WorldWideScience

Sample records for buffalo pulstar reactor

  1. An ultracold neutron source at the NC State University PULSTAR reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobkina, E.; Wehring, B. W.; Hawari, A. I.; Young, A. R.; Huffman, P. R.; Golub, R.; Xu, Y.; Palmquist, G.

    2007-08-01

    Research and development is being completed for an ultracold neutron (UCN) source to be installed at the PULSTAR reactor on the campus of North Carolina State University (NCSU). The objective is to establish a university-based UCN facility with sufficient UCN intensity to allow world-class fundamental and applied research with UCN. To maximize the UCN yield, a solid ortho-D 2 converter will be implemented coupled to two moderators, D 2O at room temperature, to thermalize reactor neutrons, and solid CH 4, to moderate the thermal neutrons to cold-neutron energies. The source assembly will be located in a tank of D 2O in the space previously occupied by the thermal column of the PULSTAR reactor. Neutrons leaving a bare face of the reactor core enter the D 2O tank through a 45×45 cm cross-sectional area void between the reactor core and the D 2O tank. Liquid He will cool the disk-shaped UCN converter to below 5 K. Independently, He gas will cool the cup-shaped CH 4 cold-neutron moderator to an optimum temperature between 20 and 40 K. The UCN will be transported from the converter to experiments by a guide with an inside diameter of 16 cm. Research areas being considered for the PULSTAR UCN source include time-reversal violation in neutron beta decay, neutron lifetime determination, support measurements for a neutron electric-dipole-moment search, and nanoscience applications.

  2. Cryogenic testing of the PULSTAR UCN Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christian; Hawari, Ayman; Huffman, Paul; Korobkina, Ekaterina; Leung, Kent; Medlin, Graham; Wehring, Bernard; Young, Albert

    2016-09-01

    An ultracold neutron (UCN) source is being constructed at the NC State University 1 MW PULSTAR reactor facility. UCN will be utilized for multiple experiments, including an investigation of systematic effects relevant to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)-based neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) experiment. The UCN source consist of 1 L of solid deuterium that will reside in the thermal column of the reactor, surrounded by heavy water and methane moderators. Construction of the source is complete and cryogenic testing is in progress to fully characterize growth of the solid deuterium crystal under various pressures and heat loads. Results of this testing program will be presented.

  3. NCSU Reactor Sharing Program. Final technical report, [September 1, 1980--August 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, P.B.

    1993-11-10

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities.

  4. NCSU reactor sharing program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, P.B.

    1997-01-10

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities. This report is the Final Technical Report for the DOE award reference number DE-FG05-95NE38136 which covers the period September 30, 1995 through September 30, 1996.

  5. Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  6. Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  7. Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the operating license for the research reactor at North Carolina State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) summarizes the findings of a safety review conducted by the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR). The staff conducted this review in response to a timely application filed by North Carolina State University (the licensee or NCSU) for a 20-year renewal of Facility Operating License R-120 to continue to operate the NCSU PULSTAR research reactor. The facility is located in the Burlington Engineering Laboratory complex on the NCSU campus in Raleigh, North Carolina. In its safety review, the staff considered information submitted by the licensee (including past operating history recorded in the licensee`s annual reports to the NRC), as well as inspection reports prepared by NRC Region H personnel and first-hand observations. On the basis of this review, the staff concludes that NCSU can continue to operate the PULSTAR research reactor, in accordance with its application, without endangering the health and safety of the public. 16 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Tuberculosis diagnostic methods in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Capriogli Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The low productivity of buffalo herds and condemnation of carcasses in slaughterhouses due to tuberculosis lesions have resulted in increasing economic losses because these animals cannot be treated and must be destroyed by sanitary slaughter. Tuberculosis is a widely distributed zoonosis that affects the beef supply chain of the Brazilian agribusiness economically and socially. Like cattle, buffaloes are sensitive to Mycobacterium bovis, which is the main causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. Tuberculosis in buffaloes has been reported in several countries, including Brazil. In order to control and eradicate this disease among cattle and buffaloes in Brazil, the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply created the National Program for the Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis with the main objective of finding a significant number of disease-free herds throughout the national territory using reliable methods. This review summarizes the main data on the history of occurrence of M. bovis in Brazilian herds and the diagnostic methods for the disease in buffaloes. Little information is available on buffalo tuberculosis. Due to the increasing population of buffaloes and their economic importance, more studies investigating the occurrence and identification of tuberculosis in this species are clearly needed.

  9. A neutronradiography facility based on an experimental reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A thermal Neutron Radiography (NR facility based on the use of thermal neutron flux, generated by the PULSTAR experimental reactor, has been designed and simulated using the MCNPX code. The key objective of the proposed facility is to deliver thermal neutron flux in this range for variable values of L/D ratio, instantaneously with acceptable values for all NR parameters. Thus, with suitable aperture and collimators designs, optimization for the parameters for thermal NR was achieved, for a wide range of the collimator ratio. The short time requirements for obtaining the radiography images justify the use of the proposed system for ‘real time radiography’. The system was designed under the limitation that the total Dose Equivalent Rate does not exceed at the external shield surface the limit recommended by ICRP-26.

  10. Sensory evaluation of buffalo butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.S. Carneiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Butter obtained from buffalo milk was compared with commercial products obtained from cow milk. One buffalo butter and two cow butters were subjected to sensory analysis using non-trained panelists. The acceptance related to sensorial characteristics (color, flavor, and firmness was evaluated through a 9 point structured hedonic scale varying from “I displeased extremely” to “I liked extremely”. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to evaluate the sensory characteristics and the means were compared by Tukey’s Test at 5% of significance. The buffalo butter received lower scores than the others for all attributes. The greatest difference was observed for color, as the buffalo butter exhibited a white color contrasting with the yellow color of commercial butters, which is the pattern expected by the consumers. For flavor and firmness attributes, the buffalo butter received scores similar to the commercial products. These results show. These results shows that the buffalo’s butter has a good acceptance on local market, and this could be improved through the correction of product’s color, what can be obtained by adding a dye.

  11. Perspectives of cesarean section in buffaloes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G N Purohit; Mitesh Gaur; Amit Kumar; Chandra Shekher; Swati Ruhil

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean section in buffaloes is an emergency operative procedure being performed prinicipally for uncorrectable uterine torsions and for delivery of fetal monsters. Left paramedian (lateral and parallel to the milk vein) and oblique ventrolateral (above arcus cruralis) are the two common operative sites used for buffalo caesarean section. Although many anesthetic combinations including intravenous and inhalation anesthetic procedures have been experimented in the buffalo species yet most caesarean sections in buffaloes are satisfactorily performed in right lateral recumbency under mild sedation and local infiltration analgesia or paravertebral nerve blocks. The history, indications, anesthesia, operative procedures, post operative complications and future fertility following caesarean section in buffalo are described.

  12. The welfare of dairy buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Winckler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behavioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animalrelated indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening assessed with Body Condition Score (BCS systems; cleanliness (the presence of mud may be considered positively, whereas a thick and compact layer of dung may be regarded negatively; health status (lameness, hoof overgrowth, injuries, etc.; social, aggressive, oral abnormal behaviours; animal-human relationship (avoidance distance at manger; positive indicators (qualitative assessment of behaviour, etc.; housing factors. The indicators are discussed on the basis of their validity (meaningful with respect to animal welfare, reliability (reflecting the tendency to give the same results on repeated measurements and feasibility (concerning time and money consumed. For some aspects, the differences between buffalo and dairy cattle are also highlighted.

  13. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Cattle and African Buffalo in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, M; Inlameia, O; Michel, A; Maxlhuza, G; Pondja, A; Fafetine, J; Macucule, B; Zacarias, M; Manguele, J; Moiane, I C; Marranangumbe, A S; Mulandane, F; Schönfeld, C; Moser, I; van Helden, P; Machado, A

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and brucellosis are prevalent in buffaloes of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa). Both diseases were considered to have no or a very low prevalence in wildlife and livestock in and around the Limpopo National Park (LNP, Mozambique). The same applies for tuberculosis in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP, Zimbabwe), but just recently, BTB was detected in buffaloes in the GNP and fears arose that the disease might also spread to the LNP as a result of the partial removal of the fences between the three parks to form the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. To assess the status of both diseases in and around LNP, 62 buffaloes were tested for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis. The percentage of positive BTB reactors in buffalo was 8.06% using BovidTB Stat-Pak® and 0% with BOVIGAM® IFN-γ test and IDEXX ELISA. The brucellosis seroprevalence in buffalo was found to be 17.72% and 27.42% using Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and ELISA, respectively. In addition, 2445 cattle in and around the LNP were examined for BTB using the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test (SICCT), and an apparent prevalence of 0.98% was found with no significant difference inside (0.5%) and outside (1.3%) the park. This is the first published report on the presence of positive reactors to BTB and bovine brucellosis in buffalo and cattle in and outside the LNP. Monitoring the wildlife-livestock-human interface of zoonotic high-impact diseases such as BTB and brucellosis is of outmost importance for the successful implementation and management of any transfrontier park that aims to improve the livelihoods of the local communities.

  14. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Matandiko, Wigganson; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Mweene, Aaron Simanyengwe; Munyeme, Musso

    2011-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of "BTB-free buffaloes" for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating "BTB free" buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB.

  15. Population and Strategy Development in Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Praharani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo is a potential large ruminant that its contribution in national program on beef self sufficiency has been unrecognized in Indonesia. In rural community, buffalo has similar functions as cattle, it is used as draught animal, meat (beef producer, saving, milk producer, sacrificial ritual animal to social status. The peak of buffalo population was on 1925, 3.227 million heads in Java and 1.10 million in outside Java. The centers of cattle production sites for national program of self sufficiency on beef were formly as noted the centers of buffalo production. The introduction of Bali cattle to those former buffalo centers particularly in outside of Java depressed buffalo population and then dominated by Bali cattle. Then Bali cattle were noted to be the major beef animal supplier beside buffalo to the centers of consumers for domestic and export. This article aims to discuss the depleting buffalo population and to formulate development strategy. Historical approaches system and critical evaluation population, SWOT (strength, weaknesses, opportunity and threat analysis were used as tools for analyzing. Two case studies on herd survival from Banten indicated depleting population of buffalo. Despite low reproductive profile, strategic diseases and farmers’ institution needed to be optimized on services. Understanding criticizing on ecological habitats in the potential regions, the need of spatial planning for its development, zoning program for strategic diseases free, reproductive problems and village institution are the important areas of improvement for buffalo development in supporting beef self sufficiency and the welfare of rural people with their buffalo in sustainable beef production.

  16. Reproductive endocrinology and biotechnology applications among buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, M L; Prakash, B S

    2007-01-01

    Buffalo, as the major livestock species for milk and meat production, contribute significantly to the economy of many countries in south & south-east Asia, South America, Africa and the Mediterranean. Improved buffalo production could significantly enhance the economy and the living standards of farmers in countries where buffaloes predominate; particularly, in countries with a tropical climate. The major factors limiting the efficient utilization of buffaloes in countries with a tropical climate are: late maturity; poor estrus expressivities, particularly in summer months; long postpartum calving intervals; low reproductive efficiencies and fertility rates which are closely linked with environmental stress; as well as managerial problems. As good reproductive performance is essential for efficient livestock production, the female buffalo calves must grow rapidly to attain sexual maturity, initiate estrous cycles, ovulate and be mated by fertile males or inseminated with quality semen to optimize conception and production. In the last two decades, considerable attention has been focused on understanding some of the causes for the inherent limitations in reproduction among buffaloes by studying their reproductive endocrinology as well as developing biotechniques for augmenting their reproductive efficiency. This review provides an overview of buffalo reproductive endocrinology and also of the research done to date towards the enhancement of buffalo reproductive efficiency through endocrine and embryo biotechniques.

  17. Phylogeography and domestication of Chinese swamp buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiang-Peng; Li, Ran; Xie, Wen-Mei; Xu, Ping; Chang, Ti-Cheng; Liu, Li; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Run-Feng; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chu-Zhao

    2013-01-01

    To further probe into whether swamp buffaloes were domesticated once or multiple times in China, this survey examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (D-loop) diversity of 471 individuals representing 22 populations of 455 Chinese swamp buffaloes and 16 river buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chinese swamp buffaloes could be divided into two distinct lineages, A and B, which were defined previously. Of the two lineages, lineage A was predominant across all populations. For predominant lineage A, Southwestern buffalo populations possess the highest genetic diversity among the three hypothesized domestication centers (Southeastern, Central, and Southwestern China), suggesting Southwestern China as the most likely location for the domestication of lineage A. However, a complex pattern of diversity is detected for the lineage B, preventing the unambiguous pinpointing of the exact place of domestication center and suggesting the presence of a long-term, strong gene flow among swamp buffalo populations caused by extensive migrations of buffaloes and frequent human movements along the Yangtze River throughout history. Our current study suggests that Southwestern China is the most likely domestication center for lineage A, and may have been a primary center of swamp buffalo domestication. More archaeological and genetic evidence is needed to show the process of domestication.

  18. Reproduction and genetic diversity of the swamp buffalo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yindee, M.

    2010-01-01

    The water buffalo is one of the most important domestic animals in Southeast Asia including Thailand. As the Thai swamp buffalo population declined during the last two decades, the swamp buffalo reproductive performance needs to be improved. Lack of knowledge on swamp buffalo reproduction, improper

  19. Monitoring the freezing point of buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pesce

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic freezing point of buffalo milk. Bulk milk samples were collected from buffalo and cattle farms in Caserta area from 2008 to 2014. The analysis involved a total of 1886 buffalo milk samples and 1711 bovine milk samples. These were also tested for fat, protein and lactose contents by means of infrared spectrometry. The freezing point was determined by means of a thermistor cryoscope. Data underwent statistical analysis. Our research showed an average freezing point of -0.528°C for buffalo milk and - 0.522°C for bovine milk. Given the lack of data on the freezing point of buffalo milk, our study provides the first indication of a basic freezing point of the milk of this species in Italy.

  20. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of “BTB-free buffaloes” for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating “BTB free” buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB.

  1. Mammary gland pathologies in the parturient buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Purohit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parturition related mammary gland pathologies in the buffalo appear to be low on accord of anatomic (longer teat length, thicker streak canal and physiologic (lower cisternal storage of secreted milk, lower milk production differences with cattle. Hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia usually occur in the buffalo due to physiologic changes around parturition however mastitis involves pathologic changes in the udder and teats; the incidence of mastitis is however lower compared to cattle. The incidence and therapy of hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia are mentioned and the risk factors, incidence, diagnosis, therapy and prevention for mastitis in buffalo are also described.

  2. AFRICAN BUFFALO OPTIMIZATION ico-pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Beneoluchi Odili

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This is an introductory paper to the newly-designed African Buffalo Optimization (ABO algorithm for solving combinatorial and other optimization problems. The algorithm is inspired by the behavior of African buffalos, a species of wild cows known for their extensive migrant lifestyle. This paper presents an overview of major metaheuristic algorithms with the aim of providing a basis for the development of the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm which is a nature-inspired, population-based metaheuristic algorithm. Experimental results obtained from applying the novel ABO to solve a number of benchmark global optimization test functions as well as some symmetric and asymmetric Traveling Salesman’s Problems when compared to the results obtained from using other popular optimization methods show that the African Buffalo Optimization is a worthy addition to the growing number of swarm intelligence optimization techniques.

  3. Vabariigi aastapäev Buffalos / Edgar Zirna ; foto: Virve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirna, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    25. veebruaril Morgan restoranis Buffalo Eestlaste Koondise ja E.E.L.K. Buffalo Pauluse koguduse korraldusel. Avasõna koondise esimehelt Peeter Ojalt, koraali esitas Andres Raudsepp, vaimulik Hannes Aasa palvele järgnes eeskava

  4. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as...

  5. Congenital Malformations in River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarella, Sara; Ciotola, Francesca; D’Anza, Emanuele; Coletta, Angelo; Zicarelli, Luigi; Peretti, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Congenital malformations (due to genetic causes) represent a hidden danger for animal production, above all when genetic selection is undertaken for production improvements. These malformations are responsible for economic losses either because they reduce the productivity of the farm, or because their spread in the population would decrease the total productivity of that species/breed. River buffalo is a species of increasing interest all over the world for its production abilities, as proved by the buffalo genome project and the genetic selection plans that are currently performed in different countries. The aim of this review is to provide a general view of different models of congenital malformations in buffalo and their world distribution. This would be useful either for those who performed buffalo genetic selection or for researchers in genetic diseases, which would be an advantage to their studies with respect to the knowledge of gene mutations and interactions in this species. Abstract The world buffalo population is about 168 million, and it is still growing, in India, China, Brazil, and Italy. In these countries, buffalo genetic breeding programs have been performed for many decades. The occurrence of congenital malformations has caused a slowing of the genetic progress and economic loss for the breeders, due to the death of animals, or damage to their reproductive ability or failing of milk production. Moreover, they cause animal welfare reduction because they can imply foetal dystocia and because the affected animals have a reduced fitness with little chances of survival. This review depicts, in the river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) world population, the present status of the congenital malformations, due to genetic causes, to identify their frequency and distribution in order to develop genetic breeding plans able to improve the productive and reproductive performance, and avoid the spreading of detrimental gene variants. Congenital

  6. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  7. Water buffalo genome science comes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelizzi, Vanessa N; Dodson, Michael V; Pan, Zengxiang; Amaral, M Elisabete J; Michal, Jennifer J; McLean, Derek J; Womack, James E; Jiang, Zhihua

    2010-06-17

    The water buffalo is vital to the lives of small farmers and to the economy of many countries worldwide. Not only are they draught animals, but they are also a source of meat, horns, skin and particularly the rich and precious milk that may be converted to creams, butter, yogurt and many cheeses. Genome analysis of water buffalo has advanced significantly in recent years. This review focuses on currently available genome resources in water buffalo in terms of cytogenetic characterization, whole genome mapping and next generation sequencing. No doubt, these resources indicate that genome science comes of age in the species and will provide knowledge and technologies to help optimize production potential, reproduction efficiency, product quality, nutritional value and resistance to diseases. As water buffalo and domestic cattle, both members of the Bovidae family, are closely related, the vast amount of cattle genetic/genomic resources might serve as shortcuts for the buffalo community to further advance genome science and biotechnologies in the species.

  8. Congenital Malformations in River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Albarella

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The world buffalo population is about 168 million, and it is still growing, in India, China, Brazil, and Italy. In these countries, buffalo genetic breeding programs have been performed for many decades. The occurrence of congenital malformations has caused a slowing of the genetic progress and economic loss for the breeders, due to the death of animals, or damage to their reproductive ability or failing of milk production. Moreover, they cause animal welfare reduction because they can imply foetal dystocia and because the affected animals have a reduced fitness with little chances of survival. This review depicts, in the river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis world population, the present status of the congenital malformations, due to genetic causes, to identify their frequency and distribution in order to develop genetic breeding plans able to improve the productive and reproductive performance, and avoid the spreading of detrimental gene variants. Congenital malformations most frequently reported in literature or signaled by breeders to the Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production of the University Federico II (Naples, Italy in river buffalo are: musculoskeletal defects (transverse hemimelia, arthrogryposis, umbilical hernia and disorders of sexual development. In conclusion this review put in evidence that river buffalo have a great variety of malformations due to genetic causes, and TH and omphalocele are the most frequent and that several cases are still not reported, leading to an underestimation of the real weight of genetic diseases in this species.

  9. Water Buffalo Genome Science Comes of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa N. Michelizzi, Michael V. Dodson, Zengxiang Pan, M Elisabete J Amaral, Jennifer J. Michal, Derek J. McLean, James E. Womack, Zhihua Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The water buffalo is vital to the lives of small farmers and to the economy of many countries worldwide. Not only are they draught animals, but they are also a source of meat, horns, skin and particularly the rich and precious milk that may be converted to creams, butter, yogurt and many cheeses. Genome analysis of water buffalo has advanced significantly in recent years. This review focuses on currently available genome resources in water buffalo in terms of cytogenetic characterization, whole genome mapping and next generation sequencing. No doubt, these resources indicate that genome science comes of age in the species and will provide knowledge and technologies to help optimize production potential, reproduction efficiency, product quality, nutritional value and resistance to diseases. As water buffalo and domestic cattle, both members of the Bovidae family, are closely related, the vast amount of cattle genetic/genomic resources might serve as shortcuts for the buffalo community to further advance genome science and biotechnologies in the species.

  10. Embryonic mortality in buffalo naturally mated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of embryonic mortality in three different period of year in buffaloes naturally mated. The trial was carried out in a buffalo farm located in Caserta province between 2000-2006. In this period were registered natural insemination on 200 buffaloes. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out on Day 30, confirmed on Day 45 and every 15th days until 90 days after natural mating. Buffaloes that were pregnant on Day 30 but not on Day 45 or Day 90 were considered to have undergone embryonic (EM or fetal mortality (FM respectively. EM and FM were 8.8% and 13.4% respectively throughout the experimental period. A high incidence (P<0.01 of FM was found in the transitional period (December-March than in other months of the year. The incidence of embryonic mortality was significantly (P<0.01 higher between 28-60 days of gestation and lower after 71 day of gestation. The higher fetal mortality found in this study could be due the lower serum levels of progesterone normally found in transitional period in buffalo cows.

  11. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M A; Rashid, M H; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  12. Oedematous skin disease of buffalo in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, S A

    2001-05-01

    This review covers a historical view and etiology of oedematous skin disease which affects buffalo in Egypt, the microbiology of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causing the disease: its virulence; clinical signs; mechanism of pathogenesis; histopathology; mode of transmission; immunological aspects; treatment and control. It is concluded that C. pseudotuberculosis serotype II is the main cause of OSD and exotoxin phospholipase D and its lipid contents of the cell wall are the major causes of pathogenesis. After declaring the role of Hippobosca equina in transmission of the causative agent among buffaloes, control of OSD is now available.

  13. Zip Codes, Buffalo_county_zip_codes, Published in 2006, Buffalo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zip Codes dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2006. It is described as 'Buffalo_county_zip_codes'. Data by this...

  14. Fatty Acid Composition and Amino Acid Content in Beef of Dehong Buffalo and Its Cross Combinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin; Hong; Wang; Guiying; Yang; Yue; Liao; Guozhou; Cheng; Zhibin; Gu; Dahai; Xu; Zhiqiang; Ge; Changrong; Jia; Junjing

    2014-01-01

    The Dehong buffalo( D),F1 hybrids of Dehong buffalo × Murrah buffalo( MD) and F1 hybrids of Dehong × Nili buffalo( ND) as the experimental animals to investigate their fatty acid composition and amino acid content. Five of each buffalos were bred by freely grazing and slaughtered at 35. 8-month old age to investigate the fatty acid composition and amino acid content in beef of Dehong buffalo,MD buffalo and ND buffalo. The results showed that,saturated fatty acid content of Dehong buffalo( 44. 33%) was significantly higher than that of ND buffalo( 41. 39%) and MD buffalo( 41. 48%)( P < 0. 05),and the latter two were not significantly different( P > 0. 05). The content of PUFA in Dehong buffalo( 53. 90%) was significantly lower than ND( 56. 83%) and MD( 56. 83%)( P <0. 05),however,the n- 6∶ n- 3( 4. 25) of Dehong buffalo was significantly higher than ND( 3. 14) and MD( 3. 52)( P < 0. 05). The content of amino acids in muscle was not significantly different between Dehong buffalo,MD buffalo and ND buffalo( P > 0. 05),while the acidic amino acid content of Dehong buffalo was higher than that of MD buffalo and ND buffalo.

  15. Conservation and Developing Indigenous Knowledge of Using Water Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanchai Suwanamphai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The use of water buffalo labor for farming and the tie between rice farmers and water buffaloes at present are greatly decreasing because rice farmers give more importance to modern ploughing machines than water buffaloes. Therefore, water buffalo raising and traditions and rituals involving them which have been useful to humans for a very long time almost all disappear from Isan (Northeast Thailand. The purposes were to examine current conditions and problems and indigenous knowledge of the use of water buffaloes and to investigate the process of conservation and development of the use of water buffaloes in different forms in Isan. The study was conducted in Isan covering 8 Changwats: Nakhon Phanom, Sakon Nakhon Nong Bua Lam Phu, Udon Thani, Khon Kaen, Ubon Ratchathani, Kalasin and Roi Et. Approach: The qualitative research methodology was used. Data were collected from related literature and field studies using structured and unstructured-interview forms, workshop and focus group discussion with 199 informants. The findings were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: The findings revealed the following. The conservation and development of indigenous knowledge of the use of water buffaloes in all the 8 Changwats of Isan had increasingly changed from the past. For water buffalo conservation at present, they have formed groups in cooperation with government agencies involved according to the government policy in each period. The group members are not confident that their own group will be able to sustainably exist due to the factors which are the state policy in other parts involved. Some factors can impact the water buffalo conservation groups such as limited places for water buffalo raising, the buffalo raising places being changed to be pare tree farms, for planting eucalyptus trees and others. In developing indigenous knowledge, the uses of water buffaloes as labor and in different cultural rituals and

  16. Parochial School Foundations of Buffalo's Polonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidinski, Eugene

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on the parochial school as a supportive agent of ethnic socialization in Buffalo's Polish immigrant communities. Describes diverse motives for development of the parish school system as an alternative to the public schools and summarizes the distinctive, communal functions of parish schools. (CMG)

  17. "Buffalo Bill" and the Siouan Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Phyllis

    1983-01-01

    The popular art of William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody--lithographic posters advertising his Wild West Show and depicting the Indians who performed in it--created the visual image of the American Indian that we have come to know as the Siouan stereotype. By contrast the artists' images of the American Indian were inaccessible to the general…

  18. Repeat breeding: Incidence, risk factors and diagnosis in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekher Saraswat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeat breeding in buffaloes was evaluated in terms of incidence, risk factors and diagnosis. The incidence of repeat breeding is low in buffaloes however in different studies the incidence varied from 0.70% to 30%. Because of seasonal suppression of fertility repeat breeding in buffaloes should be limited to the breeding season. Spring and winter calving, first parity, peri-parturient disease and lactation are significant risk factors for repeat breeding in buffaloes. The etiologies of repeat breeding in buffaloes can be failure of fertilization and early embryonic deaths. Only a few of causes of failure of fertilization have been identified in buffaloes. Ovulatory disturbances and ovarian cysts are uncommon in buffaloes and cysts have poor clinical manifestation. Endometritis is the common female cause of fertilization failures in buffaloes whereas poor semen quality and improper insemination are the bull side factors for fertilization failures. Early embryonic deaths are common in buffaloes mated/inseminated during the end of the breeding season due to a low luteal progesterone however embryonic deaths occur late (<25 days in buffaloes. Diagnostic approaches for repeat breeding include vaginoscopic and transrectal examination and uterine cytology for genital health. More precise evaluations of the ovarian and uterine function can be obtained by ultrasonographic and hysteroscopic examinations performed sequentially however, precise diagnosis of the cause of repeat breeding seems difficult.

  19. Genetic analysis of river, swamp and hybrid buffaloes of north-east India throw new light on phylogeography of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Prakash, B; Kathiravan, P; Goyal, S; Sadana, D K; Das, G C; Goswami, R N; Bhasin, V; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S

    2015-12-01

    This study analysed buffaloes from north-east India and compared their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variations with buffaloes of mainland India, China, Mediterranean and South-East Asia. Microsatellite genotypes of 338 buffaloes including 210 from six north-east Indian buffalo populations and three mainland Indian breeds were analysed to evaluate their genetic structure and evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling plot of pairwise FST revealed the clustering of all swamp-type buffaloes of north-east India with Lower Assamese (significantly hybrid type) buffaloes in one plane and all the mainland river buffaloes in another plane while the upper Assamese buffaloes being distinct from both these clusters. Analysis of mtDNA D-loop region of 530-bp length was performed on 345 sequences belonging to 23 buffalo populations from various geographical regions to establish the phylogeography of Indian water buffalo. The swamp buffaloes of north-east India clustered with both the lineages of Chinese swamp buffalo. Multidimensional scaling display of pairwise FST derived from mitochondrial DNA data showed clustering of upper Assamese, Chilika and Mediterranean buffaloes distinctly from all the other Indian buffalo populations. Median-joining network analysis further confirmed the distinctness and ancestral nature of these buffaloes. The study revealed north-east region of India forming part of the wider hybrid zone of water buffalo that may probably extend from north-east India to South-East Asia.

  20. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fetal fibroblasts with buffalo defined factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanfei; Liu, Qingyou; Luo, Chan; Chen, Shibei; Li, Xiangping; Wang, Caizhu; Liu, Zhenzhen; Lei, Xiaocan; Zhang, Huina; Sun, Hongliang; Lu, Fenghua; Jiang, Jianrong; Shi, Deshun

    2012-09-01

    Ectopically, expression of defined factors could reprogram mammalian somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which initiates a new strategy to obtain pluripotent stem cell lines. Attempts have been made to generate buffalo pluripotent stem cells by culturing primary germ cells or inner cell mass, but the efficiency is extremely low. Here, we report a successful method to reprogram buffalo fetal fibroblasts (BFFs) into pluripotent stem cells [buffalo induced pluripotent stem cell (biPSCs)] by transduction of buffalo defined factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) using retroviral vectors. The established biPSCs displayed typical morphological characteristics of pluripotent stem cells, normal karyotype, positive staining of alkaline phosphatase, and expressed pluripotent markers including Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Lin28, E-Cadherin, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-81, STAT3, and FOXD3. They could form embryoid bodies (EBs) in vitro and teratomas after injecting into the nude BALB/C mice, and 3 germ layers were identified in the EBs and teratomas. Methylation assay revealed that the promoters of Oct4 and Nanog were hypomethylated in biPSCs compared with BFFs and pre-biPSCs, while the promoters of Sox2 and E-Cadherin were hypomethylated in both BFFs and biPSCs. Further, inhibiting p53 expression by coexpression of SV40 large T antigen and buffalo defined factors in BFFs or treating BFFs with p53 inhibitor pifithrin-a (PFT) could increase the efficiency of biPSCs generation up to 3-fold, and nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed with biPSCs could develop to blastocysts. These results indicate that BFFs can be reprogrammed into biPSCs by buffalo defined factors, and the generation efficiency of biPSCs can be increased by inhibition of p53 expression. These efforts will provide a feasible approach for investigating buffalo stem cell signal pathways, establishing buffalo stem cell lines, and producing genetic modification buffaloes in the future.

  1. Qualitative evaluation of buffalo cheese using FTIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Coroian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available FTIR is a rapid technique based on infrared which has been used to analyze the followingsamples of cheese: traditional buffalo milk cheese, mouldy cheese traditionally produced (in Mesendorf,buffalo milk cheese (Napolact and buffalo mozzarella (Italy. Here were highlighted main wavelengths atwhich the main components were observed in cheese, namely: fat, protein, lactose and water. Thesecompounds have been outlined in terms of quality. The presence of water was observed in the region of3600-3010 cm-1, showing a high content in water for mozzarella, followed by buffalo milk cheese,traditional cheese and the lowest content being observed to mouldy cheese.

  2. DNA Polymorphisms in River Buffalo Leptin Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Moioli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a protein involved in the regulation of feed intake, fat metabolism, whole body energy balance, reproduction and hematopoiesis. In cattle Leptin gene has been considered a potential QTL influencing several production traits like meat production, milk performance and reproduction. Several studies on bovine leptin gene have found association between polymorphisms and traits like milk yield, feed intake, fat content, carcass and meat quality. With the aim to assess the presence of sequences polymorphisms in the Buffalo leptin gene, we sequenced the entire coding region and part of the introns on a panel of Italian River Buffalos. In this study we identified a new set of SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism useful for association studies.

  3. Microphotokinesigraphic analysis of buffalo spermatozoa I. Characteristic features and significance of the immobile buffalo spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boichev

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of a study of immobile spermatozoa of buffalo bulls from Bulgarian murrah breed, based on photo images registered in various displays in conditions of dark background photokinesis. The analysis showed the way developer affects the brightness of kinesigrams. The study is based on samples of semen of six buffalos analysed by means of the microphotokinetic method developed by Tchakarov and Natchev. Brightness parameters of the cells and their photokinetic images have been established photometrically; their metric parameters have been defined by means of an eyepiece and object micrometer. It has been found out that the optimal exposure time for a photokinetic analysis of buffalo spermatozoa was(is 5 sec, and the recommended developer for treating of negative registration material is the pyrocatechin developer by Windisch.

  4. GRoW Buffalo Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Martha [Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-04-17

    This document provides final reporting on the GRoW Home, University at Buffalo's entry to the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine, CA. The report summarizes fundraising efforts, documents media outreach, lists online presence, analyzes the organizer's communication, describes post-competition life of the house and future employment plans for student team members. Last, it suggests improvements for future decathlons.

  5. Anaerobic Digestion of Buffalo Dung: Simulation of Process Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of kinetic of AD (Anaerobic Digestion is a beneficial practice to forecast the performance of the process. It is helpful in the design of AD vessels, substrate feeding and digestate exit systems. The aim of this work was to assess the kinetics of anaerobically digested buffalo dung at different quantities of water added. It comprises the assessment of the specific methane production on the basis of VS (Volatile Solids added in each reactor by using three first order models, i.e. the modified Gompertz model, the Cone model and the Exponential Curve Factor model. The analysis was tested by using the three statistical parameters, i.e. the coefficient of multiple determinations, the standard deviation of residuals and the Akaike?s Information Criteria. The result reveals that the Exponential Curve Factor model was the best model that described the experimental data well. Moreover, there was not a direct or indirect relation between the kinetic coefficients of the AD process with the varying total or volatile solid content

  6. Reproduction and genetic diversity of the swamp buffalo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yindee, M.

    2011-01-01

    The water buffalo is one of the most important domestic animals in Southeast Asia. Together with the elephant it is a national symbol in Thailand. Until two decades ago, Thailand harbored the largest buffalo population after China. Its draft power has been of high significance for agriculture, and T

  7. Perspectives of fetal dystocia in cattle and buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Narayan Purohit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We review the causes of fetal dystocia in cows and buffalo. Two fetal causes are distinct fetal oversize and fetal abnormalities. Fetal oversize is common in heifers, cows of beef cattle breeds, prolonged gestations, increased calf birth weight, male calves and perinatal fetal death with resultant emphysema. Fetal abnormalities include monsters, fetal diseases and fetal maldispositions, and it is difficult to deliver such fetuses because of their altered shape. Although monsters are rare in cattle, a large number of monstrosities have been reported in river buffalo; yet also here, overall incidence is low. Diseases of the fetus resulting in dystocia include hydrocephalus, ascites, anasarca and hydrothorax. The most common cause of dystocia in cattle seems to be fetal maldispositions, of which limb flexion and head deviation appear to be the most frequent. We provide a brief description of the management of dystocia from different causes in cattle and buffalo. A case analysis of 192 and 112 dystocia in cattle and buffalo, respectively, at our referral center revealed that dystocia is significantly higher (P<0.05 in first and second parity cows and buffalo, and that dystocia of fetal origin is common in cows (65.62% but less frequent (40.17% in buffalo. In buffalo, the single biggest cause of dystocia was uterine torsion (53.57%. Fetal survival was significantly (P<0.05 higher both in cows and buffalo when delivery was completed within 12 h of second stage of labor.

  8. Successful nonsurgical embryo transfer in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis ) in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, M; Alexiev, A; Vlahov, K; Karaivanov, C; Cripe, W S; Leonards, A P; Kacheva, D; Polihronov, O; Nicolov, N; Petrov, M; Dragoev, A

    1988-10-01

    Forty-one Day 5.0 to Day 5.5 embryos and one unfertilized ovum were recovered nonsurgically from 24 superovulated, parous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis ) and transferred nonsurgically to 28 synchronized recipients by a team of Bulgarian and American scientists. Five pregnancies were established and four live buffalo calves were born at the end of normal gestation periods.

  9. Buffalo Harbor Study. Preliminary Feasibility Report. Volume I. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    the Buffalo Ornithological Society . Although these groups are not planning agencies, they represent an important trend in land use planning. The groups...Buffalo Historical Society , 1902. Wilson , Carroll L. Coal: Bridge to the Future, Report of the World Coal Study. Cambridge: Ballinger Publishing Company... Wilson , 1980) PLANNING CONSTRAINTS Federal policy on multiobjective planning, derived from both legislative and executive authorities, establishes and

  10. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  11. Causes of infectious abortion in the Mediterranean buffalo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Galiero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and viruses can cause abortion in buffaloes. This review describes the abortigenic infectious agents found in Mediterranean buffalo cows and the microbiological methods used for their diagnosis. The abortigenic agents are: Brucella spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Chlamydophila spp., Coxiella burnetii, Bacillus licheniformis, E.coli, Leptospira spp., Bubaline Herpes Virus-1 (BuHV-1, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus.

  12. Isolation of Arcobacter species in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea; Florio, Daniela; Giacometti, Federica; Pasquali, Frederique; Manfreda, Gerardo; Zanoni, Renato Giulio

    2013-05-01

    This is the first report of Arcobacter spp. in rectal fecal samples from healthy water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared on a dairy farm. Arcobacter species were isolated after enrichment, and isolates were identified at species level by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction assay. Thirty samples were examined and Arcobacter spp. were isolated from 96.7% of water buffaloes tested: 38 Arcobacter spp. isolates were obtained, with A. cryaerophilus as the dominant species followed by A. butzleri and A. skirrowii. Nine animals (31%) were colonized by more than one Arcobacter species. The present study indicates that water buffaloes can harbor a variety of Arcobacter spp. and that healthy buffaloes may act as hosts. Water buffalo fecal shedding of Arcobacter spp. may be of significance to human health, considering the potential fecal contamination during harvesting of raw milk and slaughtering.

  13. 76 FR 60962 - Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the updated noise exposure maps submitted by the Niagara... of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR Part 150 are...

  14. Comparison of LCD array and IS6110-PCR with conventional techniques for detection of Mycobacterium bovis isolated from Egyptian cattle and Buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Rasha Nabil; El Behiry, Ayman; Marzouk, Eman; Askar, Tamer

    2014-09-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic bacterial and major infectious disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Rapid diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis is considered one of the cornerstones for worldwide control as it permits early epidemiological and therapeutic interventions. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate conventional techniques (tuberculin test, Ziehl Neelsen staining and culturing) in comparison with proven molecular laboratory techniques (LCD array and IS6110 PCR) for identification of Bovine tuberculosis. A total of 902 Egyptian animals (480 buffaloes and 422 cattle) were examined by tuberculin test, and the positive reactors were slaughtered. Tissue samples were collected for staining as well as culturing. Moreover, LCD array and PCR using IS6110 on DNA extracted from tissue and culture samples were carried out for molecular identification of M. bovis. According to the results, the tuberculin positive cases for cattle and buffaloes were 2.14% (9 cases) and 5.62% (27 cases), respectively. After post-mortem examination, the prevalence of tuberculin positive cases with visible lesions was 88.9% for cattle and 14.8% for buffaloes. Alternatively, these percentages were 11.1% and 85.2% for cattle and buffalo carcasses with non-visible lesions. The percentage of cattle and buffaloes showing positive culture was 88.9% and 62.9%, respectively. This percentage was 69.5% after staining with Ziehl Neelsen. In contrast, LCD array and IS6110 were 100%, confirming the isolation results. In conclusion, LCD array depending on 16S RNA and DNA hybridization with specific probes for detection of M. bovis are rapid, sensitive and labor-saving when combined with IS6110-PCR.

  15. THE EFFECT OF APPLICATION OF THE REGIONAL LAW N° 3 “URGENT INTERVENTIONS FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE ITALIAN MEDITERRANEAN WATER BUFFALO IN CAMPANIA” WITH REFERENCE TO FRAUDS IN THE BUFFALO MOZZARELLA CHEESE AND DOP BUFFALO MOZZARELLA CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.T.R. Proroga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Campania Region, in order to protect the Italian Mediterranean Buffalo, established a set of yearly official controls on all buffalo products manufactured in the Region. Our work demonstrates the effect of such a measure on the production of the mozzarella cheese of buffalo and that of the mozzarella cheese of buffalo campana, in favour of the commercialization of aliud pro alio.

  16. Genetic parameters for stayability in Murrah buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Priscilla M; Mercadante, Maria E Z; Silva, Josineudson Aiiv; Aspilcueta-Borquis, Rúsbel R; de Camargo, Gregório M F; Tonhati, Humberto

    2010-05-01

    In order to contribute to the breeding programmes of Asian water buffalo, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of genetic effects in the stayability of Murrah dairy buffaloes. The stayability trait (ST) was defined as the female's ability to stay in the herd for one (ST1), two (ST2), three (ST3), four (ST4), five (ST5) or six years (ST6) after the first calving. The same trait was also considered as continuous and was designated stayability in days up to one (STD1), two (STD2), three (STD3), four (STD4), five (STD5) or six years (STD6) after the first calving. Data from 1016 females reared in nine herds located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were analysed. Statistical models included the additive genetic effect of the animal and the fixed effects of the buffalo breeding herd, birth year and birth season. Additive effects for ST were estimated by approximate restricted maximum likelihood using a threshold model, while for STD, the additive effects were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood. Heritability estimates were lower for ST, except for ST1, (0.11+/-0.07, 0.17+/-0.06, 0.23+/-0.06, 0.16+/-0.08, 0.14+/-0.09 and 0.16+/-0.10 for ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4, ST5 and ST6, respectively) when compared with STD (0.05+/-0.06, 0.18+/-0.08, 0.40+/-0.10, 0.49+/-0.11, 0.41+/-0.11 and 0.30+/-0.13, for STD1, STD2, STD3, STD4, STD5 and STD6, respectively). Considering the values of heritability and owing to the serial nature of STD to a specific age, selection for STD3 should have a favourable influence on STD to other ages.

  17. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  18. Frequency of Toxoplasmosis in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Persad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis has been reported to occur in several animals and humans causing different clinical manifestations. The study was conducted to determine the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis across farms in Trinidad using a latex agglutination test. Of a total of 333 water buffalo tested, 26 (7.8% were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was statistically significantly (P0.05; χ2. This is the first documentation of toxoplasmosis in water buffalo in Trinidad.

  19. Frequency of Toxoplasmosis in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Anil; Charles, Roxanne; Adesiyun, Abiodun A.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis has been reported to occur in several animals and humans causing different clinical manifestations. The study was conducted to determine the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG) in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) across farms in Trinidad using a latex agglutination test. Of a total of 333 water buffalo tested, 26 (7.8%) were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was statistically significantly (P 0.05; χ2). This is the first documentation of toxoplasmosis in water buffalo in Trinidad. PMID:22195295

  20. Pharmacokinetic behaviour of fenbendazole in buffalo and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, P K

    1994-02-01

    Concentrations of fenbendazole and of drug metabolites in plasma were measured in buffalo and cross-bred cattle after single intraruminal administration at two different doses. Plasma concentrations of the parent compound fenbendazole and the two metabolites, viz. oxfendazole and fenbendazole sulfone, were much lower in buffalo compared with cattle, at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg body weight as indicated by lower area under concentration curve and concentration maximum. At a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight there were corresponding increases in plasma metabolite concentrations in cattle. However, buffaloes did not show a similar corresponding increase.

  1. Molecular characterization of water buffalo meat by proteomic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chianese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo breeding in Campania is aimed at milk production as the starting material for the production of Mozzarella di Bufala DOP, but it does not take into account the possibility of meat production. Buffalo meat, given its low content in fat and cholesterol, represents a good alternative to bovine meat from the dietetic standpoint. One of most interesting aspects of buffalo meat is its utilization either directly or to prepare other products. Development of these products however requires suitable technological approaches based on molecular characterization, so that product evaluation and development may be carried out on rational basis.

  2. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zuhair Bani

    2016-12-01

    Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1) and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2). The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg), ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg), xylazine (0.05 mg/kg), medetomidine (15 µg/kg), romifidine (30-50 µg/kg), ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg), tramadol (1 mg/kg), and neostigmine (10 µg/kg), and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

  3. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zuhair Bani

    2016-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1) and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2). The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg), ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg), xylazine (0.05 mg/kg), medetomidine (15 µg/kg), romifidine (30-50 µg/kg), ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg), tramadol (1 mg/kg), and neostigmine (10 µg/kg), and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed. PMID:28096620

  4. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1 and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2. The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg, bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg, ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg, xylazine (0.05 mg/kg, medetomidine (15 μg/kg, romifidine (30-50 μg/kg, ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg, tramadol (1 mg/kg, and neostigmine (10 μg/kg, and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

  5. The gamma-interferon test: its usefulness in a bovine tuberculosis survey in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, D G; Michel, Anita L; De Klerk, Lin-Mari; Bengis, R G

    2002-09-01

    A survey to determine the bovine tuberculosis status of buffalo herds north of the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park was conducted, using a new diagnostic approach. Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection was accomplished using the gamma-interferon assay technique in 608 adult buffaloes out of a total of 29 discreet herds. The animals were immobilized in groups of 10-15, bled, individually marked and then revived and released on site. As soon as test results were available (after 26-36 h), the same buffalo herd was relocated by tracking the frequency of a radio-collar previously fitted to one adult cow per group during the initial operation. Bovine reactors were identified, darted and euthanased from the helicopter. Necropsy and culture findings of all culled buffaloes showed excellent correlation with the results of the ante-mortem gamma-interferon test. The survey revealed that over and above the two positive herds that had been identified during a previous survey carried out in 1996, there were three additional, but previously unidentified, infected herds in the region north of the Olifants River.

  6. Niobrara-Buffalo Prairie National Park area study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map is showing the proposed park boundary line for NiobraraBuffalo Prairie National Park in Cherry County, Brown County, and Keya Paha County, Nebraska.

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Buffalo County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Buffalo County, WI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  8. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.

  9. Molecular Dynamics Studies on the Buffalo Prion Protein

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiapu

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to TSEs (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies) (same as rabbits, horses and dogs). TSEs, also called prion diseases, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of species (in humans prion diseases are (v)CJDs, GSS, FFI, and kulu etc). It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to prion diseases (as rabbits, dogs, horses). In molecular structures, these neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein, predominantly with alpha-helices, into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions, rich in beta-sheets. This paper studies the molecular structure and structural dynamics of buffalo prion protein, in order to find out the reason why buffaloes are resistant to prion diseases. We first did molecular modeling a homology structure constructed by one mutation at residue 143 from the Nuclear Magnetic Resonanc...

  10. Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Singh Mahla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Water buffalo is an economically important livestock species and about half of its total world population exists in India. Development of stem cell technology in buffalo can find application in targeted genetic modification of this species. Testis has emerged as a source of pluripotent stem cells in mice and human; however, not much information is available in buffalo. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Pou5f1 (Oct 3/4 is a transcription factor expressed by pluripotent stem cells. Therefore, in the present study, expression of POU5F1 transcript and protein was examined in testes of both young and adult buffaloes by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis. Further, using the testis transplantation assay, a functional assay for spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs, stem cell potential of gonocytes/spermatogonia isolated from prepubertal buffalo testis was also determined. RESULTS: Expression of POU5F1 transcript and protein was detected in prepubertal and adult buffalo testes. Western blot analysis revealed that the POU5F1 protein in the buffalo testis exists in two isoforms; large (∼47 kDa and small (∼21 kDa. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that POU5F1 expression in prepubertal buffalo testis was present in gonocytes/spermatogonia and absent from somatic cells. In the adult testis, POU5F1 expression was present primarily in post-meiotic germ cells such as round spermatids, weakly in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and absent from elongated spermatids. POU5F1 protein expression was seen both in cytoplasm and nuclei of the stained germ cells. Stem cell potential of prepubertal buffalo gonocytes/spermatogonia was confirmed by the presence of colonized DBA-stained cells in the basal membrane of seminiferous tubules of xenotransplanted mice testis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings strongly indicate that gonocytes/spermatogonia, isolated for prepubertal buffalo testis can

  11. SPERM DNA INTEGRITY IN BUFFALO, BULL AND STALLION

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    The interest in sperm DNA integrity evaluation and its relationship to subfertility and infertility loaded to development of several sperm DNA assays. The aim of this study was to compare several sperm DNA assays in buffaloes, bulls and stallions, and to identify the relationships between those DNA assays and traditional sperm features. In Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (IMB) bulls traditional sperm features (motility, viability, acrosome integrity and morphology), sperm DNA integrity (neutral...

  12. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodinamics Integration of Sulfametazine in buffalo and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. San Andrés

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfamethazine is a sulfonamide that presents a broad spectrum of activity, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Chlamydia spp. and some protozoa and it commonly used in ruminants. The aim of our work was to study the possible inter-species differences in the pharmacokinetic behavior and pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic(PK/PD integration of sulfamethazine after intravenous administration in buffalo and bovine. A single intravenous dose of 60 mg/kg was administered to six bovine and five buffalo (3-4 month old and weighting 120±15kg. Plasma concentrations of sulfamethazine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Differences between bovine and buffalo calves were found in t½λ (buffaloes: t1/2λ =6.17±0.58h; bovine t1/2λ=7.46±1.05h, Cl (buffaloes: 45.31ml/h·kg; bovines 30.34ml/h·kg. As a consequence of the lower clearance in bovines, the AUC and t½λ values were higher in this species. Important differences between bovine and buffalo exist for microorganisms that have a MIC value<32μg/ml related to time over minimum inhibitory concentration and weighted AUC.

  13. POSTPARTUM ANOESTRUS IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALOES MAINTAINED UNDER RURAL AND PERI-URBAN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anwar, N. Ullah, A. Mehmood and S.M.H. Andrabi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The trial was conducted to assess anoestrous problem in Nili Ravi buffaloes kept under rural and peri-urban management around Islamabad, during the months of October to December. One hundred and three buffaloes under peri-urban management and 40 buffaloes under rural management belonging to six and 21 farmers, respectively, were included in this study. Buffaloes that did not show heat signs for 6-12 months postpartum were considered anoestrus in this study. For inducing heat, two injections of cloprostenol were administered in silent oestrous buffaloes, whereas gonadotropin releasing hormone followed by cloprostenol was administered in true anoestrous buffaloes. A higher proportion of buffaloes (35% was noted in anoestrus under rural than under peri-urban management (17.5%, P=0.02. All the buffaloes diagnosed as silent oestrus responded to cloprostenol therapy by showing heat signs under both management systems. However 71% rural buffaloes diagnosed in true anoestrus showed heat symptoms compared to 100% peri-urban buffaloes followed by GnRH+cloprostenol therapy. Fixed time insemination (72 and 96 hours after 2nd cloprostenol injection resulted in a conception rate of 58% and 67% in rural and peri-urban buffaloes, respectively. An overall 33% conception rate was observed in true anoestrous compared to 83% in silent oestrous buffaloes. It is concluded that cloprostenol could be used successfully to induce heat and achieve an optimum conception rate in silent oestrous buffaloes during peak breeding season.

  14. Heterochromia iridis in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misk, N.A.; Semieka, M.A.; Fathy, A.

    1998-01-01

    This study included 45 unaffected animals and 593 animals affected with heterochromia irides, and 85 enucleated eyeballs with heterochromia irides. The classification of heterochromia irides, morphology of normal and heterochromic irides, and the histology, ultrastructure, and scanning electron microscopy are presented. The incidence of heterochromia irides in water buffaloes was 7.62% affecting either one or both eyes. Both complete and partial heterochromia irides occurred. Complete heterochromia iridis is more frequent than the partial form in either bilateral or unilateral cases. The pupil has a dumb-bell-shape appearance. Granula iridica occurred at the upper (100%) and lower (30%) pupillary margins and originated from the posterior pigmented epithelium. In heterochromia irides, the melanocytes is absent in the anterior border and stromal layers, and iridal thickness appeared thinner than that of normal eyes.

  15. Altertative trophy measuring techniques for African buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Gandy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The African buffalo is considered the classic African trophy. It is the choice of many hunters who will never go on to hunt any of the other dangerous game animals on the continent. A good trophy is perceived as that of a mature bull with a hardened boss and horn tips that lengthen into sharply pointed hooks. However, indications are that these are the bulls in their breeding prime and there is concern that the continued targeting of these individuals will negatively impact on the population dynamics of the herds, ultimately affecting the sustainability of buffalo hunting. As they age and become postreproductive, the horns broom down, reducing the trophy score under the current measurement systems. A new measuring system is needed that encourages hunters to target the older post-reproductive bulls, instead of those that are still breeding. A random sample of trophies was divided into broomed and non-broomed sub-samples. All key parameters that can be measured in the trophy were measured with a view to identifying the parameters that would allow broomed-down individuals to compete favourably with the non-broomed “classic trophy” in the primary measurement systems, those of Safari Club International and Rowland Ward. An index, created through dividing tip space by the mean of the two individual horn lengths proved to serve the purpose. This factor was then applied to the mean of the SCI and Rowland Ward measurements in the samples. These methods allowed broomed horns to score more points in the record books than non-broomed horns. Boss width and boss space are other possible measurement inclusions that could be considered.

  16. A field study on artificial insemination of swamp and crossbred buffaloes with sexed semen from river buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yangqing; Liao, Yanqiong; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Yang, Xiaogan; Lu, Shengsheng; Wu, Zhuyue; Xu, Huiyan; Liang, Yunbin; Lu, Kehuan

    2015-10-01

    Sex preselection by flow sorting of X- and Y-sperm has been proven to be an efficient and economically feasible strategy for use in Holstein dairy cow breeding, and previous reports have demonstrated the feasibility of altering the sex ratio in buffalo species by using sexed semen in either artificial insemination or IVF. However, because buffalo reproductive physiology and farm management are different from Holsteins, factors involved in artificial insemination by sexed semen need to be further addressed before being applied in buffalo breeding at village-level husbandry. In this study, a total of 4521 swamp or crossbred (F1 or F2) buffaloes with natural estrus were inseminated with X-sorted sperm from river buffaloes, resulting in a 48.5% (2194 of 4521) pregnancy rate and 87.6% (1895 of 2163) sex accuracy in the derived calves. The pregnancy rate obtained with sexed semen from Murrah bulls was higher than that of Nili-Ravi, 52.5% (895 of 1706) versus 46.1% (1299 of 2815; P inseminations performed in different seasons (P insemination with sexed semen. The findings in the present study under field conditions pave the way for application of sexing technology to buffalo breeding under village-level husbandry and diverse genetic backgrounds.

  17. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  18. Epidemiological studies on forestomach disorders in cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study epidemiology of forestomach (reticuloruminal, omasal, and abomasal disorders in cattle and buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The 106 buffaloes and 32 cattle referred for treatment to the university large animals teaching hospital with the complaint of gastrointestinal diseases constituted the study material. The cases were diagnosed based on history, clinical examination, hematology, biochemistry, radiography, peritoneal fluid analysis and ultrasonography, rumenotomy, and postmortem. A questionnaire was prepared containing important information on housing, husbandry practices, including feeding practices and individual animal information viz. age, species, month of the year, parity, gestation (month, and recent parturition. The animals were divided into eight groups and analysis of variance was performed to study risk factors associated with each condition. Results: The forestomach disorders are widely prevalent in cattle and buffaloes between April and October, during summer and rainy season (90% and constituted a significant proportion of diseased cows and buffaloes (138/1840 at the hospital. Different forestomach disorders and their prevalence was: Diaphragmatic hernia (DH 17%, traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP 14%, idiopathic motility disorder or vagus indigestion (VI 22%, adhesive peritonitis (AP 13%, frank exudative peritonitis (FEP 12%, reticular abscess (RA 8%, ruminal and omasal impaction (RI 5%, and abomaso duodenal ulceration (ADU 9%. DH and RA were significantly more common in buffaloes as compared to cattle. Similarly, impactions were more in buffaloes but its incidence was very low (5%. ADU was present in buffalo as commonly as in cows. Exclusive feeding of wheat straw was present in an abysmally low number of animals and hence could not be considered the cause of these disorders. DH was significantly higher in buffaloes (>5 years of 5-8 years of age and TRP, VI and AP were observed in cattle and buffalo of 2-8 years

  19. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  20. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  1. GROSS MORPHOLOGY OF THE HIP ARTICULATION OF BUFFALO CALVES (BUBALUS BUBALIS)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Back ground: The vulnerability of the buffalo to the luxation of the hip articulation previous to and during parturition encouraged the investigation in this species. The literature reviewed did not reveal complete anatomical descriptions of the coxofemoral articulation of buffalo. Hence the study was undertaken. Purpose: to study the different anatomical aspects of the hip joint which are specific to buffaloes. Methods and Results: A total number of fifteen hip joints of buffalo cal...

  2. Impact of Climate change on Milk production of Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ashutosh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is likely to impact productivity of buffaloes due to their sensitivity to temperature changes. Air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and solar radiation are the main climate variables that affect buffalo production in tropical climate. In the present study sensitivity of lactating Murrah buffaloes to sudden temperature (Tmax, Tmin change and THI have been analyzed from milk production and climatic records (1994-2004 of Karnal. Algorithms were developed and validated on lactating buffaloes during 2005-2006 at the Institute. A sudden change (rise or fall in Maximum/Minimum temperature during summer and winter was observed to affect milk production. The decline in minimum temperature (>3°C during winter and increase (>4°C during summer than normal were observed to negatively impact milk production upto 30% on the next or subsequent days after extreme event. The return to normal milk production depended on severity and time period of thermal stress/ event occurrence. The R² was very low for cool period observed during Feb- April/Sept-Nov and actual effect on milk production was minimum. This indicated that low THI had a relatively small effect on milk production performance. The lactation period of animals are shortened during extreme summer when THI were more than 80 and reproductive functions were also adversely affected. Thermal stressed buffaloes did not exhibit estrus or exhibited estrus for short period. The potential direct effects of possible climate change and global warming on summer season milk production of Murrah buffaloes were evaluated using widely known global circulation model UKMO to represent possible scenarios of future climate. Both milk production and reproductive functions of Murrah buffaloes are likely to be affected due to warming effects.

  3. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Bong Kim; Thierry Lasserre; Yifang Wang

    2013-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...

  4. PARALYTIC DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY IN BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Habib, G. Jabbar1, M. M. Siddiqui and Z. Shah2

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during the month of May to August 2001 to diagnose hind limbs paralysis in buffaloes of Buner area of NWFP. Serum concentrations of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P in 40 buffaloes (29 affected and 11 normal from six different villages were measured together with feed and soil samples analysed for different macro and micro minerals. Serum P level was lower (P<0.001 in affected buffaloes and averaged 3.05 mg/100 ml of serum against 6.73 mg/100 ml found in the normal buffaloes. Serum Ca level was in normal range and did not differ between affected and normal buffaloes (12.16 and 12.93 mg/100 ml, respectively. Range grass hay, the main feed offered to the animals during dry season of high disease incidence, was extremely low in P (0.10mg/100g and sodium (0.03g/100g, with adequate level of Ca (0.41 g/100 g. Concentrations of potassium (K and magnesium (Mg in range grass hay were very high and averaged 5.0 and 0.34g/100 g, respectively. Copper (Cu, manganese (Mn and iron (Fe contents in the hay were 28.50, 113.0 and 242.0 g/g, respectively and were in excess of the recommended dietary requirements for cattle. However, zinc (Zn concentration (42.33 g/g in the hay was marginally adequate to meet the dietary requirement of dairy cattle. The mineral profile of hay was in close agreement with that of soil in the area. The results concluded that deficiency of P in hay, which might have resulted due to low P in soil, described low serum P in buffaloes and might be the major cause of the disease. The imbalance of other minerals in hay and soil might have also reduced the bioavailability of P to plants and animals. In vitro matter digestibility (38.1%, crude protein (5.63% in DM, and metabolizable energy (1.32 Mcal/kg DM values of the hay offered to animals were below the standard requirements and caused general emaciation of the buffaloes during dry seasons. Correction of the hind limbs paralysis in buffaloes would require

  5. Swamp Buffalo in South Kalimantan : Problem, Disease and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Natalia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have been carried out to evaluate and investigate the important diseases of swamp buffaloes (Bubalus carabanensis in Kalimantan . More attention has been focused on the case of acute infectious diseases and sudden death in the buffaloes . Fasciolosis black disease, acute enteritis, especially fatal enterotoxaemia haemorrhagic septicaemia . and trypanosomiasis (Surra, are some of the important diseases found in these animals . Black disease caused by toxigenic Clostridium novyi occurs in the presence of the organism in the liver and the degree of liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation . In regions where black disease is enzootic, Cl. novvi can be isolated from livers of normal healthy animals . In Hulu Sungai Utara district, South Kalimantan, the prevalence of fasciolosis caused by Fasciola gigantica in swamp buffalo was 77% in 1991 . A gross sudden change in diet due to seasonal changes could induce rumen and intestinal stasis, which provide a favourable environment for the rapid proliferation of commensal toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in the small intestine . Subsequent absorption of the toxin produced through the gut wall and its generalized dissemination culminated in a fatal enterotoxaemia . Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS is an acute, fatal disease affecting swamp buffalo, and caused by Pasteurella multocida B : 2 . The swamp buffalo is particularly susceptible for HS, and the reported greatest losses of swamp buffalo in Kalimantan due to HS is recorded in 1980s. The clinical signs of Surra in swamp buffalo were also found in certain areas in Danau Panggang area . Hulu Sungai Utara district . Vaccination is the accepted method for controlling Black disease, enterotoxaemia and HS. Multi component vaccine, alum adjuvant containing at least 5 types of clostridial toxoids and P. multocida B2 bacterin have been used and provide good protection to the animals . Control and treatment of liver fluke infestation

  6. Role of Buffaloe in Contributing Milk and Meat in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Raza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan being an agricultural country supports a national herd of 28.4 million buffaloe which constitutes 8-10% of the global buffaloe population. Buffaloe contributes 72% of the national milk supply. Buffaloe is intricately interwoven with the social fabric of the rural families. In these areas it is mainly raised for milk production. Pakistan is the largest buffaloe meat producer followed by India, China, Thailand and Vietnam. The share of buffaloe’s meat at national level is over 55%. Slaughtering of male young calves for meat is common which has high degree of preference among the consumers. Fattening is rarely practiced, as there is poor price structure for beef. Female calves are usually raised for future herds. Little effort has been done so far to feed them on scientific lines. Mortality is high in calves during pre-weaning age. Seasonal variation in mortality is common. Poor nutrition, health and management have been demonstrated to be the main contributory factors affecting the calves’ survival.

  7. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872

  8. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive.

  9. Prevalence of Warble Fly Infestation in Buffalo in Chakwal, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Waheed

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is the major problem affecting livestock in many parts of the world. Amongst these parasitic problems, the warble fly infestation (hypodermosis is a notorious and common malady of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in Pakistan. The disease is endemic in cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in semi-hilly and mountainous areas of Pakistan. Keeping in view the importance of buffaloes an epidemiological survey was conducted to find the prevalence of hypodermosis in district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan, during the year 2005- 2006. Buffaloes are mainly kept for milk purpose in the study area. Out of 2000 buffaloes examined clinically, for grub infestation in the study area 125 (6.25% and 37 (5.20% found to be positive for the warble fly infestation in slaughter house as well as in the field. A prevalence variation among the male and female animals was also observed during the study. The factors of climatic conditions that favor the fly activity and contribute in the onset of disease.

  10. Cost Benefits Analysis of Anthelmintic Treatment of Cattle and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiq Ahmed Athar, Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Tauseef-ur-Rehman and Izhar Ahmad Khan1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the point prevalence of various helminths of cattle and buffalo population of district Toba Tek Singh, Pakistan and economic benefits of deworming with oxyclozanide. Out of 540 fecal samples examined, 205 (37.96% were found infected with helminths. Significantly higher (OR=2.2; P<0.05 prevalence of helminths was recorded in buffaloes (40%; 112/280 as compared to cattle (35.77%; 93/260. Oesophagostomum, Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloide, Ostertagia, Fasciola (F. hepatica, F. gigantica and Haemonchus contortus were the helminth species identified in the study area. Oxyclozanide medicated buffaloes (E=96.66% and cattle (E=95.64% showed a significant decrease in fecal egg counts on day 14 post-treatment. An average daily increase of 0.89 and 0.71 liters of milk along with 0.42 and 0.37% more fat per buffalo and cattle, respectively was observed in oxyclozanide medication. The economic value of reduced production of infected animals was estimated as US$ 0.47 (Pak Rupees 40 and US$ 0.41 (Pak Rupees 35 per animal per day for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. It can be concluded that single dose of oxyclozanide is effective against all bovine helminths.

  11. Cumulative Environmental Management Association : Wood Buffalo Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The recently announced oil sands development of the Wood Buffalo Region in Alberta was the focus of this power point presentation. Both mining and in situ development is expected to total $26 billion and 2.6 million barrels per day of bitumen production. This paper described the economic, social and environmental challenges facing the resource development of this region. In addition to the proposed oil sands projects, this region will accommodate the needs of conventional oil and gas production, forestry, building of pipelines and power lines, municipal development, recreation, tourism, mining exploration and open cast mining. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) was inaugurated as a non-profit association in April 2000, and includes 41 members from all sectors. Its major role is to ensure a sustainable ecosystem and to avoid any cumulative impacts on wildlife. Other work underway includes the study of soil and plant species diversity, and the effects of air emissions on human health, wildlife and vegetation. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their impacts on surface water and fish is also under consideration to ensure the quality and quantity of surface water and ground water. 3 figs.

  12. Preliminary results on the composition of oviductal fluid in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if qualitative and quantitative differences exist in energy substrates and ionic components of buffalo cow oviductal fluid during dioestrus, pre-ovulatory and ovulatory phases of the oestrous cycle. Ten multiparous Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis cows at 15 days in milk were used. Cannulation of oviduct was performed as previously described by Kavanaugh et al.(1992 for cattle, adapting the technique to the smaller dimension of buffalo reproductive tract. We evaluated daily secretion rates, energy substrates and ions concentration during the three phases. Oviductal fluid secretion rates (ml/24h and glucose concentration were significantly greater in the ovulatory phase (P<0.01 and in the pre-ovulatory phase (P<0.05 than in dioestrus. No significant differences were detected between oestrous phases for the other parameters analyzed.

  13. Differences in adaptation to tropical weather between buffaloes and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shi Chang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty buffaloes and twenty Vietnamese yellow cattle from peri-urban Hue city were kept indoor and used for measurement of effect of environmental temperature (To and humidity (H%. The To and H% were recorded by thermo-hygrometers for temperature and humidity index (THI measurement. Breathing rate was observed by moving rate of diaphragm, heart beat rhythms was calculated by stethoscope around 3 to 4 ribs and body To tested by 42oC thermo-meters in animal rectums. The results showed that the To in the area studied varied widely during the day and when To increased H% often decreased. During the study period the average To changed from 24oC in February to 39oC in May. The H% varied from 57 to 86. The environmental To and H% had very little effect on body To for both types of animals (37oC to 39oC but there were changes in heart beat from 42 to 45 in cattle but from 44 to 57 in buffaloes. In warmest period with high H% (THI 83 breathing rates in cattle varied from 18 to 21 while in buffaloes from 20 to 35 and in May it increased to 50. At the warmest time of the day the heart beat in cattle were 42 while in buffaloes 57. The breathing rate in cattle only increased when ambient To was above 39 degrees. The results clearly showed that buffaloes were easily stressed when To and H% increased. Buffaloes need water and swamps to help to avoid heat stress while indigenous cattle are much better adapted to high environmental To and H%.

  14. The buffalypso: the water buffalo of Trinidad and Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lampkin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available E.E. Mac Lachlan, M.R.C.V.S. in 1952 brought to the attention of the Trinidad Veterinarians that the Water Buffalo was an important animal for the Caribbean and the hot humid Tropics. In 1949 Dr Steve Bennett, DVM, Colorado, began with Mr. T. Hume Porteous the development of the Buffalypso breed for beef production in Trinidad at the Caroni Limited Sugar Company. The paper describes the development of the Buffalypso [Buffalo from Trinidad the land of the Calypso- Buffa-lypso] and highlights its traits.

  15. Escherichia coli O26 IN RAW BUFFALO MILK: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O26 is considered to be one of the most important food-borne pathogen. In this study, 120 buffalo milk samples collected in Lazio and in Apulia regions were tested for the presence of E. coli O26. One buffalo milk sample (0,8% tested positive for E. coli O26; the isolate was positive at the verocytotoxicity test and it showed resistance properties to different antimicrobial classes. These preliminary results highlight the need to monitor the foods of animal origin used for production and eaten by a wide range of persons, respect VTEC organism.

  16. Effect of sera of normal cycling, pregnant and repeat breeding buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) on in vitro maturation of buffalo, sheep and goat oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony Sabasthin; Sumanta Nandi; Venkataswamy Girish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the oocytes maturation capacity of buffalo, sheep and goat using media containing sera of three different groups of buffaloes (regularly cycling, pregnant and repeat breeding). Methods: The buffalo, sheep and goat oocytes were matured under suitable conditions in medium containing sera of regularly cycling, pregnant and repeat breeding buffaloes. Results:The oocytes maturation rate containing buffalo oocytes cultured in media containing sera of the control group and regularly cycling group were not significantly different. However when oocytes cultured in the media containing sera of pregnant buffaloes the maturation rate were significantly declined. Further significant declined in maturation rate were observed when oocytes cultured in media containing sera of repeat breeding buffaloes. When sheep and goat oocytes cultured in the media containing control, pregnant and regularly cycling animals sera the oocytes maturation rate were not significantly different. A significant decline in maturation rate of sheep and goat oocytes were observed, when oocytes cultured in media containing sera of repeat breeding buffaloes. Conclusion: We may conclude that serum collected from normal cycling buffaloes can be used for oocytes maturation in both homogeneous and heterogeneous species.

  17. Hemato-biochemical and clinico-epidemiological aspects of parturient hemoglobinuria in Nili-Ravi buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available For this study, 60 buffaloes suffering from parturient hemoglobinuria (PHU were randomly selected from field cases occurring in three districts of Punjab, Pakistan and simultaneously, 60 clinically healthy buffaloes of similar description from the same localities were included for case control study. Clinico-epidemiological data were collected. Blood/serum samples from all buffaloes were collected and analyzed. The most prominent clinical sign was passing of red to coffee colored urine. Milk production was reduced and respiration and pulse rates were significantly accelerated. Ruminal motility was significantly weak and reduced along with characteristic straining while defecating. The case fatality was 15%. A significantly high occurrence of PHU was observed in the winter season (41.8%. Maximum number of affected buffaloes (25.0% was in 4th lactation. Twenty-seven (45.0% buffaloes developed hemoglobinuria in the post calving period and majority (59.3% of these were within 1-23 days of calving. Of the 33 (55.0% PHU affected pregnant buffaloes, 18 (54.6% were in their third trimester. The highest cases of PHU were observed in buffaloes producing 10 or more liters of milk/day (42.5%. Recurrence of PHU was observed in 18.3% buffaloes. Mean values of total erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume were lower (P<0.001, while erythrocyte sediment rate was higher (P<0.001 in PHU affected buffaloes as compared to the values in healthy buffaloes. Neutrophils were significantly higher, while lymphocytes and erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD were lower, in PHU affected buffaloes than in healthy buffaloes. Serum phosphorus, copper and selenium were significantly (P<0.001 lower, whereas potassium, iron and molybdenum (P<0.001 were higher in buffaloes suffering from PHU than healthy buffaloes.

  18. Production of wild buffalo (Bubalus arnee) embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer using domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, D; Selokar, N L; Raja, A K; Saini, M; Sahare, A A; Nala, N; Palta, P; Chauhan, M S; Manik, R S; Singla, S K

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the possibility of producing wild buffalo embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) through handmade cloning using wild buffalo somatic cells and domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes. Somatic cells derived from the ear skin of wild buffalo were found to express vimentin but not keratin and cytokeratin-18, indicating that they were of fibroblast origin. The population doubling time of skin fibroblasts from wild buffalo was significantly (p cell proliferation rate was significantly (p cell number (TCN) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower (192.0 ± 25.6 vs 345.7 ± 42.2), and the apoptotic index was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (15.1 ± 3.1 vs 8.0 ± 1.4) for interspecies than that for intraspecies cloned embryos. Following vitrification in open-pulled straws (OPS) and warming, although the cryosurvival rate of both types of cloned embryos, as indicated by their re-expansion rate, was not significantly different (34.8 ± 1.5% vs 47.8 ± 7.8), the apoptotic index was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for vitrified-warmed interspecies than that for corresponding intraspecies cloned embryos (48.9 ± 7.2 vs 23.9 ± 2.8). The global level of H3K18ac was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in interspecies cloned embryos than that in intraspecies cloned embryos. The expression level of HDAC1, DNMT3a and CASPASE3 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher, that of P53 was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in interspecies than in intraspecies embryos, whereas that of DNMT1 was similar between the two types of embryos. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that wild buffalo embryos can be produced by iSCNT.

  19. Microphotokinesigraphic analysis of buffalo spermatozoa II. Photokinesigraphic characteristics of buffalo vibrating spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boichev

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study concerns images of vibrating spermatozoa in the ejaculation of buffalo bulls from Bulgarian murrah breed through the method of Tchakarov and Natchev [1962], obtained at 5 sec exposures, optimal for this particular species. The negative registration material has been developed with high-equalising developer by Windisch, which reduces the glow due to overexposure around highaktinic parts of spermatozoa. On the basis of the positive graphic material – kinesigrams, we have established and analysed the main movement patterns of vibrating spermatozoa: with vibrating tail; with vibrating head; with a vibrating tail and head; with whole bilateral vibration; vibrating in circle; chaotically vibrating. We have described the differences in photokinesigraphic images of spermatozoa within given subclass.

  20. Conservation and Development of Indigenous Knowledge of the Use of Water Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanchai Suwanamphai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The use of water buffalo labor for farming and tie between rice farmers and water buffaloes at present are greatly decreasing because rice farmers give more importance to modern ploughing machines than water buffaloes. Water buffalo rising and traditions and rituals involving them which have been useful to humans for a very long time almost all disappear from Isan (Northeast Thailand. The purposes were to examine current conditions and problems and indigenous knowledge of the use of water buffaloes and to investigate the process of conservation and development of the use of water buffaloes in different forms in Isan. The study was conducted in Isan covering 8 Changwats: Nakhon Phanom, Sakon Nakhon Nong Bua Lam Phu, Udon Thani, Khon Kaen, Ubon Ratchathani, Kalasin and Roi ET. Approach: The qualitative research methodology was used. Data was collected from related literature and field studies using structured and unstructured-interview forms, workshop and focus group discussion with 199 informants. The findings were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: The conservation and development of indigenous knowledge of the use of water buffaloes in all the 8 Changwats of Isan had increasingly changed from the past. For water buffalo conservation at present, they have formed groups in cooperation with government agencies involved according to government policy in each period. The group members are not confident that their own group will be able to sustainably exist due to the factors which are the state policy in other parts involved. Some factors can impact the water buffalo conservation groups such as limited places for water buffalo rising, the buffalo rising places being changed to be pear tree farms, for planting eucalyptus trees and others. The uses of water buffaloes as labor and in different cultural rituals and traditions have decreased because the number of water buffalo risers is small

  1. The Institutionalization of an Internal Change Team: The Buffalo Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, Mike M.; Lafornara, Paul A.

    This paper explores the creation, organizational stages, intervention activities, and outcomes of the School Improvement Resource Team (SIRT) in the Buffalo Public Schools (New York) from 1977 to 1980. Intended primarily to defuse tensions during implementation of court ordered desegregation, the SIRT effort serves as an apparently successful…

  2. Effect of housing system on behavioural activity of lactating buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Grasso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the effect of a pool on behaviour and milk yield, eighty-eight lactating buffalo cows equally allocated to two treatments were used. Group WP was provided with a concrete pool of 208 m2, 36 m2/ head + 10 m2 of outdoor and indoor space allowance, respectively, whereas group NP only received 10 m2. Less animals from group WP were observed idling (P<0.05 compared to buffaloes from group NP, whereas subjects provided with a pool were more often involved in investigative activities (locomotion and exploration than cows without access to it (P< 0.01. A higher number of social interactions (sniffing and nuzzling and allogrooming were observed in group WP than in group NP (P< 0.01 and P< 0.05, respectively. The WP buffalo cows exhibited a higher yield of milk than NP subject (P< 0.05, whereas no differences between the two groups were observed for protein and fat contents. The provision of a pool can have beneficial effects on behaviour and milk production of buffaloes.

  3. Buffalo: Public Attitudes About Crime; A National Crime Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Criminal Justice Information and Statistics Service (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    The National Crime Survey found that about three-fourths of the Buffalo residents perceived national crime as on the upswing, and one-third sensed an increase locally. Fewer than 10% believed crime in either place declined. Most felt their own victimization rate had increased. Fear of criminal attack appeared largely dependent upon the time of day…

  4. A review of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Michael P; McAllister, Milton M; Nasir, Amar; Moore, Dadin P

    2015-09-15

    A number of countries in the world have reported infections with Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), from Africa to Asia, Europe and South America and recently Australia. In general, clinical manifestations (such as abortion) seem rare, which has raised the prospect that buffalo may be inherently resistant to clinical effects of N. caninum infection. Worldwide, the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection (as a measure of exposure determined by the detection of antibody) in buffalo is high, at approximately 48%. This reported seroprevalence is three or four times higher than that reported from the world's cattle populations, which have collective seroprevalence rates of 16.1% for dairy cattle and 11.5% for beef cattle. However, there is a lack of standardisation in seroprevalence studies and some studies may well under-estimate the true level of infection. Epidemiologic evidence supports post-natal transmission, and in utero transmission has also been demonstrated. The causes for water buffalo to have markedly higher seroprevalence but apparently lower neosporosis abortion rates than cattle warrant further investigation.

  5. The role of MC1R gene in buffalo coat color

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) plays a major role in pigmentation in many species.To investigate if the MC1R gene is associated with coat color in water buffalo,the coding region of MC1R gene of 216 buffalo samples was sequenced,which included 49 black river buffalo (Murrah and Nili-Ravi),136 swamp buffalo (Dehong,Diandongnan,Dechang,Guizhou,and Xilin) with white and gray body,and 31 hybrid offspring of river buffalo Nili-Ravi (or Murrah) and swamp buffalo.Among the three variation sites found,SNP684 was synonymous,while SNP310 and SNP384 were nonsynonymous,leading to p.S104G and p.I128M changes,respectively.Only Individuals carrying homozygote EBR/EBR were black.The genotype and phenotype analysis of the hybrid offspring of black river buffalo and gray swamp buffalo further revealed that the river buffalo type allele EBR or the allele carrying the amino acid p.104S was important for the full function of MC1R.The in silico functional analysis showed that the amino acid substitutions p.G104S and p.M128I had significant impact on the function of MC1R.Above results indicate that the allele EBR or the allele carrying the amino acid p.104S was associated with the black coat color in buffalo.

  6. DGGE analysis of buffalo manure eubacteria for hydrogen production: effect of pH, temperature and pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillo, Petronia; Carotenuto, Claudia; Di Cristofaro, Filomena; Kafantaris, Ioannis; Lubritto, Carmine; Minale, Mario; Morrone, Biagio; Papa, Stefania; Woodrow, Pasqualina

    2012-12-01

    Buffalo dung is a low-cost substrate with plenty of carbohydrates, an optimal carbon/nitrogen ratio, and a rich microbial flora, and could become a valuable source of biogas. Therefore, in the present study we compared the type and amount of specific eubacteria to the different configurations of pH, temperature and thermal pretreatment after fermentation in batch reactors in order to understand the suitability of buffalo manure for hydrogen production. The phylogenetic structure of the microbial community in fermentation samples was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to generate fingerprints of 16S rRNA genes. The sequences analysis revealed abundance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and in particular of the order Clostridiales. Very active hydrogen producing bacteria belonging to Clostridium cellulosi species were identified demonstrating the suitability of this substrate to produce hydrogen. Moreover, a large fraction of 16S-rDNA amplicons could not be assigned to lower taxonomic ranks, demonstrating that numerous microorganisms involved in anaerobic fermentation in digesters or bioreactors are still unclassified or unknown.

  7. Multifunctional reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much

  8. Microsatellite markers of water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis - development, characterisation and linkage disequilibrium studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidhegi R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite markers are highly polymorphic and widely used in genome mapping and population genetic studies in livestock species. River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is an economically important livestock species, though only a limited number of microsatellite markers have been reported thus far in this species. Results In the present study, using two different approaches 571 microsatellite markers have been characterized for water buffalo. Of the 571 microsatellite markers, 498 were polymorphic with average heterozygosity of 0.51 on a panel of 24 unrelated buffalo. Fisher exact test was used to detect LD between the marker pairs. Among the 137550 pairs of marker combination, 14.58% pairs showed significant LD (P Conclusion The high conservation of cattle microsatellite loci in water buffalo promises the usefulness of the cattle microsatellites markers on buffalo. The polymorphic markers characterised in this study will contribute to genetic linkage and radiation hybrid mapping of water buffalo and population genetic studies.

  9. Evaluation of quality and shelf life of buffalo meat keema at refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeepan, G; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Kondaiah, N; Mendiratta, S K; Rajkumar, R S

    2013-12-01

    Scientific basis on the quality changes of traditional keema will boost and sustain meat production and utilization in buffalo abundant countries. A programme was undertaken to determine the influence of age and gender on the quality of buffalo meat keema at refrigerator storage (4 ± 1 °C). Buffalo meat keema was evaluated by analyzing the changes in physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes. The product characteristics and acceptability of keema were better in spent buffalo group than young male group. The values of pH, TBARS, total aerobic mesophils, coliforms, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus aureus, anaerobic and psychrophilic counts of buffalo meat keema increased but appearance, flavour, juiciness, tenderness, connective tissue residue and overall acceptability scores decreased with progressing refrigerated storage. The shelf life of refrigerated buffalo meat keema was 18 days with an overall acceptability score ranging from extremely acceptable to moderately acceptable.

  10. Abortion and foetal lesions induced by Neospora caninum in experimentally infected water buffalos (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chryssafidis, Andreas L; Cantón, Germán; Chianini, Francesca; Innes, Elisabeth A; Madureira, Ed H; Soares, Rodrigo M; Gennari, Solange M

    2015-01-01

    The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an important species in several countries for its milk and meat production, as well as for transport and other agricultural activities. It is, in general, considered more resistant than cattle to different parasitic diseases, also less demanding for forage quality. It has been postulated that buffalo may be resistant to abortion caused by neosporosis, because of high serological prevalences found in buffalo herds from different localities, with no description of Neospora caninum-related abortion. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential impact of neosporosis in pregnant water buffalo cows. In this work, three pregnant buffalo cows were experimentally infected with Nc-1 strain of N. caninum, and abortion was detected 35 days post-infection. Molecular and histopathological results found in post-mortem tissues are described and discussed, confirming the susceptibility of water buffalos to abortion caused by N. caninum.

  11. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Bishop

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo, which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo, using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. ‘Deep 454 pyrosequencing’ of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo. This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo. Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo. is a distinct species from T. parva.

  12. Reactor vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A

    1999-01-01

    A reactor vessel (1) comprises a reactor body (2) through which channels (3) are provided whose surface comprises longitudinal inwardly directed parts (4) and is provided with a catalyst (6), as well as buffer bodies (8, 12) connected to the channels (3) on both sides of the reactor body (2) and comprising connections for supplying (9, 10, 11) and discharging (13, 14, 15) via the channels (3) gases and/or liquids entering into a reaction with each other and substances formed upon this reactio...

  13. New approaches in buffalo artificial insemination programs with special reference to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjeet; Balhara, A K

    2016-07-01

    Buffalo farming has made remarkable progress in productivity mainly because of controlled breeding with artificial insemination (AI) that has proved its worth in breed improvement and breeding managements across the livestock species. Artificial insemination is practiced very little in Europe and East Asian countries with coverage of only 5% buffaloes in Italy, 3.7% in Azerbaijan, 0.3% in Egypt, and 0.1% in Romania although in Bulgaria, 80% buffaloes in large cooperative state farms are subjected to AI. In Turkey, it began in 2002 near Hatay with Italian semen provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Network project. In India, where buffaloes are the most valuable livestock species, research on buffalo specific artificial breeding technologies and adoption of AI by buffalo owners are widely acknowledged. Resultantly, average milk yield of buffaloes in India increased from 3.4 kg in 1992 to 93 to 4.57 kg/day/buffalo in 2009 to 10. In the new millennium, mega projects such as the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding and the National Dairy Plan were initiated with focus on genetic upgradation of bovine and buffalo population through streamlining AI services and support system in the country. Artificial insemination started in India in the year 1939, and the frozen semen was introduced during late 1960s. During the year 2010 to 11, India produced 63 million bovine frozen semen straws including over one million buffalo semen straws through 49 semen stations. Artificial insemination services are provided through 71,341 AI stations clocking 52 million inseminations with overall conception rate of 35% in bovine and buffalo population. Research is being conducted for improved AI conception rates with synchronization programs and improved frozen-thawed semen quality, and success rates are at par with AI in cattle.

  14. Comparative analysis of SNP candidates in disparate milk yielding river buffaloes using targeted sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Ramesh; Anand B. Patel; Joshi, Chaitanya

    2016-01-01

    River buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk plays an important role in economy and nutritious diet in several developing countries. However, reliable milk-yield genomic markers and their functional insights remain unexposed. Here, we have used a target capture sequencing approach in three economically important buffalo breeds namely: Banni, Jafrabadi and Mehsani, belonging to either high or low milk-yield group. Blood samples were collected from the milk-yield/breed balanced group of 12 buffaloes, a...

  15. Genetic diversity in Trypanosoma theileri from Sri Lankan cattle and water buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Fukushi, Shintaro; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Tuvshintulga, Bumduuren; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru

    2015-01-30

    Trypanosoma theileri is a hemoprotozoan parasite that infects various ruminant species. We investigated the epidemiology of this parasite among cattle and water buffalo populations bred in Sri Lanka, using a diagnostic PCR assay based on the cathepsin L-like protein (CATL) gene. Blood DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=316) and water buffaloes (n=320) bred in different geographical areas of Sri Lanka were PCR screened for T. theileri. Parasite DNA was detected in cattle and water buffaloes alike in all the sampling locations. The overall T. theileri-positive rate was higher in water buffaloes (15.9%) than in cattle (7.6%). Subsequently, PCR amplicons were sequenced and the partial CATL sequences were phylogenetically analyzed. The identity values for the CATL gene were 89.6-99.7% among the cattle-derived sequences, compared with values of 90.7-100% for the buffalo-derived sequences. However, the cattle-derived sequences shared 88.2-100% identity values with those from buffaloes. In the phylogenetic tree, the Sri Lankan CATL gene sequences fell into two major clades (TthI and TthII), both of which contain CATL sequences from several other countries. Although most of the CATL sequences from Sri Lankan cattle and buffaloes clustered independently, two buffalo-derived sequences were observed to be closely related to those of the Sri Lankan cattle. Furthermore, a Sri Lankan buffalo sequence clustered with CATL gene sequences from Brazilian buffalo and Thai cattle. In addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of T. theileri among Sri Lankan-bred cattle and water buffaloes, the present study found that some of the CATL gene fragments sourced from water buffaloes shared similarity with those determined from cattle in this country.

  16. Cloning and sequencing of Indian Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) interleukin-3 cDNA

    KAUST Repository

    Sugumar, Thennarasu

    2011-12-12

    Full-length cDNA (435 bp) of the interleukin-3(IL-3) gene of the Indian water buffalo was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. This sequence had 96% nucleotide identity and 92% amino acid identity with bovine IL-3. There are 10 amino acid substitutions in buffalo compared with that of bovine. The amino acid sequence of buffalo IL-3 also showed very high identity with that of other ruminants, indicating functional cross-reactivity. Structural homology modelling of buffalo IL-3 protein with human IL-3 showed the presence of five helical structures.

  17. Comparison of quality attributes of buffalo meat curry at different storage temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurunathan Kandeepan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The product quality of curry is determined by the food animal source, raw materials and the method of processing. Moreover the scientific information on processing and quality of traditional buffalo meat curry from different groups of buffaloes is not available. This study was undertaken to develop processed curry from different buffalo groups and to compare its quality during storage at ambient and refrigeration temperature. Material and methods. The meat samples were collected from the longissimus dorsi muscle of the carcasses from each group of buffaloes slaughtered according to the traditional halal method. Buffalo meat curry was prepared in a pressure cooker with the standardized formulation. This final product was subjected to evaluation of quality and shelf life. Results. To evaluate the effect of different groups of meat samples on the quality of curry, product yield, pH, proximate composition, water activity (aw, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, calorific value, sensory attributes and microbiological assay were determined The energy of meat curry from young buffaloes was significantly lower than the meat curry from spent animal groups. The overall acceptability of curry decreased significantly during 3 days ambient storage compared to refrigeration storage. Conclusions. Scientific processing by adopting good manufacturing practices and suitable packaging helped greatly to improve the shelf life of the ambient temperature stored buffalo meat curry. Buffalo meat curry from young male group showed better product characteristics and overall acceptability scores than spent buffalo group.

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  19. Reactor Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Bong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very recently the most precise determination of the neutrino mixing angle θ13. This paper provides an overview of the upcoming experiments and of the projects under development, including the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible use of neutrinos for society, for nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and geophysics.

  20. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  1. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lasserre, T.; Sobel, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrin...

  2. Milk flow traits of buffalo cows in intensive farming system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zucali

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The particular morphology of buffalo udder is associated to milking difficulties. To better understandthe characteristics of milk ejection in buffaloes, a study was conducted in an intensive farm in Lombardy, Italy. Atotal of 184 milk flow profiles were measured with an electronic flow meter. The results showed that during the first3 minutes of milking 73% of total milk yield was milked; lag time of milk ejection (1.94 min ± 1.57 was very longand increased significantly with the increasing of lactation stage. The overmilking phase has also a long duration(33% of total milking time, on average. Administration of oxytocin before milking did not significantly affect milkflow parameters and machine on-time. The results suggested that proper pre-milking stimulation and prompt clustertakeoff could improve milking efficiency, ensuring good milk letdown and protecting teat conditions.

  3. PCR detection of Neospora caninum in water buffalo foetal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriemma, Clementina; Lucibelli, Maria Gabriella; Borriello, Giorgia; De Carlo, Esterina; Martucciello, Alessandra; Schiavo, Lorena; Gallo, Amalia; Bove, Francesca; Corrado, Federica; Girardi, Santa; Amoroso, Maria Grazia; Ďegli Uberti, Barbara; Galiero, Giorgio

    2014-03-01

    The seroprevalence of Neospora caninum was surveyed by an ELISA kit on two water buffalo herds of Southern Italy. Seropositive samples were detected in 47% and 59% of individuals, respectively, thus indicating high level of exposure to the parasite even if the possibility of vertical transmission cannot be excluded. Tissue samples collected from three aborted fetuses from the same herds were investigated for N. caninum presence by PCR assays targeting the 18S and the Nc5 DNA sequences, respectively. Both methods have shown the presence of N. caninum DNA in heart and brain. Sequencing of the Nc5 genomic DNA confirmed the presence of N. caninum in the samples; phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences showed high homology among the Neospora recovered from different samples. The present study suggests an important role of N. caninum as a possible abortive agent for water buffaloes.

  4. Relationship between lactodinamographic and characteristics of buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Potena

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between 44 components and/or characteristics of milk samples collected every 50 days from 60 buffaloes (326 samples and 14,344 values. The animals were half sib (same father or same mother and were bred in two farms. Significant associations but with a low values of coefficient of correlation were present, demonstrating that lactodinamographic parameters marginally affect cheese yield.

  5. Histopathological and Serological Studies on Paratuberculosis in Cattle and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab Sikandar*, AH Cheema1, M Younus2, A Aslam1, MA Zaman2 and T Rehman3

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis (Johne’s diseases is responsible for massive economic losses to dairy industry, both in the industrially advanced as well as in the developing countries. To detect its occurrence in cattle and buffaloes locally, blood and tissue samples from clinically weak and grossly suspected slaughtered animals were collected from two abattoirs of Jhang, municipal area, Pakistan. Acid-fast smear staining, gross/histopathology and indirect ELISA were done for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Total 134 samples illustrating gross pathological lesions were collected, only 11.19% (cattle: 6.67%, buffaloes: 12.5% showed acid fast bacilli through smear staining and were taken as confirmed cases. Thickening of intestines alone was not a reliable indicator of Johne’s disease. Tissue sections from intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes from these acid fast positive animals were stained with hematoxylin & eosin (H&E and Ziehl Neelsen (ZN methods. Sum of (15/134 impression smear staining as well as (15/15 tissue sections of the intestines were found ZN positive, and only 6.7% of impression smears and 100% of tissue sections of mesenteric lymph nodes showed acid fast bacilli. Through ELISA, two cattle and five buffaloes (07/134 gave positive optical densities, while one cattle and seven buffaloes (08/134 were judged as doubtful. It is concluded that infection of MAP can be identified by histopathology and ELISA. The present study was the first record of paratuberculosis among the dairy animals slaughtered at Jhang abattoirs. The objective was to compare different methods for the diagnosis of Johne’s disease.

  6. Reactor Materials Program: Mechanical properties of irradiated Types 304 and 304L stainless steel weldment components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The vessels (reactor tanks) of the Savannah River Site nuclear production reactors constructed in the 1950`s are comprised of Type 304 stainless steel with Type 308 stainless steel weld filler. Irradiation exposure to the reactor tank sidewalls through reactor operation has caused a change in the mechanical properties of these materials. A database of as-irradiated mechanical properties for site-specific materials and irradiation conditions has been produced for reactor tank structural analyses and to quantify the effects of radiation-induced materials degradation for evaluating reactor service life. The data has been collected from the SRL Reactor Materials Program (RMP) irradiations and testing of archival stainless steel weldment components and from previous SRL programs to measure properties of irradiated reactor Thermal Shield weldments and reactor tank (R-tank) sidewall material. Irradiation programs of the RMP are designed to quantify mechanical properties at tank operating temperatures following irradiation to present and future tank wall maximum exposure conditions. The exposure conditions are characterized in terms of fast neutron fluence (E{sub n} > 0.1 MeV) and displacements per atom (dpa){sup 3}. Tensile properties, Charpy-V notch toughness, and elastic-plastic fracture toughness were measured for base, weld, and weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) weldment components from archival piping specimens following a Screening Irradiation in the University of Buffalo Reactor (UBR) and following a Full-Term Irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR).

  7. Reactor Materials Program: Mechanical properties of irradiated Types 304 and 304L stainless steel weldment components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The vessels (reactor tanks) of the Savannah River Site nuclear production reactors constructed in the 1950's are comprised of Type 304 stainless steel with Type 308 stainless steel weld filler. Irradiation exposure to the reactor tank sidewalls through reactor operation has caused a change in the mechanical properties of these materials. A database of as-irradiated mechanical properties for site-specific materials and irradiation conditions has been produced for reactor tank structural analyses and to quantify the effects of radiation-induced materials degradation for evaluating reactor service life. The data has been collected from the SRL Reactor Materials Program (RMP) irradiations and testing of archival stainless steel weldment components and from previous SRL programs to measure properties of irradiated reactor Thermal Shield weldments and reactor tank (R-tank) sidewall material. Irradiation programs of the RMP are designed to quantify mechanical properties at tank operating temperatures following irradiation to present and future tank wall maximum exposure conditions. The exposure conditions are characterized in terms of fast neutron fluence (E{sub n} > 0.1 MeV) and displacements per atom (dpa){sup 3}. Tensile properties, Charpy-V notch toughness, and elastic-plastic fracture toughness were measured for base, weld, and weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) weldment components from archival piping specimens following a Screening Irradiation in the University of Buffalo Reactor (UBR) and following a Full-Term Irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR).

  8. A combinatorial model for effective estrus detection in Murrah buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramu Muthu Selvam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Buffaloes are silent heat animals and lacunae in their estrus detection results a substantial economic loss in developing countries. Many advanced tools to aid heat detection have been developed but are neither affordable nor easily interpretable by marginal farmers. Aim: The present investigation was made to develop a cost-effective estrus detection model by combining several known estrus predicting parameters. Materials and Methods: Various signs of estrus were classified under major parameters such as visual, cow behavioral, bull behavioral, biochemical, and gyneco-clinical. Expression of those parameters was observed in buffaloes, and the percentage of positive estrus detection was calculated for each combination of estrus prediction parameters. Results: The present result concludes that the model comprises of five parameters group with several signals with twentysix different combinations. It was observed that the expression of individual combinations and their corresponding estrus detection efficiency varies significantly, i.e., detection efficiency rises as the number of combination increases. Conclusion: Combination of three parameters would provide an estrus detection efficiency >70% and suggested for an easy estrus detection. This would be a cost-effective model for farmers and benefits in enhancing buffalo population/reproduction.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin, after single intravenous administrations, in buffaloes calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. San Andrés

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Marbofloxacin is a synthetic, bactericidal antimicrobial, belonging to the fluoroquinolone group which acts by inhibition of DNA gyrase and those acts by concentration dependant killing mechanism, so high plasma concentration initially is important. This drug is a fluoroquinolone developed exclusively for veterinary use, and exhibit high bactericidal activity against a broad spectrum of aerobic gram-negative, some gram-positive bacteria and Mycoplasma spp. The pharmacokinetic behaviour of marbofloxacin was investigated after intravenous (2 mg/kg in five clinically healthy buffaloes (10 days-old. Plasma concentrations of the marbofloxacin were determined by a HPLC/ u.v. method. After intravenous administration, marbofloxacin in buffaloes was characterized by a AUC = 8,42±3,71 μg·h/ml, a large volume of distribution (Vss=1.59±0.55 L/kg and a long persistence with an elimination half-life (t½λ of 4.6±0,31 h, and MRT 5,90±0,57h. Furthermore, marbofloxacin in buffaloes was characterized by a relatively low total body clearance (Cl of 0.28±0.12 L/kg·h.

  10. Milk protein and cheese yield in buffalo species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Di Palo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo milk samples differing significantly for cheese yield values were analysed by 2D electrophoresis in order to outline a protein profile, with specific regards to k-casein fractions. Four buffaloes, two of which showing high cheese yield and two with low cheese yield selected from a group of 135 subjects were chosen for the proteomic analyses. Six main spots in 2D gels were recognized as αs1-, αs2-, β- and k-casein, α-lactoalbumin, β-lactoglobulin. The main visible differences in the 2D gels between buffaloes with high vs. low cheese yield were found in the appearance of the four k-casein spots (spots numbers:20, 19, 16, 18 which differ in the number of phosphorilation and glycosilation. The area and the intensity of the four spots were calculated by using Melanie II (Bio-Rad software. Samples with high cheese yield showed higher value of the by-products: area x intensity of spot 16, correspondent to k-casein with one phosphorilation site, and lower values of spots 19 and 20, of k-casein with more than one phosphorilation site and glycosilated.

  11. A combinatorial model for effective estrus detection in Murrah buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Ramu Muthu; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2017-01-01

    Background: Buffaloes are silent heat animals and lacunae in their estrus detection results a substantial economic loss in developing countries. Many advanced tools to aid heat detection have been developed but are neither affordable nor easily interpretable by marginal farmers. Aim: The present investigation was made to develop a cost-effective estrus detection model by combining several known estrus predicting parameters. Materials and Methods: Various signs of estrus were classified under major parameters such as visual, cow behavioral, bull behavioral, biochemical, and gyneco-clinical. Expression of those parameters was observed in buffaloes, and the percentage of positive estrus detection was calculated for each combination of estrus prediction parameters. Results: The present result concludes that the model comprises of five parameters group with several signals with twenty-six different combinations. It was observed that the expression of individual combinations and their corresponding estrus detection efficiency varies significantly, i.e., detection efficiency rises as the number of combination increases. Conclusion: Combination of three parameters would provide an estrus detection efficiency >70% and suggested for an easy estrus detection. This would be a cost-effective model for farmers and benefits in enhancing buffalo population/reproduction. PMID:28344404

  12. Comparative clinicopathological changes in buffalo and cattle following infection by Pasteurella multocida B:2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, S; Zamri-Saad, M; Jesse, F F A; Zunita, Z

    2015-11-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffalo of Asia and Africa caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 or E:2. Buffaloes are believed to be more susceptible than cattle. In this study, 9 buffaloes of 8 months old were divided equally into 3 groups (Groups 1, 3, 5). Similarly, 9 cattle of 8 months old were equally divided into 3 groups (Groups 2, 4, 6). Animals of Groups 1 and 2 were inoculated with PBS while Groups 3 and 4 were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(5) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2. Animals of Groups 5 and 6 were inoculated intranasally with the same inoculum. Both buffaloes and cattle that were inoculated subcutaneously succumbed to the infection at 16 h and 18 h, respectively. Two buffaloes that were inoculated intranasally (Group 5) succumbed at 68 h while the remaining cattle and buffaloes survived the 72-h study period. Endotoxin was detected in the blood of infected cattle (Group 4) and buffaloes (Groups 3 and 5) prior to the detection of P. multocida B:2 in the blood. The endotoxin was detected in the blood of buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 at 0.5 h post-inoculation while buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6 at 1.5 h. On the other hand, bacteraemia was detected at 2.5 h in buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 and at 12 h in buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6. Affected cattle and buffaloes showed lesions typical of haemorrhagic septicaemia. These included congestion and haemorrhages in the organs of respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts with evidence of acute inflammatory reactions. The severity of gross and histopathology lesions in cattle and buffalo calves that succumbed to the infection showed insignificant (p > 0.05) difference. However, inoculated buffalo and cattle that survived the infection showed significantly (p cattle are more resistant to intranasal infection by P. multocida B:2 than buffaloes.

  13. The behaviour and welfare of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in modern dairy enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, F; Pacelli, C; Grasso, F; Braghieri, A; De Rosa, G

    2013-10-01

    This review deals with the behaviour of river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), in confinement and in extensive conditions, also focusing on the effects of different housing and rearing conditions on their welfare. The behavioural repertoire expressed by buffaloes in extensive and intensive conditions is similar to those displayed by other domestic ruminants. However, through natural selection, buffaloes have also acquired several morphological, physiological and behavioural (i.e. wallowing) adaptations to hot climatic conditions. Buffaloes kept in intensive conditions and having no access to pasture and water for wallowing extend their periods of idling and are less often involved in investigative activities. Confinement is also associated with a reduction of space; however, no specific studies have been carried out to determine the specific requirements of this species. Space restriction can adversely affect various aspects of buffalo welfare, such as health (increased levels of lesions and injuries), social behaviour (increased number of agonistic interactions) and heat dissipation. The buffaloes, originating from tropical areas, are well adapted to large variations in food availability and quality, and to dietetic unbalances. As to human animal relationship, it has been observed that the incidence of stepping and kicking behaviour of buffaloes in the milking parlour is positively correlated with the frequency of oxytocin injections, whereas the frequency of positive stockperson interactions with the animals such as talking quietly, petting and gentle touching are negatively correlated with the number of kicks during milking. Data from farms where both dairy cattle and buffaloes are present show that avoidance distance measured in the pen is lower in buffaloes than in cattle. This may be attributed to the fact that buffaloes are generally recognised to be curious animals. Finally, the effects of different farming practices on animal-related indicators are described

  14. Sex and age data from cropping of Buffalo Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R Mason

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex and age classifications of buffalo cropped in the Kruger National Park suggest that cropping is biased towards females, and prime breeding individuals of both sexes are apparently under-represented. The implications are discussed in relation to buffalo social organisation and comparative data on population structure.

  15. Evidence of cell mediated immune response in infection with Eimeria bareillyi in buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, P K; Ruprah, N S; Chhabra, M B

    1985-01-01

    Delayed dermal hypersensitivity and leucocyte migrations were measured in buffalo calves experimentally inoculated with Eimeria bareillyi. Dermal hypersensitivity, characterized by increased thickness and local inflammation, was observed in calves inoculated intradermally with E. bareillyi antigen on Days 21 and 28 after infection. The highest inhibition of leucocyte migration was observed in infected buffalo calves on Days 21 and 28 post-infection.

  16. 76 FR 27182 - Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... United States Mint Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases AGENCY... announcing the price increase of the American Eagle/Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases. A lot of 100 presentation cases will be offered for sale at a price of $299.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B. B....

  17. Comparison of Fatty Acid and Cholesterol Content of Pakistani Water Buffalo Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Bhanger

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study evaluates the milk fatty acid (FA composition and cholesterol content of two main Pakistani dairy breeds water buffaloes, i.e. Kundi and Nili-Ravi (n = 25 for each breed. The buffaloes were housed together and received the same diet. The results show a significant variation (P < 0.05 in the FA content of the two breeds. The milk fat of Kundi buffalo was found to contain significantly lower (P < 0.05 amount of saturated fatty acid content than Nili-Ravi buffaloes (66.96 and 69.09 g/100 g. Determined mean monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA contents (27.62 vs. 25.20 g/100g and total trans fatty acids (3.48 vs. 2.48 were significantly elevated (P < 0.05 in the milk fat of Kundi buffaloes. Amount of fat and conjugated linoleic acid content was higher (P = 0.04 in Kundi buffalo as compared to Nili-Ravi buffaloes (7.00 vs. 7.78 g /100g and 0.80 vs. 0.71g / 100g, while cholesterol content was not different among both breeds ranging from 8.89 – 10.24 mg /dl. Present studies show that in future genetic selection programs along with altered buffalo nutrition may be able to result in optimum levels of various fatty acids in milk.

  18. Call to Conserve the Wild Water Buffalo (Bubalus Arnee in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut ARYAL

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild water buffaloes (Bubalus arnee are categorized as endangered on the IUCN Red List. With a global population of less than 4,000, the species has a very limited distribution spanning over less than 20,000 km2 in Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand and Bhutan. In Nepal, Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve was designated for wild Asian buffalo; this reserve contains approximately 219 individuals, although there is no precise information on the number of pure-bred wild buffalo. The conservation of wild buffalo is of global concern; there are numerous threats due to habitat fragmentation, as well as competition, hybridization, habitat overlap, disease and parasites transmitted by domestic livestock. The reserve provides an area of only 0.80 km2 per buffalo, which is insufficient maintaining a viable population of wild buffalo. It is therefore important to identify further potential habitat and to begin translocation of some of the individuals. A Wild Buffalo Conservation Alliance can play a key role in influencing conservation strategies by conducting detailed research including feasibility studies on translocation, developing awareness, holding workshops and preparing a conservation action plan. In this way the alliance can help to increase the number of wild buffaloes and to maintain a viable population of the species.

  19. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 Section 162.175 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed...

  20. Strategies for Increasing Buffalo Productivity through Improvement in Feed and Genetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalid Talib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo is indigenous livestock of Asia, classified as beef buffaloes that evolve in Southeast Asia and China and dairy buffaloes exist in Indo-Pakistan and Mediteranian. In Indonesia, beef buffaloes are known as swamp buffalo and there are seven new buffalo breeds namely Pampangan, Sumbawa, Moa, Toraya, Simelue, East Kalimantan and South Kalimantan. Buffaloes are reared in extensive traditional system characterized by low growth rate and reproduction ability due to feed shortage and high inbreeding rate. Feed improvements in female is required to get dry matter intake 2.5-2.7% of body weight (BW that consist of 70% roughage and 30% concentrates, will show a clear sign of estrus. In the male when feed consumption is 2.7-3.5% of BW; it will perform growth rate of 0.6 kg/head/day. Genetic improvement is conducted through selection based on BW in certain ages, reproduction ability and parents without recessive alleles. Distribution of proven bulls and their sperm in outbreeding system would improve the production and reproduction performance, reduce inbreeding level and increase breeding farmer’s income. It is expected that in the long term, the population of buffaloes in Indonesia will increase.

  1. Karyotypic evolution of ribosomal sites in buffalo subspecies and their crossbreed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Marafiga Degrandi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic buffaloes are divided into two group based on cytogenetic characteristics and habitats: the "river buffaloes" with 2n = 50 and the "swamp buffaloes", 2n = 48. Nevertheless, their hybrids are viable, fertile and identified by a 2n = 49. In order to have a better characterization of these different cytotypes of buffaloes, and considering that NOR-bearing chromosomes are involved in the rearrangements responsible for the karyotypic differences, we applied silver staining (Ag-NOR and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH experiments using 18S rDNA as probe. Metaphases were obtained through blood lymphocyte culture of 21 individuals, including river, swamp and hybrid cytotypes. Ag-NOR staining revealed active NORs on six chromosome pairs (3p, 4p, 6, 21, 23, 24 in the river buffaloes, whereas the swamp buffaloes presented only five NOR-bearing pairs (4p, 6, 20, 22, 23. The F1 crossbreed had 11 chromosomes with active NORs, indicating expression of both parental chromosomes. FISH analysis confirmed the numerical divergence identified with Ag-NOR. This result is explained by the loss of the NOR located on chromosome 4p in the river buffalo, which is involved in the tandem fusion with chromosome 9 in this subspecies. A comparison with the ancestral cattle karyotype suggests that the NOR found on the 3p of the river buffalo may have originated from a duplication of ribosomal genes, resulting in the formation of new NOR sites in this subspecies.

  2. Induction of ovulatory oestrus in true anoestrous buffaloes during low breeding season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nassir Hussain Shah, S.; Willemse, A.H.; Wiel, D.F.M. van der

    1987-01-01

    A fertility treatment trial of anoestrous buffaloes was undertaken on a well managed dairy farm in the low breeding season. Forty lactating buffaloes, 12 each from first and second parity and 16 from third or higher parity, not seen in oestrus for at least 3 to 5 months were diagnosed anoestrous by

  3. Transforming Swamp Buffaloes to Producers of Milk and Meat Through Crossbreeding and Backcrossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L C Cruz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There are two major types of water buffaloes in the world, the riverine type and the swamp type. The total number of Swamp buffalo is 37.6 M and represents 21.8% of the world’s buffalo population. The swamp buffaloes have played a major role in draft animal-dependent farming system. But intensified rice production became more pronounced in irrigated areas and this has led to increased utilization of small farm machineries, displacing significantly the draft buffaloes for land tillage. To some extent, the introduction of tractors for land preparation and transport for corn, sugarcane and other crops in production areas has similar effect. Utilization of the existing population of swamp buffaloes to meet the growing domestic demand for milk and meat, against the background of increasing farm mechanization, is a good reason to transform the huge number of draft animals into producers of milk and meat. According to the UNDP/FAO-assisted project in the Philippines carried from 1982 to 1998, that crossing swamp buffalo and riverine buffaloes, despite the differences in chromosome numbers, is producing crossbreds with high growth rate potentials and milk production abilities several folds over the swamp buffalo parents. The known fact that swamp and riverine buffaloes have different chromosome number, the diploid chromosome number of the swamp buffalo is 48 and that of the river buffalo is 50. When crossbreeding between the 2 buffalo types occur, males and females of the F1 generation are heterozygous for the fusion and are apparently fertile with chromosome 2n = 49. Three-way crossbred hybrids were obtained by (native buffalo x Murrah x Nili Ravi or (native buffalo x Nili Ravi x Murrah. They had two chromosome categories viz. 2n=49 and 2n=50, respectively. Crossbreeding Swamp with Riverine Breed is done for quality beef. Most of the NT produced TenderBuff is farm-bred or purchased from other suppliers as swamp buffalo yearlings and growth out for a

  4. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Buffalo Skin for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa A. Rizk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Collagen is widely used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications due to its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and weak antigenicity. However, applicability is limited due to its high cost and probability of disease transmission from the current sources, which are bovine and porcine. In the present study, collagen was extracted from 6 months buffalo skins as alternative save sources. Collagen was characterized by different physico-chemical techniques like ATR-FTIR, Raman, SEM, DSC and amino acids analysis. Proline and hydroxyproline contents of buffalo skin collagen were higher than those of calf skin collagen. Thermal stability of buffalo skin collagen is high with respect to that of calf skin collagen. The obtained buffalo skin collagen shows higher stiffness upon cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Thus buffalo skin collagen can be used for fabrication of high strength bioactive sponge and sheets for medical applications, like scaffold for tissue engineering, drug delivery and wound dressing system.

  5. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEERASOORIYA, Gayani; SIVAKUMAR, Thillaiampalam; LAN, Dinh Thi Bich; LONG, Phung Thang; TAKEMAE, Hitoshi; IGARASHI, Ikuo; INOUE, Noboru; YOKOYAMA, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water buffalo-derived T. theileri CATL sequences clustered together with a previously reported cattle-derived sequence from Vietnam. This is the first report of a new Babesia sp. in cattle, and T. orientalis MPSP genotype 7 and T. theileri in water buffalo in Vietnam. PMID:27149894

  6. Estrus induction and Fertility response in true anestrus buffaloes using lugolAND#8217;s iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Gupta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to see the efficacy of lugol's iodine for the initiation of ovarian cyclicity in post-partum true anestrus buffaloes. Confirmation of true anestrus in 30 buffaloes was done by finding smooth ovaries at rectal examination, out of 30, 15 buffaloes was treated with Lugol's iodine (1:50 ratio @ 30ml I/U once only whereas, the remaining 15 buffaloes were serve as control for treated group and no treatment was given to such animals. The result for induction of estrus was 73.34 %( 11/15 and the conception rate was 53.33% (8/15. This result shows that there are better possibilities of inducing ovarian cyclicity in functionally anestrus buffaloes and its cost effectiveness. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 77-78

  7. QUARTER-WISE COMPARATIVE PREVALENCE OF MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES AND CROSSBRED COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Khan and G. Muhammad1

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical mastitis was observed in 36%, clinical mastitis in 5.5% and blind quarters in 8% quarters. Prevalence was higher (32% in hindquarters of crossbred cows than those of buffaloes (29%. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest (45% frequency, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23%, E. coli (18% and Bacillus spp. (14% in buffaloes. In case of crossbred cows, Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , E. coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 48, 30, 13 and 8% milk samples respectively.

  8. Physical and chemical composition of swamp and water buffalo milk: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. R. Siddiki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out to compare the physical and chemical parameters of Swamp and Water buffalo milk collected from Senbari village in Trishal Upazila under Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. Results revealed that average color, flavor and taste score of Swamp and Water buffalo milk differed significantly (P0.05 with Water buffalo milk. Texture of all samples was normal. It was observed that average fat, total solids (TS, solids-not-fat (SNF and protein content differed significantly (P0.05 were found among, acidity, water. From these results, it may be inferred that the quality of Swamp buffalo milk is superior to that of Water buffalo milk.

  9. Sonochemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  10. Economic and Technical Feasibility Study of Utility-Scale Wind Generation for the New York Buffalo River and South Buffalo Brownfield Opportunity Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing contaminated lands in the Buffalo, New York, area for utility-scale wind development is explored. The study found that there is available land, electrical infrastructure, wind resource, and local interest to support a commercial wind project; however, economies of scale and local electrical markets may need further investigation before significant investment is made into developing a wind project at the Buffalo Reuse Authority site.

  11. Mortality pattern of Murrah buffalo males in an organised herd

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    Pushp Raj Shivahre

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to analyze mortality pattern in Murrah buffalo males in National Dairy Research Institute herd. Materials and Methods: Records of 1029 Murrah buffalo males born during the period 1997-2012, at NDRI, Karnal, were analyzed to study mortality pattern in different age groups. The percent of animal disposed from the herd due to different reasons was calculated by proportion using descriptive statistics. Results: The overall percent mortality in 0-1m, 1-2m, 2-3m, 3-6m, 6-18m, 18m-3 yr and >3 year age groups were 17.49, 5.99, 3.34, 5.42, 6.35, 2.59 and 3.93, respectively. The main cause of mortality in 0-1, 1-2, 2-3 and 6-18 m of age groups was respiratory problems (6.61%, 1.79%, 1.06% and 1.97% respectively. Main causes of mortality in age group 3-6 months were general debility (1.57% followed by respiratory and digestive problems (1.22%, miscellaneous (0.87%, liver and urinary problems (0.17%. Mortality could not reveal any consistent trend across different seasons and period of birth. General debility (1.29% followed by toxemia, liver problems and miscellaneous reasons were main causes of mortality in age group 18 m – 3 yr of age. In males above three years of age, general debility (2.81% followed by respiratory problems (1.12% were the main causes of mortality. Conclusion: Intensive health care and management is required for young male buffalo calves especially in hot humid months of rainy season and cold inclement weather conditions in winter months to minimize mortality due to respiratory and digestive problems.

  12. Improving Methane Production through Co-Digestion of Canola Straw and Buffalo Dung by H2O2 Pretreatment

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    ALTAF ALAM NOONARI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study an effect of acidic pre-treatment on the CS (Canola Straw and BD (Buffalo Dung by anaerobic co-digestion was investigated. H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide is a mainly accustomed reagent, used as a bleaching agent in the different industries such as paper and wood. In the present study, it was used as a pre-treatment chemical at varying concentrations in batch reactors. The co-digestion of CS and BD was carried out in SAMPTS (Semi-Automatic Methane Potential Test System at mesophilic (37±1oC conditions. The CS was pretreated in glass bottles with different concentrations of the H2O2 for seven days. The inoculum used in the present study was an effluent of the CSTR (Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor, which was treating BD at mesophilic conditions. The specific methane production from the codigestion of canola straw and BD, by the pre-treatment of H2O2 at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% were 530.8, 544.5, and 510.3 NmL CH4 g/VS, respectively. The significant reduction in the volatile solids of CS was observed at the optimum pre-treatment of 1.0% H2O2.

  13. New crops for arid lands. [Jojoba; Buffalo gourd; Bladderpod; Gumweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinman, C.W.

    1984-09-28

    Five plants are described that could be grown commercially under arid conditions. Once the most valuable component has been obtained from each plant (rubber from guayule; seed oil from jojoba, buffalo gourd, and bladderpod; and resin from gumweed), the remaining material holds potential for useful products as well as fuel. It is difficult to realize the full potential of arid land plants, however, because of the complexities of developing the necessary agricultural and industrial infrastructure simultaneously. To do so, multicompany efforts or cooperative efforts between government and the private sector will be required.

  14. Complement component 3: characterization and association with mastitis resistance in Egyptian water buffalo and cattle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NERMIN EL-HALAWANY; ABD-EL-MONSIF A. SHAWKY; AHMED F. M. AL-TOHAMY; LAMEES HEGAZY; HAMDY ABDEL-SHAFY; MAGDY A. ABDEL-LATIF; YASSER A. GHAZI; CHRISTIANE NEUHOFF; DESSIE SALILEW-WONDIM; KARL SCHELLANDER

    2017-03-01

    Mastitis is an infectious disease of the mammary gland that leads to reduced milk production and change in milk composition. Complement component C3 plays a major role as a central molecule of the complement cascade involving in killing ofmicroorganisms, either directly or in cooperation with phagocytic cells. C3 cDNA were isolated, from Egyptian buffalo and cattle, sequenced and characterized. The C3 cDNA sequences of buffalo and cattle consist of 5025 and 5019 bp, respectively. Buffalo and cattle C3 cDNAs share 99% of sequence identity with each other. The 4986 bp open reading frame in buffalo encodes a putative protein of 1661 amino acids—as in cattle—and includes all the functional domains. Further, analysis of the C3 cDNA sequences detected six novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in buffalo and three novel SNPs in cattle.The association analysis of the detected SNPs with milk somatic cell score as an indicator of mastitis revealed that the most significant association in buffalo was found in the C>A substitution (ss: 1752816097) in exon 27, whereas in cattle it was in the C>T substitution (ss: 1752816085) in exon 12. Our findings provide preliminary information about the contribution of C3 polymorphisms to mastitis resistance in buffalo and cattle.

  15. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Souza, Placid E D

    2015-12-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated for the diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes. The excretory-secretory (E-S Ag) antigen of F. gigantica adult flukes obtained after invitro incubation was used as an antigen. The test was conducted with 276 sera collected from cattle and buffaloes which included 22 sera each from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes (known positive serum) and with similar number of samples with healthy cattle and buffaloes (known negative serum). The positive results were observed in 18 and 19 of the sera from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes with sensitivity of 81.8 and 86.3 % respectively. Out of 188 serum samples which were found negative on faecal examination 32 (34 %) sera of cattle and 40 (42.5 %) sera of buffaloes were found positive by ELISA respectively. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 91.6 and 95.6 % in cattle and buffaloes respectively.

  16. Studies on rumen magnet usage to prevent hardware disease in buffaloes

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    O. S. Al-Abbadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the rumen magnet given once a life as a prophylaxis of hardware disease in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 3100 buffaloes were divided into two groups. In group I, 1200 hardware diseased buffaloes were surgically treated with rumenotomy, given reticular magnets and followed up to 7 years for a possible recurrent hardware disease. In group II, 1900 clinically normal buffalo heifers were given rumen magnets orally then followed up to seven years for a possible occurrence of hardware disease. All buffaloes showed signs of hardware disease were treated by rumenotomy. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. Results: Hardware disease was recorded in 110 animals (10.8% and 155 animals (8.9% in groups I and II. The incidence of developing a hardware disease during the first 4 years after the use of magnet was 0% in both groups. Starting from 5th year, a time dependent increase in the proportion of buffaloes developing a hardware disease was noticed in both groups (P 0.05. Conclusion: Administration of a rumen magnet is an effective prophylaxis for hardware disease and reapplication of a second new magnet is recommended four years later in buffaloes at high risk.

  17. Tuberculosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in the Baixo Araguari Region, Amapá, Brazil

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    Silvia Minharro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo are of great economic importance in Brazilian Amazonia, which has the largest herd in Brazil. Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic disease that results in severe losses to water buffalo production. Although the disease has already been described in the country, data on the occurrence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in Brazil is very scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region of Amapá, Brazil. Thirty herds, randomly selected from the 41 herds of water buffalo in the region, were sampled. From those herds, 212 randomly selected water buffalo were subjected to the comparative tuberculin skin test. The proportion of Baixo Araguari River region herds that were positive for bovine tuberculosis was 50.0% (95% CI 31.3% to 68.7% and the proportion of animals that were positive was estimated to be 14.8% (95% CI 7.8% to 21.9%. Our results show that bovine tuberculosis is spread widely among water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region, which suggests that measures to control the disease should be undertaken in the region.

  18. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 10(5) vs. 2.18 × 10(5) mL(-1) of rumen content) (p protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow.

  19. A comparative therapeutic management of anoestrus in buffaloes using insulin and GnRH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkayastha, R. D.; Shukla, S. N.; Shrivastava, O. P.; Kumar, P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Anoestrus is one of the most common functional disorders of the reproductive cycle in buffaloes. In spite of technical advancement, there is no single cure for the management of anoestrus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out the efficacy of gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH) and metabolic hormone for the management of true anoestrus in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The experimental animals were selected on the basis of history, gyneco-clinical examinations and progesterone estimation. Deworming was done with Fenbendazole and thereafter mineral mixture was given @ 50 g per animal per day for 10 days in all the selected buffaloes before the start of treatment. The selected buffaloes were randomly divided into four groups (n=25). In Group I, buffaloes were administered 20 µg of buserelin intramuscularly. Buffaloes of Group II were administered long-acting insulin @ 0.25 IU/Kg body weight subcutaneously for 5 consecutive days. In Group III, buffaloes were treated with a combination of insulin and buserelin in the above-mentioned doses whereas buffaloes of Group IV were kept as untreated control. Results: The higher oestrus induction (64% vs. 28%) was found in Group III and differed significantly (p<0.05) as compared to control group. The conception rate (69.23% vs. 66.66%) was also found higher in Group III but did not differ significantly among the treated groups. The mean time taken for the onset of oestrus was recorded significantly shorter in insulin (8.80±0.69) and GnRH (7.60±0.92 days) alone and as compared to other (Group III, 14.43±0.83 and Group IV, 20.57±1.69 days) groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated better fertility response using Insulin plus Buserelin in true anoestrus buffaloes under field conditions. PMID:27065651

  20. A comparative therapeutic management of anoestrus in buffaloes using insulin and GnRH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Purkayastha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Anoestrus is one of the most common functional disorders of the reproductive cycle in buffaloes. In spite of technical advancement, there is no single cure for the management of anoestrus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out the efficacy of gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH and metabolic hormone for the management of true anoestrus in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The experimental animals were selected on the basis of history, gyneco-clinical examinations and progesterone estimation. Deworming was done with Fenbendazole and thereafter mineral mixture was given @ 50 g per animal per day for 10 days in all the selected buffaloes before the start of treatment. The selected buffaloes were randomly divided into four groups (n=25. In Group I, buffaloes were administered 20 μg of buserelin intramuscularly. Buffaloes of Group II were administered long-acting insulin @ 0.25 IU/Kg body weight subcutaneously for 5 consecutive days. In Group III, buffaloes were treated with a combination of insulin and buserelin in the above-mentioned doses whereas buffaloes of Group IV were kept as untreated control. Results: The higher oestrus induction (64% vs. 28% was found in Group III and differed significantly (p<0.05 as compared to control group. The conception rate (69.23% vs. 66.66% was also found higher in Group III but did not differ significantly among the treated groups. The mean time taken for the onset of oestrus was recorded significantly shorter in insulin (8.80±0.69 and GnRH (7.60±0.92 days alone and as compared to other (Group III, 14.43±0.83 and Group IV, 20.57±1.69 days groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated better fertility response using Insulin plus Buserelin in true anoestrus buffaloes under field conditions.

  1. Effect of Parity and Calving Month on Milk Production and Quality of Greek Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    Vasileios A. Bampidis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty lactating Greek buffalo cows were used in an experiment to determine effects of parity and calf birth month onproductivity and milk composition. Buffalo cows gave birth on months June and August 2009, and were kept undersemi closed system of management. From June to November, during the day the buffalo cows were allowed to grazeon the surroundings from 10:00 h and flocked back at 16:00 h. In the experiment, which started on week 6postpartum and lasted 24 weeks, buffalo cows were fed alfalfa hay, corn silage, wheat straw and concentrate, andwere allocated, relative to parity, into treatments GBP1 (21 buffalo cows with parity 1, 2, and 3 and GBP2 (19buffalo cows with parity 4, 5, and 6, and, relative to calf birth month, into treatments GBB1 (20 buffalo cows withJune as calf birth month and GBB2 (20 buffalo cows with August as calf birth month. Productivity and milkcomposition were not affected (P>0.05 by calf birth month. During the experiment, there were differences(P<0.001 between GBP1 and GBP2 treatments in average milk yield (4.1 vs. 5.3 kg/day, fat yield (0.33 vs. 0.41kg/day, protein yield (0.19 vs. 0.24 kg/day, lactose yield (0.21 vs. 0.27 kg/day and ash yield (0.033 vs. 0.044kg/day. In contrast, milk fat (80.8 g/kg, protein (45.9 g/kg, lactose (51.2 g/kg and ash (8.2 g/kg contents, as wellas somatic cell counts (82.9 ×1000/ml and colony forming units (44.9 ×1000/ml, were not affected (P>0.05 byparity. Milk production and quality of Greek buffalo is generally satisfactory, and may be economically beneficialfor local breeders.

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH MURRAH BUFFALO AND INDIGENOUS GIR SPERMATOZOA TO HYPO-OSMOTIC SWELLING TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chowdhury

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypo-Osmotic Swelling Test (HOST is a simple but authentic test to measure the integrity of sperm membrane. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the HOST value in Murrah buffalo and indigenous Gir bull in 150 mosm/l tri-sodium citrate and D-fructose HOST solution. Murrah buffalo was having more HOST (49±0.39 % reacted spermatozoa than indigenous Gir (42±0.57 % bulls suggesting lesser membrane damage during cryo-preservation and higher fertility rate in Murrah buffalo than Gir cattle.

  3. Assessing Anthracene and Arsenic Contamination within Buffalo River Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gawedzki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracene and arsenic contamination concentrations at various depths in the Buffalo River were analyzed in this study. Anthracene is known to cause damage to human skin and arsenic has been linked to lung and liver cancer. The Buffalo River is labelled as an Area of Concern defined by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between Canada and the United States. It has a long history of industrial activity located in its near vicinity that has contributed to its pollution. An ordinary kriging spatial interpolation technique was used to calculate estimates between sample locations for anthracene and arsenic at various depths. The results show that both anthracene and arsenic surface sediment (0–30 cm is less contaminated than all subsurface depths. There is variability of pollution within the different subsurface levels (30–60 cm, 60–90 cm, 90–120 cm, 120–150 cm and along the river course, but major clusters are identified throughout all depths for both anthracene and arsenic.

  4. A preliminary investigation of tuberculosis and other diseases in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kalema-Zikusoka

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis and certain other infectious diseases was conducted on 42 free-ranging African buffaloes, (Syncerus caffer from May to June 1997 in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Using the gamma interferon test, exposure to M. bovis was detected in 21.6 % of the buffaloes. One dead buffalo and an emaciated warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus that was euthanased, were necropsied; both had miliary granulomas from which M. bovis was isolated. None of the buffaloes sampled in Sector A of the park, which has no cattle interface, tested positive for bovine tuberculosis (BTB exposure. The prevalence and distribution of BTB does not appear to have changed significantly since the 1960s, but this may be due to fluxes in the buffalo population. Serological testing for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD demonstrated positive exposure of 57.1% of the buffaloes sampled, with types A, O and SAT 1-3, which is the first known report of FMD antibodies to A and O types in free ranging African buffaloes. Foot-and-mouth disease virus types SAT 1 and SAT 3 were isolated from buffalo probang samples. Two percent of the buffaloes had been exposed to brucellosis. None of the buffaloes tested had antibodies to rinderpest, leptospirosis or Q fever.

  5. Molecular dynamics studies on the buffalo prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiapu; Wang, Feng; Chatterjee, Subhojyoti

    2016-01-01

    It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) (same as rabbits, horses, and dogs). TSEs, also called prion diseases, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of species (except for rabbits, dogs, horses, and buffalo), manifesting as scrapie in sheep and goats; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or "mad-cow" disease) in cattle; chronic wasting disease in deer and elk; and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, and Kulu in humans etc. In molecular structures, these neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), predominantly with α-helices, into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions (PrP(Sc)), rich in β-sheets. In this article, we studied the molecular structure and structural dynamics of buffalo PrP(C) (BufPrP(C)), in order to understand the reason why buffalo is resistant to prion diseases. We first did molecular modeling of a homology structure constructed by one mutation at residue 143 from the NMR structure of bovine and cattle PrP(124-227); immediately we found that for BufPrP(C)(124-227), there are five hydrogen bonds (HBs) at Asn143, but at this position, bovine/cattle do not have such HBs. Same as that of rabbits, dogs, or horses, our molecular dynamics studies also revealed there is a strong salt bridge (SB) ASP178-ARG164 (O-N) keeping the β2-α2 loop linked in buffalo. We also found there is a very strong HB SER170-TYR218 linking this loop with the C-terminal end of α-helix H3. Other information, such as (i) there is a very strong SB HIS187-ARG156 (N-O) linking α-helices H2 and H1 (if mutation H187R is made at position 187, then the hydrophobic core of PrP(C) will be exposed (L.H. Zhong (2010). Exposure of hydrophobic core in human prion protein pathogenic mutant H187R. Journal of

  6. Reproductive and Productive Performance of Iraqi Buffaloes as Influenced by Pre-Mating and Pre-Calving Concentrate Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Anwer Abdulkareem*, Sawsan Ali Al-Sharifi, Sajeda Mahdi Eidan and R.G. Sasser1

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of pre-mating and pre-calving concentrate supplementation of Iraqi buffaloes on some of the reproductive (estrus, mating, pregnancy and calving rates and productive (daily milk yield and calves birth weight traits. This study was carried out in 4 Iraqi South-central governorates using 596 pre-mating and 628 pregnant buffaloes (during the last two months of gestation. Pre-mating buffaloes were divided randomly into 496 concentrate-supplemented buffaloes (Flushing and 100 control ones. Additionally, pregnant buffaloes were also divided into 528 concentrate- supplemented buffaloes (Steaming up and 100 controls. Each buffalo within the flushing and steaming up groups were fed daily on 7 Kg of concentrate diet (13% crude protein and 1.70 Mcal of net energy for 60 days. The control buffaloes were nourished only on low-quality roughages of the area and wheat bran. Higher estrus (+15%, P<0.01, pregnancy (+23.8%, P<0.05 and calving rates (+30.8%, P<0.01 were observed in concentrate-supplemented buffaloes as compared with controls. An obvious increase in (P<0.05 calving rate (+14.7%, daily milk yield (+44.8% and calf birth weight (+25.6% were noted in steaming up buffaloes in comparison with control buffaloes. Results indicated that improvement in feeding schedule of Iraqi buffaloes during pre-mating and late gestation periods enhanced the reproductive performance and increased milk production of subsequent lactation and calf birth weight. These improvements increased owner income ($174=209,000 Iraqi dinar /buffalo from the sale of meat and milk.

  7. Identification of Theileria parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) 18S rRNA gene sequence variants in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisi, Mamohale E; Sibeko, Kgomotso P; Collins, Nicola E; Potgieter, Fred T; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2011-12-15

    Theileria parva is the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle in South Africa. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the reservoir host, and, as these animals are important for eco-tourism in South Africa, it is compulsory to test and certify them disease free prior to translocation. A T. parva-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene is one of the tests used for the diagnosis of the parasite in buffalo and cattle in South Africa. However, because of the high similarity between the 18S rRNA gene sequences of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), the latter is also amplified by the real-time PCR primers, although it is not detected by the T. parva-specific hybridization probes. Preliminary sequencing studies have revealed a small number of sequence differences within the 18S rRNA gene in both species but the extent of this sequence variation is unknown. The aim of the current study was to sequence the 18S rRNA genes of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), and to determine whether all identified genotypes can be correctly detected by the real-time PCR assay. The reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was used to identify T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) positive samples from buffalo blood samples originating from the Kruger National Park, Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park, and a private game ranch in the Hoedspruit area. T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) were identified in 42% and 28%, respectively, of 252 samples, mainly as mixed infections. The full-length 18S rRNA gene of selected samples was amplified, cloned and sequenced. From a total of 20 sequences obtained, 10 grouped with previously published T. parva sequences from GenBank while 10 sequences grouped with a previously published Theileria sp. (buffalo) sequence. All these formed a monophyletic group with known pathogenic Theileria species. Our phylogenetic analyses confirm the

  8. Geographic distribution of Theileria sp. (buffalo) and Theileria sp. (bougasvlei) in Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in southern Africa: implications for speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Ronel; Latif, Abdalla A; Thekisoe, Oriel M M; Mans, Ben J

    2014-03-01

    Strict control measures apply to movement of buffalo in South Africa including testing for Theileria parva, the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle. The official test is a real-time hybridization PCR assay that amplifies the 18S rRNA V4 hyper-variable region of T. parva, T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei). Mixed infections with the latter organisms affect diagnostic sensitivity due to PCR suppression. While the incidence of mixed infections in the Corridor disease endemic region of South Africa is significant, little information is available on the specific distribution and prevalence of T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei). Specific real-time PCR assays were developed and a total of 1211 samples known to harbour these parasites were screened. Both parasites are widely distributed in southern Africa and the incidence of mixed infections with T. parva within the endemic region is similar (∼25-50%). However, a significant discrepancy exists in regard to mixed infections of T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) (∼10%). Evidence for speciation between T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) is supported by phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene, and their designation as different species. This suggests mutual exclusion of parasites and the possibility of hybrid sterility in cases of mixed infections.

  9. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  10. D and DR Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The world's second full-scale nuclear reactor was the D Reactor at Hanford which was built in the early 1940's and went operational in December of 1944.D Reactor ran...

  11. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  12. Molecular detection of Cryptosporidium spp. infections in water buffaloes from northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Jiyipong, Tawisa; Wongpanit, Kannika; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Kengradomkij, Chanya; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Xiao, Lihua; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the individual and herd-level prevalence and genotype of Cryptosporidium and to identify putative risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium spp. infections in water buffaloes in northeast Thailand. Fecal samples from 600 water buffaloes of 287 farms in six provinces were collected and tested using DMSO-modified acid-fast staining and polymerase chain reaction. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infections in buffaloes was 5.7 and 8.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The provinces with highest infected Cryptosporidium were located in the Sakon Nakhon Basin in the northern part of the region. In addition, higher herd prevalence was observed among farms with more than five buffaloes (30%) than those with five or less animals (16.2%). Thirty (88.2%) of the 34 Cryptosporidium-positive samples were Cryptosporidium parvum and four (11.8%) were Cryptosporidium ryanae.

  13. Some comparative aspects of the pharmacokinetics of tylosin in buffaloes and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurit, A R; Rubio, M; Baroni, E; San, Andrés M; Sánchez, S; Boggio, J C

    2002-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of tylosin were compared in cattle (Bos taurus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Six animals received each a single dose of 10 mg/kg of tylosin tartrate by the intramuscular route. The serum concentration (Cmax) and the volume of distribution (Vd) presented significant differences between the two species. Cmax was 0.40 +/- 0.046 microg/ml for buffaloes and 0.64 +/- 0.068 microg/ml for cattle. Vd was 1.91 +/- 0.12 L/kg and 1.33 +/- 0.09 L/kg for buffaloes and cattle, respectively. However, as the present study did not show considerable differences in the pharmacokinetics of tylosin in buffaloes and cattle, similar dosage regimes of this drug can be recommended for both species.

  14. Relationship of blood and milk cell counts with mastitic pathogens in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to see the effect of mastitic pathogens on the blood and milk counts of Murrah buffaloes. Milk and blood samples were collected from 9 mastitic Murrah buffaloes. The total leucocyte Counts (TLC and Differential leucocyte counts (DLC in blood were within normal range and there was a non-significant change in blood counts irrespective of different mastitic pathogens. Normal milk quarter samples had significantly (P<0.01 less Somatic cell counts (SCC. Lymphocytes were significantly higher in normal milk samples, whereas infected samples had a significant increase (P<0.01 in milk neutrophils. S. aureus infected buffaloes had maximum milk SCC, followed by E. coli and S. agalactiae. Influx of neutrophils in the buffalo mammary gland was maximum for S. agalactiae, followed by E.cli and S. aureus. The study indicated that level of mastitis had no affect on blood counts but it influenced the milk SCC of normal quarters.

  15. Molecular changes during chemical acidification of the buffalo and cow milks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gaucheron

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Composition and physico-chemical properties of buffalo and cow milks were compared at their initial pH and during chemical acidification. As compare to cow milk, buffalo milk was richer in caseins and minerals such as Ca, Mg and Pi. Along with these differences, the capacity of buffalo milk to be acidified named buffering capacity was also higher than cow milk. The pH decrease induced aggregation of caseins at their isoelectric pH and solubilisations of Ca and Pi were significant for both milks. For both species, these molecular changes were qualitatively similar but quantitatively different. These differences suggested that the acidification process in dairy technology which is well established for cow milk can not be directly extrapolated to buffalo milk and some adaptations are necessary.

  16. Phase II Contaminants Investigation of Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, 1993-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge is located in the Southern High Plains in Randall County, Texas. The lake from which the Refuge received its name has not...

  17. Dystocia Due to Relative Oversized Fetus and fetal maldisposition in a Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Vasishta

    Full Text Available A primiparous Murrah graded buffalo suffering with dystocia due to relative oversize fetus and fetal maldisposition and its successful management following laparohysterotomy has been described. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 569-570

  18. Comparative study of strongyle infections of cattle and buffaloes in Mindanao, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aken, D; Dargantes, A; Valdez, L; Flores, A; Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J

    2000-03-28

    Faecal samples were collected from 500 cattle and 385 buffaloes belonging to backyard farmers from 24 villages in the province of Bukidnon, Mindanao, the Philippines. Strongyle nematode infections were studied on these samples by faecal egg counts and infective larvae differentiation. The effects of animal species and age on the prevalence and intensity of infections were studied. The overall prevalence of strongyle infection was 53% for cattle and 28% for buffaloes. The prevalence decreased with increasing age in both animal species. Faecal egg counts were significantly lower in buffaloes than in cattle. Adult animals had lower egg counts than calves. This age effect was most pronounced in buffaloes. Six genera of strongyle nematodes were identified from the faecal cultures in both animal species, Mecistocirrus, Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Bunostomum and Oesophagostomum. The distribution of larvae did not vary much with age.

  19. 77 FR 65011 - Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Randall County, TX; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Randall County, TX; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Refuge System, consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation,...

  20. Changes in the amino acid composition of buffalo milk after chemical activation of its lactoperoxidase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tsankova

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid content of bulked buffalo milk, collected from 130 buffaloes reared at a buffalo farm in the settlement of Dimitrievo, Stara Zagora region, was investigated during the period January-April 2006. The activation of the lactoperoxidase system (LPS was done by supplementation of sodium percarbonate, providing 16 ppm active oxygen and 10 ppm thiocyanate to 1 l of milk. The amino acid content was assayed by an amino acid analyzer. It was found out that the total content of amino acids in inactivated milk was insignificantly lower than that in activated one. More considerable increase was established for the amino acids valine, methionine, and lysine, but the differences were not statistically significant. The total amount of essential amino acids was higher in the milk with chemically activated LPS. The limiting essential amino acid in the studied buffalo milk was methionine.

  1. Path Coefficient Analysis of Buffalo Production in Buldana District of Maharashtra

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    K U Bidwe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A study entitled “Decomposition analysis of buffalo production in Buldana District was undertaken to ascertain the technological changes in term of breeding, feeding, housing, milking and calf management practices of buffalo. The path coefficient analysis of this study clearly demonstrated that daily milk production in buffaloes was influenced substantially by a single factor i.e management index. A combination of all the management practices in the form of overall management status on the rearing were responsible to influence the daily milk yield. However, rearing of good potential animals, feeding of sufficient amounts of dry and green fodder with required amount of concentrates to fulfill the nutritional requirements could favour the milk production in buffaloes. All these factors exhibited positive direct effect on milk production. The indirect effects were also found in positive direction, resulting a positive significant correlation for these factors. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 103-104

  2. Gene polymorphisms in African buffalo associated with susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki le Roex

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is a chronic, highly infectious disease that affects humans, cattle and numerous species of wildlife. In developing countries such as South Africa, the existence of extensive wildlife-human-livestock interfaces poses a significant risk of Mycobacterium bovis transmission between these groups, and has far-reaching ecological, economic and public health impacts. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer, acts as a maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis, and maintains and transmits the disease within the buffalo and to other species. In this study we aimed to investigate genetic susceptibility of buffalo for Mycobacterium bovis infection. Samples from 868 African buffalo of the Cape buffalo subspecies were used in this study. SNPs (n = 69, with predicted functional consequences in genes related to the immune system, were genotyped in this buffalo population by competitive allele-specific SNP genotyping. Case-control association testing and statistical analyses identified three SNPs associated with BTB status in buffalo. These SNPs, SNP41, SNP137 and SNP144, are located in the SLC7A13, DMBT1 and IL1α genes, respectively. SNP137 remained significantly associated after permutation testing. The three genetic polymorphisms identified are located in promising candidate genes for further exploration into genetic susceptibility to BTB in buffalo and other bovids, such as the domestic cow. These polymorphisms/genes may also hold potential for marker-assisted breeding programmes, with the aim of breeding more BTB-resistant animals and herds within both the national parks and the private sector.

  3. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194

  4. Effect of oxytocin on serum biochemistry, liver enzymes, and metabolic hormones in lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar; ur Rahman, Zia; Muhammad, Faqir; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Khaliq, Tanweer; Nasir, Amar; Nadeem, Muhammad; Khan, Kinza; Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad; Basit, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Studies reporting the effects of oxytocin on the health of lactating animals are lacking and still no such data is available on Nili Ravi buffalo, the most prominent Asian buffalo breed. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of oxytocin on physiological and metabolic parameters of lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes. Healthy lactating buffaloes (n = 40) of recent calving were selected from a commercial dairy farm situated in the peri-urban area of district Faisalabad, Pakistan. These buffaloes were randomly allocated to two equal groups viz experimental and control, comprising 20 animals each. Twice-a-day (morning and evening) milking practice was followed. The experimental and control buffaloes were administered subcutaneously with 3 mL of oxytocin (10 IU/mL) and normal saline respectively, prior to each milking. Serum biochemical profile including glucose, total cholesterol (tChol), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total proteins (TP), C-reactive protein (CRP), liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and metabolic hormones triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄) were studied. Results revealed significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, total proteins, and C-reactive protein in experimental (oxytocin-injected) lactating buffaloes compared to control group. Liver enzymes AST and ALT as well as serum T₄ concentration was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) in oxytocin-injected lactating buffaloes as compared to control animals. It was concluded that oxytocin had the key role in increasing the metabolic parameters and hormones, resulting in the optimization of production. But, at the same time, it may pose a threat to the animal health.

  5. Isolation of pathogenic Escherichia coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Isolation, characterization, in-vitro pathogenicity and antibiogram study of E.coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city. Materials and Methods: Meat samples were collected from buffalo immediately after slaughter. Isolation, identification and enumeration of E. coli were done by following standard methods and protocols. Hemolysin test and Congo red binding assay were used to study in-vitro pathogenicity of E. coli isolates. Disc diffusion method was used to study antibiogram of patho...

  6. Milk yield and season of calving in buffaloes and cattle in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Bajwa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality of calving and its association with milk yield was analyzed in Nili-Ravi buffaloes and compared with Sahiwal cattle and Sahiwal (x Friesian or Jersey crossbreds. Records of 9,174 lactations of Nili-Ravi buffaloes from four institutional herds, 22,499 lactations from five Sahiwal herds and 656 lactations from a crossbred cattle herd were used for comparison. All the herds were located in Punjab province of Pakistan where environment is tropical. Month of calving was important source of variation in lactation milk yield of Nili- Ravi buffaloes and Sahiwal cattle but not in crossbred cattle (due to wide variation. Interactions of month of calving with parity as well as with herd were significant (P<0.01 both for buffaloes and Sahiwal cattle. First parity lactation milk yield averaged 1813±23.2, 1305±11.0 and 2459±81.8 litres while averages of later parity animals were 1926±19.0, 1527±7.6 and 2842±54.2 litres for Nili-Ravi buffaloes, Sahiwal and crossbred cattle, respectively. Milk yield pattern in crossbreds was more similar to buffaloes than to Sahiwals. Yet, crossbreds calving in June produced statistically similar but numerically higher lactation milk yield (2950±170 litres than other months but this was not true for buffaloes and Sahiwals. Buffaloes and Sahiwal cows calving in January-February produced better lactation yields than those calving in other months. Different pattern of milk yield in the three dairy species can be used advantageously for sustainable milk supply throughout the year.

  7. Milk yield and season of calving in buffaloes and cattle in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    I.R. Bajwa; M. S. Rehman; M Aslam; M.S. Khan; A.U. Hyder

    2010-01-01

    Seasonality of calving and its association with milk yield was analyzed in Nili-Ravi buffaloes and compared with Sahiwal cattle and Sahiwal (x Friesian or Jersey) crossbreds. Records of 9,174 lactations of Nili-Ravi buffaloes from four institutional herds, 22,499 lactations from five Sahiwal herds and 656 lactations from a crossbred cattle herd were used for comparison. All the herds were located in Punjab province of Pakistan where environment is tropical. Month of calving was important sour...

  8. Genetic characterization of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2014-02-24

    Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country.

  9. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OESTRUS MUCUS AND CONCEPTION RATES IN REPEAT BREEDER BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Samad. S.M. Iqbal Shah. Nazir Ahmad and Nafees Akhtar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A project was planned to study some physical characteristics of oestrus mucus and conception rates in repeat breeder buffaloes after different treatments. For this purpose 60 adult buffaloes with history of repeat breeding were used. Mucus samples from these animals were collected during heat and studied for colour, consistence, pH and fern pattern. Experimental buffaloes were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D. In buffa1oes of group A, GnRH was given immediately after insemination. In group B antibiotic infusion was given 24 hr after insemination. In animals of group C, insemination was done in the uterine horn ipsilateral to ovary bearing mature graafian follicle. Animals of group D were inseminated in the uterine body and served as control. The results indicated that oestrus mucus was transparent in 55.0%, translucent in 38.33% and whitish in 6.67% buffaloes. The consistency of mucus was viscous in 38.33%, thin in 50.0% and thick in, 11.67% repeat breeder buffaloes. Mean pH of oestrus mucus was 7.49 ± 0.35. Fren pattern was very characteristic in 6.67% characteristic in 48.33% and less characteristic in 45.0% buffaloes. The conception rates in animals of group B were significantly higher ( P<0.05 than those of group A, C or D; the differences in conception rates among buffaloes of the latter three groups were non significant. It was concluded that post-insemination antibiotic infusion may be used to improve conception rates in repeat breeder buffaloes.

  10. Physiological Responses of the Buffalo Syncerus caffer Culled with Succinyldicholine and Hexamethonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hattingh

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiological responses of the buffalo Syncerus caffer culled with succinyldicholine (Scoline1 are reported and it is pointed out that a number of stressors are responsible for the observed changes in blood composition. The results are compared to those obtained in a pilot experiment from buffaloes culled with Scoline and hexamethonium, a ganglion blocker. Further investigation of the effects of hexamethonium may prove it to be of benefit to animals culled with Scoline.

  11. Recent advances in Progeny testing program for Nili Ravi buffalo in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ghaffar; M.A Khan

    2010-01-01

    Progeny testing program was started in Nili-Ravi buffalo at Livestock Production and Research Institute (LPRI), Bahadurnagar, Okara in 1979-80. Initially buffalo bulls used at Livestock Experiment Station (LES) Qadirabad and Rakh Gulaman during 1964-78 were evaluated. Five out of ten at Rakh Gulaman and 10 out of 22 at Qadirabad bulls were positive. As none of these bulls were available, therefore, sons and grandsons of these bulls were selected for production of future candidate bulls. All t...

  12. Investigation into omocysteine, vitamin E and malondialdehyde as indicators of successful artificial insemination in synchronized buffalo cows (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, Olimpia; Chiaradia, Elisabetta; Barile, Vittoria Lucia; Pierri, Francesca; de Sousa, Noelita Melo; Terracina, Luigi; Canali, Claudio; Avellini, Luca

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe modifications in plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin E (VitE) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in the first 56 days after artificial insemination (AI) in buffalo. Thirty-five buffalo cows were divided, ex post, into three groups on the basis of pregnancy diagnosis: pregnant, not pregnant, with embryonic mortality. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs). Our results showed that, in pregnant buffaloes, included those with embryonic mortality, MDA increased progressively while VitE decreased. In non-pregnant buffaloes, MDA and Vit E were unchanged. Hcy concentrations also remained unchanged within each group throughout the study period, but were lower in non-pregnant buffaloes than in the pregnant ones and in those with embryonic mortality. In conclusion, present data suggest that successful pregnancy in buffalo cows might be linked to Hcy metabolism and oxidative stress involvement.

  13. On-line interrogation of pebble bed reactor fuel using passive gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei

    with the relative activities of Cs-134/Co-60 (Co-60 is introduced as a dopant) to yield the burnup and enrichment for each pebble. Furthermore, a direct consequence of the relative approach is the ability to apply a self-calibration scheme using the multiple gamma lines of Ba-La-140 to establish the relative efficiency curve of the HPGe detector. An assessment of the expected uncertainty components in this approach showed that a maximum uncertainty of less than 5% should be feasible. To confirm the above findings, gamma-ray scans were performed on irradiated PULSTAR reactor fuel assemblies at North Carolina Sate University. The measurements used a 40% efficient n-type coaxial HPGe detector connected to an ORTEC DSPEC plus digital Gamma-Ray Spectrometer, and a data acquisition computer. The obtained results showed consistency with the predictions of the simulations including the observation of the I-132, Cs-134, Np-239 uncontaminated gamma lines. In addition, the Ba-La-140 lines were clearly observed confirming the ability to perform relative calibration of the spectrometer.

  14. Transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from experimentally infected Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to in-contact naïve and vaccinated Indian buffalo and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhanmohan, M; Yuvaraj, S; Nagendrakumar, S B; Srinivasan, V A; Gubbins, Simon; Paton, David James; Parida, Satya

    2014-09-03

    This study investigated the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from experimentally infected Indian buffalo to in-contact naïve and vaccinated cattle and buffalo. In each of six rooms, two donor buffalo that had been inoculated with FMDV were housed for five days with four recipient animals, comprising one vaccinated buffalo, one vaccinated calf, one unvaccinated buffalo and one unvaccinated calf. Vaccination was carried out with current Indian vaccine strain (O/IND/R2/75) and challenged on 28 days post-vaccination with an antigenically similar strain (O/HAS/34/05). All 12 donor buffalo and the six unvaccinated cattle and six unvaccinated calves developed clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). In contrast, all six vaccinated cattle (100%) and four out of six vaccinated buffalo (66.6%) were protected from disease but all became infected with FMDV. This confirms that buffalo have the potential to spread FMD by direct contact and that vaccination can block this spread. The numbers of animals in the study were too small to determine if the differences in clinical protection afforded by vaccination of cattle and buffalo are significant and warrant a different dose regime.

  15. Comparative study of Anaplasma parasites in tick carrying buffaloes and cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAJPUT Z.I.; HU Song-hua; ARIJO A.G.; HABIB M.; KHALID M.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study on the prevalence of Anaplasma parasite was conducted on ticks carrying buffaloes and cattle.Five hundred blood samples of both animals (250 of each) were collected during February, March and April. Thin blood smears on glass slides were made, fixed in 100% methyl alcohol and examined. Microscopic examination revealed that 205 (41%) animals had Anaplasma parasites, out of which 89, 44 and 72 animals had Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma centrale and mixed infection respectively. Infected buffaloes and cattle were 75 and 130 respectively. The infection in female was 53 and 92 in buffaloes and cattle respectively. Twenty-two and 92 blood samples of male were found positive in buffaloes and cattle respectively. Comparative study revealed that the cattle were 26.82% more susceptible than buffaloes. The parasite prevailing percentage in female of both animals was slightly higher than that of the male. This investigation was aimed at studying the comparative prevalence of Anaplasma parasite in tick carrying buffaloes and cattle.

  16. Treatment of anestrous Nili-Ravi buffaloes using eCG and CIDR protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahid Naseer; Ejaz Ahmad; Nemat Ullah; Muhammad Yaqoob; Zeeshan Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR) on estrus response, ovulation and pregnancy rate in Nili-Ravi buffaloes under field condition. Methods: Twenty anestrous buffaloes with more than 150 days postpartum were used in this study. To confirm anestrous condition, ovarian status and serum progesterone concentration were determined before the start of study. Buffaloes were randomly divided into eCG (n=10) and CIDR (n=10) groups. eCG group were treated with eCG (Chronogest 1000 I.U. i.m.), while CIDR group received CIDR devices for 7 days. All buffaloes in CIDR group were injected PGF2α (0.25 ug/mL; 2 mL; i.m.) one day before CIDR removal. Buffaloes were observed for estrus visually and were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen at detected estrus. Ovulation was confirmed by presence of CL 12 day post AI. Pregnancy diagnosis was done 50 days post AI. Results: Estrus response, ovulation rate and pregnancy rate were similar (P>0.05) among eCG and CIDR groups (90% vs. 80%; 78% vs. 75% and 50% vs. 60% respectively). Conclusion: It is concluded that both CIDR and eCG protocols are effective and promising remedies for the anestrous buffaloes under commercial as well as under field conditions.

  17. Analysis of DRB3 gene polymorphisms in Jafarabadi, Mediterranean, and Murrah buffaloes from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafuzza, N B; Olivatto, L M; Naressi, B C M; Tonhati, H; Amaral-Trusty, M E J

    2016-03-31

    The DRB3 gene is an MHC class II gene that has a high degree of polymorphism with more than 100 alleles described in cattle. This variation contributes to differences among individuals in immune responsiveness and disease resistance. In this study, we searched for allelic variants in exon 2 of the DRB3 gene in 80 river buffaloes of three breeds in Brazil using a PCR-RFLP technique. The PCR product showed genetic polymorphism when digested with RsaI, PstI or HaeIII restriction enzymes. In total, 16 restriction patterns were identified: nine restriction patterns and 16 genotypes were found with RsaI; four restriction patterns and nine genotypes were found with HaeIII; and, three restriction patterns and four genotypes were found with PstI. Three RFLP patterns were exclusive to Jafarabadi buffaloes (RsaI-b, RsaI-c and RsaI-f) and three others were only observed in Mediterranean buffaloes (RsaI-g, RsaI-h and PstI-y). Jafarabadi buffaloes had a larger number of RFLP patterns than Mediterranean and Murrah breeds. The analysis showed that the DRB3 exon 2 was highly polymorphic, with the highest degree of polymorphism in Mediterranean buffaloes. This study provides the first assessment of allelic variation among three different buffalo breeds from Brazil and provides a basis for further investigations into the association between the DRB3 alleles and disease resistance.

  18. Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis: Clinical Findings and the Associated Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged El-Ashker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to describe the clinical picture of traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis and to evaluate the inflammatory and immunologic responses for this clinical condition. Twenty-two buffalo with acute local TRP were monitored in our study. Additionally, 10 clinically healthy buffalo were randomly selected and served as controls. Acute local TRP was initially diagnosed by clinical examination and confirmed by ultrasonographic (USG examination and/or necropsy findings. Blood samples were collected from all examined buffalo to measure the respective levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and interferon gamma (INF-γ, serum amyloid A (SAA, C-reactive protein (CRP, haptoglobin (Hp, fibrinogen (Fb, and serum sialic acid (SSA. It was found that TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, SAA, CRP, Hp, Fb, and SSA were significantly higher in buffalo with TRP than the controls. Our findings suggest that the examined immunologic variables were helpful in documenting the inflammatory response in buffalo with TRP. However, their diagnostic usefulness only becomes apparent when considered in tandem with the clinical findings for any given animal, its anamnesis, and a subsequent USG assessment. Due to the frequent complications of TRP, more accurate indicators of its occurrence and severity would be useful.

  19. Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maidana Silvina S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3 was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Results Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analysis by direct immunofluorescence and cross neutralization test placed these isolates together with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3. Nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic analysis of partial matrix gene sequences of the buffalo isolates and six field BPIV3 isolates from bovines in Argentina were studied. Buffalo isolates were similar to genotype B (BPIV3b while the six BPIV3 isolates were similar to genotypes A (BPIV3a and C (BPIV3c. Conclusions This is the first characterization of BPIV3 in water buffalo. According to the samples analyzed, in Argentina, the genotype B was found in buffalo and the genotypes A and C were found in cattle.

  20. Demonstration of alternative and classical complement pathway activity in colostrum from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheswaran, K; Dhinakar Raj, G; Nachimuthu, K

    2003-09-01

    Buffalo colostrum caused lysis of unsensitized red blood cells (RBC) from sheep, goats, rabbits and chickens. RBC from cattle and buffalo were resistant to lysis. That lysis was due to the presence of natural antibodies to these RBC was ruled out since there was no reduction in haemolytic titres even after adsorption with the respective RBC. The addition of EGTA to the diluent had no effect on the haemolytic activity. These findings indicate the presence of alternative complement pathway (ACP) activity in buffalo colostrum. The haemolytic activity of buffalo complement for unsensitized rabbit RBC was reduced to very low levels by heating at 50 degrees C for 45 min. Treatment with zymosan also inhibited the haemolytic activity, while inulin had no effect. The maximum activity of ACP occurred in the presence of 4 mmol/L Mg(2+) in the diluent. The range of ACP activities in colostrum from buffaloes varied from 4.06 to 8.48 CH50 units/ml. Using a standard system for titrating the classical complement pathway and rabbit red blood cells sensitized with goat haemolysin, the range of complement activity in buffalo colostrum was 4.81-6.77 CH50/ml.

  1. Swamp buffalo keeping – an out-dated farming activity? A case study in smallholder farming systems in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schiborra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of rubber tree plantations and agricultural mechanization caused a decline of swamp buffalo numbers in the Naban River National Nature Reserve (NRNNR, Yunnan Province, China. We analysed current use of buffaloes for field work and the recent development of the regional buffalo population, based on interviews with 184 farmers in 2007/2008 and discussions with 62 buffalo keepers in 2009. Three types of NRNNR farms were distinguished, differing mainly in altitude, area under rubber, and involvement in livestock husbandry. While pig based farms (PB; n=37 have abandoned buffalo keeping, 11% of the rubber based farms (RB; n=71 and 100% of the livestock-corn based farms (LB; n=76 kept buffaloes in 2008. Herd size was 2.5 +/-1.80 (n=84 buffaloes in early 2008 and 2.2 +/-1.69 (n=62 in 2009. Field work on own land was the main reason for keeping buffaloes (87.3 %, but lending work buffaloes to neighbours (79.0% was also important. Other purposes were transport of goods (16.1%, buffalo trade (11.3% and meat consumption (6.4%. Buffalo care required 6.2 +/-3.00 working hours daily, while annual working time of a buffalo was 294 +/-216.6 hours. The area ploughed with buffaloes remained constant during the past 10 years despite an expansion of land cropped per farm. Although further replacement of buffaloes by tractors occurs rapidly, buffaloes still provide cheap work force and buffer risks on poor NRNNR farms. Appropriate advice is needed for improved breeding management to increase the efficiency of buffalo husbandry and provide better opportunities for buffalo meat sale in the region.

  2. Buffalo milk: proteins electrophoretic profile and somatic cell count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mattii

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo milk differs from the cow’s milk for greater fat and protein content, very important features in cheese making. Proteins, casein and whey-proteins in particular, are the most important factors determining cheese yield. Several previous research discussed the rule of SCC in cow milk production (Varisco, 1999 and the close relationship existing between cow’s milk cheese yield and somatic cell count (Barbano, 2000. In particular the inverse correlation between cheese yields and somatic cells’content have been demonstrated. In Italy the regulation in force DPR 54/97 acknowledges what expressed in EEC 46/92 Directive (Tripodi, 1999 without fixing the limit threshold of somatic cells for buffalo’s milk....

  3. Neuroendocrine cells in the urogenital tract of the buffalo

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    A. Vittoria

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine cells or paraneurons are cytotypes producing biogenic amines and/or hormonal peptides, scattered in the glandular and lining epithelia of the body. In this study the presence of chromogranin A-, serotonin- and somatostatin-immunoreactive neuroendocrine cells has been described immunohistochemically in the urethro- prostatic complex and female urethra of subjects of the buffalo Bubalus bubalis. The chromogranin A- containing neuroendocrine cells resulted the most numerous cytotype, the serotonin- containing ones the most irregular in shape for the presence of dendritic-like cytoplasmic extensions and the somatostatin- containing the rarest. The role played by the amine serotonin in the genital tract has been related to the determinism of sexual climax and to the contraction of smooth muscle. The function played by the neuroendocrine genital somatostatin is unknown. Analogically to what described for the same gastrointestinal hormone, it could inhibit both exocrine and endocrine secretions.

  4. In vitro fertility assessment of Kundhi buffalo bull semen

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    Hamzo Khan Kunbhar,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on in-vitro fertility assessment of frozen thawed semen collected from Kundhi buffalo bull maintained at Department of Animal Reproduction, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam. Before freezing of semen, each ejaculate was assessed for volume, sperm concentration, mass activity and moss motility percentage. Twenty semen samples having motility 60% or above were frozen for post-thaw assessment. Frozen thawed semen was incubated at 250C for 5 hours and examined for progressive linear motility and live dead sperm count. The mean volume, mass activity, moss motility percentage sperm concentrations and pH of the semen were found to be 2.79±0.217 ml, 2.85±0.111, 71.75±2.621, 11.35±1.255 millions/ml and 5.8185±0.092 respectively of fresh semen. No significant difference was found between the parameters except pH, which was significantly different between the bulls. The mean sperm motility percentage and live dead sperm count % of Kundhi buffalo bull semen was found to be 20.46±1.62 and 6.9± 0.2% for frozen semen. A significant (P< 0.05 difference was found between the bulls for post-thaw motility percentage. It was found that at 01 hour incubation, 43.25±2.95% of sperms were motile having 11.78±0.28 % dead sperm count. It was gradually decline from 0 to 5 hours incubation, After 5 hours, all sperms were found dead. It is concluded that sperms maintaining long term motility and having less live dead sperms count were considered suitable for artificial insemination.

  5. Experimental poisoning by Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii in buffalo

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    José C. Oliveira-Filho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Five male 6-8 month-old Murrah buffalo calves were orally dosed with the fresh aerial parts of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii at doses of 1, 3, 4, 5 and 10g/kg body weight (bw (~1-10mg macrocyclic trichothecenes/kg/bw. The B. megapotamica used for the experiment was harvested on a farm where a recent spontaneous outbreak of poisoning caused by such plant had occurred. Clinical signs appeared 4-20 hours and 4 buffaloes died 18-49 hours after the ingestion of the plant. Clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, and watery diarrhea, fever, colic, drooling, muscle tremors, restlessness, laborious breathing and ruminal atony, and dehydration. The most consistent gross findings were restricted to the gastrointestinal (GI tract consisted of varying degrees of edema and reddening of the mucosa of the forestomach. Histopathological findings consisted of varying degrees of necrosis of the epithelial lining of the forestomach and of lymphocytes within lymphoid organs and aggregates. Fibrin thrombi were consistently found in sub-mucosal vessels of the forestomach and in the lumen of hepatic sinusoids. It is suggested that dehydration, septicemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation participate in the pathogenesis of the intoxication and play a role as a cause of death. A subsample of B. megapotamica var. weirii was frozen-dried and ground and analyzed using UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography with high resolution Time of Flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry, it was shown that the plant material contained at least 51 different macrocyclic trichothecenes at a total level of 1.1-1.2mg/g. About 15-20% of the total trichothecenes contents was found to be monosaccharide conjugates, with two thirds of these being glucose conjugates and one third constituted by six aldopentose conjugates (probably xylose, which has never been reported in the literature.

  6. Estimation of the intercalving period in Italian Mediterranean buffalo

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    G. Campanile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to estimate the average intercalving period of a buffalo herd/population, by using the percentage of subjects that are able to conceive within 90 days post-partum, and that, consequently, have an intercalving period lower than 400 days, in order to give a precocious judgment on its fertility. A total number of 8,845 intercalving periods were recorded in 4 farms and 4 Provinces of Campania and Lazio Regions. In all the farms the out of breeding season mating technique was adopted and a constant diet was administered throughout the year. Values were grouped for primiparous and pluriparous buffaloes and were divided in four calving periods: January-March; April-June; July-September; October-December. Within each group/farm ANOVA was performed and the means were analysed by t Student test. In each group the mean value and the percentage of subjects with an intercalving period lower than 400 days (% < 400 days were calculated and the regression analysis was carried out between the values of the intercalving periods and the % < 400 days. Finally, an all-in regression analysis was performed by using the data of 55 groups, excluding those with less than 25 values. The regression analysis between % < 400 days and the mean value of the intercalving period was always significant, except in one case. The comparison between the real values and those calculated allows to affirm that, if the percentage of subjects with an intercalving period lower than 400 days is higher than 50%, an intercalving period lower than 450 days will be probably recorded.

  7. Nematodes of the small intestine of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William A; Skinner, John D; Boomker, Joop

    2013-05-16

    The abundance and distribution of parasitic helminths in populations of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, have not been well documented. A total of 28 buffaloes of different ages and sexeswere sampled in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, for nematodes of the small intestine. Three nematode species were identified, namely Cooperia fuelleborni, Cooperia hungi and Trichostrongylus deflexus, with C. hungi being a new country record for African buffalo in South Africa. The overall prevalence was 71%and the average number of worms was 2346 (range: 0-15 980). This is a small burden for such a large mammal. Sex, age and body condition of the buffaloes had no significant effect on worm occurrence.

  8. Serological investigation of Leptospira infection and its circulation in one intensive-type water buffalo farm in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Marvin A; Mingala, Claro N; Gloriani, Nina G; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Isoda, Norikazu; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Koizumi, Nobuo

    2016-02-01

    Water buffalo is an indispensable livestock in the Philippines. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that can be fatal to humans and cause reproductive problems in livestock. Leptospirosis has been reported in some countries where water buffaloes are commercially raised, highlighting the Leptospira prevalence in this farming system, but information on leptospirosis in water buffalo farms in the Philippines is limited. In this study, we collected blood samples from rats (n = 21), and water buffaloes (n = 170) from different groups and locations in one intensive-type buffalo farm in the Philippines. Serum was analyzed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Anti-Leptospira antibodies reacting with serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were found in sera of 30% tested rats, and 48% of water buffalo sera tested positive for at least one Leptospira strain, in which serogroups Mini, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Pyrogenes were predominantly agglutinated. The number of seropositive young water buffaloes (animals were reactive with multiple Leptospira strains with variable MAT titers. In addition, antibodies against serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were detected in both animals. Finally, Leptospira infection was found associated with age and animal grouping, highlighting the impact of management in the persistence of leptospirosis at intensive-type buffalo farm settings in the Philippines. Further investigation and appropriate control strategies are required to prevent leptospirosis from causing risks to public health and economic losses to the water buffalo farming industry.

  9. The role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayebazibwe, C.; Mwiine, F. N.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten;

    2010-01-01

    Background To study the role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda, serum samples were collected from 207 African buffalos, 21 impalas (Aepyceros melampus), 1 giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), 1 common eland (Taurotragus oryx), 7 hartebeests...... while the SAT 2 isolates belonged to different lineages within the East African topotype X. Conclusions Consistent detection of high antibody titres in buffalos supports the view that African buffalos play an important role in the maintenance of FMDV infection within National Parks in Uganda. Both SAT 1...

  10. Reactor and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, John A.

    1976-08-10

    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  11. Changes in composition of colostrum of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows

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    Abd El -Fattah Alaa M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in colostrum composition of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows collected at calving, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 h and after 14 days of parturition were studied. Total solids, total protein, whey proteins, fat, lactose and ash contents were determined. Macro- and micro-elements, IgG, IgM, IGF-1, lactoferrin and vitamins (A and E were also estimated. Results At calving, the total protein and whey proteins concentration did not differ between buffalo and cow colostrum, while total solids, fat, lactose and ash concentrations were higher in buffalo than in cow colostrum. All components decreased gradually as the transition period advanced except lactose which conversely increased. On the fifth day post-partum, concentration of total protein, whey proteins, fat, ash and total solids decreased by 69.39, 91.53, 36.91, 45.58 and 43.85% for buffalo and by 75.99, 94.12, 53.36, 33.59 and 52.26% for cow colostrum. However, lactose concentration increased by 42.45% for buffalo and 57.39% for cow colostrum. The macro-and micro-elements concentration of both colostrums tended to decline slightly toward normality on the fifth day of parturition. Buffalo colostrum had a higher concentration of vitamin E than cow colostrum during the experimental period. At calving, the concentration of vitamin A in buffalo colostrum was found to be approximately 1.50 times lower than in cow colostrum. The concentrations of IgG, IgM, IGF-1 and lactoferrin decreased by 97.90, 97.50, 96.25 and 96.70% for buffalo and 76.96, 74.92, 76.00 and 77.44% for cow colostrum, respectively after five days of parturition. Conclusions There is a dramatic change in buffalo and cow colostrum composition from the first milking until the fifth day of parturition. There are differences between buffalo and cow colostrum composition during the five days after calving. The composition of both colostrums approaches to those of normal milk within five days after parturition.

  12. New insights on ill-thriftiness in early-weaned buffalo calves

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    Nasr-Eldin M. Aref

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was designed to: (1 Investigate the effect of weaning time on various metabolic indices and growth pattern in buffalo calves compared to cow calves under field condition and (2 Shed light on the potential relationship between early weaning, growth metabolites, and suboptimal growth (ill-thrift in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: A total number of 18 neonatal calves of both sexes and species (cattle and buffalo were included in the study. Animals were divided into three groups according to their age at weaning as following: Cow calves (n=8 weaned at 4.5 months, buffalo calves (n=6 weaned at 3.5 months (early-weaned, and buffalo calves (n=4 weaned at 5.5 months (late-weaned. Morphological traits, growth metabolites, and hormonal profile were measured at monthly interval over the period of the study and around the time of weaning (2 weeks pre- and post-weaning. Results: The obtained results showed that the trend of growth pattern was significantly increased in a linear pattern in cow calves and late-weaned buffalo calves, whereas early-weaned buffalo calves showed sharp decline in their body weight (BW post-weaning. By the end of the study, early-weaned buffalo calves showed the lowest BW gain (ill-thrift. There is a positive association between the morphological traits and various growth metabolites and hormonal indices. A significant decrease (p<0.05 in the concentrations of growth hormones (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1] and insulin and other metabolites were reported in early-weaned buffalo calves compared to other animals. There is no association between stress indices (cortisol level and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and growth rate. Conclusion: Suboptimal growth rate (ill-thriftiness is common in early-weaned buffalo calves and is attributed to low blood levels of growth metabolites, in particularly, IGF-1. In addition, the strong positive associations between concentrations of IGF-1 and morphological

  13. Recent advances in Progeny testing program for Nili Ravi buffalo in Pakistan

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    A. Ghaffar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Progeny testing program was started in Nili-Ravi buffalo at Livestock Production and Research Institute (LPRI, Bahadurnagar, Okara in 1979-80. Initially buffalo bulls used at Livestock Experiment Station (LES Qadirabad and Rakh Gulaman during 1964-78 were evaluated. Five out of ten at Rakh Gulaman and 10 out of 22 at Qadirabad bulls were positive. As none of these bulls were available, therefore, sons and grandsons of these bulls were selected for production of future candidate bulls. All the buffaloes at LPRI were evaluat`ed on Most Probable Producing Ability. The elite herd thus formed was used for production for future candidate bulls. Since then a continuous program is in operation at Govt. Livestock Farms and expanded to 27 field sub-centers involving private farmers in four districts Okara, Sahiwal, Faisalabad and Pakpattan. Since the initiation of this program in 1980’s, about 174 bulls have been put under progeny testing program and 137 bulls were evaluated by Daughter-Dam Comparison, out of which sixty eight buffalo bulls contributed positively in milk production of daughters. It is worth mentioning here that milk production of registered buffalo was recorded on monthly intervals in the field along with other necessary reproduction data required to compute the different traits of economic importance.Progeny testing program was started in Nili-Ravi buffalo at Livestock Production and Research Institute (LPRI, Bahadurnagar, Okara in 1979-80. Initially buffalo bulls used at Livestock Experiment Station (LES Qadirabad and Rakh Gulaman during 1964-78 were evaluated. Five out of ten at Rakh Gulaman and 10 out of 22 at Qadirabad bulls were positive. As none of these bulls were available, therefore, sons and grandsons of these bulls were selected for production of future candidate bulls. All the buffaloes at LPRI were evaluat`ed on Most Probable Producing Ability. The elite herd thus formed was used for production for future candidate bulls

  14. Absence of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in buffaloes from Amazon and southeast region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-07-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (pAmazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified.

  15. GROSS MORPHOLOGY OF THE HIP ARTICULATION OF BUFFALO CALVES (BUBALUS BUBALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya. B

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: The vulnerability of the buffalo to the luxation of the hip articulation previous to and during parturition encouraged the investigation in this species. The literature reviewed did not reveal complete anatomical descriptions of the coxofemoral articulation of buffalo. Hence the study was undertaken. Purpose: to study the different anatomical aspects of the hip joint which are specific to buffaloes. Methods and Results: A total number of fifteen hip joints of buffalo calves procured from the local slaughter house and department of Veterinary Anatomy were studied in the Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Science, Tirupati irrespective of breed, sex and nutritional status. The gross morphology of joints and relations were studied. The round ligament of buffalo was stronger compared to cattle. A thick fibrous stratum of articular capsule was present. A few arched and semi-circular fibers were seen in the articular capsule but zona orbicularis was absent. The best developed periarticular ligament in the buffalo hip was the iliofemoral ligament. It was a thick cord of connective tissue extending from a nodule below and behind the ischiatic spine and spreaded over the capsula articularis and finally attached to the trochanter major and trochanteric ridge. The pubocapsular ligament was located on the ventral surface of the joint capsule and blended with it. Compared to the most of other quadripeds the periarticular ligaments were well developed in buffalo. The iliofemoral ligament was mostly helpful in preventing the hip from excessive extension and adduction. The relative development of the periarticular ligaments in the biped and quadrupeds were probably in accordance with comparative weight that this articulation must support. Potential implications: An understanding of the basic anatomy of the hip helps in understanding pathology and can greatly assist the surgeon in appropriately diagnosing and treating the

  16. Profile of muscle tissue gene expression specific to water buffalo: Comparison with domestic cattle by genome array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Hongbao; Gui, Linsheng; Wang, Hongcheng; Mei, Chugang; Zhang, Yaran; Xu, Huaichao; Jia, Cunlin; Zan, Linsen

    2016-02-10

    In contrast with the past, the water buffalo is now not only a draft animal, but also an important food source of milk and meat. It is increasingly apparent that the water buffalo have huge potential for meat production, but its breeding needs to be investigated. Regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in the meat quality difference between the buffalo (Bubalus bulabis) and yellow cattle (Bos taurus), 12 chemical-physical characteristics related to the meat quality of longissimus thoracis muscles (LTM) have been compared at the age of 36 months. Intramuscular lipid and b* (yellowness) were greater in cattle than the buffalo, whereas a* (redness) was greater in the buffalo. Gene expression profiles were constructed by bovine genome array. A total of 8884 and 10,960 probes were detected in buffalo and cattle, respectively, with 1580 genes being differentially expressed. Over 400 probes were upregulated and nearly 1200 were downregulated in LTM of the buffalo, most being involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing, cholesterol homeostasis, regulation of transcription, response to hypoxia, and glycolysis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the microarray data. Enriched GO analyses of highly expressed genes in LTM showed that protein biosynthesis, striated muscle contraction, iron homeostasis, iron transport, glycolysis and glucose metabolism were similar between the buffalo and cattle. High protein content, low fat content and deep meat color of buffalo LTM may be closely associated with the increased expression of genes involved in cholesterol and iron homeostasis, while also reducing the expression of genes involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and protein oxidative phosphorylation. These results establish the groundwork for further studies on buffalo meat quality and will be beneficial in improving water buffalo breeding by molecular biotechnology.

  17. The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle.

  18. The Unique Problems of Urban School Administration: An Institute for School Administrators of the Buffalo Public Schools and Several Suburban School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Troy V.; Swanson, Austin D.

    This report on an Institute for school administrators in Buffalo, New York, focuses on the problems of urban school administration. The Institute was held during the summer of 1967 at the State University of New York at Buffalo. The State University, the Buffalo Public Schools, and several suburban schools came together in order to enhance the…

  19. Partial genetic characterization of viruses isolated from pox-like infection in cattle and buffaloes: evidence of buffalo pox virus circulation in Indian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S; Hosamani, M; Balamurugan, V; Bhanuprakash, V; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2010-02-01

    Characterization of field isolates of viruses associated with pox-like outbreaks involving both cows (cattle) and buffaloes was carried out. PCR and electron microcopy of representative virus isolates from these animals, initially identified them as orthopoxviruses (OPXVs). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of A-type inclusion and haemagglutinin (HA) genes of these isolates revealed a closer relationship with other OPXVs. Sequencing of the HA gene of these isolates revealed sequence identity of 96.2-99.8 and 94.6-98.7% at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, respectively, with VACVs, particularly with VACV-MVA, a vaccine strain. Further, C18L (ankyrin repeat protein)-gene-based BPXV-specific PCR confirmed them as BPXV. It is apparent from this study that pox-like outbreaks in cows and buffaloes in India are caused, in most cases, by BPXV. Considering the zoonotic implications of buffalopox, such outbreaks involving both buffaloes and cows in a mixed flock may pose a significant public health threat. Transmissibility of BPXV between different species including cows, buffaloes and human beings implies the potential reemergence of the virus in the subcontinent, similar to vaccinia-like outbreaks witnessed recently in other countries.

  20. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84 Section 110.84 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black Rock Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows: Beginning...

  1. Infection of water buffalo in Rio de Janeiro Brazil with Anaplasma marginale strains also reported in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Barbosa, José D; de la Fuente, José

    2014-10-15

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and causes the disease bovine anaplasmosis. The importance of water buffalo in the world economy is increasing. In addition, while water buffalo may serve as a reservoir host for A. marginale, the susceptibility of this host for A. marginale cattle strains in Brazil has not been reported. The major surface protein 1 alpha (msp1α) gene has been shown to be a stable genetic marker for identification of A. marginale strains. Herein, we analyzed blood samples from 200 water buffalo and identified the A. marginale strains in an endemic area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where ticks were present and water buffalo and cattle co-mingled. Ticks that were feeding on the study buffalo were collected and identified. The prevalence of A. marginale in water buffalo in this study was low (10%). Sequence analysis of the msp1α gene demonstrated the presence of 8 different A. marginale strains. Two A. marginale strains in the water buffalo, (α-β-β-β-Γ) and (α-β-β-Γ), were similar to those reported in cattle from nearby regions. The results of this study suggested that water buffalo in this region are naturally infected with the same strains of A. marginale found in cattle.

  2. Epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Landhi Dairy Colony, Pakistan, the world largest Buffalo colony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Jörn; Hussain, M.; Ahmad, M.;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses. This work focus on the Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC), located in the suburbs of Karachi. LDC is the largest Buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle,...

  3. Population structure of African buffalo inferred from mtDNA sequences and microsatellite loci: high variation but low differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Thisted; Siegismund, H R; Arctander, P

    1998-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa and is found in most major vegetation types, wherever permanent sources of water are available, making it physically able to disperse through a wide range of habitats. Despite this, the buffalo has been assumed to b...

  4. Characteristics, socioeconomic benefits and household livelihoods of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming in Northeast Thailand

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    Eva Schlecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.

  5. Disease constraints for utilization of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) on game ranches in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron M; Munag'andu, Hetron M; Siamudaala, Victor M; Nambota, Andrew; Bwalya, John M; Munyeme, Musso; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato; Kida, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    Eco-tourism depending on wildlife is becoming increasingly profitable and landowners are beginning to favor game farming and ecotourism. In these areas, large-scale translocation of wildlife involves a diversity of species and large populations. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is one of the major tourist attractions in Zambia. It accounts for 8.7% and 12.4% of the total animal species hunted in the Game Management Areas and the total hunting revenue earned in Zambia, respectively. It is ecologically an important animal species essential for the purpose of habitat control and facilitating the provision of suitable grazing pastures. However, the rearing of the African buffalo on game ranches has been hampered by its carrier state of the Southern Africa Terroritory (SAT) serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMD). The African buffalo is also known to be a carrier of Theileria parva lawrencei, the causative agent of corridor disease (CD) that continues to have devastating effects on the livestock industry in Zambia. In addition, the importation of buffaloes from countries with populations endemic to bovine tuberculosis is highly restricted. Veterinary regulations in Zambia, strongly advocate against the translocation of buffaloes from protected areas to private ranches for disease control purposes thereby mounting a considerable constraint on the economic and ecological viability of the industry. It is hoped that this review will motivate the relevant government authorities in exploiting ways in which this animal species play a central role in eco-tourism.

  6. The African buffalo: a villain for inter-species spread of infectious diseases in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Anita L; Bengis, Roy G

    2012-06-20

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large wild bovid which until recently ranged across all but the driest parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and their local range being limited to about 20 km from surface water. They are of high ecological value due to their important role as bulk feeders in the grazing hierarchy. They also have high economic value, because they are one of the sought after 'Big Five' in the eco-tourism industry. In Africa, buffaloes have been recognised for some time as an important role player in the maintenance and transmission of a variety of economically important livestock diseases at the wildlife and/or livestock interface. These include African strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Corridor disease (theileriosis), bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. For a number of other diseases of veterinary importance, African buffaloes may also serve as amplifier or incidental host, whereby infection with the causative pathogens may cause severe clinical signs such as death or abortion as in the case of anthrax and Rift Valley fever, or remain mild or subclinical for example heartwater. The long term health implications of most of those infections on the buffalo at a population level is usually limited, and they do not pose a threat on the population's survival. Because of their ability to harbour and transmit important diseases to livestock, their sustainable future in ecotourism, trade and transfrontier conservation projects become complex and costly and reliable diagnostic tools are required to monitor these infections in buffalo populations.

  7. Prevalence of Various Reproductive Disorders and Economic Losses Caused by Genital Prolapse in Buffaloes

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    Rasheed A. Rabbani, I. Ahmad*, L. A. Lodhi, N. Ahmad and G. Muhammad1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of various reproductive disorders and to estimate the economic losses due to genital prolapse in buffaloes in Sir Shamir area of District Faisalabad, Pakistan. The survey was conducted in 8 villages during the 12 months period from June 2005 to May 2006 and the data from 400 farmers (50 farmers from each village were collected. The total buffalo population of this area was 7,785, out of which 2,135 (27.42% animals were included in the study. The overall prevalence of reproductive disorders in buffaloes was recorded as 46.18%. Among all the reproductive disorders, repeat breeding showed the highest prevalence (15.69%, followed by anestrous (9.74%, genital prolapse (7.73%, abortion (5.99%, retained placenta (2.58%, uterine torsion (2.39% and dystocia (2.06%. The total economic losses due to genital prolapse in buffaloes in eight villages during the period of study were estimated to be Rs. 4,59,500/- Among these, the highest losses were due to mortality of dam (39.17%, followed by milk losses (25.14%, service charges (21.33% and medicine cost (14.36%. Thus, repeat breeding, anoestrus and genital prolapse seem to be the major reproductive problems in buffaloes in the study area.

  8. Soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Andrabi, S M H; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Khalid, M

    2012-10-01

    Egg yolk is routinely used as a cryoprotectant in semen extenders. However, it may contain cryoprotective antagonists, and there are hygienic risks associated with its use. Proteins of plant origin, like soya-lecithin, lack these hazards. The aim of this study was to use soya-lecithin as a cryoprotectant in extender and to investigate its effects on in vitro quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. Semen from three buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing 5.0%, 10% or 15% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were assessed post-dilution, pre-freezing and post-thaw. In Post-dilution and pre-freezing, the values for motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability remained higher (p ≤ 0.05) in extenders containing 10% soya-lecithin and control compared with extender containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. However, motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were higher (p soya-lecithin compared with control and extenders containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. Semen from two buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing either 10% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Higher (p soya-lecithin (56%) compared with 20% egg yolk (41.5%). The results suggest that 10% soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa and can be used as an alternate to egg yolk in cryopreservation of buffalo semen.

  9. Seasonal prevalence of hydatidosis in buffaloes –A retrospective study

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    AarifM. Khan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify the prevalence of Hydatidosis in buffaloe-calves, heifers and adults slaughtered in slaughter house of Mirha Exports Pvt. Ltd. between March 2010 to Feb. 2011.Materials and Methods: 2,09,615 buffaloes slaughtered were included in this study and were categorized into three groups (A, B and C based on their age at the time of ante-mortem examination. Group Aconsisted of calves (>1 year, accounting for 5100 out of the total number of animals. Group B consisted of heifers (2-3 years accounting for 7840. Group C consisted of adult buffaloes (3-7 years accounting for 1, 96675. Results:Our study revealed an overall prevalence of hydatidosis as 50.96%. Furthermore, the group wise analysis showed the prevalence as 3.52%, 5.58% and 54% in calves, heifers and adult buffaloes, respectively.Conclusion: Based on the factors considered, we conclude that the higher prevalence of infections in buffaloes slaughtered in the Mirha Exports is likely due to an overpopulation of stray dogs in the areas from which the plant gets its supply of animals.

  10. Assessment of nitrogen content in buffalo manure and land application costs

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    Salvatore Faugno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis livestock for mozzarella cheese production plays a fundamental role in the economy of southern Italy. European and Italian regulations consider nitrogen content in buffalo manure to be the same as that of cattle manure. This study aimed to assess whether this assumption is true. The first aim of the study was to assess nitrogen content in buffalo manure. Samples were taken from 35 farms to analyse nitrogen and phosphorous concentration in the manure. Analysis confirmed a lower nitrogen concentration (2% in buffalo manure. A secondary aim of the study was to evaluate whether manure application techniques that are apparently less suitable, e.g. splash plate spreader, could be feasible. The cost of different methods of land application of manure and their characteristics were evaluated on the basis of one operational cycle. Considering losses for volatilisation, and taking into account cost assessment, the immediate incorporation of buffalo manure (nitrogen content 2% is a suitable method of ammonia volatilisation. However, it is expensive and involves high fuel consumption in relation to the environmental benefit.

  11. Solving the Traveling Salesman’s Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization

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    Julius Beneoluchi Odili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman’s Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd’s collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive.

  12. Adaptation of Buffalo Production Systems Towards the Market Demand for Certified Quality Products

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    A. Georgoudis

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the possibilities of the economic exploitation of the buffalo population in Greece through the production of certified quality products. The buffalo population in Greece has decreased dramatically during the last decades, due to the rapidly changing socio-economic conditions, mainly the mechanisation of the agricultural sector. The current study has been undertaken in the region of Kerkini Lake, where the majority of buffalo population of Greece is concentrated. The main characteristics of the production system; feeding based on the natural vegetation, the unique way of product processing and the gastronomy are investigated by filling up questionnaires. The next step includes the detailed description of the production system and the definition of the critical points where the intervention will take place. The proper application of the production protocols will be undertaken by the official organisation for certification. The farmers association will be responsible for the management of the transition of the production system. As the driving force of the new development of buffalo breeding is the production of quality products, further investigation on the special characteristics of milk and meat buffalo products, is required.

  13. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases.

  14. Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil

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    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease.

  15. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-05

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species.

  16. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae infesting cattle and African buffaloes in the Tsavo conservation area, Kenya

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    Edward K. Kariuki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several ixodid tick species are shared between domestic cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer. So too, are a number of tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to compare the species composition of ticks that infest cattle and buffaloes utilising the same habitat within the Tsavo Conservation Area, Kenya. To this end, 25 cattle and 62 buffaloes were each opportunistically sampled for ticks on a single occasion in February 2010. Eight species, namely Amblyomma gemma, Amblyomma lepidum, Hyalomma albiparmatum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus pravus and Rhipicephalus pulchellus infested both cattle and buffaloes. Three species, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus sp., Rhipicephalus kochi, and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected only from cattle, and three species, Hyalomma impeltatum, Rhipicephalus humeralis and Rhipicephalus praetextatus were present only on buffaloes. The attachment sites of the various tick species were also recorded. New locality records for H. impeltatum and H. truncatum and the first confirmed locality record for Rhipicephalus praetextatus sensu stricto in Kenya were documented.

  17. Inbreeding and its effect on some productive traits in buffaloes of South Iran

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    B. Mahmoodi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The buffalo is a native animal of Iran and there were 500,000 buffaloes in Iran that over 80 per cent of its population concentrated in the north and north- west (Azerbaijan province and 18 per cent in the south (Khuzestan province of the country. Buffaloes reread in rural condition as multi purpose animals in Khuzestan. For mating, farmer use owns herd sire also artificial insemination is limited in the rural condition that may be inbred animals so affect the production performance. The aim of this investigation was estimate the inbreeding coefficient and its affect on some production performance. Data of 200 herds were used from the record sheets of herds under recording program of Animal Breeding Center during period 1990 to 2002 in the Khuzestan province. These results showed mostly herds only one sir and rarely two sires have been used. Inbreeding coefficient was 25 percent in some progeny and high-inbred buffaloes had a low performance. According to results of this study it could be concluded that farmers to avoid inbreeding should use other herd sire and artificial insemination also practical recording scheme and genetically selection to genetic improvement should be included in buffaloes of Iran.

  18. HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE FOLLOWING IMMUNOMODULATION DURING LATE GESTATION IN BUFFALOES (BUBALIS BUBALUS

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    Z.I, Qureshi, L.A. Lodhi, H.A. Samad, N.A. Naz1 and M. Nawaz

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two adult riverine buffaloes (Buhalis bubalus in their last trimester of pregnancy were selected and randomly divided into four groups. The buffaloes of group I served as control. Animals in group II, III and IV were treated twice (7 days apart with levamisole hydrochloride (0.5mg/kg b. w. orally, Etosol (Vit E+Se, 10ml, I/m and Bacilli Calmette Guerine (BCG (0.5 ml/animal, s/c, respectively. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals starting day 0 untill parturition. Total erythrocytic count and packed cell volume values were higher (P<0.05 in levamisole and vit E+Se treated group of buffaloes. Haemoglobin concentration was higher (P<0.05 inVit E+Se treated group. MCV, MCH and MCHC remained unchanged among all the experimental groups. Total leukocyte count was higher (P<0.05 in levamisole treated group of buffaloes. Differential leukocyte counts (relative revealed moderate lymphocytosis in all immunomodulated groups with significantly higher counts in Vit E+Se treated buffaloes. It was inferred that levamisole and vit E-se altered some haematological values, whereas BCG did not affect the haematological parameters.

  19. Diversity, Antimicrobial Action and Structure-Activity Relationship of Buffalo Cathelicidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Biswajit; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Karri, Satyanagalakshmi; Chopra, Meenu; Mishra, Purusottam; De, Bidhan Chandra; Kumar, Sushil; Mahanty, Sourav; Thakur, Kiran; Poluri, Krishna Mohan; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Cathelicidins are an ancient class of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad spectrum bactericidal activities. In this study, we investigated the diversity and biological activity of cathelicidins of buffalo, a species known for its disease resistance. A series of new homologs of cathelicidin4 (CATHL4), which were structurally diverse in their antimicrobial domain, was identified in buffalo. AMPs of newly identified buffalo CATHL4s (buCATHL4s) displayed potent antimicrobial activity against selected Gram positive (G+) and Gram negative (G-) bacteria. These peptides were prompt to disrupt the membrane integrity of bacteria and induced specific changes such as blebing, budding, and pore like structure formation on bacterial membrane. The peptides assumed different secondary structure conformations in aqueous and membrane-mimicking environments. Simulation studies suggested that the amphipathic design of buCATHL4 was crucial for water permeation following membrane disruption. A great diversity, broad-spectrum antimicrobial action, and ability to induce an inflammatory response indicated the pleiotropic role of cathelicidins in innate immunity of buffalo. This study suggests short buffalo cathelicidin peptides with potent bactericidal properties and low cytotoxicity have potential translational applications for the development of novel antibiotics and antimicrobial peptidomimetics.

  20. Diversity, Antimicrobial Action and Structure-Activity Relationship of Buffalo Cathelicidins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Brahma

    Full Text Available Cathelicidins are an ancient class of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs with broad spectrum bactericidal activities. In this study, we investigated the diversity and biological activity of cathelicidins of buffalo, a species known for its disease resistance. A series of new homologs of cathelicidin4 (CATHL4, which were structurally diverse in their antimicrobial domain, was identified in buffalo. AMPs of newly identified buffalo CATHL4s (buCATHL4s displayed potent antimicrobial activity against selected Gram positive (G+ and Gram negative (G- bacteria. These peptides were prompt to disrupt the membrane integrity of bacteria and induced specific changes such as blebing, budding, and pore like structure formation on bacterial membrane. The peptides assumed different secondary structure conformations in aqueous and membrane-mimicking environments. Simulation studies suggested that the amphipathic design of buCATHL4 was crucial for water permeation following membrane disruption. A great diversity, broad-spectrum antimicrobial action, and ability to induce an inflammatory response indicated the pleiotropic role of cathelicidins in innate immunity of buffalo. This study suggests short buffalo cathelicidin peptides with potent bactericidal properties and low cytotoxicity have potential translational applications for the development of novel antibiotics and antimicrobial peptidomimetics.

  1. Identification of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the DGAT1 gene of buffaloes by PCR-SSCP

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    Ashwin A. Raut

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1 is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the final step of triglyceride synthesis. The DGAT1 gene is a strong functional candidate for determining milk fat content in cattle. In this work, we used PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing to examine polymorphism in the region spanning exon 7 to exon 9 of the DGAT1 gene in Murrah and Pandharpuri buffaloes. Three alleles (A, B and C and four novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the buffalo DGAT1 gene. The frequencies of the alleles differed between the two buffalo breeds, with allele C being present in Murrah but not in Pandharpuri buffalo. The allele variation detected in this work may influence DGAT1 expression and function. The results described here could be useful in examining the association between the DGAT1 gene and milk traits in buffalo.

  2. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in serologically negative animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, María I; König, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, María G

    2015-01-01

    Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2).

  3. Natural Babesia bovis infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle under field conditions in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a little or no data available on the natural Babesia bovis (B. bovis) infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) comparing to the available one for cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes in comparison to crossbred...... of cattle showed dark brown to dark red (coffee-color) urine, hemoglobinuria and nervous manifestations while these manifestations were not detected in the infected buffaloes. Hematological changes in both species however, these changes were less significant in buffaloes than those reported in cattle....... Conclusion: This paper documents the first description of natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes which were found to be more likely to be tolerant than cattle to the natural clinical infection with B. bovis and its subsequent haematological changes. Our finding may lead to a better understanding...

  4. Tetraplex PCR assay involving double gene-sites discriminates beef and buffalo in Malaysian meat curry and burger products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M A Motalib; Ali, Md Eaqub; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, S M Azad; Asing; Nizar, Nina Naquiah Ahmad; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Ali, Lokman; Asaduzzaman, Md; Akanda, Md Jahurul Haque

    2017-06-01

    Replacement of beef by buffalo and vice versa is frequent in global markets, but their authentication is challenging in processed foods due to the fragmentation of most biomarkers including DNA. The shortening of target sequences through use of two target sites might ameliorate assay reliability because it is highly unlikely that both targets will be lost during food processing. For the first time, we report a tetraplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting two different DNA regions in beef (106 and 120-bp) and buffalo (90 and 138-bp) mitochondrial genes to discriminate beef and buffalo in processed foods. All targets were stable under boiling, autoclaving and microwave cooking conditions. A survey in Malaysian markets revealed 71% beef curries contained buffalo but there was no buffalo in beef burgers. The assay detected down to 0.01ng DNA and 1% meat in admixed and burger products.

  5. DAG defect in Murrah buffalo bulls in Brazil

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    W.G. Vale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dag defect sperms have an abnormal tail coiled morphology are totally or almost totally immotile and have severe abnormalities on the fibers in the axial filament. This defect in bovine was shown to be due an autosomal recessive gene. In the present study 23 buffalo bulls age 18-34 months examined for BSE (Breeding Soundness Examination showed sperm motility varied between 0 to 70% accomplished with 10 a 65% of sperm pathology with or not a predominance of strong coiled tails with or without persistence of droplet. In Brazil Murrah breed have had only eight female PO (pure of origin - India gave origin of the herd and not more than four males where also imported from India, although in the last two decades some quantity of frozen semen were introduced in the country imported from India. As in the other domestic species inbreed seems to be the main cause of this abnormalities in different breeds. The knowledge and further study of such abnormalities is the only way to overcome a problem that if not controlled will tend to spread out without control causing in the future more problem for development of some herds.

  6. Morphogenesis of Mammary Glands in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    Amit Challana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research was elucidated on the morphogenesis of mammary gland of buffalo during prenatal development. Total of 16 foetuses ranging from 1.2 cm (34 days to 108 cm CVRL (curved crown rump length (317 days were used for study. The study revealed that mammary line was first observed at 1.2 cm CVRL (34 days, mammary hillock at 1.7 cm (37 days, and mammary bud at 2.6 cm CVRL (41 days foetuses. Epidermal cone was found at 6.7 cm CVRL (58 days whereas primary and secondary ducts were observed at 7.4 cm CVRL (62 days and 15 cm CVRL (96 days, respectively. Connective tissue whorls were reported at 18.2 cm CVRL (110 days and internal elastic lamina and muscle layers at 24.1 cm CVRL (129 days. Lobules were observed at 29.3 cm CVRL (140 days, rosette of furstenberg at 39.5 cm CVRL (163 days, and keratin plug at 45.5 cm CVRL (176 days foetus. Primordia of sweat and sebaceous glands around hair follicle were seen at 21.2 cm CVRL (122 days of foetal life. Differentiation of all the skin layers along with cornification was observed at 69 cm (229 days in group III foetuses.

  7. FERMENTABILITY AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LACTOPEROXIDASE ACTIVATED BUFFALO MILK YOGHURT

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    Aijaz H. Soomro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to produce and evaluate the coagulum from buffalo milk preserved with the activation of its lactoperoxidase system (LPO-system. A total of 10 trials were conducted and in each trial milk base was equally divided into three parts, two of which were treated with 20 mg/L (A and 30 mg/L (B solution of Sodium thiocyanate + Hydrogen peroxide and third part was kept as control (C. All the samples were analyzed for fermentability trend, pH, acidity, viscosity, specific gravity, syneresis and organoleptic properties. The decreasing trend in pH during fermentation period was comparatively slow in LPO-system activated milk A and B (4h and 5h as compared to control yoghurt (3h. The titratable acidity (% lactic acid of A, B and C yoghurt was 0.86±0.022, 0.85±0.025 and 0.89±0.024, respectively. The viscosity and specific gravity of control yoghurt was significantly (P0.05 were observed in the total solids, fat, ash, lactose and protein contents among the control, A and B yoghurt. Two week stored samples of control yoghurt received lower sensory score for appearance, flavor, body/texture and overall acceptability as compared to fresh control yoghurt. Simultaneously, LPO-system treated A and B yoghurt received high score during storage period than the control yoghurt.

  8. Relationships between buffalo milk components and curd characteristics

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    F. Zicarelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the coefficients of correlation between curd chemical composition and milk characteristics, theoretical and real cheese yield and ratios between cheese yield and protein percentage. The analysis were performed on 326 milk samples collected from 60 half sib buffaloes, ascertained by DNA test, every 50 days. The percentages of dry matter, proteins and fat of the curd were inversely correlated to the curd firmness (a30, a low enzymatic phase of coagulation and low pH value. Percentage of dry matter in the curd was positively correlated with proteins, casein and fat of the milk and negatively with lactose. Furthermore, dry matter and proteins percentages are also positively correlated with theoretical cheese yield and its ratio with real cheese yield, curd dry matter from 1 litre of milk and the ratio between curd dry matter and protein percentage. Negative correlations were found with real cheese yield at 28 hours (r = - 0.100; P< 0.01 and its ratio with protein percentage. An inverse relationship was highlighted between curd proteins percentage and fat of either milk and curd, while a direct association was present with lactose. A higher protein percentage in the curd was linked to a lower cheese yield and a lower ratio between cheese yield and proteins. Ash of the curd, finally, showed similar association to those described for proteins.

  9. Successful cryopreservation of buffalo ovaries using in situ oocyte cryopreservation

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    Saber Mohammed Abd-Allah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficiency and efficacy of cryopreservation of ovaries, we developed a new method termed in situ oocyte (ISO cryopreservation. ISO cryopreservation is a multistep procedure that involves aspiration of follicular fluid and then perfusion of antral follicles and diffusion of whole buffalo ovaries with cryoprotectant agent (CPA, rapid cooling, storage, thawing and, finally, dilution and removal of the CPA with return to physiological environment. Our study compared ISO cryo ovaries with cryo-diffused ovaries. We systematically examined the effects of ISO cryo and diffuse cryo on ovaries by morphological examination and with viability tests. The percentages of morphologically normal and viable follicular oocytes from ISO cryo were significantly higher than those that resulted from the cryo-diffused method (p<0.01. The quality of follicular oocytes from ISO cryo ovaries appeared better than that achieved from cryo-diffused ovaries. In conclusion, this study shows that ISO cryo is highly efficient for cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue.

  10. Starter protein concentration and weaning of buffalo calf

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    G. Campanile

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors described the harmonic growth in terms of biological efficiency of growth (BEG, live weight, body weight gain and morphological measuraments of 16 buffalo female calves (age in days: 49.0 ±1.3 divided in two groups of feeding. The T group recieved a concentrate with 28.5 % of crude protein on the dry matter basis, while the C group recieved a concentrate with 21.0 % of crude protein on dry matter basis; moreover the concentrate of the T group presented an high quantity of non proteic nitrogen (NPN (33% of crude protein. Blood samples for haematological parameters were collected. No differences in terms of growth, BEG, live weight, body weight gain and morphological measuraments were found. Only the nitrogen blood values in the T group resulted significatively higher then C group (8.53 mmol/L vs. 4.66 mmol/L, respectively. This study confirms the importance of protein source for the formulation of the starter concentrate.

  11. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  12. Bovine herpesvirus 6 in buffaloes (Bubalus bulalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; de Oliveira, Fernanda Gonçalves; Gasparini, Marcela Ribeiro; Galinari, Grazielle Cossenzo Florentino; Lima, Graciela Kunrath; Fonseca, Antônio Augusto; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Dos Reis, Jenner Karlisson Pimenta

    2015-02-01

    This study presents the first description of Bovine herpesvirus 6 (BoHV-6) that was isolated from buffaloes of Amazon region in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the BoHV-6 Brazilian strains clustered with the sequence of BoHV-6 from elsewhere available at the GenBank. It was observed in some buffaloes with lymphoproliferative disease in one herd, thus the animals were also tested for Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which has been associated to lymphoma in bovines. All animals were negative to BLV. These results indicate that BoHV-6 is present in buffaloes in Brazil, but the importance and impact of this infection and its association with any illness is still undefined.

  13. Induction of ovarian activity in Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes by hormonal treatment in the early postpartum period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanimir A Yotov; Anatoli S Atanasov; Yordanka Y Ilieva

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the possibilities for induction of ovarian activity in Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes by hormonal treatment in the early postpartum period. Methods: Twenty six clinically healthy animals, weighing 480-520 kg, 3-5 years of age, with normal parturition, without clinical signs of endometritis during the entire experimental period were divided into 2 groups: control (n=10) and experimental (n=16). Primiparous and multiparous buffaloes were proportionally allotted into both groups. By 5, 21, and 28 postpartum days, control animals were intramuscularly treated with 2 mL physiological saline, whereas experimental buffaloes received 500 mg PGF2αby the 5th postpartum day, 100 μg GnRH by the 21st postpartum day and a second prostaglandin dose 7 days later. All buffaloes were submitted to transrectal ultrasound examination on days 5, 21 and 28 after calving. Evaluation of ovarian activity was made on the basis of follicle type and detection of a newly formed corpus luteum. The percentage of animals with small, medium or dominant follicle and corpus luteum after either spontaneous or induced ovulation was determined. Insemination management included introduction of two proven fertile bulls into the herd at the start of the treatment. Pregnancy ultrasound checks were performed on postpartum days 58, 68, 120 and 150. The proportion of buffaloes with clinical signs of spontaneous or induced oestrus until the 35th postpartum day, pregnancy rates by the 35th and 90th postpartum days and service periods 90 days were registered. Results: On the 5th day after calving, small follicles were predominating in the ovaries of buffaloes from both groups. Similar findings were established on the 21st day in the control group, whereas the share of experimental buffaloes with small follicles was significantly (P<0.01) lower. By the 21st day, there were no medium follicles in untreated animals, while in hormonally treated ones they were found out in 25% of cases. The

  14. Characterization of PRLR and PPARGC1A genes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    Ruheena Javed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 40 million households in India depend at least partially on livestock production. Buffaloes are one of the major milk producers in India. The prolactin receptor (PRLR gene and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-alpha (PPARGC1A gene are reportedly associated with milk protein and milk fat yields in Bos taurus. In this study, we sequenced the PRLR and PPARGC1A genes in the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. The PRLR and PPARGC1A genes coded for 581 and 819 amino acids, respectively. The B. bubalis PRLR gene differed from the corresponding Bos taurus at 21 positions and four differences with an additional arginine at position 620 in the PPARGC1A gene were found in the amino acid sequence. All of the changes were confirmed by cDNA sequencing. Twelve buffalo-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified in both genes, with five of them being non-synonymous.

  15. Prevalence of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 in cattle and buffaloes in Punjab

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    Gurpreet Kaur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 in cattle and buffaloes in the Punjab using PCR as diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 samples (Semen- 57, placental cotyledons-1, vaginal secretions-1, foetal stomach contents-1 and tracheal swabs-3 from cattle and buffaloes were processed for identification of BHV-1 using PCR. Results: From January 2007 to December 2010 (Semen- 57, placental cotyledons-1, vaginal secretions-1, foetal stomach contents-1 and tracheal swabs-3 from cattle and buffaloes were collected. The DNA was extracted from a total of 63 samples and subjected to PCR revealed that none of the sample positive for the BHV-1 infection. Conclusion: From the study it was concluded that the farms screened were free from BHV-1 infection. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 343-345

  16. Effect of the meiotic inhibitor cilostamide on resumption of meiosis and cytoskeletal distribution in buffalo oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Yang; Lou, Juan; Yang, Xiao-Gan; Lu, Yang-Qing; Lu, Sheng-Sheng; Lu, Ke-Huan

    2016-11-01

    Improving the quality of in vitro maturated buffalo oocytes is essential for embryo production. We report here the effects on microtubules and microfilaments in oocytes and embryo development that result from treating buffalo oocytes with the phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor cilostamide. Addition of 20μM or 50μM cilostamide for 24h during in vitro maturation showed no differences in the percentage of oocytes arrested at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. When 20μM cilostamide was added to the pre-maturation culture for 6h, 12h or 24h and continued for another 24h without cilostamide, oocytes resumed meiosis, but with significantly lower (P0.05). In summary, cilostamide reversibly arrested the resumption of meiosis without any adverse impact on the dynamic changes in microtubules and microfilaments in buffalo oocytes and their in vitro developmental capacity.

  17. Weekly milk producation trends in early lactation period of Nagpuri buffalo

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    M.G.Sahare

    Full Text Available Nagpuri breed of buffalo is recognized breed, mostly found in Central India particularly in Vidharbha region of Maharashtra.The early milk production record were collected for each buffalo from 1st week of lactation to 15th week of lactation .The weekly milk production of Nagpuri buffalo was found to be 35.19 ± 0.3 kg with a range 16.22 ±0.77 to 41.5 ± 0.28 kg .The overall variability found in early milk production was 12.16% .The variation in production in early lactation period between the animal up to the 15th week of lactation where non-significant. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 278-279

  18. Ontogenic development of corticotrophs in fetal buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pituitary gland

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    M. A. Sandhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the subpopulation of corticotrophs in developing buffalo (Bubalus bubalis fetus, recovered pituitary glands (n=6 per group from late first, second and third gestational female buffalo dams. The corticotrophs were identified by using specific antibodies against proopiomelanocortin (POMC and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH through immunohistochemistry. There was a significant (P≤0.05 increase of immunoreactive (ir ir-ACTH cells during late 2nd trimester while, ir-POMC cells were more (P≤0.05 at late 3rd trimester of gestation as compared to other age groups. The quantity of co-localized cells for POMC and ACTH was significantly (P≤0.05 greater at the end of 1st gestation rather than 2nd and 3rd gestational fetal adenohypophyseal cells. This study is the first to demonstrate co-localization of POMC+ACTH and the affect of gestational age on the expression of these cells in buffalo fetus adenohypophysis.

  19. Quality and shelf life of cooked buffalo tripe rolls at refrigerated storage under vacuum packaging condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandh, M Anna; Venkatachalapathy, R T; Radha, K; Lakshmanan, V

    2014-07-01

    Cooked buffalo tripe rolls prepared from a combination of buffalo tripe and buffalo meat by using mincing and blade tenderization process were stored at 4 ± 1 °C in polyethylene teraphthalate laminated with polythene (PET/PE) pouches under vacuum packaging condition. The samples were evaluated for physico-chemical parameters, microbial quality and sensory attributes at regular intervals of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Significant changes were seen in physico-chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of BTRs during storage at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 °C) under vacuum packaging condition. All microbial counts were well within the acceptable limits and the products did not show any signs of spoilage. Thus, BTRs prepared by mincing or BT can be best stored up to 28 days at 4 ± 1 °C under vacuum packaging.

  20. Genetic analysis of a purebred herd of Kundhi buffaloes in Pakistan

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    N.M. Bhutto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Kundhi is amongst the best dairy buffalo breeds of the world and main source of milk production in Sindh province of Pakistan. A Research and Development Kundhi Buffalo Farm was established at Rohri, Sukkur. Time series production performance data of 237 buffaloes, along with their pedigree, from 1976 through 2004 was collected and analyzed using Harvey Model-1 for fixed effects and DFREML for GLS solutions and genetic / phenotypic variances. The traits of economic importance studied were age at first calving (AFC, milk yield (MY, lactation length (LL, calving interval (CI and dry period (DP. The fixed effects included year of birth (YOB, year of calving (YOC season of calving (SOC and lactation number (L No.. The data analyses revealed that among the fixed effect only YOC had significant effect (p < 0.05 on milk yield and all other traits. The average MY was 1356.48 ± 453.27 kg with mean lactation length 218.72 ± 122.97 days. The heritability of MY, CI, LL and DP was 0.209, 0.018, 0.009 and 0.024, respectively. Among the 5 sires used during this period, one sire contributed positively to milk production of the daughters. One hundred and three Kundhi buffaloes had positive and 134 negative breeding values for milk production. The genetic and phenotypic variance for milk yield was 35427.67 and 168521.94, respectively. The progeny testing program for Kundhi buffalos was initiated in August 2005. Under this program, more than 700 buffaloes are registered and ear tagged. The production and reproduction performance data recording at farmers doorstep has been initiated which will be used to identify bull mothers.

  1. Clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings in Egyptian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis with caecal and colonic dilatation

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    Arafat Khalphallah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to describe the clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings of caecal and colonic dilatation in Egyptian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. A total number of forty buffaloes were included in the study and divided into two groups: control group (n = 20 and diseased group (n = 20. Diseased buffalo were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Assiut University-Egypt. Each of the diseased animals was subjected to clinical, rectal, laboratory and ultrasonographic examinations. Clinically, buffalo with dilated caecum/colon showed reduced appetite, distended right abdomen, abdominal pain and tensed abdomen. Rectal examination indicated empty rectum with the presence of mucus and dilated loop of caecum and/or colon. Buffalo with dilated caecum/colon showed significant (P < 0.05 hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia with significant (P < 0.05 increase in blood serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALK. Ultrasonographically, the dilated caecum and proximal loop of colon occupied the last right three intercostal space (ICSs particularly their ventral part, intertangled with the liver dorsally in these ICSs. Dilated colon did not hinder the visibility of the liver. The dilated caecum/colon also filled the whole right flank region, with hiding of right kidney, loops and peristaltic movement of the small intestines. The closest wall of the dilated caecum and proximal loop of the colon was imaged as thick semi-circular echogenic line. The furthest wall and contents of dilated caecum/colon were not imaged. In conclusion, buffalo with caecal and/or colonic dilatation have non-specific clinical and laboratory findings; however the affected animals show characteristic ultrasonographic findings.

  2. ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS, LIPID PROFILE AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN HEALTHY AND BRONCHOPNEUMONIC WATER BUFFALO CALVES

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    Sabry M. El-Bahr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Acute Phase Proteins (APP, lipid profiles and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy and bronchopneumonic water buffalo calves. Therefore, sixty water buffalo calves (9±1 month old, 175±15 kg were divided into two equal groups, the first group represented healthy, control, calves whereas calves of the second group were affected with bronchopneumonia. Total leukocytic and differential counts were determined. Serum total protein, albumin, Triacylglyceol (TAG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, Total cholesterol, Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT, Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP, Fibrinogen (Fb, Haptaglobin (Hp, Serum Amyloid A (SAA, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α, Interleukins (IL1β, IL-12 and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ were also determined. In addition, Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL was collected and analyzed. The present findings indicated that, total leukocytic and neutrophils counts were significantly (p<0.05 higher in pneumonic water buffalo calves compare with control. The examined biochemical parameters were significantly (p<0.05 increased in pneumonic calves except for total protein, albumin, cholesterol and HDL-c which were significantly (p<0.05 lower compare with control. Serum concentrations of investigated APP and proinflammatory cytokines were significantly (p<0.05 higher in pneumonic water buffalo calves than those of control. The present study demonstrated that, APP, lipid profile and proinflammatory cytokines perhaps served as biomarkers of bronchopneumonia in water buffalo calves. However, future studies with higher baseline sampling are still needed to establish and validate reference values for APP and cytokines in water buffalo calves.

  3. Genetic and genomic dissection of Prolactin revealed potential association with milk production traits in riverine buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, A; Maryam, J

    2016-08-01

    Milk yield and quality has been a major selection criterion for genetic improvement in livestock species. Role of Prolactin gene in determining milk quality in terms of protein profile, lactose, lipids and other imperative macromolecules is very important. In this context, genetic profiling of Prolactin gene in riverine buffalo of Pakistan was performed and potential genetic markers were identified illustrating worth of this gene in marker-assisted selection of superior dairy buffaloes. Series of wet and dry lab experimentation was performed starting with genomic DNA isolation from true to breed representatives of indigenous river buffalo (Nili-Ravi). After amplification of coding regions of Prolactin gene, products were eluted and sequenced by Sanger's chain termination method and aligned to get variations in genomic region. A total of 15 novel variations were identified and analyzed statistically for their significance at population level, haplotypes were constructed, and association was estimated. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to evaluate the rate of evolution for Prolactin gene in various mammalian species. Lastly, biological networking for this molecule was predicted to get the bigger pictorial of its functional machinery. Pathway analysis was performed to find its physiological mode of action in milk synthesis. This is a first report toward complete genetic screening of Prolactin gene in Pakistani buffaloes. Results of this study not only provide an insight for potential role of Prolactin gene in milk-producing abilities of buffalo but also suggest new directions for exploration of more genes that may have promising role to enhance future milk production capabilities of river buffalo breeds of Asian region through marker-assisted selection.

  4. EFFECT OF TWO DIFFERENT ANTIBIOTIC COMBINATIONS ON FERTILITY OF FROZEN BUFFALO AND SAHIW AL BULL SEMEN

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    S.M.H. Andrabi, N. Ahmad, A. Abbas and M. Anzar

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify the suitable antibiotic combinations in semen extender for improvement in fertility of frozen semen of buffalo and cow (Sahiwal bulls to obtain better pregnancy rate through artificial insemination (AI. For this study eight first ejaculates, four each from a buffalo and a cow (Sahiwal bull were used. The ejaculates were split-sampled and diluted with Tris-citric acid extender (at 37°C; 50x 106 spermatozoa/mI, containing either SP (streptomycin 1000 ~g/ml and penicillin 1000 IU/ml or GTLS (gentamycin 500 µg/ml, Tylosin 100 µg/ml and linco-spectin 300/600 µg/ml. There was no difference in post-thaw motility for these samples. Fertility test based on 75-days first service pregnancy rate was determined under field conditions. A total of 400 inseminations were recorded, 200 for each buffalo and cow (Sahiwal with J 00 of each antibiotic combination, respectively. Fertility rates for SP-based frozen semen of buffalo bull were 41.66% and were 55.2% for GTLS-containing frozen semen, respectively. The results for GTLS were higher (P<0.0001 than SP. Similarly, fertility rates were higher (P<0.0001 for GTLS-based frozen semen of Sahiwal bull (78.78% than SP-containing frozen semen (69.6% of the same specie. Fertility rates also differed due to species of donor bulls. They were better (P<0.0001 for the frozen Sahiwal bull semen than that of the buffalo bull in both SP and GTLS- based frozen semen samples, respectively. In conclusion. seminal quality measured by field fertility trial indicated GTLS combination of antibiotics added to the semen extender was better for improvement in the fertility of frozen buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen, by yielding better pregnancy rates through AI.

  5. A first generation whole genome RH map of the river buffalo with comparison to domestic cattle

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    Tantia Madhu S

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recently constructed river buffalo whole-genome radiation hybrid panel (BBURH5000 has already been used to generate preliminary radiation hybrid (RH maps for several chromosomes, and buffalo-bovine comparative chromosome maps have been constructed. Here, we present the first-generation whole genome RH map (WG-RH of the river buffalo generated from cattle-derived markers. The RH maps aligned to bovine genome sequence assembly Btau_4.0, providing valuable comparative mapping information for both species. Results A total of 3990 markers were typed on the BBURH5000 panel, of which 3072 were cattle derived SNPs. The remaining 918 were classified as cattle sequence tagged site (STS, including coding genes, ESTs, and microsatellites. Average retention frequency per chromosome was 27.3% calculated with 3093 scorable markers distributed in 43 linkage groups covering all autosomes (24 and the X chromosomes at a LOD ≥ 8. The estimated total length of the WG-RH map is 36,933 cR5000. Fewer than 15% of the markers (472 could not be placed within any linkage group at a LOD score ≥ 8. Linkage group order for each chromosome was determined by incorporation of markers previously assigned by FISH and by alignment with the bovine genome sequence assembly (Btau_4.0. Conclusion We obtained radiation hybrid chromosome maps for the entire river buffalo genome based on cattle-derived markers. The alignments of our RH maps to the current bovine genome sequence assembly (Btau_4.0 indicate regions of possible rearrangements between the chromosomes of both species. The river buffalo represents an important agricultural species whose genetic improvement has lagged behind other species due to limited prior genomic characterization. We present the first-generation RH map which provides a more extensive resource for positional candidate cloning of genes associated with complex traits and also for large-scale physical mapping of the river buffalo

  6. Effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and reproductive hormone of weaned Swamp buffalo and Murrah X Swamp buffalo calves

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    M. Kamonpatana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and plasma Oestradiol 17- β (E2, Progesterone (P4 and Testosterone (T were studied in 16 male and female swamp (SS buffaloes and Murrah x Swamp buffalo crossbreeds (MS calves. The treatment group was fed with a concentrate supplemented with 30 g of dry powder of L. spinosa/head/d for 7 months. It was found that L .spinosa could have effect on male and female buffalo growth rate. The growth rate of male SS treated group were 130 g/d higher than control group. In female both SS and MS buffalo, the highest growth rate (830 to 840 g/d was found after the 2nd month of treatment while a reduction in growth rate (-1,030 to - 450 g/d was found in the 3rd month. After that the growth rate of SS and MS gradually increased until the last three months to 200 and 80 g/d in average, respectively. In female MS, plasma E2 in the treated group was lower than control group during Jan to Jul. Similar result was found in SS female, level of plasma E2 in treated group was lower than in control group in the first and last three month and there was no difference of plasma E2 in May. In MS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in Jan, Mar, Apr and Jul. In SS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in every month except in Jul. In female SS, L. spinosa could decreased plasma P4 through the experiment and could not have an effect on plasma P4 in female MS and plasma T in male buffalo calves. In conclusion, the addition to the concentrate of dry powder of L. spinosa 30 g/headl/d had an effect to increase growth rate in male SS and female MS buffalo calves, decrease plasma E2 in female both SS and MS and male SS and decrease plasma P4 in female SS.

  7. Therapy of ovarian inactivity in postpartum Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes by PRID and Ovsynch estrus synchronization protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanimir Yotov; Anatoli Atanasov; Yordanka Ilieva

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the present study was to assess therapeutical effect of modified Ovsynch and PRID estrus synchronization protocols in Bulgarian Murrah buffalo with inactive ovaries during the low-breeding season. Methods:The study was carried out in 46 Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes with small inactive ovaries established by two consecutive transrectal ultrasonographies on Day 40 and 50 postpartum. At the start of the therapy the buffaloes were randomly divided into three groups. Group I (n=18) was treated by PRID-based protocol;Group II (n=18) was treated by Ovsynch based protocol and Group III (control;n=10) was injected intramuscular with saline at the same days as in the first two groups and fertile bull was introduced after that. The animals in the different groups were submitted to ultrasound examination at day of artificial insemination or bull introduction. Ovulation was determined 7 days post insemination by ultrasound. The pregnancy diagnosis was done 30 days after insemination. Mean diameter of the largest follicles at the start of therapy and the day of AI was registered. In the hormonal treated buffaloes estrus clinical sings, ovulation rate and pregnancy rate after AI were determined. In the control group pregnancy rate after spontaneous estrus was established. The mean diameter of the largest follicles determined on Days 40 and 50 after calving was not over 9 mm for all buffaloes. Results:At day of AI the average diameters of the preo-vulatory follicles in PRID and Ovsynch treated buffaloes were significantly (P<0.01) greater than these on Day 0. The cases of a clear uterine mucus discharge during the induced estrus were significant more (P<0.05) for Group I (94.4%) than Group II (66.7%). The pregnancy rate after AI (56.6%and 38.8%) in PRID and Ovsynch program was significant higher (P<0.05) than pregnancy rate after spontaneous estrus (10%) in the control group. Conclusions:the treatment of buffalo ovarian inactivity could start on Day 50

  8. Nutrition and feeding of swamp buffalo: feed resources and rumen approach

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    P. Rowlins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal feed resources are of prime importance for swamp buffaloes to support the efficient production under the prevailing small-holder farming systems. Manipulations of rumen microorganisms, fermentation and subsequent absorption by the animals are essential. Current research work on locally available feed resources such as urea-treated rice straw, cassava hay etc. revealed significant improvement in rumen ecology with higher cellulolytic bacteria and fungal zoospores and subsequent fermentation endproducts. However, investigation of rumen microorganisms diversity of swamp buffalo and their roles in fermentation using molecular technique especially the use of PCR – DGGE/ Real Time- PCR warrant future research undertakings.

  9. Molecular detection of natural Babesia bovis infection from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    Babesia bovis (B. bovis) is a major causative agent of bovine babesiosis, with a considerable worldwide impact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of PCR assay and microscopical examination (ME) for detection of B. bovis in naturally infected and apparently healthy water...... buffaloes and crossbred cattle under field circumstances from Sharkia province of Egypt. A total 34 animals (20 crossbred cattle and 14 buffaloes) were clinically and laboratory investigated during the period from March to August 2008. Fifteen animals showed symptoms of bovine babesiosis while 19 animals...

  10. Dry fermented buffalo sausage with sage oil extract: Safety and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu Salem, F. M.; Ibrahim, H. M.

    2010-07-01

    Sage oil extract was added during the preparation of dry fermented buffalo meat sausage. Some chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of sausages were evaluated during the ripening period. In particular, ph, lipid oxidation, biogenic amines and micro flora were analyzed. Results of this study pointed out that sage oil extract as natural antioxidant could be utilized in dry fermented sausage, prepared from buffalo meat, in order to obtain a final product within acceptable lipid oxidation and biogenic amine levels, as well as improved sensory quality. (Author) 56 refs.

  11. Pathology of experimental infection by Pasteurella multocida serotype A: 1 in buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, P E; Periasamy, S; Kumar, A A; Singh, N

    2014-11-01

    Pasteurella multocida serotype A:3 has been mostly implicated in pneumonic pasteurellosis in ruminants. In contrast, our previous studies have reported that both serotypes A:1 and A:3 were responsible for respiratory diseases in cattle and buffaloes. However, the pathology and pathogenesis of P. multocida serotype A:1 (Pm A:1) infection have not been studied in ruminants. In the present study, 12- to 15-week-old buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) infected by Pm A:1 had fibrinous and suppurative bronchopneumonia with focal areas of coagulation necrosis typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis. For the first time, this study reports the lung pathology and pathogenecity of Pm A:1 infection in calves.

  12. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hiroto

    1995-02-07

    A reactor container of the present invention has a structure that the reactor container is entirely at the same temperature as that at the inlet of the reactor and, a hot pool is incorporated therein, and the reactor container has is entirely at the same temperature and has substantially uniform temperature follow-up property transiently. Namely, if the temperature at the inlet of the reactor core changes, the temperature of the entire reactor container changes following this change, but no great temperature gradient is caused in the axial direction and no great heat stresses due to axial temperature distribution is caused. Occurrence of thermal stresses caused by the axial temperature distribution can be suppressed to improve the reliability of the reactor container. In addition, since the laying of the reactor inlet pipelines over the inside of the reactor is eliminated, the reactor container is made compact and the heat shielding structures above the reactor and a protection structure of container walls are simplified. Further, secondary coolants are filled to the outside of the reactor container to simplify the shieldings. The combined effects described above can improve economical property and reliability. (N.H.).

  13. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  14. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Neospora caninum in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengradomkij, Chanya; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Wongpanit, Kannika; Wongnakphet, Sirichai; Mitchell, Thomas J; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Stich, Roger W

    2015-01-15

    Water buffalo are important draft animals for agriculture in resource-restricted areas worldwide. Water buffalo were shown to be experimentally susceptible to infection with Neospora caninum, potentially affected by neosporosis, and naturally exposed to the parasite in Asia. Although enzootic to Thailand, the distribution of N. caninum among Thai water buffalo is unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum among water buffalo of northeast Thailand and to identify risk factors associated with their exposure to N. caninum. Sera from 628 water buffalo from 288 farms were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 57 samples from 48 herds contained antibodies to N. caninum, indicating overall seroprevalence of 9.1% and 16.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The overall seroprevalence was highest in provinces located in the Khorat Basin in the southern part of the region tested. Host age was also associated with seroprevalence, with the greatest seroprevalence (16.1%) among buffalo over 10 years of age, followed by 5-10 years of age (13.4%), 3-5 years (9.2%), and less than 3 years (1.2%). These results collectively suggested that horizontal transmission from canine definitive hosts was an important route of water buffalo exposure to N. caninum. These results also verified the importance of risk factor analysis for effective bovine neosporosis control strategies at the local level.

  16. Serum Progesterone and Estradiol-17β Profiles in Nili Ravi Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with and without Dystocia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amjad Ali, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi and Faiz-ul-Hassan1*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare serum hormone profiles (progesterone and estradiol-17β in buffaloes with dystocia and unassisted calving in three agro-ecological zones of Punjab, Pakistan. One hundred and seventy three buffaloes (n=173 with assisted (dystocia and unassisted calving (normal birth were sampled for study. The results showed that the buffaloes suffering with dystocia had significantly higher (P<0.05 mean serum progesterone level compared with those having normal calving. The comparison amongst the agro-ecological zones revealed that serum progesterone level of dystocia cases in buffaloes of northern irrigated zone was significantly lower (P<0.05 compared with those in the southern irrigated zone and the arid zone, whereas the latter two did not differ between each other. No difference was observed in serum progesterone levels in normal buffaloes when compared amongst three agro-ecological zones. The serum estradiol-17β profile showed a significant (P<0.05 lower level in buffaloes with dystocia as compared to those with normal calving. Mean serum estradiol-17β level in the buffaloes affected with dystocia in the northern irrigated zone was significantly lower (P<0.05 compared to those in the southern irrigated zone and the arid zone wherein the latter two did not differ between each other.

  17. Comparision of different diagnostic techniques against Fasciolosis in Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to compare different diagnostic tests viz., Direct Smear (DS, Agar gel precipitation (AGP, Sedimentation (Sd, and Zinc Sulfate (ZnSO4 flotation for fasciolosis in dairy buffaloes as well as the economic losses due to fasciolosis. A total of 200 faecal samples were examined and DS, AGP, Sd, and ZnSO4 flotation techniques showed an overall prevalence of 2, 8, 5 and 4%, respectively. The highest agreement was observed between Sd and ZnSO4 (0.88, 95%CI; 0.74-1.02 followed by AGP and Sd (0.75, 95%CI; 0.62-0.88, ZnSO4 and DS (0.65,95%CI; 0.52-0.78, AGP and ZnSO4 (0.648, 95%CI; 0.51-0.77, DS and Sd (0.55, 95%CI; 0.43-0.68, and DSM and AGP (0.38, 95%CI; 0.27-0.48. By taking DS as a gold standard, all tests showed 100 percent sensitivity results and same trend was observed in case of negative predictive values (NPV. Highest specificity was shown by ZnSO4, followed by Sd and AGP. Similar trends were observed in the positive predictive values (PPV. Then, by taking AGP as gold standard, all tests showed 100 percent specificity and positive predictive values (PPV while, Sd showed highest sensitivity followed by ZnSO4 and AGP and similar trend was observed regarding NPV of tests. To this end, most effective test is AGP followed by Sd, ZnSO4 and DS method. Moreover, AGP is the most suitable method for diagnosing the fasciolosis in early stages. Total economic losses due to fasciolosis during three months (Oct. – Dec. 2004 were found very high i.e Rs. 1016400. [Vet. World 2009; 2(4.000: 129-132

  18. Analysis of the Stayability in Milk Buffaloes using Survival Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tonhati

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the trait Stayability (SA was evaluated according to the year of cull after first calvin, i.e., SA 1 to 6 for 1 to 6 years from first calving in lactating females from bubaline milk herds spread in nine farms located in São Paulo state. Informations were used regarding 1027 lactating Murrah breed buffaloes. The statistical analyses were made using LIFEREG (SAS, 1999 procedure. The SA was evaluated using the fixed effects: farm production, birth year, calving season (Season 1- April to September and Season 2 October - March and class of milk yield at 270 days. The age at first calving (AFC was considered as a random effect. The mean observed for total milk yield was 1458.75Kg. Calving Season 2 encloses 65.6% of births. The means of cull age, in months, and the percentage of SA were, respectively: 10.69 e 69% (SA1, 19.30 e 63% (SA2, 26.4 e 54% (SA3, 33.15 e 42% (SA4, 38.53 e 36% (SA5 e 42.65 e 26% (SA6. It is verified that most of culls happens after the first lactation, among the sixth and eleventh month after first calving. It was observed that the factors: farm production, birth year and class of milk yield at 270 days affected significantly all SAs. Factors like calving season and the age at first calving (AFC were only significant for SA1. Being significant the factor AFC in level of 1% and factor time in 10%. For other SAs these factors were not statistically significant.

  19. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  20. Comparison of follicular dynamics, superovulatory response, and embryo recovery between estradiol based and conventional superstimulation protocol in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the follicular dynamics, superovulatory response, and embryo recovery following superstimulatory treatment initiated at estradiol-17β induced follicular wave emergence and its comparison with conventional superstimulatory protocol in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Six normal cycling pluriparous buffaloes, lactating, 90-180 days post-partum, and weighing between 500 and 660 kg were superstimulated twice with a withdrawal period of 35 days in between two treatments. In superstimulation protocol-1 (estradiol group buffaloes were administered estradiol-17β (2 mg, i.m. and eazibreed controlled internal drug release (CIDR was inserted intravaginally (day=0 at the random stage of the estrous cycle. On the day 4, buffaloes were superstimulated using follicle stimulating hormone (FSH 400 mg, divided into 10 tapering doses given at 12 hourly intervals. Prostaglandin F2α analogs (PGF2α was administered at day 7.5 and day 8, and CIDR was removed with the second PGF2α injection. In superstimulation protocol - 2 (conventional group buffaloes were superstimulated on the 10th day of the estrous cycle with same FSH dose regimen and similar timings for PGF2α injections. In both groups, half of the buffaloes were treated with luteinizing hormone (LH 25 mg and other half with 100 ug buserelin; gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH analog at 12 h after the end of FSH treatment. All buffaloes in both protocols were inseminated twice at 12 and 24 h of LH/GnRH treatment. Daily ultrasonography was performed to record the size and number of follicles and superovulatory response. Results: Significantly higher number of small follicles (8 mm, corpora lutea, and transferable embryos was higher in buffaloes superstimulated at estradiol-induced follicular wave compared to the conventional protocol: Further the percentage of transferable embryos was significantly higher in buffaloes administered with LH compared to GnRH.

  1. Geo-referencing livestock farms as tool for studying cystic echinococcosis epidemiology in cattle and water buffaloes from southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cringoli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE, caused by the larval stages of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, is known to be one of the most important parasitic infection in livestock worldwide and one of the most widespread zoonoses known. In the present study, we used a geographical information system (GIS to study the spatial structure of livestock (cattle, water buffaloes and sheep populations to gain a better understanding of the role of sheep as reservoir for the transmission of CE to cattle and water buffaloes. To this end, a survey on CE in cattle and water buffaloes from the Campania region of southern Italy was conducted and the geo-referenced results linked to the regional farm geo-referenced data within a GIS. The results showed a noteworthy prevalence of CE in cattle and water buffalo farms (overall prevalence = 18.6%. The elaboration of the data with a GIS approach showed a close proximity of the bovine and/or water buffalo CE positive farms with the ovine farms present in the study area, thus giving important information on the significance of sheep and free-ranging canids in the transmission cycles of CE in relation to cattle and water buffaloes. The significantly higher prevalence found in cattle as compared to water buffalo farms (20.0% versus 12.4% supports the key role of sheep in the CE transmission; indeed, within the 5 km radius buffer zones constructed around the cattle farms positive for CE, a higher number of (potentially infected sheep farms were found compared to those found within the buffer zones around the water buffalo farms. Furthermore, the average distances between the sheep and cattle farms falling in the same buffer zones were significantly lower than those between the sheep and water buffalo farms. We emphasize that the use of GIS is a novel approach to further our understanding of the epidemiology and control of CE and we encourage other groups to make use of it.

  2. Chitosan-gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering: physico-chemical properties and biological response of buffalo embryonic stem cells and transfectant of GFP-buffalo embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Han, W W; Saikhun, J; Pholpramoo, C; Misra, R D K; Kitiyanant, Y

    2009-11-01

    The favorable cellular response of newly developed cell line, buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells to three-dimensional biodegradable chitosan-gelatin composite scaffolds with regard to stem-cell-based tissue engineering is described. Chitosan-gelatin composites were characterized by a highly porous structure with interconnected pores, and the mechanical properties were significantly enhanced. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction study indicated increased amorphous content in the scaffold on the addition of gelatin to chitosan. To develop a transfectant of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-buffalo ES cell, transfection of GFP plasmid to the cell was carried out via the electroporation procedure. In comparison with pure chitosan, cell spreading and proliferation were greater in highly visualized GFP-expressing cell-chitosan-gelatin scaffold constructs. The relative comparison of biological response involving cell proliferation and viability on the scaffolds suggests that blending of gelatin in chitosan improved cellular efficiency. Studies involving scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy, histological observations and flow cytometer analysis of the constructs implied that the polygonal cells attached to and penetrated the pores, and proliferated well, while maintaining their pluripotency during the culture period for 28days. Chitosan-gelatin scaffolds were cytocompatible with respect to buffalo ES cells. The study underscores for the first time that chitosan-gelatin scaffolds are promising candidates for ES-cell-based tissue engineering.

  3. The comparison of digestibility of treated sugarcane tops silage by bacteria or whole microorganisms of Holstein cow and buffalo rumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Afrooz; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding sulfuric acid to sugarcane tops silage on rumen bacteria and whole rumen microorganisms (WRM) and compare the digestibility of sugarcane tops treated with different amount of urea, molasses and sulfuric acid between Holstein cow and Khouzestan buffalo. Regardless of the type of the treatment, potential of gas production (B) by cow WRM (130.670 mL) was more than buffalo (104.060 mL) (p silage treated by cow rumen bacteria and whole microorganisms was higher than buffalo. PMID:27872716

  4. Bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes: observations regarding Mycobacterium bovis shedding into water and exposure to environmental mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Helden Paul D

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African buffaloes are the maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis in the endemically infected Kruger National Park (KNP. The infection is primarily spread between buffaloes via the respiratory route, but it is not known whether shedding of M. bovis in nasal and oral excretions may lead to contamination of ground and surface water and facilitate the transmission to other animal species. A study to investigate the possibility of water contamination with M. bovis was conducted in association with a BCG vaccination trial in African buffalo. Groups of vaccinated and nonvaccinated buffaloes were kept together with known infected in-contact buffalo cows to allow natural M. bovis transmission under semi-free ranging conditions. In the absence of horizontal transmission vaccinated and control buffaloes were experimentally challenged with M. bovis. Hence, all study buffaloes in the vaccination trial could be considered potential shedders and provided a suitable setting for investigating questions relating to the tenacity of M. bovis shed in water. Results Serial water samples were collected from the drinking troughs of the buffaloes once per season over an eleven-month period and cultured for presence of mycobacteria. All water samples were found to be negative for M. bovis, but 16 non-tuberculous Mycobacterium spp. isolates were cultured. The non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species were further characterised using 5'-16S rDNA PCR-sequencing, resulting in the identification of M. terrae, M. vaccae (or vanbaalenii, M. engbaekii, M. thermoresistibile as well as at least two species which have not yet been classified. Conclusion The absence of detectable levels of Mycobacterium bovis in the trough water suggests that diseased buffalo do not commonly shed the organism in high quantities in nasal and oral discharges. Surface water may therefore not be likely to play an important role in the transmission of bovine tuberculosis from buffalo

  5. Pan-African Genetic Structure in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer): Investigating Intraspecific Divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smitz, N.; Berthouly, C.; Cornelis, D.; Heller, R.; Hooft, van W.F.; Chardonnet, P.; Caron, A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Jansen van Vuuren, B.; Iongh, de H.H.; Michaux, J.

    2013-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) exhibits extreme morphological variability, which has led to controversies about the validity and taxonomic status of the various recognized subspecies. The present study aims to clarify these by inferring the pan-African spatial distribution of genetic diversit

  6. Detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus from three water buffalo fetuses (Bubalus bubalis) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucciello, Alessandra; De Mia, Gian Mario; Giammarioli, Monica; De Donato, Immacolata; Iovane, Giuseppe; Galiero, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen that primarily infects ruminants, leading to several clinical problems including abortion. BVDV-specific antibodies were reported in a wide range of hosts within domestic and wildlife animal populations, and serological studies also indicated BVDV infection in buffaloes. The purpose of this study was to analyze the presence of BVDV in 2 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) herds with a history of abortion. Virus isolation from aborted fetuses and from maternal buffy coat and the molecular characterization of the isolates confirmed the presence of BVDV in these animals. The sequence analysis based on the 5' UTR and N(pro) coding regions of the Pestivirus genome revealed that the isolates belong to subgenotype 1b of BVDV. The findings of this study also suggest a possible role of BVDV in causing congenital infection in water buffalo. Its presence in fetal tissues as well as in maternal blood raises questions about the possible development of clinical disease or its influence in abortions in water buffalo.

  7. Fit of different linear models to the lactation curve of Italian water buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P.P. Macciotta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modelling of lactation curve by suitable functions of time, widely used in the dairy cattle industry, can represent also for buffaloes a fundamental tool for management and breeding decision, where average curves are considered, and for genetic evaluation by random regression models, where individual patterns are fitted.

  8. Effect of higher temperature exposure on physicochemical properties of frozen buffalo meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Vishnuraj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the changes in various physicochemical parameters of frozen buffalo meat undergone temperature abuse at two different isothermal storage temperatures (37±1°C, 25±1°C using a simulated model. Materials and Methods: Frozen buffalo meat was evaluated after exposing to various temperature abuse conditions over selected durations for different meat quality parameters including pH, extract release volume (ERV, flourescein diacetate (FDA hydrolysis, free amino acid (FAA, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and D-glucose value and compared against a control sample maintained at 4±1°C. Results: Of the various meat quality parameters evaluated pH, FDA hydrolysis, FAA content and TVBN content showed a significant (p<0.05 increase in temperature abused samples after temperature abuse and on subsequent refrigerated storage. However, ERV and D-glucose content decreased significantly (p<0.05 in temperature abused buffalo meat during the same period of study. Conclusions: The present study featured the influence of exposure temperature and duration in various physicochemical parameters and the rate of spoilage development in frozen buffalo meat after temperature abuse.

  9. Molecular characterization of Lingual antimicrobial peptide in the female reproductive tract of Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Joseph and Tukaram More

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bubalus bubalis (Ruminantia: Bovidae, Bovinae is an economically important animal of many Asian countries, making significant contribution to milk and meat production. Sub clinical infection of the reproductive tract is one of the important causes for reduced reproductive efficiency in dairy herd of buffaloes. Antimicrobial peptides are component of innate immune system which helps in augmenting the resistance to infection at epithelial surfaces e.g reproductive tract epithelium. In this study we have identified a ß-defensin called Lingual Antimicrobial Peptide (LAP in buffalo reproductive tract. Interestingly the gene was 100 % identical to the LAP isolated from the tongue epithelium of Bos taurus. The 195 bp cDNA of LAP codes for 64 amino acids and of which 50% are cationic amino acids. Phylogenetic studies indicate that LAP of reproductive epithelium of buffalo is different from other beta defensins isolated from the various tissues of same species, but all beta defensin were found to have the same progenitor gene. It is concluded that buffalo reproductive tract epithelium lining contains LAP. [Vet. World 2011; 4(3.000: 120-123

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in Nili Ravi buffaloes in the Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was executed to determine the magnitude of bovine tuberculosis (BTB in buffaloes in native type of husbandry practices and impact of certain factors in the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in buffaloes in the Punjab, Pakistan. Three year cross sectional study was carried out on female population of Nili Ravi buffaloes (n = 2526 maintained at 10 Government Livestock Experimental Stations, and peri urban areas of the three major cites i.e., Lahore, Faisalabad and Okara. These animals were screened with comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT by using two types of tuberculins i.e., mammalian and avian. The reaction of tuberculins injected was interpreted after 72 hours post injection. The data were analyzed by Chi-square test and Pearson correlation. Relative risk and other associated factors were calculated to describe the association with prevalence of tuberculosis in buffaloes. The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis on the basis of CIDT was 12.72%. The BTB among different livestock farms varied significantly (P8 years old age, body weight >550 kg, 3-6 parity, pregnant animals, and animals with >7 liters milk yield. The husbandry factors which greatly influence the prevalence was poor feeding (RR=2.615, high fly density (RR= 1.3474, poor management (RR=1.315, contact with wildlife (RR=1.4507, poor farm conditions (RR=1.4708, quarantine measures (RR=1.1557 and poor sanitation of farm (RR= 1.3701.

  11. Sacred Dairies, Dairymen, and Buffaloes of the Nilgiri Mountains in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Walker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1,500 Toda people inhabit the Nilgiri Mountains in south India. Arguably the most remarkable characteristic of Toda culture is the sacred nature of the husbandry of herds of long-horned mountain water buffaloes. No other community in India has so single-mindedly focused its ritual attention on one particular animal species. Every important task associated with the buffalo herds – milking, milk-processing, giving salt, naming, seasonal migrations, burning pastures, introducing new equipment into the dairies, etc. – has been embellished with ritual. Todas make a clear-cut distinction between temple and domestic buffaloes. Ordinary men (but not women herd the latter, whose milk and milk-products (buttermilk, butter, and clarified butter, but not flesh (since the community espouses vegetarianism may be consumed, bartered, or sold without restriction. Males who are responsible for herding temple buffaloes conduct their daily lives in a manner preserving greater ritual purity than ordinary men. Moreover, they are not just dairymen, but also the community's priests. They must guard the ritual purity of the dairies they serve, and all that is in them, for these are the Todas' temples – sacred places, infused with divinity.

  12. Effects of co-stocking smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proliferative gill disease (PGD) in catfish is caused by the myxozoan Henneguya ictaluri. The complex life cycle requires Dero digitata as the oligochaete host. Efforts to control PGD by eradicating D. digitate have been unsuccessful. Smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, (SMB) are opportunistic bot...

  13. Rumen metabolism of swamp buffaloes fed rice straw supplemented with cassava hay and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampapon, Thiwakorn; Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to investigate effects of cassava hay (CH) and urea (U) supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and microbial protein synthesis of swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw. Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes, 365 ± 15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments: T1 = CH 400 g/head/day + U 0 g/head/day, T2 = CH + U 30 g/head/day, T3 = CH + U 60 g/head/day, and T4 = CH + U 90 g/head/day, respectively. Results revealed that feed intake was not affected while nutrient digestibilities were increased (P urea supplementation, whereas ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and blood urea nitrogen were increased with urea supplement (P urea supplement (P urea supplement, while bacterial population particularly those of proteolytic, cellulolytic, and amylolytic bacteria and efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis were linearly increased (P urea and cassava hay for buffaloes fed rice straw improved rumen ecology and increased fermentation end products and microbial protein synthesis while reducing protozoal populations and methane production. Urea supplements of 60-90 g/head/day when fed with cassava hay are recommended for swamp buffaloes consuming rice straw.

  14. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its products quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product telemea. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers products and their reliability for the consumers.

  15. Macro-microscopical aspects of the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus, 1758 pineal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Gross and microscopical aspects of the buffalo pineal gland were described in seasonal parturition animals, since this gland is responsible for melatonin secretion which acts upon the hypothalamus-hypophysis reproductive axis feedback system. (Hafez, 1995. For the present study, 11 cross-bred buffaloes, predominantly of the Mediterranean breed, from the Pirassununga Campus - USP (University of São Paulo, were killed in different photoperiods in the slaughterhouse. The pineal glands were obtained, fixed, weighed, measured, photographed, processed, cut into sections and stained. All glands demonstrated the same global shape, with a mean length of 8.82 ± 1.07mm and a width of 7.91 ± 0.83mm, and a stem length of 5.50 ± 4.18mm. The stems had a microscopically visible lumen. The mean gland weight was 251.45 ± 83.1mg. The buffalo pineal gland presented right and left lobes of different sizes. Microscopically, they were surrounded by a connective tissue layer with blood vessels infiltrating into the glandular parenchyma, which became separated into glial cell lobules. A great number of the pinealocytes were arranged in irregular strings, and cells from the connective tissue could be observed in the glandular parenchyma. We conclude that the buffalo pineal gland is similar to that of pineal cows and that it does not show morphologic alterations during different photoperiods of the year.

  16. 75 FR 57056 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Buffalo Resource Management Plan Amendment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... viability of the existing elk herd and maintaining other management activities in the planning area. The... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Draft Buffalo Resource Management Plan Amendment for the Fortification Creek Planning Area and Environmental Assessment, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of...

  17. A Case Study in Master Planning the Learning Landscape Hub Concepts for the University at Buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Shirley; Torino, Roger; Felix, Elliot

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes concepts for three types of learning spaces that grew out of a Learning Landscape planning process. The process was part of a master plan study for the three campuses of the University at Buffalo. It involved research into user needs and aspirations about future pedagogy, development of learning space strategy,…

  18. EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS IN EXTENDER ON FERTILITY OF LIQUID BUFFALO BULL SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. AKHTER, M. SAJJAD, S. M. H. ANDRABI1, N. ULLAH1 AND M. QAYYUM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine if a new antibiotic combination comprising of gentamycin, tylosin and linco-spectin (GTLS in extender is suitable for improvement in fertility of liquid buffalo bull semen through artificial insemination (AI. Two consecutive ejaculates per week (4 weeks were collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls of known fertility by using artificial vagina. The pooled ejaculates were split-sampled and diluted with skimmed milk extender (37oC; 10x106 motile spermatozoa/ml containing either SP (streptomycin 1000 μg/ml and penicillin 1000 iu/ml or GTLS (gentamycin 500 μg/ml, tylosin 100 μg/ml, lincomycin 300 μg/ml, and spectinomycin 600 μg/ml. Liquid semen was stored at 5°C for seven days. Fertility, based on 90-days first service pregnancy rate, was determined under field conditions. The fertility rates for SP-based vs. GTLS-containing liquid semen of buffalo bull were 58.55 and 60.00%, respectively, the difference was non significant. The fertility rates also did not differ (P>0.05 due to antibiotics at different days of storage of liquid semen at 5oC. In conclusion, GTLS, in skimmed milk extender compared to SP, did not significantly improve the fertility of chilled buffalo bull semen.

  19. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

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    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its� product�s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products� samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product �telemea�. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers� products and their reliability for the consumers.

  20. Microsatellite loci isolation from river buffalo using enriched partial genomic libraries

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    A.L. Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of buffalo in agriculture, especially in developing countries, begs for genetic resources to evaluate and improve traits important to local and regional economies. Brazil presents the largest water buffalo populations in the New World, with 1.1 million heads including swamp and river types. To design rational breeding strategies for optimum utilization and conservation of available genetic variability in the Brazilian buffalo’s population, it is essential to understand their genetic architecture and relationship among various breeds. This depends, in part, on the knowledge of their genetic structure based on molecular markers like microsatellites. In the present study, we developed six enriched partial genomic libraries for river buffalo using selective hybridization methods. Genomic DNA was hybridized with six different arrays of repeat motif, 5’ biotinylated - (CA15, (CT15, (AGG8, (GAAA8, (GATA8, (AAAAC8 – and bound to streptavidin coated beads. The cloning process generated a total of 1920 recombinant clones. Up to date, 487 were directly sequenced for the presence of repeats, from which 13 have been positive for presence of repeats as follows: 9 for di-nucleotide repeats, 3 for tri-nucleotide repeats and 1 for tetra-nucleotide repeat. PCR primer pairs for the isolated microsatellites are under construction to determine optimum annealing temperature. These microsatellites will be useful for studies involving phylogenetic relationships, genome mapping and genetic diversity analysis within buffalo populations worldwide.

  1. Transabdominal color doppler ultrasonography: A relevant approach for assessment of effects of uterine torsion in buffaloes

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    Devender

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on advanced pregnant buffaloes suffering from uterine torsion to assess the status of fetus and uterus by transabdominal ultrasonography, and the findings were compared with normal advanced pregnant buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 20 clinical cases of uterine torsion and 20 normal advanced pregnant buffaloes (control group. The lower ventral area just lateral to linea alba (on both sides of the udder in standing animals was scanned transabdominally by the two-dimensional convex transducer for various ultrasonographic findings. The data collected were statistically analyzed by “one-way ANOVA” and “independent sample t-test” using computerized SPSS 16.0 software program. Results: Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed dead fetus in 95% uterine torsion cases and proved useful in imaging internal structures of fetuses while no dead fetus was reported in the control group. Size of umbilicus was found significantly decreased (p0.05 in uterine torsion group. Average thickness of the uterine wall and mean pixel values of fetal fluids (echogenicity were found significantly increased (p<0.05 in uterine torsion affected buffaloes in comparison to control group. Conclusion: Status of fetus (whether live or dead, internal status of uterus, and its contents could be determined by transabdominal ultrasonography in uterine torsion cases and thus determining the prognosis of the uterine torsion cases before going for further manipulations. This will also help in taking all the precautions to avoid death of the fetus.

  2. A survey on the microbiological and chemical composition of buffalo milk in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.Z.; Meng, Y.; Li, M.; Yang, Y.; Ren, F.; Zeng, Q.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    One hundred and twelve samples of raw buffalo milk were collected at four locations in China, and their microbiological and chemical composition was analyzed. Average levels of major components were: fat 7.59% (v/v), crude protein 4.86% (w/w), lactose 4.74% (w/w), total solids 18.44% (w/w), ash 0.85

  3. Antibiotic resistance profile of bacteria isolated from raw milk samples of cattle and buffaloes

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    Tahlina Tanzin

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Two different species of bacteria i.e., S. aureus and E. coli are contaminating with milk samples. The pathogenic bacteria can be controlled effectively by using Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin in the case of mastitis in cattle and buffaloes in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 62-67

  4. Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge from buffalo-derived Theileria parva

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    Tatjana Sitt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T. parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail, which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T. parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T. parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T. parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T. parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present.

  5. Identification of some unknown transcripts from SSH cDNA library of buffalo follicular oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, S K; Kumar, P; Roy, B; Verma, A; Pandey, H P; Singh, D; De, S; Datta, T K

    2013-03-01

    A buffalo oocyte-specific subtracted cDNA library was constructed to identify exclusively or preferentially oocyte-expressed genes. The library represented an enriched population of transcripts obtained from oocytes of diverse ovarian follicular origin and at different stages of in vitro maturation. A total of 1173 high-quality sequences of oocyte-specific genes were clustered into 645 unique sequences, out of which 65.76% were represented as singlets and 34.26% as contig expressed sequence tags (ESTs; clusters). Analysis of sequences revealed that 498 of these sequences were identified as a known sequence in mammalian species including buffalo, 103 as uncharacterized ESTs and 44 unknown sequences including 1 novel EST, so far not reported in any species. Gene ontology annotation classified these sequences into functional categories of cellular events and biological processes associated with oocyte competence. Expression status of the isolated unknown ESTs confirmed that many of these are expressed in oocytes exclusively and in others preferentially, some in excess of 80-fold greater in comparison with a variety of somatic tissues. The isolated novel EST was detected to be expressed exclusively in oocytes and testicular cells only. To our knowledge, this is the first report giving a detailed transcriptome account of oocyte-expressed genes in buffalo. This study will provide important information on the physiological control of oocyte development, as well as many questions yet to be addressed on the reproductive process of buffalo.

  6. Toward A Competency-Based Teacher Education Program in Foreign Languages at SUNY/Buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Anthony

    SUNY/Buffalo's competency-based teacher education program in foreign languages emphasizes: (1) a field-centered program, (2) a multi-institutional pattern of organizations, (3) feedback to students regarding their progress, (4) preservice/inservice continuum. The competencies required of foreign language teachers include: a practical command of…

  7. Plasma Nesfatin-1 and Leptin in pubertal and non-pubertal Murrah buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis

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    Gorakh Nath Prajapati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloes mostly suffer from delayed puberty, anestrus, sub–estrus, summer infertility, prolonged inter-calving interval and postpartum uterine disorders. Nesfatin-1 and Leptin are directly or indirectly related with body weight (BW, feed parameters and regulation of puberty. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Nesfatin-1 and Leptin in pubertal and non-pubertal Murrah buffalo heifers. The Murrah buffalo heifers (n=13 were randomly selected and divided into two groups; pubertal group (PG and non-pubertal group (NG. Heifers with plasma progesterone (P4 level of ≥1 ng/mL were classified as PG. Blood samples were collected at fortnight intervals for analysis of plasma Nesfatin-1, Leptin, P4, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids. Body weight, dry matter intake and feed conversion efficiency were recorded at fortnight intervals. The mean (±SEM plasma Nesfatin-1, Leptin, P4, BW and feed conversion efficiency (% were significantly (P<0.01 higher in PG as compared to NG. Dry matter intake by the heifers was also significantly (P<0.001 higher in PG than NG. Plasma metabolites (glucose and NEFA did not differ significantly between the groups. The findings of this study suggest that Nesfatin-1 and Leptin have indispensable role in the onset of puberty in buffalo heifers by affecting BW and feed parameters.

  8. Influence of diet supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on intake and nutrient utilization in Graded Murrah buffaloes

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    D. Srinivas Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted in graded Murrah buffaloes to study the influence of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 strain supplementation on intake and nutrient utilization. 12 graded Murrah buffaloes with an average body weight of 465.4 ± 20.92 kg were randomly divided into two groups (Control and treatment of 6 animals each. Animals in both the groups received a basal diet comprising of roughages and concentrates separately to meet the maintenance and production requirements (ICAR, 1998. In addition, the animals in treatment group received yeast culture @ 0.5 g/animal/day. The average DMI of buffaloes during the digestion trial was 114.31 and 119.24 g/kg W0.75 respectively, in control and treatment groups. The digestibility coefficients of gross nutrients and fibre fractions showed non-significant differences between the control and treatment groups, though the values were found to be comparatively higher in the yeast supplemented group. The DCP and TDN contents were observed to be 8.03 and 53.06 per cent in control group and 8.15 and 54.06 per cent in treatment groups, respectively. It can be concluded that yeast culture did not show any significant positive effect on nutrient utilization in graded Murrah buffaloes. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 22-24

  9. Effect of energy and protein levels on nutrient utilization and their requirements in growing Murrah buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusty, Sonali; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Mondal, Goutam; Sontakke, Umesh; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate different levels of energy and protein for optimum growth of Murrah male buffalo calves, a growth trial (150 days) was conducted on 30 calves (body weight 202.5 ± 6.8 kg). Six diets were formulated to provide 90, 100 and 110% protein level and 90 and 110% energy level requirements for buffalo calves, derived from ICAR 2013 recommendations for buffaloes. The crude protein (CP) intake was increased with higher dietary CP, whereas no effect of energy levels or interaction between protein and energy was observed on CP intake. There were significant effects (P interaction between protein and energy (P nutrient intake (protein or energy) per kg body weight (BW)(0.75) at various fortnight intervals was regressed linearly from the average daily gain (ADG) per kg BW(0.75). By setting the average daily gain at zero in the developed regression equation, a maintenance requirement was obtained, i.e. 133.1 kcal ME, 6.45 g CP and 3.95 g metabolizable protein (MP) per kg BW(0.75). Requirement for growth was 6.12 kcal ME, 0.46 g CP and 0.32 g MP per kg BW(0.75) per day. Metabolizable amino acid requirement was estimated from partitioning of MP intake and ADG. The ME requirements were lower, whereas the MP requirement of Murrah buffaloes was higher than ICAR (2013) recommendations.

  10. Selection at the Y chromosome of the African Buffalo driven by rainfall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, van W.F.; Greyling, B.J.; Prins, H.H.T.; Getz, W.M.; Bastos, A.D.S.

    2007-01-01

    Selection coefficients at the mammalian Y chromosome typically do not deviate strongly from neutrality. Here we show that strong balancing selection, maintaining intermediate frequencies of DNA sequence variants, acts on the Y chromosome in two populations of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Signi

  11. OLFACTORY RESPONSES OF TSETSE-FLIES TO PHENOLS FROM BUFFALO URINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DENOTTER, CJ

    1991-01-01

    A comparison was made of the EAG responses of males and females of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood, G. austeni Newstead and G. tachinoides Westwood to various doses of compounds known to be components of ox and buffalo urine fractions which are attractive to tsetse in the field (phenol, 3- and

  12. Haemato-biochemical and oxidative status of buffaloes naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vijay; Nigam, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Yadav, Pramod Kumar

    2015-09-15

    Blood samples were collected from 05 clinically healthy and 10 adult female water buffaloes naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Confirmation of disease free and infected status of buffaloes was made on clinical signs, observation of T. evansi parasites in the blood smear and duplex PCR based assay. Blood samples were evaluated for levels of haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), differential leucocytes count (DLC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), calcium, phosphorous, magnesium sodium and potassium and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The results of the study revealed substantial decrease in levels of Hb, PCV and increase in LPO, SOD, CAT and AST in infected animals compared to healthy animals. However other haematological and biochemical indices did not show significant variations in infected and healthy buffaloes. The enhanced erythrocytic oxidation and reduction of hematological indices, suggests that the enhanced oxidation of the erythrocytes may be a contributory factor in erythrocytic destruction and progression of the anaemia in T. evansi infection in water buffaloes.

  13. Determination of volatile organic compounds responsible for flavour in cooked river buffalo meat

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    A. Di Luccia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavour is an important consumer attractive that directly influences the success of food products on the market. The determination of odorous molecules and their identification allows to useful knowledge for producers to valorise their own products. Buffalo meat has a different chemical composition from pork and beef and requires some cautions in cooking and processing. This work aims at the identification of volatile molecules responsible for flavours in river buffalo meat. The determination was carried out by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME technique and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The most relevant results were the higher odorous impact of buffalo meat and the higher content of sulphide compounds responsible for wild aroma respect to pork and beef. These results were obtained comparing the total area of peaks detected in every chromatogram. We have also found significant differences concerning the contents of pentadecane, 1-hexanol-2 ethyl, butanoic acid, furano-2-penthyl. The origin of volatile organic compounds and their influence on the river buffalo aromas were discussed.

  14. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  15. Chemical composition of water buffalo milk and its low-fat symbiotic yogurt development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Han

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water buffalos are the second most widely available milk source in countries around the world. While typical average milk compositions are readily available, information on seasonal variation in chemical composition of buffalo milk is limited -especially in the Northeastern region of the United States. Data collected in this study can be useful for the manufacture of a wide variety of specialty dairy products such as symbiotic buffalo milk yogurt. To analyze functionality, symbiotic low fat buffalo milk yogurt prototypes (plain and blueberry were developed using a commercial starter containing probiotics. Methods: During a one-year cycle, physicochemical and mineral contents of buffalo milk were analyzed. Prototype yogurts were manufactured commercially and samples of the yogurt prototypes were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological properties and for the survivability of probiotics during ten weeks of storage.Results: Average contents of total solids, fat, lactose, crude protein, ash, specific gravity, and conjugated linoleic acid in the milk ranged from 16.39-18.48%, 6.57-7.97%, 4.49-4.73%, 4.59-5.37%, 0.91-0.92%, 1.0317-1.0380%, and 4.4-7.6 mg/g fat, respectively. The average mineral contents of calcium, phosphorous, potassium, magnesium, sodium, and zinc in the milk were 1798.89, 1216.76, 843.72, 337.20 and 7.48 mg/kg, respectively, and remained steady throughout the year. The symbiotic low fat buffalo milk yogurts evaluated in this study contained higher amounts of protein, carbohydrates, and calcium than similar yogurts manufactured with cows’ milk. During refrigerated storage, the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus was viable (>1×106CFU/g for the first two weeks, while Bifidobacterium spp.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(4:86-106 and Lactobacillus casei remained viable during the entire ten weeks. Reducing the acidity and enhancing the flavor of the yogurts could improve the overall acceptability

  16. Estrus induction and fertility response following different treatment protocols in Murrah buffaloes under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, L.; Phogat, J. B.; Pandey, A. K.; Phulia, S. K.; Kumar, S.; Dalal, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different treatment protocols for estrus induction and conception rate in postpartum anestrus buffaloes during breeding season under field conditions. Materials and Methods: The 47 postpartum anestrus buffaloes of the 2nd to 6th parity were divided into three groups. Group 1 (n=16): Buffaloes received cosynch treatment, that is, buserelin acetate 10 µg on day 0 and 9, cloprostenol 500 µg on day 7 followed by fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) at the time of second buserelin acetate and 24 h later. Group 2 (n=15): Buffaloes received norgestomet ear implant subcutaneously for 9 days, estradiol benzoate 2 mg on the day of implant insertion (day 0), pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) 400 IU and cloprostenol 500 µg on day 9 followed by AI at 48 and 72 h after implant removal. Group 3 (Cosynch-plus, n=16): Buffaloes received Cosynch protocol as per Group 1 except an additional injection of PMSG 400 IU (i.m.) was given 3 days before the start of protocol and FTAI done at the same time of Group 1. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed after 45 days of AI. Results: The estrus induction response following the treatment was 81.3%, 100%, and 93.7% in Group 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The buffaloes of Group 1, 2, and 3 expressed intense (38.4%, 60% and 46.6%, respectively) and moderate estrus (46.1%, 26.6%, and 40%, respectively). The conception rates in Group 1, 2, and 3, at FTAI and overall including subsequent estrus were 37.5% and 62.5%, 53.3%, and 66.6%, 56.3%, and 75%, respectively. Conclusion: All the three treatment protocols can be effectively used for induction of estrus with acceptable conception rate in postpartum anestrus buffaloes during breeding season under field conditions. However, Cosynch-plus (similar to Cosynch protocol except addition of PMSG, 400 IU 3 days before the start of first buserelin acetate administration) protocol results comparatively better pregnancy rate.

  17. Molecular assays reveal the presence of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Júlia A G; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; Silvestre, Bruna T; Albernaz, Tatiana T; Leite, Rômulo C; Barbosa, José D; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 50% of buffalo herds in Brazil are located in Pará state in northern Brazil. There are several properties where cattle and buffalo live and graze together, and thus, buffalo pathogens may threaten the health of cattle and vice versa. Therefore, knowledge of infectious agents of buffalo is essential for maintaining healthy livestock. Clinical disease caused by Theileria and Babesia parasites in the Asian water buffalo is not common, although these animals may act as reservoir hosts, and the detection of these hemoparasites in buffaloes is as important as it is in cattle. Studies of the infection of buffaloes by hemoparasites in Brazil are scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Piroplasmida parasites in Asian water buffaloes in the state of Pará in the Amazon region of Brazil using nested PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis. The 18S rRNA gene and ITS complete region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 308 apparently healthy buffaloes bred on six properties in the state of Pará, Brazil. The prevalence of positive buffalo samples was 4.2% (13/308) for Theileria spp., 3.6% (11/308) for Babesia bovis and 1% (3/308) for Babesia bigemina. Animals infected with Theileria were detected in 50% (3/6) of the assessed properties. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Theileria species detected in this study were closely related to Theileria buffeli, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Theileria in Asian water buffaloes in the Americas. The majority of Theileria-positive buffaloes (11/13) belong to a property that has a history of animals presenting lymphoproliferative disease of unknown etiology. Therefore, the present research suggests that this disorder can be associated with Theileria infection in this property. Our results provide new insights on the distribution and biological aspects of hemoparasites transmissible from

  18. The African buffalo: A villain for inter-species spread of infectious diseases in southern Africa

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    Anita L. Michel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer is a large wild bovid which until recently ranged across all but the driest parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and their local range being limited to about 20 km from surface water. They are of high ecological value due to their important role as bulk feeders in the grazing hierarchy. They also have high economic value, because they are one of the sought after ‘Big Five’ in the eco-tourism industry. In Africa, buffaloes have been recognised for some time as an important role player in the maintenance and transmission of a variety of economically important livestock diseases at the wildlife and/or livestock interface. These include African strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, Corridor disease (theileriosis, bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. For a number of other diseases of veterinary importance, African buffaloes may also serve as amplifier or incidental host, whereby infection with the causative pathogens may cause severe clinical signs such as death or abortion as in the case of anthrax and Rift Valley fever, or remain mild or subclinical for example heartwater. The long term health implications of most of those infections on the buffalo at a population level is usually limited, and they do not pose a threat on the population’s survival. Because of their ability to harbour and transmit important diseases to livestock, their sustainable future in ecotourism, trade and transfrontier conservation projects become complex and costly and reliable diagnostic tools are required to monitor these infections in buffalo populations.

  19. Improving Buffalo Milk Production to Sustain the Production of Dadih by Small Farmers in West Sumatera

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    Wirdahayati R B

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The swamp buffalo which is found in many Asian regions is mainly raised for meat and draft purposes. However, in West Sumatera, it is also milked and the milk is mostly consumed as “dadih“, a well known traditional product from this area. Dadih is actually a product made from fresh buffalo milk, which is kept in bamboo tube for about 2-3 days under room temperature, without any application or addition of bacteria starter although the end product of this fermentation contains various bacteria, mould and khamir. As the natural fermented milk product, dadih is white in colour and the curd texture like tofu, tastes like yoghurt, and it is generally served as a complementing meal in some traditional occasion as well as delicacy from West Sumatera. Dadih is highly nutritive product, protein and fat contents are higher than those of yoghurt, rich in amino acids and bacteria such as Lactobacillus sp. and low in cholesterol. The raw material for dadih is limited due to the low productivity of fresh buffalo milk which is generally collected for about 0.5 – 2.0 litres/head/day. The effort in sustaining “dadih product“ is directed to the improving the management of the buffalo condition particularly those in lactating period. Feeding improvement is recommended in order to provide an adequate milk for raising its calf and to be milked for making dadih and to support the optimal reproductive activity of the buffalo dam. In future, the assessment on “dadih“ should also include the packaging improvement which can improve and prolong the storage time for the benefit of marketing purposes.

  20. Toll-like receptor responses to Peste des petits ruminants virus in goats and water buffalo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Dhanasekaran

    Full Text Available Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV. Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR. We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN α in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFNα resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFNα in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFNα levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors

  1. Isolation of pathogenic Escherichia coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Vaidya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Isolation, characterization, in-vitro pathogenicity and antibiogram study of E.coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city. Materials and Methods: Meat samples were collected from buffalo immediately after slaughter. Isolation, identification and enumeration of E. coli were done by following standard methods and protocols. Hemolysin test and Congo red binding assay were used to study in-vitro pathogenicity of E. coli isolates. Disc diffusion method was used to study antibiogram of pathogenic E. coli isolates. Results: A total of 250 buffalo meat samples were collected and processed. A total of 22 (8.80 percent E. coli isolates were isolated with average differential count of 1.231 ± 0.136 log cfu/g on EMB agar. All the E. coli isolates were confirmed by 10 Grams staining, biochemical reactions and sugar fermentation and motility tests. A total of 9 (3.6 percent E. coli isolates were found to be pathogenic by in-vitro pathogenicity testing. Antibiogram studies of pathogenic E. coli isolates showed that all 9 isolates were sensitive to gentamycin (20 ± 1.49 mm while 7 isolate showed resistance to enrofloxacin (18.22 ± 3.58 mm and tetracycline (11.44 ± 2.04 mm. Conclusion: Buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city is an important source of E. coli infection to human population. A total of 9 pathogenic E. coli were isolated from buffalo meat immediately after slaughter. All isolates were characterized and confirmed pathogenic by in-vitro pathogenicity tests. Antibiogram studies of all isolates revealed sensitivity to gentamicin and resistance to tetracycline and enrofloxacin. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 277-279

  2. Toll-like receptor responses to Peste des petits ruminants virus in goats and water buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R; Ramya, R; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S; Parida, Satya; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) α in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFNα resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFNα in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFNα levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide

  3. Effect of mastitis on luteal function and pregnancy rates in buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mohamed Mohsen; Hendawy, Amin O; Zeitoun, Moustafa M

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mastitis on CL development and function and pregnancy rate in buffaloes. Sixty-six buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus) reared in a commercial farm at El-Beheira governorate, north of Egypt were used in this study. According to the visual observation of milk, physical examination of the udder and actual somatic cell count in milk, buffalo cows were divided into three groups: without mastitis (W), n = 23; subclinical mastitis (SC), n = 18; and clinical mastitis (C), n = 25. All buffalo cows were synchronized by double dose of PGF2α (11-day interval) and inseminated by frozen-thawed semen of fertile bull. Mean CL diameter was ultrasonically examined on Days 5, 9, 12, 16, 21, and 25 after artificial insemination (AI). Blood samples were taken on the days of ultrasonography for progesterone (P4) assay. Results indicated that pregnancy rates were lower (P Pregnancy rates reduced to 60.87%, 44.45%, and 16.00% in W, SC, and C, respectively, at Day 45 after insemination. Thus, the embryonic loss was 8.7%, 11.11%, and 12.00 % in W, SC, and C cows, respectively. Pregnancy rates decreased between 44.32% and 50.51% when mastitis occurred during Day -15 before to Day +30 after AI, compared with 59.22% in the uninfected cows. The diameter of CL was greater (P pregnancy rate. Accordingly, incidence of mastitis revealed suppression to both CL diameter and function leading to significant reduction in pregnancy outcome of buffalo cows.

  4. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taru Sharma, G., E-mail: gts553@gmail.com [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India); Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G. [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India)

    2012-08-03

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it

  5. Trade-offs of predation and foraging explain sexual segregation in African buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, C.T.; Cross, P.C.; Funston, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Many studies have investigated why males and females segregate spatially in sexually dimorphic species. These studies have focused primarily on temperate zone ungulates in areas lacking intact predator communities, and few have directly assessed predation rates in different social environments. 2. Data on the movement, social affiliation, mortality and foraging of radio-collared African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) were collected from 2001-06 in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. 3. The vast majority of mortality events were due to lion (Panthera leo) predation, and the mortality hazard associated with being an adult male buffalo in a male-only 'bachelor' group was almost four times higher than for adult females in mixed herds. The mortality rates of adult males and females within mixed herds were not statistically different. Mortality sites of male and female buffalo were in areas of low visibility similar to those used by bachelor groups, while mixed herds tended to use more open habitats. 4. Males in bachelor groups ate similar or higher quality food (as indexed by percentage faecal nitrogen), and moved almost a third less distance per day compared with mixed herds. As a result, males in bachelor groups gained more body condition than did males in breeding herds. 5. Recent comparative analyses suggest the activity-budget hypothesis as a common underlying cause of social segregation. However, our intensive study, in an area with an intact predator community showed that male and female buffalo segregated by habitat and supported the predation-risk hypothesis. Male African buffalo appear to trade increased predation risk for additional energy gains in bachelor groups, which presumably leads to increased reproductive success. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  6. Serum biochemical and haematological reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud R. Abd Ellah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1–2 years old were included in the study. Animals were examined at buffalo farms that belong to Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Three types of samples were collected: serum samples for biochemical analysis, whole blood samples for haematological analysis and faecal samples for parasitological examination. Animals that fitted the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Biochemical analysis included serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition to the above, serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose levels and 20 haematological variables were measured. The 95.0% reference intervals were calculated by removing the upper and lower 2.5% of the interval for each serum biochemical constituent to give the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Confidence intervals were calculated for each reference limit. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with established values for cows. The current study is as far as could be determined the first that establishes reference intervals for the serum biochemical and haematological parameters in water buffalo heifers.

  7. Comparative analysis of the Shadoo gene between cattle and buffalo reveals significant differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While prions play a central role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the biology of these proteins and the pathophysiology of these diseases remain largely unknown. Since no case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE has ever been reported in buffalo despite their phylogenetic proximity to cattle, genetic differences may be driving the different susceptibilities of these two species to BSE. We thus hypothesized that differences in expression of the most recently identified member of the prion family or Shadoo (SPRN gene may relate to these species-specific differences. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first analyzed and compared the polymorphisms of the SPRN gene (~4.4 kb, including the putative promoter, coding and 3' regions, and further verified the entire ORF and putative promoter. This yielded a total of 117 fixed differences, remarkably: 1 a 12-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the hydrophobic domain of the cattle but not buffalo gene, introducing a four amino acid expansion/contraction in a series of 5 tandem Ala/Gly-containing repeats; 2 two fixed missense mutations (102Ser→Gly and 119Thr→Ala, and three missense mutations (92Pro>Thr/Met, 122Thr>Ile and 139Arg>Trp in the coding region presenting different (P<0.05 genotypic and allelic frequency distributions between cattle and buffalo; and, 3 functional luciferase-reporter experiments for the predicted promoter region, consistent with a significantly higher activity in buffalo than cattle. Supporting these findings, immunoblotting revealed higher relative expression levels of Sho protein in cerebrum from buffalo than from cattle. In addition, for cattle, highest Sho expression was detected in obex, as compared to cerebrum or cerebellum. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support Sho as a non-PrP specific marker for prion infections, with obex as the best tissue source for the detection of Sho in TSE rapid tests. Moreover, these discoveries may prove

  8. Road and Street Centerlines, Buffalo County, WI road centerline file conflated with DOT WISLR attributes and updated continually based on survey plats, Published in 2002, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Buffalo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2002. It is described as 'Buffalo County, WI road centerline...

  9. SNTP program reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Sapyta, Joseph J.

    1993-06-01

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is evaluating the feasibility of a particle bed reactor for a high-performance nuclear thermal rocket engine. Reactors operating between 500 MW and 2,000 MW will produce engine thrusts ranging from 20,000 pounds to 80,000 pounds. The optimum reactor arrangement depends on the power level desired and the intended application. The key components of the reactor have been developed and are being tested. Flow-to-power matching considerations dominate the thermal-hydraulic design of the reactor. Optimal propellant management during decay heat cooling requires a three-pronged approach. Adequate computational methods exist to perform the neutronics analysis of the reactor core. These methods have been benchmarked to critical experiment data.

  10. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  11. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  12. Qualitative assessment of temporal fluctuations on buffalo behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Serrapica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative assessment of animal behaviour (QBA is an integrative, whole-animal methodology based on the qualitative interpretation of the dynamic style in which animals interact with their environment. In other words, it describes not what the animals do, but how they do what they do. We aimed to verify whether the QBA was able to detect the behavioural fluctuations occurring in animals in response to an environmental challenge. An 8-member panel was used. The panel was briefly trained on the temporal dominance of sensations (TDS procedure and subsequently asked to observe the behaviour of 4 buffalo heifers in 4 videos lasting 2 min each and score the behavioural expression of the animals following the TDS procedure. TDS consists in presenting to the panellist the list of behavioural descriptors on a computer screen along with each video. Each video was obtained by assembling two clips concerning the same animal in two different conditions: home indoor pen (1 min and novel outdoor paddock (1 min. Two videos started with the animal in the outdoor environment and two others in the opposite order. Six behavioural descriptors were chosen from a previous work conducted on the same animals: calm, active, curious, nervous, shy and apathetic. Each assessor was asked to select the dominant descriptor, which was considered as dominant when it gained most of the attention of the observer. Each time the observer felt the behaviour changed, he/she scored the new dominant descriptor until the behaviour ended. Each video was observed 4 times by each observer (4 replications in a randomised order at 24-h intervals. For each point of time, the proportion of runs (subject × replication for which a given descriptor was assessed as dominant (dominance rate >30% was computed. Results showed a satisfactory agreement among observers and replications. The observers clearly discriminated the first from the second half of each video. Calm and apathetic were

  13. Influence of Body Condition Score, blood ammonia and serum urea levels on conception rate in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zicarelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In buffaloes, an optimal BCS at calving time improves reproductive efficiency (Baruselli et al., 2001 therefore shortening the calving/conception period and lowering the number of services/conception. In buffalo cows in negative energy balance a delayed ovulation and a reduced percentage of large follicles were found (Campanile et al., 2001. In buffaloes naturally mated protein degradability in the rumen did not influence reproductive activity (Campanile et al., 2003. It is possible that, independently of the Blood Area (BU, a lower diffusion of ammonia occurs in the uterus, reducing the detrimental effect on reproductive efficiency. The aim in the present study was to determine the influence of BCS, urea e ammonia blood levels on conception rate in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes synchronised and mated by AI in mid-winter which coincided with transition to the seasonal nadir in reproductive activity.

  14. Nematodes of the small intestine of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Taylor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and distribution of parasitic helminths in populations of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, have not been well documented. A total of 28 buffaloes of different ages and sexeswere sampled in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, for nematodes of the small intestine. Three nematode species were identified, namely Cooperia fuelleborni, Cooperia hungi and Trichostrongylus deflexus, with C. hungi being a new country record for African buffalo in South Africa. The overall prevalence was 71%and the average number of worms was 2346 (range: 0–15 980. This is a small burden for such a large mammal. Sex, age and body condition of the buffaloes had no significant effect on worm occurrence.

  15. Multi purpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raina, V.K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: vkrain@magnum.barc.ernet.in; Sasidharan, K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, Samiran [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, Tej [Research Reactor Services Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2006-04-15

    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor.

  16. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Villarino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper summarizes the general features and utilization of several INVAP research reactor designs, from subcritical and critical assemblies to high-power reactors.

  17. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru

    1997-04-04

    An LMFBR type reactor comprises a plurality of reactor cores in a reactor container. Namely, a plurality of pot containing vessels are disposed in the reactor vessel and a plurality of reactor cores are formed in a state where an integrated-type fuel assembly is each inserted to a pot, and a coolant pipeline is connected to each of the pot containing-vessel to cool the reactor core respectively. When fuels are exchanged, the integrated-type fuel assembly is taken out together with the pot from the reactor vessel in a state where the integrated-type fuel assembly is immersed in the coolants in the pot as it is. Accordingly, coolants are supplied to each of the pot containing-vessel connected with the coolant pipeline and circulate while cooling the integrated-type fuel assembly for every pot. Then, when the fuels are exchanged, the integrated type fuel assembly is taken out to the outside of the reactor together with the pot by taking up the pot from the pot-containing vessel. Then, neutron economy is improved to thereby improve reactor power and the breeding ratio. (N.H.)

  18. Structural and functional insights into the catalytic inactivity of the major fraction of buffalo milk xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh S Gadave

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR existing in two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH and xanthine oxidase (XO, catabolises xanthine to uric acid that is further broken down to antioxidative agent allantoin. XOR also produces free radicals serving as second messenger and microbicidal agent. Large variation in the XO activity has been observed among various species. Both hypo and hyper activity of XOR leads to pathophysiological conditions. Given the important nutritional role of buffalo milk in human health especially in south Asia, it is crucial to understand the functional properties of buffalo XOR and the underlying structural basis of variations in comparison to other species. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Buffalo XO activity of 0.75 U/mg was almost half of cattle XO activity. Enzymatic efficiency (k cat/K m of 0.11 sec(-1 µM(-1 of buffalo XO was 8-10 times smaller than that of cattle XO. Buffalo XOR also showed lower antibacterial activity than cattle XOR. A CD value (Δε430 nm of 46,000 M(-1 cm(-1 suggested occupancy of 77.4% at Fe/S I centre. Buffalo XOR contained 0.31 molybdenum atom/subunit of which 48% existed in active sulfo form. The active form of XO in buffalo was only 16% in comparison to ∼30% in cattle. Sequencing revealed 97.4% similarity between buffalo and cattle XOR. FAD domain was least conserved, while metal binding domains (Fe/S and Molybdenum were highly conserved. Homology modelling of buffalo XOR showed several variations occurring in clusters, especially close to FAD binding pocket which could affect NAD(+ entry in the FAD centre. The difference in XO activity seems to be originating from cofactor deficiency, especially molybdenum. CONCLUSION: A major fraction of buffalo milk XOR exists in a catalytically inactive form due to high content of demolybdo and desulfo forms. Lower Fe/S content and structural factors might be contributing to lower enzymatic efficiency of buffalo XOR in a minor way.

  19. Relationship of prepartum udder and teat measurements with subsequent milk production traits in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chandrasekar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to find out the relationship of prepartum udder and teat measurements with subsequent milk production traits in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 Nili-Ravi buffalo heifers were selected from Buffalo Farm, Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Regional Station- Bir Dosanjh, Nabha, Patiala, Punjab. The udder length (UL, udder width (UW, udder depth, teat length (TL, teat diameter (TD, and teat distances were measured at fortnightly interval from 60 days prepartum until calving. After calving, 60 days total milk yield (TDMY, peak yield (PY, and days taken to attain PY (DPY were also recorded. The correlation coefficients of various prepartum udder and teat measurements since 60 days prepartum to calving with 60 days TDMY, PY, and DPY were calculated to find out the relationship between the traits in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Results: The result envisaged that all udder and teat measurements were increased gradually toward the date of calving in primiparous buffaloes. The UL, UW, left fore (LF and right rear (RRTL, RRTD, and the distance between LF to left rear (LR teat were positively correlated with 60 days TDMY. The UL and UW depicted positive but nonsignificant correlation with PY. Fore TLs showed positive correlation where as TDs and teat distances had a negative correlation with the DPY in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Conclusion: It was concluded that milk production performance could be assessed on the basis of prepartum udder and teat measurements in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes.

  20. Effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese during ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Kanawjia, S. K.; Kumar, Suryamani; Khatkar, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    The effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese was investigated during ripening period up to two months. The textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese in terms of hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness were analyzed by using textural profile analyzer. The maximum hardness was found with cheese made using 1% culture, while the minimum was found with 2% culture. The cohesiveness and springiness...

  1. Buffalo cheese whey proteins, identification of a 24 kda protein and characterization of their hydrolysates: in vitro gastrointestinal digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana C Bassan; Goulart,Antonio J.; Nasser, Ana L. M.; Bezerra, Thaís M. S. [UNESP; Garrido, Saulo S.; Rustiguel, Cynthia B.; Guimarães, Luis H. S.; Rubens Monti

    2015-01-01

    Milk whey proteins are well known for their high biological value and versatile functional properties, characteristics that allow its wide use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, a 24 kDa protein from buffalo cheese whey was analyzed by mass spectrometry and presented homology with Bos taurus beta-lactoglobulin. In addition, the proteins present in buffalo cheese whey were hydrolyzed with pepsin and with different combinations of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase...

  2. Population structure and phylogeography of Toda buffalo in Nilgiris throw light on possible origin of aboriginal Toda tribe of South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathiravan, P; Kataria, R S; Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Sadana, D K; Joshi, B K

    2011-08-01

    We report the genetic structure and evolutionary relationship of the endangered Toda buffalo of Nilgiris in South India with Kanarese and two other riverine buffalo breeds. The upgma phylogeny drawn using Nei's distance grouped South Kanara and Toda buffaloes at a single node while Marathwada and Murrah together formed a separate node. Principal component analysis was performed with pairwise interindividual chord distances which revealed clustering of Murrah and Marathwada buffaloes distinctly, while individuals of Toda and South Kanara breeds completely intermingled with each other. Furthermore, there were highly significant group variances (p Nilgiris along the Western Ghats. Considering the close social, economic and cultural association of Todas with their buffaloes, the present study supports the theory of migration of Toda tribe from Kanarese/Mysore region along with their buffaloes.

  3. Clinical and hematological study on crossbred cattle and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally infected with Theileria annulata in Sharkia province, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    and buffaloes delivered to Veterinary Medicine Hospital, Zagazig University during the period from March to June 2008 and were investigated clinically and laboratory at arrival. Forty four (88%) cattle and buffaloes were naturally infected with T. annulata and showed typical signs of infection: fever......The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and hematological findings in crossbred cattle and water buffaloes naturally infected with Theileria annulata with special reference to the clinical picture of tropical theileriosis in Egyptian buffaloes. A total 50 field cases of cattle...... ones (P≤0.05). In conclusion T. annulata infection is associated with impairment and alteration of blood parameters in both cattle and water buffaloes. Theileriosis in water buffaloes might cause irreversible ocular changes that could lead to complete blindness. Data obtained in this study might put...

  4. Comparison and improvement of chemical and physical characteristics of low- fat ground beef and buffalo meat patties at frozen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uriyapongson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of chemical and physical properties of beef and buffalo meat, and eight treatments of their ground meat patties was undertaken. Low-fat patties from both meat were prepared using two types of starches; corn and modified tapioca starch as binding ingredients in the ground meat, and methylcellulose (MC in the batter for patty coating. The patties were stored at -18ºC for 1, 15, 30 and 45 days, then deep fried and analyzed for color, % decrease in diameter and % gain in height, % oil absorption and texture. The results suggested that MC improved outside and inside color of patties (p≤0.05. There was no significant difference of cooking yield between beef and buffalo meat patties. Addition of modified starches and MC provided less % decrease in diameter after frying for frozen buffalo meat patties. Modified starch significantly improved % oil absorption in frozen beef and buffalo patties. Modified starch and MC gave both beef and buffalo meat patties more stable in hardness, chewiness and gumminess during the frozen storage. MC improved texture quality of frozen buffalo meat patties. Fried meat patties had high calories at 15 days of frozen storage.

  5. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes.

  6. Study of Biogas Production Rate from Water Hyacinth by Hydrothermal Pretreatment with Buffalo Dung as a Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Kurniawan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on biogas enhancement production rates from water hyacinth mixed with buffalo dung. The focus of the experiment was on the time of hydrothermal pretreatment and the ratio of water hyacinth with buffalo dung. The hydrothermal pretreated substrates were characterized by TDS, BOD and pH. The hydrothermal pretreatment of 60 minutes with the ratio of water hyacinth to buffalo dung 1:2 showed the highest biogas production rate at 7889 ml/day. However, the highest methane composition was 52.82% which resulted on the hydrothermal treatment of 30 minutes with equal ratio of water hyacinth and buffalo dung. Thus, the optimum of methane yield obtained at hydrothermal pretreatment for 30 minutes with equal ratio of water hyacinth to buffalo dung is 2856 ml/day. The hydrothermal pretreatment increases the rate production of biogas 102% and the methane yield 51% relative to untreated water hyacinth. The ratio of water hyacinth and buffalo dung has a great impact on biogas production rate and compositions for hydrothermal pretreated substrates.

  7. Prevalence and distribution of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverauskas, Claudia E; Nasir, Amar; Reichel, Michael P

    2015-10-01

    The seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and domestic cattle in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia has never been determined. A total of 480 serum samples from water buffalo and 192 serum samples from cattle, collected by the NT Government from 1993 through to 2001, at 18 different survey sites throughout the Northern Territory were tested by commercial ELISA for anti-N. caninum antibodies. The water buffalo samples demonstrated a seroprevalence of 88.3% (95% CI ± 2.9%), while 31.8% (±6.1%) of the cattle sera tested positive for N. caninum antibodies. Individual buffalo from the same herd, sampled over years, showed considerable fluctuations in S/P ratios. Overall, seropositivity was consistent across buffalo herds, and showed a slight decline over the years. The study presents evidence for the first time that N. caninum infection in water buffalo in the Northern Territory is a highly endemic and that infection rates are higher than those for cattle. This is important for an understanding of any potential sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum in Northern Australia. This survey also tests cattle from that territory for the first time for evidence of N. caninum infection and makes an important contribution to the understanding of disease management issues for the beef industry in the region.

  8. Quality of buffalo milk as affected by dietary protein level and flaxseed supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effects of protein level and flaxseed supplementation on the yield and quality of buffalo milk. In particular, the fatty acid profile of milk from buffalo cows subjected to different diets has been investigated. A 2×3 factorial design was tested with buffalo cows receiving 2 dietary crude protein (CP) and 3 flaxseed (FS) supplementation levels. Treatments were (1) low dietary CP level [12% of dry matter (DM)] and no flaxseed supplementation (LP); (2) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (LPFS500); (3) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (LPFS1000); (4) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and no flaxseed supplementation (MP); (5) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (MPFS500); and (6) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (MPFS1000). Milk protein and casein were affected by flaxseed supplementation being higher in MP, intermediate in LP, and lower in flaxseed-supplemented diets. However, the results from the present study highlighted that low protein diets sustained milk yield, protein, and casein synthesis in milk when whole flaxseed was administered. Short-chain fatty acids, in particular C8:0 and C10:0, were the lowest in milk from buffalo cows fed the highest level of flaxseed supplementation. Medium-chain fatty acids were the lowest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500, and the highest in the HP and LP groups. Long-chain fatty acids were the highest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500 groups, and the lowest in milk from buffalo receiving no flaxseed supplementation. Protein level of the diet influenced the percentage of C18:0, which was higher in MP than LP groups. Total conjugated linoleic acid content evidenced the same trend of long-chain fatty acids, with an increase of about 7% in FL500 and of 22% in FL1000 than the control. Apart from

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of the Chinese Swamp Buffalo by RNA Sequencing and SSR Marker Discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingxian Deng

    Full Text Available The Chinese swamp buffalo (Bubalis bubalis is vital to the lives of small farmers and has tremendous economic importance. However, a lack of genomic information has hampered research on augmenting marker assisted breeding programs in this species. Thus, a high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing of B. bubalis was conducted to generate transcriptomic sequence dataset for gene discovery and molecular marker development. Illumina paired-end sequencing generated a total of 54,109,173 raw reads. After trimming, de novo assembly was performed, which yielded 86,017 unigenes, with an average length of 972.41 bp, an N50 of 1,505 bp, and an average GC content of 49.92%. A total of 62,337 unigenes were successfully annotated. Among the annotated unigenes, 27,025 (43.35% and 23,232 (37.27% unigenes showed significant similarity to known proteins in NCBI non-redundant protein and Swiss-Prot databases (E-value < 1.0E-5, respectively. Of these annotated unigenes, 14,439 and 15,813 unigenes were assigned to the Gene Ontology (GO categories and EuKaryotic Ortholog Group (KOG cluster, respectively. In addition, a total of 14,167 unigenes were assigned to 331 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. Furthermore, 17,401 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers. One hundred and fifteen primer pairs were randomly selected for amplification to detect polymorphisms. The results revealed that 110 primer pairs (95.65% yielded PCR amplicons and 69 primer pairs (60.00% presented polymorphisms in 35 individual buffaloes. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the five swamp buffalo populations were clustered together, whereas two river buffalo breeds clustered separately. In the present study, the Illumina RNA-seq technology was utilized to perform transcriptome analysis and SSR marker discovery in the swamp buffalo without using a reference genome. Our findings will enrich the current SSR markers resources and help spearhead

  10. Light water reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  11. Space Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We needed to find a space reactor concept that could be attractive to NASA for flight and proven with a rapid turnaround, low-cost nuclear test. Heat-pipe-cooled reactors coupled to Stirling engines long identified as the easiest path to near-term, low-cost concept.

  12. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2001-04-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  13. Identification of polymorphism in fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) gene and its association with milk fat traits in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Praveen Kumar; Goyal, Shubham; Mishra, Shailendra Kumar; Arora, Reena; Mukesh, Manishi; Niranjan, Saket Kumar; Kathiravan, Periasamy; Kataria, Ranjit Singh

    2016-04-01

    The fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) gene, known to be associated with fat percentage of milk and meat in bovines, was screened among swamp and riverine buffaloes for polymorphism detection and further association with milk fat contents. An SNP g.307C > T was identified in the intron 2 (+53 exon 2) region of FABP3 gene of Indian buffaloes. The SNP identified was genotyped in 692 animals belonging to 15 riverine, swamp and hybrid (riverine × swamp) buffalo populations of diverse phenotypes and utilities, by PCR-RFLP. A marked contrast was observed between the C and T allele frequencies in three types of buffaloes. The frequency of C allele ranged from 0.67 to 0.96 in pure swamp buffalo populations, with the highest in Mizoram (0.96). Whereas the frequency of T allele was high across all the Indian riverine buffalo breeds, ranging from 0.57 to 0.96. None of the genotypes at FABP3 g.307C > T locus was found to have significant association with milk fat and other production traits in Mehsana dairy buffalo breed. Our study revealed marked differences in the allele frequencies between riverine and swamp buffaloes at FABP3 g.307C > T locus, without any significant association with different milk traits in riverine buffaloes.

  14. Combining aboriginal and non-aboriginal knowledge to assess and manage feral water buffalo impacts on perennial freshwater springs of the aboriginal-owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  15. Nuclear reactor design

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on core design and methods for design and analysis. It is based on advances made in nuclear power utilization and computational methods over the past 40 years, covering core design of boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors, as well as fast reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The objectives of this book are to help graduate and advanced undergraduate students to understand core design and analysis, and to serve as a background reference for engineers actively working in light water reactors. Methodologies for core design and analysis, together with physical descriptions, are emphasized. The book also covers coupled thermal hydraulic core calculations, plant dynamics, and safety analysis, allowing readers to understand core design in relation to plant control and safety.

  16. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  17. The highlight of the main microbiologic parameters in buffalo milk and the final product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Coroian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Research initially envisioned the determination of microbiologic parameters in buffalo milk andthe finished product. The average for coliform bacteria was 4.96±0.47, while for the total number ofyeasts and moulds, it was 633.47±20.01. Escherichia coli was present in three samples out of the 23buffalo milk samples under analysis and presented the following values: 1.5 E.coli x 103/ml, 1.1 E.coli x103/ml, respectively 2.9 E.coli x 103/ml. In addition, the total number of germs and number of somaticcells according to two categories (milk from family exploitations and milk from an ecologic farm weredetermined. Selective isolations were conducted, of different dilutions of the pure culture on Levin agar(dilutions and incubation for 24 h at 37oC. The determination of the number of coliform bacteria wasconducted using Mac-Crady tables.

  18. Molecular detection of natural Babesia bovis infection from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    Babesia bovis (B. bovis) is a major causative agent of bovine babesiosis, with a considerable worldwide impact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of PCR assay and microscopical examination (ME) for detection of B. bovis in naturally infected and apparently healthy water...... were apparently healthy. Two blood samples were collected from each animal; one was used for preparation of Giemsa-stained smears for ME while the other sample was used for DNA extraction and PCR testing. Out of 34 cattle and buffaloes, ME identified 13 animals (38.2%) as infected by B. bovis whereas...... apparently healthy, 5 animals (26.3%) were identified as infected by ME meanwhile 15 animals (78.9%) were identified by PCR. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that water buffalos are likely to have a natural tolerance to B. bovis pathogen and/or more likely to be persistent carriers which were...

  19. Immunolocalization of progesterone receptors in binucleate trophoblast cells of the buffalo placenta (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The binucleate trophoblast cells (CTBs of the water buffalo placenta (Bubalus bubalis were studied with emphasis on the presence of progesterone receptor. Placentomal tissues from 27 buffalos (2-10 months of pregnancy were processed and embedded in paraplast (Paraplast Embedding Media – Paraplast Plus to locate the progesterone receptors using the immunohistochemistry technique. The immunohistochemical reaction for progesterone receptor through monoclonal antibody PgR Ab2 showed staining of CTBs, caruncular epithelial and estromal cells and blood vessel estromal pericitos present in the placentome throughout the entire gestational period analyzed. These results indicate the production of progesterone with autocrine and paracrine action in the placentome growth, differentiation and functional regulation.

  20. Therapeutical management of tetanus in Kundhi buffalo calf at Hyderabad, Sindh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was going to evaluate the therapeutic management of kundhi buffalo calf suffering from tetanus in Sindh (Pakistan. It was caused by a specific neurotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani in necrotic tissue. Tetanus was diagnosed in Kundhi buffalo calf on the basis of their clinical signs, high temperature, contracting of whole body muscles and arduousness of hind legs that is developed into the whole body of an animal. Positive rods shaped Clostridium tetani were present in the blood of the diseased animal. Treatment was recommended with anti-tetanus serum, Penicillin G Procaine, Meloxicam, Chlorpromazine, Dexamethasone and Dextrose 5%. Feeding to the calf through the stomach tube and the urinary catheter was administered to ease out the problem of urine retention. After treatment for 10 days animal complete recover to the healthy condition.

  1. Allelic Diversity of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II DRB Gene in Indian Cattle and Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachinandan De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to study the diversity of MHC-DRB3 alleles in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds. Previously reported BoLA-DRB exon 2 alleles of Indian Zebu cattle, Bos taurus cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goats were analyzed for the identities and divergence among various allele sequences. Comparison of predicted amino acid residues of DRB3 exon 2 alleles with similar alleles from other ruminants revealed considerable congruence in amino acid substitution pattern. These alleles showed a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid polymorphism at positions forming peptide-binding regions. A higher rate of nonsynonymous substitution was detected at the peptide-binding regions, indicating that BoLA-DRB3 allelic sequence evolution was driven by positive selection.

  2. Molecular characterization of MHC-DRB cDNA in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumen Naskar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, water buffalo MHC (Bubu-DRB cDNA was cloned and characterized. The 1022 base long-amplified cDNA product encompassed a single open reading frame of 801 bases that coded for 266 amino acids. The Bubu-DRB sequence showed maximum homology with the BoLA-DRB3*0101 allele of cattle. A total of seven amino acid residues were found to be unique for the Bubu-DRB sequence. The majority of amino acid substitutions was observed in the β1 domain. Residues associated with important functions were mostly conserved. Water buffalo DRB was phylogenetically closer to goat DRB*A.

  3. Transrectal combined thickness of the uterus and placenta in normal pregnant Egyptian buffalo-cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, H; Abdalla, H; Labib, F; Eidaroos, A

    2012-04-15

    The combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) is one of the characteristics that can be used to assess fetal development and/or placental function in bovine. The current study was designed to establish reference values for the CTUP throughout pregnancy in normal pregnant buffalo-cows. The CTUP at the intracotyledonary space was measured monthly from the second month until full term using electronic calipers of the ultrasound machine. The CTUP increased monthly from 2.5 mm at the second month to 12 mm at the full term. During the last trimester, the monthly increase in the CTUP was higher than that recorded during the first and second trimesters. The result of the current study can be used as normal values for future studies of CTUP in pathologically pregnant buffalo-cows.

  4. Schistosoma japonicum: An ultraviolet-attenuated cercarial vaccine applicable in the field for water buffaloes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Y.E.; Jiang, C.F.; Han, J.J.; Li, Y.L.; Ruppel, A. (Tongii Medical Univ., Wuhan, Hubei Province (China))

    1990-07-01

    Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease.

  5. Development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transferred blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mohmad Shah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed buffalo embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transfer derived blastocysts, produced by hand-guided cloning technique. The inner cell mass of the blastocyst was cut mechanically using a Microblade and cultured onto feeder cells in buffalo embryonic stem (ES cell culture medium at 38 °C in a 5% CO2 incubator. The stem cell colonies were characterized for alkaline phosphatase activity, karyotype, pluripotency and self-renewal markers like OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, c-Myc, FOXD3, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 and CD90. The cell lines also possessed the capability to differentiate across all the three germ layers under spontaneous differentiation conditions.

  6. Integrating association data and disease dynamics: an illustration using African Buffalo in Kruger National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; James O, Lloyd-Smith; Bowers, Justin A.; Hay, Craig T.; Hofmeyr, Markus; Getz, Wayne M.

    2004-01-01

    Recognition is a prerequisite for non-random association amongst individuals. We explore how non-random association patterns (i.e. who spends time with whom) affect disease dynamics. We estimated the amount of time individuals spent together per month using radio-tracking data from African buffalo and incorporated these data into a dynamic social network model. The dynamic nature of the network has a strong influence on simulated disease dynamics particularly for diseases with shorter infectious periods. Cluster analyses of the association data demonstrated that buffalo herds were not as well defined as previously thought. Associations were more tightly clustered in 2002 than 2003, perhaps due to drier conditions in 2003. As a result, diseases may spread faster during drought conditions due to increased population mixing. Association data are often collected but this is the first use of empirical data in a network disease model in a wildlife population.

  7. Clinical demodicosis in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, Julie; Bengis, Roy G; Reilly, Brian K; Cross, Paul C

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between prevalence and severity of clinical signs of Demodex cafferi infection in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and other factors such as age, sex, pregnancy status, and concomitant infections with bovine tuberculosis (BTB), Rift Valley fever (RVF), and brucellosis (BA). Approximately half of 203 buffalo examined in this study had clinical signs of demodicosis (cutaneous nodules); younger age classes had the highest prevalence and severity of lesions (chi(2)=21.4, df=6, P=0.0015). Nodules were generally limited to the head and neck region, but in severe cases were present over the entire animal. We found no significant association between clinical severity of the Demodex infection and gender, pregnancy status, or infection with BTB, RVF, or BA.

  8. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo at Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, T C; Kriek, N P; Bengis, R G; Whyte, I J; Viljoen, P C; de Vos, V; Boyce, W M

    2001-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) was first detected in Kruger National Park (KNP) in a single African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in 1990. In 1991/1992, 2,071 African buffalo were examined for BTB as part of a culling program that removed animals from all known herds in KNP. The prevalence of BTB in 1991/1992 was estimated to be 0%, 4.4% (+/-0.6%), and 27.1% (+/-1.4%), in the north, central, and south zones of KNP, respectively. In 1998, a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling method was used to estimate that the prevalence of BTB was 1.5% (+/-2.5%), 16% (+/-5.3%), and 38.2% (+/-6.3%), in the north, central, and south zones, respectively. This represented a significant increase in prevalence (P management strategies. The methodology and sample sizes used in 1998 are appropriate for future BTB monitoring in KNP.

  9. EFFECT OF GnRH AND PHOSPHORUS IN DELAYED PUBERTAL SURTI BUFFALO HEIFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Dhamsaniya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on eighteen delayed pubertal Surti buffalo heifers, divided into three equal groups (6 in each to evaluate the efficacy of GnRH alone and in combination of phosphorus. The buffalo heifers in Group-I and Group-II were treated with Buserelin acetate (5 ml, IM. Buffalo heifers in Group-II also received additional injection of Toldimphos sodium (10 ml, IM at 3 day interval for 4 times, while buffalo heifers in Group-III served as control. The percentage of induced estrus was highest (83.33% in each treated groups as compared to control group (50%. The mean estrus induction intervals were significantly (P<0.05 shorter in Group-I (20.20 ± 2.18 days and Group-II (18.80 ± 2.32 days as compared to control group (30.24 ± 0.81 days. The conception rate at induced estrus was highest in Group-II (50% followed by Group-I (33.33%. The plasma progesterone levels being significantly lowest on the day of estrus (less than 0.5 ng/ml as compared to pre-treatment days in all groups. The mean total protein and triglycerides levels were differed significantly between the groups on the day of estrus and being significantly higher in Group-II as compared to Group-I and III on that day. A significantly higher level of cholesterol in both treatment groups as compared to the control group during different intervals and also being higher on the day of estrus as compared to pre-treatment days. The mean plasma glucose levels were differed nonsignificantly between and within the treatment and control groups. It is concluded that estrus can be successfully induced in delayed pubertal heifers with the use of GnRH alone and in combination with phosphorus.

  10. Physicochemical properties and oxidative inactivation of soluble lectin from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Sabika; Banu, Naheed

    2008-03-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins present in a wide variety of plants and animals, which serve various important physiological functions. A soluble beta-galactoside binding lectin has been isolated and purified to homogeneity from buffalo brain using ammonium sulphate precipitation (40-70%) and gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G50-80 column. The molecular weight of buffalo brain lectin (BBL) as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing and non-reducing conditions was 14.2 kDa, however, with gel filtration it was 28.5 kDa, revealing the dimeric form of protein. The neutral sugar content of the soluble lectin was estimated to be 3.3%. The BBL showed highest affinity for lactose and other sugar moieties in glycosidic form, suggesting it to be a beta-galactoside binding lectin. The association constant for lactose binding as evidenced by Scatchard analysis was 6.6 x 10(3) M(-1) showing two carbohydrate binding sites per lectin molecule. A total inhibition of lectin activity was observed by denaturants like guanidine HCl, thiourea and urea at 6 M concentration. The treatment of BBL with oxidizing agent destroyed its agglutination activity, abolished its fluorescence, and shifted its UV absorption maxima from 282 to 250 nm. The effect of H2O2 was greatly prevented by lactose indicating that BBL is more stable in the presence of its specific ligand. The purified lectin was investigated for its brain cell aggregation properties by testing its ability to agglutinate cells isolated from buffalo and goat brains. Rate of aggregation of buffalo brain cells by purified protein was more than the goat brain cells. The data from above study suggests that the isolated lectin may belong to the galectin-1 family but is glycosylated unlike those purified till date.

  11. Influence of induced heat stress on HSP70 in buffalo lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A; Hooda, O K; Singh, G; Meur, S K

    2011-08-01

    Heat stress in farm animals, such as cattle and buffalo during summer and post-summer seasons is a problem for livestock producers. The effect of heat stress becomes pronounced when heat stress is accompanied with ambient humidity impairing the immune status, growth, production and reproductive performance of animals. Increase in HSP70 levels from cell cultures in presence of different stressors often does not reflect the physiological adaptability of animals governing thermal regulation. In this study we directly compared the effect of different heat stress conditions with the immune status and HSP70 expression patterns from buffalo lymphocytes both in vivo and in vitro. Murrah buffalo calves were exposed to induced heat stress with two experimental treatments: hot-dry (42 °C with existing relative humidity) or hot humid (35 °C with 70% relative humidity) condition in psychometric chamber, 4 h daily for 12 days and compared with control animals maintained in an experimental shed under natural conditions. There was >200-fold increase in serum-HSP70 levels in both heat stress conditions compared with control. Furthermore, the immune status of the calves failed to activate the level of HSP70 expression in serum lymphocytes. Lymphocytes cultured in vitro at higher temperature exert 2.5-fold increase in HSP70 concentration. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate more complex expression pattern of buffalo serum-HSP70 level as a thermo adaptive response compared with in vitro treated cells. Results from this study indicate that serum-HSP70 levels could be used as a sensitive biomarker for heat stress management in large farm animals.

  12. On the development of a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Bordi; Fabio Napolitano; Corrado Pacelli; Fernando Grasso; Giuseppe De Rosa

    2010-01-01

    In the present review some animal-related indicators, possibly relevant for a monitoring scheme of buffalo cow welfareat the farm level, are suggested. The indicators are discussed on the basis of their validity (meaningful with respect toanimal welfare), reliability (reflecting the tendency to give the same results on repeated measurements) and feasibility(concerning time and money consume). The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fatteningassessed with B...

  13. Congenital Transmission of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (Ibr) in Cattle and Buffalo in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Congenital transmissions of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in cattle and buffalo in Indonesia have been found along time ago, primarily in animals treated with artificial insemination which semen came from the BHV-1 virus infected bull. The artificial insemination industry concerns with BHV-1 virus contamination of semen from healthy seropositive bulls with latent infections. Collection of semen from bulls maintained with a rigorous herd health program is an unlikely source of distri...

  14. Evaluation of the efficacy of rumen cannulation technique on some rumen metabolic parameters in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Manafiazar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study was carried out to determine the efficacy of rumen cannulation technique on some rumen metabolic parameters in buffaloes. Four healthy male River (Azari buffaloes with no previous history of gastrointestinal dysfunction were chosen. There are several surgical techniques that can be used for rumen cannulation in farm animals, including buffaloes. This procedure was performed in a modified two-stage technique. In the first stage, the dorso – lateral portion of the dorsal sac of the rumen wall was sutured to the skin incision in the left para lumbar fossa region. In the second – stage, after six days left, the exposed rumen wall area was incised and the cannula was inserted and fixed manually in the rumenal opening incision site. In order to evaluate the efficacy of rumen cannulation technique on some rumen metabolic parameters, this study was achieved with different levels of NDF, and chewing behavior and their relationship with ruminal acidity, was measured in a change over design. Two diets with 2 levels of NDF were used as treatments. First and second diets had 52 and 47 % of NDF, respectively. Animals fed ad libitum at 09:00 and 21:00. There were no significant differences between chemical composition, particles distribution, geometric mean, its standard deviation and physically effective factor (pef of diets, dry matter intake (kg/d and nutrients intake (NDF, ADF, NFC and crude protein and their digestibility. Increasing NFC reduced ruminal pH at 0.5, 1.0, 4.5, 6.0 9.0 and 10.0 h post feeding. In addition, there were not significant differences on eating time, rumination time and total chewing activity between diets. All data obtained in this study were in normal range may indicating the efficacy of this cannulation method. More investigation should be done to determine the efficacy and comparison of the other surgical rumen cannulation techniques on Azari buffaloes of Iran.

  15. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Buffalo Skin for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa A. Rizk; Nasser Y. Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is widely used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications due to its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and weak antigenicity. However, applicability is limited due to its high cost and probability of disease transmission from the current sources, which are bovine and porcine. In the present study, collagen was extracted from 6 months buffalo skins as alternative save sources. Collagen was characterized by different physico-chemical techniques like ATR-FTIR, Raman, SEM...

  16. An epidemiological survey of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsify, Ahmed; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nayel, Mohammed; Salama, Akram; Elkhtam, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed; Mosaab, Omar; Sultan, Khaled; Elsayed, Shimaa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2015-02-01

    Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt.

  17. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Interim Report on Feasibility of Flood Management. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    B17 Current Employment in the Buffalo Labor Area B-20 B18 Agricultural Earnings Projected Agricultural Earnings to 2030 B-21 B19 Agricultural Output...Orleans County. The political subdivisions of the watershed, in addition to clima - tological and hydrologic stations, are shown on Plate BI. Economic...York. Its highway network, large supply of skilled labor , access to raw materials, ample electric power, and ready access to markets in the northeast

  18. First molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) on two extensive farms (450 km apart) in Victoria, Australia. Faecal samples (n=476) were collected from different age groups of water buffalo at two time points (six months apart) and tested using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing markers within the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (designated pSSU) and triose phosphate isomerase (ptpi) genes. Based on pSSU data, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium genotypes 1, 2 (each 99% similar genetically to Cryptosporidium ryanae) and 3 (99% similar to Cryptosporidium suis) were detected in two (0.4%), one (0.2%), 38 (8.0%), 16 (3.4%) and one (0.2%) of the 476 samples tested, respectively. Using ptpi, Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in totals of 56 (11.8%) and six (1.3%) of these samples, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected on both farms, whereas Giardia was detected only on farm B, and both genera were detected in 1.5% of all samples tested. The study showed that water buffaloes on these farms excreted C. parvum and/or G. duodenalis assemblage A, which are consistent with those found in humans, inferring that these particular pathogens are of zoonotic significance. Future work should focus on investigating, in a temporal and spatial manner, the prevalence and intensity of such infections in water buffaloes in various geographical regions in Australia and in other countries.

  19. Epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium isolated from cattle, buffaloes, and humans in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M A; Abdel-Ghany, A E; Abdel-Latef, G K; Abdel-Aziz, S A; Aboelhadid, S M

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were investigated in Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. A total of 610 animal fecal samples (480 from cattle and 130 from buffaloes) beside 290 stool samples from humans were collected in the period between January and December 2014. Based on the microscopic examination, the overall estimated prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle, buffaloes, and humans was 10.2, 12.3, and 19 %, respectively. The highest detection rates were in calves less than 2 months of age (17.1 %) and diarrheic animals (13.0 %). Likewise in humans, the highest prevalence of Cryptosporidium was in infants (31.3 %) and diarrheic individuals (21.1 %). The gender distribution in humans denoted that Cryptosporidium was reported more frequently in males (21.7 %) than females (14.5 %). Based on the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and gp60 genes were successfully amplified in 36 out of 50 samples subjected to genotyping. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the COWP fragments revealed that Cryptosporidium parvum was the only species detected in cattle (12 isolates) and buffaloes (4 isolates), while in humans, the detected species were Cryptosporidium hominis (15 isolates) and C. parvum (5 isolates). Sequence analysis of the gp60 gene identified the subtype IIdA20G1 within C. parvum isolated from both animals and humans. The common occurrence of zoonotic subtypes of C. parvum in cattle and buffaloes highlights the potential role of these animals as significant reservoirs of infection to humans. Also, the presence of C. hominis and C. parvum in humans indicates that both anthroponotic and zoonotic pathways are expected.

  20. Helmintic infections in water buffaloes on Italian farms: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rinaldi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the results of a cross-sectional survey aimed at obtaining up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of different groups and/or species of helminths in water buffaloes from central Italy. Geographical information systems (GIS and spatial analysis were used to plan the sampling procedures, to display the results as maps and to detect spatial clusters of helminths in the study area. The survey was conducted on 127 water buffalo farms, which were selected in the study area using a grid sampling approach, followed by proportional allocation. Faecal samples (n. = 1,883 collected from the 127 farms were examined using the Flotac dual technique. Gastrointestinal strongyles were the most frequent helminths (33.1% on the tested farms, followed by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (7.1%, the rumen fluke Calicophoron daubneyi (7.1%, the nematode Strongyloides spp. (3.1%, the lancet liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum (2.4% and the tapeworm Moniezia spp. (2.4%. In order to display the spatial distribution of the various helminths detected on the water buffalo farms (used as epidemiological unit in our study, point maps were drawn within the GIS. In addition, for each helminth, clustering of test-positive farms were investigated based on location determined by exact coordinates. Using spatial scan statistic, spatial clusters were found for the flukes F. hepatica and C. daubneyi and the cestode Moniezia spp.; these findings are consistent with the life cycle of these parasites, which have strong environmental determinants. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, with the appropriate survey-based data at hand, GIS is a useful tool to study epidemiological patterns of infections in veterinary health, in particular in water buffaloes.

  1. Disease Control in Wildlife: Evaluating a Test and Cull Programme for Bovine Tuberculosis in African Buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roex, N; Cooper, D; van Helden, P D; Hoal, E G; Jolles, A E

    2016-12-01

    Providing an evidence base for wildlife population management is difficult, due to limited opportunities for experimentation and study replication at the population level. We utilized an opportunity to assess the outcome of a test and cull programme aimed at limiting the spread of Mycobacterium bovis in African buffalo. Buffalo act as reservoirs of M. bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), which can have major economic, ecological and public health impacts through the risk of infection to other wildlife species, livestock and surrounding communities. BTB prevalence data were collected in conjunction with disease control operations in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, from 1999 to 2006. A total of 4733 buffalo (250-950 per year) were tested for BTB using the single comparative intradermal tuberculin (SCIT) test, with BTB-positive animals culled, and negative animals released. BTB prevalence was spatially and temporally variable, ranging from 2.3% to 54.7%. Geographic area was a strong predictor of BTB transmission in HiP, owing to relatively stable herds and home ranges. Herds experiencing more intensive and frequent captures showed reduced per capita disease transmission risk and less increase in herd prevalence over time. Disease hot spots did not expand spatially over time, and BTB prevalence in all but the hot spot areas was maintained between 10% and 15% throughout the study period. Our data suggest that HiP's test and cull programme was effective at reducing BTB transmission in buffalo, with capture effort and interval found to be the crucial components of the programme. The programme was thus successful with respect to the original goals; however, there are additional factors that should be considered in future cost/benefit analyses and decision-making. These findings may be utilized and expanded in future collaborative work between wildlife managers, veterinarians and scientists, to optimize wildlife disease control programmes and

  2. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Suchandra; Biswas, Subhasish; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Das, Sudip Kumar; Khan, Anupam

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic qualities of cooked ground buffalo meat (GBM), treated with, 1, 1.5 and 2% levels of aqueous solution of crude extract of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The meat samples treated with 1.5% crude extract of drumstick leaves significantly (P  0.05) difference was observed in juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores between the treated meat samples.

  3. Morphological studies in the buffalo as a contribution to biotechnological methodologies in the animal production

    OpenAIRE

    G. V. Pelagalli

    2010-01-01

    The researchers in the morphological area of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Naples are long since carrying out investigations on the buffalo. This is due to the paucity of data in the literature of the field as well as scientific interest for many aspects of the biology of this species like the seasonality of the sexual cicle. The studies that have been done are numerous and regard many different fields as the chromosome map, spermatogenesis, histogenesis of the endocrine pancreas, blo...

  4. The environmental impact of buffalo manure in areas specialized in mozzarella production, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Infascelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo livestock plays a central role in the regional economy in some areas of southern Italy, through the production of mozzarella cheese. With about 250,000 heads per utilizable agricultural area (equal to 107,400 ha, livestock husbandry is intensive. An important issue with regard to high animal density is manure management, an activity determined by cost optimization and the laws governing environmental sustainability. According to community, national and international rules (European Directive 91/676, Italian rules 152/99 and 258/00, nitrate leakage is considered a pollution indicator related to breeding activities and must be kept within limits. Simulation studies were carried out in the Italian province of Caserta to evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater. Manure was also collected from 35 livestock farms and the nitrogen content measured in the laboratory. The results showed an average content of 2 kg/m3 of nitrogen, corresponding to 50 kg per animal and year, while the nitrate concentrations in the groundwater were found to be lower than those predicted by simulation. The nitrogen content found in buffalo manure <60% of the standard content produced by the bovine species (on average 83 kg nitrogen per adult animal per year. The fact that the bovine species is used as the standard reference for legislation on nitrogen production explains the inconsistency observed between the impact of buffalo livestock on the environment predicted by simulation and the nitrate concentration measured in the groundwater. Although it would be out of line with current regulations, it would theoretically be possible to increase the buffalo load on the territory without environmentally negative effects. Therefore, in this context, the common referral points, i.e. the American Midwest Point Service and others usually consulted for the assessment of livestock impact in terms of nutritional excretion and the risk of pollution for the environment, should

  5. Serum electrolyte and mineral variations during pregnancy and lactation in Nili-Ravi buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, M Saleem; Farooq, Abdul Asim; Muhammad, Syed Aun; Lodhi, Laeeq Akbar; Hayat, C Sikandar; Aziz, M Mushtaq

    2010-12-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the changes of sodium, potassium, chloride, copper, and zinc in serum of Nili-Ravi buffalo during pregnancy and lactation. The study was carried out on 25 Nili-Ravi buffaloes during March 2008 to February 2009 at Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki, District Kasur. Blood samples were taken from each buffalo during early pregnancy (Phase EP), i.e., between 1 and 3 months gestation, mid pregnancy (Phase MP), i.e., between 4 and 6 months gestation, late pregnancy (Phase LP), i.e., between 7 and 10 months gestation, and during lactation (Phase LT). Serum sodium, potassium, and chloride were determined on a clinical chemistry analyzer whereas copper and zinc were determined on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean serum sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations varied non-significantly (P > 0.05) during pregnancy and lactation. With advancing pregnancy, copper increased and was significantly high (P < 0.05) during late pregnancy whereas during lactation copper concentrations dropped significantly (P < 0.05). The zinc concentrations increased non-significantly during early and mid pregnancy. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in zinc concentrations during lactation compared with late pregnancy. This study demonstrates that concentrations of serum sodium, potassium, and chloride remain unchanged during pregnancy and lactation whereas serum copper concentrations increased and zinc concentrations decreased with advancing pregnancy because of the demand of the fetus at different periods of pregnancy.

  6. A Cultural Resources Survey of Proposed Project Areas in the Buffalo Harbor, Erie County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    n voyageurs may have visited the area. -L 1 The period between 1650 and 1700 saw a more intensive French effort in this area and Erie County was...waterborne commerce . These developments did not occur without competition from rivals, especially from shipping interests centered in Black Rock, a village...Buffalo Harbor is a success story in American commerce and in the history of Corps of Engineer contributions to the public. Prior to 1818, the entrance to

  7. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF GH|ALUI AND GHR|ALUI GENES POLYMORPHISMS IN INDONESIAN BUFFALO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is an anabolic hormone which sintesized and secreted by somatrotop cell inpituitary anterior lobe. GH exert its effect on growth and metabolism by interacting with a specificreceptor on the surface of the target cells. Growth hormone receptor (GHR has been suggested ascandidate gene for traits related to meat production in Bovidae. The objectives of this study were toidentify polymorphism of GH and GHR genes in buffalo. The 452 DNA samples buffalo were collectedfrom five populations in Indonesia (Siborong-Borong-Medan (65, Lebak-Banten (29, Pandeglang-Banten (180, Semarang-Central Java, and Mataram-West Nusa Tenggara (103. A gene fragment of theGH|AluI gene at 432 bp located on exon 3 and GHR|AluI gene at 298 bp on exon 10 were successfullyamplified by using the techniques of a PCR (polymerase chain reaction and genotyped by PCR-RFLP(restriction fragment length polymorphism then -SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism. Theresults showed no polymorphisms were detected in these genes. All buffaloes tested had LL genotype forlocus GH|AluI and AA genotype for locus GHR|AluI.

  9. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial CXCR2 gene of Murrah buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Wani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study was carried out to sequence and phylogenetic analysis of CXCR2 gene of Murrah buffalo. Materials and Methods: For the present investigation, from a group of forty eight Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, blood samples were collected randomly from eight animals, out of which four were healthy and four were mastitic. Results: The amplification of Interleukin-8B (IL-8B receptor gene target sequence was carried out using the primer pair in an optimized polymerase chain reaction. Partial sequencing of IL-8B receptor gene of Bubalus bubalis (Murrah has been done successfully. The sequences of IL-8B receptor gene showed 99% homology to that of Bos indicus × Bos taurus, 98% to that of Bos taurus, 97% to that of Ovis aries, 93% to that of Sus scrofa, 92% to that of Equus caballus and 90% to that of Felis catus. Conclusion: From the present study it can be concluded that the PCR amplification procedure for target region of IL-8B receptor gene yielding 459 bp products has been standardized, which yielded consistent and specific amplification. Amplification of partial IL-8B receptor gene (exon 2- 459 bp using self designed primers specific for cattle ortholog sequence signifies that the locus is conserved in cattle and buffaloes. In phylogenetic tree, the target sequence of IL-8B receptor gene of Bubalus bubalis were found to be more closely related to Bos indicus × Bos Taurus and Bos taurus than to Ovis aries and Sus scrofa.

  10. A retrospective evaluation of haematological values in clinical cases of water buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nittin D. Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the important haematological values of the retrospective clinical cases of buffaloes presented to the Teaching Veterinary Hospital of the College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University, Ludhiana over a period of 4 years from January 2007 to December 2010. Materials and methods: The blood was collected from jugular vein in EDTA containing vials. Statistical analysis of haematological values with different case history/clinical signs was performed using SPSS 16.0 version by applying one way ANOVA at P<0.05. Clinical pathology of these cases was monitored by comparing hemogram values with the reference range. Results: The most common disorders found in water buffaloes were digestive disorders followed by fever and respiratory disorders. Haematological values viz. TLC, DLC (neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts showed significant differences depending upon the case history/clinical signs while haemoglobin count was found to be statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion: TLC and DLC are found to be the important indicators of health status of water buffaloes in general which are more related to clinical history/clinical signs of this species than other the haematological parameters viz. haemoglobin count. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 103-105

  11. On the development of a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Bordi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present review some animal-related indicators, possibly relevant for a monitoring scheme of buffalo cow welfareat the farm level, are suggested. The indicators are discussed on the basis of their validity (meaningful with respect toanimal welfare, reliability (reflecting the tendency to give the same results on repeated measurements and feasibility(concerning time and money consume. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fatteningassessed with Body Condition Score (BCS systems; cleanliness; lameness; resting, social, oral abnormalbehaviours; injuries; stockmanship; animal-human relationship; positive indicators (diversity of lying postures,allogrooming, etc.. We have concluded that some of the indicators validated for cattle could be conveniently applied tobuffaloes without changes (e.g. injuries and avoidance distance, while others should be appropriately adjusted to thisspecies (e.g. BCS, cleanliness, housing factors. In addition, further studies are needed either to find reliable and feasibleregistration methods for some indicators (e.g. aggressive and resting behaviours or to identify additional parametersspecific for buffaloes (e.g. prevalence of buffalo cows injected with oxytocin during milking as an indicator of thequality of human-animal relationship.

  12. Pathological and anatomical abnormalities affecting buffalo cows reproductive tracts in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Azawi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the type and prevalence of abnormalities occurring in the female reproductive tracts of 405 buffalo cows slaughtered at Mosul abattoir. Out of the 405 buffalo genital tracts examined, various abnormalities with different degrees of severity were observed in 216 (53.3% of cases. Twenty two (5.4% were pregnant and the remaining 41.2% (167/405 were macroscopically normal. The most common abnormalities encountered were endometritis 50 (12.3%, ovarobursal adhesions 26 (6.4% and hydrosalpinx 20 (4.9%. Other abnormalities recorded were follicular cyst, luteal cyst, cystic corpus luteum, paraovarian cyst, ovarian sarcoma, inactive ovaries, senility anestrous, pyosalpinx, hemosalpinx, obstruction of oviduct, salpingitis, double oviduct, hydrometra, mucometra, pyometra, permetritis, parametritis, uterine edema, perimetrial adhesions, parametrial adhesions, parauterine abscess and uterine tumor. Histopathological examinations in this study revealed that reproductive tract lesions seem to be an important problem with possible subsequent infertility and sterility in buffalo cows leading to animals slaughtered.

  13. Phosphorus deficiency in buffaloes in the state of Pará, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Riet-Correa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus deficiency is the most important mineral deficiency in Brazil. In the state of Pará, this deficiency occurs in many regions, mainly in Marajó Island, where it causes important economic losses. This paper reports the epidemiology, clinical signs and pathology of phosphorus deficiency in Buffaloes in Pará. This information was obtained by visits to the farms, clinical examination and necropsies of some affected buffaloes. The disease occurs due to the low levels of P in the pastures and an incorrect or absent mineral supplementation. Also, in the Marajo Island, the high NaCl concentration in the water limits consumption of mineral supplements by the buffaloes. The main clinical signs are osteophagia, bone fractures, rising difficulties, rigid gait or stance over the carpal joints, kiphosis, abnormal stance, mainly with one foreleg dislocated cranially, joint swelling, softening of the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae, poor growth, weight loss, birth of small calves, and low reproductive taxes. Hemoglobinuria after parturition is also observed. Serum phosphorus varied between 2.52 and 5.43 mg/dl. At necropsy bone fractures, light bones with less resistance and enlarged medullar cavity were observed. Frequently the bones can be cut with a knife. Histologically the bones have active bone resorption with accumulation of non mineralized osteoid.

  14. Staphylococci in cattle and buffaloes with mastitis in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashker, Maged; Gwida, Mayada; Tomaso, Herbert; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; El-Gohary, Fatma; Hotzel, Helmut

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to provide the first detailed insight into the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in one modern dairy farm (Gamasa) and several household cows and buffaloes in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. Eight hundred seventy-two quarter milk samples of 218 dairy cattle and buffaloes with clinical and subclinical mastitis were investigated. Bacteria were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and staphylococci were further characterized by DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and microarray analysis. Staphylococcus aureus was present in 5.6% of all collected samples, whereas methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) represented 24.5% of all identified S. aureus (12/49). Six clonal complexes (CC) of S. aureus were detected. Staphylococcus aureus CC398 (ST291/813)-MSSA (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus) was identified frequently in the Gamasa farm in addition to a few CC5-MRSA-V isolates. However, a small number of different isolates of S. aureus were found in household cattle and buffaloes harboring different CC. The presence of these genotypes of S. aureus in milk might indicate a public health hazard, because all of these CC have previously been isolated from human patients. Thus, a recommendation was given to the owner of the dairy farm to review the hygiene regimen on the farm. In perspective, further investigation regarding S. aureus screening of all lactating cows and personnel on the farm is warranted.

  15. Evaluation of physiological and biochemical responses in different seasons in Surti buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya S. Chaudhary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of hot dry, hot humid and comfortable season on physiological, hematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress parameters in Surti buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Ten lactating Surti buffaloes of similar physiological status were selected. Based on the temperature-humidity index (THI, their natural exposure to the environment was categorized as hot dry (THI1, hot humid (THI2 and moderate winter/comfort season (THI3. Blood/serum samples were collected and analyzed for physiological, hematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress parameters. The results were analyzed using standard statistical methods. Results: With increase in THI, significant rise in physiological parameters such as respiration rate (RR, hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC, hematocrit, hemoglobin (Hb and mean cell Hb concentration (MCHC, biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Na, K, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Mn, Cu and Zn, hormones such as cortisol and oxidative stress parameters such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, lipid peroxide (LPO and total antioxidant status (TAS and significant decline in glucose, cholesterol and triiodothyronine (T3 was observed. Conclusion: It was concluded that THI is a sensitive indicator of heat stress and is impacted by ambient temperature more than the relative humidity in buffaloes. Higher THI is associated with significantly increased RR, total RBC count, Hb, hematocrit, MCHC, ALT, urea, sodium, creatinine, triiodothyronine, SOD, GPx, LPO and TAS and with significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol and triiodothyronine (T3.

  16. Repeated Ovum Pick-Up and In-vitro Embryo Production in Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up (OPU was performed on 40 Nili-Ravi and Murrah buffaloes for consecutive 3 times each, at an interval of 3 days. A total of 936 follicles were aspirated, 643 oocytes were retrieved and 456 oocytes of them were usable. The recovery rate was 68.77% (643/935 and the percentage of usable oocytes was 70.92% (456/643, with an average of 3.80±0.23 oocytes usable per buffalo. The number of usable oocytes for the first, second and third OPU was 3.82±0.50;3.82±0.35; 4.05±0.43, respectively, and the difference among them was not significant (P<0.05. After in-vitro maturation (IVM, in-vitro fertilization (IVF and co-incubation with single layer of granular cells, the cleavage rate was 56.36% - 257/456, blastocyst formation rate was 20.39% (93/456 The result proved the feasibility of consecutive OPU at an interval of 3d and produce buffalo embryo via OPU-IVF. Further studies are needed to improve the efficiency of OPU-IVF.

  17. Effect of Pisum sativum as protein supplement on buffalo milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Grassi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out at an organic buffalo dairy farm in order to investigate the effect of feeding protein peas (Pisum sativum L. as an alternative protein source for buffalo cow diets. Two concentrates were formulated to contain (as fed basis either 350 g/kg of soybean cake (SC or 450 g/kg of peas (PC as the main protein sources. The two concentrates were formulated to be almost isonitrogenous (on average crude protein 240 g/kg DM. Two groups of 10 buffalo cows were used in a 100-day lactation study (from 10 days in milk onwards. Cows were blocked into two groups according to lactation number and previous milk yield and were assigned to one of two dietary treatments: control group was offered in the milking parlour 3 kg of SC, while treatment group was offered the same quantity of PC. All cows were fed a total mixed ration containing 3 kg of SC. Daily milk yield was not affected by treatment, as well as, milk fat and protein percentages, somatic cell count, urea content and fatty acid composition.

  18. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for the prediction of hot carcass weight in buffalo calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Iannuzzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty young buffalo male calves were fed ad libitum with a total mix ration and with vitamin-mineral integration for 14 months. Seven days before slaughter, the animals were weighed and bioelectrical impedance measurements were collected in live animals. Physical and chemical characteristics were assessed on the Longissimus dorsi muscle after slaughter. Correlations and regression equations were calculated to determine the possible use of bioelectrical impedance for evaluating hot carcass weight. Bioelectrical impedance analysis at different frequencies, simple correlation and analysis of regression were examined for all the data collected, supporting the possibility of hot carcass weight prediction with equation at multifrequency. The results show that, probably due to the variability in animal live weight, the distribution of the colour parameters was not normally distributed. Moreover, using different frequencies of resistance and reactance, hot carcass weight in buffalo may be predicted with the following equation: Y=98.47–8.84(Rs100KHz+4.41(Rs1000 KHz-116.27(Xc5 KHz+51.04(Xc50 KHz+20.30(Xc100 KHz-33.92(Xc500 KHz+9.01(Xc1000 KHz±ε (Adjusted R Square value of .907 and SE of 5.728 However, further studies are required to improve the technique also in buffalo, after standardization of the method.

  19. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seropositivity in buffaloes in Paraiba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Willian de Lima Brasil

    Full Text Available Abstract The aims of this survey were to determine the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and to identify the risk factors associated with seropositivity among buffaloes in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. This survey included 136 buffaloes belonging to 14 herds. To detect anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum antibodies, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT was used. Among the 136 samples analyzed, 17 (12.5% were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024, and 26 (19.1% for anti-N. caninum with titers from 200 to 1,600. Animals seropositive for both T. gondii and N. caninum were found in 10 of the 14 herds (71.4%. Semi-intensive management systems (odds ratio = 2.99 and presence of pigs (odds ratio = 4.33 were identified as risk factors for T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. It can be suggested that T. gondii and N. caninum are widespread in buffaloes in Paraíba, and that additional surveys are needed in order to ascertain the importance of these agents for this species and for pigs, and the influence of the farming type on occurrences of seropositive animals.

  20. Behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during production and storage of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosmini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC is a fresh pasta filata cheese produced from whole chilled buffalo milk. Although pasteurization of milk and the use of defined starter cultures are recommended, traditional technology involving the use of unpasteurized milk and natural whey cultures is still employed for WBMC production in Italy. The aim of this study were to assess the behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during the production of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese and during its shelf life under different temperature conditions. Raw milk was inoculated with S. Typhimurium and the evolution of S. Typhimurium count during production and shelf life was monitored. In artisan WBMC production technology S. Typhimurium multiplied in the curd during ripening, but its growth rate expressed in log CFU/g/h was lower than the growth rate reported by theoretical predictions. Stretching proved to be a process with good repeatability and able to reduce S. Typhimurium contamination by 5.5 Log CFU/g. The intrinsic characteristics of traditional WBMC proved to be unable to obstacolate the growth of S. Typhimurium during storage in the case of thermal abuse. Control of raw milk contamination and a proper refrigeration temperature are key factors in reducing the risk for consumers.

  1. Behaviour-Related Scalar Habitat Use by Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Bennitt

    Full Text Available Studies of habitat use by animals must consider behavioural resource requirements at different scales, which could influence the functional value of different sites. Using Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, we tested the hypotheses that behaviour affected use between and within habitats, hereafter referred to as macro- and microhabitats, respectively. We fitted GPS-enabled collars to fifteen buffalo and used the distances and turning angles between consecutive fixes to cluster the resulting data into resting, grazing, walking and relocating behaviours. Distance to water and six vegetation characteristic variables were recorded in sites used for each behaviour, except for relocating, which occurred too infrequently. We used multilevel binomial and multinomial logistic regressions to identify variables that characterised seasonally-preferred macrohabitats and microhabitats used for different behaviours. Our results showed that macrohabitat use was linked to behaviour, although this was least apparent during the rainy season, when resources were most abundant. Behaviour-related microhabitat use was less significant, but variation in forage characteristics could predict some behaviour within all macrohabitats. The variables predicting behaviour were not consistent, but resting and grazing sites were more readily identifiable than walking sites. These results highlight the significance of resting, as well as foraging, site availability in buffalo spatial processes. Our results emphasise the importance of considering several behaviours and scales in studies of habitat use to understand the links between environmental resources and animal behavioural and spatial ecology.

  2. Willingness to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance: an analysis of dairy farmers in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Ameer; Chander, Mahesh; Bardhan, Dwaipayan

    2013-02-01

    In India, insurance market especially in agricultural sector is usually underdeveloped. The idea of livestock insurance emerged in India before three decades, yet, it has not operated in a significant way till date. It is well noted that livestock insurance scheme is the relevant strategy in managing different risks related to livestock farming but very little attention has been paid to address the livestock insurance needs of the dairy farmers. This study, therefore, addresses the basic question that how many people and to what extent they are willing to pay for livestock insurance and determine the main factors which influence insurance participation of dairy farmers. The data was collected from Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh in India with a sample survey of 120 cattle and buffalo farmers. For eliciting willingness to pay, a contingent valuation scenario was presented to dairy animal owners in the group of five to six. A logit discrete binary regression model was used to know the factors influencing adoption of livestock insurance. The results suggest that most of the farmers were willing to participate in cattle and buffalo insurance. The amount of premium varies across different breeds of dairy animals. The low level of education of many dairy farmers have negatively influenced the decision to purchase livestock insurance. Farmers having more experience in rearing dairy animals are more likely to be willing to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance.

  3. Effects of chemical immobilization on survival of African buffalo in the Kruger National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, W.C.; Cross, P.C.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.; Ebinger, M.R.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Cameron, E.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Capturing, immobilizing, and fitting radiocollars are common practices in studies of large mammals, but success is based on the assumptions that captured animals are representative of the rest of the population and that the capture procedure has negligible effects. We estimated effects of chemical immobilization on mortality rates of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. We used a Cox proportional hazards approach to test for differences in mortality among age, sex, and capture classes of repeatedly captured radiocollared buffalo. Capture variables did not improve model fit and the Cox regression did not indicate increased risk of death for captured individuals up to 90 days postcapture [exp (??) = 1.07]. Estimated confidence intervals, however, span from a halving to a doubling of the mortality rate (95% CI = 0.56-2.02). Therefore, capture did not influence survival of captured individuals using data on 875 captures over a 5-year period. Consequently, long-term research projects on African buffalo involving immobilization, such as associated with research on bovine tuberculosis, should result in minimal capture mortality, but monitoring of possible effects should continue.

  4. Relation between antioxidant status and postpartum anestrous condition in Murrah buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayukh Ghosh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Objective of the present study was to investigate the relation between antioxidant status and postpartum anestrous (PPA condition in Murrah buffalo. Materials and Methods: Jugular blood samples were collected from two different groups of Murrah buffaloes each group consisting of 20 animals. Group I was of PPA and Group II were of cyclic buffaloes. The animals selected were examined for confirmation for cyclic and acyclic condition (>120 days after calving by routine transrectal ultrasonography. Heard record was also used for cross confirmation. Results: The analysis of antioxidants in plasma and hemolysates revealed that the levels of vitamin E, β-carotene and reduced glutathione in plasma and superoxide dismutase (SOD in hemolysate were significantly higher in cyclic animals than PPA animals. The levels of vitamin C, SOD and glutathione peroxidase in plasma did not show any significant difference among the two groups studied. The low antioxidant level in affected animals may predispose them toward PPA condition. Conclusion: Stress imposed by pregnancy and lactation affected the reproductive performance in PPA animals which might be inherently more susceptible to these stressors than those who were normal cyclic as all the animals were maintained under similar feeding and management practices.

  5. Establishing an in vitro production program for buffalo embryos (Bubalus bubalis in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gamarra P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the results of the standardization of the in vitro production program of buffalo embryos, using oocytes obtained by ultrasound guided oocyte puncture during the 2012 breeding season in Colombia. Materials and methods. Fifty seven buffalo females were selected for ultrasound guided transvaginal aspiration of follicles, oocytes were identified within follicular fluid, classified and transported to the laboratory and matured in vitro for 18 to 20 hours. Frozen semen of seven Mediterranean bulls were used, motile sperm was obtained using the Percoll technique and oocytes were inseminated with 2 million sperm/ml. Presumptive zygotes were cultured for 6 days, grade 1 embryos obtained were frozen using ethylene glycol. Embryos were transferred to females on day 5 during natural cycle. Results. 97 aspirations were performed on the 57 animals, in 8.2% of the aspirations no oocytes were found. 8 oocytes/aspiration were obtained. Of the 783 oocytes, 92% were classified as viable (721/783 and were fertilized. The cleavage and blastocyst rate were 23% and 19% respectively. 37 embryos were transferred and 11 pregnancies were obtained, confirmed by rectal palpation 60 days after transfer, with a pregnancy rate of 29.7%. Conclusions. The results presented here are comparable with others in literature and shows the feasibility of producing in vitro embryos and pregnancies after the standardization of current protocols, with normal and sexed semen and transfer during natural cycle in buffalo.

  6. Serological survey and reproductive performances in buffaloes under fixed time artificial insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fagiolo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available During an oestrus synchronization trial on heifer and mixed-parity Mediterranean Italian buffaloes, some analyses on health parameters were performed to correlate them to reproductive performances (pregnancy rate and birth rate. Serum sampling were performed every year for two years to be used in serological techniques for the diagnosis of Chlamydia spp. (ELISA, Neospora (ELISA, BHV1 (ELISA gE glycoprotein and BVDV (ELISA. On the total number of 465 observed buffaloes, the seroprevalence obtained for each disease has respectively been: 24 %, 25 %, 25 % and 22 %. Specific antibodies were not spread over the 13 farms in an homogeneous manner, farm prevalence differences are evidenced by high standard deviations in the mean farm seroprevalence: 42 ± 27.8, 26 ± 26.9, 20 ± 13.8, 9.8 ± 21.1. Among the buffaloes which resulted seropositive to Chlamydia, 33 % were pregnant, 32 % were those with Neospora, 32 % those with BHV1 and finally 29 % of the animals positive to BVDV resulted pregnant. Taking into account the animals that delivered normally, 41 % were positive to Chlamydia, 18 % to Neospora, 18 % to BHV1 and 19 % to BVDV.

  7. Somatic cell count and biochemical components of milk related to udder health in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The 399 clinically healthy quarters from 101 Murrah buffaloes were analyzed for somatic cell count (SCC; DCC and microscope methods and biochemical composition of milk in relation to udder health. The udder health revealed specific subclinical mastitis (SSM in 7% and non-specific mastitis (NSM in 49% of quarters. Latent infections comprised 1%. Staphylococci (43%, streptococci (39% and corynebacteria (18% constituted chief etiological agents in SSM. Electrical conductivity increased significantly both in SSM and NSM compared to healthy quarters. Significant effects for SNF and density were seen in SSM only. DCC and microscope depicted similar cell counts with a correlation coefficient of 0.89. The correlations of DCC with CMT and EC were 0.85 and 0.51, respectively. Quarters with negative CMT reactions had DCC values of < 3 × 105 cells/ml. The DCC means for negative, trace, and +1 to 2 CMT scores were 122, 238, and 593 (× 103 cells/ml, respectively. Lactose with discrimination ability of 83.76% was found better indicator of udder inflammation in buffaloes. Buffaloes unlike cows have low numbers of quarter infections, respond similarly as cows to udder inflammation but at different levels, and DCC may be effectively employed for expressing milk cell count in this species.

  8. Relationship among preovulatory follicle, corpus luteum and progesterone in oestrus synchronized buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pacelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty adult buffaloes were used for this study. The animals were synchronized by PRID+PMSG+PGF2α and artificially inseminated. The ovaries were ultrasonografically examined to study the preovulatory follicle (PF and the successive corpus luteum (CL. At the same time, blood sample were collected for P4 determination carried out by RIA. On the basis of echogenic appearance, the corpora lutea (CLs were classified as belonging to grade 1, 2 or 3. Significant difference was found in the diameter of PF and in that of CL in relation to the CL echogenic appearance. Well defined granular CL, distinguishable from the ovarian stroma and dark grey in colour (grade 3 resulted to have a bigger diameter compared with CLs belonging to a grade 1 or 2, and resulted to derive from a larger PF. Positive correlation was found between plasma P4 concentration and CL diameter. The PF diameter was larger in buffaloes become pregnant after AI respect to the non-pregnant. The CL diameter, also, was significantly larger in the pregnant buffalo compared to the non-pregnant since the first observation at day 7, while significant difference in P4 value was found starting from day 21 after AI.

  9. POTENCY AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF SPOTTED BUFFALO IN SANGGALANGI SUBDISTRICT, NORTH TORAJA DISTRICT, SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Setyono

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the reproduction performances, potency and development strategy of Torajans spotted buffalo. This research was done from July to September 2010 in Sanggalangi subdistrict, North Toraja district, South Sulawesi. Purposive sampling was applied to observe data. The primary data were taken by purposive sampling method and collected by interview of 90 farmers. Results showed that sex ratio of male-female was 3:2. The first estrus was 2.48 years old, the estrus period was 23 hours and the oestrus cycle was 19 days. The first mating was 2.87 years old with the conception period about 387 days. Furthermore, the first partus was at 3.74 years old, calving interval was 2 years. Calving rate and calf crops were relatively high. Calf crops were 77%, pre weaning mortality was 2.35%. Service per conception (S/C was 1.85 and conception rate (CR was 86.5%. The most livelihoods in North Toraja is farmer. Spotted Buffalo population declined 24.31 % per year. SWOT analysis showed that score for internal factor was -0.25, whereas external factor was 2.25. It was showed that the sub-district Sanggalangi is in turnaround condition, so the development strategy of Torajans spotted buffalo has to minimize the weakness and reached the opportunities.

  10. POTENCY AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF SPOTTED BUFFALO IN SANGGALANGI SUBDISTRICT, NORTH TORAJA DISTRICT, SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Komariah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the reproduction performances, potency and developmentstrategy of Torajan's spotted buffalo. This research was done from July to September 2010 inSanggalangi’ subdistrict, North Toraja district, South Sulawesi. Purposive sampling was applied toobserve data. The primary data were taken by purposive sampling method and collected by interview of90 farmers. Results showed that sex ratio of male-female was 3:2. The first estrus was 2.48 years old,the estrus period was 23 hours and the oestrus cycle was 19 days. The first mating was 2.87 years oldwith the conception period about 387 days. Furthermore, the first partus was at 3.74 years old, calvinginterval was 2 years. Calving rate and calf crops were relatively high. Calf crops were 77%, pre weaningmortality was 2.35%. Service per conception (S/C was 1.85 and conception rate (CR was 86.5%. Themost livelihoods in North Toraja is farmer. Spotted Buffalo population declined 24.31 % per year.SWOT analysis showed that score for internal factor was -0.25, whereas external factor was 2.25. It wasshowed that the sub-district Sanggalangi is in turnaround condition, so the development strategy ofTorajan’s spotted buffalo has to minimize the weakness and reached the opportunities.

  11. Study on Blood Cell Immune Response in Water Buffaloes Infected Acutely with F. hepatica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Long; MAO Xin-zhi; WANG Bing-yun; Award Daugschies; J. Gonzalez-Gallego

    2002-01-01

    Action mechanism of blood cell immune response in water buffaloes against acute infection with F. Hepatica was studied. The results showed that after water buffaloes were infected, the total levels of WBC surpassed control group during whole infection period; Eosinophiles (%) of DC were higher than control group at the 2nd week until 19th week, and then dropped and was close to control group; Neutrophiles(%)was low or significantly lower than control group within the 5 - 16th weeks; The total levels of lymphocytes (%) was lower than control group during the whole infection period; T-lymphocytes (%) dropped significantly, but B-lymphocytes(%) had opposite changes from the first week of infection, and they were close to the control group after 11 weeks; RBC-CR1 and RBC-IC rosette rates dropped and rose during 2 - 16 and 2- 18 weeks, respectively, and then approached the same between both groups. It was suggested that the violent changes of specific and nonspecific immune responses in water buffaloes with acute F. hepatica infection are related with the mechanism against infection with F. hepatica together.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin, after one bolus oral administration in buffaloes calves: Preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. San Andrés

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo breeding system has a great economic importance in South-America, principally in marginal or sub-tropical lands. The therapeutic recommendations applied to a single ruminant species are extrapolated to others but important differences among those were recognized. Marbofloxacin bolus is indicated in the treatment of neonatal gastroenteritis caused by Escherichia coli, in calves (25-50kg. The aim of this study was determined the pharmacokinetic behaviour of marbofloxacin after oral administration, as bolus, following the label approved recommendations to cattle. One bolus (50 mg was administered in two clinically healthy buffaloes (two days-old, 48-50kg. Plasma concentrations of the marbofloxacin were determined by a HPLC/u.v. method. After oral administration, the values obtained were: tmax=0.5-6h, Cmax= 1.19-0.04μg/mL, AUCt=1.57-0.38μg·h/mL and MRTt= 3.34-6.92h, for calves 1 and 2 respectively. Fluoroquinolones act by concentration dependant killing mechanism, so high plasma concentration initially is important. For this reason, the recommended dose of 1mg/kg is inadequate in buffaloes.

  13. Wild Water Buffalo Bubalus arnee in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal: status, population and conservation importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Khatri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Asiatic Wild Water Buffalo Bubalus arnee is an endangered species restricted to South and Southeast Asia. Nepal’s only population survives in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve which is located on the floodplain of the Koshi River, a tributary of Ganga. This species is under threat due to high anthropogenic pressure ranging from habitat deterioration to hybridization with domestic buffalo. Yet, the population has grown from 63 in 1976 to 219 in 2009, despite the decline in the calf/cow ratio. The present study conducted in 2009 used the block count method. The count showed the presence of a backcrossed population of 74 in addition to the total of 219 individuals. At present, a number of conservation and livelihood interventions have been undertaken to safeguard the biodiversity, particularly the wild buffalo population in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve. The community-based sustainable management approach benefiting both conservation and livelihood of local people is necessary to ensure the long term conservation of the species

  14. Assessing impacts to birds from the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota windplant development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, M.D.; Johnson, G.D.; Erickson, W.P. [WEST Inc., Cheyenne, WY (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Northern States Power (NSP) plans development of a 425 MW windpowered electrical generation facility within the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area (WRA) in southwestern Minnesota. In 1996, Western EcoSystems Technology (WEST, Inc.) was contracted by NSP to develop an avian monitoring protocol for the Buffalo Ridge windplant. This protocol was developed and peer-reviewed by numerous individuals representing the wind energy industry, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and conservation groups prior to finalization. The WRA currently consists of three phases of development. Phase I, constructed by Kenetech in 1994, consists of 73 Model 33 M-VS turbines and related facilities, including distribution lines, meteorological towers, communication systems, transformers, substations, roads, and operations and maintenance facilities in the approximate center of the WRA, and generates 25 MW of electricity. Phase II, consisting of 143 turbines and related facilities sufficient to generate 100 MW of electricity, will be constructed by Zond Systems, Inc. beginning in the spring of 1997. Phase II will be located in the northwestern portion of the WRA. Phase III facilities capable of generating an additional 100 MW are planned for the southeast portion of the WRA. Plans call for the eventual production of 425 MW of electricity within the WRA. Studies were conducted in these three areas and a permanent reference area not scheduled for windpower development located along Buffalo Ridge northwest of the WRA in Brooking County South Dakota.

  15. Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, behave differently in water buffaloes than in cattle or in their respective reservoir species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina B J Stahel

    Full Text Available The ongoing global spread of "exotic" farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF on Swiss farms, where "exotic" water buffaloes were kept together with "native" animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2 were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2. On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats.

  16. Gas cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-06-01

    Although most of the development work on fast breeder reactors has been devoted to the use of liquid metal cooling, interest has been expressed for a number of years in alternative breeder concepts using other coolants. One of a number of concepts in which interest has been retained is the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). As presently envisioned, it would operate on the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycle, similar to that used in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), and would use helium gas as the coolant.

  17. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G [Champaign, IL; Mitrovski, Svetlana M [Urbana, IL

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  18. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  19. 77 FR 27487 - License Amendment Request From The State University of New York, University of Buffalo Reactor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Safety Evaluation Report. This license amendment appears to qualify for a categorical exclusion in Title.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Bruce A. Watson, Acting Deputy Director, Decommissioning and...

  20. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  1. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  2. New reactor type proposed

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Russian scientists at the Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering in Moscow are hoping to develop a new reactor that will use lead and bismuth as fuel instead of uranium and plutonium" (1/2 page).

  3. Application of the Welfare Quality protocol to dairy buffalo farms: Prevalence and reliability of selected measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, G; Grasso, F; Winckler, C; Bilancione, A; Pacelli, C; Masucci, F; Napolitano, F

    2015-10-01

    Within the general aim of developing a Welfare Quality system for monitoring dairy buffalo welfare, this study focused on prevalence and interobserver reliability of the animal-related variables to be included in the scheme. As most of the measures were developed for cattle, the study also aimed to verify their prevalence for buffaloes. Thirty animal-based measures (22 clinical and 8 behavioral measurements) and 20 terms used for qualitative behavior assessment were assessed in 42 loose-housed buffalo farms. All farms were located in central-southern Italy. Two assessors were used (1 male and 1 female). The time needed to record all measures (animal-, resource-, and management-based) was 5.47 ± 0.48 h (mean ± SD). Interobserver reliability of animal-based measures was evaluated using Spearman rank correlation coefficient test (rs). If 0.7 is considered as threshold for high interobserver reliability, all animal-based measures were above this level. In particular, most of the coefficients were above 0.85, with higher values observed for prevalence of animals that can be touched (rs = 0.99) and prevalence of animals with iatrogenic abscess (rs = 0.97), whereas lower coefficients were found for the prevalence of vulvar discharge (rs = 0.74) and dewlap edema (rs = 0.73). Twelve out of the 20 terms used for the qualitative behavior assessment reached a satisfactory interobserver reliability (rs = 0.65). Principal component analysis of qualitative behavior assessment scores was conducted for each assessor. Both principal component 1 and principal component 2 showed high interobserver reliability (rs = 0.80 and 0.79, respectively). In addition, relevant proportions of animals were affected by welfare issues specific to buffaloes, such as overgrown claws (median = 34.1%), withers hygroma (median = 13.3%), and vulvar or uterine prolapse (median = 9.3%). We concluded that most of the investigated measures could be reliably included in the final scheme, which can be used as

  4. Diversity of Salmonella spp. serovars isolated from the intestines of water buffalo calves with gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borriello Giorgia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis calves is a widespread disease characterized by severe gastrointestinal lesions, profuse diarrhea and severe dehydration, occasionally exhibiting a systemic course. Several Salmonella serovars seem to be able to infect water buffalo, but Salmonella isolates collected from this animal species have been poorly characterized. In the present study, the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in water buffalo calves affected by lethal gastroenteritis was assessed, and a polyphasic characterization of isolated strains of S. Typhimurium was performed. Results The microbiological analysis of the intestinal contents obtained from 248 water buffalo calves affected by lethal gastroenteritis exhibited a significant prevalence of Salmonella spp. (25%, characterized by different serovars, most frequently Typhimurium (21%, Muenster (11%, and Give (11%. The 13 S. Typhimurium isolates were all associated with enterocolitis characterized by severe damage of the intestine, and only sporadically isolated with another possible causative agent responsible for gastroenteritis, such as Cryptosporidium spp., Rotavirus or Clostridium perfringens. Other Salmonella isolates were mostly isolated from minor intestinal lesions, and often (78% of cases isolated with other microorganisms, mainly toxinogenic Escherichia coli (35%, Cryptosporidium spp. (20% and Rotavirus (10%. The S. Typhimurium strains were characterized by phage typing and further genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection of 24 virulence genes. The isolates exhibited nine different phage types and 10 different genetic profiles. Three monophasic S. Typhimurium (B:4,12:i:- isolates were also found and characterized, displaying three different phage types and three different virulotypes. The molecular characterization was extended to the 7 S. Muenster and 7 S. Give isolates collected, indicating the existence of different virulotypes also within

  5. Helias reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidler, C.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Grieger, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Harmeyer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kisslinger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Karulin, N. [Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maurer, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany); Nuehrenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Rau, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Sapper, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Wobig, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    The present status of Helias reactor studies is characterised by the identification and investigation of specific issues which result from the particular properties of this type of stellarator. On the technical side these are issues related to the coil system, while physics studies have concentrated on confinement, alpha-particle behaviour and ignition conditions. The usual assumptions have been made in those fields which are common to all toroidal fusion reactors: blanket and shield, refuelling and exhaust, safety and economic aspects. For blanket and shield sufficient space has been provided, a detailed concept will be developed in future. To date more emphasis has been placed on scoping and parameter studies as opposed to fixing a specific set of parameters and providing a detailed point study. One result of the Helias reactor studies is that physical dimensions are on the same order as those of tokamak reactors. However, it should be noticed that this comparison is difficult in view of the large spectrum of tokamak reactors ranging from a small reactor like Aries, to a large device such as SEAFP. The notion that the large aspect ratio of 10 or more in Helias configurations also leads to large reactors is misleading, since the large major radius of 22 m is compensated by the average plasma radius of 1.8 m and the average coil radius of 5 m. The plasma volume of 1400 m{sup 3} is about the same as the ITER reactor and the magnetic energy of the coil system is about the same or even slightly smaller than envisaged in ITER. (orig.)

  6. Future Reactor Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    He, Miao

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ opens a gateway for the next generation experiments to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy and the leptonic CP-violating phase. Future reactor experiments will focus on mass hierarchy determination and the precision measurement of mixing parameters. Mass hierarchy can be determined from the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos based on the interference effect of two separated oscillation modes. Relative and absolute measure...

  7. Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Precisely measuring $\\theta_{13}$ is one of the highest priority in neutrino oscillation study. Reactor experiments can cleanly determine $\\theta_{13}$. Past reactor neutrino experiments are reviewed and status of next precision $\\theta_{13}$ experiments are presented. Daya Bay is designed to measure $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ to better than 0.01 and Double Chooz and RENO are designed to measure it to 0.02-0.03. All are heading to full operation in 2010. Recent improvements in neutrino moment measu...

  8. Department of Reactor Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included.......The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included....

  9. Moon base reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  10. Effect of Leptin on In Vitro Nuclear Maturation and Apoptosis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Oocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Khaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptin, as a 16 kDa adipokine, is a pleiotropic cytokine-like hormone that primarily secreted from adipose tissue. It also involves in the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, immunity, lipid and glucose homeostasis, fatty acid oxidation, angiogenesis, puberty and reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in vitro addition of leptin to in vitro maturation (IVM medium on buffalo oocyte maturation and apoptosis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Ovaries from apparently normal reproductive organs of slaughtered adult buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with unknown breeding history were collected from Urmia Abattoir, Urmia, Iran, and were transported immediately to the laboratory in a thermos flask containing sterile normal saline with added antibiotics. Oocytes were aspirated from 2-8 mm visible follicles of the ovaries using an 18-G needle attached to a 10 ml syringe. IVM medium included tissue culture medium-199 (TCM-199, 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, 22 μg/ml sodium pyruvate, 0.5 IU/ml ovine follicle-stimulating hormone (oFSH, 0.5 IU/ml ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH, 1 μg/ml oestradiol, 50 μg/ml gentamycin, and leptin [0 (control, 10, 50, and 100 ng/ml]. The good quality buffalo oocytes (batches of 10 oocytes were placed in a culture plate containing six 50 μl droplets of maturation medium, covered with sterilized mineral oil, and then incubated at 38.5˚C with 5% CO2 in air for 24 hours. The maturation of oocytes was evaluated under a stereomicroscope by detecting the first polar body extrusion of oocytes. FITC-Annexin V - propidium iodide (PI staining method was used to detect oocyte apoptosis. Results: From a total of 115 collected ovaries, 1100 oocytes were recovered among which 283 oocyte were suitable for IVM. In the groups of leptin treated with 0 (control, 10, 50 and 100 ng/ml, the percentage of oocytes maturation was 74.65, 83.81, 77.85, and 75.40%, while the

  11. Clinical and hematological study on crossbred cattle and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally infected with Theileria annulata in Sharkia province, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and hematological findings in crossbred cattle and water buffaloes naturally infected with Theileria annulata with special reference to the clinical picture of tropical theileriosis in Egyptian buffaloes. A total 50 field cases of cattle...

  12. Characterisation of recent foot-and-mouth disease viruses from African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer )and cattle in Kenya is consistent with independent virus populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabalayo Wekesa, Sabenzia; Kiprotich Sangula, Abraham; Belsham, Graham;

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), including roles played by different hosts, is essential for improving disease control. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a reservoir for the SAT serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). Large buffalo populations commonly...

  13. Characterization of the indigenous microflora in raw and pasteurized buffalo milk during storage at refrigeration temperature by high-throughput sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of refrigeration on bacterial communities within raw and pasteurized buffalo milk was studied using high-throughput sequencing. High quality samples of raw buffalo milk were obtained from five dairy farms in the Guangxi province of China. A sample of each milk was pasteurized, and both r...

  14. Effect of ruminant species (bovine vs buffalo and source of inoculum (rumen liquor vs faeces on in vitro fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Piccolo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of inoculum (rumen liquor - RL vs faeces - FA from cow or buffalo with respect to feed evaluation using in vitro gas systems was estimated in a trial using 8 substrates. The substrate influenced significantly all fermentation characteristics; with each inoculum the substrates were ranked according the same trends for organic matter digestibility (dOM and cumulative gas volume per gram of OM incubated (OMCV. The animal species affected dOM and OMCV which were significantly higher in buffalo and cow, respectively. Buffalo showed significantly higher values of acetic, propionic, butyric acids and total VFA, while isobutyric, isovaleric and valeric acids were higher in cow. The inocula influenced the fermentation characteristics in both species: while in cow all parameters, except OMCV, were higher with FA than RL, in buffalo dOM, OMCV, acetic and total VFAs were higher with RL. The results confirmed the lower cellulolytic activity of FA micropopulation than RL one. All the data suggest that, while there may be scope for faeces to replace rumen fluid as inoculum for some end-point measures, is not possible to replace cow inocula to buffalo.

  15. Detection of bovine papilloma viruses in wart-like lesions of upper gastrointestinal tract of cattle and buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Nagarajan, N; Saikumar, G; Arya, R S; Somvanshi, R

    2015-06-01

    In present investigation, etiopathological characterization of upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tumours of cattle and buffaloes was undertaken. A total of 27 GIT wart-like lesions in rumen, reticulum, mouth and oesophagus of cattle and buffaloes revealed the presence of small nodular to larger spherical or slender growths with thin base present on mucosa and ruminal pillar. Histopathologically, these cases were diagnosed as fibropapilloma/papilloma. This is the first world record on ruminal papillomatosis in buffaloes. Ruminal warts of cattle and buffaloes revealed the presence of BPV-5, -1 & -2, which is the first report of presence of these BPVs in the ruminal warts from India. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that DNA samples of different GIT wart-like lesions contained varying amount of BPV DNA copy numbers. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the PCNA and Ki67 immunopositivity was present in the basal and spinosum layer of the fibropapilloma/papilloma, indicating these as the cellular proliferation site. In conclusion, the present investigation revealed that BPV-5, -1 & -2 are associated with certain ruminal wart-like lesions/growths in cattle and buffaloes, and the basal and spinosum layer of the ruminal fibropapilloma/papilloma were cellular proliferation sites.

  16. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly (P base excess in extracellular fluid (BEecf), base excess in blood (BEb), PCV and Hb were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cooled group as compared to noncooled group. DMI was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cooled relative to noncooled animals. Milk yield, FCM, fat yield, lactose yield and total solid yield was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in cooled group of Murrah buffaloes.

  17. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Canola Straw and Buffalo Dung: Optimization of Methane Production in Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In several regions of the Pakistan, crop cultivation is leading to the production crop residues and its disposal problems. It has been suggested that the co-digestion of the crop residues with the buffalo dung might be a disposal way for the wasted portion of the crops' residue. The objective of present study was to optimize the anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and the buffalo dung through batch experiments in order to obtain maximum methane production. The optimization was carried out in three stages. In first stage, the best canola straw to buffalo dung ratio was evaluated. In second stage, the best concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate was assessedas the alkaline pretreatment chemical, whereas in the third stage most suitable particle size of the canola strawwas evaluated. The assessment criteria for the optimization of a co-digestion were cumulative methane production and ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability. The results yield that anaerobic co-digestibility of the canola straw and the buffalo dung is obviously influenced by all the three factors of optimization. The maximum methane production was obtained as 911 NmL from the canola straw to buffalo dung ratio of 40:60, the alkaline doze of 0.6 gNaHCO3 / gVS and canola straw particle size of 2mm. However, because of the higher shredding cost to produce 2mm sized canola straw, particle size 4mm could be the best canola straw particle size.

  18. Effects of feeding Mediterranean buffalo sorghum silage versus maize silage on the rumen microbiota and milk fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann Huws, Sharon; Chiariotti, Antonella; Sarubbi, Fiorella; Carfì, Francesca; Pace, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    Sorghum presents a sustainable feedstock for Mediterranean buffaloes due to its reduced water and nitrogen requirements compared with maize, which is currently fed primarily. We investigated the effects of feeding sorghum as opposed to maize on Mediterranean buffalo rumen microbial diversity and milk fatty acid content. Four cannulated lactating Mediterranean buffalo cows were fed a basal diet for one month before switching either to maize or sorghum-silage based diets for a 3-month period. Buffaloes were then changed over to the contrasting diet for a further one month. Rumen and milk samples were collected at the end of each month. DGGE- and T-RFLP-based dendrograms generated from rumen samples did not show an effect of diet on rumen bacterial diversity. Milk samples also did not differ in terms of their fatty acid content post sorghum feeding as compared with maize feeding. Thus, sorghum provides an environmentally beneficial alternative to maize for feeding Mediterranean buffalo with little effect on rumen microbial diversity or milk fatty acid composition compared with maize feeding.

  19. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in group 2, with the provision of cooling. Skin surface temperature at thorax was significantly lower in cooled group relative to noncooled group. Blood pH and pO2 were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in heat stressed group as compared to the cooled group. pCO2, TCO2, HCO3, SBC, base excess in extracellular fluid (BEecf), base excess in blood (BEb), PCV and Hb were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in cooled group as compared to noncooled group. DMI was significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in cooled relative to noncooled animals. Milk yield, FCM, fat yield, lactose yield and total solid yield was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in cooled group of Murrah buffaloes.

  20. Evaluation of follicular oxidant-antioxidant balance and oxidative damage during reproductive acyclicity in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M H Jan; G Singh; M Sarkar; G K Das; F A Khan; J Singh; S T Bashir; S Khan; J K Prasad; S Mehrotra; M C Pathak

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate changes in follicular fluid concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidant capacity(TAC) and degree of oxidative damage to follicular cells, using protein carbonyl(PC) as marker of oxidative stress, were investigated during reproductive acyclicity in buffalo.Methods:Follicular fluid was aspirated from follicles grouped into three classes depending upon their diameter [small(5.0-7.0 mm), medium(7.1-10.0 mm), and large (>10.0 mm)].Progesterone and estradiol were estimated to determine functional status(P:E ratio) of the follicles.Results:Acyclic buffaloes had greater concentrations ofROS(P<0.001) andPC (P=0.0412) and lower concentrations ofTAC(P=0.0280) than cyclic buffaloes.An interesting novel finding was the complete absence of lowP:E functionally active follicles in acyclic buffaloes. Results indicated a pronounced follicular fluid oxidant-antioxidant imbalance and oxidative damage to follicular cells during acyclicity in buffalo.Conclusion:In conclusion, this study provided evidence about role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis of reproductive acyclicity.

  1. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Delmolino

    2005-05-06

    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  2. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  3. Scaleable, High Efficiency Microchannel Sabatier Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) consisting of cross connected arrays of isothermal or graded temperature reactors is proposed. The reactor array...

  4. Factors affecting variations in the detailed fatty acid profile of Mediterranean buffalo milk determined by 2-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegolo, S; Stocco, G; Mele, M; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-04-01

    Buffalo milk is the world's second most widely produced milk, and increasing attention is being paid to its composition, particularly the fatty acid profile. The objectives of the present study were (1) to characterize the fatty acid composition of Mediterranean buffalo milk, and (2) to investigate potential sources of variation in the buffalo milk fatty acid profile. We determined the profile of 69 fatty acid traits in 272 individual samples of Mediterranean buffalo milk using gas chromatography. In total, 51 individual fatty acids were identified: 24 saturated fatty acids, 13 monounsaturated fatty acids, and 14 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The major individual fatty acids in buffalo milk were in the order 16:0, 18:1 cis-9, 14:0, and 18:0. Saturated fatty acids were the predominant fraction in buffalo milk fat (70.49%); monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were at 25.95 and 3.54%, respectively. Adopting a classification based on carbon-chain length, we found that medium-chain fatty acids (11-16 carbons) represented the greater part (53.7%) of the fatty acid fraction of buffalo milk, whereas long-chain fatty acids (17-24 carbons) and short-chain fatty acids (4-10 carbons) accounted for 32.73 and 9.72%, respectively. The n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were 0.46 and 1.77%, respectively. The main conjugated linoleic acid, rumenic acid, represented 0.45% of total milk fatty acids. Herd/test date and stage of lactation were confirmed as important sources of variation in the fatty acid profile of buffalo milk. The percentages of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids in buffalo milk increased in early lactation (+0.6 and +3.5%, respectively), whereas long-chain fatty acids decreased (-4.2%). The only exception to this pattern was butyric acid, which linearly decreased from the beginning of lactation, confirmation that its synthesis is independent of malonyl-CoA. These results seem to suggest that in early lactation the mobilization of energy reserves may have less

  5. Effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Kanawjia, S K; Kumar, Suryamani; Khatkar, Sunil

    2014-04-01

    The effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese was investigated during ripening period up to two months. The textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese in terms of hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness were analyzed by using textural profile analyzer. The maximum hardness was found with cheese made using 1% culture, while the minimum was found with 2% culture. The cohesiveness and springiness decreased as the level of addition of starter culture increased. The chewiness of cheese also decreased, as the rate of addition of starter culture increased for cheese making. In addition to this, yield, moisture, fat, FDM, protein, salt and S/M of fresh buffalo milk Feta type cheese increased with the increase in rate of addition of starter culture; however, TS of experimental cheeses decreased.

  6. Rift Valley fever virus infection in African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) herds in rural South Africa: Evidence of interepidemic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBeaud, A.D.; Cross, P.C.; Getz, W.M.; Glinka, A.; King, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk. Copyright ?? 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Mid-Holocene decline in African buffalos inferred from Bayesian coalescence-based analyses of microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Rasmus; Lorenzen, Eline D.; Okello, J.B.A;

    2008-01-01

    Genetic studies concerned with the demographic history of wildlife species can help elucidate the role of climate change and other forces such as human activity in shaping patterns of divergence and distribution. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) declined dramatically during the rinderpest...... pandemic in the late 1800s, but little is known about the earlier demographic history of the species. We analysed genetic variation at 17 microsatellite loci and a 302-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region to infer past demographic changes in buffalo populations from East Africa. Two Bayesian...... of African buffalo population declines in the order of 75-98%, starting in the mid-Holocene (approximately 3-7000 years ago). The signature of decline was remarkably consistent using two different coalescent-based methods and two types of molecular markers. Exploratory analyses involving various prior...

  8. 德宏水牛及其杂交后代染色体多态性分析%Chromosome Polymorphism Analysis on Dehong Buffalo(2n=48) and Their Hybrids with River Buffalo(2n=50)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋敏艳; 高文春; 尹正发; 杨明超; 佴文惠; 胡怡; 毛华明; 史宪伟

    2012-01-01

    DeHong buffalo is an important swamp buffalo breed in China, and distributes in southwest area of Yunnan province of China adjoining Myanmar. In recent years, river buffalo breed and Nili--+ + were introduced to intercross with DeHong buffalo for improving milk an ance of the hybrids. Karyotypes and chromosome polymorphism were analysed in 20 DeHo Murrah X Dehong hybrids and 35 Nili × (Murrah× DeHong) hybrids by peripheral bloo such as Murrah d meat performng buffaloes, 25 d/ear tissue culturing and G-banding. Our results showed that number of chromosome in DeHong buffalo were 2n= 48, two breed hybrids were 2n=49, and three breed hybrids exhibited 2n=49 and 2n=50. This article clarified chromosome karyotype characteristic of Dehong buffalo on cytogenetics for the first time and revealed genetic patterns of chromosome polymorphism of the hybrids. The paper also discussed mechanism of chromosome polymorphism and the effect on reproduction . The results would provide scientific evidence for further multiple breed cross and breeding of the DeHong buffalo and their hybrids.%[目的]为德宏水牛进一步级进杂交方案的选择提供科学依据。[方法]采用外周血及耳组织细胞培养法与染色体G-带分析对20头德宏本地水牛、25头摩拉与德宏二元杂水牛以及35头尼里与摩拉和德宏三元杂水牛进行了染色体核型分析。[结果]表明:德宏水牛染色体数均为2n=48;二元杂水牛染色体数均为2n=49;三元杂水牛出现2n=49,2n=50两种类型。[结论]从细胞遗传学角度首次阐明了德宏水牛染色体核型特征,揭示了德宏水牛二元杂、三元杂后代染色体多态性遗传规律,并探讨了染色体多态性遗传机理及与繁殖性能的关系。

  9. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Iida, Masaaki; Moriki, Yasuyuki

    1994-10-18

    A reactor core is divided into a plurality of coolants flowrate regions, and electromagnetic pumps exclusively used for each of the flowrate regions are disposed to distribute coolants flowrates in the reactor core. Further, the flowrate of each of the electromagnetic pumps is automatically controlled depending on signals from a temperature detector disposed at the exit of the reactor core, so that the flowrate of the region can be controlled optimally depending on the burning of reactor core fuels. Then, the electromagnetic pumps disposed for every divided region are controlled respectively, so that the coolants flowrate distribution suitable to each of the regions can be attained. Margin for fuel design is decreased, fuels are used effectively, as well as an operation efficiency can be improved. Moreover, since the electromagnetic pump has less flow resistance compared with a mechanical type pump, and flow resistance of the reactor core flowrate control mechanism is eliminated, greater circulating flowrate can be ensured after occurrence of accident in a natural convection using a buoyancy of coolants utilizable for after-heat removal as a driving force. (N.H.).

  10. Spatial and temporal changes in group dynamics and range use enable anti-predator responses in African buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambling, Craig J; Druce, Dave J; Hayward, Matt W; Castley, J Guy; Adendorff, John; Kerley, Graham I H

    2012-06-01

    The reintroduction of large predators provides a framework to investigate responses by prey species to predators. Considerable research has been directed at the impact that reintroduced wolves (Canis lupus) have on cervids, and to a lesser degree, bovids, in northern temperate regions. Generally, these impacts alter feeding, activity, and ranging behavior, or combinations of these. However, there are few studies on the response of African bovids to reintroduced predators, and thus, there is limited data to compare responses by tropical and temperate ungulates to predator reintroductions. Using the reintroduction of lion (Panthera leo) into the Addo Elephant National Park (AENP) Main Camp Section, South Africa, we show that Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) responses differ from northern temperate ungulates. Following lion reintroduction, buffalo herds amalgamated into larger, more defendable units; this corresponded with an increase in the survival of juvenile buffalo. Current habitat preference of buffalo breeding herds is for open habitats, especially during the night and morning, when lion are active. The increase in group size and habitat preference countered initial high levels of predation on juvenile buffalo, resulting in a return in the proportion of juveniles in breeding herds to pre-lion levels. Our results show that buffalo responses to reintroduced large predators in southern Africa differ to those of northern temperate bovids or cervids in the face of wolf predation. We predict that the nature of the prey response to predator reintroduction is likely to reflect the trade-off between the predator selection and hunting strategy of predators against the life history and foraging strategies of each prey species.

  11. Rift valley Fever in Kruger national park: do buffalo play a role in the inter-epidemic circulation of virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beechler, B R; Bengis, R; Swanepoel, R; Paweska, J T; Kemp, A; van Vuren, P Jansen; Joubert, J; Ezenwa, V O; Jolles, A E

    2015-02-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne virus disease of livestock and wild ruminants that has been identified as a risk for international spread. Typically, the disease occurs in geographically limited outbreaks associated with high rainfall events and can cause massive losses of livestock. It is unclear how RVF virus persists during inter-epidemic periods but cryptic cycling of the virus in wildlife populations may play a role. We investigated the role that free-living African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) might play in inter-epidemic circulation of the virus and looked for geographic, age and sex patterns of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection in African buffalo. Buffalo serum samples were collected (n = 1615) in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, during a period of 1996-2007 and tested for antibodies to RVF. We found that older animals were more likely to be seropositive for anti-RVFV antibody than younger animals, but sex was not correlated with the likelihood of being anti-RVFV antibody positive. We also found geographic variation within KNP; herds in the south were more likely to have acquired anti-RVFV antibody than herds farther north - which could be driven by host or vector ecology. In all years of the study between 1996 and 2007, we found young buffalo (under 2 years of age) that were seropositive for anti-RVFV antibody, with prevalence ranging between 0 and 27% each year, indicating probable circulation. In addition, we also conducted a 4-year longitudinal study on 227 initially RVFV seronegative buffalo to look for evidence of seroconversion outside known RVF outbreaks within our study period (2008-2012). In the longitudinal study, we found five individuals that seroconverted from anti-RVFV antibody negative to anti-RVFV antibody positive, outside of any detected outbreak. Overall, our results provide evidence of long-term undetected circulation of RVFV in the buffalo population.

  12. Efficacy of Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 compared to the reference vaccine Brucella abortus strain 19 in water buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Caporale

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 250 000 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis live in the Campania region of southern Italy where the breeding of this species is very popular. Of these animals, almost 150 000 are concentrated in the Caserta province where the prevalence of Brucella abortus in this species represents approximately 20% at herd level. The Italian brucellosis eradication programme provides a slaughter and vaccination strategy for this province. B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51 has become the official vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in cattle in several countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RB51 in water buffalo compared to the B. abortus S19 vaccine (S19. The study was performed in accordance with a protocol described in mice. Female buffalo aged five months were inoculated. Five received a RB51 dosage on two occasions that was three times greater than that approved for use in cattle and a booster after one month, five received B. abortus S19 vaccine at the standard dosage and three controls received a phosphate buffer solution. Buffalo were then challenged with a virulent B. abortus strain 544 thirty days post vaccination. Antibodies that developed in the five animals vaccinated with RB51 were not detected by the Rose Bengal test or complement fixation test (CFT and were also tested by CFT prepared with RB51 antigen. After culling, B. abortus was cultured from the spleen, retropharyngeal and supra-mammary lymph nodes. A statistical evaluation was performed to assess the immunogenicity values obtained in buffalo vaccinated with S19, compared to those obtained in buffalo vaccinated with the RB51 vaccine and in the unvaccinated control group.

  13. Reactor Structural Materials: Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Rector Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels are:(1) to complete the fracture toughness data bank of various reactor pressure vessel steels by using precracked Charpy specimens that were tested statically as well as dynamically; (2) to implement the enhanced surveillance approach in a user-friendly software; (3) to improve the existing reconstitution technology by reducing the input energy (short cycle welding) and modifying the stud geometry. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  14. Evaluation of Analgesic Effect of Caudal Epidural Tramadol, Tramadol-Lidocaine, and Lidocaine in Water Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman Atiba; Alaa Ghazy; Naglaa Gomaa; Tarek Kamal; Mustafa Shukry

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of tramadol and a combination of tramadol-lidocaine with that produced by lidocaine administration in the epidural space in buffalo calves. In a prospective randomized crossover study, ten male buffalo calves were used to compare the epidural analgesic effect of tramadol (1 mg/kg) and tramadol-lidocaine combination (0.5 mg/kg and 0.11 mg/kg, resp.) with that produced by 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg). Loss of sensation was examined by pin-prick...

  15. The role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayebazibwe, C.; Mwiine, F. N.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten;

    2010-01-01

    Background To study the role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda, serum samples were collected from 207 African buffalos, 21 impalas (Aepyceros melampus), 1 giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), 1 common eland (Taurotragus oryx), 7 hartebeests...... (Alcelaphus buselaphus) and 5 waterbucks (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) from four major National Parks in Uganda between 2005 and 2008. Serum samples were screened to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) non-structural proteins (NSP) using the Ceditest FMDV NS ELISA. Solid Phase Blocking...

  16. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  17. Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER ) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  18. Operation of Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    3.1 Annual Report of SPR Operation Chu Shaochu Having overseen by National Nuclear Safety Administration and specialists, the reactor restarted up successfully after Safety renovation on April 16, 1996. In August 1996 the normal operation of SPR was approved by the authorities of Naitonal Nuclear Safety Administration. 1 Operation status In 1996, the reactor operated safely for 40 d and the energy released was about 137.3 MW·d. The operation status of SPR is shown in table 1. The reactor started up to higher power (power more than 1 MW) and lower power (for physics experiments) 4 times and 14 times respectively. Measurement of control rod efficiency and other measurement tasks were 2 times and 5 times respectively.

  19. An Overview of Reactor Concepts, a Survey of Reactor Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Public Affairs Office and is releasaole to the National Technical Information Services (NTIS). At NTIS, it will be available to the general public...Reactors that use deu- terium (heavy water) as a coolant can use natural uranium as a fuel. The * Canadian reactor, CANDU , utilizes this concept...reactor core at the top and discharged at the Dotton while the reactor is in operation. The discharged fuel can then b inspected to see if it can De used

  20. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  1. Assessment of indicators and collection methodology to estimate nutrient digestibility in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Felizardo Pereira Soares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry fecal matter production was estimated from neutral detergent indicators on indigestible fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber, indigestible dry matter, incubated for 144 hours and 288 hours, as well as chromium oxide (Cr2O3 and enriched and purified isolated lignin (LIPE® in two sampling schemes (3 and 5 days on buffaloes. Sample consisted of five castrated animals with average weight of 300 ± 0.6 kg fed on elephant grass cv Cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum. Experimental design consisted of randomized blocks in subdivided plots. Production of dry fecal matter was overestimated when using Cr2O3, indigestible acid detergent fiber 144 hours, indigestible neutral detergent fiber 144 hours, indigestible neutral detergent fiber 288 hours and indigestible dry matter 144 hours, while indigestible acid detergent fiber 288 hours, indigestible dry matter 288 hours and LIPE® did not differ from total collection. The same result was observed for apparent digestibility of nutrients. There was no difference in dry fecal matter production and digestibility between both collection periods of 3 and 5 days, demonstrating that a collection period of three days can be used to estimate dry fecal matter production in buffaloes. A three-day period of sample collection, in order to estimate dry fecal matter production and apparent digestibility coefficients, is therefore recommended. The use of LIPE®, fibers in indigestible acid detergent and indigestible dry matter as indicators, both latter incubated for 288 hours, result in accurate estimates of dry fecal matter production in confined buffaloes, fed on a forage based diet.

  2. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Brazilian water buffalo mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luana Faria; Casella, Tiago; Gomes, Elisangela Soares; Nogueira, Mara Correa Lelles; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Penna, Ana Lúcia Barretto

    2015-02-01

    The water buffalo mozzarella cheese is a typical Italian cheese which has been introduced in the thriving Brazilian market in the last 10 y, with good acceptance by its consumers. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important role in the technological and sensory quality of mozzarella cheese. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the diversity of the autochthones viable LAB isolated from water buffalo mozzarella cheese under storage. Samples were collected in 3 independent trials in a dairy industry located in the southeast region of Brazil, on the 28th day of storage, at 4 ºC. The LAB were characterized by Gram staining, catalase test, capacity to assimilate citrate, and production of CO2 from glucose. The diversity of LAB was evaluated by RAPD-PCR (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction), 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and by Vitek 2 system. Twenty LAB strains were isolated and clustered into 12 different clusters, and identified as Streptococcus thermophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus helveticus. Enterococcus species were dominant and citrate-positive. Only the strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and L. fermentum produced CO2 from glucose and were citrate-positive, while L. casei was only citrate positive. This is the first report which elucidates the LAB diversity involved in Brazilian water buffalo mozzarella cheese. Furthermore, the results show that despite the absence of natural whey cultures as starters in production, the LAB species identified are the ones typically found in mozzarella cheese.

  3. Effect of catecholamines and thermal exposure on lymphocyte proliferation, IL-1α & β in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Upadhyay

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of catecholamines (epinephrine/norepinephrine and thermal exposure on in vitro buffalo Lymphocyte Proliferation (LP apparently healthy 2- 2 1/2 years old Murrah buffalo heifers maintained as per the standard feeding and management practices were selected from Institute herd. Jugular blood was collected in the forenoon on the day of experiment and processed for Total Leucocyte Count (TLC and Differential Leucocyte Count (DLC. Lymphocyte proliferation assays were performed using whole blood and cells were incubated with epinephrine and norepinephrine (1, 1.5,2 ng/ml at 37oC with 5% CO2. Cells were counted after 72 hrs of incubation and Lymphocyte Proliferation Index (LPI was calculated. Thermal stress effect on the cultures was observed after exposure at 45oC for 4 hr after 72hrs of incubation. The cells were separated from media and media was used for analysis of IL-1α & 1β by ELISA kit. Lymphocyte proliferation Index decreased in responses to Epinephrine and Norepinephrine (P<0.01. Concentration of epinephrine and norepinephrine (1, 1.5,2 ng /ml had no distinguishable effect on LPI. IL-1α & IL-1β levels when compared with control in supernatant (exposed to 45°C were low (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between LPI and IL-1α (r=0.80; P<0.01 and between LPI and IL-1β (r=0.78; P<0.05. The study indicated that lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and IL-1α & β levels were affected by catecholamines and thermal exposure. Further the levels of catecholamines had significant (P<0.01 negative effect on LPI indicating that catecholamines levels modulate immunity through IL-1α and IL-1β in buffaloes.

  4. Influence of breed, year season and lactation stage on the buffalo milk mineral content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Crudeli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the milk mineral composition of buffalo raised in Corrientes, Argentina, as well as to investigate variations attributed to breed, lactation period and time of the year. Milk samples (n = 105 were collected from 25 Murrah, Mediterranean, Jafarabadi and half-breed Murrah x Mediterranean buffaloes of second and fifth lactation. Animals were located in a dairy farm area with subtropical wet climate with 1.690 mm annual rains and annual mean temperature of 22°C. Mean records were: Ca (1.12 ± 0.40 g.kg-1, P (0.99 ± 0.32 g.kg-1, Mg (0.08± 0.02 g.kg-1, K (0.92 ± 0.25 g.kg-1, Na (0.35 ± 0.11 g.kg-1, Cu (0.35 ± 0.16 mg.kg-1, Mn (0.27 ± 0.10 mg.kg-1, Zn (4.10 ± 1.40 mg.kg-1 y Fe (1.61 ± 0.61 mg.kg-1. These parameters did not reveal significant differences attributable to breed, except for Mg. The time of the year affected the composition of the minerals, except for the Mg and Zn. The nursing stages affect the Ca, P, K and Cu concentrations. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the mineral content in the milk of buffaloes, it is considerably influenced by regional factors.

  5. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Meena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls Materials and Methods: A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%, KMnO4 (0.02% and savlon (2.0% to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at −196°C semen. Results: The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM, non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST, total plate count (TPC and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Conclusion: Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull’s semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation.

  6. Identification of transition bias in oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 gene in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shabir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Though transition bias has been previously demonstrated in cattle, however, there has not been any study that has explored transition bias in buffalo nuclear genome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the nucleotide substitution pattern in the Intron I of Oxidised Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor 1 (OLR1 gene in four breeds of Indian buffalo using 24 different nucleotide substitution models and evaluate their association with DNA methylation. Materials and Methods: Transition/transversion bias (R was estimated by 24 different nucleotide substitution models available in MEGA 5.0. The transition/transversion bias (R was estimated under the Kimura 2-parameter model. Substitution patterns and the transitions/transversions rates (r were then estimated by Tamura-Nei-I and Tamura-Nei-II models. The CpG Island search was done by using CpG Plot Island online Software available at European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI website. Results: The frequency of transition was found to be 3.5 times higher than that of the transversion mutation frequency. Out of 9 nucleotide substitutions, 7 transitions and 2 transversions were found. Among all the nucleotide substitutions, thymine to cytosine substitutions was observed to be very high. CpG Island search tool revealed that IntronI of OLR1 genes is a CpG rich region, thus prone to methylation. Conclusions: Higher transition frequency was found in the intronI of OLR1 gene, however due to the richness of methylated CpGs in the evaluated stretch of genome, the higher T↔C transitions could likely be a result of frequent deaminations of the methylated cytosines into thymines during the evolution of four buffalo breeds.

  7. Structure of the buffalo secretory signalling glycoprotein at 2.8 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Srivastava, Devendra B.; Kumar, Janesh; Saravanan, Kolandaivelu; Bilgrami, Sameeta; Sharma, Sujata; Kaur, Punit; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Singh, Tej P., E-mail: tps@aiims.aiims.ac.in [Department of Biophysics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India)

    2007-04-01

    The crystal structure of a signalling glycoprotein isolated from buffalo dry secretions (SPB-40) has been determined at 2.8 Å resolution. Two unique residues, Tyr120 and Glu269, found in SPB-40 distort the shape of the sugar-binding groove considerably. The water structure in the groove is also different. The conformations of three flexible loops, His188–His197, Phe202–Arg212 and Tyr244–Pro260, also differ from those found in other structurally similar proteins. The crystal structure of a 40 kDa signalling glycoprotein from buffalo (SPB-40) has been determined at 2.8 Å resolution. SPB-40 acts as a protective signalling factor by binding to viable cells during the early phase of involution, during which extensive tissue remodelling occurs. It was isolated from the dry secretions of Murrah buffalo. It was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with 19% ethanol as the precipitant. The protein was also cloned and its complete nucleotide and amino-acid sequences were determined. When compared with the sequences of other members of the family, the sequence of SPB-40 revealed two very important mutations in the sugar-binding region, in which Tyr120 changed to Trp120 and Glu269 changed to Trp269. The structure showed a significant distortion in the shape of the sugar-binding groove. The water structure in the groove is also drastically altered. The folding of the protein chain in the flexible region comprising segments His188–His197, Phe202–Arg212 and Tyr244–Pro260 shows large variations when compared with other proteins of the family.

  8. Evaluation of AMPK Genes as Candidates for Production Traits in Buffalo Breeds of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hussain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The 5’-activated protein kinase (AMPK also called PRKA is a heterotrimeric protein complex that regulates cellular metabolism in response to nutritional stress in mammals. Total length of AMPK gene is 6500 base pairs. AMPK γ3 has 884 base pairs comprises of exon 3, intron 3 and exon 4. AMPK γ3 gene was studied on DNA from three buffalo breeds (Nili, Ravi and Nili Ravi of Pakistan. Amplification of this region was done from position 918 in exon to position 1802 just downstream of exon 4, using primers U1A-GAGCAAGGAGACAGCACTTCA (918-938 and U2B-ACCTGTAGCATGGTGTC GAAGA (1781- 1802 with Amplictaq Gold, at annealing temperature 60oC. Sequencing of PRKA γ3 UP SEQ1 5’-GACCTCAGCATCCAGGCT and PRKA γ3 UP SEQ2 5’-GACAGTAACTCCATCTTCCA was done. The results showed that at position 1069, Allelic frequency of C/T was 0.35, T/T was 0.05 and frequency of C/C was 0.40. At position 1343, frequency of A/G was 0.1 and A/A was 0.9. At 1381 position, frequency of C/T was 0.35, T/T was 0.05 and C/C was 0.6. At position 1488, the A/G was 0.35, A/A was 0.05and G/G was 0.6. The detected SNP at 1343 is A/G which is the ancient haplotypes of PRKAG3 in Nili Ravi buffalo breeds from Pakistan. These SNPs in AMPK gene can be used as marker for efficient utilization of energy in these three buffalo breeds of Pakistan that will increase the economic returns to farmers.

  9. Assessing vaccination as a control strategy in an ongoing epidemic: Bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Getz, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an exotic disease invading the buffalo population (Syncerus caffer) of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We used a sex and age-structured epidemiological model to assess the effectiveness of a vaccination program and define important research directions. The model allows for dispersal between a focal herd and background population and was parameterized with a combination of published data and analyses of over 130 radio-collared buffalo in the central region of the KNP. Radio-tracking data indicated that all sex and age categories move between mixed herds, and males over 8 years old had higher mortality and dispersal rates than any other sex or age category. In part due to the high dispersal rates of buffalo, sensitivity analyses indicate that disease prevalence in the background population accounts for the most variability in the BTB prevalence and quasi-eradication within the focal herd. Vaccination rate and the transmission coefficient were the second and third most important parameters of the sensitivity analyses. Further analyses of the model without dispersal suggest that the amount of vaccination necessary for quasi-eradication (i.e. prevalence 70% of the calf population would have to be vaccinated every year to reduce the prevalence to less than 1%. If the half-life of the vaccine is less than 5 years, even vaccinating every calf for 50 years may not eradicate BTB. Thus, although vaccination provides a means of controlling BTB prevalence it should be combined with other control measures if eradication is the objective.

  10. Effect of incubation on freezability of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin treated buffalo (Bubalus bubalis spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Lone

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of incubation on freezability of cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin (CLC treated buffalo spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: Semen samples with mass motility of 3+ and greater, collected from Murrah buffalo bulls were utilized. Immediately after collection, four equal groups of semen sample were made. Group I was kept as control and diluted with Tris upto concentration of 60×106 sperm/ml, where as Groups II, III, and IV were treated with CLC at 3 mg/120× 106 spermatozoa, incubated at 37°C for action of CLC for 10, 15 and 20 min, respectively, and diluted with tris upto concentration of 60×106 sperm/ml. All groups were subjected to equilibration and freezing. The evaluation of semen samples from all groups was carried out at fresh, pre-freeze and post-thaw stage for progressive motility, viability and hypo-osmotic swelling response (HOS response. Results: At the pre-freeze stage, significantly (p<0.05 higher percentage of progressive motility and viability was observed in treatment groups as compared to control with no significant difference among treatment groups. HOS response was significantly (p<0.05 higher in treatment groups as compared to control at pre-freeze stage. At post-thaw stage, significantly (p<0.05 higher percentage of progressive motility, viability and HOS response was recorded in Group II as compared to control and other treatment groups (III and IV. Group II retained significant post-thaw motility and viability at various post-thaw incubation periods. Conclusion: Incubation period of 10 min for CLC treated buffalo spermatozoa yielded significantly higher results in terms of freezability as compared to incubation for 15 and 20 min.

  11. In vitro culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes isolated by using a simplified manual perfusion method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Panda

    Full Text Available In farm animals, there is no suitable cell line available to understand liver-specific functions. This has limited our understanding of liver function and metabolism in farm animals. Culturing and maintenance of functionally active hepatocytes is difficult, since they survive no more than few days. Establishing primary culture of hepatocytes can help in studying cellular metabolism, drug toxicity, hepatocyte specific gene function and regulation. Here we provide a simple in vitro method for isolation and short-term culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes.Buffalo hepatocytes were isolated from caudate lobes by using manual enzymatic perfusion and mechanical disruption of liver tissue. Hepatocyte yield was (5.3 ± 0.66×107 cells per gram of liver tissue with a viability of 82.3 ± 3.5%. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were spherical with well contrasted border. After 24 hours of seeding onto fibroblast feeder layer and different extracellular matrices like dry collagen, matrigel and sandwich collagen coated plates, hepatocytes formed confluent monolayer with frequent clusters. Cultured hepatocytes exhibited typical cuboidal and polygonal shape with restored cellular polarity. Cells expressed hepatocyte-specific marker genes or proteins like albumin, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, glucose-6-phosphatase, tyrosine aminotransferase, cytochromes, cytokeratin and α1-antitrypsin. Hepatocytes could be immunostained with anti-cytokeratins, anti-albumin and anti α1-antitrypsin antibodies. Abundant lipid droplets were detected in the cytosol of hepatocytes using oil red stain. In vitro cultured hepatocytes could be grown for five days and maintained for up to nine days on buffalo skin fibroblast feeder layer. Cultured hepatocytes were viable for functional studies.We developed a convenient and cost effective technique for hepatocytes isolation for short-term culture that exhibited morphological and functional characteristics of active hepatocytes

  12. In-silico analysis of Pasteurella multocida to identify common epitopes between fowl, goat and buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Ammarah; Tariq, Aamira

    2016-04-10

    Pasteurella multocida represents a highly diverse group of bacteria infecting various hosts like the fowl, goat and buffalo leading to huge economic loss to the poultry and cattle industry. Previous reports indicated that the outer membrane proteins contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida. The comparative in-silico genome wide analysis of four pathogenic Pasteurella multocida strains (Anand1-poultry, Anand1-goat, PMTB and VTCCBAA264) with their respective hosts was performed. A pipeline was developed to identify the list of non-homologous proteins of Pasteurella multocida strains and their hosts. The list was further analyzed for the identification of the essential outer membrane proteins responsible for the pathogenicity. Outer membrane proteins were further selected from these antigenic proteins on the basis of their pathogenic potential. A common B-cell epitope (TDYRNRDRS, ARRSVTSKEN, and KINDQWRW) determined via sequential and structural approach from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) assembly outer membrane complex protein was predicted from fowl, goat and buffalo. Furthermore, we identified T-cell epitopes based on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) assembly outer membrane complex protein via docking studies which were either similar to the B-cell epitopes or were occurring in the same patch except for MHC class II M fowl. We propose that this difference in epitope sequence is due to different interacting MHC class II protein predicted from the fowl. Hence, in the current study we found that a unique epitope based on the common antigenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer membrane complex protein present in fowl, goat and buffalo can be a suitable target for vaccine development against the two economic devastating diseases; fowl cholera (FC) and hemorrhagic septicemia (HS).

  13. Proteome Profile and Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) Follicular Fluid during Follicle Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Huang, Yulin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Fumei; Huang, Delun; Lu, Yangqing; Liang, Xianwei; Zhang, Ming

    2016-04-29

    Follicular fluid (FF) accumulates in the antrum of the ovarian follicle and provides the microenvironment for oocyte development. FF plays an important role in follicle growth and oocyte maturation. The FF provides a unique window to investigate the processes occurring during buffalo follicular development. The observed low quality of buffalo oocytes may arise from the poor follicular microenvironment. Investigating proteins found in buffalo FF (BFF) should provide insight into follicular development processes and provide further understanding of intra-follicular maturation and oocytes quality. Here, a proteomic-based approach was used to analyze the proteome of BFF. SDS-PAGE separation combined with mass spectrometry was used to generate the proteomic dataset. In total, 363 proteins were identified and classified by Gene Ontology terms. The proteins were assigned to 153 pathways, including signaling pathways. To evaluate difference in proteins expressed between BFF with different follicle size (small, 8 mm), a quantitative proteomic analysis based on multi-dimensional liquid chromatography pre-fractionation tandem Orbitrap mass spectrometry identification was performed. Eleven differentially expressed proteins (six downregulated and five upregulated in large BFF) were identified and assigned to a variety of functional processes, including serine protease inhibition, oxidation protection and the complement cascade system. Three differentially expressed proteins, Vimentin, Peroxiredoxin-1 and SERPIND1, were verified by Western blotting, consistent with the quantitative proteomics results. Our datasets offers new information about proteins present in BFF and should facilitate the development of new biomarkers. These differentially expressed proteins illuminate the size-dependent protein changes in follicle microenvironment.

  14. Perspectives on reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  15. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2002-04-01

    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel.

  16. New crops for arid lands. [Bladderpod, gumweed, guayule, jojoba, and buffalo gourd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinman, C.W.

    1984-09-28

    Five plants are described that could be grown commercially under arid conditions. Once the most valuable component has been obtained from each plant (rubber from guayule; seed oil from jojoba, buffalo gourd, and bladderpod; and resin from gumweed), the remaining material holds potential for useful products as well as fuel. It is difficult to realize the full potential or arid land plants, however, because of the complexities of developing the necessary agricultural and industrial infrastructure simultaneously. To do so, multicompany efforts or cooperative efforts between government and the private sector will be required. 20 references.

  17. Evaluation of Glycopyrrolate as an Anticholinergic in Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twelve experimental trials were undertaken on clinically healthy male buffalo calves. Glycopyrrolate was injected @ 0.01 mg/kg, IM. After glycopyrrolate administration, two animals became ataxic. Muzzle, mouth and nostrils became dry after 41.5±3.334 minute of drug administration; the same again became wet at 578.8±19.27 minute. The pulse pressure increased significantly after glycopyrrolate administration without any significant variation in heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP and central venous pressure (CVP.

  18. Effect the administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG hormone following superovulation treatment in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polmer Situmorang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A numbers of studies had been reported to evaluate the effect of hormone for superovulation treatment in buffaloes, however the numbers of embryo recovered is still very small. One of the limiting factors which affect the numbers of embryo recovered is preovulatery LH concentration. The experiment was carried out to study the effect of hCG following superovulation treatments in buffaloes as an effort to increase the embryo recovered. Ten (10 buffaloes in three different genotypes (Riverine, swamp and its crosses were superovulated using follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. A total of 12 ml FSH (Folltropin was injected intramuscularry twice a day with 12 hours interval in a decreasing doses for 4 days (2.5, 2.5; 2.0, 2.0; 1.0, 1.0 and 0.5, 0.5 ml. Prostaglandin was injected intramuscularry 2 days after the first injection of FSH followed by administration of 500 IU hCG two days later. At the same days of administration of hCG, artificial insemination (AI using frozen semen was conducted and repeated again after 12 and 24 hours. Blood collecting was conducted 3 times a week for obtaining the progesteron level of plasma blood. Embryo was collected by non-surgically technique on day 6 of estrus cycle by flushing each horn of uterus with 500 ml Dubelco's Phosphat Buffer Saline (DBPS. Parameter recorded were diameter of ovary (DO, total corpus luteum (TCL, number of embryo collected (NE, percentage of recovery rate (%RR and peak progesteron level (PP. Administration of hCG significantly increase the response of buffalo to superovulation treatment. The mean of DO (cm, TCL, NE and RR (% was 4.0, 6.3, 2.1 and 37.2 and 4.5, 7.5, 3.9 and 48.1 for controll and 500 IU hCG respectively. The mean NE was significantly higher (P<0.05 in hCG than those control. The peak progesterone concentration was highly significant higher (P<0.01 in hCG (8.9 ng/ml than those control (6.8 ng/ml. Both left and right ovary gave a similar response to superovulation treatments. In

  19. Influence of antepartum administration of immunopotentiators on reproductive efficacy of buffalo and viability of their newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Atef M. Badr; Hussein A. Amer

    2008-01-01

    The authors determine the efficacy of prepartum immunopotentiators administered during late gestation on postpartum fertility, IgG levels and calf viability. Fifty buffalo were divided into five groups (10 animals in each group). Group I was the control group. Each animal in Group II received 30 ml intramuscularly of viteselen (1.7 mg sodium selenium and 150 mg vitamin E/ml). Each animal in Group III received a subcutaneous injection of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) at 0.5 ml. In Group IV, e...

  20. Prevalence of the parasitic copepod Haemobaphes intermedius on juvenile buffalo sculpins from Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    The parasitic copepod, Haemobaphes intermedius, was detected in 62% of juvenile buffalo sculpins Enophrys bison, a previously unreported host, from the San Juan Islands archipelago in Washington State. Most infestations were characterized by the presence of a single female copepod infestations with multiple H. intermedius occurred either unilaterally or bilaterally in 29% of parasitized individuals. Impaired condition of parasitized hosts was indicated by significantly lower total lengths and weights (34.9 mm; 1.6 g) than in unparasitized cohorts (38.9 mm; 2.1 g). Host specificity was indicated by the failure to detect H. intermedius in 43 sympatric great sculpins Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus from the same location.

  1. Effect of Aegle marmelos and Murraya koenigii in treatment of delayed pubertal buffaloes heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan M. Baitule

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to study the estrus induction, ovulation, and conception rate of delayed puberty in buffaloes heifers by feeding a herbal plants Aegle marmelos (bael/bili/bhel leaf and Murraya koenigii (Curry leaf. Materials and Methods: Totally, 24 buffalo heifers with delayed puberty were selected for the present study and divided randomly in four equal groups (n=6. Before experiment, all animals were dewormed with albendazole at 10 mg/kg body weight to prevent them from the stress of parasitism. In the present experiment, four group taken and Group I (n=6 treated with A. marmelos, Group II (n=6 treated with M. koenigii, Group III (n=6 treated with mixture of A. marmelos and M. koenigii and fed for 9 days. Group IV (n=6 considered as control and fed with concentrate only. The blood samples were collected from all the animals on day 0 (before treatment, 4, 9 (during treatment, on the day of estrus and day 8 after the onset of estrus. The 10 ml blood was collected from the jugular vein of all the experimental animals for estimation of serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and progesterone (P4. The estrus response, ovulation, conception rate along with serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and progesterone level were determined by the standard protocol. Results: From Group III 4 heifers, from Group II 3 heifers, and from Group I and IV (Control 2 heifers each, exhibited the estrus. The estrus response was recorded as 33.33%, 50.00%, 75.00%, and 33.33% in Group I, Group II, Group III, and Group IV, respectively. In treatment Group III, serum calcium found significantly more (p<0.05 on day 8 post-estrus as compared to other groups at a similar interval. Inorganic phosphorus and progesterone show no significant difference between groups. The ovulation and conception rates are comparatively better in Group III (75% buffalo heifers than other groups. Conclusion: Herbal supplementation of A. marmelos and M. koenigii in combination, as well as M

  2. Evaluation of salivary electrolytes during estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes with reference to estrus detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Devi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Timely estrus detection is one of the critical factors for increasing reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. In recent decades, saliva has become a more popular as a noninvasive source for determining physiological status of animals by various biochemical electrolytes. This study was designed to assess and correlate changes in different salivary minerals concentration (calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride during different stages of the estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The saliva samples were collected during the different phases of the estrous cycle from 20 Murrah buffaloes in early morning hours and were assayed using respective minerals assay kits. Results: The concentrations of calcium (8.76±0.08-12.11±0.11 mg/dl, inorganic phosphorus (6.56±0.13-14.72±4.50 mg/dl, magnesium (2.27±0.14-5.79±0.15 mg/dl, sodium (139.47±0.31-159.62±1.22 mmol/L, potassium (12.40±0.22-26.85±1.22 mmol/L, and chloride (109.28±0.41-137.07±0.68 mmol/L varied during the different phases of estrous cycle. The concentration of calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride in saliva were significantly (p<0.01 higher during estrus phase compared to other phases of the estrous cycle. All these minerals were positively and significantly (p<0.0001 related to estrogen concentration while salivary concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride showed a significant (p<0.0001 negative correlation with progesterone level in blood plasma. Conclusion: These preliminary findings indicate that there are definite variations in salivary mineral and electrolyte concentrations during different phases of the estrous cycle. These results may be used as an aid for estrus detection/ confirmation in buffaloes although validation of the results using a large number of animals is required.

  3. Stressor-induced changes to the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of Indian buffalo origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, D; Bhattacharya, D; Bera, A K; Gudewar, J; De, S; Das, S K

    2008-12-01

    In the present study viable protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus were exposed to in vitro anthelmintic treatment to observe efficacy against Indian buffalo isolates. Evaluation criteria included morphological changes, viability scores and expression of peptides as a product of prestressed protoscoleces. Protoscolex changes included presence of bladder-like structure and morphological distortion. Two peptides of relative molecular weight (Mr) 40 and 70 kDa were visualized when proteins were separated by discontinuous gel electrophoresis. These two peptides seemed to be products of prestressed protoscoleces.

  4. Continuous Age-Structured Model for Bovine Tuberculosis in African buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguelov, R.; Kojouharov, H.

    2009-10-01

    The paper deals with a model of the spread of bovine tuberculosis in the buffalo population in the Kruger National Park in South Africa. The model uses continuous age structure and it is formulated in terms of partial differential equations using eight epidemiological classes (compartments). More precisely, the age density for each class at time t satisfies a one way wave equation, where the age is the space variable. The continuous age model discussed here is derived from a 2006 age groups model by P. C. Cross and W. M. Getz.

  5. Long term effect of Ovum Pick-up in buffalo species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neglia, Gianluca; Gasparrini, Bianca; Vecchio, Domenico; Boccia, Lucia; Varricchio, Ettore; Di Palo, Rossella; Zicarelli, Luigi; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an Ovum Pick-up (OPU) treatment carried out for 9 months in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) species. Eight pluriparous non-lactating buffalo cows underwent OPU for 9 months. Recovered cumulus enclosed oocytes (COCs) were classified and COCs suitable for in vitro embryo production (IVEP) were in vitro matured (IVM), fertilized (IVF) and cultured (IVC) to the blastocyst (Bl) stage. Animals were monitored for a total period of 270 days, but at the summer solstice, follicular turnover decreased and at the 68-day of the trial, we decided to increase the OPU sampling interval from 3-4 to 7 days. It was therefore possible to distinguish two phases: a first phase (18 sessions), during which OPU was carried out twice weekly and a second phase (16 sessions) during which OPU sessions were performed weekly. This reduction did not modify the percentage of good quality COCs, while the incidence of grade D COCs decreased (P<0.01). Furthermore, embryo production was higher in the second phase, either if embryos were calculated on the total recovered COCs (8.3% vs. 21.4%; P<0.01) and on grade A+B COCs (13.0% vs. 32.1%; P<0.01), that supposedly should have given similar blastocyst yield. During the total period of the trial it was possible to distinguish a first period of 6 months (34 sessions) characterized by blastocyst production (0.36 blastocyst/buffalo/session), followed by an unproductive period of 3 months (12 sessions), during which embryos were not produced. During the first 6 months a higher (P<0.01) number of follicles (5.06 vs. 3.71), small follicles (3.38 vs. 2.07), total COCs (2.58 vs. 1.56) and good quality (A+B) COCs (1.51 vs. 0.94) per subject/session were recorded compared to the last 3 months. No Blastocyst were produced during the second period, even if the percentage of grade A+B COCs was similar to that recorded during the first period. In conclusion, buffalo cows submitted to repeated OPU sampling for a 9-month

  6. Carnitine supplementation decreases capacitation-like changes of frozen-thawed buffalo spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Valentina; Salzano, Angela; Campanile, Giuseppe; Marrone, Raffaele; Palumbo, Francesco; Vitiello, Milena; Zullo, Gianluigi; Gasparrini, Bianca

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of carnitine supplementation of semen extender on fertility parameters of frozen-thawed buffalo sperm. Buffalo semen was cryopreserved in BioXcell containing 0 (control group), 2.5 and 7.5-mM carnitine. After thawing, viability, motility, membrane integrity and capacitation status (assessed by localization of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins and chlortetracycline, chlortetracycline assay) were evaluated. Furthermore, total antioxidant capacity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation levels, as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and phospholipids concentration were assessed. Finally, in vitro-fertilizing ability was evaluated after heterologous IVF. An increased post-thawing sperm motility and membrane integrity were recorded in both treated groups compared with the control (44.4 ± 3.5, 53.1 ± 3.9, and 52.5 ± 3.6%; P carnitine, respectively). Supplementation of carnitine to the freezing extender decreased (P carnitine). In agreement with this, carnitine also decreased (P carnitine). Interestingly, carnitine increased total antioxidant capacity and ATP content of buffalo frozen-thawed sperm (1.32 ± 0.02, 1.34 ± 0.01, 1.37 ± 0.01 mM/L and 4.1 ± 0.1, 5.3 ± 0.1 and 8.2 ± 0.4 nM × 10(8) sperm; P carnitine). Intracellular ROS decreased in carnitine-treated sperm compared with the control, as indicated by dihydroethidium (DHE) values (0.22 ± 0.01, 0.18 ± 0.01, and 0.14 ± 0.0 μM/100 μL dihydroethidium, respectively, with 0, 2.5-, and 7.5-mM carnitine; P carnitine improved buffalo sperm quality by increasing ATP generation and modulating ROS production, without affecting in vitro fertilizing ability.

  7. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a light-water cooled and moderated reactor that is the United States’ highest flux reactor-based neutron source. HFIR...

  9. Reactor operation safety information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  10. Importance of body-water circulation for body-heat dissipation in hot-humid climates: a distinctive body-water circulation in swamp buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chanpongsang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-regulation in swamp buffaloes has been investigated as an adaptive system to hot-humid climates, and several distinctive physiological responses were noted. When rectal temperature increased in hot conditions, blood volume, blood flow to the skin surface and skin temperature markedly increased in buffaloes relatively to cattle. On the other hand, the correlation between blood volume and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP was compared between buffaloes and cattle under dehydration. Although plasma AVP in cattle increased immediately for reducing urine volume against a decrease in blood volume as well as the response observed in most animal species, the increase in plasma AVP was delayed in buffaloes, even after a large decrease in blood volume. In buffaloes, a marked increase in blood volume facilitated the dissipation of excess heat from the skin surface during wallowing. In addition, the change in plasma AVP observed in buffaloes was consistent with that of other animals living in habitats with the high availability of water. These results suggest that the thermo-regulatory system in buffaloes accelerates body-water circulation internally and externally. This system may be adaptive for heat dissipation in hot-humid climates, where an abundance of water is common.

  11. Residu Gula Glikokonjugat pada Lambung Depan Kerbau Rawa (Bubalus bubalis Kalimantan Selatan (SUGAR RESIDU OF GLYCOCONJUGATES IN FORESTOMACH OF SOUTH KALIMANTAN SWAMP BUFFALO (BUBALUS BUBALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Nurliani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of swamp buffaloes to adapt with swamp environment was suggested to be supported bytheir digestive system efficiency. The research was done to obtain scientific explanation about digestiveefficiency of swamp buffalo by identification on kinds and distribution of glycoconjugates in swamp buffaloforestomach. Six male swamp buffaloes aged more than 2.5 year old and had body weight between 300-400kg were used in this study. Samples were obtained from Regency of Banjar slaughter house, SouthKalimantan. Every parts of the forestomach included rumen, reticulum, and omasum was taken andprocessed for microscopic observation with hematoxyline eosin (HE and alcian blue-periodic acid schiff(AB-PAS stainings. Sugar residues of glycoconjugates were localized with lectin histochemistry wheatgerm agglutinin (WGA, ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA, ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA, concanavalinagglutinin (Con A, and soybean agglutinin (SBA. Every part of swamp buffalo forestomach had kinds ofspecific glycoconjugates with special distribution pattern which were different with other ruminant, andwere suitable for their functions in that part. The existence of D mannose/D glucose glycoconjugates thatwas dominant in forestomach estimated that had important role in supporting fermentative digestionfunction in swamp buffalo, through its function as receptor bacteria attachment. This is suggested as aspecial characteristic in digestive system of swamp buffalo which causes high digestive efficiency inswamp buffalo.

  12. Effect of Vitamin E-Selenium Administration during Late Gestation on Productive and Reproductive Performance in Dairy Buffaloes and on Growth Performance of their Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. I. Qureshi, M. Siddiq, L. A. Lodhi, G. Muhammad1 and H. Jamil

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin E-selenium administration during last month of gestation in improving the productive and reproductive performance of dairy buffaloes and on growth performance of their calves. For this purpose, 40 Nili-Ravi buffaloes in their last month of pregnancy were randomly divided into two groups. The buffaloes in group 1 were treated with 10 ml of vitamin E-Se (Farvet Holland, containing 50 mg of vitamin E and 0.5 mg of sodium selenite/ml intramuscularly on day 30 and 15 prior to expected date of parturition, while buffaloes in group II served as control. All the experimental buffaloes were kept under similar management and feeding conditions. The data on productive performance showed that the colostrum production was 22% higher (P0.05 in Vit E-Se treated buffaloes (706.90  314.29L as compared to control group (663.85  225.46L. Data on reproductive performance showed that vitamin E-Se administration significantly (P0.05. It was inferred that the administration of vitamin E-Se during late gestation in buffaloes have beneficial effect on colostrum production, post partum estrus rates and conception rates.

  13. Thermal Reactor Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  14. Chromatographic and Related Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-07

    special information about effects of surface heteroge- neity in the methanation reaction. Studies of an efficient multicolumn assembly for measuring...of organic basic catalysts such as pyridine and 4-methylpicoline. It was demonstrated that the chromatographic reactor gave special information about...Programmed Reaction to obtain special information about surface heterogeneity in the methanation reaction. Advantages of stopped flow over steady state

  15. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. [eds.

    1992-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  16. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  17. WATER BOILER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L.D.P.

    1960-11-22

    As its name implies, this reactor utilizes an aqueous solution of a fissionable element salt, and is also conventional in that it contains a heat exchanger cooling coil immersed in the fuel. Its novelty lies in the utilization of a cylindrical reactor vessel to provide a critical region having a large and constant interface with a supernatant vapor region, and the use of a hollow sleeve coolant member suspended from the cover assembly in coaxial relation with the reactor vessel. Cool water is circulated inside this hollow coolant member, and a gap between its outer wall and the reactor vessel is used to carry off radiolytic gases for recombination in an external catalyst chamber. The central passage of the coolant member defines a reflux condenser passage into which the externally recombined gases are returned and condensed. The large and constant interface between fuel solution and vapor region prevents the formation of large bubbles and minimizes the amount of fuel salt carried off by water vapor, thus making possible higher flux densities, specific powers and power densities.

  18. The First Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    On December 2, 1942, in a racquet court underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi created the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. This updated and revised story of the first reactor (or "pile") is based on postwar interviews (as told to Corbin…

  19. MULTISTAGE FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.

    1959-11-01

    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  20. Description of Events Where African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Strayed from the Endemic Foot-and-Mouth Disease Zone in South Africa, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, O L; Knobel, D L; De Clercq, E M; De Pus, C; Hendrickx, G; Van den Bossche, P

    2016-06-01

    African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are reservoir hosts of Southern African Territories (SAT) foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus strains. In South Africa, infected buffaloes are found in the FMD-infected zone comprising the Kruger National Park (KNP) and its adjoining reserves. When these buffaloes stray into livestock areas, they pose a risk of FMD transmission to livestock. We assessed 645 records of stray buffalo events (3124 animals) from the FMD infected zone during 1998-2008 for (i) their temporal distribution, (ii) group size, (iii) age and gender composition, (iv) distance from the infected zone fence and (v) outcome reported for each event. A maximum entropy model was developed to evaluate spatial predictors of stray buffalo events and assess current disease control zones. Out of all buffaloes recorded straying, 38.5% escaped from the FMD infected zone during 2000/2001, following floods that caused extensive damage to wildlife fences. Escape patterns were not apparently influenced by season. The median size of stray groups was a single animal (IQR [1-2]). Adult animals predominated, comprising 90.4% (620/686) of the animals for which age was recorded. Of the 315 events with accurate spatial information, 204 (64.8%) were recorded within 1 km from the FMD infected zone. During late winter/spring (June-October), stray buffaloes were found significantly closer to the FMD infected zone (median = 0.3 km, IQR [0.1-0.6]). Less than 13% (40/315) of stray groups reached the FMD protection zone without vaccination, posing a higher risk of spreading FMD to these more susceptible livestock. Model outputs suggest that distance from the FMD infected zone, urban areas and permanent water sources contributed almost 85% to the spatial probability of stray buffalo events. Areas with a high probability for stray buffalo events were well covered by current disease control zones, although FMD risk mitigation could be improved by expanding the vaccination zone in certain areas.