffalo groups and to compare its quality during storage at ambient and refrigeration temperature. Material and methods. The meat samples were ...
Corrente, M.; D. Buonavoglia; G. Campanile; R. Di Palo; M. D’Abramo; Greco, G.
The Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has low fecundity and high incidence of abortion. Several studies have associated reproductive failure of water buffalo with viral infections but there is limited information on the role of chlamydial infections. To investigate the presence and the role of Chlamydiaceae in water buffalo a retrospective study was performed in a farm where, in the arch of 11 months, the pregnant heifers suffered an abortion rate of 36.8% in the 3rd and 5th mon...
M. S. R. Siddiki; M. N. Islam; Khan, M. A. S.
The research was carried out to compare the physical and chemical parameters of Swamp and Water buffalo milk collected from Senbari village in Trishal Upazila under Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. Results revealed that average color, flavor and taste score of Swamp and Water buffalo milk differed significantly (P0.05) with Water buffalo milk. Texture of all samples was normal. It was observed that average fat, total solids (TS), solids-not-fat (SNF) and protein content differed significant...
Pasquini, M.; B. Tommei; S. Mattii
Water buffalo milk reproductive and productive traits are fundamental to evaluate farm efficiency and dairy economy. Due to the buffalo cows’ long life these aspects are also important to assess the improvement of genetic animal potential and to reach optimal productive performance. Currently this knowledge is critical since the Italian cattle population is decreasing whereas the national buffalo sector is expanding; this trend is partially depending on the reconversion of some dairy ca...
Silvia Minharro; Cristiane de Morais Alves; Pedro Moacyr Pinto Coelho Mota; Elaine Maria Seles Dorneles; Andréa Padilha de Alencar; Raimundo Magalhães dos Santos; Bruno Meireles Leite; Andrey Pereira Lage
Water buffalo are of great economic importance in Brazilian Amazonia, which has the largest herd in Brazil. Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic disease that results in severe losses to water buffalo production. Although the disease has already been described in the country, data on the occurrence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in Brazil is very scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in water buf...
Maged El-Ashker; Mohamed Salama; Mohamed El-Boshy
The present study was carried out to describe the clinical picture of traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP) in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and to evaluate the inflammatory and immunologic responses for this clinical condition. Twenty-two buffalo with acute local TRP were monitored in our study. Additionally, 10 clinically healthy buffalo were randomly selected and served as controls. Acute local TRP was initially diagnosed by clinical examination and confirmed by ultrasonographic (USG) exam...
Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R.; Maha I. Hamed; Derar R. Ibrahim; Hassan Z. Rateb
Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1–2 years old) were included in ...
Singh, Inderjeet; Balhara, A K
Buffalo farming has made remarkable progress in productivity mainly because of controlled breeding with artificial insemination (AI) that has proved its worth in breed improvement and breeding managements across the livestock species. Artificial insemination is practiced very little in Europe and East Asian countries with coverage of only 5% buffaloes in Italy, 3.7% in Azerbaijan, 0.3% in Egypt, and 0.1% in Romania although in Bulgaria, 80% buffaloes in large cooperative state farms are subjected to AI. In Turkey, it began in 2002 near Hatay with Italian semen provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Network project. In India, where buffaloes are the most valuable livestock species, research on buffalo specific artificial breeding technologies and adoption of AI by buffalo owners are widely acknowledged. Resultantly, average milk yield of buffaloes in India increased from 3.4 kg in 1992 to 93 to 4.57 kg/day/buffalo in 2009 to 10. In the new millennium, mega projects such as the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding and the National Dairy Plan were initiated with focus on genetic upgradation of bovine and buffalo population through streamlining AI services and support system in the country. Artificial insemination started in India in the year 1939, and the frozen semen was introduced during late 1960s. During the year 2010 to 11, India produced 63 million bovine frozen semen straws including over one million buffalo semen straws through 49 semen stations. Artificial insemination services are provided through 71,341 AI stations clocking 52 million inseminations with overall conception rate of 35% in bovine and buffalo population. Research is being conducted for improved AI conception rates with synchronization programs and improved frozen-thawed semen quality, and success rates are at par with AI in cattle.
A. Z. Khan and G. Muhammad1
The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical...
Roy, B.C; M.M.H. Mondal; Talukder, M.H; Majumder, S
Balantidium coli is a common protozoan disease of animals. A total of 151 buffaloes were examined through faecal examination, of which 68 (45.03%) found to be infected with B. coli infection. Prevalence of B. coli infection was relatively higher in adult buffaloes (49.52%) aged > 5 years than young (39.29%) aged > 2- ≤ 5 years and buffalo calves (27.78%) aged ≤ 2 years. Higher prevalence of B. coli was observed in female (47.32%) than that of male (38.46%) buffaloes which are not statisticall...
Full-length cDNA (435 bp) of the interleukin-3(IL-3) gene of the Indian water buffalo was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. This sequence had 96% nucleotide identity and 92% amino acid identity with bovine IL-3. There are 10 amino acid substitutions in buffalo compared with that of bovine. The amino acid sequence of buffalo IL-3 also showed very high identity with that of other ruminants, indicating functional cross-reactivity. Structural homology modelling of buffalo IL-3 protein with human IL-3 showed the presence of five helical structures.
Full Text Available Background. The product quality of curry is determined by the food animal source, raw materials and the method of processing. Moreover the scientific information on processing and quality of traditional buffalo meat curry from different groups of buffaloes is not available. This study was undertaken to develop processed curry from different buffalo groups and to compare its quality during storage at ambient and refrigeration temperature. Material and methods. The meat samples were collected from the longissimus dorsi muscle of the carcasses from each group of buffaloes slaughtered according to the traditional halal method. Buffalo meat curry was prepared in a pressure cooker with the standardized formulation. This final product was subjected to evaluation of quality and shelf life. Results. To evaluate the effect of different groups of meat samples on the quality of curry, product yield, pH, proximate composition, water activity (aw, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, calorific value, sensory attributes and microbiological assay were determined The energy of meat curry from young buffaloes was significantly lower than the meat curry from spent animal groups. The overall acceptability of curry decreased significantly during 3 days ambient storage compared to refrigeration storage. Conclusions. Scientific processing by adopting good manufacturing practices and suitable packaging helped greatly to improve the shelf life of the ambient temperature stored buffalo meat curry. Buffalo meat curry from young male group showed better product characteristics and overall acceptability scores than spent buffalo group.
Zahedi, Alireza; Phasey, Jordan; Boland, Tony; Ryan, Una
A molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the Northern Territory in Australia was conducted. Fecal samples were collected from adult farmed (n = 50) and wild buffalo (n = 50) and screened using an 18S quantitative PCR (qPCR). Positives were typed by sequence analysis of 18S nested PCR products. The qPCR prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo was 30 and 12 %, respectively. Sequence analysis identified two species: C. parvum and C. bovis, with C. parvum accounting for ~80 % of positives typed from the farmed buffalo fecal samples compared to 50 % for wild buffalo. Subtyping at the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) locus identified C. parvum subtypes IIdA19G1 (n = 4) and IIdA15G1 (n = 1) in the farmed buffalo and IIaA18G3R1 (n = 2) in the wild buffalo. The presence of C. parvum, which commonly infects humans, suggests that water buffaloes may contribute to contamination of rivers and waterways with human infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts, and further research on the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in buffalo populations in Australia is required. PMID:26758449
Rognon, Xavier; Van T Nhu; Berthouly, A.; Thanh Hoang, H.; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Laloë, Denis; Vu Chi, C.; Verrier, Etienne; Maillard, J. C.
The water buffalo plays a key role in the socio-economy of South-East Asia as it is the main draught power for paddy rice cultivation. While in the Indian subcontinent the water buffalo is the riverine type, in South-East Asia the majority of buffaloes are of the swamp type. In the poor remote northern province of Ha Giang in Vietnam, improvement of the swamp buffalo breed may be one of the best ways to increase sustainability of farming systems. Therefore, analysis of the genetic structure o...
The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is one of the most important farm animals of Turkey. There are two types of the water buffalo: river and swamp. While the chromosome number of the river type is 2n=50, that of swamp type is 2n=48. It was reported that the Anatolian water buffalo has 2n=50 chromosomes as being river type but the GTG banded karyotype has not been reported so far. We here report for the first time a GTG banded karyotype of the Anatolian water buffalo.
Noble, M.T. [Minnesotans for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Saint Paul, MN (United States)
The author describes a program begun in Minnesota to address the problem of climate change and possible global warming. This projects aims at increasing understanding and appreciation of changes being seen in the US weather patterns and possible correlations with greenhouse gas emissions. Minnesota has taken a stance on mandating support for renewable power sources as a part of their electric utility mix. The author urges the business and industrial sectors of our economy to consider the impact on the US and its citizens of not supporting programs which are directed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, including support for wind power projects.
Vinz, Cally; Foreman, Joann; Bonneville, Sara
One idea that has emerged from health care reform discussions in Minnesota is the concept of "baskets of care", a method of reimbursing health care providers for episodes of care, rather than specific services and procedures. As a requirement of the state's 2008 health care reform legislation, the Minnesota Department of Health, with help from providers, payers, employers, and consumers, developed baskets of care for pediatric asthma care, diabetes care, prediabetes care, acute low back pain care, obstetric care, preventive care for adults, preventive care for children, and total knee replacement.This article describes those eight baskets of care, their development, and the recommended quality measures for each one. PMID:20191733
McKinley, Deb; Shearer, Janelle; Weng, Karla
Palliative care, which involves managing symptoms, controlling pain and addressing stress caused by a chronic or terminal illness, has been shown to keep patients out of the hospital and allow them to stay home and live more comfortably with their illness. Typically, it is provided by an interdisciplinary team led by a physician trained in palliative medicine. Rural areas have not always had access to such specialists. Yet, today, rural health care organizations are finding ways to create palliative care programs that meet the needs of their chronically ill and aging populations. This article describes a six-year initiative led by Stratis Health to advance palliative care in rural Minnesota. It highlights the work of FirstLight Health System in Mora and describes Stratis Health's Rural Palliative Care Measurement Pilot Project, an effort to develop and test measures for evaluating rural palliative care programs. PMID:26897897
Tate, Richard L.
An exploratory study of the value of ridge regression for interactive models is reported. Assuming that the linear terms in a simple interactive model are centered to eliminate non-essential multicollinearity, a variety of common models, representing both ordinal and disordinal interactions, are shown to have "orientations" that are favorable to…
Lwebuga-Mukasa, J.; Oyana, T.; Wydro, P.
Study objective: The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for asthma prevalence and chronic respiratory illnesses in Buffalo's neighbourhoods after previous studies reported increased levels of asthma among residents on Buffalo's west side.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Corporate Family Merger Exemption-- Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Company CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) and Buffalo, Rochester and...
Full Text Available The particular morphology of buffalo udder is associated to milking difficulties. To better understandthe characteristics of milk ejection in buffaloes, a study was conducted in an intensive farm in Lombardy, Italy. Atotal of 184 milk flow profiles were measured with an electronic flow meter. The results showed that during the first3 minutes of milking 73% of total milk yield was milked; lag time of milk ejection (1.94 min ± 1.57 was very longand increased significantly with the increasing of lactation stage. The overmilking phase has also a long duration(33% of total milking time, on average. Administration of oxytocin before milking did not significantly affect milkflow parameters and machine on-time. The results suggested that proper pre-milking stimulation and prompt clustertakeoff could improve milking efficiency, ensuring good milk letdown and protecting teat conditions.
De Matteis, Giovanna; Grandoni, Francesco; Scatà, Maria Carmela; Catizone, Angela; Reale, Anna; Crisà, Alessandra; Moioli, Bianca
Experimental evidences support a direct role for leptin in immunity. Besides controlling food intake and energy expenditure, leptin was reported to be involved in the regulation of the immune system in ruminants. The aim of this work was to highlight the expression of leptin receptor (LEPR) on Bubalus bubalis immune cells using a multi-approach assessment: flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and gene expression analysis. Flow cytometric analysis of LEPR expression showed that peripheral blood monocytes were the predominant cells expressing LEPR. This result was corroborated by confocal microscopy and RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, among lymphocytes, LEPR was mainly expressed by B lymphocytes and Natural Killer cells. Evidence of LEPR expression on buffalo blood leukocytes showed to be a good indicator of the responsivity of these cells to leptin, so confirming the involvement of leptin in buffalo immune response. PMID:27436440
Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey of Giardia duodenalis infection in the water buffalo was carried out in Central Italy. The survey was conducted on a sample of 90 farms, selected using a grid approach within a Geographical Information System, followed by proportional allocation. On each farm, faecal samples were collected from three to five asymptomatic buffalo calves, aged from 1 to 9 weeks (total number = 347. Each faecal sample was tested for the presence of copro-antigens of G. duodenalis using a commercially available ELISA. Out of the 90 farms, 27 (30.0% resulted positive. With respect to animals, out of the 347 faecal samples, 63 (18.1% were found to have antigens of G. duodenalis. The results of the logistic regression model showed a positive association between the positivity to G. duodenalis and the presence of sheep on farm.
Borelli, Vanessa; Lucioli, Joelma; Furlan, Fernando Henrique; Hoepers, Patrícia Giovana; Roveda, Juliano Fleck; Traverso, Sandra Davi; Gava, Aldo
Toxicosis caused by the ingestion of onion (Allium cepa) by 5 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) occurred in the district of Caçador, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The water buffalo died after ingestion of a large quantity of onion that had been left in the pasture. Clinical signs started 8 days postingestion and were characterized by pale mucous membranes, lethargy, and dark urine. At necropsy, pieces of onions were found in the rumen of 1 animal. The carcass smelled strongly of onion, and the kidneys and urine were dark brown. Microscopic renal lesions included tubular degeneration and necrosis with deposits of eosinophilic material in the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and tubular lumina. These changes were consistent with hemoglobinuric nephrosis. Centrilobular coagulation necrosis was observed in the liver accompanied by hemorrhage and macrophages containing brown cytoplasmic pigment. A diagnosis of hemolytic anemia caused by onion toxicosis was based on the epidemiological data, clinical signs, macroscopic changes, and histological lesions. PMID:19407101
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was performed to investigate the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors affecting milk fat yield and to estimate genetic parameters of monthly test day fat yields (MTDFY and lactation 305-day fat yield (L305FY in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The data on total of 10381 MTDFY records comprising the first four lactations of 470 Murrah buffaloes calved from 1993 to 2014 were assessed. These buffaloes were sired by 75 bulls maintained in an organized farm at ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. Least squares maximum likelihood program was used to estimate genetic and non-genetic parameters. Heritability estimates were obtained using paternal half-sib correlation method. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among MTDFY, and 305-day fat yield were calculated from the analysis of variance and covariance matrix among sire groups. Results: The overall least squares mean of L305FY was found to be 175.74±4.12 kg. The least squares mean of overall MTDFY ranged from 3.33±0.14 kg (TD-11 to 7.06±0.17 kg (TD-3. The h2 estimate of L305FY was found to be 0.33±0.16 in this study. The estimates of phenotypic and genetic correlations between 305-day fat yield and different MTDFY ranged from 0.32 to 0.48 and 0.51 to 0.99, respectively. Conclusions: In this study, all the genetic and non-genetic factors except age at the first calving group, significantly affected the traits under study. The estimates of phenotypic and genetic correlations of MTDFY with 305-day fat yield was generally higher in the MTDFY-5 of lactation suggesting that this TD yields could be used as the selection criteria for early evaluation and selection of Murrah buffaloes.
Arbab Sikandar*, AH Cheema1, M Younus2, A Aslam1, MA Zaman2 and T Rehman3
Full Text Available Paratuberculosis (Johne’s diseases is responsible for massive economic losses to dairy industry, both in the industrially advanced as well as in the developing countries. To detect its occurrence in cattle and buffaloes locally, blood and tissue samples from clinically weak and grossly suspected slaughtered animals were collected from two abattoirs of Jhang, municipal area, Pakistan. Acid-fast smear staining, gross/histopathology and indirect ELISA were done for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Total 134 samples illustrating gross pathological lesions were collected, only 11.19% (cattle: 6.67%, buffaloes: 12.5% showed acid fast bacilli through smear staining and were taken as confirmed cases. Thickening of intestines alone was not a reliable indicator of Johne’s disease. Tissue sections from intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes from these acid fast positive animals were stained with hematoxylin & eosin (H&E and Ziehl Neelsen (ZN methods. Sum of (15/134 impression smear staining as well as (15/15 tissue sections of the intestines were found ZN positive, and only 6.7% of impression smears and 100% of tissue sections of mesenteric lymph nodes showed acid fast bacilli. Through ELISA, two cattle and five buffaloes (07/134 gave positive optical densities, while one cattle and seven buffaloes (08/134 were judged as doubtful. It is concluded that infection of MAP can be identified by histopathology and ELISA. The present study was the first record of paratuberculosis among the dairy animals slaughtered at Jhang abattoirs. The objective was to compare different methods for the diagnosis of Johne’s disease.
Full Text Available Biodiversity is the basic indicator, which expresses the durability and stability zone in direct relationship with the environment and life. Biodiversity monitoring both quantitatively and qualitatively puts us in contact with reality environment and its stability, because biodiversity is constantly changing. Only by measuring the biodiversity we can perceive the sudden chances, which influence directly our life in order to interfere with redesigning the media by ecological reconstruction. The application of biotechnologies to buffalo breeding is paramount to remedy the existing situation. The most numerous Romanian buffalos are the Carpathian type, with valuable gene resource, well adapted to the cold climate for buffalo. Results of artificial insemination in this species are influenced by the quality of semen used. We know that there are periods in which sperm are immobile, so it is important to test the ability of sperm fertilized. This test can be performed in vitro using direct or indirect methods. Utilization of Polamski scale principle remains present, but can be improve and combine with Milovanov resistance and “in vitro” capacitating methods. For determination of fertilizing power we use “in vitro” capacitation methods: direct method, indirect method and “swim-up” technique who are obligatory in E.U. We use this tests because Polamski scale can’t be applied, knowing that an immobility of buffalo semen in some conditions is a characteristic of this semen, semen that can be recovery on the normal parameters. Milovanov resistance test have restricted efficiency because NaCl solution have a negative effect over the sperms. Semen charges testing with these new methods they present a good fertilizing power. This test is easier to realize and takes of decision is faster.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between 44 components and/or characteristics of milk samples collected every 50 days from 60 buffaloes (326 samples and 14,344 values. The animals were half sib (same father or same mother and were bred in two farms. Significant associations but with a low values of coefficient of correlation were present, demonstrating that lactodinamographic parameters marginally affect cheese yield.
S. Mattii; B. Tommei; Pasquini, M.
Water buffalo milk differs from the cow’s milk for greater fat and protein content, very important features in cheese making. Proteins, casein and whey-proteins in particular, are the most important factors determining cheese yield. Several previous research discussed the rule of SCC in cow milk production (Varisco, 1999) and the close relationship existing between cow’s milk cheese yield and somatic cell count (Barbano, 2000). In particular the inverse correlation between cheese ...
Annas, S; Zamri-Saad, M; Jesse, F F A; Zunita, Z
Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffalo of Asia and Africa caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 or E:2. Buffaloes are believed to be more susceptible than cattle. In this study, 9 buffaloes of 8 months old were divided equally into 3 groups (Groups 1, 3, 5). Similarly, 9 cattle of 8 months old were equally divided into 3 groups (Groups 2, 4, 6). Animals of Groups 1 and 2 were inoculated with PBS while Groups 3 and 4 were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(5) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2. Animals of Groups 5 and 6 were inoculated intranasally with the same inoculum. Both buffaloes and cattle that were inoculated subcutaneously succumbed to the infection at 16 h and 18 h, respectively. Two buffaloes that were inoculated intranasally (Group 5) succumbed at 68 h while the remaining cattle and buffaloes survived the 72-h study period. Endotoxin was detected in the blood of infected cattle (Group 4) and buffaloes (Groups 3 and 5) prior to the detection of P. multocida B:2 in the blood. The endotoxin was detected in the blood of buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 at 0.5 h post-inoculation while buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6 at 1.5 h. On the other hand, bacteraemia was detected at 2.5 h in buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 and at 12 h in buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6. Affected cattle and buffaloes showed lesions typical of haemorrhagic septicaemia. These included congestion and haemorrhages in the organs of respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts with evidence of acute inflammatory reactions. The severity of gross and histopathology lesions in cattle and buffalo calves that succumbed to the infection showed insignificant (p > 0.05) difference. However, inoculated buffalo and cattle that survived the infection showed significantly (p cattle are more resistant to intranasal infection by P. multocida B:2 than buffaloes.
Napolitano, F; Pacelli, C; Grasso, F; Braghieri, A; De Rosa, G
This review deals with the behaviour of river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), in confinement and in extensive conditions, also focusing on the effects of different housing and rearing conditions on their welfare. The behavioural repertoire expressed by buffaloes in extensive and intensive conditions is similar to those displayed by other domestic ruminants. However, through natural selection, buffaloes have also acquired several morphological, physiological and behavioural (i.e. wallowing) adaptations to hot climatic conditions. Buffaloes kept in intensive conditions and having no access to pasture and water for wallowing extend their periods of idling and are less often involved in investigative activities. Confinement is also associated with a reduction of space; however, no specific studies have been carried out to determine the specific requirements of this species. Space restriction can adversely affect various aspects of buffalo welfare, such as health (increased levels of lesions and injuries), social behaviour (increased number of agonistic interactions) and heat dissipation. The buffaloes, originating from tropical areas, are well adapted to large variations in food availability and quality, and to dietetic unbalances. As to human animal relationship, it has been observed that the incidence of stepping and kicking behaviour of buffaloes in the milking parlour is positively correlated with the frequency of oxytocin injections, whereas the frequency of positive stockperson interactions with the animals such as talking quietly, petting and gentle touching are negatively correlated with the number of kicks during milking. Data from farms where both dairy cattle and buffaloes are present show that avoidance distance measured in the pen is lower in buffaloes than in cattle. This may be attributed to the fact that buffaloes are generally recognised to be curious animals. Finally, the effects of different farming practices on animal-related indicators are described
Buffalo are the predominant dairy animal in India. However, poor nutrition limits their productive and reproductive efficiency. The effects of supplementary feeding of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) prepared by an easy 'cold method' were assessed during different phases of reproduction in dairy buffalo. Supplementary feeding during the pre-partum period improved postpartum reproductive efficiency in terms of days to first oestrus (34 vs 48 d) and conception rates (30% vs 0%) when compared to unsupplemented controls. The effects of UMMB supplementary feeding were more pronounced in buffalo kept in rural areas by marginal farmers than in those kept on organized farms, due to the differences in the basal diet in each system. Pre-partum UMMB supplementation also improved the post-partum milk yield. Supplementation with UMMB in buffalo calving at a young age induced a higher proportion (71% vs 14%) to exhibit oestrus during the first 50 days post-partum, compared to unsupplemented controls. Milk yield was greater and peak milk yield was maintained for a longer duration with UMMB supplementation during the post-partum period. Supplementation with UMMB for 30 days in buffalo with delayed onset of puberty induced oestrus in 33% of heifers during the summer season and in 93% of the heifers during the winter season. Similarly, in anoestrus adult buffalo, UMMB supplementation induced ovarian activity in 40% of buffalo during the summer season and in 90% buffalo during the winter season. In addition, UMMB supplementation was shown to increase the effect of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) used for induction of oestrus in anoestrus and delayed pubertal buffalo. Medicated blocks could be successfully used for easy dispensing of herbal drugs to decrease placenta retention or reduce nematode parasite burdens in buffalo. Overall, UMMB supplementation improved milk production and reproductive efficiency in dairy buffalo and could be easily adopted by marginal
S. D. Hagawane
Full Text Available Forty buffaloes in early, mid and late lactation with a drop in a milk production were screened for haematological and blood biochemical profile. In early stage of lactation haemoglobin concentration showed lowered trend as compared to recorded means in other groups of lactating buffaloes. The mean value of TLC in dry pregnant group of buffaloes was 10.05± 0.89 X 103 /cmm showed slightly higher trend than the normal healthy control group. The blood glucose was significantly higher in dry buffaloes (52.72±4.22 mg/dl than the early and late lactating buffaloes (48.23±3.44 mg/dl. During early stage of lactation the serum total protein values (8.36±0.47 g/dl was slightly elevated than the normal healthy control (8.00±0.57 g/dl. The urea nitrogen values differ significantly (P<0.05 amongst different groups of lactating buffaloes. The descending trend in the serum cholesterol concentration in dry pregnant buffaloes compared to lactating buffaloes was observed. There was drop in calcium level during early stage of lactation (8.19±0.83 mg/dl than the normal healthy buffaloes (11.21±0.19 mg/dl. As the stage of lactation progresses the serum calcium level increased. Serum magnesium concentration in various groups of buffaloes did not differ significantly. Early lactation showed highest susceptibility for ketosis and hypocalcaemia. The metabolic disorder associated with hypophosphatemia was significantly high in dry (advance pregnant buffaloes. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 467-469
M.I. San Andrés
Full Text Available Marbofloxacin is a synthetic, bactericidal antimicrobial, belonging to the fluoroquinolone group which acts by inhibition of DNA gyrase and those acts by concentration dependant killing mechanism, so high plasma concentration initially is important. This drug is a fluoroquinolone developed exclusively for veterinary use, and exhibit high bactericidal activity against a broad spectrum of aerobic gram-negative, some gram-positive bacteria and Mycoplasma spp. The pharmacokinetic behaviour of marbofloxacin was investigated after intravenous (2 mg/kg in five clinically healthy buffaloes (10 days-old. Plasma concentrations of the marbofloxacin were determined by a HPLC/ u.v. method. After intravenous administration, marbofloxacin in buffaloes was characterized by a AUC = 8,42±3,71 μg·h/ml, a large volume of distribution (Vss=1.59±0.55 L/kg and a long persistence with an elimination half-life (t½λ of 4.6±0,31 h, and MRT 5,90±0,57h. Furthermore, marbofloxacin in buffaloes was characterized by a relatively low total body clearance (Cl of 0.28±0.12 L/kg·h.
Rossella Di Palo
Full Text Available Buffalo milk samples differing significantly for cheese yield values were analysed by 2D electrophoresis in order to outline a protein profile, with specific regards to k-casein fractions. Four buffaloes, two of which showing high cheese yield and two with low cheese yield selected from a group of 135 subjects were chosen for the proteomic analyses. Six main spots in 2D gels were recognized as αs1-, αs2-, β- and k-casein, α-lactoalbumin, β-lactoglobulin. The main visible differences in the 2D gels between buffaloes with high vs. low cheese yield were found in the appearance of the four k-casein spots (spots numbers:20, 19, 16, 18 which differ in the number of phosphorilation and glycosilation. The area and the intensity of the four spots were calculated by using Melanie II (Bio-Rad software. Samples with high cheese yield showed higher value of the by-products: area x intensity of spot 16, correspondent to k-casein with one phosphorilation site, and lower values of spots 19 and 20, of k-casein with more than one phosphorilation site and glycosilated.
The Buffalo Materials Research Center (BMRC) is located on the campus of the State University of New York at Buffalo, Principal facilities within BMRC include a 2-MW PULSTAR, low-enrichment reactor, an electron accelerator, and irradiated materials remote testing facilities. The reactor and the materials testing facilities have been utilized extensively in support of the power reactor community since 1961. This paper briefly highlights the nature and scope of this service. The BMRC is operated for the university by Buffalo Materials Research, Inc., a private for-profit company, which is a subsidiary of Materials Engineering Associates, Inc. (MEA), a Maryland-based materials testing company. A primary mission of MEA has been research on the effects of neutron irradiation on reactor structural materials, including those used for pressure vessel and piping systems. The combined resources of MEA and BMRC have played a pivotal role in the assessment of reactor pressure vessel safety both in the United States and abroad and in the development of new radiation-resistant steels
Hurt, Richard D; Ebbert, Jon O; Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Robertson, Channing R
More than a decade has passed since the conclusion of the Minnesota tobacco trial and the signing of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) by 46 US State Attorneys General and the US tobacco industry. The Minnesota settlement exposed the tobacco industry's long history of deceptive marketing, advertising, and research and ultimately forced the industry to change its business practices. The provisions for public document disclosure that were included in the Minnesota settlement and the MSA have resulted in the release of approximately 70 million pages of documents and nearly 20,000 other media materials. No comparable dynamic, voluminous, and contemporaneous document archive exists. Only a few single events in the history of public health have had as dramatic an effect on tobacco control as the public release of the tobacco industry's previously secret internal documents. This review highlights the genesis of the release of these documents, the history of the document depositories created by the Minnesota settlement, the scientific and policy output based on the documents, and the use of the documents in furthering global public health strategies. PMID:19411441
In the aftermath of the economically and environmentally painful flood of 2012, the city of Duluth and the CSC examined ecologically based options to reduce runoff velocities and flood volume in the watershed with assistance and input of Minnesota Duluth's Natural Resources Resea...
Zhao, Yan; Truhlar, Donald G.
We discuss and review selected recent applications and validations of the Minnesota density functionals, especially the M06 family, emphasizing nanochemistry, organic, inorganic, and biological chemistry, and catalysis and highlighting the broad accuracy of these functionals as compared to previous popular functionals for thermochemistry, kinetics, and noncovalent interactions.
Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System, St. Paul.
This publication highlights and explains relevant Minnesota legislative developments affecting higher education. For each bill, there is a summary provided in plain English, followed by copies of related portions of the legislation. The bills presented are: (1) Higher Education Omnibus Funding Bill (H.F. 2380); (2) Bonding Omnibus Bill (H.F.…
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This 30 Meter DEM is a copy of the USGS 1:24,000 scale Level 2 DEMs for the State. There are three quadrangles known be be Level 1 DEM data: Town Line Lake (q1925),...
PACER Center, 2004
When parents divorce, they sometimes have questions about which parent has rights in special education. The federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and Minnesota state special education laws and regulations clearly describe parental rights and the school district's duty to meet them. Most rights are unchanged by divorce. The…
Amador, Juan Antonio; Forns, Maria; Kirchner, Teresa
[eng] The text presents the theoretical basis and the Spanish adaptation of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2. A learning guide for the assessment of raw scores and psychological profiles in the practicals classes of the Psychological Assessment course are also presented.
A field of oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrid 'Pioneer 63M82') was observed with uneven maturation in west central Minnesota near Aldrich (Todd County) in late September, 2009. The field's soil type was sandy loam and cropping history was oats in 2008 preceded by four years of alfalfa. M...
Raymond G. Boyle
Full Text Available Cigarette smokers are being encouraged to use smokeless tobacco (SLT in locations where smoking is banned. We examined state-wide data from Minnesota to measure changes over time in the use of SLT and concurrent use of cigarettes and SLT. The Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey was conducted four times between 1999 and 2010 and has provided state-wide estimates of cigarette smoking, SLT use and concurrent use of SLT by smokers. The prevalence of SLT was essentially unchanged through 2007, then increased significantly between 2007 and 2010 (3.1% versus 4.3%, P<0.05. Similarly, the prevalence of cigarette smokers who reported using SLT was stable then increased between 2007 and 2010 (4.4% versus 9.6%, P<0.05. The finding of higher SLT use by smokers could indicate that smokers in Minnesota are in an experimental phase of testing alternative products as they adjust to recent public policies restricting smoking in public places. The findings are suggestive that some Minnesota smokers are switching to concurrent use of cigarettes and SLT. Future surveillance reports will be necessary to confirm the results.
Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.
This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. The manual answers: Why is lead a health concern? How are children exposed to lead? Why is lead a special concern for schools? How…
... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Withdrawal of Public Land for the Buffalo Bill Dam and... recreational facilities constructed in connection with the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project... recreation site in the Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir Modification Project area: Sixth Principal Meridian...
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Full Text Available Buffalo farming in Italy is traditionally oriented towards mozzarella cheese production and over the last decade it has been rapidly increased. As a result, intensive techniques and mechanisation of farm activities have been introduced. Those sudden changes in rearing techniques have aroused a general concern about buffaloes welfare and its possible consequences on products quality.Human-animal interactions are recognized to have an impact on productivity, behaviour and welfare, particularly in dairy farms, where the milking process involves a close interaction with a human handler. Focusing on the first month of lactation, this preliminary study aimed at evidencing buffalo behavioural responses to machine milking. Relationship between behaviour and oxytocin administrations, often performed to allow milk let down, has been also investigated. The experiment included 8 multiparous and 6 primiparous buffaloes, calving in the same period. Starting from the first entrance in the milking parlour, the animals were followed two days/ week during the morning milking for the first 5 weeks of lactation. Behaviour observation was performed following a “focal animal sampling” (continuous recording technique. Proportional frequencies of the following behaviours were calculated: kicking, stepping, defecating, urinating, vocalizing, pulling the teat cup off the teats. The exogenous oxytocin administration at milking was recorded. Pearson Chi-Square test was used to verify the presence of differences between primiparous and multiparous cows’ behaviour at milking. Cochran’s Q test was used to assess the variability of behaviour over time and a binomial regression was performed in order to verify the correlations between animal behaviours and the need to administer oxytocin. Considering lactation number, every behavioural pattern in primiparous cows, except for stepping, resulted to be more frequently performed (36.67% vs 24.36% for kicking; 5% vs 2
M. I. Bhanger
Full Text Available Present study evaluates the milk fatty acid (FA composition and cholesterol content of two main Pakistani dairy breeds water buffaloes, i.e. Kundi and Nili-Ravi (n = 25 for each breed. The buffaloes were housed together and received the same diet. The results show a significant variation (P < 0.05 in the FA content of the two breeds. The milk fat of Kundi buffalo was found to contain significantly lower (P < 0.05 amount of saturated fatty acid content than Nili-Ravi buffaloes (66.96 and 69.09 g/100 g. Determined mean monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA contents (27.62 vs. 25.20 g/100g and total trans fatty acids (3.48 vs. 2.48 were significantly elevated (P < 0.05 in the milk fat of Kundi buffaloes. Amount of fat and conjugated linoleic acid content was higher (P = 0.04 in Kundi buffalo as compared to Nili-Ravi buffaloes (7.00 vs. 7.78 g /100g and 0.80 vs. 0.71g / 100g, while cholesterol content was not different among both breeds ranging from 8.89 – 10.24 mg /dl. Present studies show that in future genetic selection programs along with altered buffalo nutrition may be able to result in optimum levels of various fatty acids in milk.
Kiran, M; Naveena, B M; Reddy, K S; Shahikumar, M; Reddy, V R; Kulkarni, V V; Rapole, S; More, T H
Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (Pspace in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality. PMID:27076348
Thiele, M; Swalve, H. H.; R. Schmidt; R. Schafberg
The volume-surface average diameter of fat globules are larger in buffalo milk than in cow milk and the volume frequency distribution in buffalo milk is more balanced. The globule size was affected by animal, stage of lactation, and test day. An interesting contrast compared to cow milk is the negative correlation between diurnal fat yield and globule size.
Full Text Available The volume-surface average diameter of fat globules are larger in buffalo milk than in cow milk and the volume frequency distribution in buffalo milk is more balanced. The globule size was affected by animal, stage of lactation, and test day. An interesting contrast compared to cow milk is the negative correlation between diurnal fat yield and globule size.
Nassir Hussain Shah, S.; Willemse, A.H.; Wiel, D.F.M. van der
A fertility treatment trial of anoestrous buffaloes was undertaken on a well managed dairy farm in the low breeding season. Forty lactating buffaloes, 12 each from first and second parity and 16 from third or higher parity, not seen in oestrus for at least 3 to 5 months were diagnosed anoestrous by
Full Text Available Sex and age classifications of buffalo cropped in the Kruger National Park suggest that cropping is biased towards females, and prime breeding individuals of both sexes are apparently under-represented. The implications are discussed in relation to buffalo social organisation and comparative data on population structure.
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.;...
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... this process through a notice in the Federal Register (63 FR 33693; June 19, 1998). The Buffalo Lake... FR 33693). Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) was formally invited to participate in the... Fish and Wildlife Service Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Randall County, TX;...
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A pen trial was carried out in order to determine the susceptibility differences of a trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica in buffalo and Ongole calves. Treated animals were infected orally with 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks and were slaughtered at 36 weeks. The results showed that buffalo calves had significantly lower fluke burdens than Ongole calves (P
... Buffalo, New York. 162.175 Section 162.175 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33...
Tiago Marafiga Degrandi
Full Text Available Domestic buffaloes are divided into two group based on cytogenetic characteristics and habitats: the "river buffaloes" with 2n = 50 and the "swamp buffaloes", 2n = 48. Nevertheless, their hybrids are viable, fertile and identified by a 2n = 49. In order to have a better characterization of these different cytotypes of buffaloes, and considering that NOR-bearing chromosomes are involved in the rearrangements responsible for the karyotypic differences, we applied silver staining (Ag-NOR and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH experiments using 18S rDNA as probe. Metaphases were obtained through blood lymphocyte culture of 21 individuals, including river, swamp and hybrid cytotypes. Ag-NOR staining revealed active NORs on six chromosome pairs (3p, 4p, 6, 21, 23, 24 in the river buffaloes, whereas the swamp buffaloes presented only five NOR-bearing pairs (4p, 6, 20, 22, 23. The F1 crossbreed had 11 chromosomes with active NORs, indicating expression of both parental chromosomes. FISH analysis confirmed the numerical divergence identified with Ag-NOR. This result is explained by the loss of the NOR located on chromosome 4p in the river buffalo, which is involved in the tandem fusion with chromosome 9 in this subspecies. A comparison with the ancestral cattle karyotype suggests that the NOR found on the 3p of the river buffalo may have originated from a duplication of ribosomal genes, resulting in the formation of new NOR sites in this subspecies.
Full Text Available We point out that Bose enhancement in a hadronic wave function generically leads to correlations between produced particles. We show explicitly, by calculating the projectile density matrix in the Color Glass Condensate approach to high-energy hadronic collisions, that the Bose enhancement of gluons in the projectile leads to azimuthal collimation of long range rapidity correlations of the produced particles, the so-called ridge correlations.
This paper is devoted to research on arheoastronomicheskim Chashkovskom ridge spur Ilmeny Southern Urals, in conjunction with mountain Golukha and lake Large Elancik. This entity is the central research hole on the top of the mountain and view it from a review of the horizon. Hull has a natural origin, but artificially increased by ancient people for not yet clear goals for us. To check the version of astronomical taken a photocall at the equinoxes and solstices. Pre-map were conducted prospe...
Krause, C.; Pearce, J.; Zucker, A. (eds.)
This report presents brief descriptions of the following programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The effects of pollution and climate change on forests; automation to improve the safety and efficiency of rearming battle tanks; new technologies for DNA sequencing; ORNL probes the human genome; ORNL as a supercomputer research center; paving the way to superconcrete made with polystyrene; a new look at supercritical water used in waste treatment; and small mammals as environmental monitors.
L C Cruz
Full Text Available There are two major types of water buffaloes in the world, the riverine type and the swamp type. The total number of Swamp buffalo is 37.6 M and represents 21.8% of the world’s buffalo population. The swamp buffaloes have played a major role in draft animal-dependent farming system. But intensified rice production became more pronounced in irrigated areas and this has led to increased utilization of small farm machineries, displacing significantly the draft buffaloes for land tillage. To some extent, the introduction of tractors for land preparation and transport for corn, sugarcane and other crops in production areas has similar effect. Utilization of the existing population of swamp buffaloes to meet the growing domestic demand for milk and meat, against the background of increasing farm mechanization, is a good reason to transform the huge number of draft animals into producers of milk and meat. According to the UNDP/FAO-assisted project in the Philippines carried from 1982 to 1998, that crossing swamp buffalo and riverine buffaloes, despite the differences in chromosome numbers, is producing crossbreds with high growth rate potentials and milk production abilities several folds over the swamp buffalo parents. The known fact that swamp and riverine buffaloes have different chromosome number, the diploid chromosome number of the swamp buffalo is 48 and that of the river buffalo is 50. When crossbreeding between the 2 buffalo types occur, males and females of the F1 generation are heterozygous for the fusion and are apparently fertile with chromosome 2n = 49. Three-way crossbred hybrids were obtained by (native buffalo x Murrah x Nili Ravi or (native buffalo x Nili Ravi x Murrah. They had two chromosome categories viz. 2n=49 and 2n=50, respectively. Crossbreeding Swamp with Riverine Breed is done for quality beef. Most of the NT produced TenderBuff is farm-bred or purchased from other suppliers as swamp buffalo yearlings and growth out for a
Moustafa A. Rizk
Full Text Available Collagen is widely used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications due to its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and weak antigenicity. However, applicability is limited due to its high cost and probability of disease transmission from the current sources, which are bovine and porcine. In the present study, collagen was extracted from 6 months buffalo skins as alternative save sources. Collagen was characterized by different physico-chemical techniques like ATR-FTIR, Raman, SEM, DSC and amino acids analysis. Proline and hydroxyproline contents of buffalo skin collagen were higher than those of calf skin collagen. Thermal stability of buffalo skin collagen is high with respect to that of calf skin collagen. The obtained buffalo skin collagen shows higher stiffness upon cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Thus buffalo skin collagen can be used for fabrication of high strength bioactive sponge and sheets for medical applications, like scaffold for tissue engineering, drug delivery and wound dressing system.
WEERASOORIYA, Gayani; SIVAKUMAR, Thillaiampalam; LAN, Dinh Thi Bich; LONG, Phung Thang; TAKEMAE, Hitoshi; IGARASHI, Ikuo; INOUE, Noboru; YOKOYAMA, Naoaki
A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water buffalo-derived T. theileri CATL sequences clustered together with a previously reported cattle-derived sequence from Vietnam. This is the first report of a new Babesia sp. in cattle, and T. orientalis MPSP genotype 7 and T. theileri in water buffalo in Vietnam. PMID:27149894
A. Z. Khan and G. Muhammad1
Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical mastitis was observed in 36%, clinical mastitis in 5.5% and blind quarters in 8% quarters. Prevalence was higher (32% in hindquarters of crossbred cows than those of buffaloes (29%. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest (45% frequency, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23%, E. coli (18% and Bacillus spp. (14% in buffaloes. In case of crossbred cows, Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , E. coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 48, 30, 13 and 8% milk samples respectively.
Fresh cow's, buffalo's and goat's milk were treated with gamma-irradiation from a cobalt-60 source at safe doses (250, 500 and 750 krad) in addition to raw milk of the same types. Results indicate that total hydrocarbon was much lower in unsaponifiable matter (unsap. m) of goat's raw milk fat than that of cow's and buffalo's. Unsap. m of cow's milk fat consisted of ten hydrocarbon compounds, while it consisted of eight hydrocarbon compounds in both buffaloes and goats ones. Moreover, the unsap. m of goat's milk had the highest total sterols followed by buffalo's and cow's, respectively. Cholesterol represents the predominant sterol compound of the unsap. m in all kinds of raw milk fat. The application of ascendent doses of gamma irradiation increased total hydrocarbons and decreased total sterols (particularly cholesterol compounds) of unsap. m of both buffalo's and goat's milk fats, while the reverse trend occurred with cow's milk fat
M. S. R. Siddiki
Full Text Available The research was carried out to compare the physical and chemical parameters of Swamp and Water buffalo milk collected from Senbari village in Trishal Upazila under Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. Results revealed that average color, flavor and taste score of Swamp and Water buffalo milk differed significantly (P0.05 with Water buffalo milk. Texture of all samples was normal. It was observed that average fat, total solids (TS, solids-not-fat (SNF and protein content differed significantly (P0.05 were found among, acidity, water. From these results, it may be inferred that the quality of Swamp buffalo milk is superior to that of Water buffalo milk.
Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.
Sediment-laden rivers and streams pose substantial environmental and economic challenges. Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, and transports harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011 indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in the driftless region of southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. During the 2011 spring runoff, the single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis- St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been determined to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. Because of this, the MPCA was interested in quantifying the differences between SSC and TSS in different parts of the State. Comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. The largest percent difference between SSC and TSS was measured at the South Branch Buffalo River at Sabin, and the smallest difference was observed at the Des Moines
Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.
Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing contaminated lands in the Buffalo, New York, area for utility-scale wind development is explored. The study found that there is available land, electrical infrastructure, wind resource, and local interest to support a commercial wind project; however, economies of scale and local electrical markets may need further investigation before significant investment is made into developing a wind project at the Buffalo Reuse Authority site.
ZHU En; ZHANG Jian-ming; YIN Jian-ping; ZHANG Guo-min; HU Chun-feng
Fingerprint segmentation is an important step in fingerprint recognition and is usually aimed to identify non-ridge regions and unrecoverable low quality ridge regions and exclude them as background so as to reduce the time expenditure of image processing and avoid detecting false features. In high and in low quality ridge regions, often are some remaining ridges which are the afterimages of the previously scanned finger and are expected to be excluded from the foreground. However, existing segmentation methods generally do not take the case into consideration, and often, the remaining ridge regions are falsely classified as foreground by segmentation algorithm with spurious features produced erroneously including unrecoverable regions as foreground. This paper proposes two steps for fingerprint segmentation aimed at removing the remaining ridge region from the foreground. The non-ridge regions and unrecoverable low quality ridge regions are removed as background in the first step, and then the foreground produced by the first step is further analyzed for possible remove of the remaining ridge region. The proposed method proved effective in avoiding detecting false ridges and in improving minutiae detection.
K. K. Tyagi
Full Text Available Aim: To estimate individual test day variability in yield and composition of Surti and Mehsani buffaloes milk at day 15 and 60 postpartum (pp. Materials and Methods: A total of 13 normally calved Surti and Mehsani buffaloes each maintained at Livestock Research Stations of Navsari and Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural Universities, respectively, were selected for the study. Milk sample was collected from each selected buffalo at day 15 and 60 pp to study milk yield and composition variability between these two breeds. Buffaloes were categorized for the ease of data analysis and comparisons into four groups, viz., S15 (Surti buffaloes 15th day pp, S60 (Surti buffaloes 60th day pp, M15 (Mehsani buffaloes 15th day pp, and M60 (Mehsani buffaloes 60th day pp. Results: There were 37.20% and 25.03% significant (p≤0.05 increase in mean test day milk yield (TDMY of S60 and M60 as compared to S15 and M15 groups, respectively. The mean TDMY of Mehsani buffalo was 99.19% and 81.53% significantly (p≤0.05 higher than Surti buffaloes at day 15 and 60 pp, respectively. The mean fat and protein corrected test day milk yield (FPCTDMY of all the groups was found to be significantly different (p≤0.05 from each other. There was significant (p≤0.05 increase of 1.94 and 3.45 kg in mean FPCTDMY with the progression of lactation between day 15 and 60 pp in Surti and Mehsani buffaloes, respectively. Similarly, the mean FPCTDMY of Mehsani buffaloes were approximately double with 103.27% and 96.36% higher yield as compared to Surti buffaloes at day 15 and 60 pp, respectively. Among milk composition, significant differences were observed for solid not fat (SNF and protein%, whereas fat and lactose% were steady among four groups. The only significant (p≤0.05 difference was observed for SNF in M60 group, which was 8.29%, 6.85%, and 10.70% higher as compared to S15, S60, and M15 groups, respectively. The mean protein% in milk of Mehsani buffaloes was 21
Hirst, E.; Armstrong, J. R.
The development and operation of energy conservation programs in the Minnesota Energy Agency (MEA) are discussed. The MEA has responsibility for voluntary conservation efforts, regulating energy efficient devices, and grant programs to audit and retrofit public buildings. The MEA has developed the plan under which the Minnesota utilities will provide conservation services to residential customers, including an on-site home energy audit. The relation between the Department of Energy (DOE) and state energy offices in implementing programs is considered. The DOE has provided technical assistance to the states through the development of a model audit. Steps are discussed to reduce the burdens imposed on the states by program planning, funding, and management responsibilities, including the consolidation of several existing state conservation programs. Improved policy analysis is suggested to correct inefficiencies in government programs.
Rajoriya, J S; Prasad, J K; Ramteke, S S; Perumal, P; Ghosh, S K; Singh, M; Pande, Megha; Srivastava, N
Buffalo spermatozoa are comparatively more susceptible to freezing hazards than cattle spermatozoa. In recent times incubation of spermatozoa with cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins (CLC) has shown improvements in semen quality in several species. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the incubation level of CLC at which maximum benefit is derived for the buffalo spermatozoa. For the study, 120 million spermatozoa were incubated in 2, 3 and 4 mg/mL of CLC (Gr II, III and IV, respectively) and cholesterol and phospholipids content, their ratio, flow cytometric evaluation of plasma membrane integrity (PMI), plasma membrane fluidity and extent of cryoinjury (Chlortetracycline, CTC assay) were compared with an untreated control (Gr I). Additionally the ability of cholesterol-loaded-spermatozoa to undergo induced acrosome reaction (IAR) using ionophore calcium (A23187) was evaluated in frozen-thaw samples. Data show a significant and linear increase (CV=0.88) in cholesterol content of spermatozoa in Gr II, III and IV and a significant decrease in phospholipids content at frozen-thaw stage in Gr IV than Gr III spermatozoa. The study revealed a significant improvement in PMI and significant reduction in plasma membrane fluidity and cryoinjury of CLC treated spermatozoa at progressive stages in three groups compared to control. Nevertheless, spermatozoa of Gr II, III and IV were significantly less responsive to ionophore calcium (A23187) than Gr I. This study shows for the first time that incubation of buffalo bull spermatozoa with CLC (3mg/120×10(6)) prior to processing permits greater numbers of sperm to survive cryopreservation while allowing spermatozoa to capacitate and the acrosome to react to AR inducer ionophore calcium (A23187). PMID:26619942
Pushp Raj Shivahre
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to analyze mortality pattern in Murrah buffalo males in National Dairy Research Institute herd. Materials and Methods: Records of 1029 Murrah buffalo males born during the period 1997-2012, at NDRI, Karnal, were analyzed to study mortality pattern in different age groups. The percent of animal disposed from the herd due to different reasons was calculated by proportion using descriptive statistics. Results: The overall percent mortality in 0-1m, 1-2m, 2-3m, 3-6m, 6-18m, 18m-3 yr and >3 year age groups were 17.49, 5.99, 3.34, 5.42, 6.35, 2.59 and 3.93, respectively. The main cause of mortality in 0-1, 1-2, 2-3 and 6-18 m of age groups was respiratory problems (6.61%, 1.79%, 1.06% and 1.97% respectively. Main causes of mortality in age group 3-6 months were general debility (1.57% followed by respiratory and digestive problems (1.22%, miscellaneous (0.87%, liver and urinary problems (0.17%. Mortality could not reveal any consistent trend across different seasons and period of birth. General debility (1.29% followed by toxemia, liver problems and miscellaneous reasons were main causes of mortality in age group 18 m – 3 yr of age. In males above three years of age, general debility (2.81% followed by respiratory problems (1.12% were the main causes of mortality. Conclusion: Intensive health care and management is required for young male buffalo calves especially in hot humid months of rainy season and cold inclement weather conditions in winter months to minimize mortality due to respiratory and digestive problems.
Trechter, David D.; King, Robert P.
Cooperatives face unique challenges in compensating managers because it is more difficult to link the financial interests of the manager to those of the cooperative. One way to overcome this challenge is to use performance-based bonuses. This study of cooperatives in Minnesota and Wisconsin found that such bonuses are infrequently used. Further. evidence indicates that existing bonuses tend to be linked more to the size of the cooperative (sales. assets) than to profitability. These results s...
To bring healthier meals to students at the Dover-Eyota elementary school in Minnesota, school officials and parents started a partnership with local farmers. The farm-to-school program has brought better food, like watermelon and corn on the cob, to the children while building ties within the community. Created: 6/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 6/5/2013.
Johnston, Lisa; Jeffryes, Jon
From the University of Minnesota, this case study describes the seven modules that comprise their data information literacy program for students in Civil Engineering. The modules include: data management, organization and documentation, data access and ownership, data sharing and re-use, and preservation. Materials include a book chapter describing the case study, the syllabus for the program, a template for developing a data management plan and the evaluation forms that were used.
Full Text Available The caddisfly fauna of Minnesota contains at least 277 species within 21 families and 75 genera. These species are based on examination of 312,884 specimens from 2,166 collections of 937 Minnesota aquatic habitats from 1890 to 2007. Included in these totals is my own quantitative sampling of 4 representative habitat types: small streams, medium rivers, large rivers, and lakes, from each of the 58 major Minnesota watersheds from June through September during 1999–2001. All species are illustrated herein, and their known Minnesota abundances, distributions, adult flight periodicities, and habitat affinities presented. Four species: Lepidostoma griseum (Lepidostomatidae, Psilotreta indecisa (Odontoceridae, and Phryganea sayi and Ptilostomis angustipennis (Phryganeidae are added to the known fauna. An additional 31 dubious species records are removed for various reasons. Of the 5 determined caddisfly regions of the state, species richness per watershed was highest in the Lake Superior and Northern Regions, intermediate in the Southeastern, and lowest in the Northwestern and Southern. Of the 48 individual collections that yielded >40 species, all but 1 were from the Northern Region. Many species, especially within the families Limnephilidae and Phryganeidae, have appeared to decrease in distribution and abundance during the past 75 years, particularly those once common within the Northwestern and Southern Regions. Many species now appear regionally extirpated, and a few have disappeared from the entire state. The loss of species in the Northwestern and Southern Regions, and probably elsewhere, is almost certainly related to the conversion of many habitats to large-scale agriculture during the mid-20th century.
John Pastor; George Host
Field and modeling studies were used to quantify potential successional pathways among fine-scale ecological classification units within two geomorphic regions of north-central Minnesota. Soil and overstory data were collected on plots stratified across low-relief ground moraines and undulating sand dunes. Each geomorphic feature was sampled across gradients of topography or soil texture. Overstory conditions were sampled using five variable-radius point samples per plot; soil samples were an...
Rojas, Elizabeth; Cummings, Jenna, R.; Bornovalova, Marina A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Racine, Sarah E.; Keel, Pamela K.; Sisk, Cheryl; Neale, Michael,; Boker, Steven; Burt, Alexandra S.; Klump, Kelly L.
Previous research indicates that Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is well conceptualized as a dimensional construct that can be represented using normal personality traits. A previous study successfully developed and validated a BPD measure embedded within a normal trait measure, the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale (MBPD). The current study performed a further validation of the MBPD by examining its convergent validity, external correlates, and heritability in a sample of...
When firefighters in Minnesota discovered that over 50 percent of firefighter deaths were cardiovascular-related, they decided to implement healthy changes in the workplace. The firefighters now manage a garden near the fire station and eat fresh broccoli, squash, and tomatoes between shifts. Created: 6/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 6/4/2013.
Five plants are described that could be grown commercially under arid conditions. Once the most valuable component has been obtained from each plant (rubber from guayule; seed oil from jojoba, buffalo gourd, and bladderpod; and resin from gumweed), the remaining material holds potential for useful products as well as fuel. It is difficult to realize the full potential of arid land plants, however, because of the complexities of developing the necessary agricultural and industrial infrastructure simultaneously. To do so, multicompany efforts or cooperative efforts between government and the private sector will be required.
Full Text Available The occurrence and distribution of different endocrine cell types in the gastrointestinal tract of large and small domestic mammals have been extensively studied (Ceccarelli et al. 1995; Agungpriyono et al.2000. Some studies have been also carried out on the ontogeny of gut endocrine cells in mammals (Ono et al. 1994, and only few in ruminant. (Kitamura et al. 1985; Guilloteau et al. 1997. In order to complete a previous study regarding postnatal development of intestinal endocrine cells (Lucini et al. 1999, in this study we report the appearance and distribution of some endocrine cell types in the gut of water buffalo during foetal development.
Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.
on the petrology of ridge basalts, detailed bathymetric inve s tigations of ridge profiles using swath - bathy - metry from a recent cruise, impo r tance of neural networks and their appl i ca - tion to understand the seafloor topo - graphy, deep - sea benthic... o ment, the Council of Scie n tific & Indu s trial Research, New Delhi, has earmarked ridge studies as a thrust and network programme for the 10th year plan. This is an oppor tune moment for the InRidge com munity to gather, inte r - pret...
Full Text Available Dalam analisis regresi linier berganda adanya satu atau lebih pengamatan pencilan (outlier akan menimbulkan dilema bagi para peneliti. Keputusan untuk menghilangkan pencilan tersebut harus dilandasi alasan yang kuat, karena kadang-kadang pencilan dapat memberikan informasi penting yang diperlukan. Masalah outlier ini dapat diatasi dengan berbagai metode, diantaranya metode regresi ridge (ridge regression. Untuk mengetahui kekekaran regresi ridge perlu melihat nilai-nilai R2, PRESS, serta leverage (hii, untuk metode regresi ridge dengan berbagai nilai tetapan bias k yang dipilih.
Singh, U.; Kocian, M.; Wilson, B.; Bolton, A.; Nieber, J.; Vondracek, B.; Perry, J.; Magner, J.
Recent research has emphasized the importance of using physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stream health for diagnosing impaired watersheds and their receiving water bodies. A multidisciplinary team at the University of Minnesota is carrying out research to develop a stream classification system for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Funding for this research is provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. One objective of the research study involves investigating the relationships between indicators of stream health and localized stream characteristics. Measured data from Minnesota streams collected by various government and non-government agencies and research institutions have been obtained for the research study. Innovative Geographic Information Systems tools developed by the Environmental Science Research Institute and the University of Texas are being utilized to combine and organize the data. Simple linear relationships between index of biological integrity (IBI) and channel slope, two-year stream flow, and drainage area are presented for the Redwood River and the Snake River Basins. Results suggest that more rigorous techniques are needed to successfully capture trends in IBI scores. Additional analyses will be done using multiple regression, principal component analysis, and clustering techniques. Uncovering key independent variables and understanding how they fit together to influence stream health are critical in the development of a stream classification for TMDL assessment.
The Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers (MnVAP) propose to build an alfalfa processing plant integrated with an advanced power plant system at the Granite Falls, Minnesota Industrial Park to provide 75 MW of base load electric power and a competitively priced source of value added alfalfa based products. This project will utilize air blown fluidized bed gasification technology to process alfalfa stems and another biomass to produce a hot, clean, low heating value gas that will be used in a gas turbine. Exhaust heat from the gas turbine will be used to generate steam to power a steam turbine and provide steam for the processing of the alfalfa leaf into a wide range of products including alfalfa leaf meal, a protein source for livestock. The plant will demonstrate high efficiency and environmentally compatible electric power production, as well as increased economic yield from farm operations in the region. The initial phase of the Minnesota Agripower Project (MAP) will be to perform alfalfa feedstock testing, prepare preliminary designs, and develop detailed plans with estimated costs for project implementation. The second phase of MAP will include detailed engineering, construction, and startup. Full commercial operation will start in 2001.
Donald L. Uden, PharmD, FCCP; Jody L. Lounsbery, PharmD, BCPS; Jean Moon, PharmD, BCACP; Margaret L. Wallace, PharmD, BCACP
Purpose: To describe the landscape of medication management within the patient-centered medical homes (PCMH) in the state of Minnesota. Methods: An electronic survey of care coordinators within PCMHs certified with the Department of Health in state of Minnesota was conducted. The survey and follow up were distributed by the Minnesota Department of Health. At the time the survey was distributed, there were 161 certified PCMHs in the state. Results: The final analysis included 21 respondents. S...
O. S. Al-Abbadi
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the rumen magnet given once a life as a prophylaxis of hardware disease in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 3100 buffaloes were divided into two groups. In group I, 1200 hardware diseased buffaloes were surgically treated with rumenotomy, given reticular magnets and followed up to 7 years for a possible recurrent hardware disease. In group II, 1900 clinically normal buffalo heifers were given rumen magnets orally then followed up to seven years for a possible occurrence of hardware disease. All buffaloes showed signs of hardware disease were treated by rumenotomy. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. Results: Hardware disease was recorded in 110 animals (10.8% and 155 animals (8.9% in groups I and II. The incidence of developing a hardware disease during the first 4 years after the use of magnet was 0% in both groups. Starting from 5th year, a time dependent increase in the proportion of buffaloes developing a hardware disease was noticed in both groups (P 0.05. Conclusion: Administration of a rumen magnet is an effective prophylaxis for hardware disease and reapplication of a second new magnet is recommended four years later in buffaloes at high risk.
Krishna Murthy, C M; Souza, Placid E D
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated for the diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes. The excretory-secretory (E-S Ag) antigen of F. gigantica adult flukes obtained after invitro incubation was used as an antigen. The test was conducted with 276 sera collected from cattle and buffaloes which included 22 sera each from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes (known positive serum) and with similar number of samples with healthy cattle and buffaloes (known negative serum). The positive results were observed in 18 and 19 of the sera from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes with sensitivity of 81.8 and 86.3 % respectively. Out of 188 serum samples which were found negative on faecal examination 32 (34 %) sera of cattle and 40 (42.5 %) sera of buffaloes were found positive by ELISA respectively. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 91.6 and 95.6 % in cattle and buffaloes respectively.
Full Text Available Water buffalo are of great economic importance in Brazilian Amazonia, which has the largest herd in Brazil. Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic disease that results in severe losses to water buffalo production. Although the disease has already been described in the country, data on the occurrence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in Brazil is very scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region of Amapá, Brazil. Thirty herds, randomly selected from the 41 herds of water buffalo in the region, were sampled. From those herds, 212 randomly selected water buffalo were subjected to the comparative tuberculin skin test. The proportion of Baixo Araguari River region herds that were positive for bovine tuberculosis was 50.0% (95% CI 31.3% to 68.7% and the proportion of animals that were positive was estimated to be 14.8% (95% CI 7.8% to 21.9%. Our results show that bovine tuberculosis is spread widely among water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region, which suggests that measures to control the disease should be undertaken in the region.
R. D. Purkayastha
Full Text Available Aim: Anoestrus is one of the most common functional disorders of the reproductive cycle in buffaloes. In spite of technical advancement, there is no single cure for the management of anoestrus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out the efficacy of gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH and metabolic hormone for the management of true anoestrus in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The experimental animals were selected on the basis of history, gyneco-clinical examinations and progesterone estimation. Deworming was done with Fenbendazole and thereafter mineral mixture was given @ 50 g per animal per day for 10 days in all the selected buffaloes before the start of treatment. The selected buffaloes were randomly divided into four groups (n=25. In Group I, buffaloes were administered 20 μg of buserelin intramuscularly. Buffaloes of Group II were administered long-acting insulin @ 0.25 IU/Kg body weight subcutaneously for 5 consecutive days. In Group III, buffaloes were treated with a combination of insulin and buserelin in the above-mentioned doses whereas buffaloes of Group IV were kept as untreated control. Results: The higher oestrus induction (64% vs. 28% was found in Group III and differed significantly (p<0.05 as compared to control group. The conception rate (69.23% vs. 66.66% was also found higher in Group III but did not differ significantly among the treated groups. The mean time taken for the onset of oestrus was recorded significantly shorter in insulin (8.80±0.69 and GnRH (7.60±0.92 days alone and as compared to other (Group III, 14.43±0.83 and Group IV, 20.57±1.69 days groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated better fertility response using Insulin plus Buserelin in true anoestrus buffaloes under field conditions.
Purkayastha, R. D.; Shukla, S. N.; Shrivastava, O. P.; Kumar, P. R.
Aim: Anoestrus is one of the most common functional disorders of the reproductive cycle in buffaloes. In spite of technical advancement, there is no single cure for the management of anoestrus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out the efficacy of gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH) and metabolic hormone for the management of true anoestrus in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The experimental animals were selected on the basis of history, gyneco-clinical examinations and progesterone estimation. Deworming was done with Fenbendazole and thereafter mineral mixture was given @ 50 g per animal per day for 10 days in all the selected buffaloes before the start of treatment. The selected buffaloes were randomly divided into four groups (n=25). In Group I, buffaloes were administered 20 µg of buserelin intramuscularly. Buffaloes of Group II were administered long-acting insulin @ 0.25 IU/Kg body weight subcutaneously for 5 consecutive days. In Group III, buffaloes were treated with a combination of insulin and buserelin in the above-mentioned doses whereas buffaloes of Group IV were kept as untreated control. Results: The higher oestrus induction (64% vs. 28%) was found in Group III and differed significantly (p<0.05) as compared to control group. The conception rate (69.23% vs. 66.66%) was also found higher in Group III but did not differ significantly among the treated groups. The mean time taken for the onset of oestrus was recorded significantly shorter in insulin (8.80±0.69) and GnRH (7.60±0.92 days) alone and as compared to other (Group III, 14.43±0.83 and Group IV, 20.57±1.69 days) groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated better fertility response using Insulin plus Buserelin in true anoestrus buffaloes under field conditions. PMID:27065651
Vasileios A. Bampidis
Full Text Available Forty lactating Greek buffalo cows were used in an experiment to determine effects of parity and calf birth month onproductivity and milk composition. Buffalo cows gave birth on months June and August 2009, and were kept undersemi closed system of management. From June to November, during the day the buffalo cows were allowed to grazeon the surroundings from 10:00 h and flocked back at 16:00 h. In the experiment, which started on week 6postpartum and lasted 24 weeks, buffalo cows were fed alfalfa hay, corn silage, wheat straw and concentrate, andwere allocated, relative to parity, into treatments GBP1 (21 buffalo cows with parity 1, 2, and 3 and GBP2 (19buffalo cows with parity 4, 5, and 6, and, relative to calf birth month, into treatments GBB1 (20 buffalo cows withJune as calf birth month and GBB2 (20 buffalo cows with August as calf birth month. Productivity and milkcomposition were not affected (P>0.05 by calf birth month. During the experiment, there were differences(P<0.001 between GBP1 and GBP2 treatments in average milk yield (4.1 vs. 5.3 kg/day, fat yield (0.33 vs. 0.41kg/day, protein yield (0.19 vs. 0.24 kg/day, lactose yield (0.21 vs. 0.27 kg/day and ash yield (0.033 vs. 0.044kg/day. In contrast, milk fat (80.8 g/kg, protein (45.9 g/kg, lactose (51.2 g/kg and ash (8.2 g/kg contents, as wellas somatic cell counts (82.9 ×1000/ml and colony forming units (44.9 ×1000/ml, were not affected (P>0.05 byparity. Milk production and quality of Greek buffalo is generally satisfactory, and may be economically beneficialfor local breeders.
... Chippewa Tribe, Minnesota (hereinafter referred to as ``The Tribes''). History and Description of the..., including ceramics and lithic tools. These human remains have no archeological classification and cannot...
Singer, J.; Manley, T.; McLaren, P.; Manley, P.; Atkinson, J. F.; Hughes, W.; Klawinski, A.
The Buffalo River discharges into Lake Erie near the upper end of the Niagara River. The lower 9.2 km of the river has been designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to beneficial use impairments associated with poor water quality, degraded riparian and river habitat, and contaminated sediments. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a navigational channel at a depth of 6.7 m below mean lake level by dredging every 2-3 years. Its low gradient and current velocities that often are Buffalo River reversing flow. These estuarine-like conditions can occur during low flow periods in the river when water levels at the eastern end of Lake Erie rise in response to seiches when persistent winds transport water from west to east increasing water elevation at the Buffalo (eastern) end of the lake. To better understand the interaction between the downriver and upriver (lake-driven) flow, Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), temperature sensors, and water level recorders have been deployed in the lower 9 km of the river. To map the river and document changes in bottom morphology side-scan sonar surveys have been conducted. Sediment trend analysis (STA) and numerical modeling complement and augment field observations. Changes in grain size distributions derived from the STA show two distinct flow regimes existing in the river with sediments deposited around the mouth of the river re-entrained and transported upriver. Results from numerical modeling using a particle-tracking component also show a similar pattern. Where the two flow regimes intersect, sedimentary furrows have been mapped using side-scan sonar and confirmed by divers. ADCP findings document periodic high flow events in the river related to heavy rainfalls and snow melt as well as the propagation of Lake Erie seiches upriver as far as 9 km. The water level data agree well with ADCP data obtained in the river. The river also exhibits its own seiche with period of ~ 2.0 hours. The hydrodynamics and
Gaucheron, F; Piot, M.; Rousseau, F.; Ahmad, S
Composition and physico-chemical properties of buffalo and cow milks were compared at their initial pH and during chemical acidification. As compare to cow milk, buffalo milk was richer in caseins and minerals such as Ca, Mg and Pi. Along with these differences, the capacity of buffalo milk to be acidified named buffering capacity was also higher than cow milk. The pH decrease induced aggregation of caseins at their isoelectric pH and solubilisations of Ca and Pi were significant for both mil...
Anandh, M. Anna; Venkatachalapathy, R. T.; Radha, K.; Lakshmanan, V.
Cooked buffalo tripe rolls prepared from a combination of buffalo tripe and buffalo meat by using mincing and blade tenderization process were stored at 4 ± 1 °C in polyethylene teraphthalate laminated with polythene (PET/PE) pouches under vacuum packaging condition. The samples were evaluated for physico-chemical parameters, microbial quality and sensory attributes at regular intervals of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Significant changes were seen in physico-chemical, microbial and se...
Ten non-pregnant and ten pregnant buffaloes were used in the present study and were milked twice daily (7 a.m. and 3 p.m.) whereas milk samples (20 ml) were collected at the morning every 4 days throughout the period from May 2010 to July 2010. At the same time blood samples (15 ml) were collected from every buffalo by puncture of the jugular vein into evacuated tubes. Progesterone concentrations in the first 2 samples were used to determine whether buffaloes were cycling or not. Buffaloes with serum progesterone ≥1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples were considered cycling, and those with both serum samples containing 1.0 ng/ml were considered as an ovulatory /anestrous. Regression of the corpus luteum was considered if serum progesterone was 1.0 ng/ml. Buffaloes with serum progesterone >1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples considered pregnant. The data were statistically analyzed The data revealed that pregnant buffaloes had higher (P<0.01) mean values of serum P4 and milk P4 than non-pregnant buffaloes. At the same time, milk P4 profile was higher (P<0.01) than serum P4 and the ratio between milk P4 and serum P4 in both pregnant and non-pregnant buffaloes. However, milk P4 was 2.4 times higher than that of serum P4 in pregnant buffaloes; while milk P4 was 2.9 times higher than that of serum P4 in non-pregnant buffaloes. Total daily milk yield had higher (P<0.01) mean values than both morning and after milk yield. Morning milk yield had higher (P<0.01) mean values than after milk yield. Step-wise regression analysis show that both serum P4 and milk P4 profiles depended on each other. Either serum P4 or milk P4 profiles can be accurately used for pregnancy detection in buffaloes. In addition, the close correlation between progesterone concentrations in milk and blood plasma suggests that it may be useful to measure milk progesterone in clinical cases of reproductive abnormalities in buffalo.
Full Text Available Hypo-Osmotic Swelling Test (HOST is a simple but authentic test to measure the integrity of sperm membrane. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the HOST value in Murrah buffalo and indigenous Gir bull in 150 mosm/l tri-sodium citrate and D-fructose HOST solution. Murrah buffalo was having more HOST (49±0.39 % reacted spermatozoa than indigenous Gir (42±0.57 % bulls suggesting lesser membrane damage during cryo-preservation and higher fertility rate in Murrah buffalo than Gir cattle.
Aryal, Achyut; Tej Kumar SHRESTHA; Ashok RAM; Frey, Wolfgang; Groves, Colin; Helmut HEMMER; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Raj Kumar KOIRALA; Heinen, Joel; Raubenheimer, David
Wild water buffaloes (Bubalus arnee) are categorized as endangered on the IUCN Red List. With a global population of less than 4,000, the species has a very limited distribution spanning over less than 20,000 km2 in Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand and Bhutan. In Nepal, Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve was designated for wild Asian buffalo; this reserve contains approximately 219 individuals, although there is no precise information on the number of pure-bred wild buffalo. The...
Emergency preparedness for industry was commonly believed to be an essential responsibility on the part of management. Therefore, this study was conducted to research and accumulate information and data on emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to conduct a thorough evaluation of emergency preparedness knowledge among employees to determine if they were properly informed or if they needed more training. Also, this study was conducted to provide insight to management as to what their responsibility was concerning this training. To assess employee emergency preparedness knowledge, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 100 employees at ORNL. The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages of response and was displayed through the use of graphs within the report. 22 refs., 22 figs
Full Text Available A survey to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis and certain other infectious diseases was conducted on 42 free-ranging African buffaloes, (Syncerus caffer from May to June 1997 in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Using the gamma interferon test, exposure to M. bovis was detected in 21.6 % of the buffaloes. One dead buffalo and an emaciated warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus that was euthanased, were necropsied; both had miliary granulomas from which M. bovis was isolated. None of the buffaloes sampled in Sector A of the park, which has no cattle interface, tested positive for bovine tuberculosis (BTB exposure. The prevalence and distribution of BTB does not appear to have changed significantly since the 1960s, but this may be due to fluxes in the buffalo population. Serological testing for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD demonstrated positive exposure of 57.1% of the buffaloes sampled, with types A, O and SAT 1-3, which is the first known report of FMD antibodies to A and O types in free ranging African buffaloes. Foot-and-mouth disease virus types SAT 1 and SAT 3 were isolated from buffalo probang samples. Two percent of the buffaloes had been exposed to brucellosis. None of the buffaloes tested had antibodies to rinderpest, leptospirosis or Q fever.
Villanueva, Marvin A; Mingala, Claro N; Gloriani, Nina G; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Isoda, Norikazu; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Koizumi, Nobuo
Water buffalo is an indispensable livestock in the Philippines. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that can be fatal to humans and cause reproductive problems in livestock. Leptospirosis has been reported in some countries where water buffaloes are commercially raised, highlighting the Leptospira prevalence in this farming system, but information on leptospirosis in water buffalo farms in the Philippines is limited. In this study, we collected blood samples from rats (n = 21), and water buffaloes (n = 170) from different groups and locations in one intensive-type buffalo farm in the Philippines. Serum was analyzed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Anti-Leptospira antibodies reacting with serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were found in sera of 30% tested rats, and 48% of water buffalo sera tested positive for at least one Leptospira strain, in which serogroups Mini, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Pyrogenes were predominantly agglutinated. The number of seropositive young water buffaloes (water buffaloes were reactive with single serotypes with low MAT titers, but older animals were reactive with multiple Leptospira strains with variable MAT titers. In addition, antibodies against serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were detected in both animals. Finally, Leptospira infection was found associated with age and animal grouping, highlighting the impact of management in the persistence of leptospirosis at intensive-type buffalo farm settings in the Philippines. Further investigation and appropriate control strategies are required to prevent leptospirosis from causing risks to public health and economic losses to the water buffalo farming industry. PMID:27348885
Kalema-Zikusoka, G; Bengis, R G; Michel, A L; Woodford, M H
A survey to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis and certain other infectious diseases was conducted on 42 free-ranging African buffaloes, (Syncerus caffer) from May to June 1997 in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Using the gamma interferon test, exposure to M. bovis was detected in 21.6% of the buffaloes. One dead buffalo and an emaciated warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) that was euthanased, were necropsied; both had miliary granulomas from which M. bovis was isolated. None of the buffaloes sampled in Sector A of the park, which has no cattle interface, tested positive for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) exposure. The prevalence and distribution of BTB does not appear to have changed significantly since the 1960s, but this may be due to fluxes in the buffalo population. Serological testing for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) demonstrated positive exposure of 57.1% of the buffaloes sampled, with types A, O and SAT 1-3, which is the first known report of FMD antibodies to A and O types in free ranging African buffaloes. Foot-and-mouth disease virus types SAT 1 and SAT 3 were isolated from buffalo probang samples. Two percent of the buffaloes had been exposed to brucellosis. None of the buffaloes tested had antibodies to rinderpest, leptospirosis or Q fever. PMID:16137132
Full Text Available Anthracene and arsenic contamination concentrations at various depths in the Buffalo River were analyzed in this study. Anthracene is known to cause damage to human skin and arsenic has been linked to lung and liver cancer. The Buffalo River is labelled as an Area of Concern defined by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between Canada and the United States. It has a long history of industrial activity located in its near vicinity that has contributed to its pollution. An ordinary kriging spatial interpolation technique was used to calculate estimates between sample locations for anthracene and arsenic at various depths. The results show that both anthracene and arsenic surface sediment (0–30 cm is less contaminated than all subsurface depths. There is variability of pollution within the different subsurface levels (30–60 cm, 60–90 cm, 90–120 cm, 120–150 cm and along the river course, but major clusters are identified throughout all depths for both anthracene and arsenic.
Zhang, Jiapu; Wang, Feng; Chatterjee, Subhojyoti
It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) (same as rabbits, horses, and dogs). TSEs, also called prion diseases, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of species (except for rabbits, dogs, horses, and buffalo), manifesting as scrapie in sheep and goats; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or "mad-cow" disease) in cattle; chronic wasting disease in deer and elk; and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, and Kulu in humans etc. In molecular structures, these neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), predominantly with α-helices, into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions (PrP(Sc)), rich in β-sheets. In this article, we studied the molecular structure and structural dynamics of buffalo PrP(C) (BufPrP(C)), in order to understand the reason why buffalo is resistant to prion diseases. We first did molecular modeling of a homology structure constructed by one mutation at residue 143 from the NMR structure of bovine and cattle PrP(124-227); immediately we found that for BufPrP(C)(124-227), there are five hydrogen bonds (HBs) at Asn143, but at this position, bovine/cattle do not have such HBs. Same as that of rabbits, dogs, or horses, our molecular dynamics studies also revealed there is a strong salt bridge (SB) ASP178-ARG164 (O-N) keeping the β2-α2 loop linked in buffalo. We also found there is a very strong HB SER170-TYR218 linking this loop with the C-terminal end of α-helix H3. Other information, such as (i) there is a very strong SB HIS187-ARG156 (N-O) linking α-helices H2 and H1 (if mutation H187R is made at position 187, then the hydrophobic core of PrP(C) will be exposed (L.H. Zhong (2010). Exposure of hydrophobic core in human prion protein pathogenic mutant H187R. Journal of
The ridge waveguide, which is a rectangular waveguide with one or more metal inserts (ridges), is an important transmission line in microwave engineering, now widely used in commercial electronics and communications devices. A definitive reference source on this topic, this book will enable the reader to have direct access to this subject without need for exhaustive search of research papers.
Kernel ridge regression is a technique to perform ridge regression with a potentially infinite number of nonlinear transformations of the independent variables as regressors. This method is gaining popularity as a data-rich nonlinear forecasting tool, which is applicable in many different context...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Pulley Ridge is a series of drowned barrier islands that extends almost 200 km in 60-100 m water depths. This drowned ridge is located on the Florida Platform in...
Mukhopadhyay, R.; Iyer, S.D.
Distribution and mineralogy of various rock types along the 4200-km-long slow-spreading Central Indian Ridge, between Owen fracture zone in the north and Indian Ocean triple junction in the south, is studied in the light of ridge segmentation...
Correlation measurements indicate that excess two particle correlations extend over causally disconnected rapidity ranges. Although, this enhancement is broad in relative rapidity $\\eta=\\eta_1 - \\eta_2$, it is focused in a narrow region in relative azimuthal angle $\\phi=\\phi_1 - \\phi_2$. The resulting structure looks like a ridge centered at $\\eta = \\phi=0$. Similar ridge structures are observed in correlations of particles associated with a jet trigger (the hard ridge) and in correlations without a trigger (the soft ridge). The long range rapidity behavior requires that the correlation originates in the earliest stage of the collision, and probes properties of the production mechanism. Glasma initial conditions as predicted by the theory of Color Glass Condensate and provide a and early stage correlation that naturally extends far in rapidity. We have previously shown that the soft ridge is a consequence of particles forming from an initial Glasma phase that experience a later stage transverse flow. We exten...
Chaisi, Mamohale E; Sibeko, Kgomotso P; Collins, Nicola E; Potgieter, Fred T; Oosthuizen, Marinda C
Theileria parva is the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle in South Africa. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the reservoir host, and, as these animals are important for eco-tourism in South Africa, it is compulsory to test and certify them disease free prior to translocation. A T. parva-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene is one of the tests used for the diagnosis of the parasite in buffalo and cattle in South Africa. However, because of the high similarity between the 18S rRNA gene sequences of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), the latter is also amplified by the real-time PCR primers, although it is not detected by the T. parva-specific hybridization probes. Preliminary sequencing studies have revealed a small number of sequence differences within the 18S rRNA gene in both species but the extent of this sequence variation is unknown. The aim of the current study was to sequence the 18S rRNA genes of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), and to determine whether all identified genotypes can be correctly detected by the real-time PCR assay. The reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was used to identify T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) positive samples from buffalo blood samples originating from the Kruger National Park, Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park, and a private game ranch in the Hoedspruit area. T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) were identified in 42% and 28%, respectively, of 252 samples, mainly as mixed infections. The full-length 18S rRNA gene of selected samples was amplified, cloned and sequenced. From a total of 20 sequences obtained, 10 grouped with previously published T. parva sequences from GenBank while 10 sequences grouped with a previously published Theileria sp. (buffalo) sequence. All these formed a monophyletic group with known pathogenic Theileria species. Our phylogenetic analyses confirm the
Pienaar, Ronel; Latif, Abdalla A; Thekisoe, Oriel M M; Mans, Ben J
Strict control measures apply to movement of buffalo in South Africa including testing for Theileria parva, the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle. The official test is a real-time hybridization PCR assay that amplifies the 18S rRNA V4 hyper-variable region of T. parva, T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei). Mixed infections with the latter organisms affect diagnostic sensitivity due to PCR suppression. While the incidence of mixed infections in the Corridor disease endemic region of South Africa is significant, little information is available on the specific distribution and prevalence of T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei). Specific real-time PCR assays were developed and a total of 1211 samples known to harbour these parasites were screened. Both parasites are widely distributed in southern Africa and the incidence of mixed infections with T. parva within the endemic region is similar (∼25-50%). However, a significant discrepancy exists in regard to mixed infections of T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) (∼10%). Evidence for speciation between T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) is supported by phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene, and their designation as different species. This suggests mutual exclusion of parasites and the possibility of hybrid sterility in cases of mixed infections.
Nabalayo Wekesa, Sabenzia; Kiprotich Sangula, Abraham; Belsham, Graham;
O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 were circulating among cattle in Kenya and cause disease, but only SAT 1 and SAT 2 viruses were successfully isolated from clinically normal buffalo. The buffalo isolates were genetically distinct from isolates obtained from cattle. Control efforts should focus primarily...... on reducing FMDV circulation among livestock and limiting interaction with buffalo. Comprehensive studies incorporating additional buffalo viruses are recommended.......Background Understanding the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), including roles played by different hosts, is essential for improving disease control. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a reservoir for the SAT serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). Large buffalo populations commonly...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...
K U Bidwe
Full Text Available A study entitled “Decomposition analysis of buffalo production in Buldana District was undertaken to ascertain the technological changes in term of breeding, feeding, housing, milking and calf management practices of buffalo. The path coefficient analysis of this study clearly demonstrated that daily milk production in buffaloes was influenced substantially by a single factor i.e management index. A combination of all the management practices in the form of overall management status on the rearing were responsible to influence the daily milk yield. However, rearing of good potential animals, feeding of sufficient amounts of dry and green fodder with required amount of concentrates to fulfill the nutritional requirements could favour the milk production in buffaloes. All these factors exhibited positive direct effect on milk production. The indirect effects were also found in positive direction, resulting a positive significant correlation for these factors. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 103-104
Full Text Available Composition and physico-chemical properties of buffalo and cow milks were compared at their initial pH and during chemical acidification. As compare to cow milk, buffalo milk was richer in caseins and minerals such as Ca, Mg and Pi. Along with these differences, the capacity of buffalo milk to be acidified named buffering capacity was also higher than cow milk. The pH decrease induced aggregation of caseins at their isoelectric pH and solubilisations of Ca and Pi were significant for both milks. For both species, these molecular changes were qualitatively similar but quantitatively different. These differences suggested that the acidification process in dairy technology which is well established for cow milk can not be directly extrapolated to buffalo milk and some adaptations are necessary.
Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to see the effect of mastitic pathogens on the blood and milk counts of Murrah buffaloes. Milk and blood samples were collected from 9 mastitic Murrah buffaloes. The total leucocyte Counts (TLC and Differential leucocyte counts (DLC in blood were within normal range and there was a non-significant change in blood counts irrespective of different mastitic pathogens. Normal milk quarter samples had significantly (P<0.01 less Somatic cell counts (SCC. Lymphocytes were significantly higher in normal milk samples, whereas infected samples had a significant increase (P<0.01 in milk neutrophils. S. aureus infected buffaloes had maximum milk SCC, followed by E. coli and S. agalactiae. Influx of neutrophils in the buffalo mammary gland was maximum for S. agalactiae, followed by E.cli and S. aureus. The study indicated that level of mastitis had no affect on blood counts but it influenced the milk SCC of normal quarters.
... Darrell F. Kaminski, Regional Director, NYSDOT Region 5; 100 Seneca Street, Buffalo, NY 14203, Telephone... provide alternate access from Porter Avenue to the Plaza. Letters describing the proposed action...
Full Text Available The amino acid content of bulked buffalo milk, collected from 130 buffaloes reared at a buffalo farm in the settlement of Dimitrievo, Stara Zagora region, was investigated during the period January-April 2006. The activation of the lactoperoxidase system (LPS was done by supplementation of sodium percarbonate, providing 16 ppm active oxygen and 10 ppm thiocyanate to 1 l of milk. The amino acid content was assayed by an amino acid analyzer. It was found out that the total content of amino acids in inactivated milk was insignificantly lower than that in activated one. More considerable increase was established for the amino acids valine, methionine, and lysine, but the differences were not statistically significant. The total amount of essential amino acids was higher in the milk with chemically activated LPS. The limiting essential amino acid in the studied buffalo milk was methionine.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge is located in the Southern High Plains in Randall County, Texas. The lake from which the Refuge received its name has not...
International librarianship. An electronic resources pathfinder. A term paper for the References Services course at the Master in Library Science Program, Department of Library and Information Studies, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (USA)
Muela-Meza, Zapopan Martín
This library guide or pathfinder is made as a term paper for the References Services course at the Master in Library Science Program at the State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA; Associate Professor of the course Dr. Lorna Peterson, April 23, 2001. It lists sources in electronic format to introduce undergraduate and graduate students of the State University of New York at Buffalo to the research and study of Library and Information Science with an international scope. Cons...
Sandeep Reddy Seerapu
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of microclimate alteration on temperature-humidity index (THI, milk yield, and milk composition of Murrah buffaloes during summer for a period of 90-day from March to May-2014 at Buffalo Research Station, Venkataramannagudem, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 lactating Murrah buffaloes were selected having similar body weight, parity, and milk yield. They were divided into four groups of 10 each. Three groups of buffaloes were provided with microclimate alteration using supplemental cooling like foggers, fans and foggers plus fans, and the fourth group (control was without any cooling system. The daily THI was measured using dry and wet bulb thermometer. The physiological responses viz. rectal temperature, respiration rate, and pulse rate were measured by a clinical thermometer, measuring the flank movements a minute and observing the pulsation of the middle coccygeal artery at the base of tail with the help of finger. Milk samples were analyzed for chemical composition viz., fat, solids-not-fat (SNF, total solids (TS, specific gravity. Results: In the present study, significant (p<0.001 decrease in the average THI values were observed in experimental Murrah buffalo houses of GroupII (foggers, GroupIII (fans, and GroupIV (foggers and fans compared to GroupI (control. Significant (p<0.001 decrease in average rectal temperature (°F, respiration rate (breaths/min and pulse rate (beats/min values were recorded in Murrah buffaloes of Groups II, III and IV compared to Group I. Significant (p<0.001 increase in the average milk yield (kg/day was recorded in Murrah buffaloes of Groups II, III, and IV compared with Group I. Significant (p<0.001 increase in the average milk fat, SNF, and TS percent were recorded in Murrah buffalo Groups of II, III, and IV compared with Group I. Conclusion: Microclimate alteration by the provision of foggers and air circulators in the buffalo
Verma, R. K.; Praveen Kumar; A. Adil and G.K. Arya
A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group). [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000): 193-194
Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki
Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country.
Naudin Hurtado-Lugo; Humberto Tonhati; Raul Aspilcuelta-Borquis; Cruz Enríquez-Valencia; Mario Cerón-Muñoz
Objective. Covariance functions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects and, subsequently, genetic parameters for test-day milk (MY), fat (FY) protein (PY) yields and mozzarella cheese (MP) in buffaloes from Colombia were estimate by using Random regression models (RRM) with Legendre polynomials (LP). Materials and Methods. Test-day records of MY, FY, PY and MP from 1884 first lactations of buffalo cows from 228 sires were analyzed. The animals belonged to 14 herds in Colombi...
Fathy, Ahmed; Radad, Khaled
Thirty seven cases of bursitis presented to our Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 2001 to 2005. There were 10 adult female buffalos with olecranon bursitis (one had bilateral bursitis) and 26 calves (7 cattle and 19 buffalos, 16 males and 10 females) with presternal bursitis. There were 10 out of 11 cases of olecranon bursitis and 21 out of 26 cases of presternal bursitis with different forms (cystic, proliferative and fibrous) that were removed surgically. The remaining 6 cases, cystic bursi...
Full Text Available Physiological responses of the buffalo Syncerus caffer culled with succinyldicholine (Scoline1 are reported and it is pointed out that a number of stressors are responsible for the observed changes in blood composition. The results are compared to those obtained in a pilot experiment from buffaloes culled with Scoline and hexamethonium, a ganglion blocker. Further investigation of the effects of hexamethonium may prove it to be of benefit to animals culled with Scoline.
M. S. Vaidya; N. M. Markandeya; R. N. Waghamare; C. S. Shekh; V. V. Deshmukh
Aim: Isolation, characterization, in-vitro pathogenicity and antibiogram study of E.coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city. Materials and Methods: Meat samples were collected from buffalo immediately after slaughter. Isolation, identification and enumeration of E. coli were done by following standard methods and protocols. Hemolysin test and Congo red binding assay were used to study in-vitro pathogenicity of E. coli isolates. Disc diffusion method was used to study antibiogram of patho...
Iqbal, Zafar; ur Rahman, Zia; Muhammad, Faqir; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Khaliq, Tanweer; Nasir, Amar; Nadeem, Muhammad; Khan, Kinza; Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad; Basit, Muhammad Abdul
Studies reporting the effects of oxytocin on the health of lactating animals are lacking and still no such data is available on Nili Ravi buffalo, the most prominent Asian buffalo breed. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of oxytocin on physiological and metabolic parameters of lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes. Healthy lactating buffaloes (n = 40) of recent calving were selected from a commercial dairy farm situated in the peri-urban area of district Faisalabad, Pakistan. These buffaloes were randomly allocated to two equal groups viz experimental and control, comprising 20 animals each. Twice-a-day (morning and evening) milking practice was followed. The experimental and control buffaloes were administered subcutaneously with 3 mL of oxytocin (10 IU/mL) and normal saline respectively, prior to each milking. Serum biochemical profile including glucose, total cholesterol (tChol), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total proteins (TP), C-reactive protein (CRP), liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and metabolic hormones triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄) were studied. Results revealed significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, total proteins, and C-reactive protein in experimental (oxytocin-injected) lactating buffaloes compared to control group. Liver enzymes AST and ALT as well as serum T₄ concentration was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) in oxytocin-injected lactating buffaloes as compared to control animals. It was concluded that oxytocin had the key role in increasing the metabolic parameters and hormones, resulting in the optimization of production. But, at the same time, it may pose a threat to the animal health.
Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194
Di Francesco, Serena
The importance and competitiveness of buffalo breeding in Italy, compared with the other more established forms of livestock rearing, is demonstrated by the increase in the national and world buffalo population. The ever-growing trend of milk request and the necessity to cut down fixed production costs make necessary the use of biotechnologies of reproduction, such as artificial insemination (AI) and in vitro embryo production associated to ovum pick-up (OPU), that consent to plan selecti...
Ahlam A. Abou Mossallam; El Nahas, Soheir M; Eman R. Mahfouz; Osman, Noha M
River buffalo (Bubalus bubalis bubalis) with a population over 135 million heads is an important livestock. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a member of the chemokine family and is an important chemoattractant for neutrophils associated with a wide variety of inflammatory diseases such as endometritis. Tissue samples from the mammary gland, uterus and ovary were obtained from river buffalo (Mediterranean type) with and without endometritis. Bacteriological examination showed the presence of both gram ...
Moustafa Samy Sherif; Mohammed Attia; Hatem Bahgaat; Ahmed Kassab
The aim of the present study was to describe the normal anatomy of the stifle joint in buffaloes (Bos bubalis) on magnetic resonance images and related anatomical sectional slices to facilitate the interpretation of all these images, as well as to understand the basis for diseases diagnosis. The hind limbs of ten healthy adult buffaloes (Twenty stifle joints) were used. After slaughtering, MR images were made in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes. The limbs then were frozen at -20° then ...
As a part of the study to find the utilization of urea-molasses liquid for growth and maintenance in cattle and buffaloes, production rate of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was measured by single injection isotope dilution technique using 1-214C-acetate in adult cattle and buffaloes fed ad libitum urea-molasses diet with restricted wheat straw and intact protein. (M.G.B.)
N. P.P. Macciotta; N. Bacciu; Catillo, G; C. Dimauro
Mathematical modelling of lactation curve by suitable functions of time, widely used in the dairy cattle industry, can represent also for buffaloes a fundamental tool for management and breeding decision, where average curves are considered, and for genetic evaluation by random regression models, where individual patterns are fitted. Average lactation curves of Italian Buffalo cows have been fitted with good results (Catillo et al., 2002) whereas there is a lack of information on ...
El-Bahr, Sabry M.; Wael M. EL-Deeb
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Acute Phase Proteins (APP), lipid profiles and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy and bronchopneumonic water buffalo calves. Therefore, sixty water buffalo calves (9Â±1 month old, 175Â±15 kg) were divided into two equal groups, the first group represented healthy, control, calves whereas calves of the second group were affected with bronchopneumonia. Total leukocytic and differential counts were determined. Serum total pr...
Maidana, Silvina S; Lomonaco, Patricia M; Combessies, Gustavo; Craig, María I; Diodati, Julian; Rodriguez, Daniela; Parreño, Viviana; Zabal, Osvaldo; Konrad, José L; Crudelli, Gustavo; Mauroy, Axel; Thiry, Etienne; Romera, Sonia A
Background Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Results Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analy...
Vaidhegi R; Mishra Manish; Gupta Jalaj; Paranthaman Karthikeyani; Haribaskar Ramachandran; Nishanth Gopala; Kumar Niraj; Nagarajan Muniyandi; Kumar Shantanu; Ranjan Amresh K; Kumar Satish
Abstract Background Microsatellite markers are highly polymorphic and widely used in genome mapping and population genetic studies in livestock species. River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is an economically important livestock species, though only a limited number of microsatellite markers have been reported thus far in this species. Results In the present study, using two different approaches 571 microsatellite markers have been characterized for water buffalo. Of the 571 microsatellite markers,...
Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad
The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; ...
Ahmad, M.(National Centre for Physics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan)
Data on 263 pedigrees, breeding and performance records of 98 Nili-Ravi Buffaloes maintained at Livestock Experiment Station, Bahadurnagar, Okara, Punjab, Pakistan during the period 1991 to 2002 were utilized in this study to identify the high yielding elite buffaloes/bull mothers (dams) to retain for further breeding for the on going progeny testing program in the country. The lactation records up to 6th parity were used for the analysis. The data were analyzed through Best Linear Unbiased P...
Ibrahim, Hayam M.; Abu Salem, Ferial M.
Sage oil extract was added during the preparation of dry fermented buffalo meat sausage. Some chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of sausages were evaluated during the ripening period. In particular, pH, lipid oxidation, biogenic amines and micro flora were analyzed. Results of this study pointed out that sage oil extract as natural antioxidant could be utilized in dry fermented sausage, prepared from buffalo meat, in order to obtain a final product within acceptable lipid oxidati...
I. Begum, A. Azim, S. Akhter1, M. I. Anjum* and M. Afzal
Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of supplementation of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P on nutrient utilization, milk production, its composition and reproductive performance of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Twelve lactating buffaloes were randomly divided into three groups, with 4 animals in each group, fed diets containing 80, 100 and 120% NRC recommended Ca and P, respectively. Daily feed consumption and milk yield (MY were recorded. Fortnightly collected milk samples were analyzed for total solids (TS, milk protein (MP, milk fat (MF, lactose, Ca and P contents. Calcium and P concentrations were also determined in blood serum. Milk yield was 10%, MF 4% and TS 3.7% higher in buffaloes fed on 120% Ca and P than those fed on 100% Ca and P of NRC recommendation but dry matter intake was similar among all groups. However, MP, lactose and solids not fat were not affected by mineral supplementation. In milk, slightly increased concentrations of Ca and P were noted during the last two weeks of experiment in all groups. Dietary protein digestibility was higher in buffaloes fed 120% Ca and P, crude fibre and dry matter digestibility was higher in 80 and 100% Ca and P supplemented groups respectively however, difference was non-significant among the groups. Serum P concentration was higher but Ca was lower in 120% Ca and P supplemented group compared to other two groups however, these values were within the normal range. Buffaloes fed 120% Ca and P conceived 100% but in buffaloes fed 100 and 80% Ca and P, conception rates were 75 and 50% respectively. Number of services per conception was lower in buffaloes fed 120% Ca and P supplemented diet. It may be concluded that 120% Ca and P supplementation increased milk production and reproductive performance of lactating buffaloes.
Full Text Available Seasonality of calving and its association with milk yield was analyzed in Nili-Ravi buffaloes and compared with Sahiwal cattle and Sahiwal (x Friesian or Jersey crossbreds. Records of 9,174 lactations of Nili-Ravi buffaloes from four institutional herds, 22,499 lactations from five Sahiwal herds and 656 lactations from a crossbred cattle herd were used for comparison. All the herds were located in Punjab province of Pakistan where environment is tropical. Month of calving was important source of variation in lactation milk yield of Nili- Ravi buffaloes and Sahiwal cattle but not in crossbred cattle (due to wide variation. Interactions of month of calving with parity as well as with herd were significant (P<0.01 both for buffaloes and Sahiwal cattle. First parity lactation milk yield averaged 1813±23.2, 1305±11.0 and 2459±81.8 litres while averages of later parity animals were 1926±19.0, 1527±7.6 and 2842±54.2 litres for Nili-Ravi buffaloes, Sahiwal and crossbred cattle, respectively. Milk yield pattern in crossbreds was more similar to buffaloes than to Sahiwals. Yet, crossbreds calving in June produced statistically similar but numerically higher lactation milk yield (2950±170 litres than other months but this was not true for buffaloes and Sahiwals. Buffaloes and Sahiwal cows calving in January-February produced better lactation yields than those calving in other months. Different pattern of milk yield in the three dairy species can be used advantageously for sustainable milk supply throughout the year.
Thoma, Stephen J.
Traces the history of Minnesota's approach to moral judgment research. Claims this history can be subdivided into four phases, each with a different goal and theoretical consideration. Concludes the Minnesota approach has been a progressive force in the field. Argues that this approach reaffirms Lawrence Kohlberg's view that moral judgments are…
... within the outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Minnesota: Big Stone County..., Lyon County, McLeod County, Meeker County, Murray County, Nobles County, Pipestone County, Redwood... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southwest Minnesota Intrastate...
Fennelly, Katherine; Leitner, Helga
The diversification of rural Minnesota is largely the result of the restructuring of the food processing industry and its recruitment of low-wage laborers. The relocation and expansion of food processing plants into rural areas of Minnesota creates a demand for low-wage labor that can not be met locally. Food processing businesses attract…
Center for Rural Policy and Development, 2006
Since 2001 the Center for Rural Policy & Development (CRPD) has annually conducted surveys of rural Minnesota households to discern the level of computer ownership, Internet connectivity and broadband adoption throughout rural Minnesota. Since the beginning of this longitudinal effort, significant increases in technology adoption have been…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency, Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund III... Agency (Western Minnesota) and Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC (Hydro Friends) filed...
Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.; Weisberg, Sanford
Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 1970–1976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.
In July 2010, Allium sativum, cultivar German Extra Hardy Porcelain plants showing foliar symptoms typical of rust infection were brought to the Plant Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota by a commercial grower from Fillmore county Minnesota. Infected leaves showed circular to oblong lesio...
Cathleen Jo Faruque
Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate one of the newest refugee groups to the Midwestern United States, the Hmong refugees from Laos, China, Vietnam and Thailand. This study broadly examines how multigenerational Hmong families are adjusting and adapting to life in Rochester, Minnesota. The following questions guided this study: (1 What effect does non-voluntary migration have on the acculturation levels as measured by cultural awareness and ethnic loyalty of the Hmong in Rochester, Minnesota? (2 How do the Hmong perceive their host Anglo culture? (3 How do the Hmong adjust to their host social system in the United States? (4 How much do Hmong learn about their new environment? (5 How do the Hmong retain traditions within in the United States?Qualitative interviewing through in-depth individual interviews and participant observation was the method of data collection. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling, volunteering, and snowball sampling techniques. Criteria for inclusion in this study were: 1 Being Hmong; 2 Residing in Rochester, Minnesota, and; 3 Being at least 13 years of age or older. Grounded theory methodology was the primary tool of data analysis.The findings clearly demonstrated that the Hmong subjects interviewed for this study showed a high degree of discrepancy between the acculturation levels based on age and country of origin from point of migration. This discrepancy has created an acculturation gap, which is related to the younger Hmong’s increased identification with the American culture and their decreased identification with their family’s culture of origin. This shift has created family difficulties and communication gaps between the generations.
K. K. Tyagi; B. P. Brahmkshtri; U. V. Ramani; Kharadi, V. B.; Pandaya, G. M.; Janmeda, M.; Ankuya, K. J.; M. D. Patel; L. M. Sorathiya
Aim: To estimate individual test day variability in yield and composition of Surti and Mehsani buffaloes milk at day 15 and 60 postpartum (pp). Materials and Methods: A total of 13 normally calved Surti and Mehsani buffaloes each maintained at Livestock Research Stations of Navsari and Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural Universities, respectively, were selected for the study. Milk sample was collected from each selected buffalo at day 15 and 60 pp to study milk yield and composition var...
K. K. Tyagi; B. P. Brahmkshtri; U. V. Ramani; V. B. Kharadi; G. M. Pandaya; M. Janmeda; K. J. Ankuya; Patel, M. D.; L. M. Sorathiya
Aim: To estimate individual test day variability in yield and composition of Surti and Mehsani buffaloes milk at day 15 and 60 postpartum (pp). Materials and Methods: A total of 13 normally calved Surti and Mehsani buffaloes each maintained at Livestock Research Stations of Navsari and Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural Universities, respectively, were selected for the study. Milk sample was collected from each selected buffalo at day 15 and 60 pp to study milk yield and composition ...
Goldstein, G.; Guskey, L E
Buffalo green monkey kidney cells were adapted to grow as shaker cultures. Replication of environmental and clinical isolates of poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus in these cultures was analyzed by plaque assay and compared with replication in Buffalo green monkey kidney cell monolayers and HEp-2 cell shaker cultures. Dose-response tests with various concentrations of Mahoney type 1 poliovirus indicated that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures could detect as little as 1 P...
Yang Jianmei; Fu Zhiqiang; Feng Xingang; Shi Yaojun; Yuan Chunxiu; Liu Jinming; Hong Yang; Li Hao; Lu Ke; Lin Jiaojiao
Abstract Background Yellow cattle and water buffalo are two of the most important natural hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in China. Previous observation has revealed that yellow cattle are more suited to the development of S. japonicum than water buffalo. Understanding more about the molecular mechanisms involved in worm development, as well as the pathological and immunological differences between yellow cattle and water buffalo post infection with S japonicum will provide useful information...
Dettwiler Martina; Stahel Anina; Krüger Sonka; Gerspach Christian; Braun Ueli; Engels Monika; Hilbe Monika
Abstract Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with ...
Villanueva, Marvin A.; Mingala, Claro N.; Gloriani, Nina G.; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Isoda, Norikazu; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Koizumi, Nobuo
Water buffalo is an indispensable livestock in the Philippines. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that can be fatal to humans and cause reproductive problems in livestock. Leptospirosis has been reported in some countries where water buffaloes are commercially raised, highlighting the Leptospira prevalence in this farming system, but information on leptospirosis in water buffalo farms in the Philippines is limited. In this study, we collected blood samples from rats (n ＝ 21), and water buff...
Teguh Kurniawan; Yuhelsa Putra; Dewi Murni
In this paper we report the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on biogas enhancement production rates from water hyacinth mixed with buffalo dung. The focus of the experiment was on the time of hydrothermal pretreatment and the ratio of water hyacinth with buffalo dung. The hydrothermal pretreated substrates were characterized by TDS, BOD and pH. The hydrothermal pretreatment of 60 minutes with the ratio of water hyacinth to buffalo dung 1:2 showed the highest biogas production rate at 7889...
Dahdouh-Guebas, F.; Vrancken, D.; Ravishankar, T.; N. Koedam
Management of the natural environment and its resources leads to conflicts between different stake-holders worldwide. Recently mangrove browsing by feral water buffalo in the East-Godavari Delta (India) has been considered a threat to the regeneration of mangroves by the local Forest Department, which led to conflicts between the authorities and local herds-men who have an ancient tradition involving feral water buffalo. The impact of browsing and grazing of mangroves by feral water buffalo w...
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to describe the clinical picture of traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis and to evaluate the inflammatory and immunologic responses for this clinical condition. Twenty-two buffalo with acute local TRP were monitored in our study. Additionally, 10 clinically healthy buffalo were randomly selected and served as controls. Acute local TRP was initially diagnosed by clinical examination and confirmed by ultrasonographic (USG examination and/or necropsy findings. Blood samples were collected from all examined buffalo to measure the respective levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and interferon gamma (INF-γ, serum amyloid A (SAA, C-reactive protein (CRP, haptoglobin (Hp, fibrinogen (Fb, and serum sialic acid (SSA. It was found that TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, SAA, CRP, Hp, Fb, and SSA were significantly higher in buffalo with TRP than the controls. Our findings suggest that the examined immunologic variables were helpful in documenting the inflammatory response in buffalo with TRP. However, their diagnostic usefulness only becomes apparent when considered in tandem with the clinical findings for any given animal, its anamnesis, and a subsequent USG assessment. Due to the frequent complications of TRP, more accurate indicators of its occurrence and severity would be useful.
Zahid Naseer; Ejaz Ahmad; Nemat Ullah; Muhammad Yaqoob; Zeeshan Akbar
Objective: To determine the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR) on estrus response, ovulation and pregnancy rate in Nili-Ravi buffaloes under field condition. Methods: Twenty anestrous buffaloes with more than 150 days postpartum were used in this study. To confirm anestrous condition, ovarian status and serum progesterone concentration were determined before the start of study. Buffaloes were randomly divided into eCG (n=10) and CIDR (n=10) groups. eCG group were treated with eCG (Chronogest 1000 I.U. i.m.), while CIDR group received CIDR devices for 7 days. All buffaloes in CIDR group were injected PGF2α (0.25 ug/mL; 2 mL; i.m.) one day before CIDR removal. Buffaloes were observed for estrus visually and were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen at detected estrus. Ovulation was confirmed by presence of CL 12 day post AI. Pregnancy diagnosis was done 50 days post AI. Results: Estrus response, ovulation rate and pregnancy rate were similar (P>0.05) among eCG and CIDR groups (90% vs. 80%; 78% vs. 75% and 50% vs. 60% respectively). Conclusion: It is concluded that both CIDR and eCG protocols are effective and promising remedies for the anestrous buffaloes under commercial as well as under field conditions.
Two experiments were conducted in order to develop equations for predicting rumen microbial protein production for indigenous Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle and swamp buffaloes in Malaysia, using urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion rates. Endogenous PD excretion rates determined by a fasting procedure for KK cattle and swamp buffalo were 275 and 370 μmol/kg W0.75/day, respectively. Urinary PD excretion rate per kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) for KK cattle was higher than that for swamp buffalo, reconfirming the earlier findings. Glomerular filtration rate, allantoin and uric acid tubular load and PD re-absorption rate for swamp buffalo were generally higher than those for KK cattle. However, due to the large variations among animals within species, these parameters were not significantly different between species. Nevertheless, the higher PD reabsorption in swamp buffalo provides support for the earlier postulation that the lower urinary PD excretion rate of swamp buffalo was due to their higher recycling of plasma PD as compared to KK cattle. Labelled 8-14C uric acid was used to estimate the ratio of renal to non-renal PD excretion. The recovery rates of the radioactive tracer via the renal route for both species were much lower than values reported previously for unlabelled PD for European cattle. (author)
In the present study morphometric, quantitative and histopathological effects associated with mastitis were recorded in mammary glands of naturally infected buffaloes. The milk samples of 200 buffaloes were subjected to California Mastitis Test to detect mastitis at Faisalabad abattoir. Mastitis was significantly higher in buffaloes having cylindrical and round teats, bowl and round udder shape (P<0.0004). Teat diameter was significantly higher while teat and streak canal length was significantly lower in mastitic buffaloes. The total milk leukocytes and neutrophil (P<0.0001) was significantly higher, while lymphocytes and macrophages population was significantly (P<0.0001) lower in mastitic buffaloes. Alveolar diameter (short and long), number of alveoli and alveolar cell population were significantly (P<0.0001) decreased in mastitic buffaloes. Tissue sections from infected animals indicated marked leukocyte infiltration, atrophy of alveoli, cellular exudates, connective tissues proliferation and abscesses formation. Histochemically, tissue sections from infected udder showed low alkaline phosphatase activity and density of protein staining. The results revealed that some udder traits play significant role to prevent mastitis and mammary function is severely decreased due to altered cellular activity in infected glands. (author)
RAJPUT Z.I.; HU Song-hua; ARIJO A.G.; HABIB M.; KHALID M.
A comparative study on the prevalence of Anaplasma parasite was conducted on ticks carrying buffaloes and cattle.Five hundred blood samples of both animals (250 of each) were collected during February, March and April. Thin blood smears on glass slides were made, fixed in 100% methyl alcohol and examined. Microscopic examination revealed that 205 (41%) animals had Anaplasma parasites, out of which 89, 44 and 72 animals had Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma centrale and mixed infection respectively. Infected buffaloes and cattle were 75 and 130 respectively. The infection in female was 53 and 92 in buffaloes and cattle respectively. Twenty-two and 92 blood samples of male were found positive in buffaloes and cattle respectively. Comparative study revealed that the cattle were 26.82% more susceptible than buffaloes. The parasite prevailing percentage in female of both animals was slightly higher than that of the male. This investigation was aimed at studying the comparative prevalence of Anaplasma parasite in tick carrying buffaloes and cattle.
Full Text Available We previously showed that meat from crossbred water buffalo had significantly higher tenderness than beef from crossbred Brahman cattle of the same age, gender, and diet. Extensive studies on meat tenderness have indicated that proteases degrade muscle fibre proteins during postmortem storage, leading to weakening of the myofibrillar structure and an increase in tenderness. Thus, we investigated the difference in protease activity immediately postmortem, in order to explain the difference in tenderness between buffalo meat and beef. Five female crossbred water-buffalo (Philippine Carabao x Bulgarian Murrah and five female crossbred cattle (Brahman x Philippine Native were slaughtered at 30 months of age, and Longissimus thoracis muscle was sampled immediately post-slaughter. Protease activity at different pH levels and the effect of various inhibitors on protease activity were examined. Results showed that buffalo meat had significantly higher protease activity compared to beef, and calpain inhibitor 1 was the most effective inhibitor. As calpain inhibitor 1 is a specific inhibitor of calpain 1 and 2, the results suggest that higher calpain activity in buffalo meat was responsible for the higher tenderness of buffalo meat compared to Brahman beef.
Full Text Available Expansion of rubber tree plantations and agricultural mechanization caused a decline of swamp buffalo numbers in the Naban River National Nature Reserve (NRNNR, Yunnan Province, China. We analysed current use of buffaloes for field work and the recent development of the regional buffalo population, based on interviews with 184 farmers in 2007/2008 and discussions with 62 buffalo keepers in 2009. Three types of NRNNR farms were distinguished, differing mainly in altitude, area under rubber, and involvement in livestock husbandry. While pig based farms (PB; n=37 have abandoned buffalo keeping, 11% of the rubber based farms (RB; n=71 and 100% of the livestock-corn based farms (LB; n=76 kept buffaloes in 2008. Herd size was 2.5 +/-1.80 (n=84 buffaloes in early 2008 and 2.2 +/-1.69 (n=62 in 2009. Field work on own land was the main reason for keeping buffaloes (87.3 %, but lending work buffaloes to neighbours (79.0% was also important. Other purposes were transport of goods (16.1%, buffalo trade (11.3% and meat consumption (6.4%. Buffalo care required 6.2 +/-3.00 working hours daily, while annual working time of a buffalo was 294 +/-216.6 hours. The area ploughed with buffaloes remained constant during the past 10 years despite an expansion of land cropped per farm. Although further replacement of buffaloes by tractors occurs rapidly, buffaloes still provide cheap work force and buffer risks on poor NRNNR farms. Appropriate advice is needed for improved breeding management to increase the efficiency of buffalo husbandry and provide better opportunities for buffalo meat sale in the region.
Selmo, K K; Asp, D S; Anderson, D C
Personal physicians are the primary source of information about state driving regulations for individuals with episodic disturbances of neurologic function (e.g., epilepsy, syncope, hypoglycemia). However, a May 1994 survey of Twin Cities metro-area neurologists and a sample of family practice physicians statewide revealed that many Minnesota physicians are unfamiliar with the relevant laws, and what knowledge doctors have of these laws is influenced by their specialties. Some physicians thought the regulations were more restrictive than they actually are, some less. Even physicians familiar with the laws didn't know which spells should be reported.
Smith, Lloyd L., Jr.; Kramer, Robert H.
On the basis of 14,564 spottail shiners (Notropis hudsonius) from Red Lakes, Minnesota, growth rates, strength of year classes, and food utilization were studied. Males and females had different body-scale relationships, and females grew faster than males. There was high correlation between water temperature and growth rate. Strength of year classes was closely related to size of spawning population. Food habits were related to food availability in both plankton and bottom fauna. Shiner eggs were significant items of food in larger shiners. Bottom organisms were selectively taken, and larger cladocerans were selected by large fish. Cladocerans were preferred to copepods.
This volume contains a re-edition of Max Koecher's famous Minnesota Notes. The main objects are homogeneous, but not necessarily convex, cones. They are described in terms of Jordan algebras. The central point is a correspondence between semisimple real Jordan algebras and so-called omega-domains. This leads to a construction of half-spaces which give an essential part of all bounded symmetric domains. The theory is presented in a concise manner, with only elementary prerequisites. The editors have added notes on each chapter containing an account of the relevant developments of the theory since these notes were first written.
Grønbaek, Morten; Nielsen, Bent
AIM: To compare the Minnesota day clinic treatment with the traditional public psychosocial treatment. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Public out-patient alcohol clinic and privately funded Minnesota day clinic in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 148 individuals with alcohol......% of the patients treated according to the Minnesota model were abstainers, while this was the case for 43% of the patients treated in the public out-patient alcohol clinic (P = 0.249). There were insignificant differences in the seven ASI scores. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve months after onset of treatment, the Minnesota...... dependence were included in a 1-year clinical trial. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported drinking pattern and the seven composite scores from the addiction severity index (ASI). FINDINGS: A total of 42 (57%) and 45 (61%) patients (P > 0.05) completed the Minnesota treatment and public treatment, respectively...
The Minnesota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Minnesota. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Minnesota conducted by the Minnesota Department of Health. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Minnesota
Villanueva, Marvin A; Mingala, Claro N; Gloriani, Nina G; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Isoda, Norikazu; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Koizumi, Nobuo
Water buffalo is an indispensable livestock in the Philippines. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that can be fatal to humans and cause reproductive problems in livestock. Leptospirosis has been reported in some countries where water buffaloes are commercially raised, highlighting the Leptospira prevalence in this farming system, but information on leptospirosis in water buffalo farms in the Philippines is limited. In this study, we collected blood samples from rats (n = 21), and water buffaloes (n = 170) from different groups and locations in one intensive-type buffalo farm in the Philippines. Serum was analyzed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Anti-Leptospira antibodies reacting with serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were found in sera of 30% tested rats, and 48% of water buffalo sera tested positive for at least one Leptospira strain, in which serogroups Mini, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Pyrogenes were predominantly agglutinated. The number of seropositive young water buffaloes (animals were reactive with multiple Leptospira strains with variable MAT titers. In addition, antibodies against serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were detected in both animals. Finally, Leptospira infection was found associated with age and animal grouping, highlighting the impact of management in the persistence of leptospirosis at intensive-type buffalo farm settings in the Philippines. Further investigation and appropriate control strategies are required to prevent leptospirosis from causing risks to public health and economic losses to the water buffalo farming industry.
García, N.; Medina, S.; J. F. Ramírez
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a commercial yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on weight gain and development of buffalo calves from water buffalo herd in north of Colombia. The buffalo calves (age: 71,12 +/- 22 days old) were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, during 45 days. One group (n=13) received 50 gr/day of commercial product of yeast and the other group (n = 13) don’t received yeast. The buffalo calves grazed in same pastures under sam...
Ayebazibwe, C.; Mwiine, F. N.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten;
Background To study the role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda, serum samples were collected from 207 African buffalos, 21 impalas (Aepyceros melampus), 1 giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), 1 common eland (Taurotragus oryx), 7 hartebeests...... while the SAT 2 isolates belonged to different lineages within the East African topotype X. Conclusions Consistent detection of high antibody titres in buffalos supports the view that African buffalos play an important role in the maintenance of FMDV infection within National Parks in Uganda. Both SAT 1...
Taylor, William A; Skinner, John D; Boomker, Joop
The abundance and distribution of parasitic helminths in populations of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, have not been well documented. A total of 28 buffaloes of different ages and sexeswere sampled in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, for nematodes of the small intestine. Three nematode species were identified, namely Cooperia fuelleborni, Cooperia hungi and Trichostrongylus deflexus, with C. hungi being a new country record for African buffalo in South Africa. The overall prevalence was 71%and the average number of worms was 2346 (range: 0-15 980). This is a small burden for such a large mammal. Sex, age and body condition of the buffaloes had no significant effect on worm occurrence.
Goldstein, G; Guskey, L E
Buffalo green monkey kidney cells were adapted to grow as shaker cultures. Replication of environmental and clinical isolates of poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus in these cultures was analyzed by plaque assay and compared with replication in Buffalo green monkey kidney cell monolayers and HEp-2 cell shaker cultures. Dose-response tests with various concentrations of Mahoney type 1 poliovirus indicated that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures could detect as little as 1 PFU in an inoculum of 0.2 ml. These data suggest that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures can be effectively used for the detection of small quantities of enteroviruses from environmental sources. PMID:6289745
Kalab, Miloslav; Gupta, S.K.; Desai, H. K.; Patil, G. R.
Paneer was made from cow, buffalo, and mixed cow and buffalo milk by coagulation with citric acid at pH 5.5. All milk samples were heated to 90°C. Cow milk was coagulated at this temperature but buffalo and mixed milks were cooled to 70°C before coagulation. Differences in the composition and the treatments of the cow and buffalo milks were reflected in the composition and structure of the paneers. Electron microscopy revealed that raw paneer samples had a granular structure consisting of pro...
Full Text Available Water buffalo milk differs from the cow’s milk for greater fat and protein content, very important features in cheese making. Proteins, casein and whey-proteins in particular, are the most important factors determining cheese yield. Several previous research discussed the rule of SCC in cow milk production (Varisco, 1999 and the close relationship existing between cow’s milk cheese yield and somatic cell count (Barbano, 2000. In particular the inverse correlation between cheese yields and somatic cells’content have been demonstrated. In Italy the regulation in force DPR 54/97 acknowledges what expressed in EEC 46/92 Directive (Tripodi, 1999 without fixing the limit threshold of somatic cells for buffalo’s milk....
Full Text Available Neuroendocrine cells or paraneurons are cytotypes producing biogenic amines and/or hormonal peptides, scattered in the glandular and lining epithelia of the body. In this study the presence of chromogranin A-, serotonin- and somatostatin-immunoreactive neuroendocrine cells has been described immunohistochemically in the urethro- prostatic complex and female urethra of subjects of the buffalo Bubalus bubalis. The chromogranin A- containing neuroendocrine cells resulted the most numerous cytotype, the serotonin- containing ones the most irregular in shape for the presence of dendritic-like cytoplasmic extensions and the somatostatin- containing the rarest. The role played by the amine serotonin in the genital tract has been related to the determinism of sexual climax and to the contraction of smooth muscle. The function played by the neuroendocrine genital somatostatin is unknown. Analogically to what described for the same gastrointestinal hormone, it could inhibit both exocrine and endocrine secretions.
Qin, J.; X.F. Zhang; J.H. Shang; Huang, Y J; F.X. Huang
This study investigated effects of β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) and buffalo follicular fluid (buFF) on IVF and embryonic development of water buffalo oocytes derived from IVM. In Experiment 1, β-ME (50μM and 100μM, treatments) was added in the media during IVM and IVC but not IVF. A highly significant difference was obtained in rate of blastocyst (9.26% Vs 26.72% or 27.04%, P0.05) were observed in rates of cleavage, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst between two treatment grou...
Bondurant, R H; J.L. Zambrano-Varón
Ten adult female water buffalo were used in the present study (5 x [2n = 50] and 5 x [2n= 49] hybrids). Ovarian activity was monitored daily by transrectal ultrasonography between two consecutive ovulations. Observed follicular wave numbers were: 1 (n=1), 2 (n=4), and 3 (n=5). The interovulatory interval ranged 17 to 23 days. Differences in mean follicular diameter between follicles of the normal karyotype (2n=50) and buffalo hybrids (2n=49) were found on the second subordinate group of folli...
Regelous, Marcel; Weinzierl, Christoph G.; Haase, Karsten M.
Variations in the volume and major element composition of basalt erupted along the global mid-ocean ridge system have been attributed to differences in mantle potential temperature, mantle composition, or plate spreading rate and lithosphere thickness. Abyssal peridotites, the residues of mantle melting beneath mid-ocean ridges, provide additional information on the melting process, which could be used to test these hypotheses. We compiled a global database of abyssal peridotite compositions averaged over the same ridge segments defined by Gale et al. (2013). In addition, we calculated the distance of each ridge segment to the nearest hotspots. We show that Cr# in spinel in abyssal peridotites is negatively correlated with Na90 in basalts from the same ridge segments on a global scale. Ridge segments that erupt basalts apparently produced by larger degrees of mantle melting are thus underlain by peridotites from which large amounts of melt have been extracted. We find that near-ridge hotspots have a more widespread influence on mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) composition and ridge depth than previously thought. However, when these hotspot-influenced ridge segments are excluded, the remaining segments show clear relationships between MORB composition, peridotite composition, and ridge depth with spreading rate. Very slow-spreading ridges (<20 mm/yr) are deeper, erupt basalts with higher Na90, Al90, K90/Ti90, and lower Fe90, Ca90/Al90, and expose peridotites with lower Cr# than intermediate and fast-spreading ridges. We show that away from hotspots, the spreading-rate dependence of the maximum degree of mantle melting inferred from Cr# in peridotites (FM) and the bulk degree of melting inferred from Na90 in basalts (FB) from the same ridge segments is unlikely to be due to variations in mantle composition. Nor can the effects of dynamic mantle upwelling or incomplete melt extraction at low spreading rates satisfactorily explain the observed compositions of abyssal
Full Text Available This Experiment was conducted in the Newashi village of Thiqar province in the south of Iraq from 15 October till 31 December 2006. A sample of 50 milking buffaloes in 1st to 7th lactation were randomly choosed in three nearby herds , then divided into two equal groups for the treatment and the control. After 10 days of adaptation, the treated group was fed the standardized diet which was consisted of: Alfa Alfa hay ,12 kg/day, concentrates, 8 kg/day. The concentrate consists of barley grains 37%, maize grain 15%, wheat bran 40%, rice bran 5%,calcium carbonate 2% and food salt 1% .The control group was fed -as it is usual in the region –reed roughages , rice straws, dray bred and some wheat bran. Daily milk yield for the whole sample, cream( ghiamer and fat percent rom randomly choosed individuals from each group were measured . Simple linear model was used to detect the effect of the lactation, herd, calf sex and milking time on the traits . Duncan test was used to compare the differences between means . The results obtained showed that the lactation , herd, sex of calf and milking time had significant effect on the traits (p< 0.001. The diet had significantly affected daily milk yield , cream and fat percent ( 8.40 ± 1.75 vis 5.67 ± 1.41,21± 6.6 vis 9.79 3.24, and 12.4.11 vis 5.88±1.95 for the treated group vis. the control group (p<0.001.Accordingly, it can be assumed that the Iraqi buffaloes have good potential to produce more milk and fat under standardized feed condition.
José C. Oliveira-Filho
Full Text Available Five male 6-8 month-old Murrah buffalo calves were orally dosed with the fresh aerial parts of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii at doses of 1, 3, 4, 5 and 10g/kg body weight (bw (~1-10mg macrocyclic trichothecenes/kg/bw. The B. megapotamica used for the experiment was harvested on a farm where a recent spontaneous outbreak of poisoning caused by such plant had occurred. Clinical signs appeared 4-20 hours and 4 buffaloes died 18-49 hours after the ingestion of the plant. Clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, and watery diarrhea, fever, colic, drooling, muscle tremors, restlessness, laborious breathing and ruminal atony, and dehydration. The most consistent gross findings were restricted to the gastrointestinal (GI tract consisted of varying degrees of edema and reddening of the mucosa of the forestomach. Histopathological findings consisted of varying degrees of necrosis of the epithelial lining of the forestomach and of lymphocytes within lymphoid organs and aggregates. Fibrin thrombi were consistently found in sub-mucosal vessels of the forestomach and in the lumen of hepatic sinusoids. It is suggested that dehydration, septicemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation participate in the pathogenesis of the intoxication and play a role as a cause of death. A subsample of B. megapotamica var. weirii was frozen-dried and ground and analyzed using UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography with high resolution Time of Flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry, it was shown that the plant material contained at least 51 different macrocyclic trichothecenes at a total level of 1.1-1.2mg/g. About 15-20% of the total trichothecenes contents was found to be monosaccharide conjugates, with two thirds of these being glucose conjugates and one third constituted by six aldopentose conjugates (probably xylose, which has never been reported in the literature.
Full Text Available Aim of this study was to estimate the average intercalving period of a buffalo herd/population, by using the percentage of subjects that are able to conceive within 90 days post-partum, and that, consequently, have an intercalving period lower than 400 days, in order to give a precocious judgment on its fertility. A total number of 8,845 intercalving periods were recorded in 4 farms and 4 Provinces of Campania and Lazio Regions. In all the farms the out of breeding season mating technique was adopted and a constant diet was administered throughout the year. Values were grouped for primiparous and pluriparous buffaloes and were divided in four calving periods: January-March; April-June; July-September; October-December. Within each group/farm ANOVA was performed and the means were analysed by t Student test. In each group the mean value and the percentage of subjects with an intercalving period lower than 400 days (% < 400 days were calculated and the regression analysis was carried out between the values of the intercalving periods and the % < 400 days. Finally, an all-in regression analysis was performed by using the data of 55 groups, excluding those with less than 25 values. The regression analysis between % < 400 days and the mean value of the intercalving period was always significant, except in one case. The comparison between the real values and those calculated allows to affirm that, if the percentage of subjects with an intercalving period lower than 400 days is higher than 50%, an intercalving period lower than 450 days will be probably recorded.
Vijayendra, S. V. N.; Gupta, R. C.
Performance of bulk freeze dried (BFD) cultures of dahi (D) and yoghurt (Y) either with or without probiotic cultures (AB -Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum) in standardized milk of cow and buffalo was evaluated. In buffalo milk, significantly (p
Delayed puberty and sub-oestrus are major reproductive disorders of economic importance in buffaloes. The genetic improvement is also slow in buffaloes mainly due to preference of the farmers for natural service with bulls of unknown genetic makeup. In the present study, a survey was conducted to identify the factors responsible for delay in puberty in dairy buffaloes. Nutritional (urea molasses multi-nutrient blocks; UMMB) and hormonal interventions (equine chorionic gonadotropin; ECG) were used to hasten the onset of puberty in dairy buffaloes. Oestrus could be induced in 40 to 100% heifers with variable conception rates (0 to 100%). 'Ovsynch' protocols of oestrus synchronization followed by fixed time artificial insemination with semen of bulls of known pedigree was applied to address the problem of sub- oestrus and poor genetic potential of the herd. Twenty-seven buffaloes that failed to exhibit oestrus up to 2 years postpartum were confirmed to be in sub-oestrus for having active corpus luteum and 1.0 ng/ml plasma progesterone concentrations were subjected to ovusynch treatment protocol. Treatment was started (day 0) irrespective of the stage of oestrus cycle on the first day of examination. 20 μg buserelin (receptal 5ml; intervet) was injected intra-muscular on day 0, followed by cloprostenol 500 μg (vetmate 2ml; vet care) on day 7 and second injection of receptal (2.5 ml) on day 9. Fixed time AI was done 16 and 40 hrs thereafter. Buffaloes returning to oestrus were served naturally and pregnancy was diagnosed 90 days later. Variable signs of oestrus were observed in the buffaloes: vaginal mucus discharge in 40.7%, standing heat in 18.5%, variable degree of cervical dilatation and uterine tone in 100%. Treatment induced ovulation occurred in 88.9% buffaloes of which 51.9% conceived to the AI the overall conception rates up to three services were 66.7%. It was concluded that poor nutrition and management are major impediments for delaying onset of puberty in
Abd El -Fattah Alaa M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in colostrum composition of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows collected at calving, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 h and after 14 days of parturition were studied. Total solids, total protein, whey proteins, fat, lactose and ash contents were determined. Macro- and micro-elements, IgG, IgM, IGF-1, lactoferrin and vitamins (A and E were also estimated. Results At calving, the total protein and whey proteins concentration did not differ between buffalo and cow colostrum, while total solids, fat, lactose and ash concentrations were higher in buffalo than in cow colostrum. All components decreased gradually as the transition period advanced except lactose which conversely increased. On the fifth day post-partum, concentration of total protein, whey proteins, fat, ash and total solids decreased by 69.39, 91.53, 36.91, 45.58 and 43.85% for buffalo and by 75.99, 94.12, 53.36, 33.59 and 52.26% for cow colostrum. However, lactose concentration increased by 42.45% for buffalo and 57.39% for cow colostrum. The macro-and micro-elements concentration of both colostrums tended to decline slightly toward normality on the fifth day of parturition. Buffalo colostrum had a higher concentration of vitamin E than cow colostrum during the experimental period. At calving, the concentration of vitamin A in buffalo colostrum was found to be approximately 1.50 times lower than in cow colostrum. The concentrations of IgG, IgM, IGF-1 and lactoferrin decreased by 97.90, 97.50, 96.25 and 96.70% for buffalo and 76.96, 74.92, 76.00 and 77.44% for cow colostrum, respectively after five days of parturition. Conclusions There is a dramatic change in buffalo and cow colostrum composition from the first milking until the fifth day of parturition. There are differences between buffalo and cow colostrum composition during the five days after calving. The composition of both colostrums approaches to those of normal milk within five days after parturition.
Full Text Available Progeny testing program was started in Nili-Ravi buffalo at Livestock Production and Research Institute (LPRI, Bahadurnagar, Okara in 1979-80. Initially buffalo bulls used at Livestock Experiment Station (LES Qadirabad and Rakh Gulaman during 1964-78 were evaluated. Five out of ten at Rakh Gulaman and 10 out of 22 at Qadirabad bulls were positive. As none of these bulls were available, therefore, sons and grandsons of these bulls were selected for production of future candidate bulls. All the buffaloes at LPRI were evaluat`ed on Most Probable Producing Ability. The elite herd thus formed was used for production for future candidate bulls. Since then a continuous program is in operation at Govt. Livestock Farms and expanded to 27 field sub-centers involving private farmers in four districts Okara, Sahiwal, Faisalabad and Pakpattan. Since the initiation of this program in 1980’s, about 174 bulls have been put under progeny testing program and 137 bulls were evaluated by Daughter-Dam Comparison, out of which sixty eight buffalo bulls contributed positively in milk production of daughters. It is worth mentioning here that milk production of registered buffalo was recorded on monthly intervals in the field along with other necessary reproduction data required to compute the different traits of economic importance.Progeny testing program was started in Nili-Ravi buffalo at Livestock Production and Research Institute (LPRI, Bahadurnagar, Okara in 1979-80. Initially buffalo bulls used at Livestock Experiment Station (LES Qadirabad and Rakh Gulaman during 1964-78 were evaluated. Five out of ten at Rakh Gulaman and 10 out of 22 at Qadirabad bulls were positive. As none of these bulls were available, therefore, sons and grandsons of these bulls were selected for production of future candidate bulls. All the buffaloes at LPRI were evaluat`ed on Most Probable Producing Ability. The elite herd thus formed was used for production for future candidate bulls
Rodis, Harry G.
Lyon County is in southwestern Minnesota, mostly within the drainage basin of the Minnesota River. The basement rocks in the area consist largely of Precambrian granite and quartzite. These are overlain locally by flat-lying Upper Cretaceous strata composed of thick sections of soft dark-bluish-gray shale and some thin beds of loosely consolidated sandstone. The Cretaceous strata are more than 500 feet thick near the center of the county but gradually pinch out toward the northeast and southwest against the highs of the Precambrian bedrock surface. Glacial drift overlies the Precambrian and Cretaceous rocks and forms the surface of the area. The drift consists largely of till and ranges in thickness from about 10 feet in the north and northeast to approximately 550 feet in the southwest. The most prominent surflcial glacial deposits are five southeast-trending end moraines, two of which are associated with, and parallel to, relatively extensive belts of outwash. Recent deposits averaging less than 20 feet in thickness overlie the glacial drift in stream valleys.
Abu Tair, Jawad A.
Purpose: A two stage approach of ridge splitting and lateral expansion in the mandible to achieve enough bone width for the purpose of dental implants is presented. Materials and Methods: A total of 13 consecutive patients with 16 long-span edentulous areas of the mandibular ridge were included in this study and 42 dental implants were inserted. Corticotomy of a rectangular buccal segment was carried out followed by 3 weeks of recovery; the mandibular ridge was stretched laterally, leaving th...
Full Text Available Ordinary least square is a parameter estimations for minimizing residual sum of squares. If the multicollinearity was found in the data, unbias estimator with minimum variance could not be reached. Multicollinearity is a linear correlation between independent variabels in model. Jackknife Ridge Regression(JRR as an extension of Generalized Ridge Regression (GRR for solving multicollinearity. Generalized Ridge Regression is used to overcome the bias of estimators caused of presents multicollinearity by adding different bias parameter for each independent variabel in least square equation after transforming the data into an orthoghonal form. Beside that, JRR can reduce the bias of the ridge estimator. The result showed that JRR model out performs GRR model.
Dimitrov, S.; Kovacheva, S.; Prodanova, K.
The least square estimator (LSE) of the coefficients in the classical linear regression models is unbiased. In the case of multicollinearity of the vectors of design matrix, LSE has very big variance, i.e., the estimator is unstable. A more stable estimator (but biased) can be constructed using ridge-estimator (RE). In this paper the basic methods of obtaining of Ridge-estimators and numerical procedures of its realization in MATLAB are considered. An application to Pharmacokinetics problem is considered.
Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)
This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.
This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1
Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping
Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle.
Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Hongbao; Gui, Linsheng; Wang, Hongcheng; Mei, Chugang; Zhang, Yaran; Xu, Huaichao; Jia, Cunlin; Zan, Linsen
In contrast with the past, the water buffalo is now not only a draft animal, but also an important food source of milk and meat. It is increasingly apparent that the water buffalo have huge potential for meat production, but its breeding needs to be investigated. Regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in the meat quality difference between the buffalo (Bubalus bulabis) and yellow cattle (Bos taurus), 12 chemical-physical characteristics related to the meat quality of longissimus thoracis muscles (LTM) have been compared at the age of 36 months. Intramuscular lipid and b* (yellowness) were greater in cattle than the buffalo, whereas a* (redness) was greater in the buffalo. Gene expression profiles were constructed by bovine genome array. A total of 8884 and 10,960 probes were detected in buffalo and cattle, respectively, with 1580 genes being differentially expressed. Over 400 probes were upregulated and nearly 1200 were downregulated in LTM of the buffalo, most being involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing, cholesterol homeostasis, regulation of transcription, response to hypoxia, and glycolysis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the microarray data. Enriched GO analyses of highly expressed genes in LTM showed that protein biosynthesis, striated muscle contraction, iron homeostasis, iron transport, glycolysis and glucose metabolism were similar between the buffalo and cattle. High protein content, low fat content and deep meat color of buffalo LTM may be closely associated with the increased expression of genes involved in cholesterol and iron homeostasis, while also reducing the expression of genes involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and protein oxidative phosphorylation. These results establish the groundwork for further studies on buffalo meat quality and will be beneficial in improving water buffalo breeding by molecular biotechnology.
Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Hongbao; Gui, Linsheng; Wang, Hongcheng; Mei, Chugang; Zhang, Yaran; Xu, Huaichao; Jia, Cunlin; Zan, Linsen
In contrast with the past, the water buffalo is now not only a draft animal, but also an important food source of milk and meat. It is increasingly apparent that the water buffalo have huge potential for meat production, but its breeding needs to be investigated. Regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in the meat quality difference between the buffalo (Bubalus bulabis) and yellow cattle (Bos taurus), 12 chemical-physical characteristics related to the meat quality of longissimus thoracis muscles (LTM) have been compared at the age of 36 months. Intramuscular lipid and b* (yellowness) were greater in cattle than the buffalo, whereas a* (redness) was greater in the buffalo. Gene expression profiles were constructed by bovine genome array. A total of 8884 and 10,960 probes were detected in buffalo and cattle, respectively, with 1580 genes being differentially expressed. Over 400 probes were upregulated and nearly 1200 were downregulated in LTM of the buffalo, most being involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing, cholesterol homeostasis, regulation of transcription, response to hypoxia, and glycolysis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the microarray data. Enriched GO analyses of highly expressed genes in LTM showed that protein biosynthesis, striated muscle contraction, iron homeostasis, iron transport, glycolysis and glucose metabolism were similar between the buffalo and cattle. High protein content, low fat content and deep meat color of buffalo LTM may be closely associated with the increased expression of genes involved in cholesterol and iron homeostasis, while also reducing the expression of genes involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and protein oxidative phosphorylation. These results establish the groundwork for further studies on buffalo meat quality and will be beneficial in improving water buffalo breeding by molecular biotechnology. PMID:26598327
Abdoon, Ahmed S; Gabler, Christoph; Holder, Christoph; Kandil, Omaima M; Einspanier, Ralf
Hot season is a major constraint to production and reproduction in buffaloes. The present work aimed to investigate the effect of season on ovarian function, developmental competence, and the relative abundance of gene expression in buffalo oocytes. Three experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, pairs of buffalo ovaries were collected during cold season (CS, autumn and winter) and hot season (HS, spring and summer), and the number of antral follicles was recorded. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated and evaluated according to their morphology into four Grades. In experiment 2, Grade A and B COCs collected during CS and HS were in vitro matured (IVM) for 24 hours under standard conditions at 38.5 °C in a humidified air of 5% CO2. After IVM, cumulus cells were removed and oocytes were fixed, stained with 1% aceto-orcein, and evaluated for nuclear configuration. In vitro matured buffalo oocytes harvested during CS or HS were in vitro fertilized (IVF) using frozen-thawed buffalo semen and cultured in vitro to the blastocyst stage. In experiment 3, buffalo COCs and in vitro matured oocytes were collected during CS and HS, and then snap frozen in liquid nitrogen for gene expression analysis. Total RNA was extracted from COCs and in vitro matured oocytes, and complementary DNA was synthesized; quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed for eight candidate genes including GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, GDF9, BMP15, HSP70, and SOD2. The results indicated that HS significantly (P ovary. The number of Grade A, B, and C COCs was lower (P quality. In vitro maturation of buffalo oocytes during HS impairs their nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, fertilization, and subsequent embryo development to the morula and blastocyst stages. This could be in part because of the altered gene expression found in COCs and in vitro matured oocytes. PMID:25156970
De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P
Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (pAmazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified.
This study was designed to compare costs of rearing and returns received from major dairy buffalo breeds (Nili-Ravi and Kundhi) in various agro-ecological zones of Pakistan. For this purpose, 219 buffalo farmers were randomly selected from mixed and rice-wheat cropping zones of Punjab and Sindh provinces, mixed cropping zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, coastal zone of Sindh and mountainous-AJK. Of these, 155 and 64 were Nili-Ravi and Kundhi buffalo breed farmers, respectively. The study revealed that among the structure of cost components, feed cost occupied the major share in total cost of milk production. Milk production of buffaloes of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi breeds were 2889 and 2375 liter per annum, respectively. Total costs of milk production of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi buffalo breeds were Rs.96155 and Rs.90604 per annum, respectively. Net income per liter from milk of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi breeds was Rs.12 and Rs.11, and benefit-cost ratios were 1.4 and 1.3, respectively. Hence, Nili-Ravi buffalo breed is more productive and yields better returns over Kundhi breed. Moreover, buffalo milk production is a profitable business in the country except in coastal areas of Sindh, where investment in milk production just covers the cost of production due to comparatively higher feed prices and low milk prices. Econometric analysis of milk production in the country revealed that use of green fodder and concentrates contribute positively and significantly to milk production. (author)
Full Text Available Next to DNA, fingerprint is the unique feature which identifies the individual. Distortions and skin deformations makes the fingerprint unreliable and it is difficult to match using minutiae alone. But when ridge features are incorporated with minutiae features (minutiae type, orientation and position more topological information can be obtained. And also ridges are invariant to transformations such as rotation and translation. Ridge based coordinate system is used to extract the ridge features such as ridge length, ridge count, ridge type and curvature direction in the skeletonized image. Breadth First Search is used to traverse the graph formed using the minutiae as the node and the ridge vector formed using the ridge features as the edge. The proposed ridge feature gives additional information for fingerprint matching with little increment in template size and can be used along with the existing minutiae features to increase the accuracy and robustness of fingerprint recognition systems.
McKelvey, Troy V.; Swanson, Austin D.
This report on an Institute for school administrators in Buffalo, New York, focuses on the problems of urban school administration. The Institute was held during the summer of 1967 at the State University of New York at Buffalo. The State University, the Buffalo Public Schools, and several suburban schools came together in order to enhance the…
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84 Section 110.84 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black...
Simonsen, Bo Thisted; Siegismund, H R; Arctander, P
The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa and is found in most major vegetation types, wherever permanent sources of water are available, making it physically able to disperse through a wide range of habitats. Despite this, the buffalo has been assumed to b...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Alamo, GA; Alton, MO; Boscobel, WI; Buffalo, OK; Cove..., under Montana, Channel 254C2. h. Remove Buffalo, under Oklahoma, Channel 224C2; Erick, Channel...
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Sex and age classifications of buffalo cropped in the Kruger National Park suggest that cropping is biased towards females, and prime breeding individuals of both sexes are apparently under-represented. The implications are discussed in relation to buffalo social organisation and comparative data on population structure.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Buffalo Dunes Wind Project, LLC's application for...
Background: Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is of epidemiological importance because of the risk for transmission to humans. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 339 water buffaloes in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified aggl...
Fornari, D. J.; Ferrini, V.; Carbotte, S.; Blackman, D.
The Ridge 2000 (R2K) program is transitioning toward an increased emphasis on integration and synthesis of data acquired on multi-disciplinary expeditions focused on understanding the geo-biological processes associated with hydrothermal systems on mid-ocean ridges (MORs). This phase of the program will focus not only on the compilation of existing data, but also on integration of results across disciplines, and development of models that examine the linkages between spreading, hydrothermal, and ecosystem processes. During this phase of the program, data from throughout the global mid-ocean ridge system will be important to achieve a more holistic understanding of MOR processes and how they relate to the Ridge 2000 data sets from each Integrated Study Site (ISS). A series of workshops were held in Fall 2008 to bring together researchers from each ISS to help coordinate the integration and synthesis phase of the program. While most cruises conducted during the R2K program have been cataloged and basic metadata made available through R2K Data Portal (http://www.marine- geo.org/ridge2000), additional data, including derived and interpreted data sets from R2K-funded expeditions and other ridge-related expeditions are important to make available during this phase in the program. Once data are available, a variety of data access and visualization tools including GeoMapApp, Google Earth, and IVS-Fledermaus can be used to help coordinate analysis and integration efforts. We focus on highlighting potential scientific applications made possible with currently available software tools, and report on the R2K community feedback and utilization of data bases and visualization tools brought to light during the Fall 2008 workshops. geo.org/ridge2000
Gerya, Taras; Burov, Evgueni
-branch junction formation and evolution by using high-resolution 3D numerical mechanical experiments that take into account realistic thermo-rheological structure and rheology of the lithosphere. We find that two major types of quadruple and triple junctions are formed under bi-directional or multidirectional far-field stress field: (i) plate rifting junctions are formed by the initial plate fragmentation and can be subsequently re-arranged into (ii) oceanic spreading junctions controlled by the new oceanic crust accretion. In particular, we document initial formation and destabilization of quadruple R-R-R-R junctions as initial plate rifting structures under bi-directional extension. In most cases, quadruple plate rifting junctions rapidly (typically within 1-2 Myr) evolve towards formation of two diverging triple oceanic spreading junctions connected by a linear spreading center lengthening with time. This configuration remains stable over long time scales. However, under certain conditions, quadruple junctions may also remain relatively stable. Asymmetric stretching results in various configurations, for example formation of "T-junctions" with trans-extensional components and combination of fast and slow spreading ridges. Combined with plume impingement, this scenario evolves in realistic patterns closely resembling observed plate dynamics. In particular, opening of the Red Sea and of the Afar rift system find a logical explanation within a single model. Numerical experiments also suggest that several existing oceanic spreading junctions form as the result of plate motions rearrangements after which only one of two plates spreading along the ridge become subjected to bi-directional spreading.
Mukhopadhyay, R.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Iyer, S.D.; Rao, M.M.M.; Banerjee, R.; Subrahmanyam, A; Shirodkar, P.V.; Ghose, I.; Ganesan, P.; Rao, A; Suribabu, A; Ganesh, C.; Naik, G.P.
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Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes
Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases.
Full Text Available Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis livestock for mozzarella cheese production plays a fundamental role in the economy of southern Italy. European and Italian regulations consider nitrogen content in buffalo manure to be the same as that of cattle manure. This study aimed to assess whether this assumption is true. The first aim of the study was to assess nitrogen content in buffalo manure. Samples were taken from 35 farms to analyse nitrogen and phosphorous concentration in the manure. Analysis confirmed a lower nitrogen concentration (2% in buffalo manure. A secondary aim of the study was to evaluate whether manure application techniques that are apparently less suitable, e.g. splash plate spreader, could be feasible. The cost of different methods of land application of manure and their characteristics were evaluated on the basis of one operational cycle. Considering losses for volatilisation, and taking into account cost assessment, the immediate incorporation of buffalo manure (nitrogen content 2% is a suitable method of ammonia volatilisation. However, it is expensive and involves high fuel consumption in relation to the environmental benefit.
Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.
Julius Beneoluchi Odili
Full Text Available This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman’s Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd’s collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive.
Munang'andu, Hetron M; Munag'andu, Hetron M; Siamudaala, Victor M; Nambota, Andrew; Bwalya, John M; Munyeme, Musso; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato; Kida, Hiroshi
Eco-tourism depending on wildlife is becoming increasingly profitable and landowners are beginning to favor game farming and ecotourism. In these areas, large-scale translocation of wildlife involves a diversity of species and large populations. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is one of the major tourist attractions in Zambia. It accounts for 8.7% and 12.4% of the total animal species hunted in the Game Management Areas and the total hunting revenue earned in Zambia, respectively. It is ecologically an important animal species essential for the purpose of habitat control and facilitating the provision of suitable grazing pastures. However, the rearing of the African buffalo on game ranches has been hampered by its carrier state of the Southern Africa Terroritory (SAT) serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMD). The African buffalo is also known to be a carrier of Theileria parva lawrencei, the causative agent of corridor disease (CD) that continues to have devastating effects on the livestock industry in Zambia. In addition, the importation of buffaloes from countries with populations endemic to bovine tuberculosis is highly restricted. Veterinary regulations in Zambia, strongly advocate against the translocation of buffaloes from protected areas to private ranches for disease control purposes thereby mounting a considerable constraint on the economic and ecological viability of the industry. It is hoped that this review will motivate the relevant government authorities in exploiting ways in which this animal species play a central role in eco-tourism.
Michel, Anita L; Bengis, Roy G
The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large wild bovid which until recently ranged across all but the driest parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and their local range being limited to about 20 km from surface water. They are of high ecological value due to their important role as bulk feeders in the grazing hierarchy. They also have high economic value, because they are one of the sought after 'Big Five' in the eco-tourism industry. In Africa, buffaloes have been recognised for some time as an important role player in the maintenance and transmission of a variety of economically important livestock diseases at the wildlife and/or livestock interface. These include African strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Corridor disease (theileriosis), bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. For a number of other diseases of veterinary importance, African buffaloes may also serve as amplifier or incidental host, whereby infection with the causative pathogens may cause severe clinical signs such as death or abortion as in the case of anthrax and Rift Valley fever, or remain mild or subclinical for example heartwater. The long term health implications of most of those infections on the buffalo at a population level is usually limited, and they do not pose a threat on the population's survival. Because of their ability to harbour and transmit important diseases to livestock, their sustainable future in ecotourism, trade and transfrontier conservation projects become complex and costly and reliable diagnostic tools are required to monitor these infections in buffalo populations.
Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Andrabi, S M H; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Khalid, M
Egg yolk is routinely used as a cryoprotectant in semen extenders. However, it may contain cryoprotective antagonists, and there are hygienic risks associated with its use. Proteins of plant origin, like soya-lecithin, lack these hazards. The aim of this study was to use soya-lecithin as a cryoprotectant in extender and to investigate its effects on in vitro quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. Semen from three buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing 5.0%, 10% or 15% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were assessed post-dilution, pre-freezing and post-thaw. In Post-dilution and pre-freezing, the values for motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability remained higher (p ≤ 0.05) in extenders containing 10% soya-lecithin and control compared with extender containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. However, motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were higher (p soya-lecithin compared with control and extenders containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. Semen from two buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing either 10% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Higher (p soya-lecithin (56%) compared with 20% egg yolk (41.5%). The results suggest that 10% soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa and can be used as an alternate to egg yolk in cryopreservation of buffalo semen.
Full Text Available Aim: To identify the prevalence of Hydatidosis in buffaloe-calves, heifers and adults slaughtered in slaughter house of Mirha Exports Pvt. Ltd. between March 2010 to Feb. 2011.Materials and Methods: 2,09,615 buffaloes slaughtered were included in this study and were categorized into three groups (A, B and C based on their age at the time of ante-mortem examination. Group Aconsisted of calves (>1 year, accounting for 5100 out of the total number of animals. Group B consisted of heifers (2-3 years accounting for 7840. Group C consisted of adult buffaloes (3-7 years accounting for 1, 96675. Results:Our study revealed an overall prevalence of hydatidosis as 50.96%. Furthermore, the group wise analysis showed the prevalence as 3.52%, 5.58% and 54% in calves, heifers and adult buffaloes, respectively.Conclusion: Based on the factors considered, we conclude that the higher prevalence of infections in buffaloes slaughtered in the Mirha Exports is likely due to an overpopulation of stray dogs in the areas from which the plant gets its supply of animals.
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the possibilities of the economic exploitation of the buffalo population in Greece through the production of certified quality products. The buffalo population in Greece has decreased dramatically during the last decades, due to the rapidly changing socio-economic conditions, mainly the mechanisation of the agricultural sector. The current study has been undertaken in the region of Kerkini Lake, where the majority of buffalo population of Greece is concentrated. The main characteristics of the production system; feeding based on the natural vegetation, the unique way of product processing and the gastronomy are investigated by filling up questionnaires. The next step includes the detailed description of the production system and the definition of the critical points where the intervention will take place. The proper application of the production protocols will be undertaken by the official organisation for certification. The farmers association will be responsible for the management of the transition of the production system. As the driving force of the new development of buffalo breeding is the production of quality products, further investigation on the special characteristics of milk and meat buffalo products, is required.
Full Text Available The buffalo is a native animal of Iran and there were 500,000 buffaloes in Iran that over 80 per cent of its population concentrated in the north and north- west (Azerbaijan province and 18 per cent in the south (Khuzestan province of the country. Buffaloes reread in rural condition as multi purpose animals in Khuzestan. For mating, farmer use owns herd sire also artificial insemination is limited in the rural condition that may be inbred animals so affect the production performance. The aim of this investigation was estimate the inbreeding coefficient and its affect on some production performance. Data of 200 herds were used from the record sheets of herds under recording program of Animal Breeding Center during period 1990 to 2002 in the Khuzestan province. These results showed mostly herds only one sir and rarely two sires have been used. Inbreeding coefficient was 25 percent in some progeny and high-inbred buffaloes had a low performance. According to results of this study it could be concluded that farmers to avoid inbreeding should use other herd sire and artificial insemination also practical recording scheme and genetically selection to genetic improvement should be included in buffaloes of Iran.
Full Text Available Baluran National Park give contribution at regional development to draw tourist and fascination provided is savannah in area. Savannah circumstance, forest, landscape, climate, vegetation and wild animal is represent experienced attraction. Research method use population dynamics perception of banteng, buffalo and deer in savannah of Bekol year 2004 and year 2005 as primary data, while secondary data year population dynamics 2003, 2004, and year 2005 outside savannah of Bekol, year population dynamics 2003 in savannah of Bekol. Secondary data obtained from daily report of Controller ecosystem Forest Worker animal discovery Baluran National Park from Section Bekol. Research location of outside savannah Bekol were Balanan, Perengan, Bitakol, Karangtekok, Pandean, Pondok jaran, Bama, Curah uling, Gunung Montor, Lempuyang, Bilik, Batangan, Labuhan Merak, Kramat, Semiang, Sirokoh, Lemah bang, Gunung Krasak, and Glengseran. The populations of banteng and buffalo in the savannah is unstable compared to the populations of them outside Bekol savannah. The populations of banteng and buffalo in Bekol savannah decrease, whereas the populations of them outside the Bekol savannah increase. The population of deer in Bekol savannah in 2004 is better than population of 2003, 2005, and 2006, whereas the population of deer outside Bekol savannah in 2006 increase significantly. The populations of banteng, buffalo, and deer decrease from year to year, in which the reductions of banteng and buffalo populations are obviously significant.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian cattle (Bos indicus and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis give a poor yield of milk but it has a high fat and protein percentage compared to taurine cattle. The identification of QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci on BTA14 and BTA6 and its subsequent fine mapping has led to identification of two non conservative mutations affecting milk production and composition. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of K232A (DGAT1 – diacylglycerol – acyltransferase 1 and Y581S (ABCG2 – ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2 polymorphisms in diverse cattle and buffalo breeds of India having large variation in terms of milk production. Results We screened the reported missense mutations in six cattle and five buffalo breeds. The DGAT1K and ABCG2Y alleles were found to be fixed in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds studied. Conclusion This study provides an indirect evidence that all the Indian cattle and buffalo breeds have fixed alleles with respect to DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes reported to be responsible for higher milk fat yield, higher fat and protein percent.
José Diomedes Barbosa
Full Text Available A retrospective study of the epidemiological and clinic-pathological aspects of cattle and buffaloes with degenerative joint disease (DJD was conducted in the state of Pará, Brazil. From 1999 to 2014, eleven cattle and 24 buffaloes were evaluated. All the treated animals with suspected DJD underwent a clinical examination of the musculoskeletal system. In seven cattle and eight buffaloes with clinical signs of the disease postmortem examination was performed. The common clinical signs observed in both species were chronic lameness, stiff gait, postural changes, audible crackles in the affected limb, prolonged recumbency, difficulty in getting up and progressive weight loss. The lesions observed at necropsy were: irregular articular surfaces, erosion of the articular cartilage and the underlying bone tissue, and proliferation of the periarticular bone tissue with formation of osteophytes. The most affected joints in cattle and buffaloes wereof the hind limb. In buffaloes, the main predisposing factor to the onset of DJD was phosphorus deficiency. In cattle, defects of the anatomical conformation of the hind limbs, chronic trauma due to the activities performed, such as semen collection, and advanced age possibly contributed to the emergence of the disease.
Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes
Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases. PMID:26174574
Z.I, Qureshi, L.A. Lodhi, H.A. Samad, N.A. Naz1 and M. Nawaz
Full Text Available Thirty-two adult riverine buffaloes (Buhalis bubalus in their last trimester of pregnancy were selected and randomly divided into four groups. The buffaloes of group I served as control. Animals in group II, III and IV were treated twice (7 days apart with levamisole hydrochloride (0.5mg/kg b. w. orally, Etosol (Vit E+Se, 10ml, I/m and Bacilli Calmette Guerine (BCG (0.5 ml/animal, s/c, respectively. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals starting day 0 untill parturition. Total erythrocytic count and packed cell volume values were higher (P<0.05 in levamisole and vit E+Se treated group of buffaloes. Haemoglobin concentration was higher (P<0.05 inVit E+Se treated group. MCV, MCH and MCHC remained unchanged among all the experimental groups. Total leukocyte count was higher (P<0.05 in levamisole treated group of buffaloes. Differential leukocyte counts (relative revealed moderate lymphocytosis in all immunomodulated groups with significantly higher counts in Vit E+Se treated buffaloes. It was inferred that levamisole and vit E-se altered some haematological values, whereas BCG did not affect the haematological parameters.
Castigliego, Lorenzo; Armani, Andrea; Grifoni, Goffredo; Mazzi, Marco; Boselli, Carlo; Guidi, Alessandra; Donzelli, Riccardo; Saba, Alessandro
Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is a peptide hormone used to increase milk yield in cows and buffalos. In Europe, its use has been banned. However, rbST is sometimes illegally included in zootechnical practices for profit purposes, undermining the fair trade and the law prescriptions. For this reason, efficient and reliable analytical techniques are required to contrast rbST misuse. A few LC-MS-MS methods have been developed to detect, in cow serum, methyonil-rbST, one of the two main rbST forms available on the market. The other form, which is widespread, is identical to the most abundant variant of bovine somatotropin (bST) and differs from the buffalo somatotropin for one amino acid in the N-terminus. For this reason, it is technically possible to distinguish both rbST forms in serum of buffalos. In this work, we describe a novel LC-MS-MS-based method, capable to quantify, with a high sensitivity and selectivity, the methyonil-rbST and the other bST-identical recombinant form in buffalo serum, previously purified using a solid-phase extraction procedure. The method was internally validated and used to analyse 152 serum samples, collected from eight buffalos administered with rbST for a period of 3 months, according to conventional protocols. The obtained results confirmed the suitability of the method in the detection of illegal hormonal treatments. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:27146507
Deng, T X; Pang, C Y; Lu, X R; Zhu, P; Duan, A Q; Liang, X W
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 () is an important regulator of mammary gland differentiation and cell survival that has been regarded as a candidate gene affecting milk production traits in mammals. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate significant associations between SNP of the gene and milk production traits in buffaloes. Here, 18 SNP were identified in the buffalo gene, including 15 intronic mutations and 3 exon mutations. All the identified SNP were then genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods from 192 buffaloes. All the SNP were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 2 haplotype blocks were successfully constructed based on these SNP data, which formed 5 and 3 major haplotypes in the population (>5%), respectively. The results of association analysis showed that only SNP13 located in exon 10 was significantly associated with the milk production traits in the population ( buffalo gene are associated with milk production traits and can be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding. PMID:27065255
Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify the normal aerobic bacterial flora of the conjunctiva in the Iranian water buffalo and to determine the effect of gender, age and ecotype variations on the flora. Fifty healthy Iranian water buffalos (33 females, 17 males, aged 1-15 years, of four different ecotypes-Azeri, Mazandarani, Khuzestani and Guilani were selected and divided into 4 age groups. Swabs were taken from the inferior conjunctival sac of both eyes (n = 100 and cultured on blood and MacConkey agar in aerobic condition. Forty seven buffalos out of 50 (94% were positive for bacteria; 44/50 (88% had positive culture from both eyes. The most frequent isolates were Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. Statistical analysis did not show significant difference in frequency of isolates between sexes, ecotypes and age groups (p>0.05. A correlation was found between the buffalo age and number of species isolated per eye (p<0.01. In this study Dermatophilus congolensis and Edwardsiella tarda were reported for the first time in the conjunctiva of animals. Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured from the conjunctival sac of healthy water buffalos.
da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente
The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation ( P buffaloes reared in the Amazon.
Three cattle calves (Bos Taurus) and three buffalo calves (Bos bubalus) were weaned after receiving colostrum and reared by bottle-feeding of milk. During the first month the animal did not have access to solid food. Urinary purine derivative (PD), concentration, basal PD excretion and glomerular filtrate rate (GFR) were determined during fasting and feeding. After one month the animals were given access to solid feed (urea-treated rice straw 80% and molasses 20%) to stimulate rumen development. At three months of age, while the solid food was given, urinary PD, basal PD excretion and GFR were again determined. Urinary PD excretion both during fasting and milk feeding did not differ significantly between buffaloes to cattle during the period of milk feeding (P > 0.05), but there were highly significant differences between cattle and buffaloes after 3 months of age and two months of access to solid feed (P < 0.01). The GFR was lower in buffaloes than cattle on both milk fed and solid feed periods. It is suggested that the lower GFR found in buffaloes may be the reason for the differences as PD stay longer in the blood to give more time for recycling to the rumen when the rumen is developed and are then metabolized by bacteria. Whether permeability of PD from blood to rumen is an additional factor is not known. (author)