Reynolds, Vernon; Lloyd, Andrew W.; English, Christopher J.; Lyons, Peter; Dodd, Howard; Hobaiter, Catherine; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas; Mullins, Caroline; Lamon, Noemie; Schel, Anne Marijke; Fallon, Brittany
Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consum
Reynolds, Vernon; Lloyd, Andrew W; English, Christopher J; Lyons, Peter; Dodd, Howard; Hobaiter, Catherine; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas; Mullins, Caroline; Lamon, Noemie; Schel, Anne Marijke; Fallon, Brittany
Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consumed indicates that it takes the form of kaolinite. We discuss the contribution of clay geophagy to the mineral intake of the Sonso chimpanzees and show that clay eaten using leaf sponges is particularly rich in minerals. We show that termite mound soil, also regularly consumed, is rich in minerals. We discuss the frequency of clay and termite soil geophagy in the context of the disappearance from Budongo Forest of a formerly rich source of minerals, the decaying pith of Raphia farinifera palms.
Vernon Reynolds; Andrew W Lloyd; English, Christopher J.; Peter Lyons; Howard Dodd; Catherine Hobaiter; Nicholas Newton-Fisher; Caroline Mullins; Noemie Lamon; Anne Marijke Schel; Brittany Fallon
Date of Acceptance: 06/07/2015 Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consumed indicates that it takes the form of kaolinite. We discuss the contribution of clay geophagy to the mineral intake of the Sonso chimpanzees and show that clay ea...
O'Hara, Sean J; Lee, Phyllis C
Cultural or tool use behaviours are typically conducted in social or food procurement contexts where the individual interacts with conspecifics, heterospecifics or environmental features. We report on postcoital penis cleaning in chimpanzees, an activity that does not fit this pattern. In penis cleaning, leaves are employed as 'napkins' to wipe clean the penis after sex. Alternatively, the same cleaning motion can be done without leaves, simply using the fingers. Not all chimpanzee communities studied across Africa clean their penes and, where documented, the behaviour is rare. By contrast, we identify postcoital penis cleaning in Budongo Forest, Uganda, as customary and corroborate penis cleaning as another cultural trait in chimpanzees, one that is specific to only a subset of the eastern subspecies of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). PMID:16912503
Mugisha, Steven; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hobaiter, Catherine
The use of stick- or probe-tools is a chimpanzee universal, recorded in all long-term study populations across Africa, except one: Budongo, Uganda. Here, after 25 years of observation, stick-tool use remains absent under both natural circumstances and strong experimental scaffolding. Instead, the chimpanzees employ a rich repertoire of leaf-tools for a variety of dietary and hygiene tasks. One use of stick-tools in other communities is in feeding on the aggressive Dorylus 'army ant' species, consumed by chimpanzees at all long-term study sites outside of mid-Western Uganda. Here we report the first observation of army-ant feeding in Budongo, in which individuals from the Waibira chimpanzee community employed detached leaves to feed on a ground swarm. We describe the behaviour and discuss whether or not it can be considered tool use, together with its implication for the absence of stick-tool 'culture' in Budongo chimpanzees. PMID:27038810
Presentation on the effects of forest decentralization reforms in Uganda on both forest sustainability and livelihoods. Presents findings of data gathered using the Poverty and Environment Network method. LTRA-1 (Decentralization Reforms and Property Rights)
In 1986, the Government of Uganda established the Ministry of Environmental Protection to meet the country's socioeconomic development needs without destroying the environment. A Ministry-supported village pilot project in the Gombe region promotes self-sufficiency in potable water, food, and energy and tests means to achieve ecologically sound management of sustainable food/energy/fodder production. The Ministry also serves to sensitize the public to environmental issues by encouraging Ugandan newspapers to report more environment-related stories. A newspaper story informed the government about fishermen along a 20 km stretch of the Nile River and in Lake Victoria who used dynamite to kill fish, including juvenile and noncommercial fish. Thus, the government quickly put a halt to dynamiting. The ministry also produces films on Uganda's environmental problems. Some of these problems include the indiscriminate destruction of forests (e.g., Mabira, Mt. Elgon, Kibale, Budongo, Bwindi, and Maramagambo) and farmlands along Lake Victoria. Further, Uganda is witnessing either killing or smuggling of its elephants, rhinos, insects, birds, reptiles, and primates. In 1988, the World Bank committed about US$33.5 million to activities to protect Uganda's forests. They include planting of exotic softwoods, timber harvesting from remaining forests, and reestablishment of self-sufficiency in fuelwoods. The government hopes that forest rehabilitation will bring back tourism which before the civil war was the country's second highest foreign exchange earner. In fact, the remaining forests house the world's greatest population densities of primates (e.g., mountain gorillas in the southwest) and many rate birds. The UN Environmental Program will write Uganda's environmental protection law and helps the Ministry to promote environmental and public awareness.
In 1986, the Government of Uganda established the Ministry of Environmental Protection to meet the country's socioeconomic development needs without destroying the environment. A Ministry-supported village pilot project in the Gombe region promotes self-sufficiency in potable water, food, and energy and tests means to achieve ecologically sound management of sustainable food/energy/fodder production. The Ministry also serves to sensitize the public to environmental issues by encouraging Ugandan newspapers to report more environment-related stories. A newspaper story informed the government about fishermen along a 20 km stretch of the Nile River and in Lake Victoria who used dynamite to kill fish, including juvenile and noncommercial fish. Thus, the government quickly put a halt to dynamiting. The ministry also produces films on Uganda's environmental problems. Some of these problems include the indiscriminate destruction of forests (e.g., Mabira, Mt. Elgon, Kibale, Budongo, Bwindi, and Maramagambo) and farmlands along Lake Victoria. Further, Uganda is witnessing either killing or smuggling of its elephants, rhinos, insects, birds, reptiles, and primates. In 1988, the World Bank committed about US$33.5 million to activities to protect Uganda's forests. They include planting of exotic softwoods, timber harvesting from remaining forests, and reestablishment of self-sufficiency in fuelwoods. The government hopes that forest rehabilitation will bring back tourism which before the civil war was the country's second highest foreign exchange earner. In fact, the remaining forests house the world's greatest population densities of primates (e.g., mountain gorillas in the southwest) and many rate birds. The UN Environmental Program will write Uganda's environmental protection law and helps the Ministry to promote environmental and public awareness. PMID:12285370
Nangendo, G.; A. Stein; Gelens, M.; de Gier, A.; Albricht, R.
Mosaics of natural forest and grassland tracts in sub-Saharan Africa provide differences in woody species biodiversity. These mosaics are of considerable interest as they are a major biodiversity bank. Their richness is felt to be threatened, for example by local burning. This study focuses on the impact of burning on biodiversity in the Budongo Forest Reserve in Uganda. Woody species at different development stages are compared between a forest stratum and the adjacent grassland stratum. Spa...
Mugisha, Steven; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Hobaiter, Cat
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC grant agreement no 283871. The use of stick- or probe-tools is a chimpanzee universal, recorded in all long-term study populations across Africa, except one: Budongo, Uganda. Here, after 25-years of observation, stick-tool use remains absent under both natural circumstances and strong experimental scaffolding. Instead, the ...
Hashimoto, Chie; Isaji, Mina; Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi
Chimpanzees at numerous study sites are known to prey on army ants by using a single wand to dip into the ant nest or column. However, in Goualougo (Republic of Congo) in Central Africa, chimpanzees use a different technique, use of a woody sapling to perforate the ant nest, then use of a herb stem as dipping tool to harvest the army ants. Use of a tool set has also been found in Guinea, West Africa: at Seringbara in the Nimba Mountains and at nearby Bossou. There are, however, no reports for chimpanzees in East Africa. We observed use of such a tool set in Kalinzu, Uganda, for the first time by Eastern chimpanzees. This behavior was observed among one group of chimpanzees at Kalinzu (S-group) but not among the adjacent group (M-group) with partly overlapping ranging areas despite the fact that the latter group has been under intensive observation since 1997. In Uganda, ant-dipping has not been observed in the northern three sites (Budongo, Semliki, and Kibale) but has been observed or seems to occur in the southern sites (Kalinzu and Bwindi), which suggests that ant-dipping was invented by and spread from the southern region after the northern and southern forest blocks became separated. Use of a tool-set by only one group at Kalinzu further suggests that this behavior was recently invented and has not yet spread to the other group via migrating females. PMID:26243503
McCarthy, M.S.; Lester, J.D.; Howe, Eric John; M. Arandjelovic; Stanford, C.B.; Vigilant, L.
Background As habitat degradation and fragmentation continue to impact wildlife populations around the world, it is critical to understand the behavioral flexibility of species in these environments. In Uganda, the mostly unprotected forest fragment landscape between the Budongo and Bugoma Forests is a potential corridor for chimpanzees, yet little is known about the status of chimpanzee populations in these fragments. Results From 2011 through 2013, we noninvasively collected 865 chimpanzee ...
Forest resource access is often conceptualized as a `bundle of rights` held by different social groups at different times. In Uganda, similar to other parts of the world, professional foresters and scientists concerned with resource conservation have conceived of forests mainly in terms of access ri
This study deals with the stem growth and seedling regeneration of different native tree species in two East African rainforests influenced by human disturbance in Kenya (Kakamega Forest) and Uganda (Budongo Forest), also considering spatially and temporally variable environmental influences. In the lower montane rainforest (1500 to 1700 m a.s.l.) Kakamega Forest (KF) surveys were conducted on trees ≥ 5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) on an overall area of 2.08 ha (1 ha plot and 27 plot...
Nummelin, M.; Zilihona, I.J.E.
http://www.elsevier.com/locate/issn/03781127 The structure of arthropod communities in the forest floor vegetation in four differently managed forest sites (virgin forest, lightly selectively logged, heavily selectively logged, and exotic Pinus caribaea plantation) in Kibale Forest National Park, western Uganda, was studied by sweep net between March and May 1985 and July 1995. For the analysis three (or four) 800 sweeps samples were collected from each habitat. In the samples eig...
Uganda occupies 94,354 square miles in central Africa, bounded by Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zaire, and Sudan. It includes part of Lake Victoria, and the Ruwenzori mountains are on its border with Zaire. The country is largely on a plateau and thus has a pleasant climate. 12% of the land is devoted to national parks and game preserves. The northeast is semiarid; the southwest and west are rainy. The population of 15,900,896, growing at 3.7% a year, is mostly rural and is composed of 3 ethnic groups: The Bantu, including the Buganda, the Banyankole and the Basoga; the Nilo-Hamitic Iteso; and the Nilots. There are also some Asians and Arabs. The official language is English, but Luganda and Swahili are widely used. The majority of the people are Christian. Literacy is about 52%, and 57% of school-age children attend primary school. Infant mortality rate is 108/1000, and life expectancy is 49 years. The 1st Englishman to see Uganda was Captain John Speke in 1862. The Kingdom of Buganda became a British protectorate in 1894, and the protectorate was extended to the rest of the country in 1896. In the 1950s the British began an africanization of the government prior to formal independence, but the 1st general elections in 1961 were boycotted by the Bugandans, who wanted autonomy. In the 2nd election, in March, 1962, the Democratic Party, led by Benedicto Kiwanuka, defeated the Uganda People's Congress (UPC), led by Apollo Milton Obote; however, a month later, the UPC allied with the Buganda traditionalists, the Kabaka Yekka, and formed a collision government under Obote. Uganda became independent in 1962 with the King of Buganda, Sir Edward Frederick Mutesa II as president. Political rivalries continued, and in 1966 Prime Minister Obote suspended the constitution, and the Buganda government lost its semiautonomy. Obote's government was overthrown in 1971 by Idi Amin Dada, under whose 8-year reign of terror 100,000 Ugandans were murdered. Amin was ousted by an invading
Sassen, M.; Sheil, D.
We investigated how local scale variation in human impacts influenced forest structure and tree species richness within Mt Elgon National Park, Uganda. We assessed basal area (BA), stem density, diameter at breast height (dbh) and indicators of human activity in 343 plots in four study sites, on tra
McLennan, Matthew R
Insects are a nutritious food source for many primates. In chimpanzees, insectivory is most prevalent among communities that manufacture tools to harvest social insects, particularly ants and termites. In contrast to other long-term study sites, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Budongo Forest and Kibale National Park, Uganda, rarely eat insects and have small foraging tool kits, supporting speculation that infrequent insectivory--technically aided or otherwise--characterises chimpanzees in this part of Uganda's Rift Valley. To expand the dataset for this region, insect foraging was investigated at Bulindi (25 km from Budongo) over 19 months during two studies in 2007-2008 and 2012-2013. Systematic faecal analysis demonstrated that insectivory is a habitual foraging activity at this site. Overall levels of insect consumption varied considerably across months but were not predicted by monthly changes in rainfall or fruit intake. Unlike their Budongo and Kibale counterparts, Bulindi chimpanzees often consume ants (principally weaver ants, Oecophylla longinoda) and use sticks to dig out stingless bee (Meliponini) ground nests. In other respects, however, insectivory at Bulindi conforms to the pattern observed elsewhere in this region: they do not manufacture 'fishing' or 'dipping' tools to harvest termites and aggressive or hard-to-access ants (e.g., army ants, Dorylus spp.), despite availability of suitable prey. The Bulindi data lend support to the supposition that chimpanzees in this part of the Rift Valley rarely exploit termites and Dorylus ants, apparently lacking the 'cultural knowledge' that would enable them to do so most efficiently (i.e., tool use). The study's findings contribute to current debates about the relative influence of genetics, environment and culture in shaping regional and local variability in Pan foraging ecology. PMID:24522970
Akite, Perpetra; Telford, Richard; Waring, Paul; Akol, Anne M.; Vandvik, Vigdis
Forest-dependent biodiversity is threatened throughout the tropics by habitat loss and land-use intensification of the matrix habitats. We resampled historic data on two moth families, known to play central roles in many ecosystem processes, to evaluate temporal changes in species richness and community structure in three protected forests in central Uganda in a rapidly changing matrix. Our results show some significant declines in the moth species richness and the relative abundance and rich...
Full Text Available Ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District in Uganda were carried out between May and December 1991, and covered the northern part of the Rwenzori Mountain slopes occupied by the Bakonjo people. The presence of a major footpath through the forest with numerous utility trails radiating from it showed that some forest resources are being sought by the local population. Plant biodiversity is high, as is indicated by the fact that in a study plot of only 4 250 m , a total of 115 plant species, 101 genera and 57 families were identified from a collection of 300 plant specimens. Seventy-seven plant species were found to be of some importance to the local communities. Out of the 77 useful plant species recorded: 22 species were used for medicinal purposes; 16 for firewood; 13 for construction, joinery and furniture; 12 for craftwork; 10 provided edible fruits and vegetables; and 27 were used for a variety of other purposes. These other purposes include construction of shrines, covering of granary floors, use as toilet paper, carry ing luggage, and fodder for goats, sheep and cattle. Arundinaria alpina K. Schum. (bamboo is the species that is most extensively harvested from the forest.
Akite, Perpetra; Telford, Richard J; Waring, Paul; Akol, Anne M; Vandvik, Vigdis
Forest-dependent biodiversity is threatened throughout the tropics by habitat loss and land-use intensification of the matrix habitats. We resampled historic data on two moth families, known to play central roles in many ecosystem processes, to evaluate temporal changes in species richness and community structure in three protected forests in central Uganda in a rapidly changing matrix. Our results show some significant declines in the moth species richness and the relative abundance and richness of forest-dependent species over the last 20-40 years. The observed changes in species richness and composition among different forests, ecological types, and moth groups highlight the need to repeatedly monitor biodiversity even within protected and relatively intact forests. PMID:25937916
McLennan, Matthew R; Hill, Catherine M
We describe the behavior of a previously unstudied community of wild chimpanzees during opportunistic encounters with researchers in an unprotected forest-farm mosaic at Bulindi, Uganda. Data were collected during 115 encounters between May 2006 and January 2008. Individual responses were recorded during the first minute of visual contact. The most common responses were "ignore" for arboreal chimpanzees and "monitor" for terrestrial individuals. Chimpanzees rarely responded with "flight". Adult males were seen disproportionately often relative to adult females, and accounted for 90% of individual responses recorded for terrestrial animals. Entire encounters were also categorized based on the predominant response of the chimpanzee party to researcher proximity. The most frequent encounter type was "ignore" (36%), followed by "monitor" (21%), "intimidation" (18%) and "stealthy retreat" (18%). "Intimidation" encounters occurred when chimpanzees were contacted in dense forest where visibility was low, provoking intense alarm and agitation. Adult males occasionally acted together to repel researchers through aggressive mobbing and pursuit. Chimpanzee behavior during encounters reflects the familiar yet frequently agonistic relationship between apes and local people at Bulindi. The chimpanzees are not hunted but experience high levels of harassment from villagers. Human-directed aggression by chimpanzees may represent a strategy to accommodate regular disruptions to foraging effort arising from competitive encounters with people both in and outside forest. Average encounter duration and proportion of encounters categorized as "ignore" increased over time, whereas "intimidation" encounters decreased, indicating some habituation occurred during the study. Ecotourism aimed at promoting tolerance of wildlife through local revenue generation is one possible strategy for conserving great apes on public or private land. However, the data imply that habituating chimpanzees for
McLennan, Matthew R; Asiimwe, Caroline
Roads have broadly adverse impacts on wildlife, including nonhuman primates. One direct effect is mortality from collisions with vehicles. While highly undesirable, roadkills provide valuable information on the health and condition of endangered species. We present a case report of a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) killed crossing a road in Bulindi, Uganda, where chimpanzees inhabit forest fragments amid farmland. Details of the collision are constructed from eyewitness accounts of pedestrians. Physical examination of the cadaver indicated good overall body condition; at 40 kg, the deceased female was heavier than usual for an adult female East African chimpanzee. No external wounds or fractures were noted. Coprological assessment demonstrated infection by several gastrointestinal parasites commonly reported in living wild chimpanzees. Histopathology revealed eosinophilic enteritis and biliary hyperplasia potentially caused by parasite infection. However, eosinophilia was not widely spread into the submucosa, while egg/cyst counts suggested low-intensity parasite infections compared to healthy female chimpanzees of similar age in nearby Budongo Forest. No behavioral indicators of ill health were noted in the deceased female in the month prior to the accident. We conclude that cause of death was acute, i.e., shock from the collision, and was probably unrelated to parasite infection or any other underlying health condition. Notably, this female had asymmetrical polythelia, and, while nursing at the time of her death, had one functioning mammary gland only. In Uganda, where primates often inhabit human-dominated landscapes, human population growth and economic development has given rise to increasing motor traffic, while road development is enabling motorists to travel at greater speeds. Thus, the danger of roads to apes and other wildlife is rising, necessitating urgent strategies to reduce risks. Installation of simple speed-bumps-common on Ugandan
HADDOW, A J; WILLIAMS, M C; WOODALL, J P; SIMPSON, D I; GOMA, L K
In continuation of a series of studies of arboreal mosquitos as virus vectors in Uganda, 12 strains of Zika virus and one strain of another Group B arbovirus were isolated between November 1961 and June 1963 from pools of Aedes (Stegomyia) africanus caught on a 120-foot (36.5-m) tower in Zika forest. For five strains it is known at what height the mosquitos were caught: one was from mosquitos taken at ground level, and the other four were from mosquitos taken in or above the upper canopy after sunset. No small mammal trapped in the forest either on the ground or in the trees showed serum antibody for Zika virus.These findings suggest that in Zika forest, A. (S.) africanus becomes infected from a virus reservoir that is probably not among the small animals tested and that infected mosquitos are liable to be spread widely beyond the forest by convection currents above the tree-tops in the first two or three hours after sunset.
Key words: tropical forest, conservation management, local livelihoods, forest cover change, disturbance, fuelwood, forest structure, species richness, biomass, Mount Elgon A growing world population has important consequences for forests. In this study I investigate how co
Insufficient energy supply and low levels of development are closely linked. Both are major issues in Uganda where growing demand cannot be met by overstretched infrastructure and the majority still rely on traditional biomass use. Uganda's renewable energy policy focuses on decentralised sources including modern biomass. In this paper, stakeholder dynamics and potential socio-economic impacts of eight modern bioenergy feedstock production models in Uganda are considered, and key considerations for future planning provided. For these models the main distinctions were land ownership (communal or private) and feedstock type (by-product or plantation). Key social issues varied by value chain (corporate, government or farmer/NGO), and what production arrangement was in place (produced for own use or sale). Small, privately owned production models can be profitable but are unlikely to benefit landless poor and, if repeated without strategic planning, could result in resource depletion. Larger projects can have greater financial benefits, though may have longer term natural resource impacts felt by adjacent communities. Bioenergy initiatives which allow the rural poor to participate through having a collaborative stake, rather than receiving information, and provide opportunities for the landless are most likely to result in socio-economic rural development to meet policy goals. The structured approach to understanding stakeholder dynamics used was found to be robust and sufficiently adaptable to provide meaningful analysis. In conclusion; local, context-specific planning and assessment for bioenergy projects, where all stakeholders have the opportunity to be collaborators in the process throughout its full lifecycle, is required to achieve rural development objectives. -- Highlights: • Stakeholder dynamics and socio-economics in 8 Ugandan bioenergy projects considered. • Key distinctions were ownership, feedstock, value chain and production arrangement. • Small
Sassen, M.; Sheil, D.; Giller, K.E.
Local communities who live close to protected tropical forests often depend on them for woodfuel, their main source of energy. The impacts of fuelwood extraction in humid forests are rarely studied, yet the extraction of wood for fuel can impact forest structure, function and biodiversity. We assess
McLennan, Matthew R
Honey-gathering from bee nests has been recorded at chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) study sites across tropical Africa. Different populations employ different strategies, ranging from simple 'smash-and grab' raids to use of sophisticated tool-sets, i.e., two or more types of tool used sequentially in a single task. In this paper I present evidence of tool-use, and the probable use of a tool-set, for honey-gathering by unhabituated chimpanzees at Bulindi, a forest-farm mosaic south of the Budongo Forest in Uganda. Between June and December 2007, 44 stick tools were found in association with 16 holes dug in the ground, corresponding to the period when stingless bees (Meliponula sp.) appeared in chimpanzee dung. In 11 cases the confirmed target was a Meliponula ground nest. Two potential tool types were distinguished: digging sticks encrusted with soil, and more slender and/or flexible sticks largely devoid of soil that may have functioned to probe the bees' narrow entry tubes. Reports of chimpanzees using tools to dig for honey have been largely confined to Central Africa. Honey-digging has not previously been reported for Ugandan chimpanzees. Similarly, use of a tool-set to obtain honey has thus far been described for wild chimpanzee populations only in Central Africa. Evidence strongly suggests that Bulindi chimpanzees also use sticks in predation on carpenter bee (Xylocopa sp.) nests, perhaps as probes to locate honey or to disable adult bees. These preliminary findings from Bulindi add to our understanding of chimpanzee technological and cultural variation. However, unprotected forests at Bulindi and elsewhere in the region are currently severely threatened by commercial logging and clearance for farming. Populations with potentially unique behavioral and technological repertoires are being lost. PMID:21633915
McLennan, Matthew R
Honey-gathering from bee nests has been recorded at chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) study sites across tropical Africa. Different populations employ different strategies, ranging from simple 'smash-and grab' raids to use of sophisticated tool-sets, i.e., two or more types of tool used sequentially in a single task. In this paper I present evidence of tool-use, and the probable use of a tool-set, for honey-gathering by unhabituated chimpanzees at Bulindi, a forest-farm mosaic south of the Budongo Forest in Uganda. Between June and December 2007, 44 stick tools were found in association with 16 holes dug in the ground, corresponding to the period when stingless bees (Meliponula sp.) appeared in chimpanzee dung. In 11 cases the confirmed target was a Meliponula ground nest. Two potential tool types were distinguished: digging sticks encrusted with soil, and more slender and/or flexible sticks largely devoid of soil that may have functioned to probe the bees' narrow entry tubes. Reports of chimpanzees using tools to dig for honey have been largely confined to Central Africa. Honey-digging has not previously been reported for Ugandan chimpanzees. Similarly, use of a tool-set to obtain honey has thus far been described for wild chimpanzee populations only in Central Africa. Evidence strongly suggests that Bulindi chimpanzees also use sticks in predation on carpenter bee (Xylocopa sp.) nests, perhaps as probes to locate honey or to disable adult bees. These preliminary findings from Bulindi add to our understanding of chimpanzee technological and cultural variation. However, unprotected forests at Bulindi and elsewhere in the region are currently severely threatened by commercial logging and clearance for farming. Populations with potentially unique behavioral and technological repertoires are being lost.
Red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) were observed hunting green pigeons (Treron calva) in the Kalinzu Forest in Uganda. During 2 h 39 min, I observed two cases of successful hunting and one case of unsuccessful hunting in a Ficus saussureana tree. Red-tailed monkeys stalked the pigeons until they were within 2-3 m, and then jumped and caught them. In both successful cases, blue monkeys (C. mitis) ran to the hunting site from adjacent trees in order to poach the prey, and the red-tailed monkeys fled. One of these red-tailed monkeys dropped the pigeon while fleeing, and the blue monkey climbed down from the tree to search for it. This is the first record of cercopithecoid monkeys hunting birds that are outside of the nest and moving freely, and also the first record of red-tailed monkeys hunting vertebrates. However rare it may be, the repeated hunting attempts using similar techniques and the immediate attempt of blue monkeys to poach the prey suggest that this type of hunting was not a one-time event that happened by chance. Blue monkeys and an adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in and around the fig tree did not attempt to hunt. The hunting of volant birds may be enabled by the small body size and the quick movements of red-tailed monkeys. PMID:16467957
Forest-Woodland-Savanna (FWS) mosaics are complex, highly varied and dynamic landscapes.Until recently, they were considered poor in terms of biodiversity. Consequently, only few scientific studies have been done on them and little attention has been paid to their cons
Forest-Woodland-Savanna (FWS) mosaics are complex, highly varied and dynamic landscapes.Until recently, they were considered poor in terms of biodiversity. Consequently, only few scientific studies have been done on them and little attention has been paid to their cons
Full Text Available Faced with a multitude of soil and water amendment technologies, farmers have the task of choosing the technologies to adopt for ensuring subsistence and income sustainability. In 2008, a study to characterize the farmers was conducted around Mabira Forest, to assess the adoption of soil technologies fostering Belowground Biodiversity (BGBD. Eighty-four households (38 participating and 46 non-participants from four villages were randomly selected and interviewed. Results showed that the adoption pattern was significantly driven by farm size, labor, household size, age and wealth status of the house. Also important were farm location, gender of household head, primary occupation, soil and water conservation technologies training, land tenure, and social capital. For the few current adopters, there was a perceived increase in labor demand but overall productivity was higher, partly resulting from increased crop productivity due to soil fertility enhancement and soil structure modification. It is therefore concluded that, around Mabira forest, BGBD technologies will be adopted by farming households with sufficient land, labor and social capital.
Hasegawa, Hideo; Kalousova, Barbora; McLennan, Matthew R; Modry, David; Profousova-Psenkova, Ilona; Shutt-Phillips, Kathryn A; Todd, Angelique; Huffman, Michael A; Petrzelkova, Klara J
DNA sequence analysis was carried out on Strongyloides spp. larvae obtained from fecal samples of local humans, a wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a central chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic, and eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) living in degraded forest fragments on farmland in Bulindi, Uganda. From humans, both Strongyloides fuelleborni and Strongyloides stercoralis were recorded, though the former was predominant. Only S. fuelleborni was present in the great apes in both areas. Phylogenetic analysis of partial mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox1) and comparison of 18S rDNA hyper variable region IV (HVR-IV) sequences implied that in DSPA S. fuelleborni populations in humans differ from those in the nonhuman great apes. PMID:27180094
Nangendo, G.; Steege, ter H.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.
Forest¿woodland¿savannah mosaics are a common feature in the East African landscape. For the conservation of the woody species that occur in such landscapes, the species patterns and the factors that maintain it need to be understood. We studied the woody species distribution in a forest¿woodland¿sa
Grieser Johns, B.
Although both species of chimpanzees, the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus) show a so-called fission-fusion social organisation, they differ significantly in the details of social relationships between and within genders. These differences have been linked to ecological differences between the species, habitats. Common chimpanzees living in forested habitats were put forward as providing a link between common chimpanzees in less forested...
Full Text Available Landscape patterns and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii densities in Kibale National Park show important variation among communities that are geographically close to one another (from 1.5 to 5.1 chimpanzees/km2. Anthropogenic activities inside the park (past logging activities, current encroachment and outside its limits (food and cash crops may impact the amount and distribution of food resources for chimpanzees (frugivorous species and their spatial distribution within the park. Spatial and temporal patterns of fruit availability were recorded over 18 months at Sebitoli (a site of intermediate chimpanzee density and higher anthropic pressure with the aim of understanding the factors explaining chimpanzee density there, in comparison to results from two other sites, also in Kibale: Kanyawara (low chimpanzee density and Ngogo (high density, and furthest from Sebitoli. Because of the post-logging regenerating status of the forest in Sebitoli and Kanyawara, smaller basal area (BA of fruiting trees most widely consumed by the chimpanzees in Kanyawara and Sebitoli was expected compared to Ngogo (not logged commercially. Due to the distance between sites, spatial and temporal fruit abundance in Sebitoli was expected to be more similar to Kanyawara than to Ngogo. While species functional classes consumed by Sebitoli chimpanzees (foods eaten during periods of high or low fruit abundance differ from the two other sites, Sebitoli is very similar to Kanyawara in terms of land-cover and consumed species. Among feeding trees, Ficus species are particularly important resources for chimpanzees at Sebitoli, where their basal area is higher than at Kanywara or Ngogo. Ficus species provided a relatively consistent supply of food for chimpanzees throughout the year, and we suggest that this could help to explain the unusually high density of chimpanzees in such a disturbed site.
US Agency for International Development — A web-based performance reporting system that is managed by IBI that interfaces with the Mission's GIS database that supports USAID/Uganda and its implementing...
Gomes, Iva; Pereira, Vania; Gomes, Verónica;
The Karimojong, an African group from the Karamoja region of Northeast Uganda, were genetically analysed using a decaplex system for X chromosome short tandem repeats (X-STRs). A total of 255 individuals (117 males and 138 females) were genotyped for the following loci: DXS8378, DXS9898, DXS7133,...
World Bank; Government of Uganda
The objective of the Ugandan government is to make Uganda an upper - middle income country within thirty years. Economic diversification is a key component of that strategy. The country economic memorandum (CEM) report discusses how the emergence of oil and mineral production can contribute to Uganda’s effort to promote economic diversification as a means to achieve sustainable and shared ...
Uganda is one of the most biologically diverse countries in Africa. Most of its biodiversity is represented within a system of national parks, wild life reserves and forest reserves. In 1991, Bwindi forest was turned into a National Park which led to conflicts between communities and park managers due to resource use restrictions. In 1996, a strategy of local participation was established by Uganda Wildlife Authority. This strategy included the involvement of local people in benefit sharing, ...
This PowerPoint summarizes the research and training activities of SANREM’s regional project in Kenya and Uganda. It provides background information on the project’s sites in Kapchorwa, Uganda and Bungoma, Kenya. It summarizes research findings related to presence of weeds, soil organic matter, crop residue utilization, penetration resistance, trace gases, and household characteristics by district. LTRA-10 (CAPS for smallholder farms in eastern Uganda and western Kenya)
Plumptre, Andrew J; Cox, Debby
Primate census techniques have been developed over the past 35-40 years yet there is still some confusion and great variation in the methods used. This precludes comparisons between sites where different techniques have been used. This paper discusses the variations between the methods that seem to be practiced currently and then describes a census of primates in the forests of western Uganda. Primate density and biomass varied greatly between forests as well as within forests and this is probably related to food availability. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) density was strongly correlated with nest encounter rates from reconnaissance walks in the forest. This result can be used to estimate chimpanzee density in forests where it is difficult to survey this species (e.g., due to security reasons). A total of 4,980 chimpanzee was estimated for Uganda which is higher than previously guessed, but still of conservation concern. Only four forests had more than 500 individuals which gives concern for long-term population viability. PMID:16132166
Avitabile, V.; Baccini, A.; Friedl, M.A.; Schmullius, C.
Aboveground woody biomass for circa-2000 is mapped at national scale in Uganda at 30-m spatial resolution on the basis of Landsat ETM + images, a National land cover dataset and field data using an object-oriented approach. A regression tree-based model (Random Forest) produces good results (cross-v
@@ If you think that the typical Africa countryside doesn't offer you rolling emerald1 hills, snow capped mountains,misty forests and deep, crystal dear lakes then you haven't been to Uganda. Even though Uganda is a small country, it offers all of this and a lot more-white water rafting, gorilla2tracking, game viewing and some of the best trekking in Africa. Most importantly, the friendly and relaxed locals all speak excellent English. What more could you ask for from an exotic holiday destination?
M. B. Théodore Munyuli
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to collect information about the diversity of butterfly communities in the mixed coffee-banana mosaic (seminatural, agricultural landscapes of rural central Uganda. Data were collected for one year (2006 using fruit-bait traps, line transect walk-and-counts, and hand nets. A total of 56,315 individuals belonging to 331 species, 95 genera, and 6 families were sampled. The most abundant species was Bicyclus safitza (14.5% followed by Acraea acerata (6.3%, Catopsilia florella (6.5% and Junonia sophia (6.1%. Significant differences in abundance, species richness, and diversity of butterflies occurred between the 26 study sites. Farmland butterflies visited a variety of habitats within and around sites, but important habitats included woodlands, fallows, hedgerows, swampy habitats, abandoned gardens, and home gardens. The highest diversity and abundance of butterflies occurred in sites that contained forest remnants. Thus, forest reserves in the surrounding of fields increased the conservation values of coffee-banana agroforestry systems for butterflies. Their protection from degradation should be a priority for policy makers since they support a species-rich community of butterflies pollinating cultivated plants. Farmers are encouraged to protect and increase on-farm areas covered by complex traditional agroforests, linear, and nonlinear seminatural habitats to provide sufficient breeding sites and nectar resources for butterflies.
Since 1997 Uganda has seen a large increase in school enrolment. Despite this increased enrolment, universal education has remained elusive. Many children enrol in school, but not at the recommended age, and they drop out before completing school. This article focuses on one of these problems--delayed school entry. What household factors are…
Papworth, Sarah; Böse, Anne-Sophie; Barker, Jessica; Schel, Anne Marijke; Zuberbühler, Klaus
Male blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni) of Budongo Forest, Uganda, produce two acoustically distinct alarm calls: hacks to crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and pyows to leopards (Panthera pardus) and a range of other disturbances. In playback experiments, males responded to leopard growls exclusively with a series of pyows and to eagle shrieks predominantly with hacks. Responses to playbacks of these alarm call series matched the responses to the corresponding predators, su...
Kaiser, Christoph; Rubaale, Tom; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Kipp, Walter; Asaba, George
Nodding syndrome (NS) is a poorly understood condition, which was delineated in 2008 as a new epilepsy syndrome. So far, confirmed cases of NS have been observed in three circumscribed African areas: southern Tanzania, southern Sudan, and northern Uganda. Case-control studies have provided evidence of an association between NS and infection with Onchocerca volvulus, but the causation of NS is still not fully clarified. We report a case of a 15-year old boy with head nodding seizures and other characteristic features of NS from an onchocerciasis endemic area in western Uganda, with no contiguity to the hitherto known areas. We suggest that the existence of NS should be systematically investigated in other areas. PMID:25918208
Brunner, Nicole; Semmens, Darius; Hawbaker, Todd
Uganda is one of the world's most biodiverse countries, yet also one of the poorest. Human dependence on natural resources, especially from forests, is most pronounced in developing countries such as Uganda, where many people live in poverty and rely on fuel wood for cooking. These demands often compete with conservation efforts aimed at protecting forests and biodiversity. An understanding of trends in forest condition and local community use of forests is necessary to explore the implications of changing environmental conditions on the sustainability of Uganda's forests and forest-related socioeconomic activities. A human-environment framework is applied to this research by comparing environmental layers derived from remotely sensed imagery with socioeconomic data acquired from household surveys. Statistical modeling was used to explain the relationship between household characteristics (e.g., fuel use) and environmental characteristics (e.g., land cover change) and to quantify the role of spatial arrangement or pattern in understanding human-environment relationships (e.g., access and distance). The findings show that distance from protected forests is related to changes in household fuel type. For example, increases in charcoal as the primary cooking fuel is observed in households a closer distance to protected forests. This change is likely due to access to forest resources. The results of this study could inform policies aimed at protecting forests as well as protecting the interests of people in proximity to protected forests.
International Monetary Fund
The Selected Issues paper for Uganda and Rwanda discusses the impact of rising international food and fuel prices on inflation. Unlike in the case of fuel-producing countries, the East African Community countries are major agricultural producers, with agriculture accounting for 20 percent to 40 percent of their GDP. The two most important factors limiting the pass-through of world food commodities are therefore the high degree of self-sufficiency in the production of main tradable food commod...
Much has been written, especially the last five years, about the alleged wave of democracy in Africa. However, the focus has usually been on rather narrow institutional questions such as introduction of multi-party elections, and analyses have in general focused on national politics as played out...... political participation rather than only form al rights. I shall do so by analysing the Resistance Councils (RCs) in Uganda....
Anguma, S.; Ayikoru, J.
This paper discusses the strategies and importance of introducing space science in Uganda. It proposes that Mbarara University, as a new university focusing on science and technology, would be ideally situated to spearhead the introduction of space science in Uganda. It is our expectation that this will have a spin-off effect to other higher institutions of learning and that consequently space science will become fully incorporated into the national teaching curriculum for all schools in Uganda. Based on the fact that the Government has a deliberate policy of popularizing science and technology to accelerate national economic development, the introduction of space science in the school system is to be enhanced by these efforts. We have charted the way forward for space science in Uganda and outlined the conceptual framework illustrating the spin-off effect into the education system.
Zirnask, Villu, 1966-
Maailma tervishoiuorganisatsiooni (WHO) statistika järgi tarbivad maailmas kõige enam alkoholi Uganda elanikud - aastas 17,6 liitrit puhast alkoholi vanema kui 15-aastase elaniku kohta. Lisaks tabel alkoholi tarbimise kohta maailmas
Full Text Available This article deals with the statistical data and analysis con-cerning poverty among the young people in Uganda. The poverty is continuously ascending, with the most affected region being Northern Uganda. The major cause of poverty in Uganda has been the “South-North divide” fuelled by poor political leadership, that divides people along the lines of politics and ethnicity. Poverty has caused many young people of Northern Uganda to resort to rebellion against the government currently in power. This has led to unending political instability and civil strife most especially in Northern Uganda. In this article atten-tion is given to the conflict in Northern Uganda and attempts are made to propose some amicable resolutions. The discussion includes the current poverty scenario in Northern Uganda and possible strategies for reducing the poverty rate that has caused much damage in Northern Uganda.
Much has been written, especially the last five years, about the alleged wave of democracy in Africa. However, the focus has usually been on rather narrow institutional questions such as introduction of multi-party elections, and analyses have in general focused on national politics as played out...... participation rather than only form al rights. I shall do so by analysing the Resistance Councils (RCs) in Uganda....... in the capitals. In my dissertation I propose to change that focus. Partly by paying particular attention to rural politics, partly through a discussion of democracy in a longer-term perspective using a broader definition of democracy and finally through a discussion of democracy as effective political...
Uganda has two Government funded universities, five operating private universities and four other universities are due to start soon. Geology was first taught in Uganda at Makerere University in 1968 within the Department of Geography. Through the leadership of Prof. Robert Macdonald it became established as a full department in August 1969 as part of the Faculty of Science. Both pure and applied geology are taught and the courses are designed to suit the current job market. At present, the three-term academic year is being replaced by a semester-based course unit system. At the same time, the 3:2:2 subject combination, requiring a student to do three subjects in first year and two subjects in both second and third years, is to be replaced by a major-minor subject combination. Currently, there are about 50 undergraduate students and four Ph.D. students in the Department. A student Geological Association acts as a forum for the exchange of information on matters of geological concern. An affirmative action policy has improved the intake of women students into the Department. On average, the number of women has increased from about 10% to 33.3% in the years 1984/85 to 1997/98. Their performance parallels that of the male students and they are readily employed. Of the eight members of academic staff, two are women. The Department of Geology has good links with regional and overseas universities through which a number of research programmes are currently supported. In addition, most of the training of manpower for the University and research programmes is supported by regional and international research agencies. Academic staff combine teaching with research and consultancy.
Uganda is a fertile, but poor, predominately rural country that was a British protectorate from 1894 until 1962. Uganda made significant achievements in the delivery of health care and education until the rule of Idi Amin (1971-79), when the country was plunged into chaos. The current Ugandan president enjoys broad-based support and has responded to the health care crisis by creating a national system of Resistance Councils using traditional networks to monitor local health developments. The health priorities for women in Uganda include improving maternal-child health; combating AIDS, rape, and sexual abuse; increasing use of family planning; understanding and working to change the cultural context that shapes reproductive health and sex behavior (such as "sugar daddies," older men who entice sex from young girls with presents and money); and expanding women's rights so that they can improve their health.
Innocent K. Besigye
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 It is evident that politicians, health managers and academics are realising the potential contribution of Family Medicine to health systems in sub-Saharan Africa. The challenge is in training institutions to recruit and train enough Family Physicians in order to meet expectations. The 3rd Family Medicine Conference in Uganda, held in October 2013, explored innovative ways of scaling up Family Medicine training and practice in Uganda.
Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; White, Libby
This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), identifies observed changes in rainfall and temperature in Uganda, based on an analysis of a quality-controlled, long time series of station observations throughout Uganda. Extending recent trends forward, it also provides a current and near-future context for understanding the actual nature of climate change impacts in the country, and a basis for identifying climate adaptations that may protect and improve the country's food security.
Hulme, Mark F.; Vickery, Juliet A.; Green, Rhys E.;
(lower yielding farming with more biodiversity within farmland) or a mixed strategy would result in better bird conservation outcomes for a specified level of agricultural production. We surveyed forest and farmland study areas in southern Uganda, measuring the population density of 256 bird species...... with agriculture present) for a range of targets for total agricultural production. For each target we determined whether each species would be predicted to have a higher total population with land sparing, land sharing or with any intermediate level of sparing at an intermediate yield. We found that most species...
Kajja, I.; Kyeyune, D.; Bimenya, G. S.; Sibinga, C. T. S.
Aim: To identify where and why delays occur in Uganda blood banks. Background: The timely provision and supply of safe and efficacious blood components to hospitals depends on sound systems in the processing blood banks. Poorly managed systems lead to apparent blood shortages in hospitals and increa
In 2012, Uganda joined the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) trust fund program, the goal of which is to help countries improve their capacity to design, carry out, analyze, and use assessments for improved student learning. As part of the READ trust fund program, and in order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of its existing assessment system, Tajikistan ...
Brar, Sukhdeep; Farley, Sara E.; Hawkins, Robert; Wagner, Caroline S.
Science, Technology and Innovation in Uganda is part of the World Bank Studies series. These papers are published to communicate the results of the Bank's ongoing research and to stimulate public discussion. This study presents a unique methodology to view science, technology and innovation (STI) in developing countries. The study provides a set…
<正>At the invitation of the Ministry of Local Government of Uganda and the Botswana-China Friendship Association, a 28-member Delegation of the CPAFFC, local government officials and Entrepreneurs led by CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku, paid a goodwill visit to the two countries from May 27 to June 3.
Tushabe, Florence; Baryamureeba, Venansius; Ardil, C
There is a general feeling that Internet crime is an advanced type of crime that has not yet infiltrated developing countries like Uganda. The carefree nature of the Internet in which anybody publishes anything at anytime poses a serious security threat for any nation. Unfortunately, there are no fo
Knowledge of the history and development of early childhood development in Uganda is paramount if we are to know how far we have come and where we are going. This article explores the introduction of early childhood development in Ugandan policy and government interventions from 1960 to 2011. Data was obtained from a review of available early…
Full Text Available Since 2007 a partnership between UNHCR, the Government of Uganda and ‘MakaPads’ inventor Moses Musaazi has helped provide affordable sanitary pads for thousands of refugee girls and women while substantially reducing UNHCR’s expenditure on these essential items.
This report summarizes the findings of the Uganda Sustainable Land Management Public Expenditure Review (SLM PER). The SLM PER was undertaken to achieve six main objectives: (i) establish a robust data base on SLM-related public expenditure that can support credible empirical analysis; (ii) develop a sound methodology for conducting SLM PERs, which could guide similar work in the future; (...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing biomass is gaining increasing interest mainly for bioenergy, climate change research and mitigation activities, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+. In response to these needs, a number of biomass/carbon maps have been recently produced using different approaches but the lack of comparable reference data limits their proper validation. The objectives of this study are to compare the available maps for Uganda and to understand the sources of variability in the estimation. Uganda was chosen as a case-study because it presents a reliable national biomass reference dataset. Results The comparison of the biomass/carbon maps show strong disagreement between the products, with estimates of total aboveground biomass of Uganda ranging from 343 to 2201 Tg and different spatial distribution patterns. Compared to the reference map based on country-specific field data and a national Land Cover (LC dataset (estimating 468 Tg, maps based on biome-average biomass values, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC default values, and global LC datasets tend to strongly overestimate biomass availability of Uganda (ranging from 578 to 2201 Tg, while maps based on satellite data and regression models provide conservative estimates (ranging from 343 to 443 Tg. The comparison of the maps predictions with field data, upscaled to map resolution using LC data, is in accordance with the above findings. This study also demonstrates that the biomass estimates are primarily driven by the biomass reference data while the type of spatial maps used for their stratification has a smaller, but not negligible, impact. The differences in format, resolution and biomass definition used by the maps, as well as the fact that some datasets are not independent from the
Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian;
Non-communicable diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) are increasing rapidly in most Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries like Uganda. Little attention has been given to how patients with T2D try to achieve treatment when the availability of public health care for their disease is limited......, as is the case in most SSA countries. In this paper we focus on the landscape of availability of care and the therapeutic journeys of patients within that landscape. Based on fieldwork in south-western Uganda including 10 case studies, we explore the diabetes treatment options in the area and what it takes...... to access the available treatment. We analyse the resources patients need to use the available treatment options, and demonstrate that the patients’ journeys to access and maintain treatment are facilitated by the knowledge and support of their therapy management groups. Patients access treatment more...
Certain features of the prevailing agricultural and livestock management practices in four districts of the South-West Uganda are briefly described. This area is characterized by rather high elevation, good rainfall, fertile soil and hills with steep slopes and mountains in some parts. In three ofthe four districts land is becoming scarce though agricultural production is high but traditional. Cash and food crop production are prevalent ; the staple food being plantain banana and milk product...
Rohner, Dominic; Thoenig, Mathias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio
We study the effect of civil conflict on social capital, focusing on the experience of Uganda during the last decade. Using individual and county-level data, we document causal effects on trust and ethnic identity of an exogenous outburst of ethnic conflicts in 2002-04. We exploit two waves of survey data from Afrobarometer 2000 and 2008, including information on socioeconomic characteristics at the individual level, and geo-referenced measures of fighting events from ACLED. Our identificatio...
This book is about engendering local governance. It explores the euphoria with which Uganda's decentralization policy took centre stage as a sufficient driver to engender local development responsiveness and accountability. Using a case study of AFARD in Nebbi district, it shows first that decentralized governance is gendered and technocratic as grassroots women's effective participation is lacking. Second, it shows that the insertion of women in local governance is merely a symbolic politica...
Jessica Huber; Birkeland, Nina M.
The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) strongly believes that the Cluster Approach holds promise for improving the international response to internal displacement. The approach represents a serious attempt by the UN, NGOs, international organisations and governments to address critical gaps in the humanitarian system. We want this reform effort to succeed and to play an active role in northern Uganda to supportthe work of the clusters and improve their effectiveness.
Full Text Available The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC strongly believes that the Cluster Approach holds promise for improving the international response to internal displacement. The approach represents a serious attempt by the UN, NGOs, international organisations and governments to address critical gaps in the humanitarian system. We want this reform effort to succeed and to play an active role in northern Uganda to supportthe work of the clusters and improve their effectiveness.
Pentecostal Christianity has gained many followers in the developing world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite a corpus of anthropological scholarship on the impact of following Pentecostalism on identities and social change, less has been written from the perspective of the believer, and little from within the field of development studies. In this thesis, which is based on 14months of research in Kampala, Uganda, I explore how followers of this religion appropriate a discourse of...
This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p < 0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212
Namyalo, Saudah; Nakayiza, Judith
Even after decades of uttering platitudes about the languages of Uganda, language policy pronouncements have invariably turned out to be public relations statements rather than blueprints for action. A serious setback for the right to linguistic equality and the right to use Uganda's indigenous languages has largely hinged on the language…
Over the past 10 years the government of Uganda has endeavored to increase latrine coverage and promote hygiene with a view to improving health outcomes. In 1997, in the Kampala declaration for sanitation, leaders from all of Uganda's districts pledged to improve sanitation. Then in 2001, three ministries, the Ministry of Water, Lands, and Environment; the Ministry of Education and Sports;...
Secondary school enrolment in Uganda has historically favoured males over females. Recently, however, researchers have reported that the secondary enrolment gender gap has significantly diminished, and perhaps even disappeared in Uganda. Even if gender parity is being achieved for enrolment broadly, there may be a gender gap concerning…
Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.
The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption stu
Full Text Available Uganda's economy has great potential. Endowed with significant natural resources, including ample fertile land, regular rainfall, and mineral deposits, it appeared poised for rapid economic growth and development at independence. However, chronic political instability and erratic economic management produced a record of persistent economic decline that left Uganda among the world's poorest and least-developed countries (United States, Bureau of African Affairs 2007. This situation can be averted by effectively promoting the involvement of the engine of economic growth, the SMEs in national and international businesses. The international involvement of SMEs requires accurate and adequate access to relevant business information. Based on that, a study was conducted to assess the problems SMEs face in accessing business information in Uganda. The study using a descriptive design with survey research techniques among others examined the problems SMEs in northern Uganda face in accessing business information; identified problems information providers face in providing business information to the SMEs in northern Uganda and established whether SMEs in northern Uganda use public libraries in accessing business information. The paper reports on among others the proposed strategic interventions for business information to be accessed by the SMEs . The paper concludes that there is a need for Uganda and, in particular, northern Uganda to develop a strategy for business information access by the SMEs.
Assersohn, Clea; Whiten, Andrew; Kiwede, Zephyr T; Tinka, John; Karamagi, Joseph
We report 26 cases of using leaves as tools with which wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda, appeared to inspect objects removed during grooming. Careful removal of potential ectoparasites and delicate lip or manual placement on leaves followed by intense visual examination characterised this behaviour. It appears to be done to judge whether either ingestion or discarding is most appropriate, the former occurring in most cases. This behaviour may represent a third variant of ectoparasite handling, different from those described at Tai and Gombe, yet sharing features with the latter. These two East African techniques may thus have evolved from leaf grooming.
The establishment of tree plantations in rural areas in Uganda could provide renewable energy to rural communities, while decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from conventional electricity sources and unsustainable forest use. The study evaluates the greenhouse gas benefits that could be produced by biomass based energy systems in Anaka, a rural settlement in the Amuru district in northern Uganda. Two alternative energy uses are explored: a) electricity production through wood gasification and b) traditional fuelwood use. It is estimated that a small-scale wood gasifier could provide electricity for basic community services by planting less than 10 ha of new short rotation coppices (SRCs). The gasification system could save 50–67% of the GHG emissions produced by traditional diesel based electricity generators in terms of CO2-eq. (0.61–0.83 t MWh−1 or 7.1 t y−1 per hectare of SRCs). It was also estimated that traditional use of fuelwood in households is currently unsustainable, i.e. the consumption of wood is higher than the annual growth from natural wood resources in the study area. It is estimated that 0.02–0.06 ha per capita of plantations could render the current consumption of wood sustainable. In this way, the CO2 emissions produced through unsustainable extraction of wood could be avoided (2.0–7.3 t per capita per year or 50–130 t y−1 per hectare of SRCs). -- Highlights: ► We assessed the GHG benefits of short rotation coppices for bioenergy in Uganda. ► The GHG benefits of two energy uses are explored: gasification and fuelwood use. ► The gasifier could save 50–67% of the GHG emissions produced by diesel generators. ► 0.02–0.06 ha per capita of plantations could avoid unsustainable fuelwood use. ► Fuelwood production is more efficient in terms of GHG savings per hectare
Gorsevski, Virginia B.
The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region
Kiely, J M
Health care and medical education in Uganda, once the best in Black Africa, have been adversely affected by the economic, political, and social upheavals in this developing country during the past decade. Crop failures, inadequate public health measures, shortage of medical equipment and essential drugs, and lack of sufficient medical school faculty have resulted in a major crisis. Substantial aid from the medical profession in developed countries will be necessary to help restore medical practice and education to the level present before the regime of Idi Amin.
Tabuti, John R.S.
Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge (IK has a role to play for households and community well-being in Uganda. However, IK is undergoing significant change and is on the decline in Uganda because of factors such as acculturation or the loss of IK through exposure to external cultures. In this paper we review some of the roles of, and threats to, IK with particular reference to the local community of Kaliro District. We make some recommendations on how to conserve IK in Kaliro and elsewhere in Uganda.
If anyone told me four months ago that I would be taking out teeth and caring about the future of dental health in Uganda, the land of Idi Amin and Raid on Entebbe, I'd have told them they were crazy. I was going to Kenya for Operation Smile; a string of events led me to Samson Wamani, Medical Director for the Abayudaya community in Uganda, and helped me realize there's a huge difference between dental care here in the U.S., and what it is for fellow Jews of Uganda.
Mutambi, Joshua; Byaruhanga, Joseph K.; Trojer, Lena; Buhwezi, Kariko B.; Lating, Peter Okidi
Uganda, like many other African countries has not been developing primary science, technology and innovation Indicators and to make them accessible to public and private sector decision makers for social economic development and investment purposes. Indicators have not been given serious attention as engines of long-term development. This paper reports the results of a research undertaken to develop a set of relevant science, technology and innovation Indicators for Uganda. From a population ...
Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder; Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom
• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014.......• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014....
This paper reports the results of a survey of almost all certified and in-conversion organic export operations in Uganda in late 2005. It covers products exported, company size and ownership, standards exported to, certification costs, total export values, value-added in Uganda, marketing channels, crop procurement systems, management of organic operations and the main challenges experienced by exporters. Findings include that numbers of certified exporters are growing rapidly. Export values ...
Tusime, Immaculate; Musasizi, Yunia; Nalweyiso, Grace
The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship between leadership styles and managed change in Public Universities in Uganda. A cross sectional design and a quantitative approach was adopted for this study. The study used a population census since the study population was small, hence the population comprised of public universities in Uganda which are 5 in total. The data was tested for reliability, analysed using SPSS and results presented based on the study objectives. Results r...
Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira
As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries...
Nuwagaba, Godfrey; Delpy, Lisa
Sponsorship is one of the biggest challenge facing Olympic sports in Uganda. Many sports disciplines have not been able to identify, recruit, and sustain sponsors.. This has hampered team preparations, training, provision of kits, and consequently poor performance of individuals and teams at all levels. To avert this situation, Uganda Olympic Committee (UOC) needs to identify and recruit capable sponsors in order to allow long term planning and execution of strategic plans. This research stud...
Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Sekabira, Haruna; Nattembo, Fiona
Uganda has seen impressive economic growth and substantial poverty reductions over the past few decades. Today, official headcount poverty stands at about 20 per cent. However, recent research relying on non-monetary wealth indicators challenges official poverty statistics and suggests that headcount poverty is about 60 per cent higher. We argue that an outdated poverty line that does not take into consideration the spatial variation of diets in Uganda could explain the divergence. In this pa...
Larson, Donald W.; Mbowa, Swaibu
Strategic marketing issues and challenges face maize seed marketing firms as farmers increasingly adopt hybrid varieties in a modernizing third world country such as Uganda. The maize seed industry of Uganda has changed dramatically from a government owned, controlled, and operated industry to a competitive market oriented industry with substantial private firm investment and participation. The new maize seed industry is young, dynamic, growing and very competitive. The small maize seed marke...
Bingh, Lars Petter
The energy system in Uganda is largely based on biomass and especially wood. The high demand for wood results in fast reductions of the available wood stocks. This thesis is focusing on biomass waste as a supplement to the existing energy carriers. This thesis includes agricultural residues from the main cash and food crops in Uganda, as well as municipal solid waste (MSW) in Kampala. The available biomass waste resources are mapped, the energy content is examined and possible ways of utiliza...
Questa tesi è composta di tre saggi collegati relativi a povertà, distribuzione del reddito e stato di nutrizione dei bambini in Uganda. Il primo saggio intitolato “Poverty reduction and Income Distribution Impacts of Exogenous Policy Shocks in Uganda: A Social Accounting Matrix Perspective” analizza come e quali settori ed agenti economici sarebbero maggiormente colpiti da shock esogeni di politica economica che abbiano l'obiettivo della crescita economica, distribuzione del reddito e della ...
Adong, Annet; Mwaura, Francis; Okoboi, Geofrey
Government of Uganda and its development partners are targeting farmer groups as the vehicle for agricultural development because of the potential role they could play in promoting value addition, market and credit access. However there is limited empirical evidence on what drives membership to these groups. Using the Uganda Census of Agriculture 2008/9 data, this study reveals low levels of membership both at individual and household levels, with marked differences in regional participation....
I examine the role of household permanent income in determining who bribes and how much they bribe in health care in Uganda. I find that rich patients are more likely than other patients to bribe in public health care: doubling household expenditure increases the bribery probability by 1.2 percentage points compared to a bribery rate of 17%. The income elasticity of the bribe amount is about 0.37. Bribes in the Ugandan public sector appear to be fees-for-service extorted from the richer patients amongst those exempted by government policy from paying the official fees. Bribes in the private sector appear to be flat-rate fees paid by patients who do not pay official fees. I do not find evidence that the public health care sector is able to price discriminate less effectively than public institutions with less competition from the private sector. PMID:20638738
Full Text Available Certain features of the prevailing agricultural and livestock management practices in four districts of the South-West Uganda are briefly described. This area is characterized by rather high elevation, good rainfall, fertile soil and hills with steep slopes and mountains in some parts. In three ofthe four districts land is becoming scarce though agricultural production is high but traditional. Cash and food crop production are prevalent ; the staple food being plantain banana and milk production is noticeable. The economy shows evident difficulties mainly due to the so called mismanaged Amin's regime and the ensuing Liberation War. Comments are made on the Queen Elisabeth National Park and some prices are given.
Wielgosz, Benjamin; Kato, Edward; Ringler, Claudia
Background This paper establishes empirical evidence relating the agriculture and health sectors in Uganda. The analysis explores linkages between agricultural management, malaria and implications for improving community health outcomes in rural Uganda. The goal of this exploratory work is to expand the evidence-base for collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors in Uganda. Methods The paper presents an analysis of data from the 2006 Uganda National Household Survey using a par...
Mayers, James; Bhattacharya, Prodyut; Diaw, Chimere [and others
Forests are power bases, but often for the wrong people. As attention turns from making an international deal on REDD to making it work on the ground, the hunt will be on for practical ways of shifting power over forests towards those who enable and pursue sustainable forest-linked livelihoods. The Forest Governance Learning Group – an alliance active in Cameroon, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Uganda and Vietnam – has developed practical tactics for securing safe space, provoking dialogue, building constituencies, wielding evidence and interacting politically. It has begun to have significant impacts. To deepen and widen those impacts, FGLG seeks allies.
Investigations in this portfolio of manuscripts broadly advance understanding of how institutional arrangements influence impacts of population growth and integration into non-local markets on forest and tree-cover change. This research integrates methods of the natural and social sciences including remote sensing, geographical information systems, vegetation plot analysis, key informant interviews, and archival research. In combination, these methods are applied for longer-term analyses of the role of institutional arrangements in land-cover change in West Mengo, Uganda. Over the past fifty years, tree cover on settled areas (cultivated and grazed lands and home-gardens) in West Mengo has increased while forest cover (particularly outside of state reserves) is more diffuse. One finding is that the underlying, traditional sociopolitical structure in West Mengo does facilitate, on aggregate, customary arrangements in identifying diverse strategies to maintain the flow of forest products and benefits under growing population and market pressures (avoiding local tragedies). But, these customary arrangements may or may not be able to maintain ecosystem services (produced from large-scale forest patches) outside of the local sociopolitical unit under these conditions. Boundaries of state forest reserves in West Mengo were found to have remained stable for over fifty years despite population and market pressures. Another finding is that formal state arrangements can, but don't always, stem deforestation under conditions of high population and market pressures. When design principles for robust, large-scale commons are adopted in the process of creating adaptive arrangements for governance of large extents of working forests that the arrangements and desired outcomes (e.g., stable forest cover and flow of subsistence products in the West Mengo case) may endure over the long term. And, when not adopted, you may find a relatively fast breakdown in the institutional
Krister P. Andersson
Full Text Available A significant challenge in the assessment of forest management outcomes is the limited ability to compare forest conditions quantitatively across ecological zones. We propose an approach for comparing different forest types through the use of reference forests. We tested our idea by drawing a sample of 42 forests from the Midwest USA, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Brazil, Bolivia, Uganda, and Nepal. We grouped these forests by shared characteristics and selected a reference forest to serve as a baseline for each forest type. We developed an index of disturbances using ratios of several forest measurements to assess differences between each study forest and its reference forest. None of the study forests was known to have been impacted by major natural disturbances during the past 50 years. Therefore, the disturbances in these forests appear to be largely related to human activities. The forests most similar to their reference forests have had limited human interventions. Our results indicate the potential of this approach to compare different forest conditions across biomes. We argue that development of this approach could facilitate analyses of forest management institutions, promote reliable indicators to compare management outcomes, and contribute to improved policies for conservation.
The growth of Information Technology(IT) in Africa has led to an increase in the utilization of communication networks for data transaction across the continent. A growing number of entities in the private sector, academia, and government, have deployed the Internet as a medium to transact in data, routinely posting statistical and non statistical data online and thereby making many in Africa increasingly dependent on the Internet for data transactions. In the country of Uganda, exponential growth in data transaction has presented a new challenge: What is the most efficient way to implement data privacy. This article discusses data privacy challenges faced by the country of Uganda and implementation of data privacy techniques for published tabular data. We make the case for data privacy, survey concepts of data privacy, and implementations that could be employed to provide data privacy in Uganda.
Full Text Available Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.
Wrangham, R W; Conklin, N L; Chapman, C A; Hunt, K D
Four categories of plant food dominated the diet of chimpanzees in Kibale Forest, Uganda: non-fig tree fruits, fig tree fruits, herbaceous piths and terrestrial leaves. Fruit abundance varied unpredictably, more among non-figs than figs. Pith intake was correlated negatively with fruit abundance and positively with rainfall, whereas leaf intake was not influenced by fruit abundance. Piths typically have low sugar and protein levels. Compared with fruits and leaves they are consistently high in hemicellulose and cellulose, which are insoluble fibres partly digestible by chimpanzees. Herbaceous piths appear to be a vital resource for African forest apes, offering an alternative energy supply when fruits are scarce. PMID:1685575
Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal
Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers...... and cholera epidemics. In order to respond to the above situation, a team of researchers, policy makers, civil society and the media was formed in order to build a collaboration that would help in discussing appropriate strategies to mitigate the high disease burden in Uganda....
In this paper, I examine the role of household income in determining who bribes and how much they bribe in health care in Peru and Uganda. I find that rich patients are more likely than other patients to bribe in public health care: doubling household consumption increases the bribery probability by 0.2-0.4 percentage points in Peru, compared to a bribery rate of 0.8%; doubling household expenditure in Uganda increases the bribery probability by 1.2 percentage points compared to a bribery rat...
Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette
development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized...... to the current low-input/low-output systems. Traditional farming should not be confused with organic farming because in some cases, the existing traditional practices have consequences like overstocking and less attention to soil improvement as well as to animal health and welfare, which is contrary to organic...
Albert, Mugenyi; Wardrop, Nicola A; Atkinson, Peter M; Torr, Steve J; Welburn, Susan C
Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression) involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes) points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes) and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM). Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control. PMID:25875201
Full Text Available Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM. Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.
Okware, S I; Omaswa, F G; Zaramba, S; Opio, A; Lutwama, J J; Kamugisha, J; Rwaguma, E B; Kagwa, P; Lamunu, M
An outbreak of Ebola disease was reported from Gulu district, Uganda, on 8 October 2000. The outbreak was characterized by fever and haemorrhagic manifestations, and affected health workers and the general population of Rwot-Obillo, a village 14 km north of Gulu town. Later, the outbreak spread to other parts of the country including Mbarara and Masindi districts. Response measures included surveillance, community mobilization, case and logistics management. Three coordination committees were formed: National Task Force (NTF), a District Task Force (DTF) and an Interministerial Task Force (IMTF). The NTF and DTF were responsible for coordination and follow-up of implementation of activities at the national and district levels, respectively, while the IMTF provided political direction and handled sensitive issues related to stigma, trade, tourism and international relations. The international response was coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO) under the umbrella organization of the Global Outbreak and Alert Response Network. A WHO/CDC case definition for Ebola was adapted and used to capture four categories of cases, namely, the 'alert', 'suspected', 'probable' and 'confirmed cases'. Guidelines for identification and management of cases were developed and disseminated to all persons responsible for surveillance, case management, contact tracing and Information Education Communication (IEC). For the duration of the epidemic that lasted up to 16 January 2001, a total of 425 cases with 224 deaths were reported countrywide. The case fatality rate was 53%. The attack rate (AR) was highest in women. The average AR for Gulu district was 12.6 cases/10 000 inhabitants when the contacts of all cases were considered and was 4.5 cases/10 000 if limited only to contacts of laboratory confirmed cases. The secondary AR was 2.5% when nearly 5000 contacts were followed up for 21 days. Uganda was finally declared Ebola free on 27 February 2001, 42 days after the last case
Kjær, Anne Mette; Therkildsen, Ole
political elites to focus on policies they perceive to be able to gain votes. This is based on analyses of six landmark decisions made during the last fifteen years in the social, productive and public finance sectors in Tanzania and Uganda. Such policies share a number of key characteristics...
This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev)-supported survey of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. As it adopts ICT in education, Uganda faces the same challenges as most developing economies -...
Dreise, Marieke; Galiwango, George; Hodges, Andrew
Objective: The purpose of the study was to estimate the need for resources for cleft repairs in Uganda by determining the overall incidence of oral-facial clefts and the ratio of isolated cleft lip to isolated cleft palate to cleft lip and palate. Design: A 1-year prospective study was implemented i
Mor, Siobhan M.; Tumwine, James K; Naumova, Elena N; Ndeezi, Grace; Tzipori, Saul
We show that the microsporidian fungus Enterocytozoon bieneusi is associated with lower rates of weight gain in children in Uganda with persistent diarrhea. This relationship remained after controlling for HIV and concurrent cryptosporidiosis. Children with microsporidiosis were predicted to weigh 1.3 kg less than children without microsporidiosis at 5 years of age.
Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.
The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop c
Kjær, Anne Mette; Joughin, James
This article explores the nature of ownership in a reform of the multi-donor-funded agricultural advisory service in Uganda. We argue that although there was a long process of programme formulation in which all stakeholders were heard, ownership was not as encompassing as it first appeared...
Beck, T.H.L.; Homanen, M.; Uras, Burak
We explore the empirical interaction between firm growth, financing constraints and job creation. Using a novel small business survey from Uganda, we find that the extent to which small businesses expand skilled employment as their sales and profits increase depends significantly on access to extern
Eesti üliõpilaskondade liidu juhatuse aseesimees M.-L. Alop kirjutab vastuse M. Heidmetsa artiklile 6. jaan. Eesti Päevalehes "Eestis nagu Ugandas", kus tõstatati Eestis üldise õppemaksu kehtestamise vajadus, mis vähendab vähem kindlustatute võimalusi kõrgharidust omandada
Wellens, Inneke Hilda Werner
At present, about 25,000 Nubi live scattered over the towns of Uganda and Kenya. Their language, Nubi, has been called an Arabic creole. Nubi is Arabic, since about 90% of its vocabulary is of Arabic nature. It is termed a creole, since many of its structural and developmental features resemble thos
Namazzi, Elizabeth; Kendrick, Maureen E.
This article reports on a study focusing on the use of multilingual cultural resources in child-headed households (CHHs) in Uganda's Rakai District. Using funds of knowledge and sociocultural perspectives on children's learning, we documented through ethnographic observations and interviews how children in four CHHs used multilingual…
Schramm, Stine; Kaducu, Felix Ocaka; Smedemark, Siri Aas;
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of adult malnutrition and associated risk factors in a post-conflict area of northern Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional community survey was performed from September 2011 to June 2013. All registered residents in Gulu Health and Demographic Surveillance Sys...
Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia;
Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere and M...
Deininger, Klaus; Castagnini, Raffaella
While there is a large, though inconclusive, literature on the impact of land titles in Africa, little attention has been devoted to the study of land conflict, despite evidence on increasing incidence of such conflicts. The authors use data from Uganda to explore who is affected by land conflicts, whether recent legal changes have helped to reduce their incidence, and to assess their impa...
Openjuru, George Ladaah; Lyster, Elda
In this article, we examine how Christianity provides the impetus for local literacy practices in a rural community in Uganda. These Christian literacy practices form a central part of the literacy activities of the community and are manifested in a variety of contexts from public to private, using a wide variety of readily available religious…
The change from natural forest cover to tea and Eucalyptus is rampant in protected areas of western Uganda. The objectives were; to examine the trend in land-use /cover change and determine the effect of these changes on the physico-chemical properties of soils around Kibale National Park. The trend in land use/cover change was assessed by analyzing a series of Landsat images. Focused group discussions and key informant interviews were used for land-use/cover reconstruction. Three major land uses were included; wood lot (Eucalyptus grandis; 5 years old) ), tea (57 years old) and natural forest used as a control. Each of these land-uses were selected at two different North facing landscape positions and were replicated three times. A total of 36 composite soil samples were taken at 0-15 and 15-30 cm depth from natural forest, Tea plantation and eucalyptus on three ridges. Results showed that small scale farming, tea and eucalyptus plantation and built up area have increased over time, to the expense of wood lot and forest cover. Tea and Eucalyptus have induced changes in: exchangeable Mg and Ca, available P, SOM, ph, and bulk density of sub soil (P<.05). Landscape positions within land use also significantly influenced most soil properties (P<.05). Similar findings were observed by Wang et al. (2006) in commercial tea plantations in China that received nitrogen fertilizers.
Bin Mushambanyi Théodore Munyuli
Full Text Available On-farm pollination experiments were conducted in 30 different small-scale coffee fields to determine monetary value attributable to pollination services in coffee production and to identify the degree of influences of various socio-ecological drivers in Uganda. Ecological-economic approaches were applied to determine the economic value of pollinating services. Economic value of bees increased significantly with increase in coffee farm size, bee diversity, and cover of seminatural habitats. The value of bees declined sharply (P<0.05 with forest distance and cultivation intensity. Economic values of pollinating services associated with coffee fields established in regions with low intensity were found to be high. Organically managed small-scale coffee fields were 2 times more profitable than commercially managed farms. The annual value of pollinating services delivered by wild bees oscillated between US$67.18 and US$1431.36. Central Uganda produces in total 0.401 million tons of coffee beans for an approximate economic value of US$214 million from which US$149.42 million are attributable to pollination services. Policy makers should strengthen environmental/agricultural extension service systems to better serve farmers. Farmers are recommended to protect/increase the cover of natural and semi-natural habitats in the vicinity of their coffee fields to receive high economic benefits from pollinating services delivered by bees.
Ota, Narumi; Hasegawa, Hideo; McLennan, Matthew R; Kooriyama, Takanori; Sato, Hiroshi; Pebsworth, Paula A; Huffman, Michael A
Oesophagostomum spp. are parasitic nematodes of mammals, including humans and other primates. To identify species and determine phylogeny, we analysed DNA sequences of adult and larval Oesophagostomum from wild chimpanzees in Bulindi, Uganda, which inhabit degraded forest fragments amid villages. Oesophagostome larvae and/or eggs from baboons in Tanzania and South Africa and from a Japanese macaque were also sequenced. Based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox1) of mtDNA, O. stephanostomum and O. bifurcum were identified from chimpanzees. Bulindi is the second locality where molecular detection of O. bifurcum in wild chimpanzees has been made. While most O. stephanostomum had ITS2 genotypes recorded previously, three new genotypes were detected. Among four ITS2 genotypes of O. bifurcum from chimpanzees, one was identical to that from various monkey species in Kibale, Uganda, and baboons from Tanzania and South Africa; another was shared by a baboon from Tanzania. No genotype was identical with that of the cryptic species reported from humans and monkeys in Kibale. Phylogeny based on Cox1 sequences of O. stephanostomum showed locality-dependent clades, whereas those of O. bifurcum formed clades composed of worms from different hosts and localities. PMID:26716002
Fogde, Anne-Sofie; Majlund, Anne-Sofie
The Anti Homosexuality Bill of 2009 included the death penalty for aggravated homosexuality and was propounded as a private member’s bill to the Parliament of Uganda. The bill sparked an international outcry, and since then the debate on the legitimacy of homosexuality has been heated both in- and outside Uganda. Governments and NGOs in the Global North have been condemning the bill, while conservative Christians in Uganda and America have been condemning homosexuality, as they believe it is ...
Odongo, Bob Denis
The study aimed at investigating the level of independence and freedom of the mass media industry in Uganda. It explored the challenges that media professionals practically go through and face in the process of carrying out media work and practicing their professions in Uganda, and secondly, it identified how both the existing and newly proposed laws impact on the mass media freedom in Uganda while drawing from the domestic, national, regional and international laws. Qualitative methods were...
Kenneth, Akankwasa; Gerald, Ortmann; Edilegnaw, Wale; Wilberforce, Tushemereirwe
ABSTRACT Despite the research efforts to introduce the newly developed, improved banana ’Matooke’ hybrids to the farming communities in Uganda, to date no attempt has been made to document the likelihood of farmer adoption of these hybrid bananas in Uganda. The paper has analyzed farmers’ perceptions regarding the newly developed improved Matooke hybrid banana attributes in Uganda to ex ante understand farmers’ likelihood of adoption of these varieties. Descriptive statistics and data reducti...
A casual study of the hydrological map of Uganda would convince every serious fisherman and fisheater that he is most favoured to be in Uganda. The extent and distribution of the country's aquatic system plus the rich variety of fish species there is promises a fishery potential of considerable magnitude: The open waterways comprised by the Uganda portions of Lakes Victoria, Albert and Edward; and Lakes Kyoga, George plus minor lakes Wamala, Kijanebarora, mutanda, etc. occupy about 15% of ...
The climate changes projected for the future will have significant consequences for forest ecosystems and our ability to manage them. It is reasonable to ask: Are there historical precedents that help us understand what might happen in the future or are historical perspectives becoming irrelevant? What synergisms and feedbacks might be expected between rapidly changing climate and land–use in different settings, especially at the wildland–urban interface? What lessons from the past might help...
Abstract The paper is part of the Doctoral research on horizontal collaborative purchasing in developing countries, and particularly in Uganda. The overall goals of the Doctoral research are tounderstand behavioural aspects in horizontal purchasing collaboration in developing countries (Uganda) an
Full Text Available Aboveground biomass (AGB contained in privately-owned forests is less frequently measured than in forest reserves despite their greater likelihood of degradation. We demonstrate how density changes in contrast to species compositional changes have driven AGB changes in privately-owned fragments in Uganda over two decades. Data on tree assemblages in fragments were obtained by re-sampling a 1990 dataset in 2010 and AGB estimated using generalised allometric equation that incorporates diameter at breast height (DBH and species-specific wood density. AGB were highly variable between fragments and over time. Structural changes contributed a higher proportion of change in AGB than species compositional changes in all forests. Non-pioneer species constituted over 50% of AGB in reserve forest, in contrast to private forests where pioneer species dominated. Our study demonstrates the potential of private forests to hold comparable AGB to plantation. Reduction in exploitation pressure is required if fragments are to mitigate carbon emissions.
Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis
One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because...... of three general characteristics of forests under existing decentralized management regimes. First, these forests already accumulate biomass and, in some cases, generate leakage, which threatens to undercut REDD+ additionality. Second, these forests are many and small, which will drive up REDD......+ transactions costs. Third, beyond the “conservation islands” represented by forests under decentralized management, processes of deforestation and forest degradation continue. Given these challenges, we argue that REDD+ efforts through decentralized forestry should be redirected from incentivizing further...
Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.
Joanna R. Quinn
Full Text Available This contribution traces the importance of traditional institutions in rehabilitating societies in general terms and more particularly in post-independence Uganda. The current regime, partly by inventing “traditional” cultural institutions, partly by co-opting them for its own interests, contributed to a loss of legitimacy of those who claim responsibility for customary law. More recently, international prosecutions have complicated the use of customary mechanisms within such societies. This article shows that some traditional and cultural leaders continue to struggle to restore their original institutions, some having taken the initiative of inventing new forms of engaging with society. Uganda is presented as a test case for the International Criminal Court’s ability to work with traditional judicial institutions in Africa.
Mukungu, D M
Rural Uganda faces a lot of problems caused by poor sanitation facilities such as pollution of water sources, a high rate of waterborne diseases, high expenditures on curative health care, and the threat of reduced educational performance of children through illness, early school drop out, especially of girls. Limited budgets and expenditures for the health sector, lack of staff, lack of accountability and transparency are important factors affecting sanitation status on the national level. Other restrictions can be found at the community level, e.g. taboos, cultural and customary beliefs, ignorance, poverty, or in soil conditions. To address the poor level of sanitation, the Government of Uganda has set up both a whole string of laws and guidelines and an institutional and management framework. One main emphasis was placed on the Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation Programme (PHAST) introduced in 1994 and since then adopted by several non-governmental organisations (NGO's). PMID:10842841
Diiro, Gracious M.; Ker, Alan P.; San, Abdul G.
Although Uganda has poor soils with low organic matter, fertiliser is not widely adopted, especially by female-headed households. Thus we examine the role of gender in inorganic fertiliser adoption using a national household survey. We estimate separate models for female- and male-headed households to ascertain if the drivers of adoption differ by gender. With respect to male-headed households, we find the number of extension visits, age of head of household, and non-farm earnings significant...
Deininger,Klaus W.; Mpuga, Paul
Although there is broad agreement that well functioning land rental markets will play an important role to increase productivity and household welfare as agrarian economies develop, evidence from Africa on the actual performance and impact of such markets is limited. We use data from Uganda to test for differences in the performance of rental, as compared to sales markets and their evolution over time, based on a framework where markets are affected by differences in ability and imperfections...
Deininger, Klaus; Ali, Daniel Ayalew
While the need for land-related investment for sustainable land management and increased productivity is well recognized, quantitative evidence on agricultural productivity effects of secure property rights in Africa is scant. Within-household analysis of investments by owner-cum-occupants in Uganda points toward significant and quantitatively large investment effects of full ownership. Registration is estimated to have no investment effects, whereas measures to strengthen occupancy rights at...
In October 2009, a private member introduced the Anti-Homosexuality Bill to Uganda’s Parliament for consideration. This article analyzes the Bill within a broader context of transnational antigay activism, specifically the diverse ways that antigay activism in Uganda is shaped by global dynamics (such as the U.S. Christian Right’s pro-family agenda) and local forms of knowledge and concerns over culture, national identity, and political and socio-economic issues/interests. This article lends...
Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia; Doruk Ozgediz; Sudha Jayaraman; Patrick Kyamanywa; Milton Mutto; Kobusingye, Olive C.
Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and i...
Pinkerton, Steven D.
Accurate estimates of the probability of HIV transmission during various stages of infection are needed to inform epidemiological models. Very limited information is available about the probability of transmission during acute HIV infection. We conducted a secondary analysis of published data from the Rakai, Uganda seroconversion study. Mathematical and computer-based models were used to quantify the per-act and per-partnership transmission probabilities during acute and chronic HIV infection...
Fu, Shengfei; Florkowski, Wojciech J.; Nambiar, Padmanand Madhavan; Resurreccion, Anna V.A.; Chinnan, Manjeet S.
The cookie consumption and purchase characteristics of households were investigated in six cities in Uganda using household survey data. Cookies can be fortified with vitamins to improve child nutrition. The application of a Logit model permitted the identification of factors significantly affecting household decision to eat cookies. They are household food buyer/preparer’s age, employment status, education level, household monthly income, household location, number of children from 4 to 18 y...
Zaltzman, Tal; Adelgaard, Thea; Hansen, Nanna; Friederich, Andrea; Jensen, Camilla; Lykke, Emilie
This project is an investigation of the reasons behind the negative attitude towards homosexuals in Uganda. By examining the Ugandan history and culture concerning homosexuality, analysing the Ugandan Anti-Homosexual Bill proposed in 2009, along with speeches, interviews and articles posted on the subject, there has been reached an understanding of the multileveled influences, which creates the negative view towards homosexuals. Among others the influence comes from authorities’ statements, t...
Mbuvi, D.; Tarsim, A.
This paper assesses the impact of the early 1980s neoliberalistic reform strategies in urban water distribution in developing countries. It examines in particular, the technical efficiency of two heterogeneous urban water utility-groups in Uganda. Performance is considered in light of the key urban water sector objectives that are to universally increase qualitative water coverage and enhance utility revenue. Using a two-staged bias-corrected metafrontier based on the data envelopment analysi...
Aron, Janine; Muellbauer, John; Sebudde, Rachel
Forecasting inflation is challenging in emerging markets, where trade and monetary regimes have shifted, and the exchange rate, energy and food prices are highly volatile. Mobile money is a recent financial innovation giving financial transaction services via a mobile phone, including to the unbanked. Stable models for the 1-month and 3-month-ahead rates of inflation in Uganda, measured by the consumer price index for food and non-food, and for the domestic fuel price, are estimated over 1994...
Control and management of Uganda fishery resources has been hindered by among other factors the multispecies nature of the resource and the characteristic behaviour of the fishing communities. Fishermen have both genuine and uncompromising attitudes as to why they carry out certain fishing technologies. All fishing activities aim at maximizing the catches or profits while others may fish on a small scale for subsistence. Sensitizing the" fisherfolk on the appropriate fishing technologies. imp...
Control and management of Uganda fishery resources has been hindered by among other factors the multispecies nature of the resource and the characteristic behaviour of the fishing communities. Fishermen have both genuine and uncompromising attitudes as to why they carry out certain fishing technologies. All fishing activities aim at maximizing the catches or profits while others may fish on a small scale for subsistence. Sensitizing the" fisherfolk on the appropriate fishing technologies, imp...
Bukenya, James O.; Hyuha, Theodora; Twinamasiko, Julius; Molnar, Joseph J.
The paper examines profitability and market performance of small-scale fish traders selected randomly from a cross-section of nine fish markets in four districts in Central Uganda. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire which was designed to solicit information on traders’ socio-economic characteristics, marketing characteristics, operating costs and returns, and problems associated with fish marketing in the study area. Percentages were used to describe the socio-economic cha...
Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Elliott D. Green
The importance of pre-colonial history on contemporary African development has become an important .eld of study within development economics in recent years. In particular Gennaioli and Rainer (2007) suggest that pre-colonial political centralization has had an impact on con- temporary levels of development within Africa at the country level. We test the Gennaioli and Rainer (2007) hypothesis at the sub-national level with evidence from Uganda. Using a variety of datasets we obtain results w...
Mjelva, Julie Kilde
Community organizations play crucial roles in many Ugandan communities as they reduce poverty through building employment opportunities in the villages, educate on health, agriculture and leadership, and help villages develop though exploiting the benefits of cooperating. This study uses theory from the New Institutional Economics School and theories on collective action to investigate factors affecting community organizations in Uganda, and especially how the level of market integration of a...
Graham, M W; Delate, K.; Burras, C.L.; Mazur, R.E.; Brenner, D.M.; M. M. Tenywa; Nakimbugwe, D.N.; Kabahuma, M.; Abili, A.
Metadata only record Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) are high protein content and protein quality pseudo-cereal crops whose favorable nutritional profile belies their potential to alleviate nutrition and food insecurity in developing countries. Grain amaranth was introduced as a nutrient dense food into the Kamuli District, eastern Uganda, in 2006. However, initial analysis of protein content of amaranth grain pooled from farms in the Kamuli District indicated that protein levels ranged ...
Gerhard Van Zyl
Full Text Available "I was conceived in rape."[i] At least for this reviewer, this is one of the most powerful, hard-hitting opening lines of any book he has read to date. Moreover, from there this powerful text continues to hold the reader captive, and refuses to allow him or her to fall back in a slumber of indifference. [i] Opening line of Butterflies of Uganda.
Birungi, Patrick; Hassan, Rashid M.
This study investigates the impact of poverty, social capital and land tenure on the adoption of soil fertility management (SFM) and conservation technologies in Uganda. Considering four land management technologies (fallowing, terracing and inorganic and organic fertilizers), the study estimates a multinomial logit model to link farmersâ€™ characteristics to the choice of technologies. The findings show that investments in land management are driven by factors such as land tenure security, l...
Uganda’s economy is agro-based; although the country is land locked it has great potential for industrial development. It is well endowed with natural resources and salubrious climate, but with little success in transforming its agricultural and mineral wealth into processed commodities for local, regional and international markets. The Uganda’s National Development Plan 2010- 2014 and Uganda Vision 2040 call for a transformed Ugandan society from a peasant to a modern and prosperous country ...
Labour is said to be obstructed when the presenting part fails to descend through the birth canal despite strong uterine contractions. The condition is mostly prevalent in low-income countries where the main causes are cephalopelvic disproportion and malpresentation. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the individual, community and health system factors associated with obstructed labour and birth preparedness practices in south-western Uganda. Analysis of 11,180 obstetric re...
Baland, Jean-Marie; Gaspart, Frederic; PLATTEAU, Jean-Philippe; Place, Frank
This article presents first-hand evidence about land distribution and the impact of land markets in central Uganda. This area is characterized by unequal distribution of land inheritance, rural-rural migration, and active land markets. We show that land markets, and particularly land purchases, tend to reduce the initial inequality in the initial (inherited) distribution of land. Land purchases by landless farmers in their native village represent an important part of this adjustment.
This paper examines and discusses the influence of western media or press over Uganda’s position with the anti homosexuality issue. In other words, the rationale of this research was to review how the western media portrays Uganda; as a tourist destination; after Uganda’s parliament majority, voted in favour of the anti-gay 2009. Undoubtedly, the bill has caused Uganda, to be on the defensive, since 2009. Indeed the amount of criticism over Uganda is a cause for fear about how the western wor...
James R.K. Kagaari
Full Text Available Orientation: This article focused on the need for improved employer-employee relationships in order for public universities in Uganda to achieve their intended objectives.Research purpose: The purpose of this article was to review the need for appropriate employer-employee relationships that will ensure quality services and service delivery in public universities in Uganda.Motivation for the study: The researchers set out to examine why managers of public universities in Uganda were continuously paying less attention to the needs of the employees.Research design, approach and method: A descriptive research design was employed and 12 respondents, purposively selected from 4 public universities, were interviewed. Data were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Nvivo software. This article is based on the perspective of agency theory, and discussed the contractual relationship between management and employees. The agency theory was deemed necessary because of its contribution to organisational literature.Main findings: There is a need to create and nurture a collegial working climate that promotes quality interactions through information sharing. This results in creating and retaining motivated and committed employees, and also helps to overcome the paradox of balancing the high demand for university education whilst offering quality services.Practical/managerial implications: Managers have to continuously monitor and accommodate employee needs and demands.Contribution/value-add: The potential value of the paper is its function as a guide for public universities to have visionary managers that will introduce new approaches to managing public universities in a competitive global environment.
Downing, Julia; Leng, Mhoira; Grant, Liz
Global oncology and palliative care needs are increasing faster than the available capacity to meet these needs. This is particularly marked in sub-Saharan Africa, where healthcare capacity and systems are limited and resources are stretched. Uganda, a country of 35.6 million people in eastern Africa, faces the challenges of a high burden of communicable disease and a rising number of cases of non-communicable disease, including cancer. The vast majority of patients in Uganda are diagnosed with cancer too late for curative treatment to be an option because of factors like poor access to healthcare facilities, a lack of health education, poverty, and delays resulting from seeking local herbal or other traditional remedies. This article describes an innovative model of nurse leadership training in Uganda to improve the delivery of palliative care. The authors believe this model can be applicable to other low- and middle-income countries, where health resources are constrained and care needs are great. . PMID:27105201
Full Text Available Distance education has been in existence in Uganda since the 1960s, and it has grown steadily since that time. It is however a neglected area in terms of data collection and research. The courses that were running between 1960 and 1980s have scanty documentation. What can be traced include the upgrading course for teachers which upgraded 1000 teachers from vernacular teachers to grade 1 and grade II teachers. This was repeated with 789 more teachers. There is hardly any documentation on correspondence courses Ugandans took with the various British based correspondence institutions like Rapid College Correspondence School. In the following section this study takes you through the historical development of distance education in Uganda and through the various donor funded programs of which, some have ended already, but which do offer great lessons to learn from. It also takes you through distance education at higher levels of learning, as well as distance education in non-formal education. In conclusion the study discusses some of the challenges Uganda faces in its attempt to offer modern distance education, the rather scanty achievements so far reached in that area, and proposes a way forward in form of some indicative recommendations
Koops, Kathelijne; Schöning, Caspar; Isaji, Mina; Hashimoto, Chie
Cultural variation has been identified in a growing number of animal species ranging from primates to cetaceans. The principal method used to establish the presence of culture in wild populations is the method of exclusion. This method is problematic, since it cannot rule out the influence of genetics and ecology in geographically distant populations. A new approach to the study of culture compares neighbouring groups belonging to the same population. We applied this new approach by comparing ant-dipping tool length between two neighbouring communities of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kalinzu Forest, Uganda. Ant-dipping tool length varies across chimpanzee study sites in relation to army ant species (Dorylus spp.) and dipping location (nest vs. trail). We compared the availability of army ant species and dipping tool length between the two communities. M-group tools were significantly longer than S-group tools, despite identical army ant target species availabilities. Moreover, tool length in S-group was shorter than at all other sites where chimpanzees prey on epigaeic ants at nests. Considering the lack of ecological differences between the two communities, the tool length difference appears to be cultural. Our findings highlight how cultural knowledge can generate small-scale cultural diversification in neighbouring chimpanzee communities. PMID:26198006
McCord, Aleia I; Chapman, Colin A; Weny, Geoffrey; Tumukunde, Alex; Hyeroba, David; Klotz, Kelly; Koblings, Avery S; Mbora, David N M; Cregger, Melissa; White, Bryan A; Leigh, Steven R; Goldberg, Tony L
Primate gastrointestinal microbial communities are becoming increasingly appreciated for their relevance to comparative medicine and conservation, but the factors that structure primate "microbiomes" remain controversial. This study examined a community of primates in Kibale National Park, Uganda, to assess the relative importance of host species and location in structuring gastrointestinal microbiomes. Fecal samples were collected from primates in intact forest and from primates in highly disturbed forest fragments. People and livestock living nearby were also included, as was a geographically distant population of related red colobus in Kenya. A culture-free microbial community fingerprinting technique was used to analyze fecal microbiomes from 124 individual red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus), 100 individual black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza), 111 individual red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius), 578 human volunteers, and 364 domestic animals, including cattle (Bos indicus and B. indicus × B. taurus crosses), goats (Caprus hircus), sheep (Ovis aries), and pigs (Sus scrofa). Microbiomes sorted strongly by host species, and forest fragmentation did not alter this pattern. Microbiomes of Kenyan red colobus sorted distinctly from microbiomes of Ugandan red colobus, but microbiomes from these two red colobus populations clustered more closely with each other than with any other species. Microbiomes from red colobus and black-and-white colobus were more differentiated than would be predicted by the phylogenetic relatedness of these two species, perhaps reflecting heretofore underappreciated differences in digestive physiology between the species. Within Kibale, social group membership influenced intra-specific variation among microbiomes. However, intra-specific variation was higher among primates in forest fragments than among primates in intact forest, perhaps reflecting the physical separation of fragments. These results suggest that, in this
Sseguya, Haroon; Mazur, Robert; Abbott, Eric; Matsiko, Frank
Purpose: To examine the status and priorities for agricultural information generation, dissemination and utilization in the context of agricultural innovation systems in southeast Uganda. Design/Methodology/Approach: Group discussions were conducted with six communities in Kamuli district, southeast Uganda. The focus was on information sources and…
Musoke, David; Sodemann, Morten
on a monthly basis. The assessment of the availability of the medicines was carried out using the check lists that were derived from the Essential Medicines and Health Supplies List of Uganda as defined by the Ministry of Health of Uganda for the various levels of care. Seventeen (17) Health Centre level II...
Dungey, Claire Elisabeth; Meinert, Lotte
This chapter explores various perspectives on the shifting notion of adulthood in Uganda. Invoking Paul Willis’ book ‘Learning to Labour (2000 ) concerning working class lads in Great Britain, we explore the implicit curriculum of how young men in Uganda learn to habituate the practice of w...
Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J.
After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda.
Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.
The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how cons
Lincove, Jane Arnold
This study uses household survey data to estimate determinants of schooling in Uganda, with a model that includes the price of school. Uganda's universal education policy offered free tuition, fees, and supplies to up to four children per family, including two daughters. The empirical method includes an estimation of a child-specific price of…
Ustjuzhanin, Petr; Kovtunovich, Vasily; Anikin, Vasily; Aarvik, Leif
An overview of 20 Pterophoridae species from Uganda is given. Three of them are described as new to science: Crassuncus agassizi Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov., Hellinsia anikini Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov. and Hellinsia nawrothi Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov. Twelve species are recorded as new to the fauna of Uganda. PMID:27395680
Over the last two decades, there has been substantial progress in the area of blood safety in Uganda. In contrast, little attention has been paid to transfusion safety in Uganda and there are gaps in laboratory and clinical transfusion practices within hospitals. Assessment of the current practice a
Howell, R.; Wesselink, O.; Pruyt, E.
Uganda and Botswana present two interesting and contrasting cases in the AIDS epidemic. System dynamics models of the AIDS epidemic in Botswana and Uganda were created to examine the future development of the virus in both countries and evaluate existing and future policy measures. The effect of exi
Payne, Deborah; Nakato, Margaret; Nabalango, Caroline
Water collection in rural areas of Uganda is left primarily to women and children. Katosi Women Development Trust, an NGO based in rural Uganda has focused on addressing the gender-linked issue of increased water sources near the home through the construction of rain water collection tanks. In an effort to improve the income of members as well as…
Adong, Annet; Mwaura, Francis; Okoboi, Geofrey
Farmer groups have returned to the policy agenda of many developing countries because of their attractiveness as facilitators and accelerators of technical and economic change in rural areas and as potential avenues for mobilizing farmers around a common objective especially in the delivery of services and formulation of policies that support agriculture development. In Uganda, the government and development agencies are targeting farmer groups as the vehicle for agricultural development in t...
Krč, Janez; Beguš, Jurij
The article presents the model for determining inaccessible forest areas by density of forest roads. The model is based on the GIS analysis of the distances between the existing network of public and forest roads and inaccessible forest areas, sizes of excluded forest areas, and forest site potentials. In order to increase forest road density, the following must be done: (1) construct connecting roads to the inaccessible forest areas and (2) construct new forest roads with different density i...
Tiemann, L. K.; Grandy, S.; Hartter, J.
As the foundation of soil fertility, soil organic matter (SOM) formation and break-down is a critical factor of agroecosystem sustainability. In tropical systems where soils are quickly weathered, the link between SOM and soil fertility is particularly strong; however, the mechanisms controlling the stabilization and destabilization of SOM are not well characterized in tropical soils. In western Uganda, we collected soil samples under different levels of land use intensity including maize fields, banana plantations and inside an un-cultivated native tropical forest, Kibale National Park (KNP). To better understand the link between land use intensity and SOM stability we measured total soil C and N, and respiration rates during a 369 d soil incubation. In addition, we separated soils into particle size fractions, and mineral adsorbed SOM in the silt (2-50 μm ) and clay (chemically characterized via pyrolysis-GC/MS. Cultivated soil C and N have declined by 22 and 48%, respectively, in comparison to uncultivated KNP soils. Incubation data indicate that over the last decade, relatively accessible and labile soil organic carbon (SOC) pools have been depleted by 55-59% in cultivated soils. As a result of this depletion, the chemical composition of SOM has been altered such that clay and silt associated SOM differed significantly between agricultural fields and KNP. In particular, nitrogen containing compounds were in lower abundance in agricultural compared to KNP soils. This suggests that N depletion due to agriculture has advanced to pools of mineral associated organic N that are typically protected from break-down. In areas where land use intensity is relatively greater, increases in polysaccharides and lipids in maize fields compared to KNP indicate increases in microbial residues and decomposition by-products as microbes mine SOM for organic N. Chemical characterization of post-incubation SOM will help us better understand how microbes preferentially break-down SOM
Full Text Available The butterfly species richness of 17 forests located in the western arm of the Albertine Rift in Uganda was compared using cluster analysis and principal components analysis (PCA to assess similarities among the forests. The objective was to compare the butterfly species richness of the forests. A total of 630 butterfly species were collected in 5 main families. The different species fell into 7 ecological groupings with the closed forest group having the most species and the swamp/wetland group with the fewest number of species. Three clusters were obtained. The first cluster had forests characterized by relatively high altitude and low species richness despite the big area in the case of Rwenzori and being close to the supposed Pleistocene refugium. The second cluster had forests far away from the supposed refugium except Kisangi and moderate species richness with small areas, whereas the third cluster had those forests that were more disturbed, high species richness, and low altitudinal levels with big areas.
Laporte, Nadine; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Elkan, Paul; Desmet, Olivier; Paget, Dominique; Pumptre, Andrew; Gouala, Patrice; Honzack, Miro; Maisels, Fiona
Central Africa has the second largest unfragmented block of tropical rain forest in the world; it is also one of the largest carbon and biodiversity reservoirs. With nearly one-third of the forest currently allocated for logging, the region is poised to undergo extensive land-use change. Through the mapping of the forests, our Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa (INFORMS) project aims to monitor habitat alteration, support biodiversity conservation, and promote better land-use planning and forest management. Designed as an interdisciplinary project, its goal is to integrate data acquired from satellites with field observations from forest inventories, wildlife surveys, and socio-economic studies to map and monitor forest resources. This project also emphasizes on collaboration and coordination with international, regional, national, and local partners-including non-profit, governmental, and commercial sectors. This project has been focused on developing remote sensing products for the needs of forest conservation and management, insuring that research findings are incorporated in forest management plans at the national level. The societal impact of INFORMS can be also appreciated through the development of a regional remote sensing network in central Africa. With a regional office in Kinshasa, (www.OSFAC.org), the contribution to the development of forest management plans for 1.5 million hectares of forests in northern Republic of Congo (www.tt-timber.com), and the monitoring of park encroachments in the Albertine region (Uganda and DRC) (www.albertinerift.org).
Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.
Northern Uganda has been devastated by more than 20 years of open conflict by the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) and the Government of Uganda. This war has been marked by extreme violence against civilians, who had been gathered in protected IDP (Internally Displaced Persons) camps. At the height of the displacement in 2007, the UN office for coordination of humanitarian affairs, estimated that nearly 2.5 million people were interned into approximately 220 camps throughout Northern Uganda. With the improved security since mid-2006, the people displaced by the conflict in Northern Uganda started to move out of the overcrowded camps and return either to their villages/parishes of origin or to resettlement/transit sites. However, basic water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in the return areas or any new settlements sites are minimal. People returning to their villages of origin encounter a situation where in many cases there is no access to safe water. Since 1998 ACF (Action Against Hunger, part of the Action Contre la Faim International Network) activities have been concentrated in the Acholi and Lango regions of Northern Uganda. ACF's WASH (Water, sanitation and hygiene) department interventions concern sanitation infrastructure, hygiene education and promotion as well as water points implementation. To ensure safe water access, actions are focused in borehole construction and traditional spring rehabilitation, also called "protected" springs. These activities follow the guidelines as set forth by the international WASH cluster, led by UNICEF. A three year project (2008-2010) is being implemented by ACF, to monitor the available groundwater resources in Northern Uganda. The main objectives are: 1. to monitor the groundwater quality from existing water points during different hydrological seasons, 2. to identify, if any, potential risks of contamination from population concentrations and displacement, lack of basic infrastructure and land use, and finally 3. to
Muwonge, Adrian; Munang'andu, Hetron M; Kankya, Clovice; Biffa, Demelash; Oura, Chris; Skjerve, Eystein; Oloya, James
Owing to frequent reports of suspected outbreaks and the presence of reservoir hosts and vectors (warthogs, bushpigs and O. moubata ticks), African swine fever (ASF) is believed to be an endemic disease in Uganda. There have, however, been very few studies carried out to confirm its existence in Uganda. This study was carried out to describe the prevalence of ASF based on pathologic lesions and analysis of serum samples from slaughtered pigs during a suspected outbreak in the Mubende district of Uganda. The study was based on visits to 22 slaughterhouses where individual pigs were randomly selected for a detailed ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections. Sera were also collected for laboratory analysis. A total of 997 pigs (53.7% male and 46.3% female) were examined for lesions suggestive of ASF and sero-positivity of sera for ASF antibodies. The sera were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and positive samples were further confirmed with an immunoblot assay. The results showed that 3.8% (38/997) of the pigs examined had clinical signs and post-mortem lesions suggestive of ASF. Two of 997 (0.2%) sera analysed were positive for ASF antibodies. Of the sub-counties investigated, Bagezza (12%) and Kiyuni (11%) had the highest prevalence of lesions suggestive of ASF based on ante- and post-mortem examination results, while Mubende town council (1.7%) had the lowest. This study found a low number of pigs (3.8%) with lesions suggestive of ASF at slaughter and an even lower number of pigs (0.2%) that were seropositive at slaughter, however a significantly higher number of pigs were slaughtered during the outbreak as a strategy for farmers to avoid losses associated with mortality.
Richard, Menya; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
Radioactive materials refer to any materials that spontaneously emit ionizing radiation and of which the radioactivity per gram is greater than 0.002 micro-curie. They include: spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes, medical sources i.e. Co-60, industrial sources i.e. Cs-137, Am-241:Be, Ra-226, and sources for research. In view of the rising reported cancer cases in Uganda, which might be as a result of radiation exposure due to constant transportation of radioactive materials i.e. industrial sources, a risk analysis was thought of and undertaken for the country's safety evaluation and improvement. It was therefore important to undertake a risk assessment of the actual and potential radiation exposure during the transportation process. This paper explains a study undertaken for transport risk assessment of the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the industrial sources in Uganda. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with visualized transport scenarios for the highway transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of the sources along Busia transport route to Hoima. Busia is the entry port for the sources whilst Hoima, where various industrial practices that utilize sources like oil explorations are centered. During the study, a computer code RADTRAN-6 was used. The overall collective dose for population and package transport crew are 3.72E-4 and 1.69E-4 person-sievert respectively. These are less than the exemption value recommended by the IAEA and Uganda Regulatory Authority for public implying that no health effects like cancer are to be expected. Hence the rising cancer cases in the country are not as a result of increased transportation of radioactive materials in the Industrial sector.
Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Park, Sung-Joon; Odong, George;
Background : WHO and Uganda’s Ministry of Health emphasize the need to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Treatment for these conditions is urgent in northern Uganda where war has negatively affected both health and the public health care system. Objectives : We aimed......, diabetes, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We checked the availability of diagnostic instruments and medicines, and interviewed health workers. Results : The four conditions were rarely diagnosed in the outpatient population. Hypertension was the most common, but still constituted...
Lillian Ayebale; Lynn Atuyambe; William Bazeyo; Erasmus Otolok Tanga
Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted a...
Dalsgaard, J.P.T.; Dickson, M; Jagwe, J.; Longley, C.
This report presents the findings and recommendations of a strategic planning mission to reevaluate the feasibility of WorldFish implementing a fish value chain research program in Uganda under the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish (L&F). The over-arching goal of L&F is to increase productivity of small-scale livestock and fish systems so as to increase availability and affordability of meat, milk and fish for poor consumers and, in doing so, to reduce poverty through greater parti...
An intensive dairy and crop farming system found in the East African highlands provides manure and urine, taken from stalls of improved dairy cattle, for crops such as banana. By using panel data of 894 rural households in 2003 and 2005 in Uganda, we find that the number of improved cattle per ha increases the organic fertilizer application on banana plots by 218 kilograms per ha. We also find that banana farmers applied more organic fertilizer on less fertile soils. Regarding banana yield, w...
Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Park, Sung-Joon; Odong, George;
Background : WHO and Uganda’s Ministry of Health emphasize the need to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Treatment for these conditions is urgent in northern Uganda where war has negatively affected both health and the public health care system. Objectives : We aimed...... under 1% of diagnoses. Patterns of diagnosis were uneven, with higher frequency of particular diagnoses at some health facilities. Diagnostic equipment was not sufficient and screening was irregular. Medicine was mostly available although stockouts of some relevant drugs were reported. Conclusions...
Kwagala, Betty; Nankinga, Olivia; Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Ndugga, Patricia; Kabagenyi, Allen
Background There is limited research on how the empowerment of women and intimate partner violence (IPV) are associated with skilled birth attendance (SBA) among rural women in Uganda. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate the association between women’s empowerment, their experience of IPV and SBA in rural Uganda. Methods Using data from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS), we selected 857 rural women who were in union, had given birth in the last 5 years preceding ...
Namulema, Mary Jude
This study examined the relevance of economic valuation of wetlands in Uganda. A case study was done on Kiyanja-Kaku wetland in Lwengo District in Central Uganda using a semi-structured survey. Three objectives were examined i.e.: (i) To identify wetland ecosystem services in Uganda (ii) To identify the economic valuation methods appropriate for wetlands in Uganda (iii) To value clean water obtained from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland. The wetland ecosystem services were identified as provisioning, regulating, habitat, cultural and amenities services. The community had knowledge about 17 out of the 22 services as given by TEEB (2010). The economic valuation methods identified were, market price, efficiency price, travel cost, contingent valuation, hedonic pricing, and production function and benefit transfer methods. These were appropriate for valuation of wetlands in Uganda but only three methods i.e. market price, contingent valuation and productivity methods have been applied by researchers in Uganda so far. The economic value of clean water from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland to the nearby community was established by using the market price of clean water the National water and Sewerage Corporation charges for the water in Uganda to obtain the low value and the market price of water from the survey was used to obtain the high value. The estimated economic value of clean water service for a household ranges from UGX. 612174 to 4054733 (US 168.0-1095.0). The estimated economic value of clean water service from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland to the entire community ranges from UGX. 2,732,133,000.0 to 18,096,274,000.0 (US 775,228.0-4,885,994.0).
The study examines the determinants of improved agricultural technologies adoption in Uganda, using a nationally representative panel data set of 1,600 farming households, collected by the Ugandan Bureau of Statistics in 2005/6 and 2009/10. Two agricultural technologiesâ€”improved seeds and fertilizerâ€”out of the seven types identified by the study were further considered and analyzed. Estimates from the probit regression model show that farmers with low education and land holdings are less ...
Lakwo, T L; Garms, R; Rubaale, T; Katabarwa, M; Walsh, F; Habomugisha, P; Oguttu, D; Unnasch, T; Namanya, H; Tukesiga, E; Katamanywa, J; Bamuhiiga, J; Byamukama, E; Agunyo, S; Richards, F
The Itwara onchocerciasis focus is located around the Itwara forest reserve in western Uganda. In 1991, annual treatments with ivermectin started in the focus. They were supplemented in 1995 by the control of the vector Simulium neavei, which was subsequently eliminated from the focus. The impact of the two interventions on the disease was assessed in 2010 by nodule palpations, examinations of skin snips by microscopy and PCR, and Ov16 recombinant ELISA. There was no evidence of any microfilaria in 688 skin snips and only 2 (0.06%) of 3316 children examined for IgG4 were slightly above the arbitrary cut off of 40. A follow up of the same children 21 months later in 2012 confirmed that both were negative for diagnostic antigen Ov-16, skin snip microscopy and PCR. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) elimination criteria of 2001 and the Uganda onchocerciasis certification guidelines, it was concluded that the disease has disappeared from the Itwara focus after 19 years of ivermectin treatments and the elimination of the vector around 2001. Ivermectin treatments were recommended to be halted.
Samuni, Liran; Mundry, Roger; Terkel, Joseph; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hobaiter, Catherine
Habituation to human observers is an essential tool in animal behaviour research. Habituation occurs when repeated and inconsequential exposure to a human observer gradually reduces an animal's natural aversive response. Despite the importance of habituation, little is known about the psychological mechanisms facilitating it in wild animals. Although animal learning theory offers some account, the patterns are more complex in natural than in laboratory settings, especially in large social groups in which individual experiences vary and individuals influence each other. Here, we investigate the role of social learning during the habituation process of a wild chimpanzee group, the Waibira community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Through post hoc hypothesis testing, we found that the immigration of two well-habituated, young females from the neighbouring Sonso community had a significant effect on the behaviour of non-habituated Waibira individuals towards human observers, suggesting that habituation is partially acquired via social learning. PMID:24500498
Hobaiter, Catherine; Byrne, Richard W
We examined hand preference in the intentional gestural communication of wild chimpanzees in the Budongo forest, Uganda. Individuals showed some tendency to be lateralized, although less than has been reported for begging and pointing gestures in captivity; on average, their absolute bias was around 0.25 (where 1.0 represents complete right- or left-hand use and 0.0 represents no bias). Lateralization was incomplete even in individuals with major manual disabilities. Where individuals had a stronger preference, this was more often toward the right hand; moreover, as age increased, the direction (but not the extent) of hand preference shifted toward the right. While the gestural repertoire as a whole was largely employed ambilateraly, object-manipulation gestures showed a strong right-hand bias. PMID:23600943
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are emerging opportunistic pathogens whose role in human and animal disease is increasingly being recognized. Major concerns are their role as opportunistic pathogens in HIV/AIDS infections. The role of open natural water sources as source and livestock/wildlife as reservoirs of infections to man are well documented. This presents a health challenge to the pastoral systems in Africa that rely mostly on open natural water sources to meet livestock and human needs. Recent study in the pastoral areas of Uganda showed infections with same genotypes of NTM in pastoralists and their livestock. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental, animal husbandry and socio-demographic factors associated with occurrence and the pastoral community knowledge of mycobacterial infections at the human-environment-livestock/wildlife interface (HELI areas in pastoral ecosystems of Uganda. Methods Two hundred and fifty three (253 individuals were subjected to a questionnaire survey across the study districts of Nakasongola and Mubende. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Humans sharing of the water sources with wild animals from the forest compared to savannah ecosystem (OR = 3.3, the tribe of herding pastoral community (OR = 7.9, number of rooms present in household (3-5 vs. 1-2 rooms (OR = 3.3 were the socio-demographic factors that influenced the level of knowledge on mycobacterial infections among the pastoral communities. Tribe (OR = 6.4, use of spring vs. stream water for domestic use (OR = 4.5, presence of sediments in household water receptacle (OR = 2.32, non separation of water containers for drinking and domestic use (OR = 2.46, sharing of drinking water sources with wild animals (OR = 2.1, duration of involvement of >5 yrs in cattle keeping (OR = 3.7 and distance of household to animal night shelters (>20 meters (OR = 3
Tumwine, J.; Frinking, H.D.; Jeger, M.J.
Cultural control measures against tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) were evaluated in six field experiments over 3 years in Uganda. Each experiment included sanitation (removal of diseased plant tissues), fungicide (mancozeb) application, and an untreated control, as standard treatments. L
Butt, T.; Angerer, J; Dyke, P.; Kim, M.; Kaitho, R.; Stuth, J.
This paper discusses concerns about the impact of climate change on agriculture. Methods for assessing the impacts of climate change and the results from impact assessments in Mali, Kenya, Uganda, and Senegal are presented.
Krief, Sabrina; Vermeulen, Benjamin; Lafosse, Sophie; Kasenene, John M.; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Berthelemy, Madeleine; L'Hostis, Monique; Bain, Odile; Guillot, Jacques
This study focused on Oeosophagostomum sp., and more especially on O. bifurcum, as a parasite that can be lethal to humans and is widespread among humans and monkeys in endemic regions, but has not yet been documented in apes. Its epidemiology and the role played by non-human primates in its transmission are still poorly understood. O. stephanostomum was the only species diagnosed so far in chimpanzees. Until recently, O. bifurcum was assumed to have a high zoonotic potential, but recent findings tend to demonstrate that O. bifurcum of non-human primates and humans might be genetically distinct. As the closest relative to human beings, and a species living in spatial proximity to humans in the field site studied, Pan troglodytes is thus an interesting host to investigate. Recently, a role for chimpanzees in the emergence of HIV and malaria in humans has been documented. In the framework of our long-term health monitoring of wild chimpanzees from Kibale National Park in Western Uganda, we analysed 311 samples of faeces. Coproscopy revealed that high-ranking males are more infected than other individuals. These chimpanzees are also the more frequent crop-raiders. Results from PCR assays conducted on larvae and dried faeces also revealed that O. stephanostomum as well as O. bifurcum are infecting chimpanzees, both species co-existing in the same individuals. Because contacts between humans and great apes are increasing with ecotourism and forest fragmentation in areas of high population density, this paper emphasizes that the presence of potential zoonotic parasites should be viewed as a major concern for public health. Investigations of the parasite status of people living around the park or working inside as well as sympatric non-human primates should be planned, and further research might reveal this as a promising aspect of efforts to reinforce measures against crop-raiding. PMID:20300510
Full Text Available Community structure was studied across six different habitat types in an amphibian assemblage constituted by 24 species belonging to five families, from Lake Nabugabo, Uganda. We employed a suite of different statistical methods, including univariate, multivariate, and Monte Carlo procedures to investigate the randomness/nonrandomness and the seasonal effects (wet versus dry season of the community assembly. We calculated for each species in each habitat type an index of relative abundance by using a time constrained counting technique, with 48 1-h counts for each habitat type. Co-occurrence was analysed by C score with 30 000 simulations; resource partitioning patterns by RA2 and RA3 algorithms with 30 000 simulations; and apparent dissimilarity among species in terms of habitat use by UPGMA dendrograms. After pooling data from wet and dry seasons, it resulted that the amphibian community was non-randomly assembled according to C-score analyses, but both RA2 and RA3 were unable to uncover any competitive structure for the dataset. Seasonal effects were evident, and although C score analyses confirmed a nonrandom structure for the community under study (particularly in wet season, RA3 showed that species with high relative abundance tended to significantly concentrate in one habitat type (swamp forest rather than to partition the habitat resource. UPGMA dendrograms grouped the species differently in dry versus wet seasons. Overall, the comparative evidence of 1 non-random community structure according to C-score analysis, and 2 absence of resource partitioning according to niche overlap null models analysis, suggests that community organization in Lake Nabugabo amphibians is generated by habitat affinities rather than by interspecific competition.
Lwanga, J S; Struhsaker, T T; Struhsaker, P J; Butynski, T M; Mitani, J C
We present census data for eight primate species spanning 32.9 years along the same transect at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, demonstrating major changes in the composition of the primate community. Correlated with an estimated decline of ∼89% in the red colobus population was an increase in encounter rates with chimpanzee parties. Our data, along with the unusually high rates of predation by chimpanzees on red colobus at Ngogo and the fact that the chimpanzee community at Ngogo is the largest ever recorded, support the conclusion that the red colobus decline was caused primarily by chimpanzee predation. This seems to be the first documented case of predation by one nonhuman primate causing the population decline in another. We evaluated disease and interspecific competition as other possible causes of the red colobus decline, but judged them to be relatively insignificant compared with predation by chimpanzees. Notable changes in encounter rates with other primate species may have resulted from forest expansion. Those for mangabeys, redtails, and black and white colobus increased significantly. Encounter rates increased for l'Hoest's monkeys too, but the increased sightings may have been an artifact of increased habituation. Sightings of blue monkey and baboon groups declined. There was no significant change in encounter rates for all species combined. The Ngogo primate community seemed to be in a nonequilibrium state, changing from one dominated by two species, a folivore (red colobus) and a frugivorous omnivore (redtails), to one dominated by three species of frugivorous omnivores (redtails, mangabeys, and chimpanzees). This study demonstrates the importance of long-term monitoring in understanding population dynamics and the role of intrinsic variables in shaping the species composition of a community. PMID:21557287
US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundaries encompassing the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the original proclaimed National Forests, along with...
Clet Wandui Masiga
Full Text Available The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an internationally binding instrument addressing issues of biosafety. Biosafety refers to the need to protect human health and the environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of modern biotechnology. Accordingly all countries to the convention are required to put in place regulatory mechanisms to enhance the safety of biotechnology in the context of the Convention’s overall goal of reducing all potential threats to biological diversity, while taking into account the risks to human health. Therefore each country party to the convention has its own procedures to enact laws to guide the safe use of biotechnology. In Uganda the process involves the drafting of the bill by the first parliamentary counsel, approval by cabinet, first reading at the parliament, committal to the responsible parliamentary sessional committee, tabling of the bill for public hearing, consultations, and final approval. In Uganda, the Committee on Science and Technology is responsible for the Biosafety Bill. In March 2013, the Committee tabled the bill for public hearing and submissions from public institutions. There were comments supporting the passage of the Bill and comments in objection.The reasons for objection are mainly due to precaution, speculation, lack of knowledge about biotechnology and biosafety, and alleged influence from biosafety entrepreneurs. This article reviews these public views, revealing controversy and possible consensus to pass the bill.
This thesis is about the strategic concepts for hospitality related education with focus on a developing country- Uganda. The research entails the external environment of higher education in Uganda and how it could affect introduction of a hospitality related institution of higher education. The primary aim of this thesis is to provide key strategic tools required for the process of setting up an institution of higher education. The paper investigates the existing strategic management lit...
Bürgerkriege haben für die betroffenen Länder verheerende Auswirkungen auf soz-ialer, wirtschaftlicher, medizinischer und politischer Ebene. In einer epidemiologischen Studie, die im West-Nil Gebiet von Sudan und Uganda durchgeführt wurde, sollten die psychischen Folgen des sudanesischen Bürgerkrieges untersucht werden. Dabei wurden drei Populationen miteinander verglichen: Sudanesen, die im Sudan verblieben waren (n =664), Flüchtlinge, die aus dem Sudan nach Uganda geflohen waren (n = 1240) ...
Keywords: Smallholder poor farmers, market access, bananas, productivity, efficiency, labour demand, labour supply,Uganda.This study investigates the effects of factor and commodity markets on the development of the banana sub-sector in central and southwesternUganda. The study analyses smallholder household response to production constraints (crop pests and diseases, soil constraints) and development of product markets and off-farm employment opportunities. The study was carried out in centr...
Kiene, Susan M.; Hopwood, Sarah; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K.
There is a high unmet need for contraceptives in developing countries such as Uganda, with high population growth, where efforts are needed to promote family planning and contraceptive use. Despite this high need, little research has investigated applications of health behaviour change theories to contraceptive use amongst this population. The present study tested the Theory of Planned Behaviour’s ability to predict contraceptive use-related behaviours among postpartum women in rural Uganda. ...
The aim of this survey was to appraise election violence and voter behaviour in Uganda. The rule of the thumb was used to draw the sample for the study. Copies of structured questionnaire were administered on the respondents using purposive sampling technique to study two urban centers in Uganda - Hoima and Kigorobya. Using the analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests as instruments of data analysis, findings indicated among others that voter motivation, political parties, voter perceptions ...
For many years, coffee has been a major source of income to many Ugandans. Traditionally, Uganda coffee farmers have sold their coffee in unhulled form as dried cherries (Kiboko) through governmental parastatals. Structural changes in the agricultural sector arising from policy reforms that Uganda embraced since 1990 (notably liberalisation, privatisation and decentralization) removed the monopoly of governmental parastatals in agricultural marketing and pricing which was a disincentive to im...
In Uganda, about 3 million households consume tomato. However, tomato yields (10 ton/ ha) are low due to poor agronomic practices, lack of high yielding and disease resistant varieties, and pests (Varela, 1995; Hansen, 1990; Defrancq, 1989). Viral diseases are the third major cause of low tomato productivity in Uganda. Therefore, a survey was conducted; symptoms observed on tomato were categorized, and screened for both ribonucleic and deoxyribonucleic acid tomato viruses. Genetic identity fo...
Jon S Beadell
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, a riverine species of tsetse, is the main vector of both human and animal trypanosomiasis in Uganda. Successful implementation of vector control will require establishing an appropriate geographical scale for these activities. Population genetics can help to resolve this issue by characterizing the extent of linkage among apparently isolated groups of tsetse. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted genetic analyses on mitochondrial and microsatellite data accumulated from approximately 1000 individual tsetse captured in Uganda and neighboring regions of Kenya and Sudan. Phylogeographic analyses suggested that the largest scale genetic structure in G. f. fuscipes arose from an historical event that divided two divergent mitochondrial lineages. These lineages are currently partitioned to northern and southern Uganda and co-occur only in a narrow zone of contact extending across central Uganda. Bayesian assignment tests, which provided evidence for admixture between northern and southern flies at the zone of contact and evidence for northerly gene flow across the zone of contact, indicated that this structure may be impermanent. On the other hand, microsatellite structure within the southern lineage indicated that gene flow is currently limited between populations in western and southeastern Uganda. Within regions, the average F(ST between populations separated by less than 100 km was less than approximately 0.1. Significant tests of isolation by distance suggested that gene flow is ongoing between neighboring populations and that island populations are not uniformly more isolated than mainland populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the presence of population structure arising from historical colonization events, our results have revealed strong signals of current gene flow within regions that should be accounted for when planning tsetse control in Uganda. Populations in southeastern Uganda
Mbalibulha Y; Muwanguzi E; Mugyenyi GR; Natukunda B
Yona Mbalibulha,1 Enoch Muwanguzi,1 Godfrey R Mugyenyi,2 Bernard Natukunda1 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the distribution of ABO/RhD (rhesus D antigen) blood phenotypes, prevalence of anti-D alloantibodies, and the risk factors for alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda....
Gusdal, Annelie Karin; Obua, Celestino; Andualem, Tenaw; Wahlström, Rolf; Chalker, John; Fochsen, Grethe
Abstract Our aim was to explore peer counselors? work and their role in supporting patients? adherence to ART in resource-limited settings in Ethiopia and Uganda. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 79 patients, 17 peer counselors and 22 providers in ART facilities in urban and rural areas of Ethiopia and Uganda. Two main categories with related subcategories emerged from the analysis. The first main category, Peer counselors as facilitators of adherence, des...
Hubbard, Michael; Jackson, Paul; Mutebi-Golooba, Frederick
This brief study of issues regarding local government and development of the rural non-farm economy (RNFE) in Uganda forms part of a larger study of the RNFE led by the Natural Resources Institute (University of Greenwich) for DFID and the World Bank. This project has two components related to developing countries. The Access component is focused on issues affecting peoples’ access to non-farm livelihood activities and participation by households. Several reports on Uganda from this component...
Masagazi Joel Yawe; Mwebembezi Johnie; Kahuma B James; Ndawula Stephen
The purpose of the study was to establish whether secondary schools in Uganda are prepared for effective teaching of ICT education. The study was carried out in six secondary schools in Uganda. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods with a descriptive cross sectional survey design were adapted to collect data from 96 respondents. Questionnaires and interviews were employed as data collection instruments. The study findings showed that, the introduction of ICT education as a subjec...
Hall, Jennifer; Kasujja, Rosco; Oakes, Peter
Background Burn out in clinical psychologists working in low income countries has been reported. Clinical supervisory structures do not yet exist in Uganda. A way to decrease levels of burn out and increase quality of care for people with mental illness is through clinical supervision. The aim of this study was to explore the initial experiences of supervision for clinical psychology students in Uganda to ascertain whether or not clinical supervision is culturally appropriate, and what aspect...
Linda Nassanga Goretti
The paper explores how peace journalism has been applied in Uganda basing on an assessment of findings from a survey on the media coverage of the conflict in northern Uganda. The paper analyses the findings from the print media coverage of 2 newspapers for 3 years that were used as sample. The analysis considered several quantitative and qualitative variables including: frequency, type of stories (news vs non-news), authors of stories (journalists vs non-journalists), placement/prominence ...
Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Pender, John L.; Kaizzi, Crammer
This study investigated the linkages between poverty, agricultural productivity and land degradation in Uganda. Results show that farmers in the study region of Uganda deplete about 1.2% of the nutrient stock stored in the topsoil per year, leading to a predicted 0.2% annual reduction in crop productivity. Replacing the depleted nutrients using the cheapest inorganic fertilizers would cost about 20% of farm income on average. Land investments such as soil and water conservation structures and...
Ndungu Mukasa, Adamon
This thesis contains four closely related essays which address the empirical issues pertaining to the causes, consequences, and households’ responses to food price shocks in Uganda. The first essay investigates the nature of volatilities in agricultural commodity prices in Uganda between 2000 and 2012 by focusing on six key food staples, namely matooke, cassava, maize, sweet potatoes, beans, and millet flour. It studies the behavior of monthly price volatilities of these commodities, examines...
Munk Ravnborg, Helle; Boesen, Jannik; Sørensen, Anne; Akello, Zarupa; Bashaasha, Bernard; Kasozi, Sarah; Kidoido, Michael; Wabukawo, Veronica
The overall objective of the Danida supported Agricultural Sector Programme Support (ASPS) in Uganda is to improve the conditions for the poorest part of the population and contribute to reduce gender-based inequalities in Uganda in general and in the pilot focus districts in particular. Late in 2000, Danida asked Department of Agricultural Economics, Makerere University, Kampala, and Centre for Development Research, Copenhagen, to form an external task group with the purpose of monitoring th...
Jesus Crespo Cuaresma; Anna Raggl
We assess empirically the changes in returns to education at the subnational level in Uganda using the Uganda National Household Surveys for 2002/2003 and 2005/2006. Our results indicate that average returns to schooling tended to converge across regions in the last decade. The overall trend in convergence of returns to schooling took place at all levels of educational attainment and this behaviour in returns to education is mostly driven by the dynamics of returns to schooling in urban areas...
Fualal, J; W. Moses; Jayaraman, S; Nalugo, M; Ozgediz, D.; Duh, QY; Gosnell, J; Kebebew, E
Thyroid disease in Uganda continues to be endemic, despite national salt iodinization. This study describes the local characteristics of thyroid disease and identifies potential barriers to surgical access. A prospective database was established for all patients with suspected thyroid disease who presented to the Endocrine Surgery Clinic at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda in 2008. A cross-sectional study collected and analyzed for presentation, diagnostics and the surgica...
Naomi Nsubuga; Prasidh Ramson; Pirindha Govender; VingFai Chan; Mary Wepo; Naidoo, Kovin S
Background: Successful refractive error programmes arise from evidence that can be collected cost effectively and timely.Aim: To investigate the prevalence of uncorrected refractive error (URE), presbyopia and spectacle coverage in the Kamuli district, Uganda.Setting: The study was conducted in the Kamuli district in Uganda.Methods: The Rapid Assessment of Refractive Error (RARE) study design is a communitybased cross-sectional study using multistage cluster random sampling to gather informat...
This report is focused on current and recent policy that relates (directly or indirectly) to the rural economy and its diversification in Uganda. The primary purpose of the paper is to draw out policy conclusions from a series of studies on the rural non-farm economy in Uganda that took place during 2000-2001. A brief review of Uganda’s rural non-farm economy provides a useful introduction to the policy discussion that follows.
Abstract This study has its focus on children s thoughts about inclusion in ordinary schools in Uganda. The study replicated one central part in the government study, Ministry of Education and Sports (2002). Uganda started the process of implementing inclusive education through the introduction of universal primary education which was declared in 1997. Following the perspective that children have the right to be consulted on all matters of concern to them and to have their views taken se...
Nakiyemba Were, Alice; Isabirye, Moses; Poesen, Jean; Maertens, Miet; Deckers, Seppe; Mathijs, Erik
Recent studies on decentralized wetland governance in Uganda have focused mainly on the relationship between central and local governments. Less attention has been given to the relationship between agricultural systems, local governments, and water bodies. This study aims at assessing decentralized wetlands governance in the upper river Rwizi and Iguluibi micro catchments, Lake Victoria Basin Uganda, in relation to farming practices. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to provide a...
Full Text Available Abstract Background From 1995-2000 the under five mortality rate in Uganda increased from 147.3 to 151.5 deaths per 1000 live births and reasons for the increase were not clear. This study was undertaken to understand factors influencing the increase in under five mortality rate during 1995-2000 in Uganda with a view of suggesting remedial actions. Methods We performed a comparative retrospective analysis of data derived from the 1995 and the 2000 Uganda demographic and health surveys. We correlated the change of under five mortality rate in Uganda desegregated by region (central, eastern, north and western with change in major known determinants of under five mortality such social economic circumstances, maternal factors, access to health services, and level of nutrition. Results The increase in under five mortality rate only happened in western Uganda with the other 3 regions of Uganda (eastern, northern and central showing a decrease. The changes in U5MR could not be explained by changes in poverty, maternal conditions, level of nutrition, or in access to health and other social services and in the prevalence of HIV among women attending for ante-natal care. All these factors did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05 using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Conclusion In order to explain these findings, there is need to find something that happened in western Uganda (but not other parts of the country during the period 1995-2000 and has the potential to change the under five mortality by a big margin. We hypothesize that the increase in under five mortality could be explained by the severe malaria epidemic that occurred in western Uganda (but not other regions in 1997/98.
The continueing decline of wildlife in Uganda is of a great concern as it effects livelihood of locals and pose a threat to tourism industry. This study is about management of wildlife protected areas in Uganda. It recognizes existing protected areas and conservation approaches used in the country. It explains political effects of last and current regimes on conservation of wildlife and creation of protected areas by giving overview of Uganda’s political history. It a...
Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.
The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how consumers feel about GM banana biosafety risks and the potential challenges for marketing the product. The study analyzes socio-demographic characteristics, awareness and attitudes of banana-consuming ...
This report presents key findings from a small-scale pilot research project that explored the experiences and priorities of young people caring for their siblings in sibling-headed households affected by AIDS in Tanzania and Uganda. Qualitative and participatory research was conducted with 33 young people living in sibling-headed households and 39 NGO staff and community members in rural and urban areas of Tanzania and Uganda. The report analyses the ways that young people manage transitions ...
ABSTRACT: This study is an ex-ante cost effectiveness analysis of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) project for treating and preventing malnourished children in South Western Uganda. The results data used in the analysis in Acholi and Karamoja regions are for previous projects undertaken in the Uganda. For treating acute malnutrition uses Ready to Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF) as the major food for treating and preventing undernourishment children in Uganda .The costs...
Kaleebu, P; Kamali, A; Seeley, J; Elliott, A M; Katongole-Mbidde, E
For the past 25 years, the Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS has conducted research on HIV-1, coinfections and, more recently, on non-communicable diseases. Working with various partners, the research findings of the Unit have contributed to the understanding and control of the HIV epidemic both in Uganda and globally, and informed the future development of biomedical HIV interventions, health policy and practice. In this report, as we celebrate our silver jubilee, we describe some of these achievements and the Unit's multidisciplinary approach to research. We also discuss the future direction of the Unit; an exemplar of a partnership that has been largely funded from the north but led in the south.
MªC. Aríñez Fernández
Full Text Available En Uganda se está llevando a cabo la Misión de la Unión Europea (EUTM Somalia, en la que participan efectivos de las Fuerzas Armadas españolas. En mayo de 2011 el Ministerio de Sanidad de Uganda notificó un brote de fiebre hemorrágica por el virus del bola a 70 km de distancia de Kampala. El caso índice y único caso confirmado, fue una niña de 12 años que falleció. La investigación epidemiológica se llevó a cabo por un equipo internacional que incluyó personal del Ministerio de Sanidad de Uganda y de la OMS. Tras mantener la vigilancia del brote durante un tiempo igual a dos veces el periodo de incubación y no confirmar otros casos, fue declarado finalizado el brote el 17 de junio de 2011. Se distribuyó información sobre el brote y recomendaciones de actuación tanto a profesionales de la salud como a la población general.The European Mission (EUTM Somalia is being conducted in Uganda. Military personnel of the Spanish Armed Forces participate in that mission. On 13 May 2011, The Ministry of Health of Uganda notified a case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in a district 70 kilometers far from Kampala. The index case and only confirmed case, was a 12-year-old girl who finally died. Epidemiologic surveillance was conducted by an international team including representatives of the Ugandan Ministry of Health and WHO. The Ministry of Health of Uganda declared the end of the outbreak on the 17 June 2011, since the epidemiological investigations, including twofold the incubation period surveillance, did not confirm new cases. Guidelines to control the outbreak and information on the disease were distributed to health professionals and general population.
Full Text Available Commercial tree planting in Uganda is constrained by a lack ofgood quality seedlings due to poor soils used in nurseries. Two experiments were carried out; to evaluate the effects of different soils on the growth of the pine seedlings (experiment 1 and to compare the performance of seedlings provided with different NPK fertilizer formulations and amounts(experiment 2. Soils were collected from four forest reserves: Katugo (K, South Busoga (S, and Mbarara (M and from Mubende forest reserve. Treatments were: 0, 0.5 kg and 1.0 kg levels; NPK fertilizer formulations 25−5−5 (A, 17-17-17 (B and 18−4−14 +TE (C mixed in 1 m3 of soil.Composite soil samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Experimentswere laid out in a completely randomized block design, but with a factorialtreatment structure for experiment 2. Routine nursery management practices were carried out. Seedling heights and diameter were recorded. The results showed that SOM (site 1, total N (site 2 and available P, K, Ca and Mg were below the critical values. Low nutrient concentrations reduced growth, with seedling height highest in Katugo and girth highest in the Mbarara.Results of experiment two showed that there were no significant differences in mean heights for fertilizers A and C after a 1½ months application and B had a significant difference in the mean height and girth. However, fertilizer C girth results were significant with (Pvalue = 0.021, Pvalue = 0.001 at 1½ months and 3 months respectively. After 3 months, fertilizer B had the best mean height and mean girth at level 0.5 kg with (16.75 cm, 0.23 cm respectively, compared with fertilizer C and A with (13.42 cm, 0.175 cm and (12.44 cm, 0.174 cm respectively. From the results, a general NPK fertilizer formulation 171717 is recommended for use at a rate of 0.5 kg m3 of soil.
US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting existing National Forest System Roads (NFSR) that are under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service. Each feature represents...
Full Text Available In October 2009, a private member introduced the Anti-Homosexuality Bill to Uganda’s Parliament for consideration. This article analyzes the Bill within a broader context of transnational antigay activism, specifically the diverse ways that antigay activism in Uganda is shaped by global dynamics (such as the U.S. Christian Right’s pro-family agenda and local forms of knowledge and concerns over culture, national identity, and political and socio-economic issues/interests. This article lends insight into how transnational antigay activism connects to and reinforces colonial-inspired scripts about “African” sexuality and the deepening power inequalities between the global North and South under global neoliberalism, and raises some important questions about how the racial and gender politics of the U.S. Christian Right’s pro-family agenda travel and manifest within the Ugandan context.
Sachau, Till; Koehn, Daniel; Stamps, D. Sarah; Lindenfeld, Michael
The Rwenzori Mountains in western Uganda form an active rift-transfer zone in the western branch of the East African Rift System. Here we quantify local stress fields in high resolution from field observations of fault structures to shed light on the complex, polyphase tectonics expected in transfer zones. We apply the multiple inverse method, which is optimized for heterogeneous fault-slip data, to the northern and central Rwenzori Mountains. Observations from the northern Rwenzori Mountains show larger heterogeneity than data from the central Rwenzori, including unexpected compressional features; thus the local stress field indicates polyphase transpressional tectonics. We suggest that transpression here is linked to rotational and translational movements of the neighboring Victoria block relative to the Rwenzori block that includes strong overprinting relationships. Stress inversions of data from the central Rwenzori Mountains indicate two distinct local stress fields. These results suggest that the Rwenzori block consists of smaller blocks.
Yi, Zhao; Dewan, Maneesh; Zhan, Yiqiang
We describe Information Forests, an approach to classification that generalizes Random Forests by replacing the splitting criterion of non-leaf nodes from a discriminative one -- based on the entropy of the label distribution -- to a generative one -- based on maximizing the information divergence between the class-conditional distributions in the resulting partitions. The basic idea consists of deferring classification until a measure of "classification confidence" is sufficiently high, and instead breaking down the data so as to maximize this measure. In an alternative interpretation, Information Forests attempt to partition the data into subsets that are "as informative as possible" for the purpose of the task, which is to classify the data. Classification confidence, or informative content of the subsets, is quantified by the Information Divergence. Our approach relates to active learning, semi-supervised learning, mixed generative/discriminative learning.
Full Text Available Abstract Background World wide, there is plentiful evidence regarding the role of stigma in mental illness, as well as the association between poverty and mental illness. The experiences of stigma catalyzed by poverty revolve around experiences of devaluation, exclusion, and disadvantage. Although the relationship between poverty, stigma and mental illness has been documented in high income countries, little has been written on this relationship in low and middle income countries. The paper describes the opinions of a range of mental health stakeholders regarding poverty, stigma, mental illness and their relationship in the Ugandan context, as part of a wider study, aimed at exploring policy interventions required to address the vicious cycle of mental ill-health and poverty. Methods Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with purposefully selected mental health stakeholders from various sectors. The interviews and FGDs were audio-recorded, and transcriptions were coded on the basis of a pre-determined coding frame. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted using NVivo7, adopting a framework analysis approach. Results Most participants identified a reciprocal relationship between poverty and mental illness. The stigma attached to mental illness was perceived as a common phenomenon, mostly associated with local belief systems regarding the causes of mental illness. Stigma associated with both poverty and mental illness serves to reinforce the vicious cycle of poverty and mental ill-health. Most participants emphasized a relationship between poverty and internalized stigma among people with mental illness in Uganda. Conclusion According to a range of mental health stakeholders in Uganda, there is a strong interrelationship between poverty, stigma and mental illness. These findings re-affirm the need to recognize material resources as a central element in the fight against stigma of mental illness, and the
Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James;
Forest loss and degradation is occurring at high rates but humankind is experiencing historical momentum that favors forest restoration. Approaches to restoration may follow various paradigms depending on stakeholder objectives, regional climate, or the degree of site degradation. The vast amount...... of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change...
Full Text Available Jackson Orem,1–3 Sven Sandin,1 Caroline E Weibull,1 Michael Odida,4 Henry Wabinga,4 Edward Mbidde,2,3 Fred Wabwire-Mangen,5 Chris JLM Meijer,6 Jaap M Middeldorp,6 Elisabete Weiderpass1,7,81Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Uganda Cancer Institute, 3School of Medicine, 4School of Biomedical Sciences, 5School of Public Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; 6Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 7Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo; Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 8Samfundet Folkhälsan, Helsinki, FinlandBackground: Correct diagnosis is key to appropriate treatment of cancer in children. However, diagnostic challenges are common in low-income and middle-income countries. The objective of the present study was to assess the agreement between a clinical diagnosis of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL assigned in Uganda, a pathological diagnosis assigned in Uganda, and a pathological diagnosis assigned in The Netherlands.Methods: The study included children with suspected NHL referred to the Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, between 2004 and 2008. A clinical diagnosis was assigned at the Mulago National Referral Hospital, where tissue samples were also obtained. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were used for histological diagnosis in Uganda, and were re-examined in a pathology laboratory in The Netherlands, where additional pathological, virological and serological testing was also carried out. Agreement between diagnostic sites was compared using kappa statistics.Results: Clinical and pathological diagnoses from Uganda and pathological diagnosis from The Netherlands was available for 118 children. The agreement between clinical and pathological diagnoses of NHL assigned in Uganda was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI] 84–95; kappa 0.84; P < 0
Udongo, Betty Pacutho
This study analyzes the impact of armed conflicts on the development of education policy and particularly science education program in Uganda. Since independence from the British colonial rule, Uganda has experienced a series of armed conflicts, with the most devastating being the 21 years of conflict in Northern Uganda. The research study was…
NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.
Bose, Purabi; Dijk, van Han
This volume provides new insights and conceptual understandings of the human and gender dimension of vulnerability in relation to the dynamics of tenure reforms in the dryland forests of Asia and Africa. The book analyzes the interaction between biophysical factors such as climate variability (e.
van Gemert, Frederik; Kirenga, Bruce; Chavannes, Niels; Kamya, Moses; Luzige, Simon; Musinguzi, Patrick; Turyagaruka, John; Jones, Rupert; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Williams, Sian; de Jong, Corina; van der Molen, Thys
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the damage to respiratory health caused by biomass smoke and tobacco smoke. We assessed the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and related risk factors in a rural region of Uganda. METHODS: We did this prospective obser
This research report traces all the main developments in IMF-World Bank policies in Uganda. Most of the material concerns the three IMF standby arrangements with Uganda for 1981-1984 and the World Bank Group's Structural Adjustment Programmes. These programmes introduced two contradictory policies a
Ndawula, Stephen; Ngobi, David Henry; Namugenyi, Deborah; Nakawuki, Rose Coaster
University students in Uganda had been confined to use of traditional educational technologies such as chalkboards, papers and text books. Digital Media Approach recently found its way in the academia at public universities in Uganda. Information and communication technology (ICT) have become popular means of surfing, downloading and obtaining…
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2006
The Building Capacities for Non formal Education and Life Skills Programmes project in Uganda was implemented by Uganda Youth Development Link (UYDEL) with financial and technical support from UNESCO--Section for Literacy and non Formal Education in 2004-05; aiming at assisting vulnerable and marginalised youth affected by HIV/AIDS and other risk…
Our research project funded by the British Council on multigrade teaching capacity building in Uganda and Zambia found that Uganda does not have a single higher education institution training teachers in multigrade pedagogy and Zambia has only one located at Serenje village in rural Zambia. Yet the research found that in both countries many…
Basheka, Benon C.; Nabwire, Addah
This paper examines the relationship between budget planning and the quality of educational services at Kyambogo University in Uganda. We argue that the manner in which the university's budget planning activities are conducted determines in a significant way (by 76.8%) the quality of the services offered by public universities in Uganda. The…
Leerlooijer, J.N.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Reeuwijk, van M.A.J.; Rijsdijk, E.; Nshakira, N.; Kok, G.
Background A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda empo
This paper explores causes of differences in estimates of poverty incidence in Uganda since the early 1990s as measured by the Uganda Bureau of Statistics and the World Bank. While both sets of estimates from the two organisations show a declining trend in poverty incidence there are important differences in the levels of poverty, the speed of the…
Lagone, Elizabeth; Mathur, Sanyukta; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John
Uganda is recognised as an early success story in the HIV epidemic at least in part due to an open and vigorous national dialogue about HIV prevention. This study examined the national discourse about HIV, AIDS, and young people in New Vision, Uganda's leading national newspaper between 1996 and 2011, building from a previous archival…
Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.
Banana is a staple crop in Uganda. Ugandans have the highest per capita consumption of cooking bananas in the world (Clarke 2003). However, banana production in Uganda is limited by several productivity constraints, such as insects, diseases, soil depletion, and poor agronomic practices. To address
Wokadala, J.; Barungi, M.
The study establishes whether government spending on private universal secondary education (USE) schools is equitable across quintiles disaggregated by gender and by region in Uganda. The study employs benefit incidence analysis tool on the Uganda National Panel Survey (UNPS 2009/10) data to establish the welfare impact of public subsidy on…
Muwanika, Vincent B.; Nyakaana, Silvester; Siegismund, Hans Redlef
exterminated while other populations were decimated. Recent results of genetic surveys in five large mammals in Uganda (the common warthog, savanna elephant, savanna buffalo, common hippopotamus and Uganda kob) suggest a substantial erosion of genetic diversity in the elephants and warthogs of Queen Elizabeth...
Santelli, John S; Song, Xiaoyu; Larsen Holden, Inge Kristine;
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to identify risk factors and time trends for sexual experience and sexual debut in rural Uganda. METHODS: Using population-based, longitudinal data from 15- to 19-year olds in Rakai, Uganda, we examined temporal trends in the prevalence of sexual experience a...
Heum, Per; Mwakali, Jackson A.; Ekern, Ole Fredrik; Byaruhanga, Jackson N.M.; Koojo, Charles A.; Bigirwenkya, Naptali K.
In realization of the petroleum industry potential, Uganda's Oil and Gas policy seeks to optimize wealth creation from the industry to enhance the welfare of the citizens. This study has examined how Uganda may benefit from the participation of Ugandans and Ugandan firms in the petroleum activities. In the literature this is frequently referred to by applying the term local content. Local in this sense, however, refers to national as opposed to international or foreign contributions. Thus, we apply the concept national content to avoid any misunderstanding. Focus of our study has been on identifying the opportunities, gaps and challenges posed by the petroleum industry to recommend necessary measures to maximize the benefits of national content otherwise defined as national participation.The study has examined lessons Uganda may draw on from other countries and from the economic literature on industrial growth and national wealth. Furthermore, the specific point of departure for Uganda with regard to expected petroleum activities, Uganda's industrial base and its human resource base, has been investigated. On this basis, the study has made its recommendations.(eb)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health is a neglected area of health research and practice in most of sub-Saharan African countries where the largest burden of morbidity is from infectious diseases. This even occurs despite the fact that some mental health problems may arise from infectious diseases. Methods We conducted secondary analysis of the Uganda Global School-Based Health Survey-2003 to obtain the prevalence of, and assess factors that may be associated with suicidal ideation among school-going adolescents in rural Uganda. Assessment of association was conducted through both bi-variate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Altogether 21.6% of the study participants, 21.3% males and 23.5% females had seriously considered committing suicide within the past 12 months. Loneliness, worry were positively associated with suicide ideation after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, drinking, and experience of having been bullied (OR = 1.59; 95% CI [1.12, 2.26] and OR = 1.19; 95% CI [1.12, 2.25] respectively. Males were less likely to seriously consider committing suicide than females (OR = 0.70; 95% CI [0.50, 0.98]. Conclusion Adolescent suicidal ideation is a major public health issue in rural Uganda. Measures aimed to prevent adolescent suicides in Uganda should incorporate our understanding of factors that are associated with suicide in rural Uganda such the gender disparity and the association observed with substance use.
Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of forest management across four countries in East Africa and Latin America: Kenya, Uganda, Bolivia, and Mexico. It focuses on one question: Do varying proportions of women (low, mixed, high in forest user groups influence their likelihood of adopting forest resource enhancing behavior? We found that higher proportions of females in user groups, and especially user groups dominated by females, perform less well than mixed groups or male dominated ones. We suggest that these differences may be related to three factors: gender biases in technology access and dissemination, a labor constraint faced by women, and a possible limitation to women's sanctioning authority. Mixed female and male groups offer an avenue for exploiting the strengths of women and men, while tempering their individual shortcomings.
Full Text Available Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34 compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97. Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59. Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58. Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote
Lassen Kaspersen, Line; Føyn, Tullik Helene Ystanes
price relations, i.e. the price variations between geographically separated markets in Uganda and the world markets. Our analysis indicates that food markets in Uganda, based on our study of sorghum price transmission, are not integrated into world markets, and that oil prices are a very determining...... factor for price transmission within the country. However, the case is a bit different for the cash crop, Robusta coffee. In the period in the 1990’s with high coffee prices on the world market, prices in Uganda were strongly connected to world prices, and did not depend on the oil price. This indicates......This paper investigates price transmission for agricultural commodities between world markets and the Ugandan market in an attempt to determine the impact of world market prices on the Ugandan market. Based on the realization that price formation is not a static concept, a dynamic vector...
Odokonyero, Raymond; Wagner, Glenn; Ngo, Victoria; Nakasujja, Noeline; Musisi, Seggane; Akena, Dickens
Depression is common among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and can have significant consequences for HIV disease progression, treatment response and prevention. Yet mental health services are limited in most HIV care programs in this region, in part due to severe shortages of mental health professionals. To address the need for establishing an effective, sustainable model for integrating depression treatment into HIV care in SSA, we have embarked upon a 3-year research project, INDEPTH Uganda (INtegrating DEPression Treatment and in HIV care in Uganda), to evaluate a task-sharing, protocolized approach to providing antidepressant care in ten HIV clinics in Uganda. In this paper we share our experiences with two treated cases identified during the initial days of implementation, which we believe highlight the potential value and policy implications for task shifting depression care models in under-resourced settings. PMID:25376926
McGuire, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob
Short birth spacing continues to be a problem in Uganda and Zimbabwe, resulting in negative infant, child, and maternal health outcomes. This study investigates community-level influences on birth spacing outcomes among women aged 15-49 in Uganda and Zimbabwe, using Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2011 (Uganda) and 2010-2011 (Zimbabwe). Women living in communities with higher mean maternal age, mean age at marriage, and mean parity were significantly more likely to have longer birth spacing. Women living in communities with higher levels of contraceptive use and low levels of unmet contraceptive need were more likely to have short birth spacing. The significance of community-level demographic and fertility norms, gender norms, economic prosperity, and family planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on birth spacing outcomes. This analysis highlights the importance of moving beyond individual and household-level interventions in order to harness the power of contextual influences on birth spacing.
Nalugwa, A.; Olsen, Annette; Tukahebwa, M. E.;
% of the population of 36 million individuals are at risk. There is scanty information on the status and burden of schistosomiasis in preschool children less than six years of age in Uganda. This study aimed to assess the status of Schistosoma mansoni infections in children aged 1-5 years in Uganda. S. mansoni......Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by Schistosoma trematode parasites, affects hundreds of millions of people and accounts for more than 40% of the global health burden due to neglected tropical diseases. In Uganda, intestinal schistosomiasis is endemic in 73 out of 112 districts and about 55...... interviews with a standardized pre-tested questionnaire prepared in the local language (Lusoga) were administered to each caregiver to identify risk factors associated with S. mansoni infection. An overall S. mansoni prevalence of 39.3% (95% CI: 38.0-41.1%) was estimated out of the 3058 stool samples...
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Ozark - St. Francis National Forests stand inventory data for vegetation, maintained in polygon format. Compartment is defined as a division of forest for purposes...
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A point feature class of NFCs - Natural Forest Communities. Natural Forest Community shall mean all stands of trees (including their associated understory) which...
Andrea A Kim
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several approaches have been used for measuring HIV incidence in large areas, yet each presents specific challenges in incidence estimation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a comparison of incidence estimates for Kenya and Uganda using multiple methods: 1 Epidemic Projections Package (EPP and Spectrum models fitted to HIV prevalence from antenatal clinics (ANC and national population-based surveys (NPS in Kenya (2003, 2007 and Uganda (2004/2005; 2 a survey-derived model to infer age-specific incidence between two sequential NPS; 3 an assay-derived measurement in NPS using the BED IgG capture enzyme immunoassay, adjusted for misclassification using a locally derived false-recent rate (FRR for the assay; (4 community cohorts in Uganda; (5 prevalence trends in young ANC attendees. EPP/Spectrum-derived and survey-derived modeled estimates were similar: 0.67 [uncertainty range: 0.60, 0.74] and 0.6 [confidence interval: (CI 0.4, 0.9], respectively, for Uganda (2005 and 0.72 [uncertainty range: 0.70, 0.74] and 0.7 [CI 0.3, 1.1], respectively, for Kenya (2007. Using a local FRR, assay-derived incidence estimates were 0.3 [CI 0.0, 0.9] for Uganda (2004/2005 and 0.6 [CI 0, 1.3] for Kenya (2007. Incidence trends were similar for all methods for both Uganda and Kenya. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Triangulation of methods is recommended to determine best-supported estimates of incidence to guide programs. Assay-derived incidence estimates are sensitive to the level of the assay's FRR, and uncertainty around high FRRs can significantly impact the validity of the estimate. Systematic evaluations of new and existing incidence assays are needed to the study the level, distribution, and determinants of the FRR to guide whether incidence assays can produce reliable estimates of national HIV incidence.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The population in Northern Uganda has been exposed to extreme levels of traumatic stress and thousands abducted forcibly became rebel combatants. Methods Using structured interviews, the prevalence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety was assessed in 72 former abducted adults, 62 of them being former child soldiers. Results As retrospective reports of exposure to traumatic stress increased, anxiety and PTSD occurrence increased (r = .45. 49% of respondents were diagnosed with PTSD, 70% presented with symptoms of depression, and 59% with those of anxiety. In a multiple linear regression analysis four factors could best explain the development of PTSD symptoms: male respondents (sex living in an IDP-Camp (location with a kinship murdered in the war (family members killed in the war and having experienced a high number of traumatic events (number of traumatic events were more likely to develop symptoms of PTSD than others. In disagreement to a simple dose-response-effect though, we also observed a negative correlation between the time spent with the rebels and the PTSD symptom level. Conclusions Former abductees continue to suffer from severe mental ill-health. Adaptation to the living condition of rebels, however, may lower trauma-related mental suffering.
Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J.; Foppen, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.
Groundwater in unsewered urban areas is heavily contaminated by onsite sanitation activities and is believed to be an important source of nutrients ex-filtrating into streams and thus contributing to eutrophication of Lakes in urban areas. Currently the fate of nutrients and especially phosphorus leached into groundwater in such areas is not well known. In this study, we undertook an extensive investigation of groundwater in Bwaise slum, Kampala Uganda to understand the distribution and fate of sanitation-related nutrients N and P that are leached into groundwater. Transects of monitoring wells were installed in Bwaise slum and downstream of the slum. From these wells, water levels were measured and water quality analyses done to understand the distribution and composition of the nutrients, how they evolve downstream and the possible subsurface processes affecting their fate during transport. These findings are necessary to evaluate the risk of eutrophication posed by unsewered areas in urban cities and to design/implement sanitation systems that will effectively reduce the enrichment of these nutrients in groundwater. Key words: fate, groundwater, nutrients, processes, slums
Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Kasirye, Rogers; Nansubuga, Elizabeth
Little is documented about the association of alcohol consumption and social interaction in Uganda, a country with one of the highest per capita alcohol consumptions in the world. This paper describes the pattern of social interaction by sex and establishes the relationship between social interaction and alcohol consumption with and without the consideration of confounders. The data used had 1479 records and were collected in a survey in 2003. The study was part of a multinational study on Gender, Alcohol, and Culture International Study (GENACIS). Each question on social interaction had been pre-coded in a way that quantified the extent of social interaction. The sum of responses on interaction questions gave a summative score which was used to compute summary indices on social interaction. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the best combination of variables for a social interaction index. The index was computed by a prediction using a PCA model developed from the selected variables. The index was categorised into quintiles and used in bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of alcohol consumption and social interaction. The stronger the social interaction the more the likelihood of taking alcohol frequently (chi(trend)(2)=4.72, psex, age group and education level (p=0.008). The strength of relationship between social interaction and heavy consumption of alcohol gets weak in multivariate analysis. Communication messages meant to improve health, well-being and public order need to incorporate dangers of negative influence of social interaction. PMID:19406589
Full Text Available Since the rise to power of the Movement government under the leadership of Yoweri Museveni in 1986, Uganda has largely been show-cased as an emerging democracy on the continent. Among other things, Museveni's regime has been acclaimed for the restoration of periodic national elections, the making of the Constitution and the overall promotion of democratic governance, most especially through the adoption of a decentralised system with a commendable institutional and legal framework. Decentralisation is believed to promote service delivery at the local level, accountability for government resources by local leaders, and the involvement of the masses in local planning and the implementation of government programmes. It is now over twenty years since decentralisation was adopted as a system of government but the quality of service delivery and the accountability for government resources at the local level remains just as deplorable as the extent to which the masses are involved in the planning and implementation of government programmes in their localities. This paper examines the challenges that inhibit the realisation of the noble objectives of decentralisation, notwithstanding the apparently impressive institutional and legal framework.
Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe
Full Text Available Engaging in lean construction efforts could prove to be highly rewarding for building firms in Uganda. However, lean construction is risky and can be disastrous if not properly managed. Lean production efforts in some other countries have not been successful due to the many barriers to its successful implementation. To enable sound lean construction efforts and to increase the chances of success in eliminating waste, a thorough investigation of the barriers is essential. This study presents 31 barriers and investigates their influence (strength on the success of lean construction initiatives. Structured interviews were carried out with technical managers of building firms to assess their perception of the barriers to lean production based on their experience at their firms. The strongest barrier is the provision of inputs exactly when required. Additionally, the barriers were ranked according to the ease of overcoming each. The easiest barrier to overcome is keeping the required items in the right place. Finally, a graphical aid is provided to enable decision makers to concentrate their efforts on the influential (strong, yet easy to overcome barriers. A lack of buildable designs and a participative management style for the workforce are the most important barriers to successful waste reduction in terms of strength and ease of overcoming. On the other hand, a lack of an organisational culture that supports teamwork, a lack of prefabrication and a lack of knowledgeable and skilled workers are regarded as low in strength, and at the same time difficult to overcome.
In 1996, an 18-month-old settlement created for 55,000 Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda came under attack by Ugandan rebels. By March 1997, the entire population of the settlement had migrated in search of safety. Because the refugees lost their livelihoods and cultivated fields, they had to adopt short-term coping strategies to acquire food. Two Oxfam researchers gathering information during this period for use in program planning and monitoring found that coping strategies included 1) hazarding dangerous journeys (women risked rape or abduction; men risked beating, looting, killing, or abduction) to harvest crops; 2) seeking piece-work employment; 3) exchanging sex for food; and 4) depleting assets. The crisis was particularly severe for single people (especially those with children). In families where the women but not the men could find employment, some men took on household responsibilities. As malnutrition increased, health declined. Observed changes to household gender relations included new sexual divisions of labor, assumption by females of decision-making power, increased domestic quarreling, and marital break-down (especially in cases where women had been raped). On the community level, women assumed more responsibility as men withdrew socially or left the settlement. These findings point to the importance of providing refugees with seeds, with small loans to stimulate business, and with the means to rebuild their sense of community. PMID:12321534
Kiene, Susan M; Hopwood, Sarah; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K
There is a high unmet need for contraceptives in developing countries such as Uganda, with high population growth, where efforts are needed to promote family planning and contraceptive use. Despite this high need, little research has investigated applications of health-behaviour-change theories to contraceptive use among this population. This study tested the Theory of Planned Behaviour's ability to predict contraceptive-use-related behaviours among post-partum women in rural Uganda. Results gave modest support to the theory's application and suggest an urgent need for improved theory-based interventions to promote contraceptive use in the populations of developing countries. PMID:23928989
This paper aims to explore the role of human rights law in addressing the HIV/Aids epidemic, with particular reference to Uganda. The emphasis is on law as a tool, not as the tool, since the impact of law is always either constrained or facilitated by other factors - social, political and economic. The paper has been written primarily from a legal perspective, drawing on expertise regarding the function and operation of both national and international law. Uganda is selected as the 'case stud...
Orem J; Sandin S; Weibull CE; Odida M; Wabinga H; Mbidde E; Wabwire-Mangen F; Meijer CJ; Middeldorp JM; Weiderpass E
Jackson Orem,1–3 Sven Sandin,1 Caroline E Weibull,1 Michael Odida,4 Henry Wabinga,4 Edward Mbidde,2,3 Fred Wabwire-Mangen,5 Chris JLM Meijer,6 Jaap M Middeldorp,6 Elisabete Weiderpass1,7,81Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Uganda Cancer Institute, 3School of Medicine, 4School of Biomedical Sciences, 5School of Public Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; 6Department of Pathology, VU Uni...
Kamali, A. B.
This thesis is based on research on the epidemiology and prevention of HIV among adults in rural Masaka district, Uganda (1989-2010). Arising from this research are 10 published papers, which I have used to explore three research questions: (i) what are the trends in HIV prevalence and incidence in rural Uganda? (ii) what are the key determinants of these trends? (iii) what new strategies could be used to prevent HIV infection in this population? The studies involved four adult cohorts: a gen...
Balinda, Sheila Nina; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Muwanika, Vincent B.;
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Uganda with control strategies focusing on vaccination of cattle, while small ruminants are largely ignored. In order for Uganda to establish effective control strategies, it is crucial that the epidemiology of the disease is fully understood. This study...... for antibodies towards non-structural proteins (NSP) and structural proteins towards serotype O, and blocking ELISA for antibodies towards the seven serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). In 2006, sheep and goats in Bushenyi and Isingiro districts were free from antibodies towards FMDV, while herds in Kasese and Mbarara...
Kawube, Geofrey; Talwana, Herbert; Nicolaisen, Mogens;
affected. Sequence alignments and Blast searches showed that the phytoplasma causing NGSD in Uganda belonged to the phytoplasma group 16SrXI, with single nucleotide sequence variants in a few districts. Therefore, there is a need for development of an area wide NGSD management strategy to contain......The prevalence, incidence and severity of Napier grass stunt disease (NGSD) caused by phytoplasma on Pennisetum purpureum, the main fodder for livestock under intensive and semi-intensive management systems in Uganda were determined following a field survey carried out in 17 districts. A total...
Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Jørgensen, Aslak; Kabatereine, N B;
Geographic information system (GIS-based modeling of an intermediate host snail species environmental requirements using known occurrence records can provide estimates of its spatial distribution. When other data are lacking, this can be used as a rough spatial prediction of potential snail...... Uganda, environmental data and the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP) to map the potential distribution of snail species known to act as intermediate hosts of several human and animal parasites. The results suggest that large areas of Uganda are suitable habitats for many of these snail...
Wendelbo, Pall; Nielsen, Per Sieverts
: The main purpose of the paper is to evaluate tests of institutional kitchens carried out at schools in Uganda 1997. The results of the tests for the institutional kitchen with pyrolysis gasifier stoves are compared with the fuel use in traditional kitchens with three-stone stoves. The project...... was financed by the Norwegian Forestry Society and involved two institutional kitchens in the northern part of Uganda. The pyrolysis gasifier stove, which is used as heating source, is a simple batch feeded top-down inverted gasifier. The two institutional kitchens prepared food for 107 students and 700 pupils...
Full Text Available Collaborative forest governance enables forest-based communities access to and management responsibilities for forestry resources. Researchers argue that processes that enable social learning have the potential to contribute to the sustainable management of forests by engaging local people, helping them identify their collective needs and gain access to resource entitlements, and encouraging them to learn about and implement different management options. Although there is considerable attention to gender in the literature on collaborative forestry, particularly in developing countries, there is relatively little attention to gender in the social learning literature. Furthermore, there is almost no attention to these issues in postindustrial countries. Our purpose was to better understand how gender affects social learning and collaborative forest governance in forest-based communities in Canada and Uganda. Results showed that most participants in both countries started engaging in collaborative forest governance with limited knowledge and learned as they participated in various activities. However, we found that social learning opportunities and outcomes were affected by gender; in addition, they were also affected by the values that people held, education, and literacy. We suggest that practitioners should consider gender and other axes of difference if they want to design collaborative forest governance initiatives that are both participatory and inclusive.
Hogan, Jennifer N; Miller, Woutrina A; Cranfield, Michael R; Ramer, Jan; Hassell, James; Noheri, Jean Bosco; Conrad, Patricia A; Gilardi, Kirsten V K
Mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) are critically endangered primates surviving in two isolated populations in protected areas within the Virunga Massif of Rwanda, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda. Mountain gorillas face intense ecologic pressures due to their proximity to humans. Human communities outside the national parks, and numerous human activities within the national parks (including research, tourism, illegal hunting, and anti-poaching patrols), lead to a high degree of contact between mountain gorillas and wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. To assess the pathogen transmission potential between wildlife and livestock, feces of mountain gorillas, forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and domestic cattle (Bos taurus) in Rwanda were examined for the parasites Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia was found in 9% of mountain gorillas, 6% of cattle, and 2% of forest buffalo. Our study represents the first report of Giardia prevalence in forest buffalo. Cryptosporidium-like particles were also observed in all three species. Molecular characterization of Giardia isolates identified zoonotic genotype assemblage B in the gorilla samples and assemblage E in the cattle samples. Significant spatial clustering of Giardia-positive samples was observed in one sector of the park. Although we did not find evidence for transmission of protozoa from forest buffalo to mountain gorillas, the genotypes of Giardia samples isolated from gorillas have been reported in humans, suggesting that the importance of humans in this ecosystem should be more closely evaluated.
Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.;
We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according...... to the extent of rule enforcement, and congruence (i.e., overlap of user rights between owners and users). We find negative associations between enforcement and smallholder forest income for state-owned and community forests, and positive associations for privately owned forests. Where user rights are limited...... to formal owners we find negative associations for state-owned forests. Overlapping user rights are positively associated with forest income for community forests. Our findings suggest that policy reforms emphasizing enforcement and reducing overlapping claims to forest resources should consider possible...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....
Hribernik, Boštjan; Potočnik, Igor
In the past, forest opening with forest roads was planned on the basis of forest wood production. By discovering the importance of other forest roles, gradual integration of individual role into planning processes of forest opening started. The modern approach to the planning of forest opening of multipurpose forests requires a simultaneous consideration of all forest roles. Economic justification for enlarging the existing forest road network is based on the density of forest roads, where th...
US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas designated within National Forest System Lands, in 37 States, that are eligible for insect and disease treatments under...
US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting all the National Forest System lands administered by an unit. These areas encompasse private lands, other governmental agency...
US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. This service is used internally and...
Paul Cross; Edwards, Rhiannon T.; Philip Nyeko; Gareth Edwards-Jones
The export of vegetables from African countries to European markets presents consumers with an ethical dilemma: should they support local, but relatively well-off farmers, or poorer farmers from distant countries? This paper considers the issue of farm worker health in the U.K. and Uganda, and considers the dilemma facing U.K. consumers if Uganda achieves their aim of exporting more vegetables to the U.K. Self-reported health scores of 1,200 farm workers in the U.K. and Uganda were measured w...
Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Roy, Daniel M.; Teh, Yee Whye
Ensembles of randomized decision trees, usually referred to as random forests, are widely used for classification and regression tasks in machine learning and statistics. Random forests achieve competitive predictive performance and are computationally efficient to train and test, making them excellent candidates for real-world prediction tasks. The most popular random forest variants (such as Breiman's random forest and extremely randomized trees) operate on batches of training data. Online ...
Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas.Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used.Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.
Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used. Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.
Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia
Full Text Available Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and included patient condition, demographics, clinical variables, cause, severity, as measured by the Kampala trauma score, and location of injury. Outcomes were captured on discharge from the casualty department and at two weeks for admitted patients. From August 2004 to August 2005, 872 injury visits for children <18 years old were recorded. The mean age was 11 years (95% CI 10.9–11.6; 68% (95% CI 65–72% were males; 64% were treated in casualty and discharged; 35% were admitted. The most common causes were traffic crashes (34%, falls (18% and violence (15%. Most children (87% were mildly injured; 1% severely injured. By two weeks, 6% of the patients admitted for injuries had died and, of these morbidities, 16% had severe injuries, 63% had moderate injuries and 21% had mild injuries. We concluded that, in Kampala, children bear a large burden of injury from preventable causes. Deaths in low severity patients highlight the need for improvements in facility-based care. Further studies are necessary to capture overall child injury mortality and to measure chronic morbidity owing to sequelae of injuries.
Full Text Available Background/Aims:Burkitt′s lymphoma is the most common childhood oral maxillofacial tumor in Africa and some studies have reported seasonal variation. Materials and Methods:All Burkitt′s cases diagnosed from 1969 to 2006, from all over Uganda, at the Makerere University′s Department of Pathology, were analyzed, to determine seasonal variation. This was done by evaluation of monthly and rainy versus dry season prevalence. Statistical analysis: The Wilcoxon test was used in both cases, to assess the statistical significance of differences in the diagnostic rates of Burkitt′s lymphoma, in comparison to nonspecific chronic inflammation, using the total as the denominator. Yearly variation in prevalence was examined by a Chi-square test for linear trend. Mann-Whitney tests were done to compare the climatic regions. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was used to test for differences when gender, seasons and climatic regions were factored in. Results: Although monthly frequencies varied considerably over the period, none of the differences were statistically significant (Pearson′s 15.199, degrees of freedom df = 11, P = 0.174. Likewise, there was no statistically significant difference in the total number of Burkitt′s and nonspecific chronic inflammation biopsies handled at the Department during the rainy and dry seasons. Conclusion: Although the 38-year period gave us sufficient numbers to use the Edward′s method for seasonality, it also meant that a lot of seasonal changes that occurred during the period were not taken into consideration. We hence feel that a review of this data with weather experts, so as to group the biopsies into accurate rainfall and dry patterns, would yield a more authoritative publication.
Full Text Available Isaac Kajja,1 Cees Th Smit Sibinga21Department of Orthopedics, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2ID Consulting for International Development of Transfusion Medicine (IDTM, Groningen, The NetherlandsBackground: A number of factors come into play in determining the timing of an elective surgical intervention, particularly in the developing world. The present study explores the factors that contribute to the timing of elective surgery and patients' opinions on their quality of life as they wait for surgery.Methods: We followed adult patients with delayed elective surgical interventions (n=204. The causes for the delay and, particularly, the influence of blood shortage on the timing of the procedure were noted. Patients' perceptions on their quality of life as they waited for surgery were also noted.Results: We were able to establish a cause for delayed elective surgery in 133 patients. Shortage of operating space was the leading cause of surgery delay in 44 patients, while blood shortage followed closely in 40 patients. The higher the amount of blood ordered for use in the perioperative time, the longer the delay to surgery (P=0.001. Patients waiting for surgery had a low opinion of their in-hospital quality of life. Here, the key indicators included the threat of losing a job, limited family time, and an increase in day-to-day living costs.Conclusion: Blood shortage is the second most common cause of the delayed performance of elective surgical interventions in our institution. The patients have a low opinion on their quality of life as they wait for surgery.Keywords: blood shortage, delayed elective surgery, quality of life
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Targeting most-at-risk individuals with HIV preventive interventions is cost-effective. We developed gender-specific indices to measure risk of HIV among sexually active individuals in Rakai, Uganda. METHODS: We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate time-to-HIV infection associated with candidate predictors. Reduced models were determined using backward selection procedures with Akaike's information criterion (AIC as the stopping rule. Model discrimination was determined using Harrell's concordance index (c index. Model calibration was determined graphically. Nomograms were used to present the final prediction models. RESULTS: We used samples of 7,497 women and 5,783 men. 342 new infections occurred among females (incidence 1.11/100 person years, and 225 among the males (incidence 1.00/100 person years. The final model for men included age, education, circumcision status, number of sexual partners, genital ulcer disease symptoms, alcohol use before sex, partner in high risk employment, community type, being unaware of a partner's HIV status and community HIV prevalence. The Model's optimism-corrected c index was 69.1 percent (95% CI = 0.66, 0.73. The final women's model included age, marital status, education, number of sex partners, new sex partner, alcohol consumption by self or partner before sex, concurrent sexual partners, being employed in a high-risk occupation, having genital ulcer disease symptoms, community HIV prevalence, and perceiving oneself or partner to be exposed to HIV. The models optimism-corrected c index was 0.67 (95% CI = 0.64, 0.70. Both models were well calibrated. CONCLUSION: These indices were discriminative and well calibrated. This provides proof-of-concept that population-based HIV risk indices can be developed. Further research to validate these indices for other populations is needed.
Full Text Available Abstract This article is the second article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article-by-article over the next few weeks. The journal invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This article – number two in the series – describes the experience of the Family Life Education Programme (FLEP, a reproductive health program that provides community-based health services through 40 clinics in five districts of Uganda, in improving retention and performance by using the Management Sciences for Health (MSH Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool. A few years ago, the FLEP of Busoga Diocese began to see an increase in staff turnover and a decrease in overall organizational performance. The workplace climate was poor and people stopped coming for services even though there were few other choices in the area. An external assessment found the quality of the health care services provided was deficient. An action plan to improve their human resource management (HRM system was developed and implemented. To assess the strengths and weaknesses of their system and to develop an action plan, they used the Rapid Assessment Tool. The tool guides users through a process of prioritizing and action planning after the assessment is done. By implementing the various recommended changes, FLEP established an improved, responsive HRM system. Increased employee satisfaction led to less staff turnover, better performance, and increased utilization of health services. These benefits were achieved by cost-effective measures focused on professionalizing the organization's approach to HRM.
Background Injuries are a major morbidity and mortality cause among children and young adults worldwide. Previous Ugandan studies were limited in scope and biased towards severe adulthood injuries in referral care. Aims and Objectives This study explored the epidemiology of childhood and young adulthood injuries in Uganda: specifically their extent, pattern, distribution, risk and determinants, and stakeholder perceptions their regarding prevention and control. Methods ...
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…
Fingerponds are earthen ponds dug at the edge of natural wetlands and stocked naturally with wild fish during flooding. In this study, the management of nutrients and primary productivity in enhancing fish production in these systems is examined in Lake Victorias wetlands, Uganda. Key factors determ
Munthali, Alister; Matagi, Leon; Tumwebaze, Callist
Although the original study of remuneration differences between local and expatriate development workers took place in the landlocked economy of Malaŵi, the study has never been replicated outside of one sector and organization (the National University), and took place prior to the 2000 Millennium Development Goals. Participating in the present studies were 458 aid and development professionals, working across a range of sectors in Malaŵi (n = 241, response rate = 50%) and Uganda (n = 217, response rate = 51%). The size of the gap between local and international workers, measured using the World Bank's purchasing power parity, was higher in Malaŵi (4.04:1) than in Uganda (1.97:1). The ratio was more clearly within tolerance levels in Uganda than in Malaŵi. Consistent with these differences, and controlling for organization, cultural, and demographic factors, locally remunerated workers reported more and expatriate workers less injustice and demotivation in Malaŵi than in Uganda. Although sample sizes for the internationally remunerated are small, the findings suggest that wider disparities may (1) hinder perspective-taking and (2) decrease motivation. In-country workshops with stakeholders and subject-matter experts considered the findings, and potential solutions offered through the survey form. They recommended the implementation of performance-based remuneration, including competency-based job analysis and evaluation. Competencies in such functions can be provided by humanitarian work psychology.
This curriculum guide was developed to help students gain a broader perspective about child labor and become more familiar with the issues, controversies, and debates that surround it. Three case studies are highlighted: (1) a street child in India; (2) child soldiers in Uganda; and (3) a migrant farm worker child in the United States. Each case…
Angucia, Margaret; Zeelen, Jacques; de Jong, Gideon
This paper presents experiences and reflections on the use of a participatory research methodology under the difficult conditions of a war situation in northern Uganda. We draw from two complimentary approaches in action research to explain our methodology while doing research on the reintegration o
This report describes theTransforming Settlements of the Urban Poor in Uganda. A Secondary Cities Support Program (TSUPU), is the first national initiative within the Cities Alliance's global programme, Land, Services and Citizenship for the Urban Poor (LSC). The first premise of the Medium Term Strategy is that the Cities Alliance should prioritise working with those governments already ...
Roh, Michelle E.; Oyet, Caesar; Orikiriza, Patrick; Wade, Martina; Kiwanuka, Gertrude N.; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Boum, Yap
A survey of asymptomatic children in Uganda showed Plasmodium malariae and P. falciparum parasites in 45% and 55% of microscopy-positive samples, respectively. Although 36% of microscopy-positive samples were negative by rapid diagnostic test, 75% showed P. malariae or P. ovale parasites by PCR, indicating that routine diagnostic testing misses many non–P. falciparum malarial infections. PMID:27434741
This paper is about gift-giving and relations of exchange in Congolese churches in Kampala, Uganda. It focuses in particular on the moral discourses of providing assistance and help, of giving, and sharing that accompany these relations of exchange. The paper is based on a research project that l...
Background In HIV-infected patients, tuberculosis (TB) occurs 20 to 30 times more often and is a leading cause of death. Triple combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces mortality and risk of TB in HIV-infected patients. Uganda is a high-burden country of both HIV and TB; more than half of T
Mbonye, Anthony K; Clarke, Sîan E; Lal, Sham;
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem in Uganda and the current policy recommends introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDTs) to facilitate effective case management. However, provision of RDTs in drug shops potentially raises a new set of issues, such as adherence...
Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal; Chandler, Clare Ir;
BACKGROUND: An intervention was designed to introduce rapid diagnostics tests for malaria (mRDTs) into registered drug shops in Uganda to encourage rational and appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). We conducted participatory training of drug shop...
Keywords: Smallholder poor farmers, market access, bananas, productivity, efficiency, labour demand, labour supply,
Bovine tuberculosis is a ‘neglected zoonosis’ and its contribution to the proportion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infections in humans is unknown. A retrospective study on archived Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates from a reference laboratory in Uganda was undertaken to iden...
Wamala, Robert; Ssembatya, Vincent A.
Doctoral holders are considered to be key actors in the creation of innovation and knowledge. However, this generalization may not hold true for doctoral holders in all countries. This study sought to assess the scholarly productivity of these highly qualified individuals in Uganda. The investigation is based on data sourced from the 2012 Careers…
The research was carried out among banana-farming households in the districts of Masaka and Kabarole in Uganda. A gendered livelihood approach was used. The research focused on the identification of critical factors that need to be taken into consideration in the development of relevant policies for
Blaak, Marit; Openjuru, George L.; Zeelen, Jacques
This article reflects on the potential of non-formal vocational education in Uganda to improve the quality of life of those excluded from formal education. Based on an exploration of humanizing development theorists Sen, Freire and Nyerere, together with two case studies, practical empowerment is described as a desirable outcome of education for…
This paper describes research conducted as the first stage in the process of developing a structured interview schedule to assess psychological distress, empowerment, social connectedness, economic well-being, and other variables among women in the Acholi region of Uganda. An interview schedule was developed following a review of the literature, individual interviews with women in northern ...
Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.
This study explores consumer acceptance and valuation of a genetically modified (GM) staple food crop in a developing country prior to its commercialization. We focus on the hypothetical introduction of a disease-resistant GM banana variety in Uganda, where bananas are among the most important stapl
Bannink, Femke; Stroeken, Koenraad; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert
This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in four regions of Uganda. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with parents of children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, policy-makers, and service…
Falk, Diane S.; Pettet, Kristen; Mpagi, Charles
In this paper, children attending a U.S.-sponsored private primary school serving orphaned and vulnerable children in Uganda were interviewed in focus groups about their participation in a peer-to-peer health education program in which they used music, dance, poetry, art, and drama to convey health information. The children reported enhanced…
Valk, van der O.M.C.; Nyuabuntu, P.
The Netherlands has taken the initiative for a Partnership on Market Access through meeting quality standards for food and agricultural products, for which a number of countries showed interest. With the respective governments of Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda en Zambia it has been agreed to start a partne
Hoorweg, J.C.; McDowell, I.
Nutrition education is widely accepted as an important means of improving the health of young children in developing countries. Based on research carried out in Uganda in 1971-1972, this book shows how studies of changes in knowledge and attitudes can provide unique insights into both the educationa
Kaye, Dan K
Objectives: The specific objectives were to 1) determine the prevalence and predictors of domestic violence during pregnancy, 2) explore community perceptions of factors associated with domestic violence in Wakiso district of Uganda; 3) explore pregnant adolescents experiences and coping strategies regarding violence;4) investigate the association between domestic violence, pregnancy intention and induced abortion; and 5) investigate whether domestic violence during pregnan...
Over the last two decades agricultural export diversification has been pushed as an economic development strategy for sub-Saharan Africa. This paper looks at Uganda, where nontraditional agricultural export commodities have been (re)-introduced since Museveni came to power in 1986. The most importan
Mugisha, James; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Kinyanda, Eugene; Knizek, Birthe Loa
Relatively little research has been conducted on religion and suicide in Africa, yet religion has a lot of influence on people's way of life in Africa. To study religious views on suicide among the Baganda, Uganda, we used grounded theory and discourse analysis on a total of 28 focus groups and 30 key informant interviews. Suicide is largely seen…
Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom;
After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest...
The organisational structure of universities follows particular models that distinguish them from other learning institutions. This research investigated the effect of the organisational structure on the management of universities in Uganda using a sample of 361, 44% of whom were members of academic staff, and the rest contained university top…
This paper explores the interaction of tone and syntax in Rutooro, a Bantu language of Western Uganda. Rutooro has lost its lexical tone but retains a phrasally defined high pitch that appears on the penultimate syllable--the default position in Bantu. This high pitch can work grammatically and in fact distinguishes between the noun phrase vs.…
Sol, H G; Basaza, Habinka; Sprague, Ralph H.
While start-up firms create a substantial economic impact on most economies, the failure rate of start-up firms seems to remain high due to inadequate agile decision services. Deciding to start-up mining Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) is a challenging task in Uganda. Research on SME start-up sup
Kibwika, P.; Wals, A.E.J.; Nassuna-Musoke, M.G.
Governments and development agencies in Sub-Saharan Africa are experimenting alternative approaches within the innovation systems paradigm to enhance relevance of agricultural research and extension to the poverty eradication agenda. Uganda, for example, has recently shifted from the supply driven t
Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter
This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…
Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, M.
An investigation to assess the capacity of the Nakivubo swamp, Kampala-Uganda (which has been receiving partially treated sewage from the city for more than 30 years now), to remove nutrients and pathogens was carried out. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of this swamp to remove nu
Meier zu Selhausen, F.P.
This thesis offers new empirical insights on women’s empowerment in colonial and present-day in Uganda. This thesis is organised into two parts. The first part,offers a noval perspective on the long-term development of African male and female human capital formation, skills, labour market participat
Wellard, Kate; Rafanomezana, Jenny; Nyirenda, Mahara; Okotel, Misaki; Subbey, Vincent
Purpose: Farmer-to-farmer extension offers a potentially low-cost and wide-reach alternative in supporting agricultural innovation. Various approaches are being promoted but information on their impact and sustainability is sparse. This study examines experiences of Self Help Africa and partners in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi. It asks: What is good…
THIS REPORT ON THE SALIENT FEATURES AND CONCERNS OF CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, TANZANIA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, AND UGANDA--(1) DISCUSSES ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES, AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE CORRESPONDENCE METHOD IN AN AFRICAN CONTEXT, (2) SURVEYS CONDITIONS AND FACILITIES (POSTAL SERVICES, ROADS, INSTRUCTIONAL RADIO AND TELEVISION,…
This report concerns a survey undertaken by NRI in Uganda during September and December 1993, which sought to characterise the banana and banana beer marketing systems. The study follows on from the recommendations of the Banana Based Cropping System Rapid Rural Appraisal (1991), and focuses upon the Kampala market.
This paper examines Uganda's recent undertaking to reform her Primary School education System with a focus on the effect of structural dynamics of education reforms and the quality of primary education. Structural dynamics in the context of this study is in reference to the organizational composition of the education system at the government,…
Ononge, Sam; Campbell, Oona MR; Mirembe, Florence
Background Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem especially in the low-income countries where it is highly prevalent. There has been no recent study in Uganda about the factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy. We aimed to assess the current haemoglobin (Hb) status and factors associated with anaemia (Hb
Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.
Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers’ perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results
M.T. Wenene; T. Steen; M.R. Rutgers
In this article we study civil servants’ perceptions about the role of citizens in the provision of public services in Uganda. In other words, we examine the views of those who deliver civil services regarding the actual and desired influence of service recipients. An empirical study was conducted f
Rijsdijk, L.E.; Lie, R.; Bos, A.E.R.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Kok, G.
This paper presents the findings from an explorative study comparing sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) against local realities for young people in Uganda. This was done by analysing statements by Ugandan adolescents extracted from focus group discussions relating to two SRHRs central
Jones, Shelley Kathleen
This paper makes the case that policies, such as the National Strategy for Girls' Education in Uganda (NSGE), intended to achieve gender equity in education for girls in developing countries, have limited relevance to, and impact on girls' actual educational experiences. Recent considerations of girls' education acknowledge that gender equity…
Basaza, Gudula Naiga; Milman, Natalie B.; Wright, Clayton R.
This brief case study provides a pithy introduction to Uganda and outlines key factors that affect the implementation of distance education in the nation: poor infrastructure, the high cost of an education, an outdated curriculum, inadequate expertise in distance education, and poor attitudes towards distance learning. These factors are also…
Namara, Rose B.; Kasaija, Josephine
Since the early 40s to today, teachers in Uganda organized themselves into unions and demanded for better conditions of service. Despite the long history of different forms of teachers' protests, the contribution of these protests towards influencing the teacher's welfare in the country is not sufficiently analyzed in the academic and policy…
Akello, Dora Lucy; Timmerman, Greetje; Namusisi, Speranza
Uganda introduced the use of mother tongue as medium of instruction in primary schools in 2007. This was meant to promote interaction and participation in the learning process and improve children's proficiency in reading and writing. Drawing elements of interaction and participation from the socio-cultural theory, the child-centred pedagogy was…
Kakuru, D.M.; Burg, van der Margreet
Gender inequalities have persisted in Uganda¿s primary education regardless of specific interventions put in place to eliminate them. These include the implementation of Universal Primary Education in 1997. Research was carried out to understand the reasons for the persistence of these inequalities.
Madhavan-Nambiar, Padmanand; Florkowski, Wojciech J.
Peanut paste/butter consumption frequency in the Republic of Uganda is analyzed using a household survey data. Estimation results from Zero-inflated Binomial regression conclude that education, household location, color of peanut paste, etc. are important. The ordinal logistic results conclude that peanut paste/butter consumption with vegetables is the most preferred option.
At present, there are no reasonably assured resources of uranium in Uganda in any price category. Speculative resources are restricted to 2,400 metric tons of uranium in an apatite deposit, which in the past has been actively mined for phosphate. The possible recovery of this uranium is dependent upon a number of economic and technological conditions which have never been thoroughly studied. Although the geology of Uganda holds some interesting possibilities for hosting uranium deposits, the studies conducted between 1949 and 1979 were limited to known radioactive occurrences and anomalies in limited areas which had little economic significance. Vast areas, less known and less accessible were completely ignored. Uranium exploration must therefore be started again in a systematic manner using modern methods. The current economic situation in Uganda is so critical that International technical and financial assistance is vitally needed to help rehabilitate the Geological Survey and Mines Department. Uganda currently can offer only very restricted services. The transportation system is quite deficient: the railway does not presently cross the frontier with Kenya, and all equipment and goods must be transported from Mombasa by road. Housing is in very short supply, and many basic commodities are often unobtainable. Any organization or private company which begins an exploration program in Uganda must plan to import essentially all the equipment and supplies it shall require. It shall also have to construct offices and staff housing, and import and stockpile fuel and staple goods, so as not to be at the mercy of the (at times) inadequate local supplies. It shall most probably also have to provide basic local and imported food to its Ugandan staff and should plan to pay much higher local salaries than is customary. Lastly, it will have to provide its own fleet of trucks and organize its own transport system. (author)
Gore, Christopher David
In 2007, Uganda had one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in the world. Given the influence of multilateral and bilateral agencies in Uganda; the strong international reputation and domestic influence of its President; the country's historic achievements in public sector and economic reform; and the intimate connection between economic performance, social well-being and access to electricity, the problems with Uganda's electricity sector have proven deeply frustrating and, indeed, puzzling. Following increased scholarly attention to the relationship between political change, policymaking, and public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa and the developing world generally, this thesis examines the multilevel politics of Uganda's electricity sector reform process. This study contends that explanations for Uganda's electricity sector reform problems generally, and hydroelectric dam construction efforts specifically, must move beyond technical and financial factors. Problems in this sector have also been the result of a model of reform (promoted by the World Bank) that failed adequately to account for the character of political change. Indeed, the model of reform that was promoted and implemented was risky and it was deeply antagonistic to domestic and international civil society organizations. In addition, it was presented as a linear, technical, apolitical exercise. Finally the model was inconsistent with key principles the Bank itself, and public policy literature generally, suggest are needed for success. Based on this analysis, the thesis contends that policymaking and reform must be understood as deeply political processes, which not only define access to services, but also participation in, and exclusion from, national debates. Future approaches to reform and policymaking must anticipate the complex, multilevel, non-linear character of 'second-generation' policy issues like electricity, and the political and institutional capacity needed to increase
Päivinen, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.
The European Forest Information Scenario Model (EFISCEN) is an area-based forest matrix model, which is especially suitable for projections of forest resources of large areas under assumptions of total national felling. EFISCEN uses time steps of five years and national forest inventory data. The in
S. K. Farber
Full Text Available Structuring forest communities is considered as a pre-studying procedure. The paper defines the fundamental structuring terms and describes the theory behind it. Factors hampering forest typology development are discussed. The areas of forest typology promising regarding sustainable and multi-purposed forest management are outlined.
Bal, Tara L.
"Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…
Review: Susanne Buckley-Zistel: Conflict Transformation and Social Change in Uganda. Remembering after Violence (2008 Buchbesprechung: Susanne Buckley-Zistel: Conflict Transformation and Social Change in Uganda. Remembering after Violence (2008
Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Susanne Buckley-Zistel: Conflict Transformation and Social Change in Uganda. Remembering after Violence, Houndsmills/Basingstoke: Palgrave Publications, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4039-9576-6, 192 pages Besprechung der Monographie: Susanne Buckley-Zistel: Conflict Transformation and Social Change in Uganda. Remembering after Violence, Houndsmills/Basingstoke: Palgrave Publications, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4039-9576-6, 192 Seiten
Full Text Available Since the completion of the Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS in 1995, the integration of GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS technology has expanded to a great number of ecological and conservation applications. In tropical rain forest ecology, however, the technology has remained relatively neglected, despite its great potential. Notwithstanding cost, this is principally due to (1 the difficulty of quality satellite reception beneath a dense forest canopy, and (2 a degree of spatial error unacceptable to fine-scale vegetation mapping. Here, we report on the technical use of GPS/GIS in the rain forest of Kibale National Park, Uganda, and the methodology necessary to acquire high-accuracy spatial measurements. We conclude that the stringent operating parameters necessary for high accuracy were rarely obtained while standing beneath the rain forest canopy. Raising the GPS antenna to heights of 25–30 m resolved this problem, allowing swift data collection on the spatial dispersion of individual rain forest trees. We discuss the impact of the 1996 Presidential Decision Directive that suspended U.S. military-induced GPS error on 1 May 2000, and comment on the potential applications of GPS/GIS technology to the ecological study and conservation of tropical rain forests.
For conservation purposes and due to ecotourism free-ranging gorillas of Uganda have been habituated to humans, and molecular epidemiology evidence indicates that this habituation might have enhanced transmission of anthropozoonotic pathogens. Microsporidian spores have been det...
Musenero Monica; Orach Christopher G; Ediau Michael; Atuyambe Lynn M; Bazeyo William
Abstract Background On 1st March 2010, a major landslide occurred on Mt. Elgon in Eastern Uganda. This was triggered by heavy rains that lasted over three months. The landslide buried three villages in Bududa district, killing over 400 and displacing an estimate of 5,000 people. A comprehensive assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene was urgently needed to inform interventions by the Ministries of Health, and Relief, Disaster Preparedness and Refugees, Uganda. Methods This was a cross-sec...
Guloba, Madina; Wokadala, James; Bategeka, Lawrence
This paper explores ways of improving education quality in Universal Primary Education (UPE) schools in Uganda. Following the introduction of UPE in Uganda in 1997, primary school enrolment increased tremendously, leading to a strain on existing teaching resources such as classrooms, teachers’ accommodation, toilets, teachers, chalk, and students’ furniture among others. The inadequacy of teaching resources partly attributes to the low quality of education in UPE schools as reflected in the P...
Sundararajan, Radhika; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Adrama, Harriet; Tumuhairwe, Jackline; Mbabazi, Sheilla; Mworozi, Kenneth; Carroll, Ryan; Bangsberg, David; Boum II, Yap; Ware, Norma C.
Malaria is a leading cause of pediatric mortality, and Uganda has among the highest incidences in the world. Increased morbidity and mortality are associated with delays to care. This qualitative study sought to characterize barriers to prompt allopathic care for children hospitalized with severe malaria in the endemic region of southwestern Uganda. Minimally structured, qualitative interviews were conducted with guardians of children admitted to a regional hospital with severe malaria. Using...
Amone-P’Olak, Kennedy; Ovuga, Emilio; Jones, Peter Brian
Background The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of sexual violence on the odds of different psychosocial outcomes (depression, psychotic symptoms, somatic complaints, conduct problems, daily functioning, community relations, and stigma) among formerly abducted girls in Uganda. Methods Data from an on-going War-Affected Youth Study (WAYS) in Uganda was used to compute the prevalence of psychosocial problems (scores ≥ 75th percentile) among three categories of formerly abdu...
Epaenetus A. Awuzu; Emmanuel Kaye; Patrick Vudriko
Various studies have reported that abuse of cannabis is a risk factor for psychosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of delta 9-tetrahydrocanabinol (Δ9-THC), a major metabolite of cannabis, in psychiatric patients in Uganda, and to assess the diagnostic capacity of two referral mental health hospitals to screen patients for exposure to cannabis in Uganda. Socio-demographic characteristics of the patients were collected through questionnaires and review of medical recor...
Trasias Mukama; Rawlance Ndejjo; David Musoke; Geofrey Musinguzi; Abdullah Ali Halage; Carpenter, David O.; Ssempebwa, John C.
Poor solid waste management is among the major challenges facing urban slums in developing countries including Uganda. Understanding community concerns and willingness towards involvement in solid waste management improvement initiatives is critical for informing interventions in slums. Methods. We used a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from 435 residents in two urban slums in central Uganda. A semistructured questionnaire was used which assessed waste collection practices,...
This research project is based on the theme entitled “challenges /dilemmas of private secondary school management and leadership in Uganda. The gist of this research project is on management and leadership in private secondary school of Uganda and one of its fundamental research question is “what are the main challenges of leadership and management in privately owned secondary school and how does the head teacher manages to carry on his activities along side these challenges. Other research q...
Roberts, B.; Ocaka, KF; Browne, J; Oyok, T; Sondorp, E
BACKGROUND: The 20 year war in northern Uganda between the Lord's Resistance Army and the Ugandan government has resulted in the displacement of up to 2 million people within Uganda. The purpose of the study was to measure rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression amongst these internally displaced persons (IDPs), and investigate associated demographic and trauma exposure risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional multi-staged, random cluster survey with 1210 adult IDPs was ...
Roberts, Bayard; Ocaka, Kaducu Felix; Browne, John; Oyok, Thomas; Sondorp, Egbert
Background The 20 year war in northern Uganda between the Lord's Resistance Army and the Ugandan government has resulted in the displacement of up to 2 million people within Uganda. The purpose of the study was to measure rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression amongst these internally displaced persons (IDPs), and investigate associated demographic and trauma exposure risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional multi-staged, random cluster survey with 1210 adult IDPs was co...
Aliganyira, Patrick; Kerber, Kate; Davy, Karen; Gamache, Nathalie; Sengendo, Namaala Hanifah; Bergh, Anne-Marie
Introduction Prematurity is the leading cause of newborn death in Uganda, accounting for 38% of the nation's 39,000 annual newborn deaths. Kangaroo mother care is a high-impact; cost-effective intervention that has been prioritized in policy in Uganda but implementation has been limited. Methods A standardised, cross-sectional, mixed-method evaluation design was used, employing semi-structured key-informant interviews and observations in 11 health care facilities implementing kangaroo mother ...
Kwiringira Japheth; Rujumba Joseph
Abstract Background Northern Uganda unlike other rural regions has registered high HIV prevalence rates comparable to those of urbanized Kampala and the central region. This could be due to the linkages of culture, insecurity and HIV. We explored community perceptions of HIV and AIDS as a problem and its inter-linkage with culture and insecurity in Pader District. Methods A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in four sub-counties of Pader District, Uganda between May and June 2008...
Ebregt, E.; Struik, P.C.; Odongo, B.; Abidin, P.E.
In north-eastern Uganda, the sweet potato crop of small subsistence farmers is severely affected by many pests, including (rough) sweet potato weevils, nematodes and millipedes. Field experiments with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were conducted at Arapai Station in Soroti District, north-eastern Uganda in three consecutive seasons to study the differences between the indigenous practice of harvesting piecemeal in combination with storage `in-ground on plants¿ and one-time harvesti...
John C Morgan
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The susceptibility status of Anopheles funestus to insecticides remains largely unknown in most parts of Africa because of the difficulty in rearing field-caught mosquitoes of this malaria vector. Here we report the susceptibility status of the An. funestus population from Tororo district in Uganda and a preliminary characterisation of the putative resistance mechanisms involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new forced egg laying technique used in this study significantly increased the numbers of field-caught females laying eggs and generated more than 4000 F1 adults. WHO bioassays indicated that An. funestus in Tororo is resistant to pyrethroids (62% mortality after 1 h exposure to 0.75% permethrin and 28% mortality to 0.05% deltamethrin. Suspected DDT resistance was also observed with 82% mortality. However this population is fully susceptible to bendiocarb (carbamate, malathion (organophosphate and dieldrin with 100% mortality observed after exposure to each of these insecticides. Sequencing of a fragment of the sodium channel gene containing the 1014 codon conferring pyrethroid/DDT resistance in An. gambiae did not detect the L1014F kdr mutation but a correlation between haplotypes and resistance phenotype was observed indicating that mutations in other exons may be conferring the knockdown resistance in this species. Biochemical assays suggest that resistance in this population is mediated by metabolic resistance with elevated level of GSTs, P450s and pNPA compared to a susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae. RT-PCR further confirmed the involvement of P450s with a 12-fold over-expression of CYP6P9b in the Tororo population compared to the fully susceptible laboratory colony FANG. CONCLUSION: This study represents the first report of pyrethroid/DDT resistance in An. funestus from East Africa. With resistance already reported in southern and West Africa, this indicates that resistance in An. funestus may be more widespread
Kanyiginya, V.; Kansiime, F.; Kimwaga, R.; Mashauri, D. A.
Natete wetland which is located in a suburb of Kampala city in Uganda is dominated by C yperus papyrus and covers an area of approximately 1 km 2. The wetland receives wastewater and runoff from Natete town which do not have a wastewater treatment facility. The main objective of this study was to assess nutrient retention of Natete wetland and specifically to: determine the wastewater flow patterns in the wetland; estimate the nutrient loads into and out of the wetland; determine the nutrient retention by soil, plants and water column in the wetland; and assess the above and belowground biomass density of the dominant vegetation. Soil, water and plant samples were taken at 50 m intervals along two transects cut through the wetland; soil and water samples were taken at 10 cm just below the surface. Physico-chemical parameters namely pH, electrical conductivity and temperature were measured in situ. Water samples were analyzed in the laboratory for ammonium-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate and total phosphorus. Electrical conductivity ranged between 113 μS/cm and 530 μS/cm and the wastewater flow was concentrated on the eastern side of the wetland. pH varied between 6 and 7, temperature ranged from 19 °C to 24 °C. NH 4-N, NO 3-N, and TN concentrations were retained by 21%, 98%, and 35% respectively. Phosphorus concentration was higher at the outlet of the wetland possibly due to release from sediments and leaching. Nutrient loads were higher at the inlet (12,614 ± 394 kgN/day and 778 ± 159 kgP/day) than the outlet (2368 ± 425 kgN/day and 216 ± 56 kgP/day) indicating retention by the wetland. Plants stored most nutrients compared to soil and water. The belowground biomass of papyrus vegetation in the wetland was higher (1288.4 ± 8.3 gDW/m 2) than the aboveground biomass (1019.7 ± 13.8 gDW/m 2). Plant uptake is one of the important routes of nutrient retention in Natete wetland. It is recommended that harvesting papyrus can be an
Full Text Available Commercial tree planting in Uganda is constrained by a lack of good quality seedlings due to poor soils used in nurseries. Two experiments were carried out, to evaluate the effects of different soils on the growth of the pine seedlings (experiment 1 and to compare the performance of seedlings provided with different NPK fertilizer formulations and amounts (experiment 2. Soils were collected from four forest reserves: Katugo (K, South Busoga (S, and Mbarara (M and from Mubende forest reserve. Treatments were: 0, 0.5 kg and 1.0 kg levels; NPK fertilizer formulations 25-5-5 (A, 17-17-17 (B and 18-4-14 +TE (C mixed in 1m3 of soil. Composite soil samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Experiments were laid out in a completely randomized block design, but with a factorial treatment structure for experiment 2. Routine nursery management practices were carried out. Seedling heights and diameter were recorded. The results showed that SOM (site 1, total N (site 2 and available P, K, Ca and Mg were below the critical values. Low nutrient concentrations reduced growth, with seedling height highest in Katugo and girth highest in the Mbarara. Experiment two results showed that there were no significant differences in mean heights for fertilizers A and C after a 1˝ months application and B had a significant difference in the mean height and girth. However, fertilizer C girth results were significant with (P-value = 0.021, P-value = 0.001 at 1˝ months and 3 months respectively. After 3 months, fertilizer B had the best mean height and mean girth at level 0.5 kg with (16.75 cm, 0.23 cm respectively, compared with fertilizer C and A with (13.42 cm, 0.175 cm and (12.44 cm, 0.174 cm respectively. From the results, a general NPK fertilizer formulation 17-17-17 is recommended for use at a rate of 0.5 kg m?3 of soil. (Pinus nigra
US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — This data is a compilation of forest insect, disease and abiotic damage mapped by aerial detection surveys on forested areas in the United States. US Forest...
Hladnik, David; Žižek Kulovec, Laura
In Slovenia, data on forest area are obtained within the framework of forest management planning and data of the actual agriculture and forest land use. The article shows the differences in the assessment methodology of forest cover and spatial structure of forests. In accordance with the concept of national forest inventories, the article suggests upgrading of the existing concept of forest inventories which, in the last decade, have been subordinate to forest management areas and difference...
The forest simulator is a computerized model for predicting forest growth and future development as well as effects of forest harvests and treatments. The forest planning system is a decision support tool, usually including a forest simulator and an optimisation model, for finding the optimal forest management actions. The information produced by forest simulators and forest planning systems is used for various analytical purposes and in support of decision making. However, the quality a...
This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: weather and climate, forest protection, crown defoliation, infiltrated substances, environmental monitoring, insects and fungi, forest soil survey and forest site mapping, and nutritional status of beech on loess.
Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham;
the impact of introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) in registered drug shops in Uganda, with the aim to increase appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in patients seeking treatment for fever in drug shops. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial...... adhered to the mRDT results, reducing over-treatment of malaria by 72·6% (95% CI: 46·7- 98·4), pDiagnostic testing with mRDTs compared to presumptive treatment of fevers implemented in registered drug shops...... of introducing mRDTs in registered drug shops was implemented in 20 geographical clusters of drug shops in Mukono district, central Uganda. Ten clusters were randomly allocated to the intervention (diagnostic confirmation of malaria by mRDT followed by ACT) and ten clusters to the control arm (presumptive...
A full report has been compiled describing the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Orientation Phase Mission to Uganda. The Mission suggest that the speculative uranium resources of the country could be within the very wide range of 0 to 105 000 tonnes of uranium metal. The Mission finds that most of these speculative resources are related to Proterozoic unconformities and to Cenozoic sandstones of the Western Rift Valley. Some potential is also associated with Post-tectonic granites. The Mission recommends to rehabilitate the Geological Survey of Uganda in order to enable it to conduct and support a uranium exploration programme for unconformity related and for standstone hosted uranium deposits. Recommended exploration methods encompass geological mapping and compilation, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometer survey north of 1 deg. North latitude, stream sediment sampling, and ground scintillometric surveys in favourable areas. Follow up work should include VLF-EM surveys, emanometry and drilling. (author)
This article explores the history, from a developing country perspective, of how external interventions to implement global policies on the Climate Convention and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) have been integrated into national development policy frameworks in the period 1990-2005. The main...... first. Against this background, Uganda's policy response to climate change is reviewed. National climate policies are found not to exist, and the implementation of global policies is not integrated into national policy frameworks, partly due to conflicting national and global priorities. Given limited...... national awareness and the fact that climate policy is marginal compared to other national interests in Uganda, the experiences with donor support for the implementation of global climate policy nationally are analysed. This article demonstrates that neither national policies nor national management...
Spies, Lori A; Gray, Jennifer; Opollo, Jackline; Mbalinda, Scovia
The HIV prevalence rate is 7.4% in Uganda, where the HIV-related President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and United Nations millennial development goals have not been met. This is partially due to a critical shortage of nurses and other health care providers. Task shifting is a World Health Organization strategy to address the shortage of human resources for health by shifting work from one cadre of health care worker to another, often less-trained, cadre. We conducted three focus groups with nurses in Uganda to better understand perceptions of their preparation for and implementation of task shifting. The focus group included nurses from diverse work settings. Data analysis revealed that nurses were proud of the work they were doing but were challenged by the lack of consistent and appropriate support. We found a need for additional policies, regulations, and consistent preparation for nurses who work in environments with task shifting. PMID:26847378
Andersen, Helle Elisabeth
in processes of reciprocal exchange in areas such as education, employment, and marriage among other things. Especially normative expectations related to sexual behaviour seem to be determinants when disabled persons “choose” to cover up their serum-status, instead of seeking care and treatment. This project......This project is based on five weeks’ ethnographically inspired fieldwork in May 2006 in the Republic of Uganda. The study started out with the hypothesis that there was some kind of discrimination going on in the interaction between health workers at HIV/AIDS clinics, and person with disabilities......-internal dialectic, and created at the boundaries that a society creates between “normals” and “outsiders”. This project explores what it means to be infected with HIV/AIDS and/or disabled in Uganda and how this affects a person’s identity. The lower social value of disabled persons prevents them from participating...
Andersen, Helle Elisabeth
prevents them from participating in processes of reciprocal exchange in areas such as education, employment, and marriage among other things. Especially normative expectations related to sexual behaviour seem to be determinants when disabled persons “choose” to cover up their serum-status, instead...... with disabilities (PWDs) coming for HIV/AIDS testing or treatment. However, problems with discriminatory attitudes towards PWDs could not be confirmed from my fieldwork observations at five different HIV/AIDS clinics in Uganda. That observation was confirmed in my interviews with PWDs and health workers. Health...... a complex external-internal dialectic, and created at the boundaries that a society creates between “normals” and “outsiders”. This project explores what it means to be infected with HIV/AIDS and/or disabled in Uganda and how this affects a person’s identity. The lower social value of disabled persons...
Kirenga, B J; Jones, R; Muhofa, A; Nyakoojo, G; Williams, S
Tobacco dependence pharmacotherapy (TDP) plays a major role in smoking cessation. We conducted a rapid assessment of current smoking, availability of TDP and the willingness to quit and to pay for TDP among 56 patients with tobacco-attributable diseases and 38 pharmacies in Uganda. Of the 56 patients, 63% were current smokers, 77.4% wanted to quit and 37% were willing to pay. Drugs were largely unavailable: nicotine replacement products were available in only seven pharmacies (18%) and bupropion in three (8%); these cost respectively US$15.7 and US$17.1 for a 1-month supply. Improving supplies and lowering prices could facilitate access to TDP in Uganda. PMID:27051610
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Source data for forest stand age were obtained from the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) DataMart and were projected for future scenarios based on selected...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...
Santorino, Data; Mark J Siedner; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Shearer, Martin J.; Harrington, Dominic J.; Wariyar, Unni
Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in infancy is a serious but preventable cause of mortality or permanent disability. Lack of epidemiologic data for VKDB in sub-Saharan Africa hinders development and implementation of effective prevention strategies. We used convenience sampling to consecutively enroll mothers delivering in a southwestern Uganda Hospital. We collected socio-demographic and dietary information, and paired samples of maternal venous and neonatal cord blood for the immunoassa...
Tumushabe, Alex Bwoma
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis analyzes the dilemmas that both democratic and democratizing states face while dealing with terrorism-related problems. This problem has been equally pressing to a country like Uganda because it has been experiencing the problem of terrorism while undergoing the process of democratization. Much of the discussion boils down to whether and at what point forceful measures against terrorism protect or imperil the democracy. The...
Jagger, P.; Pender, J
Aquaculture is currently responsible for an insignificant proportion of total fish production in Uganda. However, given the increasing demand for fresh fish in urban and peri-urban araes, and threats to the supply of fish from natural catch fisheries, the potential exists for a strong market in aquaculture. Small-scale fish farmers located relatively close to markets or all-season roads, and who can supply consistent and high quality produce, will have the widest range of marketing opportunit...
This study explores people’s vulnerability to landslides in Bududa, Uganda and how people perceive their vulnerability to such disasters in the face of a blatant government declaration that the area is risk prone and unsafe for human settlement. The study then explores GIS capabilities to map such perceptions and how ensuing maps can be used to communicate people’s perceptions of vulnerability to landslides. Specifically examined are people’s perceived causes of landslides, how people interpr...
Kayonza growers’ tea factory is a remote tea factory in south western Uganda which consists of two core estates and 4072 smallholder tea farmers currently producing tea over a total area of 1604 hectares. There is a perception that yields of smallholder tea vary significantly throughout the year and between years. The data confirms this, with yields in the lowest producing months of February, July and August as little as 6% of annual yield production. Soil type also has an infl...
Many poor farmers, especially in Africa, have not adopted recent farming innovations to improve their yields. One theory is that poor farmers are risk averse and therefore do not invest in high risk high return innovations and that risk averse farmers will only adopt larger innovations if they experience success with small ones. Risk preferences were measured in two districts in Uganda (Tororo and Kapchorwa) where adoption of agricultural innovations has been slow, and where a program is unde...
Sibiko, K.W.; G Owuor; Birachi, E.; Gido, E.O.; O.I. Ayuya; Mwangi, J.K.
The study evaluated factors influencing bean productivity and technical efficiency among smallholder farmers in Eastern Uganda, using a stochastic frontier model and a Tobit model. Findings showed that bean productivity was significantly influenced by plot-size, seeds and planting fertilizer; mean technical efficiency for sampled farms was 48.2%. The Tobit model estimation revealed that technical efficiency was positively influenced by value of assets (at 1% level), extension service and grou...
Neuhann Florian; Waiswa Peter; Windisch Ricarda; Scheibe Florian; de Savigny Don
Abstract Background Strengthened national health systems are necessary for effective and sustained expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART and its supply chain management in Uganda are largely based on parallel and externally supported efforts. The question arises whether systems are being strengthened to sustain access to ART. This study applies systems thinking to assess supply chain management, the role of external support and whether investments create the needed synergies to stren...
Okuonzi, Sam Agatre
Introduction: By the late 1980s, Uganda’s health system had been devastated by two decades of conflict and mismanagement. At the same time, public-funded and run health systems had begun to be viewed as inefficient and undesirable. Uganda’s attempt to rehabilitate its destroyed health infrastructure was blocked by donors in favour of reform. Introduced as pre-conditions of aid, market-based health sector reforms (HSRs) were eventually embraced by the government of Uganda as par...
Aim The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the association between mental disorder and risk of sexual HIV transmission in a low-income country with a generalized HIV epidemic. Specific objectives were to investigate in Uganda, (1) the association between common mental disorder and sexual risk behaviour, (2) how severe mental disorder could influence sexual risk behaviour, (3) the prevalence of HIV in persons with severe mental disorder, and (4) the association of severe mental d...
Karen Maigetter; Pollock, Allyson M; Abhay Kadam; Kim Ward; Weiss, Mitchell G.
Background Pharmacovigilance (PV) data are crucial for ensuring safety and effectiveness of medicines after drugs have been granted marketing approval. This paper describes the PV systems of India, Uganda and South Africa based on literature and Key Informant (KI) interviews and compares them with the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) minimum PV requirements for a Functional National PV System. Methods A documentary analysis of academic literature and policy r...
Kinobe, Joel Robert
Many cities, especially in developing countries, are facing challenges in the management of solid waste. The aim of the study was to develop effective logistics systems for solid waste management in urban areas of developing countries, with a specific focus on Kampala, Uganda. This thesis contains an assessment of the reverse logistics systems that enable effective recapturing of valuable products from urban solid waste. The study mapped the waste collection systems in Kampala using a geograp...
Background and aim: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common form of chronic motor disability that begins in early childhood and persists throughout life. The clinical features, including motor function, comorbidities and nutritional status, have not been investigated in Uganda. In addition, no assessment tool to measure functional skill development and the level of independence performance in activities of daily living has been developed for these children. The overall aim of this thesis was t...
Lipsky, Alyson B; Gribble, James N; Cahaelen, Linda; Sharma, Suneeta
In global health, partnerships between practitioners and policy makers facilitate stakeholders in jointly addressing those issues that require multiple perspectives for developing, implementing, and evaluating plans, strategies, and programs. For family planning, costed implementation plans (CIPs) are developed through a strategic government-led consultative process that results in a detailed plan for program activities and an estimate of the funding required to achieve an established set of goals. Since 2009, many countries have developed CIPs. Conventionally, the CIP approach has not been defined with partnerships as a focal point; nevertheless, cooperation between key stakeholders is vital to CIP development and execution. Uganda launched a CIP in November 2014, thus providing an opportunity to examine the process through a partnership lens. This article describes Uganda's CIP development process in detail, grounded in a framework for assessing partnerships, and provides the findings from 22 key informant interviews. Findings reveal strengths in Uganda's CIP development process, such as willingness to adapt and strong senior management support. However, the evaluation also highlighted challenges, including district health officers (DHOs), who are a key group of implementers, feeling excluded from the development process. There was also a lack of planning around long-term partnership practices that could help address anticipated execution challenges. The authors recommend that future CIP development efforts use a long-term partnership strategy that fosters accountability by encompassing both the short-term goal of developing the CIP and the longer-term goal of achieving the CIP objectives. Although this study focused on Uganda's CIP for family planning, its lessons have implications for any policy or strategy development efforts that require multiple stakeholders to ensure successful execution.
As donors have scaled up efforts to improve health in sub-Saharan African, African countries have diverged sharply in their health performance: Some countries have made rapid progress while others have stagnated. Yet the reasons for these divergences are often not well understood. In this dissertation I present in-depth case studies of two such divergent countries, Tanzania and Uganda, over the 1995-2007 period. Over this period, Tanzania reduced its under-5 mortality rate by 35%, while Ugand...
Full Text Available Patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART require routine monitoring to track response to treatment and assess for treatment failure. This study aims to identify gaps in monitoring practices in Kenya and Uganda.We conducted a systematic retrospective chart review of adults who initiated ART between 2007 and 2012. We assessed the availability of baseline measurements (CD4 count, weight, and WHO stage and ongoing CD4 and weight monitoring according to national guidelines in place at the time. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to analyze facility and patient factors associated with meeting monitoring guidelines.From 2007 to 2012, at least 88% of patients per year in Uganda had a recorded weight at initiation, while in Kenya there was a notable increase from 69% to 90%. Patients with a documented baseline CD4 count increased from 69% to about 80% in both countries. In 2012, 83% and 86% of established patients received the recommended quarterly weight monitoring in Kenya and Uganda, respectively, while semiannual CD4 monitoring was less common (49% in Kenya and 38% in Uganda. Initiating at a more advanced WHO stage was associated with a lower odds of baseline CD4 testing. On-site CD4 analysis capacity was associated with increased odds of CD4 testing at baseline and in the future.Substantial gaps were noted in ongoing CD4 monitoring of patients on ART. Although guidelines have since changed, limited laboratory capacity is likely to remain a significant issue in monitoring patients on ART, with important implications for ensuring quality care.
van Andel-de Raad, Irene Maria
This study explores children’s experiences with a Compassion International sponsorship program in Mukono District, Uganda. International child sponsorship is offered in various ways by a large number of NGOs as a means to alleviate child poverty. While the sponsoring of individual children has been criticized for its divisive effects, little research is done on the topic from participating children’s own perspectives. According to the new social studies of children and childhood, children can...
Corti Paul, Lakuma; Ezra, Munyambonera; Madina, Guloba
Investments on Ugandan smallholders and estates to improve output, productivity and quality depends on an environment that favours a broad range of interlinked policy measures. These policy measures include land reforms, tea research and extension services, marketing and promotion, and resource mobilization and utilization. The ability of Uganda to address the above enumerated policy measures is impeded by inconsistencies. The inconsistencies arise because of existence of multiple initiatives...
Mugisha, James; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Kigozi, Fred N.
Background There is a growing burden of mental illness in low income countries. The situation is further worsened by the high poverty levels in these countries, resulting in difficult choices for their health sectors as regards to responding to the burden of mental health problems. In Uganda, integration of mental health into primary health care (PHC) has been adopted as the most vital strategy for ensuring mental health service delivery to the general population. Objectives To identify gover...
This article examines the contribution of clans ( kinship institutions) to the administration of justice within the context of standards set out in the African regional human rights instruments. Field work on the Jopadhola of Eastern Uganda is drawn upon, to explore how clans reproduce their notion of an independent court using an abridged legal doctrine of separation of powers, and partially mimicking lower level government and judicial features. The field work also shows how clans accommoda...
Abstract In this study, I explore particular aspects in which the relationship between Pentecostal music and secular music has become prominent in Kampala, Uganda. Particularly, I examine how Pentecostal music artists have drawn inspirations from secular popular music scene particularly in the style of singing, dance movement, recording, marketing and the general performance context. The study examines the nature of Pentecostal music introduced by the European missionaries, the process of...
This paper has three principal objectives. First, to review the level of Official Development Assistance (ODA) to Tanzania over the last two to three decades, and to place this into an economic context. This review includes some comparisons with the experience of Ghana and Uganda. Second, to discuss three major issues for the Tanzanian aid: the position of ODA as budget support, corruption, and alignment with the principles of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. Third, to review the l...
Jones, Sam; Gibbon, Peter
Abstract This paper investigates the process of development in a traditional African export market, focussing on a contract farming scheme for organic cocoa in rural Uganda. Based on a repeated household survey, we measure the impact of the scheme on the income of participants and the economic mechanisms behind these effects. We find substantial benefits from the scheme, driven primarily by the establishment of credible incentives for farmers to adopt technologies which improve coc...
Bonabana-Wabbi, Jackline; Taylor, Daniel B.
Two experimental procedures were employed to value both health and environmental benefits from reducing pesticide use in Uganda. The first experiment, an incentive compatible auction involved subjects with incomplete information placing bids to avoid consuming potentially contaminated groundnuts/water in a framed field experimental procedure. Three experimental treatments (information, proxy good, and group treatments) were used. Subjects were endowed with a monetary amount (starting capital)...
Two experimental procedures are employed to value both health and environmental benefits from reducing pesticides in Uganda. The first experiment, an incentive compatible auction involves subjects with incomplete information placing bids to avoid consuming potentially contaminated groundnuts/water in a framed field experimental procedure. Three experimental treatments (information, proxy good, and group treatments) are used. Subjects are endowed with a monetary amount (starting capital) equiv...
Reinikka, Ritva; Svensson, Jakob
In this paper we argue that innovations in governance of social services are an effective way to improve outcomes such as attainment of universal primary education. To test this hypothesis we exploit an unusual policy experiment: a newspaper campaign in Uganda aimed at reducing the capture of public funds by providing schools (parents) with systematic information to monitor local officials' handling of a large education grant program. Combining survey and administrative data, we show that pub...
Deininger, Klaus; Ali, Daniel Ayalew; Yamano, Takashi
Although many African countries have recently embarked on revisions of their land legislations to give recognition to customary arrangements and strengthen women's rights, few studies assess the actual or potential economic impact of such steps. We use data from Uganda to assess the impact of tenure regime, perceived transfer rights, and legal knowledge on investment, productivity, and land values. While results support strong and positive investment-impacts of tenure and transferability, kno...
Edmeades, Svetlana; Phaneuf, Daniel J.; Smale, Melinda; Renkow, Mitch
We propose an approach to model the derived demand for crop varieties among semi-subsistence farmers in a developing economy, and apply it to smallholder banana producers in Uganda. We model variety planting decisions as being composed of an extensive margin decision to grow a subset of locally available varieties (variety choice); and an intensive margin decision about the scale or extent of variety cultivation per farm (variety demand). We estimate variety demand equations using a more comp...
Chant, L.; McDonald, S; Verschoor, A
This paper reports a CGE analysis that explores the consequences of the 1994-95 rise in the international price of coffee for Uganda´s economy. Evidence is found for a small effect on medium-term growth and poverty reduction. Aid dependence is among the reasons why this effect is not found to be larger. Major beneficiary groups are not only the farmers to which the windfall initially accrued but also urban wage earners and the urban self-employed.
Budget allocation alone can be a poor indicator of the quality and quantity of public service delivered on the frontline in countries with weak institutions. While shifting of budgetary resources to priority sectors is a good first step, it is crucial to ascertain where and how the allocated sum gets spent. The 1996 Uganda-World Bank attempt at tracking public expenditure in primary educat...
Birungi, Patrick; Hassan, Rashid M.
Using a data set collected in eight districts of Uganda, this study investigates how investment in soil fertility management (SFM) and conservation practices may affect natural resource outcomes, particularly the extent and level of soil erosion and soil nutrient loss. The study used ordered probit models and the results suggest that investment in SFM and conservation practices greatly improves soil fertility and reduces soil erosion. From a policy perspective, public investment to encourage ...
Ughetta Moscardino; Sara Scrimin; Francesca Cadei; Gianmarco Altoè
The present study aimed to evaluate posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems in former Ugandan child soldiers in comparison with civilian children living in the same conflict setting. Participants included 133 former child soldiers and 101 never-abducted children in northern Uganda, who were interviewed about exposure to traumatic war-related experiences, posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral pro...
Cavanagh, Joseph Connor
This thesis examines the manner in which the global context of anthropogenic environmental change influences the nature of conservation governance at one specific protected area: Mount Elgon National Park (MENP) in Uganda. In doing so, it presents three academic papers, each of which tests a widely held assumption in the literature on conservation and development. Utilized methods include semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, ethnographic observation, content ana...
Golan, Jennifer; Lay, Jann
Focusing on intra-household allocation, we investigate the effects of coffee market liberalisation in Uganda. As coffee has traditionally been a male domain, higher income from this activity might increase gender disparities. In addition, gender-related inefficiency in household production might undermine the positive impact of improved incentives. Using data from three household surveys conducted between 1992 and 2006, we estimate Engel curves, coffee yield and labour input equations incorpo...
The number of children affected by conflict situations is on the rise in Africa. All their childhood experiences are marred by war. The conflict in Northern Uganda which has taken more than 20 years continues to attract local, national and international attention. Once a vibrant area, Gulu has been shuttered by the Lord Resistance Army (LRA) atrocities. One of the eye catching scenes to Gulu is Murchison Falls National Game Park, a place where several vehicles were burnt and people butchered ...
The roll out of Anti-Retroviral Therapy across Sub-Saharan Africa has given rise to a new generation of adolescents that previously would not have survived into their teen years. The aim of this research is to give voice to these young people, specifically HIV positive students, in the rural, post-conflict area of Katakwi, Uganda. Through the lens of empowerment, which focuses on participation, capacity building, leadership potential, and relationships, this research examines the factors in...
Barr, Abigail; Fafchamps, Marcel
Using original survey data on beneficiary assessment, we examine the performance of the NGO sector in Uganda. In general satisfaction with NGO intervention is high. We find evidence that NGOs endeavour to redress the balance between rich and poor communities but also that NGOs neglect isolated communities, possibly for cost reasons, and that the accessibility of NGOs to beneficiary communities is lower in poor communities. These factors significantly reduce client-community satisfaction with ...
Kjær, Anne Mette
Politiske magtforhold kan slå høje olie-håb i stykker De små virksomheder og almindelige ugandere har endnu ikke fået meget ud af de ny multinationale investeringer i Uganda’s olie. Der er fundet store mængder olie i det vestlige Uganda. I øjeblikket arbejder tre store multinationale virksomheder...
Mueller, Y; Nguimfack, A; Cavailler, Philippe; Couffignal, Sophie; Rwakimari, J B; Loutan, Louis; Chappuis, Francois
Between September 2003 and April 2004, the supply of antimonial drugs to Amudat Hospital, in north-eastern Uganda, was interrupted and all cases of visceral leishmaniasis presenting at the hospital could only be treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmB). This allowed the safety and effectiveness of the AmB to be evaluated, in comparison with an historical cohort of patients treated, at the same hospital, with meglumine antimoniate (Sb(V)). Demographic and clinical data were collected bef...
LINKAGES, LINKAGES; Regional Centre for Quality of Health Care, RCQHC; United Nations Children's Fund , UNICEF
Learning from success is the most effective and efficient way of learning.This report brings together the main findings of a series of assessments of successful community nutrition programming carried out in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda between 1999 and 2000. The overall aim of the assessments was to identify key lessons, or the main driving forces behind the successful processes and outcomes in these programs. Such elements of success fundamentally have to do with both what was done and how i...
Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, M.
An investigation to assess the capacity of the Nakivubo swamp, Kampala-Uganda (which has been receiving partially treated sewage from the city for more than 30 years now), to remove nutrients and pathogens was carried out. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of this swamp to remove nutrients and pathogens from wastewater in a sustainable way, with emphasis on describing and quantifying their pathways, transformations and budgets.From field studies, water balance terms of channe...
de Menil Victoria; Wood Sarah K; Raja Shoba; Mannarath Saju C
Abstract Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key inf...
While confronting the question of aid effectiveness, an important issue (but often ignored) in the context of a developing country like Uganda is which GDP measure would be most reliable as this is crucial for measuring the macroeconomic impact of aid. The most commonly used GDP measure in the aid-growth literature is typically from World Development Indicators (WDI) or Penn World Tables (PWT) (being considered the most reliable or the easiest to obtain). However, disparities in GDP from alte...
Zhang; Jigang; Li; Yanwen; Zhang; Peng
<正>A Chinese Local Government Delegation headed by Xia Geng,Deputy Governor of Shandong Province,was sent by the CPAFFC to attend the China-East African Community Local Governors and Mayors Dialogue in Kampala,Uganda and the ChinaTanzania Local Governors and Mayors Dialogue in Dar es Salaam,Tanzania.It consisted of more than 80 members from six cities of four provinces—Shandong,Liaoning,Shaanxi and Ji-
Introduction: Despite the significant investments put into improving the provision of contraceptive services in Uganda, the desired outcomes have not been realized. Contraceptive prevalence rate remains low and only 18% of the currently married women are using a modern method. Total fertility rate is as high as 6.9 and there is a huge unmet need for contraceptive use among women estimated at 35% (UBOS & ORC Macro, 2001). One of the reasons often mentioned for these poor reproductive health ou...
Sub-Saharan African countries have diverged sharply in health status in recent years: Some have reduced premature mortality rapidly while others have made little progress, despite significant health-oriented foreign aid. This article identifies political economy and institutional factors that help explain dramatic differences in the pace of child mortality reduction between Tanzania and Uganda from 1995-96 to 2006-07. The existing literature largely explains divergence in basic health outcome...
Auerbach, Brandon J.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Mohammed Lamorde; Concepta Merry; Collins Kukunda-Byobona; Ponsiano Ocama; Semeere, Aggrey S.; Anthony Ndyanabo; Iga Boaz; Valerian Kiggundu; Fred Nalugoda; Gray, Ron H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Thomas, David L.; Kirk, Gregory D
BACKGROUND: Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa and some herbs are known to be hepatotoxic. However little is known about the effect of herbal medicines on liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: 500 HIV-infected participants in a rural HIV care program in Rakai, Uganda, were frequency matched to 500 HIV-uninfected participants. Participants were asked about traditional herbal medicine use and assessed for other potential risk factors for liver disease. ...
Osinde Michael O; Kaye Dan K; Kakaire Othman
Abstract Background Every pregnant woman faces risk of life-threatening obstetric complications. A birth-preparedness package promotes active preparation and assists in decision-making for healthcare seeking in case of such complications. The aim was to assess factors associated with birth preparedness and complication-readiness as well as the level of male participation in the birth plan among emergency obstetric referrals in rural Uganda. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted a...
Lipsky, Alyson B; Gribble, James N; Cahaelen, Linda; Sharma, Suneeta
In global health, partnerships between practitioners and policy makers facilitate stakeholders in jointly addressing those issues that require multiple perspectives for developing, implementing, and evaluating plans, strategies, and programs. For family planning, costed implementation plans (CIPs) are developed through a strategic government-led consultative process that results in a detailed plan for program activities and an estimate of the funding required to achieve an established set of goals. Since 2009, many countries have developed CIPs. Conventionally, the CIP approach has not been defined with partnerships as a focal point; nevertheless, cooperation between key stakeholders is vital to CIP development and execution. Uganda launched a CIP in November 2014, thus providing an opportunity to examine the process through a partnership lens. This article describes Uganda's CIP development process in detail, grounded in a framework for assessing partnerships, and provides the findings from 22 key informant interviews. Findings reveal strengths in Uganda's CIP development process, such as willingness to adapt and strong senior management support. However, the evaluation also highlighted challenges, including district health officers (DHOs), who are a key group of implementers, feeling excluded from the development process. There was also a lack of planning around long-term partnership practices that could help address anticipated execution challenges. The authors recommend that future CIP development efforts use a long-term partnership strategy that fosters accountability by encompassing both the short-term goal of developing the CIP and the longer-term goal of achieving the CIP objectives. Although this study focused on Uganda's CIP for family planning, its lessons have implications for any policy or strategy development efforts that require multiple stakeholders to ensure successful execution. PMID:27353621
Mugisha, Lawrence; Leendertz, Fabian; Opuda-Asibo, John; Olobo, J.O.; Ehlers, Bernhard
Background: Recent studies in non-human primates have led to the discovery of novel primate herpesviruses. In order to get more information on herpesvirus infections in apes, we studied wild born captive chimpanzees. Methods: Chimpanzees of the Ngamba island sanctuary, Uganda, were analyzed with pan-herpes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene and the glycoprotein B gene. The obtained sequences were connected by long-distance PCR, and analyzed phylogen...
Clarke, George R. G.; Cull, Robert; Fuchs, Michael
Because large state-owned banks are often the only financial service providers in remote areas of low-income countries, policymakers worry that even if privatization improves performance, it might reduce access. We study this issue through a case study: the privatization of Uganda Commercial Bank (UCB) to the South African bank Stanbic. Though market segmentation remains a concern since Stanbic faces little or no direct competition in many remote areas, some innovative aspects of the sales ag...
This thesis inquires into the different conceptions of justice that are prevalent within international criminal justice. How is justice spoken of and what means are available for its pursuance in the aftermath of mass atrocity and international crimes? In 2004, the International Criminal Court decided to open an investigation in Uganda concerning the brutal and drawn-out war between the government army and a rebel group knows as the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) in the northern parts of t...
This practice note describes and critiques the initial years of the International Criminal Court’s (ICC) involvement in Uganda from the perspective of local civil society actors. It argues that the substance and process of the ICC’s intervention fell chronically short of generating justice for those who had lived with the conflict for over two decades, and therefore created a disconnect between the priorities of those on the ground, and the priorities of the Court and its international minder...
Full Text Available Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach.The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed.Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.
Introduction: Life-threatening complications in pregnancy rarely achieves public health prominence in the same way as maternal mortality partly because they represent a wide spectrum of conditions. The improved level of care in many high-income countries has significantly reduced morbidity and risk of death from these conditions. However in low-income countries, such as Uganda, weak and poorly resourced health systems, socio -cultural factors and the threat by HIV/AIDS combi...
The potential of using constructed v wetlands as a cheaper and yet effective alternative method for treating domestic wastewater in tropical environments was investigated in this study from May 1996 - April 1999. The major aim was to determine their technical viability with respect to treatment performance under different operating conditions and the economic competitiveness of the technology in Uganda and within the region. A pilot constructed wetland design, based on horizontal flow criteri...
Bryan J Vonasek; Francis Bajunirwe; Laura E Jacobson; Leonidas Twesigye; James Dahm; Grant, Monica J.; Ajay K Sethi; Conway, James H
Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timeliness is a key health policy objective in many developing countries such as Uganda. Of the many factors known to influence uptake of childhood immunizations in under resourced settings, parents' understanding and perception of childhood immunizations has largely been overlooked. The aims of this study were to survey mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations and then determine if these variables correlate with the timely ...
Nabakabya, D.; Kugonza, DR.
The factors that affect honey quality in Uganda were surveyed in 120 beekeeping households. Honey was sampled from supermarkets, hawkers and stall markets along four transects across Kampala, the capital. Honey quality parameters assessed were diastase number (DN), free acidity (FA), moisture content (MC), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and water insoluble solids (WIS). Honey was mostly harvested from basket and grass hives. Pressing, boiling and straining were popular honey processing methods....
Clarke, K.; Patalay, P; Van Allen, E; Knight, L; Naker, D.; DeVries, K.
Objective To explore patterns of physical, emotional and sexual violence against Ugandan children. Design Latent class and multinomial logistic regression analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting Luwero District, Uganda. Participants In all, 3706 primary 5, 6 and 7 students attending 42 primary schools. Main outcome and measure To measure violence, we used the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool—Child Institutional. We used the Stren...
OKELLO, Emmy; Wanzhu, Zhang; Musoke, Charles; Kakande, Barbara; Charles K. Mondo; Freers, Juergen; Twalib, Aliku; Lwabi, Peter; Wilson, Nyakoojo B; Odoi-Adome, R.
Background Complications of rheumatic heart disease are associated with severe morbidity and mortality in developing countries where the disease prevalence remains high. Due to lack of screening services, many patients present late, with severe valve disease. In Uganda, the disease and its complications are still not well studied. Objective To profile and describe cardiovascular complications in newly diagnosed rheumatic heart disease patients attending the Mulago National Referral Hospital i...
Between 1983 and 1984, the World Bank financed 11 AIDS/STD projects in Africa, most of which tended to cost comparatively small amounts. It increased the amount of its AIDS/STD loans considerably in 1993 and 1994 ($75 million in Zimbabwe and $50 million in Uganda). The Ugandan government, Germany, Sweden, and the UK are also funding the AIDS/STD project. Since the money is from the Bank's International Development Association, Uganda does not need to pay any interest on the loan. About 1.5 million people in Uganda are HIV positive. The number of AIDS patients continues to rise. The AIDS project in Uganda focuses on prevention of sexual transmission of HIV, mitigation of the personal impact of the epidemic, and institutional development. Prevention of sexual transmission activities are: promotion of safer sex behavior, condoms, and STD care-seeking behavior and effective STD care. Support for community-based and home-based health care and social support for people with AIDS, training staff about and providing drugs for opportunistic infections, protective supplies for public and private district health facilities, and diagnosis and case management of tuberculosis comprise mitigation of the personal impact of AIDS activities. Institutional development efforts include strengthening the district level's capacity to plan, coordinate, implement, monitor, and evaluate integrated AIDS-related activities, and the national level's capacity to provide adequate technical support on health issues linked to AIDS. Three key policies of the project are decentralization, community mobilization, and encouragement of nongovernmental organizations to work with communities and to complement government efforts. A large scale AIDS/STD mass media program is planned. Project goals are: 50% of the population knowing at least 2 actual ways to protect themselves from HIV. 50% of the population using condoms, and 70% of people seeking STD care receiving appropriate STD case management. PMID
Ishimwe, Olivier; Svecova, Renata; Safronova, Sabina
The aim of this project is to explore and discover the motivations behind the re-adaptation of the recent anti-homosexual legislations in Nigeria and Uganda, and whether the two prominent countries share similar motives when applying these legislations. The project is written in an exploratory and empirical manner. The research design incorporated a historical and explanatory approach. First the project looks at the historical background of homosexuality in Africa, in order to clarify i...
Deininger, Klaus; Ayalew, Daniel; Yamano, Takashi
Mixed evidence on the impact of formal title in much of Africa is often used to question the relevance of dealing with land policy issues in this continent. The authors use data from Uganda to assess the impact of a disaggregated set of rights on investment, productivity, and land values, and to test the hypothesis that individuals' lack of knowledge of the new law reduces their tenure security. Results point toward strong and positive effects of greater tenure security and transferability. U...
Full Text Available Introduction: To meet key millennium development goals, the rural population needs to be reached for health assessment and service delivery. Gastroduodenal ulcer disease is a common ailment affecting the health of people in Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Bwera Hospital in Kasese district of western Uganda, to establish the prevalence and predisposing factors of Helicobacter pylori among gastroduodenal ulcer disease patients. Methods: A sample of 174 patients with symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer disease was purposively obtained. Using two laboratory test methods, the prevalence of H. pylori among these patients was determined. A structured questionnaire was administered to participants to establish their demographic background and selected aspects of their lifestyle. Finally, the results obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and immunochromatographic rapid test (IRT were compared. Results: We established the prevalence of H. pylori as 29.9% (52/174 by ELISA and 37.4% (65/174 by IRT. Cigarette smoking, poor sanitation, and lack of formal education were the significant predisposing factors with p-values <0.05. The two tests gave identical results in 87.9% of the patients. Discussion: The prevalence of H. pylori by IRT and ELISA test methods was similar to what has been reported elsewhere in developed countries; but was lower than previously reported in developing countries including Uganda. The previous studies in Uganda were carried out in the urban population and on young children; and some used antibody-detection methods only, therefore leading to different prevalence as a result of difference in study population and methods.
Siriri, D; Ong, C. K.; Wilson, J.; Boffa, J.M.; Black, C.R.
Integration of trees on farms may exert complementary or competitive effects on crop yield. This four year study examined novel systems in which Alnus acuminata (alnus), Calliandra calothyrsus (calliandra), Sesbania sesban (sesbania) or a mixture of all three were grown on the degraded upper part of bench terraces in Uganda; beans or maize were grown on the more fertile lower terrace during the short and long rains. Three pruning treatments (shoot, root or shoot+root pruning) were applied t...
Full Text Available This paper describes two new species of plume moths from the group of the so-called “giant” Platyptilia Hubner, 1825: Platyptilia fletcheri Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov. and P. stanleyi Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov. Both species were collected in the Rwenzori Mountains in Uganda and Rwanda, respectively. Platyptilia stanleyi Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov. exceeds all the known African species of Pterophoridae in its wingspan of 49 mm.
Kabatereine, Narcis; Fleming, Fiona; Thuo, Wangechi; Tinkitina, Benjamin; Edridah M Tukahebwa; Fenwick, Alan
Background Over 200,000 people, most of them infected with Schistosoma mansoni inhabit 150 islands in Lake Victoria in Uganda. Although a programme to control the disease has been ongoing since 2003, its implementation in islands is inadequate due to high transport costs on water. In 2011 and 2012, the Global Network for Neglected Tropical Diseases (GNNTD) through Schistosomiasis Control Initiative (SCI) provided financial support to ease treatment delivery on the islands and over the period,...
One of the serious problems Indonesia is facing today is deforestation. Forests have been playing a very important role in Indonesia as the main natural resources for the economic growth of the country. Large areas of tropical forests, worldwide considered to be among the richest in p
This publication provides an overview of the global trends in forest cover. It looks specifically at the four largest forest ecosystems and analyzes the trends and challenges in their conservation and management. It examines some of the key drivers behind forest loss, including the increasing demand for commodities and energy. Finally, it reviews some of the best practices for sustainable management of forest, including regulatory regimes, participatory management and economic incentives.--Pu...
Charcoal is a common component temperate forest soils. It results from wildfire events that frequently disturb the structure and function of vegetation and soils. Recent interest in applying biochar (artificially produced charcoal) to forest ecosystems raises both opportunities and concerns. The greatest opportunity for biochar application to forest soils is through the utilization of continuously produced and overabundant forest biomass for the production of bioenergy. Biochar is a co...
This thesis investigates design guidelines and management systems for the development of stationary forest edges with a graded profile in infrastructure and urban environments. The spatial restriction for the edge to move forward caused by human land use counteracts the natural dynamics and development patterns of graded forest edges. However graded forest edges with successively increasing height from the periphery to the interior of the forest edge are often seen as ideal as they supports ...
Full Text Available The initial motivation for the study was data from the Ministry of Education in Uganda that suggests that in terms of academic performance, urban learners continually outperform rural schools at primary and secondary school levels (Ministry of Education 2002. At present all government examinations are written in English. However, the language in education policy in Uganda differentially stipulates the use English as medium of instruction in urban schools and the use of the mother tongue in rural schools (cf. Kyeyune 2004. Other factors which mitigate against rural learners’ successful academic performance are untrained educators, poor infrastructure and school management practices in rural schools, poverty, lack of supportive academic discourse practices, and a general lack of enthusiasm among rural parents (most of whom have very little formal education for their children’s education. Using data from observations of selected urban and rural homes and schools in The Iganga district and field notes in the form of diary entries, the study draws on New Literacy Studies (NLS particularly the notion of literacy as social practice (Street 2001; Gee 2000; Baynham 2000, 2001, to explore the differential effect of urban and rural-based acculturation processes on the initial literacy development of learners. Finally, since 88% of Ugandans live in rural areas (Uganda Bureau of Statistics 2002, the pedagogical implications for primary schools are discussed and suggestions are made on how to establish an inclusive education system.
Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to appraise election violence and voter behaviour in Uganda. The rule of the thumb was used to draw the sample for the study. Copies of structured questionnaire were administered on the respondents using purposive sampling technique to study two urban centers in Uganda - Hoima and Kigorobya. Using the analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests as instruments of data analysis, findings indicated among others that voter motivation, political parties, voter perceptions and civic education have a strong contribution towards election violence among voters in Uganda. Forms of election violence could easily be as a result of voters’ perception, voter motivation, civic education and political organizations or parties. The mode of elections organized by governments presents a closer relationship between election violence and voter behaviour characterized by perceptions, motivation, civic education and political party activities. There was a significant positive relation between election violence and voter behaviour. If factors promoting election violence are to be dealt with so as to have a peaceful political system, the study submitted that political big wigs should embrace the culture of attitudinal change and see politics or elections as a game that there must always be a winner and a loser
Bigelow, Jeffrey; Berrett, Sawyer; Kimuli, Ivan; Katabira, Elly
Epilepsy is associated with stigma throughout the world, which leads to poor treatment of people with epilepsy (PWE). In Uganda, there are more than 75,000 PWE and a large treatment gap. This study evaluated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding epilepsy among first-year medical students at Mulago Hospital. A 22-question survey was developed based on the previous studies of Birbeck et al.'s regarding the stigma of epilepsy in Zambia. This was administered to first-year medical students (96 respondents) at Mulago Hospital in Uganda. More than 80% said that they would not allow their children to marry PWE. Most respondents believed that epilepsy was a mental illness, and many believed that PWE cannot have normal intelligence. Students reported that there was a negative perception and negative treatment of PWE in the community. Some students believed that epilepsy was caused by supernatural causes and was contagious. These misperceptions must be identified and corrected among medical students and other healthcare providers to allow for fair treatment of PWE; this should be incorporated into medical school curriculums in Uganda. PMID:26253598
Full Text Available Abstract This article reviews the existing realities in Uganda to identify opportunities and potential obstacles of providing universal routine HPV vaccination to young adolescent girls. Cervical cancer is a public health priority in Uganda where it contributes to about 50–60% of all female malignancies. It is associated with a dismal 5-year relative survival of approximately 20%. With adequate financial resources, primary prevention through vaccination is feasible using existing education and health infrastructure. Cost-effectiveness studies show that at a cost of US$2 per dose, the current vaccines would be cost effective. With optimal (≥70% coverage of the target population, the lifetime risk of cervical cancer could be reduced by >50%. Uganda fulfils 4 out of the 5 criteria set by the WHO for the introduction of routine HPV vaccination to young adolescent girls. The existing political commitment, community support for immunization and the favorable laws and policy environment all provide an opportunity that should not be missed to introduce this much needed vaccine to the young adolescent girls. However, sustainable financing by the government without external assistances remains a major obstacle. Also, the existing health delivery systems would require strengthening to cope with the delivery of HPV vaccine to a population that is normally not targeted for routine vaccination. Given the high incidence of cervical cancer and in the absence of a national screening program, universal HPV vaccination of Ugandan adolescent girls is critical for cervical cancer prevention.
Schlecht, Jennifer; Rowley, Elizabeth; Babirye, Juliet
While there is increased attention to child marriage, defined as marriage before 18 years of age, in countries where the practice is especially prevalent, less attention has been directed at understanding the factors affecting relationships, marriage and cohabitation among adolescents affected by conflict and displacement. This article presents factors which contribute to early relationships and informal marriages in conflict and post-conflict settings, based on qualitative research undertaken among two distinct populations in Uganda: internally displaced persons in Mucwini transit camp in northern Uganda and Congolese refugees in the Nakivale refugee settlement in southwestern Uganda. Themes were examined through a social-ecological framework. Findings indicate that fundamental shifts in economies, family relationships, and communication combined with structural changes encountered in settlements resulted in changed relationships and marriage patterns. Participants reported that poverty, splintering of family, and lack of education - which they believed to be exacerbated by conflict in both settings - had profoundly affected the views, perceptions and behaviours of youth around relationships and marriage. We identify interventions applicable to humanitarian settings that would offer refugee and internally displaced adolescents greater and more meaningful opportunities for development.
Full Text Available The recent recognition of neurocysticercosis as a major cause of epilepsy in Uganda and changes in pig demography have lead to a need to better understand the basic epidemiology of Taenia solium infections in pigs and humans. Human exposure is a function of the size of the animal reservoir of this zoonosis. This is the first field survey for porcine cysticercosis to investigate the prevalence of antigen-positive pigs across an entire rural district of south-east Uganda. In our field surveys, 8.6% of 480 pigs screened were seropositive for the parasite by B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. In addition, of the 528 homesteads surveyed 138 (26% did not have pit latrines indicating a high probability of pigs having access to human faeces and thus T. solium eggs. This study thus indicates the need for better data on this neglected zoonotic disease in Uganda, with a particular emphasis on the risk factors for infection in both pigs and humans. In this regard, further surveys of pigs, seroprevalence surveys in humans and an understanding of cysticercosis-related epilepsy are required, together with risk-factor studies for human and porcine infections.
Amir Sabet Sarvestani
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The growing body of evidence attesting to the effectiveness of clinical male circumcision in the prevention of HIV/AIDS transmission is prompting the majority of sub-Saharan African governments to move towards the adoption of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC. Even though it is recommended to consider collaboration with traditional male circumcision (TMC providers when planning for VMMC, there is limited knowledge available about the TMC landscape and traditional beliefs. METHODOLOGY AND MAIN FINDINGS: During 2010-11 over 25 focus group discussions (FGDs were held with clan leaders, traditional cutters, and their assistants to understand the practice of TMC in four ethnic groups in Uganda. Cultural significance and cost were among the primary reasons cited for preferring TMC over VMMC. Ethnic groups in western Uganda circumcised boys at younger ages and encountered lower rates of TMC related adverse events compared to ethnic groups in eastern Uganda. Cutting styles and post-cut care also differed among the four groups. The use of a single razor blade per candidate instead of the traditional knife was identified as an important and recent change. Participants in the focus groups expressed interest in learning about methods to reduce adverse events. CONCLUSION: This work reaffirmed the strong cultural significance of TMC within Ugandan ethnic groups. Outcomes suggest that there is an opportunity to evaluate the involvement of local communities that still perform TMC in the national VMMC roll-out plan by devising safer, more effective procedures through innovative approaches.
The Republic of Uganda is a landlocked country in East Africa with a population of about 33 million. It lies along the equator and is bordered on the east by Kenya, north by Sudan, west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, southwest by Rwanda, and south by Tanzania. Uganda has continued to suffer power shortage, mainly due to slow investment in the power sector as well as unreliable rainfall. To supplement the power supply, it has contracted independent power producers to supply electricity from fossil fuels. The Thermal power is expensive and contributes to emission of large amount of carbon dioxide - a major greenhouse gas causing global warming. The total estimated electricity generation potential is in the long term will be about 5300MW. In view of the increasingly energy needs and urgent environmental concerns related to power production using fossil fuels, the government recognizes that nuclear technology will play important role in future sustainable energy systems. The Government is therefore considering nuclear energy as part of the future energy mix. However, Uganda is not yet having the capacity to build a nuclear power plant, but is making earnest efforts to prepare for nuclear power programme. These include putting in place appropriate legislation and capacity building in nuclear power technology, implementing human resources development plan, which involves recruiting fresh graduate and sending them abroad for further studies in nuclear science and technology for power generation and regulations, and infrastructure requirement.
Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian;
Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material and Met...
Molyneaux, Kristen J.
In January 2007 Uganda embarked on a strategy to implement a nationwide Universal Secondary Education (USE) policy. This article investigates how gender differences in Uganda's informal and formal teaching markets, that went unexamined during the implementation process of USE, differentially affected male and female teachers' incomes. In…
Mwiine, Frank Norbert; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Alexandersen, Søren;
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in cattle occur annually in Uganda. In this study the authors investigated antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) in cattle in surrounding areas of Lake Mburo National Park in South-western Uganda. Two hundred and eleven serum samples from 23 cattle herds were...
Goodenough, David G.; Dyk, Andrew; Chen, Hao; Hobart, Geordie; Niemann, K. Olaf; Richardson, Ash
Canada contains 10% of the world's forests covering an area of 418 million hectares. The sustainable management of these forest resources has become increasingly complex. Hyperspectral remote sensing can provide a wealth of new and improved information products to resource managers to make more informed decisions. Research in this area has demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to create more accurate products for forest inventory, forest health, foliar biochemistry, biomass, and aboveground carbon than are currently available. This paper surveys recent methods and results in hyperspectral sensing of forests and describes space initiatives for hyperspectral sensing.
Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Buttenschøn, Rita M.;
valuable when working with forest management, conservation and restoration. Integrating the legacies of past disturbances-natural as well as anthropogenic-into conservation and management strategies is likely to favour natural values and ecosystem services. A case-study in Gribskov, Denmark, using......Knowledge of forest history is crucial for understanding the processes, structures, functions and current status of forest ecosystems. An enhanced understanding of the long history of disturbance factors affecting forest development and thereby the present state of the forest is particularly...
Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.
with the same attention as the other functions. The aim of this paper is to put a stronger emphasis on the fact that the acknowledgement of cultural bonds is needed in the discussion of sustainable development. Forest should not only be considered as a technical means to solve environmental and economic......The relationship between human beings and forests has been important for the development of society. It is based on various productive, ecological, social and cultural functions of forests. The cultural functions, including the spiritual and symbolic role of forests, are often not addressed......, in addition to economic, ecological and social functions, and lead towards a sustainable relationship between forests and society....
Kassam, Rosemin; Collins, John B; Liow, Eric; Rasool, Nabeela
In accordance with international targets, the Uganda National Malaria Control Strategic Plan established specific targets to be achieved by 2010. For children under five, this included increasing the number of children sleeping under mosquito nets and those receiving a first-line antimalarial to 85%, and decreasing case fatality to 2%. This narrative review offers contextual information relevant to malaria management in Uganda since the advent of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) as first-line antimalarial treatment in 2004. A comprehensive search using key words and phrases was conducted using the web search engines Google and Google Scholar, as well as the databases of PubMed, ERIC, EMBASE, CINAHL, OvidSP (MEDLINE), PSYC Info, Springer Link, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched. A total of 147 relevant international and Ugandan literature sources meeting the inclusion criteria were included. This review provides an insightful understanding on six topic areas: global and local priorities, malarial pathology, disease burden, malaria control, treatment guidelines for uncomplicated malaria, and role of the health system in accessing antimalarial medicines. Plasmodium falciparum remains the most common cause of malaria in Uganda, with children under five being most vulnerable due to their underdeveloped immunity. While international efforts to scale up malaria control measures have resulted in considerable decline in malaria incidence and mortality in several regions of sub-Saharan Africa, this benefit has yet to be substantiated for Uganda. At the local level, key initiatives have included implementation of a new antimalarial drug policy in 2004 and strengthening of government health systems and programs. Examples of such programs include removal of user fees, training of frontline health workers, providing free ACT from government systems and subsidized ACT from licensed private
Full Text Available Introduction: In response to the increasing burden of HIV, the Ugandan government has employed different service delivery models since 2004 that aim to reduce costs and remove barriers to accessing HIV care. These models include community-based approaches to delivering antiretroviral therapy (ART and delegating tasks to lower-level health workers. This study aimed to provide data on annual ART cost per client among three different service delivery models in Uganda. Methods: Costing data for the entire year 2012 were retrospectively collected as part of a larger task-shifting study conducted in three organizations in Uganda: Kitovu Mobile (KM, the AIDS Support Organisation (TASO and Uganda Cares (UC. A standard cost data capture tool was developed and used to retrospectively collect cost information regarding antiretroviral (ARV drugs and non-ARV drugs, ART-related lab tests, personnel and administrative costs. A random sample of four TASO centres (out of 11, four UC clinics (out of 29 and all KM outreach units were selected for the study. Results: Cost varied across sites within each organization as well as across the three organizations. In addition, the number of annual ART visits was more frequent in rural areas and through KM (the community distribution model, which played a major part in the overall annual ART cost. The annual cost per client (in USD was $404 for KM, $332 for TASO and $257 for UC. These estimates were lower than previous analyses in Uganda or the region compared to data from 2001 to 2009, but comparable with recent estimates using data from 2010 to 2013. ARVs accounted for the majority of the total cost, followed by personnel and operational costs. Conclusions: The study provides updated data on annual cost per ART visit for three service delivery models in Uganda. These data will be vital for in-country budgetary efforts to ensure that universal access to ART, as called for in the 2015 World Health Organization (WHO
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community members are stakeholders in hospitals and have a right to participate in the improvement of quality of services rendered to them. Their views are important because they reflect the perspectives of the general public. This study explored how communities that live around hospitals pass on their views to and receive feedback from the hospitals' management and administration. Methods The study was conducted in eight hospitals and the communities around them. Four of the hospitals were from three districts from eastern Uganda and another four from two districts from western Uganda. Eight key informant interviews (KIIs were conducted with medical superintendents of the hospitals. A member from each of three hospital management boards was also interviewed. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with health workers from the hospitals. Another eight FGDs (four with men and four with women were conducted with communities within a five km radius around the hospitals. Four of the FGDs (two with men and two with women were done in western Uganda and the other four in eastern Uganda. The focus of the KIIs and FGDs was exploring how hospitals communicated with the communities around them. Analysis was by manifest content analysis. Results Whereas health unit management committees were supposed to have community representatives, the representatives never received views from the community nor gave them any feed back from the hospitals. Messages through the mass media like radio were seen to be non specific for action. Views sent through suggestion boxes were seen as individual needs rather than community concerns. Some community members perceived they would be harassed if they complained and had reached a state of resignation preferring instead to endure the problems quietly. Conclusion There is still lack of effective communication between the communities and the hospitals that serve them in Uganda. This deprives the
Ghazoul, Jaboury; Burivalova, Zuzana; Garcia-Ulloa, John; King, Lisa A
Forest degradation is a global environmental issue, but its definition is problematic. Difficulties include choosing appropriate reference states, timescales, thresholds, and forest values. We dispense with many such ambiguities by interpreting forest degradation through the frame of ecological resilience, and with reference to forest dynamics. Specifically, we define forest degradation as a state of anthropogenically induced arrested succession, where ecological processes that underlie forest dynamics are diminished or severely constrained. Metrics of degradation might include those that reflect ecological processes shaping community dynamics, notably the regeneration of plant species. Arrested succession implies that management intervention is necessary to recover successional trajectories. Such a definition can be applied to any forest ecosystem, and can also be extended to other ecosystems. PMID:26411619
Wilkie, David S; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Peres, Carlos A; Cunningham, Andrew A
Tropical forests are among the most species-rich ecosystems on the planet. Some authors argue that predictions of a tropical forest extinction crisis based on analyses of deforestation rates are overly pessimistic since they do not take account of future agricultural abandonment as a result of rural-urban migration and subsequent secondary regrowth. Even if such regrowth occurs, it is crucial to consider threats to species that are not directly correlated with area of forest cover. Hunting is an insidious but significant driver of tropical forest defaunation, risking cascading changes in forest plant and animal composition. Ineffective legislation and enforcement along with a failure of decision makers to address the threats of hunting is fanning the fire of a tropical forest extinction crisis. If tropical forest ecosystems are to survive, the threat of unsustainable hunting must be adequately addressed now.
O'Brien, Renee A; Pope, Reese
This summary of the forest resources of the Wasatch-Cache National Forest is based on a comprehensive inventory of all forested lands in Utah. The inventory was conducted in 1995 by the Interior West Resource Inventory, Monitoring, and Evaluation (IWRIME) Program of the U.S. Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, as part of its National Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties.
Chirici, Cherardo; McRoberts, Ronald; Winter, Susanne;
Forests are the most biodiverse terrestrial ecosystems. National forest inventories (NFIs) are the main source of information on the status and trends of forests, but they have traditionally been designed to assess land coverage and the production value of forests rather than forest biodiversity....
Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Kapos, Valerie; Campbell, Alison;
Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6-17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world's humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate...... that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25-0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation......, although certainly not sufficient, component of an overall strategy for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD)...
Ayebazibwe, C.; Mwiine, F. N.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten;
Background To study the role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda, serum samples were collected from 207 African buffalos, 21 impalas (Aepyceros melampus), 1 giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), 1 common eland (Taurotragus oryx), 7 hartebeests...... while the SAT 2 isolates belonged to different lineages within the East African topotype X. Conclusions Consistent detection of high antibody titres in buffalos supports the view that African buffalos play an important role in the maintenance of FMDV infection within National Parks in Uganda. Both SAT 1...
Full text: Setting up of quality control comparison of insectary-reared and field caught Glossina fuscipes fuscipes in Uganda involves foremost pupal parameters from emergence period to adults to pupal size, weights and search for parasitoids in the field caught pupae. Besides some DNA characterization and profiling will be reported for G. f. fuscipes Uganda strain and the laboratory reared Central African strain. This will support the 'Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign' efforts to provide quality sterile males that are also compatible with wild population(s) being targeted for eradication. (author)
Abrahmsén, Markus; Persson, Ylva; Kanyima, Benon Mbabazi; Båge, Renée
It is widely recognized that subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an extensive problem in the dairy industry worldwide. It is of particular concern in developing countries. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of SCM in dairy cattle in the urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda and to gain information about pathogens and antibiotic resistance patterns. The study was conducted as a field study in 18 smallholder dairy farms in peri-urban Kampala, Uganda. All cows at the farms w...
Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom
Abstract: This concept paper presents part of a work in progress on a participatory action research project that seeks to investigate the interrelated effects of climate change, agricultural practices and land tenure systems on women’s food security in central Uganda. We examine policy implications...... security; climate change; women; land rights; adaptive capacity...... insecurity. While most Ugandans depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, it is important to recognize that access to land by women and climate factors are central to the question of food security in Uganda. However, a review of the state-of-the-art in food security in this region demonstrates that policy...
Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholders concerns about the future timber production prospects in the country. The principal drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Ghana are agricultural expansion (50%), wood harvesting (35...
Korhonen, E.; Toppinen, Anne; Lähtinen, K.; Ranacher, L.; Werner, Andrea; Stern, Tobias; Kutnar, Andreja
Communication is an important tool in maintaining legitimacy and acceptability of forest sector operations and activities, and expectations by the general public on the forest sector conduct in Europe are in general very high. Despite this, there is scarce research in crossnational context on how forest sector sustainability is communicated to the general public, and what development areas can be identified in terms of communication content. This study applies a qualitative content analysis i...
Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Vega Orozco, Carmen D.
Forest fires in Canton Ticino (Switzerland) are very complex phenomena. Meteorological data can explain some occurrences of fires in time, but not necessarily in space. Using anthropogenic and geographical feature data with the random forest algorithm, this study tries to highlight factors that most influence the fire-ignition and to identify areas under risk. The fundamental scientific problem considered in the present research deals with an application of random forest algorithms for the analysis and modeling of forest fires patterns in a high dimensional input feature space. This study is focused on the 2,224 anthropogenic forest fires among the 2,401 forest fire ignition points that have occurred in Canton Ticino from 1969 to 2008. Provided by the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), the database characterizes each fire by their location (x,y coordinates of the ignition point), start date, duration, burned area, and other information such as ignition cause and topographic features such as slope, aspect, altitude, etc. In addition, the database VECTOR25 from SwissTopo was used to extract information of the distances between fire ignition points and anthropogenic structures like buildings, road network, rail network, etc. Developed by L. Breiman and A. Cutler, the Random Forests (RF) algorithm provides an ensemble of classification and regression trees. By a pseudo-random variable selection for each split node, this method grows a variety of decision trees that do not return the same results, and thus by a committee system, returns a value that has a better accuracy than other machine learning methods. This algorithm incorporates directly measurement of importance variable which is used to display factors affecting forest fires. Dealing with this parameter, several models can be fit, and thus, a prediction can be made throughout the validity domain of Canton Ticino. Comprehensive RF analysis was carried out in order to 1
US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundaries encompassing the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the original proclaimed National Forests, along with...
de Jong, Ben; PANDEY Devendra; Achard, Frederic
Chapter 3.3 presents two national case studies for forest inventories in tropical countries: the Indian and Mexican national forest inventories. These national forest inventories have been use to report GHG inventories to the UNFCC
US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Forest Service land units. An NFS Land Unit is nationally significant classification of Federally owned forest, range,...
Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik;
-PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania......Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability...... of forest utilisation under PFM, using estimates of forest condition and extraction rates based on forest inventories and 480 household surveys from 12 forests; seven under Community Based Forest Management (CBFM), three under Joint Forest Management (JFM) and two under government management (non...
Full Text Available This paper reviews the policy and legal framework for the implementation of CDM projects in Uganda and its implications for climate change mitigation. It gives a background to climate change in Uganda and notes that climate change in Uganda can largely be attributed to unsustainable utilisation of the natural resources which has led to over exploitation and total loss of some of the natural resources. The paper reviews the international legal regime for climate change and its significance for climate change mitigation in Uganda and observes that Uganda has implemented the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol in accordance with the principles of common but differentiated responsibilities and the precautionary principle. This has for instance culminated in the carrying out of a National Inventory of Sources and Sinks of Greenhouse gases. The role of CDM in climate change mitigation is explored by examining the key CDM projects that have been implemented in Uganda. The key finding of the paper is that Uganda does not have an independent policy or law which deals with CDM and recommends that such policy and legal inadequacies should urgently be addressed.
Pearson, Raewynne; Kankya, Clovice; Kajura, Charles; Alinaitwe, Lordrick; Kakooza, Steven; Pelican, Katharine M.; Travis, Dominic A.; Mahero, Michael; Boulware, David R.; Mugisha, Lawrence
Background The burden of human leptospirosis in Uganda is unknown. We estimated the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies, probable acute/recent leptospirosis, and risk factors for seropositivity in humans in rural Western Uganda. Methodology and Principal Findings 359 non-pregnant adults visiting the Kikuube and Kigorobya Health Centers were sequentially recruited during March and April 2014. A health history survey and serum were collected from consented participants. Overall, 69% reported having fever in the past year, with 49% reporting malaria, 14% malaria relapse, 6% typhoid fever, 3% brucellosis, and 0% leptospirosis. We tested sera by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) against eight Leptospira serovars representing seven serogroups. Leptospira seroprevalence was 35% (126/359; 95%CI 30.2–40.3%) defined as MAT titer ≥ 1:100 for any serovar. The highest prevalence was against L. borgpetersenii Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes) at 19.8% (71/359; 95%CI 15.9–24.4%). The prevalence of probable recent leptospirosis (MAT titer ≥1:800) was 1.9% (95%CI 0.9–4.2%) and uniquely related to serovar Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes). Probable recent leptospirosis was associated with having self-reported malaria within the past year (p = 0.048). Higher risk activities included skinning cattle (n = 6) with 12.3 higher odds (95%CI 1.4–108.6; p = 0.024) of Leptospira seropositivity compared with those who had not. Participants living in close proximity to monkeys (n = 229) had 1.92 higher odds (95%CI 1.2–3.1; p = 0.009) of seropositivity compared with participants without monkeys nearby. Conclusions/Significance The 35% prevalence of Leptospira antibodies suggests that exposure to leptospirosis is common in rural Uganda, in particular the Nigeria serovar (Pyrogenes serogroup). Leptospirosis should be a diagnostic consideration in febrile illness and “smear-negative malaria” in rural East Africa. PMID:27487398
In response to increasing land pressure due to rapidly growing population, growing demand for livestock products in urban centres and new land policies which encourage individual land ownership in Uganda, pastoralists rearing the long horned Ankole cattle in south western Uganda have now become sedentary and less dependent on communal grazing systems. Crossbreeding of Ankole cattle with the Holstein Friesian for increased milk production is taking place at a very fast rate. A new production system in which pure bred Ankole and crosses of Ankole with Holstein Friesian are reared in separate herds on one farm has now emerged in the area. As part of a programme evaluating the ecological and economic sustainability of breeding in pastoral systems, a survey of sixteen farmers selected from three sub-counties in Kiruhura District in south west Uganda was undertaken. Two sets of detailed structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the farmers. Set one was administered at the beginning of the study in April 2007, while set two was administered on a monthly basis for a period of 12 months. In addition, production data from the animals was collected monthly. Results show that crossbreeding is taking place with no defined programme, farmers still have an attachment to the Ankole cattle and that the most important challenges to the production system are insufficient pasture during the dry season and livestock diseases. The crossbreeds produce significantly more milk than the Ankole and have higher live weights. There is need to formulate appropriate breeding programmes for the farmers and to develop guidelines for suitable stocking densities. (author)
Denis K Byarugaba
Full Text Available The increasing availability of complete influenza virus genomes is deepening our understanding of influenza evolutionary dynamics and facilitating the selection of vaccine strains. However, only one complete African influenza virus sequence is available in the public domain. Here we present a complete genome analysis of 59 influenza A/H3N2 viruses isolated from humans in Uganda during the 2008 and 2009 season. Isolates were recovered from hospital-based sentinel surveillance for influenza-like illnesses and their whole genome sequenced. The viruses circulating during these two seasons clearly differed from each other phylogenetically. They showed a slow evolution away from the 2009/10 recommended vaccine strain (A/Brisbane/10/07, instead clustering with the 2010/11 recommended vaccine strain (A/Perth/16/09 in the A/Victoria/208/09 clade, as observed in other global regions. All of the isolates carried the adamantane resistance marker S31N in the M2 gene and carried several markers of enhanced transmission; as expected, none carried any marker of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance. The hemagglutinin gene of the 2009 isolates differed from that of the 2008 isolates in antigenic sites A, B, D, and to a lesser extent, C and E indicating evidence of an early phylogenetic shift from the 2008 to 2009 viruses. The internal genes of the 2009 isolates were similar to those of one 2008 isolate, A/Uganda/MUWRP-050/2008. Another 2008 isolate had a truncated PB1-F2 protein. Whole genome sequencing can enhance surveillance of future seasonal changes in the viral genome which is crucial to ensure that selected vaccine strains are protective against the strains circulating in Eastern Africa. This data provides an important baseline for this surveillance. Overall the influenza virus activity in Uganda appears to mirror that observed in other regions of the southern hemisphere.
Full Text Available Background: Successful refractive error programmes arise from evidence that can be collected cost effectively and timely.Aim: To investigate the prevalence of uncorrected refractive error (URE, presbyopia and spectacle coverage in the Kamuli district, Uganda.Setting: The study was conducted in the Kamuli district in Uganda.Methods: The Rapid Assessment of Refractive Error (RARE study design is a communitybased cross-sectional study using multistage cluster random sampling to gather information on refractive errors and presbyopia. Subjects aged 15 years and older were selected from the population in Kamuli district in Uganda. Vision impairment due to URE at distance and near and barriers to uptake of refractive error services were investigated.Results: Participants, N = 3281 (57.6% male, with an age range of 15–92 years were enumerated and the response rate was 100%. The prevalence of refractive errors was 4.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7 – 5.5 and the spectacle coverage was 5.96% (95% CI 1.74% – 10.18%. The prevalence of uncorrected presbyopia was 50.3% (95% CI 47.6% – 53.0% and the spectacle coverage was 0%. Thirty-three (or 1% respondents were current spectacle users. One-hundred fourteen people (3.5% had previously used spectacles; however, 50.9% of them discontinued spectacle use a year before the study because the spectacles were broken or scratched. The major barriers to spectacle uptake were accessibility of services and affordability of spectacles.Conclusion: The prevalence of URE and the barriers to uptake of refractive services will inform the implementation of refractive services in the study area. Key words: Uncorrected refractive errors; presbyopia and spectacle coverage
Power theft is still rampant in many developing countries. Governments and utility providers tend to favor technical solutions, neglecting the socio-economic dimension. This article analyzes the interaction between the socio-economic factors trust, informal social norms, awareness and electricity pricing effect and technical control measures in Uganda. After reforming its power sector, Uganda introduced two technical innovations: bulk metering for micro and small enterprises (MSE) and prepaid metering for households. The bulk metering system imposes a strong form of social control among MSEs. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 29 MSEs and 16 experts in Uganda, this article shows how well bulk metering works in practice. It finds that trust is key in the relations between electricity user and utility provider, between citizens and government overseeing the energy sector as well as within bulk metering groups of MSEs. The electricity price impacts MSEs' ability to pay and to some extent also their willingness to pay. Finally, power theft used to be accepted as an informal social norm. Change is happening, but is currently undermined by corruption and patronage networks in the energy sector and the political system, impacting people's attitude to compliance – regardless of the privatization of the electricity sector. -- Highlights: •Socio-economic factors impact the control of power theft. •Bulk metering works well for those MSE groups with high trust and information. •Sub-meters need to be available and energy recordings possible. •Prepaid metering more suitable for areas with a lot of social tension. •Long-term norm change and social acceptance depends on perceptions of political economy
Joseph K.B. Matovu
Full Text Available Background: Around the world, health professionals and program managers are leading and managing public and private health organizations with little or no formal management and leadership training and experience. Objective: To describe an innovative 2-year, long-term apprenticeship Fellowship training program implemented by Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH to strengthen capacity for leadership and management of HIV/AIDS programs in Uganda. Implementation process: The program, which began in 2002, is a 2-year, full-time, non-degree Fellowship. It is open to Ugandan nationals with postgraduate training in health-related disciplines. Enrolled Fellows are attached to host institutions implementing HIV/AIDS programs and placed under the supervision of host institution and academic mentors. Fellows spend 75% of their apprenticeship at the host institutions while the remaining 25% is dedicated to didactic short courses conducted at MakSPH to enhance their knowledge base. Achievements: Overall, 77 Fellows have been enrolled since 2002. Of the 57 Fellows who were admitted between 2002 and 2008, 94.7% (54 completed the Fellowship successfully and 50 (92.3% are employed in senior leadership and management positions in Uganda and internationally. Eighty-eight percent of those employed (44/54 work in institutions registered in Uganda, indicating a high level of in-country retention. Nineteen of the 20 Fellows who were admitted between 2009 and 2010 are still undergoing training. A total of 67 institutions have hosted Fellows since 2002. The host institutions have benefited through staff training and technical expertise from the Fellows as well as through grant support to Fellows to develop and implement innovative pilot projects. The success of the program hinges on support from mentors, stakeholder involvement, and the hands-on approach employed in training. Conclusion: The Fellowship Program offers a unique opportunity for hands
Full Text Available Uganda’s Government of the National Resistance Movement (NRM assumed power in 1986, in an environment of political turmoil, and initiated a policy of decentralisation as a way of restoring state credibility and deepening democracy. Decentralisation was accordingly legislated under the Local Government Act of 1997, as a framework act directing the decentralisation process. The aim of the Act was to enable implementation of decentralisation provisions provided for under Chapter 11 of the 1995 National Constitution. The decentralisation policy in Uganda aimed at improving local democracy, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability in the delivery of essential services country-wide. Improved service delivery was in turn expected to make significant positive impact on people’s quality of life. Unfortunately, the implementation of decentralisation appears to have concentrated more on administrative objectives as a means of promoting popular democracy and less on service delivery which would have led to economic transformation and better lives for the majority of Ugandans, and now new districts are being created without corresponding improvements in service delivery. Surprisingly, this is happening in the midst of external praise that decentralisation reform in Uganda is one of the most far-reaching local government reform programmes in the developing world. The paper explores the role of decentralisation in development and how it can be undermined by political factors. It highlights the development of decentralisation in Uganda, discusses its achievements, failure and challenges, and concludes that the decentralisation programme which was ambitious and politically driven has had mixed results in terms of enhancing service delivery and should be seriously reviewed and strengthened if it is to remain as a role model in Africa.
Singh, Debra Anne Kaur; Earnest, Jaya; Lample, May
Uganda has faced numerous challenges over the past 50 years from overcoming political conflict and civil unrest, to rapid population growth, to combating the HIV epidemic and ever-growing health needs. Women in Uganda have had a major role to play in the health of families and communities. The researchers' purpose in this study, undertaken in rural Uganda, was to a) identify a people-centered definition of development, b) compare it to the process of modernization, and c) investigate how these processes have changed the role women play in decision-making, in areas directly and indirectly related to their health and that of their families. Twenty-two men and women participated in focus group discussion and completed questionnaires. Based on our analysis of discussions it appears that both modernization and development have impacted health positively and negatively. Key themes distilled from interviews included that modernization has led to the breakdown of families; increased maternal responsibility for children; diminished land and economic resources; and an erosion of cultural values and practices that had previously provided stability for the society. In terms of development, women play an increasing role in decision-making processes in the household and are gaining increasing respect for their expertise in a number of areas, notably health care. We propose a movement of grassroots discourse on modernization. Development, and its effect on health, is necessary if the positive aspects of Ugandan culture and those of similar emerging societies are not to be lost (International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966).