Full Text Available For some years, chimpanzees have been observed eating the pith of decaying palm trees of Raphia farinifera in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. The reasons for doing this have until now been unknown. An analysis of the pith for mineral content showed high levels of sodium to be present in the samples. By contrast, lower levels were found in bark of other tree species, and also in leaf and fruit samples eaten by chimpanzees. The differences between the Raphia samples and the non-Raphia samples were highly significant (p<0.001. It is concluded that Raphia provides a rich and possibly essential source of sodium for the Budongo chimpanzees. Comparison of a chewed sample (wadge of Raphia pith with a sample from the tree showed a clear reduction in sodium content in the chewed sample. Black and white colobus monkeys in Budongo Forest also feed on the pith of Raphia. At present, the survival of Raphia palms in Budongo Forest is threatened by the use of this tree by local tobacco farmers.
Full Text Available Hunting and sharing of meat is seen across all chimpanzee sites, with variation in prey preferences, hunting techniques, frequencies, and success rates. Here, we compared hunting and meat-eating behaviour in two adjacent chimpanzee communities (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii of Budongo Forest, Uganda: the Waibira and Sonso communities. We observed consistent between-group differences in prey-species preferences and in post-hunting behaviour. Sonso chimpanzees show a strong prey preference for Guereza colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza occidentalis; 74.9% hunts, and hunt regularly (1-2 times a month but with large year-to-year and month-to-month variation. Waibira chimpanzee prey preferences are distributed across primate and duiker species, and resemble those described in an early study of Sonso hunting. Waibira chimpanzees (which include ex-Sonso immigrants have been observed to feed on red duiker (Cephalophus natalensis; 25%, 9/36 hunts, a species Sonso has never been recorded to feed on (18 years data, 27 years observations, despite no apparent differences in prey distribution; and show less rank-related harassment of meat possessors. We discuss the two most likely and probably interrelated explanations for the observed intergroup variation in chimpanzee hunting behaviour, that is, long-term disruption of complex group-level behaviour due to human presence and possible socially transmitted differences in prey preferences.
'Department of Forest Products Engineering, faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Makerere University,. ·. P.O. Box 7062 ... and two desirable species (Maesop5is eminii and Milida excelsa) from Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda were studied. Three .... The trees were cut to 2 m long logs (at breast height) and sawn ...
Reynolds, Vernon; Lloyd, Andrew W.; English, Christopher J.; Lyons, Peter; Dodd, Howard; Hobaiter, Catherine; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas; Mullins, Caroline; Lamon, Noemie; Schel, Anne Marijke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413333450; Fallon, Brittany
Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay
A study was carried out to detect whether logging and arboricide treatments had influences on floristic composition of four compartments in Budongo Forest, Uganda. The compartments were (N15) which had never been logged or treated; B4) logged 50 years; N4 logged 40 years, and W2I logged 30 years ago. The species ...
Reynolds, Vernon; Lloyd, Andrew W; English, Christopher J; Lyons, Peter; Dodd, Howard; Hobaiter, Catherine; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas; Mullins, Caroline; Lamon, Noemie; Schel, Anne Marijke; Fallon, Brittany
Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consumed indicates that it takes the form of kaolinite. We discuss the contribution of clay geophagy to the mineral intake of the Sonso chimpanzees and show that clay eaten using leaf sponges is particularly rich in minerals. We show that termite mound soil, also regularly consumed, is rich in minerals. We discuss the frequency of clay and termite soil geophagy in the context of the disappearance from Budongo Forest of a formerly rich source of minerals, the decaying pith of Raphia farinifera palms.
Seraphin, S B; Whitten, P L; Reynolds, V
Potential interactions between age and endocrinological functioning have been understudied in wild ape populations. Therefore, we examined the relationship between age and the secretion of androgens and glucocorticoids in 15 juvenile, subadult, and adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) free ranging in the Budongo Forest of Uganda. One hundred and nine fecal samples were opportunistically collected, between 07:30 and 13:30 hr, during the wet season. Fecal samples were preserved, by oven drying, and steroid content extracted before radioimmunoassay for dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), testosterone (TEST), cortisol (CORT), and corticosterone (CCT). Employing indexes of age as predictive factors, linear mixed-effects modeling and non-parametric statistical comparisons of fecal steroid levels were conducted. Age was observed to significantly influence the production of both glucocorticoids and androgens in male Budongo Forest chimpanzees. Basically, whereas TEST and CORT increased, DHEA-S and CCT levels slightly declined as animals matured.
The findings show that bird assemblages vary in their response to habitat fragmentation but within guilds the response to fragmentation can be consistent, and can make ecological sense. Forest bird conservation can therefore benefit from information on species ecology when deciding which bird species and which parts of ...
Budongo forest reserve is a medium altitude moist semi- deciduous forest located in Hoima and Masindi Districts. (1"37'-2"00' Nand 31°22'-31°46' E).Itcovcn; anareaof825 km2 of undulating ridges alternating with valleys running in southeast to northwest, making it Uganda's higgcst forest reserve (Hamilton, 1984). The soils ...
This study concerns birds recorded from four small forests in Uganda, three of them being naturally isolated and the fourth being a fragment of the once extensive forests of southern Uganda. Whilst the forest interior birds in the natural forest islands might be considered subsets of those found in larger forests, the fact that the ...
Apr 22, 2015 ... 1964), Witwatersrand and Germiston (Monath et al.,. 1972), Uganda S virus (Dick and Haddow, 1952) and yellow fever (Kirya et al., 1977) were isolated from mosquitoes. However, mosquito blood-meal studies from forests in. Uganda including Zika, were discontinued after the. 1970's due to instabilities in ...
The Uganda Forest Department recently completed a major national inventory of forest biodiversity, aimed at providing the information necessary to design a representative protected area system for the country. The inventory covered five national parks and a further 60 forest reserves, and involved the collection of data on ...
In 1986, the Government of Uganda established the Ministry of Environmental Protection to meet the country's socioeconomic development needs without destroying the environment. A Ministry-supported village pilot project in the Gombe region promotes self-sufficiency in potable water, food, and energy and tests means to achieve ecologically sound management of sustainable food/energy/fodder production. The Ministry also serves to sensitize the public to environmental issues by encouraging Ugandan newspapers to report more environment-related stories. A newspaper story informed the government about fishermen along a 20 km stretch of the Nile River and in Lake Victoria who used dynamite to kill fish, including juvenile and noncommercial fish. Thus, the government quickly put a halt to dynamiting. The ministry also produces films on Uganda's environmental problems. Some of these problems include the indiscriminate destruction of forests (e.g., Mabira, Mt. Elgon, Kibale, Budongo, Bwindi, and Maramagambo) and farmlands along Lake Victoria. Further, Uganda is witnessing either killing or smuggling of its elephants, rhinos, insects, birds, reptiles, and primates. In 1988, the World Bank committed about US$33.5 million to activities to protect Uganda's forests. They include planting of exotic softwoods, timber harvesting from remaining forests, and reestablishment of self-sufficiency in fuelwoods. The government hopes that forest rehabilitation will bring back tourism which before the civil war was the country's second highest foreign exchange earner. In fact, the remaining forests house the world's greatest population densities of primates (e.g., mountain gorillas in the southwest) and many rate birds. The UN Environmental Program will write Uganda's environmental protection law and helps the Ministry to promote environmental and public awareness.
Hashimoto, Chie; Isaji, Mina; Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi
Chimpanzees at numerous study sites are known to prey on army ants by using a single wand to dip into the ant nest or column. However, in Goualougo (Republic of Congo) in Central Africa, chimpanzees use a different technique, use of a woody sapling to perforate the ant nest, then use of a herb stem as dipping tool to harvest the army ants. Use of a tool set has also been found in Guinea, West Africa: at Seringbara in the Nimba Mountains and at nearby Bossou. There are, however, no reports for chimpanzees in East Africa. We observed use of such a tool set in Kalinzu, Uganda, for the first time by Eastern chimpanzees. This behavior was observed among one group of chimpanzees at Kalinzu (S-group) but not among the adjacent group (M-group) with partly overlapping ranging areas despite the fact that the latter group has been under intensive observation since 1997. In Uganda, ant-dipping has not been observed in the northern three sites (Budongo, Semliki, and Kibale) but has been observed or seems to occur in the southern sites (Kalinzu and Bwindi), which suggests that ant-dipping was invented by and spread from the southern region after the northern and southern forest blocks became separated. Use of a tool-set by only one group at Kalinzu further suggests that this behavior was recently invented and has not yet spread to the other group via migrating females.
degraded or even clear-cut. We examine data from three naturally isolated forests, and compare them with data from Ziika, to evaluate what value such forests—they range from 12 to c.700 ha—may have for forest birds. We also look at the stability of the bird communities within these forests. Previous studies of birds in ...
Forest resource access is often conceptualized as a `bundle of rights` held by different social groups at different times. In Uganda, similar to other parts of the world, professional foresters and scientists concerned with resource conservation have conceived of forests mainly in terms of access
Sassen, M.; Sheil, D.
We investigated how local scale variation in human impacts influenced forest structure and tree species richness within Mt Elgon National Park, Uganda. We assessed basal area (BA), stem density, diameter at breast height (dbh) and indicators of human activity in 343 plots in four study sites, on
Full Text Available This paper explores the ecological and socio-economic contribution of Mt. Elgon forest park, eastern Uganda. An effort was taken to evaluate the importance of Mt. Elgon forest park resources to the local people by using the local plant knowledge to value the forest park resources. An integrated approach of participatory rural appraisal (PRA, Participatory Resource Valuation (PRV, household survey, group discussions and forest walks were conducted during the months of June to December, 2008 in Mutushet and Kortek Parishes, Kapchorwa District. Using random sampling methods, 120 respondents were selected and interviewed. Ten forest uses were identified with the highest dependence being in the supply of timber for income and domestic building poles, the latter having the highest average annual household value of UGx. 67919 (US$37. The forest use most valued in both Mutushet and Koterk was medicine with an average annual household value of UGx. 60,371 (US$ 33 and UGx. 75,464 (US$ 42 respectively. The forest provision of medicine, domestic building materials, soil conservation, bush meat, charcoal and timber was more valued in Koterk, while provision of firewood, honey and pasture were more valued in Mutushet. The forest’s provision of food was valued equally in the two areas with an average annual value of UGx. 30,186 per household. Forest park resources accounted for 55% of the household income. Participatory valuation approaches are ecommended for estimation of forest park resources’ value in a non-cash economy.
most abundant species such as Crototon, Cello spp. And. Aningeria (Upper storey); Lasioa'iscus, Strambosia,. F unlumia (Middle storey), and Rinorea, Alchornea,. Trichi/ia ruhescens (Undersorey) This would strengthen the capability to manipulate regeneration and growth conditions at the sapling pole and mature stages.
Kirya, B G; Okia, N O
During the 1972 yellow fever epizootic in Zika Forest, Uganda, sera from 21 monkeys shot in a number of forests around the Entebbe area were tested for the presence of a number of arbovirus antibodies. All sera were tested for antibodies against Chikungunya (CHIK), O'nyong-nyong (ONN), Zika, yellow fever (YF) West Nile (WN) and Wesselsbron (WESS) by the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test. Because of the crossreaction within the flaviviruses (group B arboviruses) mouse protection test (PT) was also carried out on the sera against YF, WESS and Zika viruses. Serological studies carried out on monkey sera from different parts of Uganda, including the Entebbe area, during 1968 gave results which reflected a surprisingly low rate of YF immune monkeys (3%) throughout the country compared with the rate of over 40% immune monkeys obtained by Haddow et al. in 1951. 40% of the monkey sera collected during 1972 were immune to YF by the PT. Since no YF virus had been isolated between 1968 and 1972 the results indicate strongly that the monkeys in the Entebbe area were involved in the epizootic of 1972. No sick or dead monkeys were found in all the forests checked around Entebbe area during the epizootic. This indicates that the animal-to-animal cycle of the equatorial African forests involved the mild endemic infection characteristic of a virus in its natural habitat and infecting its natural host.
There is a steady increase in the contact between humans and wildlife, brought about by encroachment, destruction of natural forests, climatic and environmental changes. Mosquitoes get exposed to hosts and pathogens; creating possibilities for new disease patterns. Therefore, the identification of blood-meal sources is ...
Full Text Available Over the past few years, the Ugandan government has repeatedly initiated proceedings to clear one-fourth of the Mabira natural forest reserve in central Uganda and give the land to a sugar company controlled by a transnational business conglomerate. Each time the government took steps to execute the Mabira project, civil society groups organised large-scale protests that pressurised the government into shelving its plans. The Save Mabira Forest campaign has been widely cited as an example of how sustained protests by civil society groups serve as a corrective of democratic deficits in decision-making processes pertaining to the commons and as a deterrent to profit-driven business schemes hatched in collusion with carefree or corrupt bureaucrats and politicians. However, an in-depth analysis of the campaign suggests that ecological and social justice concerns are mixed up with identity politics and exclusionist agendas. Examining the complex web of interactions between state, big business and civil society in Uganda, this paper sheds light on the multi-layered and often ambiguous role played by non-governmental organisations in post-conflict societies of sub-Saharan Africa.
Full Text Available Ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District in Uganda were carried out between May and December 1991, and covered the northern part of the Rwenzori Mountain slopes occupied by the Bakonjo people. The presence of a major footpath through the forest with numerous utility trails radiating from it showed that some forest resources are being sought by the local population. Plant biodiversity is high, as is indicated by the fact that in a study plot of only 4 250 m , a total of 115 plant species, 101 genera and 57 families were identified from a collection of 300 plant specimens. Seventy-seven plant species were found to be of some importance to the local communities. Out of the 77 useful plant species recorded: 22 species were used for medicinal purposes; 16 for firewood; 13 for construction, joinery and furniture; 12 for craftwork; 10 provided edible fruits and vegetables; and 27 were used for a variety of other purposes. These other purposes include construction of shrines, covering of granary floors, use as toilet paper, carry ing luggage, and fodder for goats, sheep and cattle. Arundinaria alpina K. Schum. (bamboo is the species that is most extensively harvested from the forest.
formation include landslides and elephant browsing (Richards 996). Gaps created by humans stem largely from selective logging and encroachment. While the ecological effects of logging (e.g., Dranzoa 998) and forest edges. This manuscript is based on a study carried out and originally written-up by both authors, but was.
Gap size and vegetation cover density. both had positive correlations with species richness and abundance, though. not always statistically significant. This study shows that gaps significantly. contribute to the overall avian species richness of Kibale forest. This could be. either through supporting entirely different species, ...
tease out how each factor affects avian diversity (richness and abundance), as well as enable examination for interactions between them such as gap size and age, gap size and vegetation structure. Finally, long term studies would clarify patterns of utilization of gaps (e.g., species that utilize the gaps year-round), real forest ...
Key words: tropical forest, conservation management, local livelihoods, forest cover change, disturbance, fuelwood, forest structure, species richness, biomass, Mount Elgon A growing world population has important consequences for forests. In this study I investigate how
HADDOW, A J; WILLIAMS, M C; WOODALL, J P; SIMPSON, D I; GOMA, L K
In continuation of a series of studies of arboreal mosquitos as virus vectors in Uganda, 12 strains of Zika virus and one strain of another Group B arbovirus were isolated between November 1961 and June 1963 from pools of Aedes (Stegomyia) africanus caught on a 120-foot (36.5-m) tower in Zika forest. For five strains it is known at what height the mosquitos were caught: one was from mosquitos taken at ground level, and the other four were from mosquitos taken in or above the upper canopy after sunset. No small mammal trapped in the forest either on the ground or in the trees showed serum antibody for Zika virus.These findings suggest that in Zika forest, A. (S.) africanus becomes infected from a virus reservoir that is probably not among the small animals tested and that infected mosquitos are liable to be spread widely beyond the forest by convection currents above the tree-tops in the first two or three hours after sunset.
Forests were also cleared for establishment of plantation crops such as coffee, sugar cane and tea. Early investigations explored the stocking of ... This was mainly because the natural forests were incapable of supplying the quantities and types of timber demanded by the market. Suitable species and provenances for ...
Langdale-Brown et al., 1964; Hamilton, valuable forest resources. It is particularly focused on 1984. At the turn of .... prov.enances research plots were described by Stuart-Smith. (1967). The results of species and provenance trials established prior tO ...
Forest-Woodland-Savanna (FWS) mosaics are complex, highly varied and dynamic landscapes.Until recently, they were considered poor in terms of biodiversity. Consequently, only few scientific studies have been done on them and little attention has been paid to their
Webber, Amanda D; Hill, Catherine M
Considering how people perceive risks to their livelihoods from local wildlife is central to (i) understanding the impact of crop damage by animals on local people and (ii) recognising how this influences their interactions with, and attitudes towards, wildlife. Participatory risk mapping (PRM) is a simple, analytical tool that can be used to identify and classify risk within communities. Here we use it to explore local people's perceptions of crop damage by wildlife and the animal species involved. Interviews (n = 93, n = 76) and seven focus groups were conducted in four villages around Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda during 2004 and 2005. Farms (N = 129) were simultaneously monitored for crop loss. Farmers identified damage by wildlife as the most significant risk to their crops; risk maps highlighted its anomalous status compared to other anticipated challenges to agricultural production. PRM was further used to explore farmers' perceptions of animal species causing crop damage and the results of this analysis compared with measured crop losses. Baboons (Papio anubis) were considered the most problematic species locally but measurements of loss indicate this perceived severity was disproportionately high. In contrast goats (Capra hircus) were considered only a moderate risk, yet risk of damage by this species was significant. Surprisingly, for wild pigs (Potamochoerus sp), perceptions of severity were not as high as damage incurred might have predicted, although perceived incidence was greater than recorded frequency of damage events. PRM can assist researchers and practitioners to identify and explore perceptions of the risk of crop damage by wildlife. As this study highlights, simply quantifying crop loss does not determine issues that are important to local people nor the complex relationships between perceived risk factors. Furthermore, as PRM is easily transferable it may contribute to the identification and development of standardised approaches
Amanda D Webber
Full Text Available Considering how people perceive risks to their livelihoods from local wildlife is central to (i understanding the impact of crop damage by animals on local people and (ii recognising how this influences their interactions with, and attitudes towards, wildlife. Participatory risk mapping (PRM is a simple, analytical tool that can be used to identify and classify risk within communities. Here we use it to explore local people's perceptions of crop damage by wildlife and the animal species involved. Interviews (n = 93, n = 76 and seven focus groups were conducted in four villages around Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda during 2004 and 2005. Farms (N = 129 were simultaneously monitored for crop loss. Farmers identified damage by wildlife as the most significant risk to their crops; risk maps highlighted its anomalous status compared to other anticipated challenges to agricultural production. PRM was further used to explore farmers' perceptions of animal species causing crop damage and the results of this analysis compared with measured crop losses. Baboons (Papio anubis were considered the most problematic species locally but measurements of loss indicate this perceived severity was disproportionately high. In contrast goats (Capra hircus were considered only a moderate risk, yet risk of damage by this species was significant. Surprisingly, for wild pigs (Potamochoerus sp, perceptions of severity were not as high as damage incurred might have predicted, although perceived incidence was greater than recorded frequency of damage events. PRM can assist researchers and practitioners to identify and explore perceptions of the risk of crop damage by wildlife. As this study highlights, simply quantifying crop loss does not determine issues that are important to local people nor the complex relationships between perceived risk factors. Furthermore, as PRM is easily transferable it may contribute to the identification and development of
Milich, Krista M; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Chambers, Josephine M; Chapman, Colin A
Behavioral flexibility allows primates to cope with environmental variability. Quantifying primate responses to human habitat modifications allows an effective means of assessing coping mechanisms. Within Kibale National Park, Uganda, logging led to reduced primate food availability that still exists almost 50 years after the harvest. Following the predictions of the ideal free distribution theory, primate densities are expected to decrease in areas of lower resource availability so that the resources available per individual are equivalent in logged and old-growth areas. However, counter to what would be predicted by the ideal free distribution theory, red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus) occur at similar densities in logged and old-growth areas of Kibale. This suggests that either the ecological differences between the two areas are not sufficient to impact red colobus densities or that animals in logged areas are compensating to changes in resource availability by using different foraging strategies. To test between these hypotheses, we examined four groups of red colobus, two in logged and two in old-growth forests, and compared feeding behavior, feeding tree size, and tree productivity. Females in logged areas fed on resources from a greater number of plant species, fed on fewer resources from each species, and spent more time feeding than those in old-growth areas. By expanding their diet, females in logged areas effectively increased the resources available to them, which may contribute to their ability to maintain similar densities to females in old-growth areas. These findings have implications for an evolutionary understanding of how species deal with environmental change and considerations for conservation practices that determine what areas should be prioritized for protection. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Faced with a multitude of soil and water amendment technologies, farmers have the task of choosing the technologies to adopt for ensuring subsistence and income sustainability. In 2008, a study to characterize the farmers was conducted around Mabira Forest, to assess the adoption of soil technologies fostering Belowground Biodiversity (BGBD. Eighty-four households (38 participating and 46 non-participants from four villages were randomly selected and interviewed. Results showed that the adoption pattern was significantly driven by farm size, labor, household size, age and wealth status of the house. Also important were farm location, gender of household head, primary occupation, soil and water conservation technologies training, land tenure, and social capital. For the few current adopters, there was a perceived increase in labor demand but overall productivity was higher, partly resulting from increased crop productivity due to soil fertility enhancement and soil structure modification. It is therefore concluded that, around Mabira forest, BGBD technologies will be adopted by farming households with sufficient land, labor and social capital.
Hasegawa, Hideo; Kalousova, Barbora; McLennan, Matthew R; Modry, David; Profousova-Psenkova, Ilona; Shutt-Phillips, Kathryn A; Todd, Angelique; Huffman, Michael A; Petrzelkova, Klara J
DNA sequence analysis was carried out on Strongyloides spp. larvae obtained from fecal samples of local humans, a wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a central chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic, and eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) living in degraded forest fragments on farmland in Bulindi, Uganda. From humans, both Strongyloides fuelleborni and Strongyloides stercoralis were recorded, though the former was predominant. Only S. fuelleborni was present in the great apes in both areas. Phylogenetic analysis of partial mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox1) and comparison of 18S rDNA hyper variable region IV (HVR-IV) sequences implied that in DSPA S. fuelleborni populations in humans differ from those in the nonhuman great apes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mulley, Brad G; Unruh, Jon D
The potential for off-farm employment (OFE) to contribute significantly to forest conservation in the tropics is a widely held logic among donors, governments, and social scientists. While an aggregate level examination of OFE cases can support this logic, there is disagreement as to the operative aspects of specific linkages and assumptions. This study examines the case of the tea industry in western Uganda, and uses a combination of fieldwork and remote sensing to pursue a more nuanced examination of the role of migration and non-monetary aspects of OFE on forest conservation in both a national park and unprotected forest contexts. Results indicate that the tea industry does serve as an off-farm employer to a limited number of local smallholders but these benefits are offset by the industry's overwhelming dependence on migrant labor which sees OFE as temporary, then seeks to settle locally. There is also evidence that the tea industry is contributing to conservation efforts of Kibale National Park by unintentionally serving as a physical buffer zone, which inhibits both human encroachment on the park and wildlife encroachment on smallholder crops. The latter represents a site-specific phenomenon that holds much potential for future management plans of the area and exemplifies the importance of considering the site-specific circumstances associated with OFE development.
Groundnut (Amc/nfs hypagea L) is the second most widely grown food legume in Uganda. Currently average yield of groundnuts at farm level is about 800 kg ha", but up to 3,000 kg ha“1 can be achieved. The most important constraints to its production are pests and diseases. Integrated pest management (IPM) ...
Kirya, B G
The results of the yellow fever immunity survey of Central and East Africa reported by SAWYER & WHITMAN in 1936 prompted scientists to undertake well-planned epidemiological studies on yellow fever in eastern Africa. A Yellow Fever Research Institute (the present East African Virus Research Institute) was established at Entebbe in 1936 for this purpose. One of the areas where much work has been carried out is a strip of typical tropical forest, the Zika Forest, 12 kilometres from the Institute. Routine surveillance work, particularly on the biting activity of the yellow fever vector mosquitoes, has been going on since 1946. It was during one of these studies in 1972 that the first yellow fever virus strain was isolated from Aedes africanus collected from the Zika and Sisa forests and one strain was isolated from Coquillettidia fuscopennata, also from the Zika Forest. Three sentinel rhesus monkeys, nomimmune to YF, which were kept in the Zika Forest during the time of the epizootic died of YF disease. The present observations indicate that YF is still present in Africa, and as such it still remains a potential menace to the human population. The epidemiological implications are discussed.
Application of random survival forests in understanding the determinants of under-five child mortality in Uganda in the presence of covariates that satisfy the proportional and non-proportional hazards assumption.
Nasejje, Justine B; Mwambi, Henry
Uganda just like any other Sub-Saharan African country, has a high under-five child mortality rate. To inform policy on intervention strategies, sound statistical methods are required to critically identify factors strongly associated with under-five child mortality rates. The Cox proportional hazards model has been a common choice in analysing data to understand factors strongly associated with high child mortality rates taking age as the time-to-event variable. However, due to its restrictive proportional hazards (PH) assumption, some covariates of interest which do not satisfy the assumption are often excluded in the analysis to avoid mis-specifying the model. Otherwise using covariates that clearly violate the assumption would mean invalid results. Survival trees and random survival forests are increasingly becoming popular in analysing survival data particularly in the case of large survey data and could be attractive alternatives to models with the restrictive PH assumption. In this article, we adopt random survival forests which have never been used in understanding factors affecting under-five child mortality rates in Uganda using Demographic and Health Survey data. Thus the first part of the analysis is based on the use of the classical Cox PH model and the second part of the analysis is based on the use of random survival forests in the presence of covariates that do not necessarily satisfy the PH assumption. Random survival forests and the Cox proportional hazards model agree that the sex of the household head, sex of the child, number of births in the past 1 year are strongly associated to under-five child mortality in Uganda given all the three covariates satisfy the PH assumption. Random survival forests further demonstrated that covariates that were originally excluded from the earlier analysis due to violation of the PH assumption were important in explaining under-five child mortality rates. These covariates include the number of children under the
Matthew R McLennan
Full Text Available Monitoring health in wild great apes is integral to their conservation and is especially important where they share habitats with humans, given the potential for zoonotic pathogen exchange. We studied the intestinal parasites of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii inhabiting degraded forest fragments amid farmland and villages in Bulindi, Uganda. We first identified protozoan and helminth parasites infecting this population. Sixteen taxa were demonstrated microscopically (9 protozoa, 5 nematodes, 1 cestode, and 1 trematode. DNA sequence analysis enabled more precise identification of larval nematodes (e.g. Oesophagostomum stephanostomum, O. bifurcum, Strongyloides fuelleborni, Necator sp. Type II and tapeworm proglottids (genus Bertiella. To better understand the ecology of infections, we used multidimensional scaling analysis to reveal general patterns of association among parasites, climate, and whole leaf swallowing-a prevalent self-medicative behaviour at Bulindi linked to control of nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp.. Prevalence of parasites varied with climate in diverse ways. For example, Oesophagostomum sp. was detected in faeces at higher frequencies with increasing rainfall but was most clearly associated with periods of low temperature. Certain parasites occurred together within chimpanzee hosts more or less frequently than expected by chance. For example, the commensal ciliate Troglodytella abrassarti was negatively associated with Balantidium coli and Oesophagostomum sp., possibly because the latter taxa make the large intestine less suitable for T. abrassarti. Whole leaves in faeces showed independent associations with the prevalence of Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides sp., and hookworm by microscopic examination, and with egestion of adult O. stephanostomum by macroscopic inspection. All parasites identified to species or genus have been reported in wild chimpanzees inhabiting less-disturbed environments than
Hasegawa, Hideo; Bardi, Massimo; Huffman, Michael A.
Monitoring health in wild great apes is integral to their conservation and is especially important where they share habitats with humans, given the potential for zoonotic pathogen exchange. We studied the intestinal parasites of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) inhabiting degraded forest fragments amid farmland and villages in Bulindi, Uganda. We first identified protozoan and helminth parasites infecting this population. Sixteen taxa were demonstrated microscopically (9 protozoa, 5 nematodes, 1 cestode, and 1 trematode). DNA sequence analysis enabled more precise identification of larval nematodes (e.g. Oesophagostomum stephanostomum, O. bifurcum, Strongyloides fuelleborni, Necator sp. Type II) and tapeworm proglottids (genus Bertiella). To better understand the ecology of infections, we used multidimensional scaling analysis to reveal general patterns of association among parasites, climate, and whole leaf swallowing–a prevalent self-medicative behaviour at Bulindi linked to control of nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp.). Prevalence of parasites varied with climate in diverse ways. For example, Oesophagostomum sp. was detected in faeces at higher frequencies with increasing rainfall but was most clearly associated with periods of low temperature. Certain parasites occurred together within chimpanzee hosts more or less frequently than expected by chance. For example, the commensal ciliate Troglodytella abrassarti was negatively associated with Balantidium coli and Oesophagostomum sp., possibly because the latter taxa make the large intestine less suitable for T. abrassarti. Whole leaves in faeces showed independent associations with the prevalence of Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides sp., and hookworm by microscopic examination, and with egestion of adult O. stephanostomum by macroscopic inspection. All parasites identified to species or genus have been reported in wild chimpanzees inhabiting less-disturbed environments than Bulindi
Full Text Available Landscape patterns and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii densities in Kibale National Park show important variation among communities that are geographically close to one another (from 1.5 to 5.1 chimpanzees/km2. Anthropogenic activities inside the park (past logging activities, current encroachment and outside its limits (food and cash crops may impact the amount and distribution of food resources for chimpanzees (frugivorous species and their spatial distribution within the park. Spatial and temporal patterns of fruit availability were recorded over 18 months at Sebitoli (a site of intermediate chimpanzee density and higher anthropic pressure with the aim of understanding the factors explaining chimpanzee density there, in comparison to results from two other sites, also in Kibale: Kanyawara (low chimpanzee density and Ngogo (high density, and furthest from Sebitoli. Because of the post-logging regenerating status of the forest in Sebitoli and Kanyawara, smaller basal area (BA of fruiting trees most widely consumed by the chimpanzees in Kanyawara and Sebitoli was expected compared to Ngogo (not logged commercially. Due to the distance between sites, spatial and temporal fruit abundance in Sebitoli was expected to be more similar to Kanyawara than to Ngogo. While species functional classes consumed by Sebitoli chimpanzees (foods eaten during periods of high or low fruit abundance differ from the two other sites, Sebitoli is very similar to Kanyawara in terms of land-cover and consumed species. Among feeding trees, Ficus species are particularly important resources for chimpanzees at Sebitoli, where their basal area is higher than at Kanywara or Ngogo. Ficus species provided a relatively consistent supply of food for chimpanzees throughout the year, and we suggest that this could help to explain the unusually high density of chimpanzees in such a disturbed site.
A study was undertaken in three of Uganda's forested national parks to provide informatiun on the status of environmental interpretation. Sixty questionnaires were administered to range guides and park wardens in Kibale, Rwenzori, and Mnunt. Elgon :"'ational Parks to collect information on job description of rangers and ...
Full Text Available In Uganda, a large diversity of community initiated forest management systems have evolved recently in response to severe degradation of forests and grazing land and biomass shortages. Forestry professional, forest user group and farmers were organized in June 2004 to develop commonly agreed indicators of the performance of Community Forestry Program in Uganda. Indicators, such as access to fuel wood, incidence of forest fire and amount of community funds raised through the sale offorest products are commonly agreed at local level. Women participation in forestry related meetings and taste of drinking water in the watershed area are also important. Equitable benefit sharing by the community forest users serves as an indicator of better access to forest products. Socio-economic changes such as women participation in forest related decision-making, income generated from community forests, and equity of benefits from community forests also, reflect the program success.
Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz
Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.
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US Agency for International Development — A web-based performance reporting system that is managed by IBI that interfaces with the Mission's GIS database that supports USAID/Uganda and its implementing...
The globally Vulnerable Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) has been seen in Kampala, Uganda's capital city, in increasing numbers in recent years. This apparently new behaviour of a typically forest species is helped by the presence of many large trees, which provide roosting and nesting sites, and fruiting trees where they ...
... species diversity of megachiropteran bats tends to increase in the more forested western U2 and southern U4 regions. Species accounts in the appendix largely summarise the known information, they reveal that much more work is required to fully document the bats of Uganda. Journal of East African Natural History Vol.
Jun 15, 2008 ... 'Department oi Clinical Sciences, Urnea University, Urneé, Sweden, ... Few studies havebeen done in developing countries on this topic. This study sought to determine the prevalence and detection of alcohol related problems in a Primary Health Care setting (PHC). in Kampala Uganda. Method: 'Z68 ...
Dr. Paul Mead, a medical officer at CDC, discusses his article on Plague in Uganda. Created: 1/25/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 1/25/2018.
Forest cover has been converted to agricultural land use in and around the protected areas of Uganda. The objectives of this study were; to examine the dynamics of forest cover change in and around Bwindi impenetrable forest between 1973 and 2010 and to identify the drivers of forest cover change. The trend in forest ...
Firewood consumption around Budongo Forest Reserve in western Uganda. A. Y. Banana and G. ... For a per capita ﬁrewood consumption of 0.7 m3 in Masindi and 0.6 m3 in Hoima District, age, sex, and family size,. inﬂuenced the levels of .... as a major source of energy for cooking, brick making, distilling local gin and ...
Published statistics collected in Uganda regarding the HIV and AIDS epidemic often conflict. While 460,000 Ugandans have died of AIDS according to the STD/AIDS Control Programme, the program's estimated number of HIV-positive Ugandans (1.5 million) is less than that of others (2 million). Dr. Hatib Njie, the WHO representative to Uganda, believes the epidemic is in decline because of the decrease (27-12%) 3 years ago in seroprevalence in all patients treated at Ugandan clinics. Yet UK Medical Research Council studies indicate that life expectancy in some areas is decreasing rapidly; it dropped from age 58 to 43 within the last few years in a southwestern Ugandan community. Although Uganda's Rakai district is one of the most AIDS-afflicted areas in the world, figures published recently in "Nature Medicine" indicate that the population is growing, rather than undergoing predicted 'negative growth rates.' This may indicate that the AIDS epidemic will stabilize more quickly than anticipated. However, within Rakai, HIV prevalence rates vary from 1% to 40%, depending on the parish. In these parishes, mortality rates are high, the number of deaths among children is larger than expected, and 'negative population growth' is apparent.
ABSTRACT: Forest cover has been converted to agricultural land use in and around the protected areas of Uganda. The objectives of this study were; to examine the dynamics of forest cover change in and around Bwindi impenetrable forest between 1973 and 2010 and to identify the drivers of forest cover change.
Gomes, Iva; Pereira, Vania; Gomes, Verónica
The Karimojong, an African group from the Karamoja region of Northeast Uganda, were genetically analysed using a decaplex system for X chromosome short tandem repeats (X-STRs). A total of 255 individuals (117 males and 138 females) were genotyped for the following loci: DXS8378, DXS9898, DXS7133,...... in father/mother/daughter trios (99.9997%), in father daughter duos (99.9862%) and in half sisters with same father (99.0331%). These results confirm the potential of this 10-plex in parentage testing and in human identification....
*. Abstract. In 2013 the President of Uganda Yoweri Kaguta Museveni launched Uganda's. Vision 2040, a thirty-year development master plan which has received both praise and criticism from Ugandans. Although Vision 2040 has received ...
Avitabile, V.; Baccini, A.; Friedl, M.A.; Schmullius, C.
Aboveground woody biomass for circa-2000 is mapped at national scale in Uganda at 30-m spatial resolution on the basis of Landsat ETM + images, a National land cover dataset and field data using an object-oriented approach. A regression tree-based model (Random Forest) produces good results
The National Resistance Army (NRA) in Uganda has incorporated a component on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in its training and support programs since 1988. Staff trained by local agencies participate in educational campaigns using printed materials, videos, theater performances, seminars, and individual counseling. The messages stress positive actions and behavior changes, rather than fear. Condoms are linked with the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the treatment of which is encouraged. HIV testing, with pre- and post-test counseling, is offered on an anonymous voluntary basis. Soldiers living with AIDS receive care at four clinics. They may voluntarily leave the NRA, but there is no policy of mandatory discharge. The NRA agreed to expand its program in 1994, in collaboration with NGO World Learning Inc. The new initiative entails the training of health educators and community workers at four regional NRA offices, who will coordinate their activities with regional and/or district health educators in charge of community programs. Condom distribution will be expanded to places frequented by soldiers which are close to military installations. A referral service for counseling and HIV testing is being established for military personnel and their families. It will collaborate with the AIDS Information Centre, an NGO. Support clubs for HIV-positive persons will operate from new recreational facilities; a wide range of leisure activities (videos, games) will be offered.
Namutebi, S K
During its work in Rakai district, CONCERN recognized that women lack property/inheritance rights, a situation which increases their vulnerability to HIV infection. Widows are being disinherited of all their properties, including their marital homes. Since many of these women lack both education and skills, their survival often depends upon either marrying again or engaging in sex work. Many women are ignorant of their rights under the national law. Lawyers from the Ugandan Women Lawyers Association help women and children understand their rights, but they do not provide continuously available services. CONCERN therefore initiated a program of community-based legal educators (paralegals) selected by village communities and recommended by local leaders. The paralegals must be over age 28 years, respected by the community, able to maintain confidentiality, and have participated in previous HIV/AIDS sensitization work. Selected candidates are subsequently trained by lawyers from a governmental ministry in the basics of the law pertaining to sexual abuse, marriage, inheritance, divorce, domestic violence, children's rights and responsibilities, and the legal system in Uganda, as well as referrals, gender sensitization, and adult education methods. The paralegals now provide awareness seminars in their communities which include brainstorming, role plays, use of picture codes, group discussions, and lectures.
M. B. Théodore Munyuli
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to collect information about the diversity of butterfly communities in the mixed coffee-banana mosaic (seminatural, agricultural landscapes of rural central Uganda. Data were collected for one year (2006 using fruit-bait traps, line transect walk-and-counts, and hand nets. A total of 56,315 individuals belonging to 331 species, 95 genera, and 6 families were sampled. The most abundant species was Bicyclus safitza (14.5% followed by Acraea acerata (6.3%, Catopsilia florella (6.5% and Junonia sophia (6.1%. Significant differences in abundance, species richness, and diversity of butterflies occurred between the 26 study sites. Farmland butterflies visited a variety of habitats within and around sites, but important habitats included woodlands, fallows, hedgerows, swampy habitats, abandoned gardens, and home gardens. The highest diversity and abundance of butterflies occurred in sites that contained forest remnants. Thus, forest reserves in the surrounding of fields increased the conservation values of coffee-banana agroforestry systems for butterflies. Their protection from degradation should be a priority for policy makers since they support a species-rich community of butterflies pollinating cultivated plants. Farmers are encouraged to protect and increase on-farm areas covered by complex traditional agroforests, linear, and nonlinear seminatural habitats to provide sufficient breeding sites and nectar resources for butterflies.
McCrae, A W; Kirya, B G
Data of monkey serology are presented which, together with past evidence, support the view that yellow fever (YF) virus circulates in its primary sylvan host populations, i.e., forest monkeys, in an enzootic state in Bwamba County in western Uganda but as series of epizootics in the forest-savanna mosaic zone of central Uganda. Evidence of an epizootic of Zika virus at the Zika Forest near Entebbe is described which occurred in two episodes, the first (in 1969) apparently following the build-up of non-immune monkey populations since a previous epizootic of 1962-63 and the second (in 1970) when Aedes africanus biting densities rose. This was followed only 18 months later by an intensive epizootic of YF virus, contradictory to the hypothesis that Zika virus alone would suppress subsequent epizootics of YF virus in nature, at least when redtail monkeys are involved. Conclusions are finally reviewed in the light of more recent evidence of transovarial flavivirus transmission in mosquitoes, pointing out that phlebotomine sandflies also require fresh attention.
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The Changing Face of the Uganda Journal. Nanny Carder. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/uj.v46i1.23039 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...
fed 683 lowland ecologies in Uganda. Download PDF. Journal articles. Total economic value of wetlands products and services in Uganda. Download PDF. Journal articles. Contribution of wetland resources to household food security in Uganda.
Vertebrate Prey of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba Scopoli) from Tororo, Eastern Uganda · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Robert Kityo, 67-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/uj.v47i1.23053 ...
Notes: Observations of Butterfly Migrations in Uganda, 2002 · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Ian Deshmukh, 111-114. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/uj.v48i1.23007 ...
Consequently many were psychologically distressed at the time of the study Conclusions: The psychosocial intervention activities proposed include ... K Amonew P'Olak. Department of Psychology Gulu University PO Box 166, Culu, Uganda .... their own villages on fire, Another 95% saw dead bodies or body parts (n I 206), ...
Mastenbroek, A.; Ntare, Bonny
One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was
in the capitals. In my dissertation I propose to change that focus. Partly by paying particular attention to rural politics, partly through a discussion of democracy in a longer-term perspective using a broader definition of democracy and finally through a discussion of democracy as effective political...... participation rather than only form al rights. I shall do so by analysing the Resistance Councils (RCs) in Uganda....
Biotechnology is a relatively recent and emerging area of science and technology in Uganda. It is, however, strategic in Uganda' 5 national development objectives in that it has a potentially central role to play in her economic growth, food security, natural germplasm conservation and the provision of improved health ...
East Africa highland bananas (Musa sp., AAA-EAHB) are an important starchy food and cash crop in Uganda and the Great Lakes region of East Africa. Widespread reports of declining yields in Uganda since the 1930s and the low yields today do raise serious sustainability and food security concerns, especially as food ...
The giant forest hog, Hylochoerus meinertzhageni, is distributed across the West African forest belt and into eastern Africa. It is known from Uganda and is reasonably common in suitable habitat in Kenya. Evidence suggests that a taxon described from a photograph as Hylochoerus schulzi Zukowsky 1921 from the Mutjek ...
Andrews, C M
The primary health care model targets social, political, and economic environments as key determinants of health for populations, as well as for individuals. If nursing in Uganda is to make a difference in health care outcomes and in the health of all Ugandans, nurses must look broadly at situations and be educated to practice primary health care nursing. After 14 years of civil war, Uganda is finally experiencing a period of reconstruction and rehabilitation: the whole infrastructure is undergoing a face-lift. Ugandan nurses recognize that their educational preparation has stagnated for many years and that it was not only the political unrest in their country that put them behind professionally. They realize that, given the new directions set by the government, they must become prepared to implement primary health care. They are demanding a university education so they may take their place alongside other health care providers prepared at the university level. Some of the most convincing arguments for a university program for nurses came from doctors at the university who spoke about the need to raise the standards of nursing practice, the quality of teachers, and the morale of practitioners. One nurse said: "If we lose hope for a BScN program, I think all the nurses will quit and we won't have any new students going into the profession." This program is designed to improve the health and well-being of all Ugandans, especially the most vulnerable groups of women and children in rural areas, through strengthening and expanding health services by targeting the educational preparation of nurses. Health planners in Uganda envision the professional nurse as key to the implementation of the national health policy of primary health care. University-educated nurses should be able to assess problems, make clinically sound decisions, and act appropriately within the scope of nursing practice. They should be able to interact and consult collegially with other health care
OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A
Uganda, like many low-income countries, has a tremendous volume of orthopaedic trauma injuries. The Uganda Sustainable Trauma Orthopaedic Program (USTOP) is a partnership between the University of British Columbia and Makerere University that was initiated in 2007 to reduce the consequences of neglected orthopaedic trauma in Uganda. USTOP works with local collaborators to build orthopaedic trauma capacity through clinical training, skills workshops, system support, technology development, and research. USTOP has maintained a multidisciplinary approach to training, involving colleagues in anaesthesia, nursing, rehabilitation, and sterile reprocessing. Since the program's inception, the number of trained orthopaedic surgeons practicing in Uganda has more than doubled. Many of these newly trained surgeons provide clinical care in the previously underserved regional hospitals. The program has also worked with collaborators to develop several technologies aimed at reducing the cost of providing orthopaedic care without compromising quality. As orthopaedic trauma capacity in Uganda advances, USTOP strives to continually evolve and provide relevant support to colleagues in Uganda.
Stothard, J R; Lockyer, A E; Kabatereine, N B; Tukahebwa, E M; Kazibwe, F; Rollinson, D; Fenwick, A
During routine parasitological surveillance and monitoring activities within a National Control Programme for control of human schistosomiasis in Uganda, it was noted that cattle grazing in a water meadow immediately adjacent to Tonya primary school, where the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis in children was in excess of 90%, were unusually emaciated. To test the hypothesis that there may have been an anthropozoonotic focus of Schistosoma mansoni within the local herd, a young female heifer, clearly emaciated and c. 8 months old, was slaughtered from which schistosome worms were later recovered by dissection. As female worms inspected by microscopy were not gravid, morphological identification proved inconclusive but analysis of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA sequences from these worms identified them as Schistosoma bovis Sonsino, 1876. This is the first substantiated report of S. bovis from Lake Albert, western Uganda. Further epidemiological surveys are needed to clarify the extent of bovine schistosomiasis within this region, particularly so since this lakeside plain has been earmarked as a future game reserve.
THE UGANDA COPYRIGHT AND NEIGHBOURING RIGHTS BILL, 2002: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES TO THE INFORMATION PROFESSIONALS. Isaac MN Kigongo-Bukenya. Abstract. The paper discusses the concept and philosophy of copyright. It also discusses copyright infringement with special reference to ICT.
Since 2007 a partnership between UNHCR, the Government of Uganda and ‘MakaPads’ inventor Moses Musaazi has helped provide affordable sanitary pads for thousands of refugee girls and women while substantially reducing...
Zirnask, Villu, 1966-
Maailma tervishoiuorganisatsiooni (WHO) statistika järgi tarbivad maailmas kõige enam alkoholi Uganda elanikud - aastas 17,6 liitrit puhast alkoholi vanema kui 15-aastase elaniku kohta. Lisaks tabel alkoholi tarbimise kohta maailmas
Nanteza, Barbara; Galukande, Moses; Aceng, Jane; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Mbonye, Anthony K; Mukooyo, Eddie; Behumize, Prosper; Makumbi, Fredrick
Background The successful scale-up of safe male circumcision (SMC) in Uganda has been hinged on client?s safety and quality of services. However, after the recent three tetanus deaths after circumcision a review of all tetanus cases in one of the hospitals where the cases occurred was initiated. This was to ascertain the potential for an association between tetanus infection and circumcision. Routinely collected national data were also reviewed to determine the burden of tetanus in Uganda and...
This paper is the first update of the Ugandan avifauna since the publication of the Bird Atlas of Uganda (Carswell et al. 2005) and reviews the status of selected species. It lists eighteen additions to the Uganda list since 2005, some the result of range expansion, but others revealed by advances in identification and ...
Full Text Available This article deals with the statistical data and analysis con-cerning poverty among the young people in Uganda. The poverty is continuously ascending, with the most affected region being Northern Uganda. The major cause of poverty in Uganda has been the “South-North divide” fuelled by poor political leadership, that divides people along the lines of politics and ethnicity. Poverty has caused many young people of Northern Uganda to resort to rebellion against the government currently in power. This has led to unending political instability and civil strife most especially in Northern Uganda. In this article atten-tion is given to the conflict in Northern Uganda and attempts are made to propose some amicable resolutions. The discussion includes the current poverty scenario in Northern Uganda and possible strategies for reducing the poverty rate that has caused much damage in Northern Uganda.
Omona, G; Matheson, K E
This news article discusses conditions in Uganda due to the 12-year war that jeopardize the health and well-being of children. Since 1995 the rebel Sudan-backed Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) has secured new recruits to add to their diminishing numbers by abducting children. As many as 8000 children, ages 11 years and older, have been appropriated in the war effort. The children are abducted, trained as soldiers, and forced to commit brutal crimes and murders. Abducted girls are held as sex slaves and forced to marry. Those children who manage to escape need special psychological and medical interventions during their integration back into normal life. World Vision Uganda and Gulu Support the Children Organization (GUSCO) have set up psychosocial counseling programs to help these children overcome their traumatic experiences. The programs offer the children vocational training, trauma counseling, and reintegration into their families. Children return to their families within 3-6 weeks. The large number of children in need has resulted in difficult follow-up and lack of long-term support. The GUSCO reception center houses about 100 children, 15% of whom are girls. The philosophy of recovery is based on the view that 1) the children are survivors with individual resources and not sick victims; and 2) most of the children will experience a healing process when given protection and understanding. GUSCO uses a community participatory approach that includes children in decision-making and relies on local traditions. The psychosocial supportive environment helps children re-establish self-esteem, trust with other people, and a civilian identity. GUSCO works with families, local groups, teachers, and authorities. Reintegration follow-up occurs after 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. The international community should put pressure on Sudan to end its support of the LRA.
Uganda has two Government funded universities, five operating private universities and four other universities are due to start soon. Geology was first taught in Uganda at Makerere University in 1968 within the Department of Geography. Through the leadership of Prof. Robert Macdonald it became established as a full department in August 1969 as part of the Faculty of Science. Both pure and applied geology are taught and the courses are designed to suit the current job market. At present, the three-term academic year is being replaced by a semester-based course unit system. At the same time, the 3:2:2 subject combination, requiring a student to do three subjects in first year and two subjects in both second and third years, is to be replaced by a major-minor subject combination. Currently, there are about 50 undergraduate students and four Ph.D. students in the Department. A student Geological Association acts as a forum for the exchange of information on matters of geological concern. An affirmative action policy has improved the intake of women students into the Department. On average, the number of women has increased from about 10% to 33.3% in the years 1984/85 to 1997/98. Their performance parallels that of the male students and they are readily employed. Of the eight members of academic staff, two are women. The Department of Geology has good links with regional and overseas universities through which a number of research programmes are currently supported. In addition, most of the training of manpower for the University and research programmes is supported by regional and international research agencies. Academic staff combine teaching with research and consultancy.
The Constitution of Uganda of 1995 (the Constitution) recognises 65 indigenous communities in Uganda. It aspires to integrate all the people of Uganda by directing that “[e]verything shall be done to promote a culture of cooperation, understanding, appreciation, tolerance and respect for each other's customs, traditions and ...
youth-friendly-services”. Afriam Health Sciences 2005; 5(4): 304 - 309. Introduction. Adolescence (age 10-19) is a transition period from childhood to adulthood 1 that includes sexual experimentation. Adolescents might consider themselves.
The Land Act 1998. ➢. Women's movement Struggle over land – the lost co- ownership clause. ➢. Section 40 Consent clause- Protection of family land/ restrictions on the transfer of land by family members. ➢. (Section 57) Establishment of District Land. Boards- where at least one third must be women ...
Loudon, James E; Sandberg, Paul A; Wrangham, Richard W; Fahey, Babette; Sponheimer, Matt
Stable isotope analysis has long been used to study the dietary ecology of living and fossil primates, and there has been increasing interest in using stable isotopes to study primate habitat use and anthropogenic impacts on non-human primates. Here, we examine the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from seven communities in Uganda across a continuum of habitat structure (closed to more open) and access to anthropogenic resources (no reliance to heavy reliance). In general, the hair δ(13) C, but not δ(15) N, values of these communities vary depending on forest structure and degree of anthropogenic influence. When integrated with previously published hair δ(13) C and δ(15) N values for Pan, it is apparent that modern "savanna" and "forest" Pan form discrete clusters in carbon and nitrogen isotope space, although there are exceptions probably relating to microhabitat specialization. The combined dataset also reveals that Pan δ(13) C values (but not δ(15) N values) are inversely related to rainfall (r(2) = 0.62). We converted Pan hair δ(13) C values to enamel equivalents and made comparisons to the fossil hominoids Sivapithecus sp., Gigantopithecus blacki, Ardipithecus ramidus, and Australopithecus anamensis. The δ(13) C values of the fossil hominins Ar. ramidus and Au. anamensis do not cluster with the δ(13) C values of modern Pan in "forest" habitats, or with fossil hominoids that are believed to have inhabited forests. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1070-1085, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bwire, Godfrey; Malimbo, Mugagga; Maskery, Brian; Kim, Young Eun; Mogasale, Vittal; Levin, Ann
Introduction In 2010, the World Health Organization released a new cholera vaccine position paper, which recommended the use of cholera vaccines in high-risk endemic areas. However, there is a paucity of data on the burden of cholera in endemic countries. This article reviewed available cholera surveillance data from Uganda and assessed the sufficiency of these data to inform country-specific strategies for cholera vaccination. Methods The Uganda Ministry of Health conducts cholera surveillance to guide cholera outbreak control activities. This includes reporting the number of cases based on a standardized clinical definition plus systematic laboratory testing of stool samples from suspected cases at the outset and conclusion of outbreaks. This retrospective study analyzes available data by district and by age to estimate incidence rates. Since surveillance activities focus on more severe hospitalized cases and deaths, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to estimate the number of non-severe cases and unrecognized deaths that may not have been captured. Results Cholera affected all ages, but the geographic distribution of the disease was very heterogeneous in Uganda. We estimated that an average of about 11,000 cholera cases occurred in Uganda each year, which led to approximately 61–182 deaths. The majority of these cases (81%) occurred in a relatively small number of districts comprising just 24% of Uganda's total population. These districts included rural areas bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Sudan, and Kenya as well as the slums of Kampala city. When outbreaks occurred, the average duration was about 15 weeks with a range of 4–44 weeks. Discussion There is a clear subdivision between high-risk and low-risk districts in Uganda. Vaccination efforts should be focused on the high-risk population. However, enhanced or sentinel surveillance activities should be undertaken to better quantify the endemic disease burden and high-risk populations
Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Basangwa, David; Lutakome, Julius; Mubiru, Christine
With the help of the International Consortium for Mental Health Policy and Services, data on country mental health services was gathered through a descriptive, cross sectional study. The study population included policymakers, health providers and consumers of health services. Data was collected at national level from relevant sectors including the Ministry of Health, Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital and four rural districts. The districts were purposively selected because of existing consumer groups. Quantitative data was collected by interviewer-administered questionnaire and record reviews at hospitals and district headquarters. It was observed that the country has inadequate numbers of mental health professionals with poor mental health funding. Such factors, compounded with inappropriate cultural beliefs, are major obstacles to the delivery of mental health services. There is however an attempt by the Government to improve mental health services. The current health policy is an opportunity to improve access to mental health care. Currently there is improved pre-service and in-service training for mental health workers with ongoing rehabilitation and remodelling of the mental health infrastructure in the country. The burden of mental disorders in Uganda is high in a country that is poorly resourced. The majority of the population is rural and still harbours negative cultural beliefs. There is a need to increase advocacy for mental health and develop capacity for professional mental and general health workers to be supported by appropriate policies, facilities and finances.
Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Bygbjerg, Ib C.
Non-communicable diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) are increasing rapidly in most Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries like Uganda. Little attention has been given to how patients with T2D try to achieve treatment when the availability of public health care for their disease is limited......, as is the case in most SSA countries. In this paper we focus on the landscape of availability of care and the therapeutic journeys of patients within that landscape. Based on fieldwork in south-western Uganda including 10 case studies, we explore the diabetes treatment options in the area and what it takes...
Natural forests in Uganda have experienced both spatial and temporal modifications from different drivers which need to be monitored to assess the impacts of such changes on ecosystems and prevent related risks of reduction in ecosystem service benefits. Ground investigations may be complex because of dual ...
These are Red-billed Firefinch L. senegala, host for the Village. Indigobird V. chalybeata; African Firefinch, L. rubricata, host for the Dusky Indigobird V. funerea; and ... (Queen Elizabeth National Park) in Kanungu District, Uganda. He noted that Afri- can Firefinches were present, and observed an indigobird associated with ...
Identiﬁcation of fertility levels in banana germplasm collection al Kabanyolo, Uganda, was conducted by dehiscing the anthers using a glass rod. ... Must East African highland banana cultivars were found to have more pollen titan lite receutly introduced banane ..... pseudostem and leaves. Close similarity of. inﬂorescence ...
Amina, Nakimuli; Turyahebwa, Abanis
Universities are accountable This study looked into Institutional Efficiency in selected Universities in Central Uganda. The study was guided by the following objectives; Determine the level of institutional efficiency of the universities in terms of educational efficiency; research efficiency and community service efficiency. The study employed…
We were one of the first organizations to support the development of a Ugandan strategy for adopting and integrating information and communications technology (ICT). Our research on ICTs influenced decision-making and policies. Studies informed Uganda's ICT and universal access policies in the early 2000s — the first ...
In sub-Saharan Africa, many children die from diarrhea, acute respiratory illness and malaria, despite the fact that there are well recognized, inexpensive and highly effective treatments for these ailments. Healthy Child Uganda (HCU), a Ugandan-Canadian partnership, has been operating a village health volunteer program ...
Since 2007 a partnership between UNHCR, the Government of Uganda and ‘MakaPads’ inventor Moses Musaazi has helped provide affordable sanitary pads for thousands of refugee girls and women while substantially reducing UNHCR’s expenditure on these essential items.
Biotechnology is an important tool whose application Ugandan scientists are exploring in crop, fish and livestock improvement, value addition, waste management, and in medicine. However, the continuing growth of biotechnology or more broadly, biosciences as an enterprise in Uganda will depend on the support given to ...
Recent on station and on-farm studies suggest the major diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda include: 1)Black sigatoka which severely affects all East African Highland (EA-AAA) banana cultivars and a range of introduced genotypes; 2) Fusarium wilt which affects several introduced genotypes though all EA ...
This study presents the relevance of interdisciplinary education, the crisis in which Uganda's education system is, where specialisation is at its peak. It analyses the form of the present curriculum, which leaves the learner in state of dilemma. The author again shows the need for interdisciplinarity, tries to find out whether ...
The availability of African lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus) in many communities in Uganda is declining. Indigenous efforts to culture this fish usually produce poor yields and depend on feeding fish fry, minced meat, and leftover food. This study evaluates three formulated diets (diet-. 1, diet-2, diet-3) fed to wild caught ...
Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia
Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere...
Kajja, I.; Kyeyune, D.; Bimenya, G. S.; Sibinga, C. T. S.
Aim: To identify where and why delays occur in Uganda blood banks. Background: The timely provision and supply of safe and efficacious blood components to hospitals depends on sound systems in the processing blood banks. Poorly managed systems lead to apparent blood shortages in hospitals and
Author Guidelines. General instructions. The Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences (UJAS) (ISSN: 1026-0919) is a peer reviewed journal publishing manuscripts semi-annually, in the areas of ... Formulae and equations used in the investigation should be indexed with Roman numerals at the right hand side of the page.
Full Text Available Since 2007 a partnership between UNHCR, the Government of Uganda and ‘MakaPads’ inventor Moses Musaazi has helped provide affordable sanitary pads for thousands of refugee girls and women while substantially reducing UNHCR’s expenditure on these essential items.
To explore how to better educate rural Africans about preventive HIV/AIDS vaccine trials, 15 semi-structured, openended interviews were conducted with villagers in Lyantonde, Rakai District, Uganda. This study reports on the findings by focusing on the attitudes, knowledge and questions the rural villagers had about ...
Many countries in the developing world have embarked on the path of decentralisation over the last three decades to improve the provision of public goods such as healthcare services. It is hypothesised that devolving power to local governments would improve efficiency as well as equity and thereby health outcomes by bringing decision makers closer to the people, and by enhancing the participation of the community in the decision-making and implementation processes. This paper aims to assess the impact of decentralisation on infant mortality rates in Uganda. The intervention model was used to analyse national representative data from Uganda Demographic Health Surveys (1988/89, 1995, 2001, 2006). Results indicate that infant mortality rates deteriorated during the decentralisation period in three out of four regions in Uganda, but not overall when analysed for the whole country. Decentralisation was supposed to lead to a decrease in infant mortality rates, however, the opposite effect was seen with rates increasing in individual regions. There is need for further detailed studies to understand why infant mortality rates increased during the period of decentralisation in Uganda.
International ett'orts aimed at the application of biotechnology and biosafety are underway. Inevitably,. Uganda is part of this effort. However, the country is constrained by inadequate ﬁnancial and human resource capacity to foster her vision and strengthen institutional structures to fully beneﬁt from the impact.
Uganda Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 47 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription ...
using a technique adapted from the UK Common Bird Census (CBC) territory mapping survey method, designed by the British Trust for Ornithology. (Marchant 1983), which involved making multiple visits to each of the four transect sections. Although we initially aimed to visit each section three times, bad weather prevented ...
Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 29 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Graham, M. T.
This report was produced to assist GOAL, an Irish NGO working in Uganda, in the provision of water supplies for displaced persons in Agago County, part of Pader District in the north of Uganda. The work contained within the report has been carried out on a voluntary basis, although considerable support has been provided by GOAL in the provision of travel and subsistence costs within Uganda, spanning the period from the 22nd September to the 12th October 2007. Funding for prepar...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing biomass is gaining increasing interest mainly for bioenergy, climate change research and mitigation activities, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+. In response to these needs, a number of biomass/carbon maps have been recently produced using different approaches but the lack of comparable reference data limits their proper validation. The objectives of this study are to compare the available maps for Uganda and to understand the sources of variability in the estimation. Uganda was chosen as a case-study because it presents a reliable national biomass reference dataset. Results The comparison of the biomass/carbon maps show strong disagreement between the products, with estimates of total aboveground biomass of Uganda ranging from 343 to 2201 Tg and different spatial distribution patterns. Compared to the reference map based on country-specific field data and a national Land Cover (LC dataset (estimating 468 Tg, maps based on biome-average biomass values, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC default values, and global LC datasets tend to strongly overestimate biomass availability of Uganda (ranging from 578 to 2201 Tg, while maps based on satellite data and regression models provide conservative estimates (ranging from 343 to 443 Tg. The comparison of the maps predictions with field data, upscaled to map resolution using LC data, is in accordance with the above findings. This study also demonstrates that the biomass estimates are primarily driven by the biomass reference data while the type of spatial maps used for their stratification has a smaller, but not negligible, impact. The differences in format, resolution and biomass definition used by the maps, as well as the fact that some datasets are not independent from the
Outputs. Journal articles. Determinants of patients' choice of provider in accessing brucellosis care among pastoral communities adjacent to Lake Mburo National Park in Kiruhura district, Uganda. Download PDF ...
Jessica Huber; Birkeland, Nina M.
The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) strongly believes that the Cluster Approach holds promise for improving the international response to internal displacement. The approach represents a serious attempt by the UN, NGOs, international organisations and governments to address critical gaps in the humanitarian system. We want this reform effort to succeed and to play an active role in northern Uganda to supportthe work of the clusters and improve their effectiveness.
Full Text Available The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC strongly believes that the Cluster Approach holds promise for improving the international response to internal displacement. The approach represents a serious attempt by the UN, NGOs, international organisations and governments to address critical gaps in the humanitarian system. We want this reform effort to succeed and to play an active role in northern Uganda to supportthe work of the clusters and improve their effectiveness.
Spies, L A; Gray, J; Opollo, J; Mbalinda, S
Use a Delphi Methodology to identify nursing research priorities in Uganda. Identifying nursing research priorities, empowering researchers, and encouraging relevant studies can advance attaining global health goals. The Uganda Nurses and Midwives Union identified the need to establish a nursing research agenda. Nurse leaders have a priority of increasing the influence of nurses in practice and policy. This study was conducted as a preliminary step in a long-term strategy to build nurses' capacity in nursing research. A three-round Delphi study was conducted. The 45 study participants were nurses in practice, nurse faculty and members of the Uganda Nurses and Midwives Union. In the initial round, the participants wrote their responses during face-to-face meetings and the follow-up rounds were completed via email. Maternal and child morbidity and HIV/AIDS were identified as research priorities. Nurses also identified nursing practice, education and policy as key areas that nursing research could impact. Demographic characteristics such as length of time in nursing were not collected. Additionally, first round participants completed a pencil-paper survey and the follow-up rounds were done by email. Nurse Leaders in Uganda identified areas where research efforts could have the most impact and were most relevant to nursing practice. Health policy decisions have historically been made without nursing input. Nursing research can provide evidence to inform policy and, ultimately, improve population health. The focus of nursing research in priority areas can be used to guide nursing contribution in policy discussions. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.
Plague is a life-threatening fleaborne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. The most common clinical form is bubonic plague, which is characterized by high fever and regional lymphadenitis. Without treatment, infection can spread from lymph nodes to the lungs, resulting in pneumonic plague and the potential for person-to-person transmission through respiratory droplets. In November 2006, the Uganda Ministry of Health received reports of an increase in bubonic plague cases and a possible outbreak of pneumonic plague among residents in the Arua and Nebbi districts. In response, the Uganda Ministry of Health and CDC conducted a joint investigation in the two districts during November 28-December 30, 2006. Overall, 127 clinical plague cases were identified, along with evidence of a focal pneumonic outbreak in Nebbi District. Median age of the patients was 14 years (range: 2 weeks-65 years); 65 (51%) were female. Twenty-eight (22%) of the 127 patients died. Among the 102 patients with documented symptoms, 90 (88%) had bubonic plague, and 12 (12%) had pneumonic plague. The results of this investigation underscore the need to 1) continue efforts to educate residents of rural Uganda regarding the source, signs, and symptoms of plague and the life-saving importance of seeking treatment; 2) strengthen plague surveillance and diagnostic capabilities; and 3) improve emergency response and vector-control capacity, especially in remote regions of the country.
Oct 5, 2014 ... A bird atlas of Kenya. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema. SKEEN, R.Q. 2014. A review of birds in Uganda: records updating the Uganda Atlas and notes on species unrecorded since 1980. Scopus 33: 53–63. Roger Q. Skeen. NatureUganda, Plot 1, Katalina Crescent, Naguru, P.O. Box 27034, Kampala, Uganda.
Aug 12, 2013 ... 1Department of Geography, Geo-Informatics and Climatic Sciences, Makerere University, Uganda. 2Africa Innovations Institute, Kampala, Uganda. 3Department of Biology, Gulu University, Uganda. 4College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Bio-security, Makerere University, Uganda.
The first 2 years of life provide a critical window of opportunity for ensuring children's appropriate growth and development through optimal feeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of weaning practices in Wakiso district. Wakiso is a district in central Uganda that encircles Kampala, Uganda's capital ...
Vf(anda Journal ofAgricultural Sciences, 2000, 5:4-6. Printed in Uganda. All rights re.c;ervcd. ISSN 1026-0919. ©2000 National Agricultural Research Organisation. Advances in breeding for sweetpotato virus resitance in Uganda. R.O.M. Mwanga, G. Turyumurccba, V. Arit11a. Namulonge Agricultural and Animal Production ...
This paper examines the environment within which Uganda can be productively involved in the process of building an information society for industrial development. There are concerted efforts by the government of Uganda and civil society organisations in the country towards the development of information literacy and ...
Background Basic stroke features are hardly known in sub-Saharan countries, and no data are available in Uganda. Objective To characterize patients presenting with clinical stroke to Mulago Hospital. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting Mulago National referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Participants ...
Feb 2, 2000 ... NATIONAL IMMUNISATION DAYS FOR POLIO ERADICATION IN UGANDA: DID IMMUNISATION CARDS INCREASE COVERAGE? F. Nuwaha ... Methods: NIDs for polio eradication commenced in Uganda in 1996. Two rounds ... number of immunisation posts used were 13,000 of which about. 40% were ...
Namyalo, Saudah; Nakayiza, Judith
Even after decades of uttering platitudes about the languages of Uganda, language policy pronouncements have invariably turned out to be public relations statements rather than blueprints for action. A serious setback for the right to linguistic equality and the right to use Uganda's indigenous languages has largely hinged on the language…
Background: Trauma is the commonest indication for surgical admission in Gulu Hospital in Northern Uganda. The situation was made worst by the conflict between the government of Uganda and the LRA. As and when the guns fell silent, the Boda-boda motocycles brought another form of trauma epidemic. These injuries ...
Econometric methods were used to estimate the supply and demand functions for Uganda's coffee using time series data for the period 1971-91. Eight major importing countries for Uganda's coffee: U.S., U.K., Japan, France, Italy, Spain, Germany, and the Netherlands were considered in export demand analysis.
This study examined whether widowhood was associated with experiencing barriers to seeking health care in Uganda. Data from 8674 women aged between 15 and 49 years in the 2011 Uganda Demographic Health Survey, were analysed using multivariable logistic regression models. Compared to other women,
The survey and discussion focus on the challenges to quality education in Uganda. It is over136 years since formal education was introduced in Uganda by the Christian Missionaries in 1877 and 1879. These were Anglican and Roman Catholic Missionaries respectively. Given the plethora of implicit and explicit challenges ...
Gastropod distribution in Lakes George and Edward, Uganda, relative to copper and cobalt levels. RD Holmberg, H Madsen, TK Kristensen, A Jørgensen. Abstract. Published data show that Lake George, Uganda, has a poorer gastropod fauna than Lake Edward, to which it is connected through the Kazinga Channel.
Inheritance of resistance to (NGR1) pathogen isolates of Pyricularia grisea in GULU-E finger millet last resistant variety of Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Farmer awareness, coping mechanisms and economic implications of coffee leaf rust disease in Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Full Text Available Uganda's economy has great potential. Endowed with significant natural resources, including ample fertile land, regular rainfall, and mineral deposits, it appeared poised for rapid economic growth and development at independence. However, chronic political instability and erratic economic management produced a record of persistent economic decline that left Uganda among the world's poorest and least-developed countries (United States, Bureau of African Affairs 2007. This situation can be averted by effectively promoting the involvement of the engine of economic growth, the SMEs in national and international businesses. The international involvement of SMEs requires accurate and adequate access to relevant business information. Based on that, a study was conducted to assess the problems SMEs face in accessing business information in Uganda. The study using a descriptive design with survey research techniques among others examined the problems SMEs in northern Uganda face in accessing business information; identified problems information providers face in providing business information to the SMEs in northern Uganda and established whether SMEs in northern Uganda use public libraries in accessing business information. The paper reports on among others the proposed strategic interventions for business information to be accessed by the SMEs . The paper concludes that there is a need for Uganda and, in particular, northern Uganda to develop a strategy for business information access by the SMEs.
Breast cancer in Uganda is the third commonest cancer in women coming only next to cancer of the cervix and Kaposi's sarcoma. The incidence of breast cancer in Uganda has doubled from 11:100,000 in 1961 to 22:100,000 in 1995. Unfortunately the cases are often seen in late stages thus the outcome of treatment is ...
Agricultural research in Uganda started around 1898. However, research on manures came into light after 19-03 when commercial cotton varieties were introduced in the country. It was after the cotton introductions that declining soil fertility was considered a serious problem. Under the Uganda conditions, the use of artificial ...
Background: Traffic injuries are an important problem in low income countries. In Uganda road traffic is the largest single cause of injury in Kampala; pedestrians, and children are most affected. Pedestrian injury affects school children in Uganda. Objective: To determine the overall risk of pedestrian traffic injury among ...
Sep 27, 2010 ... Overview of groundnuts research in Uganda: Past, present and future. D. K. Okello1*, M. Biruma1 and C. M. Deom2. 1Groundnut breeding Department, National Semi-Arid Research Resources Institute, P.O Box Soroti, Uganda. 2Department of Pathology at the University of Georgia, University of Georgia, ...
This study explores into realized access to antenatal care utilisation in Uganda. This emanates from the fact that access to antenatal care is still a national nemesis, (National Service Delivery Survey Report, 2005). In Uganda, the Ministry of Health (MoH) recommends that a pregnant woman should attend antenatal care at ...
Le corridor du bétail couvre environ 40 % de la surface terrestre de l'Ouganda et constitue l'un des écosystèmes les plus fragiles du pays. Région: Uganda ... TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment. Projet ... Région: Uganda. Programme: Governance and Justice.
In 2013 the President of Uganda Yoweri Kaguta Museveni launched Uganda's Vision 2040, a thirty-year development master plan which has received both praise and criticism from Ugandans. Although Vision 2040 has received both praise and criticism in almost equal measure, in this article I argue that Vision 2040 does ...
landscapes: the case of Crowned Crane breeding and distribution outside Protected Areas in Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 48: 119–125. Pomeroy, d.e. 1980a. Aspects of the ecology of Crowned Crane Balearica regulorum in Uganda. Scopus 4: 29–35. Pomeroy, d.e. 1980b. Growth and plumage changes of the Grey ...
Security Council Report Inc. Start Date: August 19, 2010. End Date: March 31, 2013. Topic: INFORMATION ... Region: Uganda. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 434,340.00. Food, Health and Climate Change Adaptation in Uganda. Project. Extensive areas of sub-Saharan and especially East ...
The dynamics of revenue generation in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda are explored. Results demonstrate that revenue generation is sluggish in Tanzania compared to Kenya and Uganda. Macroeconomic environment, economic structure, and level of development are fundamental at explaining these differences. Results ...
Agricultural research in Uganda started around 1898. However, research on manures came into light after 19-03 when commercial cotton varieties were introduced in the country. It was after the cotton introductions that declining soil fertility was considered a serious problem. Under the Uganda conditions, the use of artificial ...
to soil productivity. Early soils research- 1914 to 1944. Early soil productivity research in Uganda was linked to introduction of cash crops [cotton, tobacco, coffee or tea] into the indigenous farming systems. Initial [ 191 0-1924) agricultural trials in Uganda suggested that climate was the rna in factor controlling yield of cotton.
This paper discusses the book publishing patterns in Uganda. The paper looks at the development of Ugandas book industry and assesses the factors that have impeded its growth. Current opportunities at the disposal of the industry are highlighted and the way forward outlined. Some of the factors identified as inhibiting ...
Sujet: SURGERY, MEDICAL EDUCATION, MEDICAL CARE, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Uganda. Programme: Santé des mères et des enfants. Financement total : CA$ 295,285.00. Enfants en santé Ouganda - Healthy Children Uganda (HCU). Projet. En Afrique subsaharienne ...
Background: Suicide was investigated in the urban setting of Kampala, Uganda. Objectives: Firstly, to explore the use of two research methodologies, a retrospective review of patient records and the psychological autopsy methodology in suicide research in Uganda. Secondly to investigate the characteristics and correlates ...
Obesity is one of the fastest growing health problems in Uganda and across the world and its rising prevalence is placing additional strain on medical resources. At its simplest level obesity is a consequence of unhealthy lifestyles. Preventing its spread in Uganda will rest on the ability of society to motivate individuals to ...
The team that carried out the Survey of Language Use and Language Teaching in Eastern Africa (with specific reference to Uganda) was non-committal on stating the number of languages there are in Uganda. In the end, they mentioned 63 languages/dialects which fall into 5 groups based on broad lexical and grammatical ...
Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.
The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption
Good quality Antenatal Care (ANC) provides opportunity to detect and respond to risky maternal conditions. This study assessed quality of ANC services in eastern Uganda with a goal of benchmarking implications for interventions. Methods Data was collected from 15 health facilities in Eastern Uganda to establish capacity ...
This paper is the first update of the Ugandan avifauna since the publication of the Bird. Atlas of Uganda .... main migration of Black Terns is along the West coast of Africa to wintering areas in. Namibia. Fischer's ... similar to that in which the species occurs in neighbouring Kenya, so its discovery was not so surprising.
Gorsevski, Virginia B.
The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region
Aug 25, 2006 ... democracy is about having a certain degree of self-determination and control over decisions being made on behalf of .... the forest fringes, hunted and trapped animals in the forest, kept bees in the forest, cut trees and converted .... resume bee-keeping activities inside the park in 1992. The programme was.
Negawo Worku Janka
Full Text Available Agroforestry farming system comprises considerable cultivated land area in the tropics. Despite the economic and social benefits of the system for farmers, it is also known to have an important role in the conservation of tree species. This study aims to evaluate the composition and distribution of tree species in coffee based agroforestry system to determine the potential for biodiversity conservation. To address the objective of this study, 57 sample plots in farmers’ coffee field and 12 sample plots in forest reserve were surveyed in Eastern Uganda. The result shows that the number of indigenous tree species in coffee farms was lower than that of forest reserve. Similarly, tree species richness per plot, Shannon and Simpson diversity indexes of forest reserve were significantly (p≤0.05 higher than that of coffee farms. However, with the inclusion of exotic tree species, coffee farms were found to be significantly higher than that of forest reserve for the above diversity indexes. On the other hand, the distribution of tree species in the coffee farms were mainly dominated by few tree species indicating the need for measures that ensure the sustainability of those less represented tree species.
A 5-year study by the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the Uganda Virus Research Institute, which covered 15 villages and approximately 5200 adults over the age of 13 years in the Masaka district of Uganda, indicates that the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in men aged 20-24 years has declined by 80%, from 11.8% to 2.6%. Among girls aged 13-19 years and women aged 20-24 years the decline was 62% and 34%, respectively. In the general population, the decline was from 8.2% to 7.6%. Reasons for the decline are unclear, but the presence of the highly visible study team, which caused anxiety and heated discussion in the community, and high HIV-associated mortality among long-term residents at the beginning of the study may have had effects. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) control measures were gradually expanded during the period of the study. The inhabitants of the area are mainly peasant farmers from the Baganda tribal group; three-quarters are Catholic and one-quarter are Muslim. 80% of the total population participated in the survey the first year; 62%, the second year; 56%, the third year; 52%, the fourth year; and 57%, the fifth year. A table lists results by age and sex for 1989 and 1994.
Weicherding, Patrick J.; And Others
This bulletin deals with forest management and provides an overview of forestry for the non-professional. The bulletin is divided into six sections: (1) What Is Forestry Management?; (2) How Is the Forest Measured?; (3) What Is Forest Protection?; (4) How Is the Forest Harvested?; (5) What Is Forest Regeneration?; and (6) What Is Forest…
Urban forests (and trees) constitute the second forest resource considered in this report. We specifically emphasize the fact that agricultural and urban forests exist on a continuum defined by their relationship (and interrelationship) with a given landscape. These two forest types generally serve different purposes, however. Whereas agricultural forests are...
Epiphany Picho Odubuker
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between Leadership Styles and job satisfaction among the staff of Uganda Management Institute. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used with a sample size being 118. Purposive, stratified and systematic sampling techniques were used to select respondents. Data analysis involved frequencies and percentages, Spearman rank Order correlation, coefficient of determination, regression, and ANOVA. There was a strong positive re...
Topic: LEGISLATION, Democracy, Governance, ADMINISTRATIVE LAW, SOCIAL PARTICIPATION, GENDER ANALYSIS. Region: South of Sahara, Kenya, Malawi, Uganda. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 622,400.00. Using Evidence to Reduce Health Inequalities in East and Southern Africa. Project.
BCTB), Xylosandruscompactus (Eichhoff), a new pest on cocoa in Uganda. To determine its spread and impact, wesurveyed 20 households in Bundibugyo, Kibaale and Hoima districts in January 2014. On eachfield, 10 cocoa trees were examined ...
Ulriksen, Marianne; Katusiimeh, Mesharch W.
This paper is the first of a series of papers exploring the political and institutional contexts of resource mobilization and social spending for social development in Uganda. We provide the historical context of, and trends in, resource mobilization (domestic and external revenue) and social...... spending in post-independence Uganda. After years of civil war, mismanagement and general decline, Uganda turned a page in 1986 when NRM (National Resistance Movement) came to power. During the 1990s and early 2000s, Uganda was a prototypical donor-dependent country with aid constituting more than half...... of education and health care is still disappointing and social protection programmes remain neglected. Moreover, domestic resource mobilization has not improved considerably which points to issues of weak institutional capacity as well as the contested nature of taxation. Trends in recent years show...
, Bagamba F and AMK Abera. Monograph on geographic shifts in highland cooking banana (Musa, group. AAA-EA) production in Uganda, Afr. Crop Sci. J. 1999; 7: 223-298. 3. Bekunda M and PL Woomer Organic resource ...
The new female condom (FC2) in Uganda: perceptions and experiences of users and their sexual partners. Rhoda K Wanyenze, Lynn Atuyambe, Vista Kibirige, Sarah Mbabazi, Nazarius M Tumwesigye, Kara Djurhuus, Alice Namale ...
End Date: August 15, 2013. Topic: HEALTH SYSTEM, INFORMATION SYSTEMS, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, HEALTH PLANNING, RESEARCH CAPACITY, STRATEGIC PLANNING. Region: Uganda, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 137,690.00.
End Date: 31 juillet 2010. Sujet: URBAN AGRICULTURE, WATER TREATMENT, WATER REUSE, DOMESTIC WASTES, WASTE RECYCLING, COMPOSTING, SMALL ENTERPRISES. Région: Uganda, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Changements climatiques. Financement total : CA$ 1,200,000.00.
Topic: AGRICULTURAL LAND, AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY, AGRICULTURAL INNOVATIONS, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, RESOURCES MANAGEMENT. Region: Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 904,800.00. Involvement ...
Topic: ECONOMIC RECESSION, WOMEN WORKERS, UNEMPLOYMENT, GENDER ANALYSIS, YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT, SURVEYS. Region: Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Uganda, South Africa, South of Sahara. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 791,200.00. Linking African Researchers with ...
Topic: ECONOMIC RECESSION, WOMEN WORKERS, UNEMPLOYMENT, GENDER ANALYSIS, YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT, SURVEYS. Region: Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Uganda, South Africa, South of Sahara. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 791,200.00. Linking African Researchers with ...
Severity of angular leaf spot and rust diseases on common beans in Central Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P Pamela, D Mawejje, M Ugen, 63-72 ...
Rodhain, F; Gonzalez, J P; Mercier, E; Helynck, B; Larouze, B; Hannoun, C
Sera collected in May 1984 from 132 adult residents of Karamoja district, Uganda, were examined by haemagglutination inhibition tests for antibodies against selected arboviruses, namely Chikungunya and Semliki Forest alphaviruses (Togaviridae); dengue type 2, Wesselsbron, West Nile, yellow fever and Zika flaviviruses (Flaviviridae); Bunyamwera, Ilesha and Tahyna bunyaviruses (Bunyaviridae); and Sicilian sandfly fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae); and by immunofluorescence tests against certain haemorrhagic fever viruses, Lassa fever arenavirus (Arenaviridae), Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Zaïre and Marburg filoviruses (Filoviridae), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever nairovirus and Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae). Antibodies against Chikungunya virus were the most prevalent (47%), followed by flavivirus antibodies (16%), which were probably due mainly to West Nile virus. No evidence of yellow fever or dengue virus circulation was observed. A few individuals had antibodies against Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses, suggesting that these viruses all circulate in the area.
Hulme, Mark F.; Vickery, Juliet A.; Green, Rhys E.
Reconciling the aims of feeding an ever more demanding human population and conserving biodiversity is a difficult challenge. Here, we explore potential solutions by assessing whether land sparing (farming for high yield, potentially enabling the protection of non-farmland habitat), land sharing...... (lower yielding farming with more biodiversity within farmland) or a mixed strategy would result in better bird conservation outcomes for a specified level of agricultural production. We surveyed forest and farmland study areas in southern Uganda, measuring the population density of 256 bird species...... and agricultural yield: food energy and gross income. Parametric non-linear functions relating density to yield were fitted. Species were identified as "winners" (total population size always at least as great with agriculture present as without it) or "losers" (total population sometimes or always reduced...
Prescribing Practices and Polypharmacy in Kitovu Hospital, Uganda. N McGaughey, M Lynch, D Bell. Abstract. This audit of prescribing practices explores recent trends at Kitovu Hospital, Uganda. The average number of drugs prescribed per patient was 2.89 ± 0.11, of which 1.79±0.09 were generics and 0.69±0.06 ...
Anne Eller3, Merlin L. Robb4, Peter Kataaha5, Nelson L. Michael6, Lisa E. Hensley7, and Randal J. Schoepp1* 1 US Army Medical Institute of...Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA 2 College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA 3 Makerere University Walter Reed ...Project, Kampala, Uganda 4 Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland, USA 5 Nakasero Blood Bank, Kampala, Uganda 6 Walter Reed Army
Constant Okello-Obura; Mabel K. Minishi-Majanja; Linda Cloete; J.R. Ikoja-Odongo
Uganda's economy has great potential. Endowed with significant natural resources, including ample fertile land, regular rainfall, and mineral deposits, it appeared poised for rapid economic growth and development at independence. However, chronic political instability and erratic economic management produced a record of persistent economic decline that left Uganda among the world's poorest and least-developed countries (United States, Bureau of African Affairs 2007). This situation can be ave...
Owor, M.; MacDonald, A.M.; Bonsor, H.C.; Okullo, J.; Katusiime, F.; Alupo, G.; Berochan, G.; Tumusiime, C.; Lapworth, D.; Whaley, L.; Lark, R.M.
Statistics on the functionality of water points from the Hidden Crisis project in Uganda are presented. The survey, undertaken in 2016, was focussed on boreholes equipped with handpumps (HPBs) within the 112 districts of Uganda. A stratified two stage random sampling approach was adopted and 10 districts identified to sample. A tiered definition of functionality was applied, and all which enabled more nuanced definitions to be reported: The results from the survey indicate: • 55% of HPB...
Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder; Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom
• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014.......• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014....
Mayers, James; Bhattacharya, Prodyut; Diaw, Chimere [and others
Forests are power bases, but often for the wrong people. As attention turns from making an international deal on REDD to making it work on the ground, the hunt will be on for practical ways of shifting power over forests towards those who enable and pursue sustainable forest-linked livelihoods. The Forest Governance Learning Group – an alliance active in Cameroon, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Uganda and Vietnam – has developed practical tactics for securing safe space, provoking dialogue, building constituencies, wielding evidence and interacting politically. It has begun to have significant impacts. To deepen and widen those impacts, FGLG seeks allies.
Stephanie J Salyer
Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is one of the most common parasitic diarrheal agents in the world and is a known zoonosis. We studied Cryptosporidium in people, livestock, and non-human primates in the region of Kibale National Park, Uganda. Land use change near the park has resulted in fragmented forest patches containing small, remnant populations of wild primates that interact intensively with local people and livestock. Our goal was to investigate risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection and to assess cross-species transmission using molecular methods.Diagnostic PCR revealed a prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 32.4% in humans, 11.1% in non-human primates, and 2.2% in livestock. In the case of humans, residence in one particular community was associated with increased risk of infection, as was fetching water from an open water source. Although 48.5% of infected people reported gastrointestinal symptoms, this frequency was not significantly different in people who tested negative (44.7% for Cryptosporidium, nor was co-infection with Giardia duodenalis associated with increased reporting of gastrointestinal symptoms. Fecal consistency was no different in infected versus uninfected people or animals. DNA sequences of the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein gene placed all infections within a well-supported C. parvum/C. hominis clade. However, the only two sequences recovered from primates in the core of the park's protected area fell into a divergent sub-clade and were identical to published sequences from C. parvum, C. hominis, and C. cuniculus, suggesting the possibility of a separate sylvatic transmission cycle.Cryptosporidium may be transmitted frequently among species in western Uganda where people, livestock, and wildlife interact intensively as a result of anthropogenic changes to forests, but the parasite may undergo more host-specific transmission where such interactions do not occur. The parasite does not appear to have strong effects on human or
Sekatawa, E K
According to the 1988/89 Demographic and Health Survey of Uganda (UDHS), over 80% of women of reproductive age were acquainted with how to obtain family planning methods. 33% of married women wanted to postpone childbearing, and 19% wanted no more children at all. In spite of this, the survey also showed that only 2.7% were currently using a modern method of contraception, and 7% had ever tried one. Most of these women were aged 20-40 years, and they were married with 4 or more children, lived in urban areas, and had at least primary school education. One of the barriers was poor information about modern methods such as injectables, IUDs, vasectomy, and spermicides. They knew only about pills and female sterilization. In addition, 40% of married women stated that their husbands disapproved of family planning (FP), and the medical community had not promoted FP as an alternative to pregnancy complications. The Family Planning Association of Uganda (FPAU) has recruited 33% of all FP acceptors, and government services another 42%. FPAU has only 17 clinics, and staff strength would have to be expanded to 150 providers, instead of the existing 40 service providers, to meet the demand. The poor, rural population is hard to reach. 76% of public health staff was located in urban areas serving only 11% of the total population. Most trained nurses and midwives have not been deployed to maternal-child health and FP delivery points. The side effects of contraceptives are also often exaggerated, leading to discontinuation with a current drop-out rate of 30%. Training for service providers requires practice: 15 IUDs have to be inserted before being certified competent in the procedure. In Kampala, there are an average of 250 IUD acceptors a month, thus training is compromised with fewer insertions. The lack of equipment is another hindrance, and students have to be taught using models.
Book Review - No-Party Democracy in Uganda, Myths and Realities by Senzo Ngubane No-Party Democracy in Uganda, Myths and Realities - Mugaju, Justus and Oloka-Onyango (eds.)2000. Uganda: Fountain Publishers, 158 pp. Reviewed by Senzo Ngubane, Research Officer, ACCORD ...
Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty
Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated waterÂ¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...
Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher
Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...
S. Hummel; K. L. O' Hara
Global variation in forests and in human cultures means that a single method for managing forests is not possible. However, forest management everywhere shares some common principles because it is rooted in physical and biological sciences like chemistry and genetics. Ecological forest management is an approach that combines an understanding of universal processes with...
Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis
One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because......+ transactions costs. Third, beyond the “conservation islands” represented by forests under decentralized management, processes of deforestation and forest degradation continue. Given these challenges, we argue that REDD+ efforts through decentralized forestry should be redirected from incentivizing further...
Full Text Available This article investigates the role of the Law in the Lutheran Church of Uganda. It investigates how the Law is understood and lived among Lutherans in Uganda. Luther, the sixteenthcentury Reformer, understood and interpreted the Law in terms of the social and cultural context of his time. Luther’s background is very different and so much removed from the African context in which the Ugandan Lutherans find themselves today. Therefore, can the Lutheran Church of Uganda have the same understanding and interpretation of the Law as the Reformer? Is Luther’s sixteenth-century European understanding of the Law applicable to the current Lutherans in Africa, specifically in the Lutheran Church of Uganda? This article examines the social and cultural context of Lutherans in Uganda and determines how it affects their understanding and interpretation of the Law. The article aims to demonstrate that the social and cultural context of the people plays an important role in the way the Christian life is conducted. This article appeals to Paul’s situation in Galatians to prove this point.
Terence Epule Epule
Full Text Available Climate projections in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA forecast an increase in the intensity and frequency of droughts with implications for maize production. While studies have examined how maize might be affected at the continental level, there have been few national or sub-national studies of vulnerability. We develop a vulnerability index that combines sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity and that integrates agroecological, climatic and socio-economic variables to evaluate the national and spatial pattern of maize yield vulnerability to droughts in Uganda. The results show that maize yields in the north of Uganda are more vulnerable to droughts than in the south and nationally. Adaptive capacity is higher in the south of the country than in the north. Maize yields also record higher levels of sensitivity and exposure in the north of Uganda than in the south. Latitudinally, it is observed that maize yields in Uganda tend to record higher levels of vulnerability, exposure and sensitivity towards higher latitudes, while in contrast, the adaptive capacity of maize yields is higher towards the lower latitudes. In addition to lower precipitation levels in the north of the country, these observations can also be explained by poor soil quality in most of the north and socio-economic proxies, such as, higher poverty and lower literacy rates in the north of Uganda.
Nanteza, Barbara; Galukande, Moses; Aceng, Jane; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Mbonye, Anthony K; Mukooyo, Eddie; Behumize, Prosper; Makumbi, Fredrick
The successful scale-up of safe male circumcision (SMC) in Uganda has been hinged on client's safety and quality of services. However, after the recent three tetanus deaths after circumcision a review of all tetanus cases in one of the hospitals where the cases occurred was initiated. This was to ascertain the potential for an association between tetanus infection and circumcision. Routinely collected national data were also reviewed to determine the burden of tetanus in Uganda and contextualize these incidents. A review of medical charts of tetanus cases identified from the inpatients registry at Masafu hospital, Busia district for the period 2009/2010-2013/2014. Data were abstracted from the inpatients registries, charts and HMIS annual reports, and a key informant interview conducted with the in-charge of the ward that treats tetanus patients. All quantitative data were captured in an electronic database. Routine facility data from the National District health Information Software-2 (DHIS-2) for all the 112 districts were also used. Descriptive analysis and Poisson regression models were used for statistical analysis using STATA version 13.0. Data from the routine DHIS-2 showed a high and increasing burden of tetanus from the emergency/out-patient department records over the 4 year period, highest among females aged 5+ years in all the regions. At the Masafa hospital, the chart review revealed a total of 25 tetanus cases and all were males. Nearly a third (32 %) was aged 7-15 years, with no evidence of circumcision apart from only one case. The rate of tetanus infection among male inpatients over the review period was 2-6 per 1000. The case fatality rate was nearly a half (47.4 %) with deaths occurring within 2 days after admission, and rates of patients' self-discharge against medical advice were high, 36.8 %. The most common tetanus entry wounds were due to road traffic accidents, followed by diabetic foot. Anti-tetanus serum was only not readily
Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira
As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country.
Full Text Available Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.
Nanyunja, Miriam; Nabyonga Orem, Juliet; Kato, Frederick; Kaggwa, Mugagga; Katureebe, Charles; Saweka, Joaquim
Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ) was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.
Amanda R Johnston
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is prevalent in tropical settings where diverse opportunities exist for transmission between people and animals. We conducted a cross-sectional study of G. duodenalis in people, livestock, and wild primates near Kibale National Park, Uganda, where human-livestock-wildlife interaction is high due to habitat disturbance. Our goal was to infer the cross-species transmission potential of G. duodenalis using molecular methods and to investigate clinical consequences of infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Real-time PCR on DNA extracted from fecal samples revealed a combined prevalence of G. duodenalis in people from three villages of 44/108 (40.7%, with prevalence reaching 67.5% in one village. Prevalence rates in livestock and primates were 12.4% and 11.1%, respectively. Age was associated with G. duodenalis infection in people (higher prevalence in individuals
Tiemann, L. K.; Hartter, J.; Grandy, S.
Food security issues are particularly acute in Uganda, where the world's 8th highest population growth rate will lead to cultivation of all land available for agriculture by 2022. Agricultural intensification in Uganda, which includes continuous cropping, mono-cropping and expansion of agriculture into marginal areas, has put unprecedented pressure on soils. In western Uganda, we surveyed 474 households, collecting demographic data, information on land use practices and perceptions of risk to crop yields and food security. We also sampled soils from maize fields associated with each surveyed household and measured total organic C and nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Using these data, we sought to determine how risk perceptions, ethnicity, household wealth and education combine to determine land use decisions and ultimately, declines in soil organic matter and soil nutrients. We conducted our study within 5 km of an un-cultivated native tropical forest reserve, Kibale National Park (KNP), which serves as a reference point for potential soil fertility. Of 470 respondents, only 29 answered `no' when asked if they noticed year to year declines in crop yields. Across all maize fields we found soil C has been reduced by 30% and soil N by 45% relative to KNP soils and declines were more pronounced when survey respondents were Bakiga rather than Batooro. Households that indicated they were "very much" dependent upon profits from maize had a 31% increase in soil C:N while those indicating no dependence on maize profits had a significantly lower increase in soil C:N of 21%. Ethnicity and education influenced land use decisions; the Batooro and people with a lower level of education were more likely to burn their fields or crop residues. Additionally, the Bakiga were more likely to use rock P in their fields and in consequence had 108% while Batooro soils had 65% of the P found in KNP soils. Across all respondents, the top two ranked risks to crop yields and
Full Text Available Information communication technology has increased globalisation in higher learning institution all over the world. This has been achieved through introduction of systems that ease operations related to information handling in the institutions. The paper assessed and analysed the information systems security performance status in higher learning institutions of Uganda. The existing policies that govern the information security have also been analysed together with the current status of information systems security in Uganda. Citations related management of information systems security and policies have been identified and analysed. A proposed model illustrating the effective management of information in higher learning institutions have been developed. Relevant recommendations and conclusions have also been developed.
Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal
Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers...... and cholera epidemics. In order to respond to the above situation, a team of researchers, policy makers, civil society and the media was formed in order to build a collaboration that would help in discussing appropriate strategies to mitigate the high disease burden in Uganda....
Full Text Available Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM. Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.
Albert, Mugenyi; Wardrop, Nicola A; Atkinson, Peter M; Torr, Steve J; Welburn, Susan C
Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression) involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes) points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes) and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM). Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.
Tiemann, L. K.; Grandy, S.; Hartter, J.
As the foundation of soil fertility, soil organic matter (SOM) formation and break-down is a critical factor of agroecosystem sustainability. In tropical systems where soils are quickly weathered, the link between SOM and soil fertility is particularly strong; however, the mechanisms controlling the stabilization and destabilization of SOM are not well characterized in tropical soils. In western Uganda, we collected soil samples under different levels of land use intensity including maize fields, banana plantations and inside an un-cultivated native tropical forest, Kibale National Park (KNP). To better understand the link between land use intensity and SOM stability we measured total soil C and N, and respiration rates during a 369 d soil incubation. In addition, we separated soils into particle size fractions, and mineral adsorbed SOM in the silt (2-50 μm ) and clay (organic carbon (SOC) pools have been depleted by 55-59% in cultivated soils. As a result of this depletion, the chemical composition of SOM has been altered such that clay and silt associated SOM differed significantly between agricultural fields and KNP. In particular, nitrogen containing compounds were in lower abundance in agricultural compared to KNP soils. This suggests that N depletion due to agriculture has advanced to pools of mineral associated organic N that are typically protected from break-down. In areas where land use intensity is relatively greater, increases in polysaccharides and lipids in maize fields compared to KNP indicate increases in microbial residues and decomposition by-products as microbes mine SOM for organic N. Chemical characterization of post-incubation SOM will help us better understand how microbes preferentially break-down SOM. Agricultural intensification over the past decade in western Uganda has depleted SOC, on average, by 1427 g m-2. In addition, depletion of organic nitrogen reserves in stable SOM pools corresponds with reported declines in crop yields and
Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.
M.E. Presa García
Las enfermedades y lesiones no de combate han sido y siguen siendo en nuestros días una amenaza muy importante para nuestras tropas. Entre ellas, las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores artrópodos ocupan un lugar importante, como es el caso del paludismo en Uganda. La prevención Sanitaria incluye una fase previa al despliegue, una fase de despliegue y otra fase posterior al despliegue. Durante nuestra misión en Uganda se ha perseguido cada una de estas fases para hacer frente a este riesgo...
Papworth, Sarah; Böse, Anne-Sophie; Barker, Jessie
Male blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni) of Budongo Forest, Uganda, produce two acoustically distinct alarm calls: hacks to crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and pyows to leopards (Panthera pardus) and a range of other disturbances. In playback experiments, males responded...... to leopard growls exclusively with a series of pyows and to eagle shrieks predominantly with hacks. Responses to playbacks of these alarm call series matched the responses to the corresponding predators, suggesting that the calls conveyed something about the nature of the threat. When responding to a series...... of hacks, indicating an eagle, males responded predominately with hacks, but produced significantly more calls if their group members were close to the playback stimulus than far away, regardless of their own position. When responding to a series of pyows, indicating a range of disturbances, males...
Okware, S I; Omaswa, F G; Zaramba, S; Opio, A; Lutwama, J J; Kamugisha, J; Rwaguma, E B; Kagwa, P; Lamunu, M
An outbreak of Ebola disease was reported from Gulu district, Uganda, on 8 October 2000. The outbreak was characterized by fever and haemorrhagic manifestations, and affected health workers and the general population of Rwot-Obillo, a village 14 km north of Gulu town. Later, the outbreak spread to other parts of the country including Mbarara and Masindi districts. Response measures included surveillance, community mobilization, case and logistics management. Three coordination committees were formed: National Task Force (NTF), a District Task Force (DTF) and an Interministerial Task Force (IMTF). The NTF and DTF were responsible for coordination and follow-up of implementation of activities at the national and district levels, respectively, while the IMTF provided political direction and handled sensitive issues related to stigma, trade, tourism and international relations. The international response was coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO) under the umbrella organization of the Global Outbreak and Alert Response Network. A WHO/CDC case definition for Ebola was adapted and used to capture four categories of cases, namely, the 'alert', 'suspected', 'probable' and 'confirmed cases'. Guidelines for identification and management of cases were developed and disseminated to all persons responsible for surveillance, case management, contact tracing and Information Education Communication (IEC). For the duration of the epidemic that lasted up to 16 January 2001, a total of 425 cases with 224 deaths were reported countrywide. The case fatality rate was 53%. The attack rate (AR) was highest in women. The average AR for Gulu district was 12.6 cases/10 000 inhabitants when the contacts of all cases were considered and was 4.5 cases/10 000 if limited only to contacts of laboratory confirmed cases. The secondary AR was 2.5% when nearly 5000 contacts were followed up for 21 days. Uganda was finally declared Ebola free on 27 February 2001, 42 days after the last case
Bin Mushambanyi Théodore Munyuli
Full Text Available On-farm pollination experiments were conducted in 30 different small-scale coffee fields to determine monetary value attributable to pollination services in coffee production and to identify the degree of influences of various socio-ecological drivers in Uganda. Ecological-economic approaches were applied to determine the economic value of pollinating services. Economic value of bees increased significantly with increase in coffee farm size, bee diversity, and cover of seminatural habitats. The value of bees declined sharply (P<0.05 with forest distance and cultivation intensity. Economic values of pollinating services associated with coffee fields established in regions with low intensity were found to be high. Organically managed small-scale coffee fields were 2 times more profitable than commercially managed farms. The annual value of pollinating services delivered by wild bees oscillated between US$67.18 and US$1431.36. Central Uganda produces in total 0.401 million tons of coffee beans for an approximate economic value of US$214 million from which US$149.42 million are attributable to pollination services. Policy makers should strengthen environmental/agricultural extension service systems to better serve farmers. Farmers are recommended to protect/increase the cover of natural and semi-natural habitats in the vicinity of their coffee fields to receive high economic benefits from pollinating services delivered by bees.
DN Dijxhoorn, A Boutall, CJ Mulder, R Ssebuufu, A Mall, S Kalungi, C Baigrie, PA Goldberg. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: Colorectal cancer, HNPCC, Endoscopy, Uganda, Histopathology, Lynch syndrome. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
To help HIV care clinics improve FP provision for their clients, the Uganda. Ministry of Health (UMOH) ... and given the WHO counseling tools. With technical assistance and coaching from the core team, we ... sites (61.5%) used peer counselors to share FP information with other patients. The sites that used this approach ...
minister of tourism and wildlife . Ali had been Amin’s minister of finance, so this was a significant expansion of the principle of broad-based...123 M anufacturing ............................... 125 M ining .................................... 128 TOURISM ...178 Regional Organizations ........................ 180 Kenya and Tanzania .......................... 181 Uganda’s Other Neighbors-Sudan, Rwanda
Jun 1, 2006 ... consolidation in Uganda. It argues that civil society organisations (CSOs) play an .... come, in a phrase 'the only game in town,' behaviourally, attitudinally ... Civil society is a locus for recruiting new political leadership. Those who .... NGOs, in my opinion, are a mixed blessing whose main effect is to worsen.
One can not derive a iot of information from "Ankole and. Koki surfaces". Where do we go from here? Harmonization is necessary so as to decide on which methods and systems of classification to use in Uganda. This is crucial especially at this time when the national environment information system is in place. Updating of.
Research objectives were to understand the relationship between sexual, domestic and civil violence and the transmission of. HIV/AIDS in Uganda. The focus of this paper is on forced marital sex within the context of Ugandan marital and steady partner relations. Qualitative unstructured interviews were conducted in focus ...
Background : Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) cover a variety of pathological conditions including goitre, mental retardation and perinatal mortality in millions of individuals globally. IDD was initially identified as a problem in 1970 and was confirmed in 1991. In 1993, the Uganda government introduced a policy of Universal ...
... DISASTERS, DISASTER PREPAREDNESS, DISASTER MANAGEMENT. Région: Kenya, Malawi, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South of Sahara. Programme: Changements climatiques. Financement total : CA$ 1,398,500.00. Analyse sexospécifique et générationnelle des conflits armés et ...
Background: Bwamba virus (Genus Bunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae) is widely distributed in Africa. It causes many unidentified fevers because of its benign nature. Objectives: Samples of blood from patients were received at Uganda Virus Research Institute for diagnosis and confirmation of infections. Mosquito collections ...
The following social security systems exist in Uganda: formal social security schemes targeting the employed, community groups that serve only group members, kinship-based solidarity groups that serve the extended family and village residents' mutual assistance groups, which are compulsory for all adults in the villages ...
In addition, the success is attributed to the policy which allowed many actors to participate in the fight against the disease. The primary focus of this article is to map the process of social capital generation by NGOs and how social capital benefits enhance mitigation of HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda. The key to social capital ...
Waller & Bridge) attacks arabic a coffee in most African arabica coffee growing countries. The disease was first recorded in Uganda in 1959 and surveys on the disease indicated that up to 50% crop losses were being incurred. Most of the ...
We conducted three focus group discussions with adolescents in an urban area in Uganda to understand their perceptions of sexual coercion, and to identify, from their point of view, how coercion can be addressed. Data were collected to inform the development of an Internet-based programme for young people, tailored to ...
Improvement of local cassava germ plasm in Uganda. G. N. Ssemakula, Y.K Baguma, Remco vanderGrift, G. W. Otlm-Nape, (r. A cola a1rd J. Orone. Namulonge Agricultural and Animal Production. Research ln:;titule (NAARf). P.O.B<)x. 7084, Kampala. Abstract. Use of local varieties in cassava gcrmplasm improvement has ...
Richard Byaruhanga1, J. Thomas Roland Jr.2, Gustav Buname1, Emily Kakande1,. Michael Awubwa1, Chris Ndorelire1, Justine Namwagala1. 1. Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University,. Kampala, Uganda. 2. Department of Otolaryngology, Professor and Chair, ...
Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.
The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop
The first field study in Uganda of schistosomiasis pathologies using ultrasound was that conducted in West Nile in Obongi, Rhino Camp and Pundu in 1991 and reviewed in 1992. These armless and none invasive method of pathologies detection has the advantage of repeatability. It showed that after treatment there was ...
established (Rose and Williams, 1970), it has operated withiil the policy .... Most soils in Uganda have their fertility confmed to the top soils which ... participatory framework. Proposal for intervention has been developed. - AHI: SLM and soil fertility improvement. -wetland research. -effect of agrochemicals; - classification and.
May 1, 2007 ... for the care and support of orphans. UWESO has over. 7 500 women members across Uganda who voluntarily foster orphans and/or monitor orphans in their villages. NACWOLA addresses bereavement as a neglected issue in orphan support programmes, and works to break the silence on HIV/AIDS in.
The price of antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in Uganda has fallen dramatically in recent years and more people are under treatment. By mid-2003 it was estimated that 10 000 people were taking ARVs. Drawing on participant observation, qualitative interviews, work with key informants and document reviews, we seek to map ...
Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.
Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687
Rice bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae) is a major constraint to rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in Uganda and as part of strategies to develop resistant cultivars, it is important to evaluate resistance of commonly used cultivars. A full-diallel mating design involving three resistant and three susceptible rice ...
Health services in five participating districts are using the Uganda Health Information Network (UHIN) to send and receive disease surveillance data, health management reports, reports on drug supplies and use, and continuing education materials. This phase aims to fully integrate the Network into the Ministry of Health ...
End Date: August 6, 2012. Topic: SANITARY FACILITIES, SANITATION SERVICES, TOILETS, GENDER ANALYSIS. Region: Kenya, Uganda, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 488,600.00. Prefabricated Engineered Bamboo Housing for East Africa. Project.
supported by cassava, unstaked and staked, respectively. It was concluded that centro seed could be easily and economically produced on a sustainable basis by small~scale farmers ::rowing cassava in Uganda. Key words: Cassava, cropping system, net return, seed price. Introduction. Centro ( Centrosema pubescens) is ...
Jun 28, 2016 ... EPRC's research found that Uganda's soils were no longer fertile, and that fertilizer was required to bolster soil nutrients for better agricultural yields. The process to develop the fertilizer policy, the first that EPRC initiated using their research evidence, commenced in 2010. The strong case for the use of ...
Jan 11, 2018 ... As a result of this gender budgeting work, Uganda has seen increased female representation and participation in governance, more access to funds for women, and gender parity in primary education. That being said, there is still a long way to go, and the government views gender inequality as one of the ...
2014a,b). This pest thus poses a serious threat to both coffee and cocoa production in Uganda, and therefore, calls for prompt comprehensive mitigation actions (Kagezi et al., 2013a,b, 2014a,b,c,d). Damage is caused by the female beetle by boring a characteristic pin-sized entry hole into the attacked seedlings and/or.
Jun 23, 2014 ... The Ministry of Water and Environment is also interested in expanding the project across Uganda. Moreover, the project has attracted attention from the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), a social and economic development organization with 19 member states, which may take it ...
Montgomery, Lorna; Owen-Pugh, Valerie
Therapeutic interventions for bereavement in Northern Ireland and in the Sub-Saharan African country of Uganda are compared. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Ugandan (n = 18) and Northern Irish (n = 20) therapists. These were thematically analysed. The findings focused on: the counselling context, the characteristics of counsellors,…
Mubiru, Drake N.; Komutunga, Everline; Agona, Ambrose
Uganda is vulnerable to climate change as most of its agriculture is rain-fed; agriculture is also the backbone of the economy, and the livelihoods of many people depend upon it. Variability in rainfall may be reflected in the productivity of agricultural systems and pronounced variability may re...
Sep 10, 2012 ... This study assessed quality of ANC services in eastern Uganda with a goal of .... For example the infection control facilities index had eight variables in .... this is typical of the situation of health workers in Sub Saharan Africa .... Utilisation of postnatal care in Bangladesh: evidence from a longitudinal study.
The main areas for cowpea cultivation in Uganda were surveyed in June and October 2006 for viruses affecting the crop. Seed and leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants were collected from farmers' fields and analysed for infecting viruses using double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent ...
policy issues relating to the role of public research (and Uganda's new national agricultural research system) are discussed. Introduction ..... Again, a precise description of the nature of the problem is required. Shortage of seed for a particular crop. There are various reasons why farmers may not be able to plant as much of ...
Wellens, Inneke Hilda Werner
At present, about 25,000 Nubi live scattered over the towns of Uganda and Kenya. Their language, Nubi, has been called an Arabic creole. Nubi is Arabic, since about 90% of its vocabulary is of Arabic nature. It is termed a creole, since many of its structural and developmental features resemble
The rangelands of Uganda used to be historically managed under traditional systems where grazers had open access with mobility as a main coping strategy to drought. Changes in ... Individualisation of land in Nakasongola led to settlement of cultivators and fencing of land leading to blockage of livestock migration routes.
This century is faced with many challenges which require investment in higher education to provide a sense of direction. This research was undertaken to specifically identify the funding modalities, effectiveness, challenges and opportunities in Uganda. The research employed the qualitative approaches. The two ...
Okot-Okumu, J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.
After presenting background information on urbanization in Uganda, the chapter provides an overview of sanitation in the urban centres, where different social classes reside in separate zones. Factors determining sanitation provision and the use of sanitary facilities particularly in the informal
The highlands of southwestern Uganda account for the bulk of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) produced and consumed in the country. ... limiting nutrient, though the effect manifested in terms of the intensity of BNF indicators, followed by nitrogen, that manifested at later stages of crop growth influencing stover and grain yield.
as findings of other researches such as UN reports about decentralisation and service delivery in Uganda. Based on these .... Measuring the Achievements of Decentralisation. In the discussion above, I have ... measures one can use to identify levels of achievement, namely, efficiency, economy, effectiveness, performance ...
Relative efficiency of sawmill types operating in Uganda's softwood plantations · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Robert Kyeyune Kambugu, Abwoli Y. Banana, Ahamada Zziwa, Jacob Godfrey Agea, John R.S. Kaboggoza, 14-19 ...
Objective: To analyse the effect of cards and of vitamin A supplementation on coverage for National Immunisation Days (NIDs). Design: A retrospective ecological study. Setting: A countrywide NIDs coverage before and after introduction of the NIDs cards and vitamin A supplementation in all districts of Uganda. Methods: ...
Start Date: September 7, 2010. End Date: December 7, 2014. Topic: Capacity building, TRAINING, RESEARCH WORKERS, TESTING, HIV, AIDS, PROPHYLAXIS, VACCINES, VACCINATION, Immunization. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Kenya, Uganda. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ ...
The article argues that in a patriarchal, multiethnic and multi religious country like Uganda, where people's lives are governed mainly by customary and religious laws, it is difficult to realize gender equality. Only a radical secular law reform as opposed to legal pluralism can truly emancipate women. If the state endorses ...
Abstract: Introduction: Since the establishment of the Uganda Rheumatic Heart Registry, over 900 patients have been enrolled. We sought to stratify the patients in the registry according to disease severity and optimal management strategy. Methods: We reviewed data of 618 patients who had enrolled in the Registry ...
Background: Childbirth injuries are common in Uganda. This paper describes our experience with Vesico-vaginal Fistula repair and aftercare. Methods: Between 1999 and 2003, 341 consecutive patients underwent VVF repair complicating childbirth trauma. Another 29 VVF patients were seen but not operated because of ...
Beyond ICT4D: New Media Research in Uganda is a collection of ethnographic reports from diverse perspectives of those living at the other end of the African ICT pyramid. Crucially, these texts refocus on the so-called "ICT4D" debate away from the standard western lens, which depicts users in the
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 40, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Butterflies of Uganda: Memories ...
The goal of political decentralisation was to promote people's participation in the democratic process of Uganda. This took the form of Administrative Units – Resistance Councils (RC)1 running from the village to district levels. Financial decentralisation, on the other hand, attempted to assign responsibilities and taxes ...
Background: There are numerous reports from different countries documenting a change in frequency and profile of lymphomas after the onset of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In Uganda little is known concerning the distribution of lymphoma subtypes diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Makerere University College of ...
cattle corridor of Uganda over 27 years (1986 –2013), and their impacts on livestock management under drought induced pasture. ... degradation of rangelands, reduced the resilience of pastoral systems to drought and increased their vulnerability to climate ..... grassland ecosystem is a complex process attributed to ...
Soil erosion is a serious problem in the densely populated Uganda highlands and previous interventions were ineffective. This study, on the Ngenge watershed, Mount Elgon, was aimed at developing policy for the implementation of a new strategy for solving the problem, Integrated Watershed Management
Poor nutrition and health can affect children's education. The nutritional status of school children (9-15 years) was assessed in Kumi district, Eastern Uganda in 2006-2007. Selection of schools was done using modified cluster sampling involving 34 schools (n= 645). Assessments for nutritional status were done ...
In recent years ULA has emphasized advocacy, and contributed to progress towards new legislation (freedom of information, copyright, the National Library Act) and policies (school libraries, East African Community e-government strategy) of importance to the library and information field in Uganda and beyond.
Sleeping sickness in Uganda: revisiting current and historical distributions. L Berrang-Ford, M Odiit, F Maiso, D Waltner-Toews, J McDermott. Abstract. Background: Sleeping sickness is a parasitic, vector-borne disease, carried by the tsetse fly and prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease continues to pose a public ...
... of Inequality. Across regions we also see some divergence in welfare distribution and it is conclusively clear that welfare is unequally distributed in Uganda. The poor are sharing very little of the benefits of growth, while the rich are enjoying the greatest share of the benefits. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review ...
response from the use of some green manures (Wortmann et al, 1994; Fischer, 1997). The usual source of bulky organic manures is the dung and bedding of domestic animals. In Uganda, the pa11ly decomposed accumulations of animal manures were usually used. In very few cases was this supply sufficient to meet.
Background: The rate of unintentional child injuries in sub-Saharan Africa is at 53.1 per 100,000, The highest for low income regions, data on these injuries and associated factors among children in Uganda is very scanty. Most child injuries are related to the way of life in rural communities typically burns from charcoal ...
Health information systems are an important pillar of functioning health systems, providing ongoing data collection to support planning and decision-making that is ... surveys, create the impetus for collecting health information data, and to nurture a culture of evidence-based planning and decision-making in North Uganda.
End Date: September 17, 2009. Topic: PEACE RESEARCH, CONFLICT RESOLUTION, ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Somalia, Uganda, Sudan. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 364,500.00. Mozambique Health Information Network.
As part of a biological assessment of Toro Game Reserve, the status of Uganda kob Kobus kob Thomasi Newmann, was studied. A survey of traditional mating grounds, foot transects and opportunistic sightings was used to determine population size and structure. The influences of habitat, predation and poaching intensity ...
In order to identify independent predictors for home delivery, 211 women from 21 clusters, who had a delivery in the previous one year, were interviewed in Rakai District, Uganda, from June 2 to 30, 1997. Mothers answered questions regarding socio-economic, local, reproductive and self-efficacy variables and whether ...
End Date: 31 mars 2015. Sujet: CONFLICTS, CAPITAL MOVEMENTS, STATE, Economic and social development, MILITARY ACTIVITY. Région: Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Gouvernance et justice.
Inclusive mechanisms of governance and justice targeting youth to counter violent extremism in the IGAD region. Project. This project's objective is to examine opportunities for ... Topic: SMALL FARMS, MEDIUM SCALE INDUSTRY, Evaluation, CANADA, EAST AFRICA. Region: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Canada, United ...
In Uganda most cancers to the exception of bladder and penis are increasing in incidence. The incidence of cancer of stomach is 5.6/100,000 from 0.8/100,000 in the 1960s a seven fold increase.The purpose of this guideline document is to highlight the salient points in gastric cancer diagnosis and treatment in the ...
This study was conducted to examine the performance of the student loan scheme in Uganda. Making reference to related literature, views of selected stakeholders, and the performance of government's earlier lending programmes, the study identifies gaps in the performance of the scheme. These are in the areas of ...
Innovation has been recognised as a major source of modern productivity and constitutes a central process of economic development and in the case of developing countries, poverty reduction. However, Sub-Saharan Africa, and particular Uganda, has been left out in innovation because of the concentration
The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management agitates for provision of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) which seem to be effective in developed countries. However, efforts to control artisanal fisheries through protection have not been adequately assessed. The Uganda portion of Lake Edward, Kazinga channel and ...
The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management agitates for provision of Marine Protected. Areas (MPAs) which seem to be effective in developed countries. However, efforts to control artisanal fisheries through protection have not been adequately assessed. The Uganda portion of. Lake Edward, Kazinga channel and ...
We assess its value as a potential planning tool, based on the growing evidence that Uganda aspires to a robust Protected Area system that encompasses protection of biodiversity at the genetic, species and ecosystem levels. Analyses are presented of the coverage of 21 major vegetation types, and of species of birds and ...
Common fish diseases and parasites affecting wild and farmed Tilapia and catfish in Central and Western Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. J Walakira, P Akoll, M Engole, M Sserwadda, M Nkambo, V Namulawa, G Kityo, F Musimbi, I Abaho, ...
Effect of paddy drying depth using open-sun drying on drying time and mill recovery of Kaiso variety in eastern Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Candia, TE Oker, J Muzei, J Olupot, J Yawe, B Emapus, W Okiror, 37 - 47 ...
To access information and information materials, readers need to be literate about their reading needs. ... The paper stresses the need for promoting a reading culture in Uganda by providing networking and strategic alliances among the stakeholders with respect to existing facilities and efforts and by integrating them into ...
Background: Utilization of religious institutions is one of the strategies for HIV prevention in Uganda. There is limited data on the association between religiosity and HIV infection rates. Objective: To determine the association between religiosity and HIV prevalence rates among Christians. Methods: An unmatched ...
Eesti üliõpilaskondade liidu juhatuse aseesimees M.-L. Alop kirjutab vastuse M. Heidmetsa artiklile 6. jaan. Eesti Päevalehes "Eestis nagu Ugandas", kus tõstatati Eestis üldise õppemaksu kehtestamise vajadus, mis vähendab vähem kindlustatute võimalusi kõrgharidust omandada
In eastern and southern Africa, most yogurt production is carried out by industries using large-scale fermentation technologies to target urban consumers. Start Date: August 11, 2015. Topic: SMALL FARMS, MEDIUM SCALE INDUSTRY, Evaluation, CANADA, EAST AFRICA. Region: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Canada, ...
May 29, 2017 ... Production and utilisation of mungbean (Vigna radiata) in Uganda is constrained by unavailability of improved and farmer-preferred varieties. The objective of this study was to document and assess farmers' preference for mungbean using eleven introduced genotypes. We captured twenty five traits during ...
Background: Diverticular disease of the colon has been reported to be a disease of the western world, however of recent it has been described in the Africans. Objective: To study the clinical, demographic and radiological features of diverticular disease of the colon in Kampala, Uganda. Methods: A retrospective and ...
Experiences with micro finance in improving rural livelihoods: a case for the Farmesa project in East and Southern Africa with focus on Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. R W Odogola, W B Wanzira, P Anandajayasekeram, J Aluma, J Asege, ...
Background: The Islamic University Habib Medical School in Uganda (IUIU), in collaboration with Doctors Worldwide (DWW) from Turkey, organized a surgical camp in April 2014. In this camp, different types of hernia repair, among other general surgical procedures were conducted. The target population was the ...
Keywords: ICC, conflict transformation, Uganda, international justice, LRA. .... focuses on the long term strategies of transforming conflict in northern ... 2. Methodology. A qualitative methodology was used for the research. Data for the research was collated from in-depth interviews, and from answers to questionnaires.
Introduction: Since the establishment of the Uganda Rheumatic Heart Registry, over 900 patients have been enrolled. We sought to stratify the patients in the registry according to disease severity and optimal management strategy. Methods: We reviewed data of 618 patients who had enrolled in the Registry between March ...
A Surge of Interest in Uganda's Art Deco. Vivian Craddock Williams. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/uj.v46i1.23038 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...
do not have pathologists or radiologists. We therefore present a case of Gorham's disease which was initially thought to be a malignant disease, diagnosed in Mulago. Teaching Hospital in Uganda. CASE REPORT. A 27 year-old male presented to the Orthopaedic out- patient clinic with a 5 month history of a painful mass.
Background: Most countries in sub-Saharan Africa have not conducted a disaster risk analysis. Hazards and vulnerability analyses provide vital information that can be used for development of risk reduction and disaster response plans. The purpose of this study was to rank disaster hazards for Uganda, as a basis for ...
Six sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.( cultivars, 'Bwanjule,' 'New Kawogo,' ' Tanzania,' 'Tororo 3', ' Wagabolige' and 'Sowola ' were officially released by the Variety Release Committee. These were the first sweetpotato cultivars to be officially released in Uganda, where sweetpotato is an important food crop.
Uganda's only alkaline lakes are found in the Queen Elizabeth Conservation Area and the adjoining Kyambura Wildlife Reserve. ... The lakes are important scenically, for ecotourism, and for the conservation of waterbirds and plants; whilst Lake Katwe's traditional production of salt is of considerable economic significance.
nutrition, attendance of antenatal care, immunisation and discouraging behaviours such as excessive alcohol consumption.5,6,7 In addition this encourages the maximum utilization of the few available health workers thereby improving accessibility. Integrating mental health into primary health care –. Uganda's experience.
Dreise, Marieke; Galiwango, George; Hodges, Andrew
Objective: The purpose of the study was to estimate the need for resources for cleft repairs in Uganda by determining the overall incidence of oral-facial clefts and the ratio of isolated cleft lip to isolated cleft palate to cleft lip and palate. Design: A 1-year prospective study was implemented
Background: When guns fell silent in the post conflict northern Uganda, another form of physical injuries has come in place, Domestic Violence also commonly referred to as Gender based violence. This injury from violence leading to physical trauma is one of the leading public health problems in this region. We describe ...
Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) can play an important role in helping communities prepare for and adapt to the effects of climate change. Various projects can attest to the potential of using emerging technologies such as mobile phones and ...
A series of biodiversity and socio-economic surveys carried out in the Sango Bay area of southern Uganda revealed high biodiversity values for some taxa in some sites. Use of this biodiversity and reliance on it by local communities was widespread. Biodiversity scores were given to all species and these were coupled with ...
Les budgets sont des outils nécessaires à la traduction des promesses et des engagements des gouvernements en programmes et en services. Région: Senegal, Uganda. Programme: Think Tank Initiative. Financement total : CA$ 249,900.00. Emploi des jeunes et autonomisation économique des femmes en Afrique : le ...
Ronald, Allan; Kamya, Moses; Katabira, Elly; Scheld, W Michael; Sewankambo, Nelson
The Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, was created in 2001. This article outlines its origins, principles, clinical programs, training activities, research programs, organizational structure, leadership, and contributions to Makerere University and its College of Health Sciences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
It also addresses the problem of assessing the impact of law on conflict through the use of an analytical framework that is based on four variables: deterrence, victims' rights, reconciliation, and accountability to the law. Relying on this framework, and on a report of a field research project in Uganda, it argues that the ICC's ...
Background: Since the year 2000, Uganda has experienced repeated outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF). Ebola VHF outbreak occurred in the districts of Gulu in 2000, Bundibugyo, 2007, Luwero, 2011, Kibaale in July 2012, Luwero in November 2012. Marburg VHF was earlier reported in Ibanda in 2007.
Nov 10, 2010 ... The introduction of cellular telephony has revolutionized Uganda's communication industry, increasing national teledensity by 350% since the first ... Moreover, PDAs were found to be an extremely efficient tool for conducting surveys to determine the prevalence of disease such as measles or malaria.
May 26, 2016 ... Project Leader: E. van Eck. Project Number: 2400030 ... With all that has been written on the Law one wonders if there is anything left to be said. It sounds to be a boring topic to write ... Lutheran Church of Uganda have the same understanding and interpretation of the Law as the Reformer? Is Luther's ...
Abstract. Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of death among children under five years of age. Pneumonia deaths could be averted if caretakers recognized the danger signs and sought appropriate treatment promptly. Methods: We interviewed 278 caretakers in Mukono district Uganda, whose under-five children ...
Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of death among children under five years of age. Pneumonia deaths could be averted if caretakers recognized the danger signs and sought appropriate treatment promptly. Methods: We interviewed 278 caretakers in Mukono district Uganda, whose under-five children had ...
This study examines in what ways and to what extent microfinance services facilitate the empowerment of married rural women in Nebbi district, northwestern Uganda. In particular, it examines the gender relations inherent in the livelihood practices of the community, the changes in well-being (if
... students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students.
This article reviews the role of the print media in conflict resolution. Using Northern Uganda as a case study, the article seeks to demonstrate that the press can effectively be used either to fuel conflict in a region or to reduce conflict in a region. The article seeks to demonstrate the role played by the print media in conflict and ...
May 29, 2015 ... heated debates, protests, despondency and a deep sense of betrayal. Conversely, advocates of kisanja and open-ended tenure harped on the need for Museveni's continued stewardship and his 'progressive and visionary leadership' for the transformation of Uganda and for unity in East Africa (see.
Information on weeds of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in eastern Africa is limited. The objective of this study was to establish the status of weed flora in selected cassava growing regions of Uganda. This study was conducted in 2013 at Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute; (AbiZARDI) in Arua, ...
Full Text Available Jackson K Mukonzo,1,2 Proscovia M Namuwenge,1 Gildo Okure,3 Benjamin Mwesige,1 Olivia K Namusisi,4 David Mukanga4 1Center for Operational Research Africa, Kampala, Uganda; 2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 3School of Public Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 4African Field Epidemiologist Network, Kampala, Uganda Background: Overuse and misuse of antibiotics is a serious global problem. While resistance to older antibiotics is increasing, development of newer molecules has stalled. Resistance to the existing antibiotics that is largely driven by their high-volume use is a global public health problem. Uganda is one of the countries where prescription-only drugs, including antibiotics, can be obtained over the counter. We determined the rate of antibiotic dispensing and use in Uganda. Methods: The study utilized a descriptive cross-sectional study design to determine the number of antibiotic "prescribed" daily doses per 1,000 clients. Data were collected from one health center II, eight general/district hospitals, one national referral hospital, and 62 registered community pharmacies. From each study site, data were collected for five consecutive days over the months of November 2011 to January 2012. Results: The overall antibiotic issue rate was 43.2%. Amoxicillin, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole–trimethoprim, cloxacillin, and ampicillin, belonging to the WHO anatomical therapeutic chemical classifications of penicillin with extended spectra, imidazole derivatives, fluoroquinolones, and sulfonamide–trimethoprim combinations, constituted 70% of the issued antibiotics. About 41% of antibiotics were issued over the counter. At community pharmacies, where 30% of antibiotic dispensing occurred, the number of prescribed daily doses/1,000 antibiotic clients was 4,169 compared to 6,220, 7,350 and 7,500 at general/district hospitals, the national referral hospital, and the health center, respectively. Conclusion
This paper examines the livelihood strategies of South Sudanese refugees who fled to northern Uganda. Civil war broke out in December 2013 in South Sudan and there were 1.6 million internally displaced persons and 265, 700 refugees as of October 2015. Nearly 184, 000 refugees have fled to Uganda and many of them have been protected in refugee settlements in the Adjumani District of northwestern Uganda, a district that borders South Sudan. This research was conducted in December 2014, August 2...
Gumisiriza, Robert; Hawumba, Joseph Funa; Okure, Mackay; Hensel, Oliver
Background Uganda?s banana industry is heavily impeded by the lack of cheap, reliable and sustainable energy mainly needed for processing of banana fruit into pulp and subsequent drying into chips before milling into banana flour that has several uses in the bakery industry, among others. Uganda has one of the lowest electricity access levels, estimated at only 2?3% in rural areas where most of the banana growing is located. In addition, most banana farmers have limited financial capacity to ...
Nargis, Nigar; Nyamurungi, Kellen; Baine, Sebastian Olakira; Kadobera, Daniel
The economic cost of tobacco use is well documented in high-income countries. It has been measured in relatively fewer low-and middle-income countries, and much less in sub-Saharan Africa despite the longstanding recognition of significant current and future health risk to people attributed by tobacco use in this region. This article fills this gap by estimating the economic cost of tobacco use in Uganda, a low-income country in sub-Saharan Africa. This study estimates the economic cost of tobacco use in Uganda using the cost-of-illnesses approach based on data collected from a survey of patients and caregivers in four major service centers in Mulago National Referral Hospital, namely, Uganda Cancer Institute, Uganda Heart Institute, Chest Clinic and Diabetic Clinic, key informant interviews and secondary sources for the year 2014. The total direct health care and non-health care cost of tobacco-related illnesses in Uganda was USD 41.56 million. The total indirect morbidity and mortality costs from the loss of productivity due to tobacco-related illnesses were USD 11.91 million and USD 73.01 million, respectively. The direct and indirect costs of tobacco use added up to USD 126.48 million, which is equivalent to 0.5% of GDP, a proportion comparable to the estimated health cost of tobacco use in other countries. The total health care cost of tobacco-related illnesses constitutes 2.3% of the national health care account which is already over-burdened with the cost of infectious diseases, limited medical personnel and infrastructure. In addition, tobacco-related illnesses heavily reduce life expectancy of tobacco users and ultimately their economic productivity. The cost of tobacco-related illnesses in Uganda far outweighs the benefits of employment and tax revenue generated from the tobacco sector. Stronger tobacco control measures need to be undertaken to reduce the disease and economic burden of tobacco use in this country. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford
Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrary to previous reports which indicated no transmission of schistosomiasis at altitude >1,400 m above sea level in Uganda, in this study it has been established that schistosomiasis transmission can take place at an altitude range of 1487–1682 m above sea level in western Uganda. Methods An epidemiological survey of intestinal schistosomiasis was carried out in school children staying around 13 high altitude crater lakes in Western Uganda. Stool samples were collected and then processed with the Kato-Katz technique using 42 mg templates. Thereafter schistosome eggs were counted under a microscope and eggs per gram (epg of stool calculated. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain demographic data and information on risk factors. Results 36.7% of the pupils studied used crater lakes as the main source of domestic water and the crater lakes studied were at altitude ranging from 1487–1682 m above sea level. 84.6% of the crater lakes studied were infective with over 50% of the users infected. The overall prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 27.8% (103/370 with stool egg load ranging from 24–6048 per gram of stool. 84.3%( 312 had light infections (400 egg/gm of stool. Prevalence was highest in the age group 12–14 years (49.5% and geometric mean intensity was highest in the age group 9–11 years (238 epg. The prevalence and geometric mean intensity of infection among girls was lower (26%; 290 epg compared to that of boys (29.6%; 463 epg (t = 4.383, p Conclusion and recommendations The altitudinal threshold for S. mansoni transmission in Uganda has changed and use of crater water at an altitude higher than 1,400 m above sea level poses a risk of acquiring S. mansoni infection in western Uganda. However, further research is required to establish whether the observed altitudinal threshold change is as a result of climate change or other factors. It is also necessary to establish the impact this could
Leerlooijer, J.N.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Reeuwijk, van M.A.J.; Rijsdijk, E.; Nshakira, N.; Kok, G.
Background A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda
William D. Sunderlin
Full Text Available Forests have been declared important for the well-being of the poor because of the kinds of goods and services that they provide. We asked whether forests are important for the poor not only because of the kinds of goods and services they provide, but also because they tend to be located where the poor are. We conducted a spatial analysis to ascertain the degree of spatial association between poverty and forests in seven countries: Brazil, Honduras, Malawi, Mozambique, Uganda, Indonesia, and Vietnam. For most of these countries, there was a significant positive correlation between high natural forest cover and high poverty rate (the percentage of the population that is poor and between high forest cover and low poverty density (the number of poor per unit area. We explain the findings and discuss policy implications and topics for future research.
Full Text Available The butterfly species richness of 17 forests located in the western arm of the Albertine Rift in Uganda was compared using cluster analysis and principal components analysis (PCA to assess similarities among the forests. The objective was to compare the butterfly species richness of the forests. A total of 630 butterfly species were collected in 5 main families. The different species fell into 7 ecological groupings with the closed forest group having the most species and the swamp/wetland group with the fewest number of species. Three clusters were obtained. The first cluster had forests characterized by relatively high altitude and low species richness despite the big area in the case of Rwenzori and being close to the supposed Pleistocene refugium. The second cluster had forests far away from the supposed refugium except Kisangi and moderate species richness with small areas, whereas the third cluster had those forests that were more disturbed, high species richness, and low altitudinal levels with big areas.
R.W. Skaggs; S. Tian; G.M. Chescheir; Devendra Amatya; M.A. Youssef
Most of the world's 4030 million ha of forested lands are situated on hilly, mountainous or well-drained upland landscapes where improved drainage is not needed. However, there are millions of hectares of poorly drained forested lands where excessively wet soil conditions limit tree growth and access for harvesting and other management activities. Improved or...
Forrester, Joseph D; Apangu, Titus; Griffith, Kevin; Acayo, Sarah; Yockey, Brook; Kaggwa, John; Kugeler, Kiersten J; Schriefer, Martin; Sexton, Christopher; Ben Beard, C; Candini, Gordian; Abaru, Janet; Candia, Bosco; Okoth, Jimmy Felix; Apio, Harriet; Nolex, Lawrence; Ezama, Geoffrey; Okello, Robert; Atiku, Linda; Mpanga, Joseph; Mead, Paul S
Plague is a highly virulent fleaborne zoonosis that occurs throughout many parts of the world; most suspected human cases are reported from resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa. During 2008-2016, a combination of active surveillance and laboratory testing in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda yielded 255 suspected human plague cases; approximately one third were laboratory confirmed by bacterial culture or serology. Although the mortality rate was 7% among suspected cases, it was 26% among persons with laboratory-confirmed plague. Reports of an unusual number of dead rats in a patient's village around the time of illness onset was significantly associated with laboratory confirmation of plague. This descriptive summary of human plague in Uganda highlights the episodic nature of the disease, as well as the potential that, even in endemic areas, illnesses of other etiologies might be being mistaken for plague.
Forrester, Joseph D.; Apangu, Titus; Griffith, Kevin; Acayo, Sarah; Yockey, Brook; Kaggwa, John; Kugeler, Kiersten J.; Schriefer, Martin; Sexton, Christopher; Ben Beard, C.; Candini, Gordian; Abaru, Janet; Candia, Bosco; Okoth, Jimmy Felix; Apio, Harriet; Nolex, Lawrence; Ezama, Geoffrey; Okello, Robert; Atiku, Linda; Mpanga, Joseph
Plague is a highly virulent fleaborne zoonosis that occurs throughout many parts of the world; most suspected human cases are reported from resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa. During 2008–2016, a combination of active surveillance and laboratory testing in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda yielded 255 suspected human plague cases; approximately one third were laboratory confirmed by bacterial culture or serology. Although the mortality rate was 7% among suspected cases, it was 26% among persons with laboratory-confirmed plague. Reports of an unusual number of dead rats in a patient’s village around the time of illness onset was significantly associated with laboratory confirmation of plague. This descriptive summary of human plague in Uganda highlights the episodic nature of the disease, as well as the potential that, even in endemic areas, illnesses of other etiologies might be being mistaken for plague. PMID:28820134
Joanna R. Quinn
Full Text Available This contribution traces the importance of traditional institutions in rehabilitating societies in general terms and more particularly in post-independence Uganda. The current regime, partly by inventing “traditional” cultural institutions, partly by co-opting them for its own interests, contributed to a loss of legitimacy of those who claim responsibility for customary law. More recently, international prosecutions have complicated the use of customary mechanisms within such societies. This article shows that some traditional and cultural leaders continue to struggle to restore their original institutions, some having taken the initiative of inventing new forms of engaging with society. Uganda is presented as a test case for the International Criminal Court’s ability to work with traditional judicial institutions in Africa.
Kjær, Anne Mette; Ulriksen, Marianne Sandvad
This synthesis paper brings together the research findings from four papers prepared by the Uganda team as a part of the UNRISD Politics of Domestic Resource Mobilization for Social Development project, which addresses three broad themes: bargaining and contestation, key relations, and institution......-building with regard to mobilizing resources for social development. In the paper we analyse how political economy factors affect revenue raising and social spending priorities in Uganda. We establish a theoretical framework based on the political settlement theory, within which we explore instances of revenue bargain......, which we understand as political negotiations that shape revenue mobilization, the actual revenue composition, and policy priorities guiding revenue allocation. We focus on three instances of revenue bargains: legislative tax reform, institutional performance of the revenue agencies, and policy...
Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette
to the current low-input/low-output systems. Traditional farming should not be confused with organic farming because in some cases, the existing traditional practices have consequences like overstocking and less attention to soil improvement as well as to animal health and welfare, which is contrary to organic......Development in organic farming has been stimulated by farmers and consumers becoming interested in healthy food products and sustainable environment. Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which is based on the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. Organic...... development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized...
Kjær, Anne Mette; Ulriksen, Marianne
building with regard to mobilizing resources for social development. In the paper we analyse how political economy factors affect revenue raising and social spending priorities in Uganda. We establish a theoretical framework based on the political settlement theory, within which we explore instances...... of revenue bargain, which we understand as political negotiations that shape revenue mobilization, the actual revenue composition and policy priorities guiding revenue allocation. We focus on three instances of revenue bargains: legislative tax reform, institutional performance of the revenue agencies......, and policy making. The first two instances relate to the actual mobilization of resources, whereas the third example focuses on bargains over spending priorities within a given revenue base. We find that in Uganda, a low-income country with competing political factions, there are specific challenges...
Nielsen, Jannie; Whyte, Susan Reynolds
Introduction Given that international organizations and national governments have declared non-communicable diseases a priority, this study aimed to explore the availability of diagnosis and management of diabetes in adults in Uganda. It focused on identifying problems and in documenting the ways...... and early 2012, we worked in Butaleja District and Mbale town in southeastern Uganda, Kasese District in the west, and three districts of Acholi Region in the north. Site visits and observations included public and private health care facilities and retail outlets. Interviews were carried out with several...... cadres of health staff, as well as patients. Results There were shortages and irregularities in supply of diagnostic equipment and medication at all public units that were supposed to provide treatment for diabetes. Even the hospitals with designated diabetes clinics were not always able to avail testing...
John D. Shaw
The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Gila National Forest 1994 inventory including...
Low, Daniel; Merkel, Emily C; Menon, Manoj; Lyman, Gary H; Ddungu, Henry; Namukwaya, Elizabeth; Leng, Mhoira; Casper, Corey
Purpose Avoiding chemotherapy during the last 30 days of life has become a goal of cancer care in the United States and Europe, yet end-of-life chemotherapy administration remains a common practice worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of and factors predicting end-of-life chemotherapy administration in Uganda. Methods Retrospective chart review and surveys and interviews of providers were performed at the Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI), the only comprehensive cancer center in the area, which serves a catchment area of greater than 100 million people. All adult patients at the UCI with reported cancer deaths between January 1, 2014, and August 31, 2015 were included. All UCI physicians were offered a survey, and a subset of physicians were also individually interviewed. Results Three hundred ninety-two patients (65.9%) received chemotherapy. Age less than 55 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.30; P = .004), a cancer diagnosis greater than 60 days before death (OR, 9.13; P < .001), and a presenting Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 2 (OR, 2.47; P = .001) were associated with the administration of chemotherapy. More than 45% of patients received chemotherapy in the last 30 days of life. No clinical factors were predictive of chemotherapy use in the last 30 days of life, although doctors reported using performance status, cancer stage, and tumor chemotherapy sensitivity to determine when to administer chemotherapy. Patient expectations and a lack of outcomes data were important nonclinical factors influencing chemotherapy administration. Conclusion Chemotherapy is administered to a high proportion of patients with terminal cancer in Uganda, raising concern about efficacy. Late presentation of cancer in Uganda complicates end-of-life chemotherapy recommendations, necessitating guidelines specific to sub-Saharan Africa.
Nityanjali Thummalachetty; Sanyukta Mathur; Margo Mullinax; Kelsea DeCosta; Neema Nakyanjo; Tom Lutalo; Heena Brahmbhatt; John S. Santelli
Abstract Background Low contraceptive uptake and high unmet need for contraception remain significant issues in Uganda compared to neighboring countries such as Kenya, Ethiopia, and Rwanda. Although prior research on contraceptive uptake has indicated that male partners strongly influence women’s decisions around contraceptive use, there is limited in-depth qualitative research on knowledge and concerns regarding modern contraceptive methods among Ugandan men. Methods Using in-depth interview...
Mbuvi, D.; Tarsim, A.
This paper assesses the impact of the early 1980s neoliberalistic reform strategies in urban water distribution in developing countries. It examines in particular, the technical efficiency of two heterogeneous urban water utility-groups in Uganda. Performance is considered in light of the key urban water sector objectives that are to universally increase qualitative water coverage and enhance utility revenue. Using a two-staged bias-corrected metafrontier based on the data envelopment analysi...
Grabowski, Mary K; Serwadda, David M; Gray, Ronald H; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kagaayi, Joseph; Ssekubugu, Robert; Nalugoda, Fred; Lessler, Justin; Lutalo, Thomas; Galiwango, Ronald; Makumbi, Fred; Kong, Xiangrong; Kabatesi, Donna; Alamo, Stella T
BACKGROUND To assess the impact of combination HIV prevention (CHP) on HIV incidence, we analyzed the association between HIV incidence and scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and medical male circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. Changes in population-level viral load suppression and sexual behaviors were also examined. METHODS Between 1999 and 2016, data were collected through 12 surveys from 30 communities in the Rakai Community Cohort Study, an open population-based cohort of persons aged 1...
Zirabamuzale, Jackie T; Opio, Christopher K; Bwanga, Freddie; Seremba, Emmanuel; Apica, Betty S; Colebunders, Robert; Ocama, Ponsiano
The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Uganda is 10%. Hepatitis B virus genotypes impact on treatment response, rate of spontaneous recovery and progression of chronic HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is little information on the HBV genotypic distribution in Uganda. To determine HBV genotypes in Uganda. The MBN clinical laboratory performs HBV viral load and genotype testing in Uganda. It receives hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive samples from all over the country for additional HBV testing. Samples are stored for 6 months before being discarded. Our study used delinked stored samples. PCR-positive samples had DNA extracted and used as template for HBV genome amplification by nested PCR. Reverse hybridisation was performed and genotypes were determined by the line probe assay method (INNO-LiPA). One hundred stored HBsAg-positive plasma samples with detectable viral loads were analysed. Of these, 93 samples showed PCR amplification products and gave genotype-specific probe lines on the INNO-LiPA assay. Of the patients, where gender was recorded, 60.9% were female, and the overall median age (IQR) was 25 (2-60) years. There was a predominance of HBV genotype D (47 patients; 50.5%), followed by genotype A, (16 patients; 17.2%). One patient (1.1%) had genotype E. In 28% of the samples mixed infections were detected with genotypes A/E (9.7%) and A/D (6.5%) being most common. Genotypes B, C, E and H only occurred as part of mixed infections. Hepatitis B genotypes D and A were predominant in our study population.
Omaswa, F G; Okware, S. I.; Kiguli-Malwadde, E
Background: An outbreak of Ebola virus disease was reported from Gulu district, Uganda, on Oct 8, 2000. Over a period of 3 months, the outbreak spread to two other parts of the country, namely Mbarara and Masindi districts. Response measures included surveillance, community mobilisation, and case and logistics management. Three coordination committees were formed: the National Task Force (NTF), the District Task Force (DTF), and the Interministerial Task Force (IMTF). The NTF and DTF were res...
Egwang, T G; Apio, B; Riley, E; Okello, D
To establish Plasmodium falciparum malariometric indices in a field study site in Apac district, northern Uganda. A community-based cross sectional survey. Atopi Parish, Apac district, Uganda, 1995. One thousand two hundred and thirty four volunteers aged below one and ninety years. P. falciparum parasitaemia rates and parasite density, splenomegaly, bednet use and chloroquine consumption. All subjects with P. falciparum positive smears were treated with chloroquine. The population prevalence of parasitaemia was 62.1% with the predominant species being P. falciparum (100%) and P. malariae in the minority (3.5%); P. ovale was not seen. The prevalence of parasitaemia in subjects older than 20 years and in those under ten years was 36% and 85%, respectively. The geometric mean parasite density started to decline by the age of six years. The splenomegaly rate in subjects over the age of 12 years and in those under nine years was 19.8% and 63.1%, respectively. Bednet use and chloroquine consumption was low. Interestingly, the reported use of chloroquine in the week immediately preceding the study was more frequent in children under two years old than in the rest of the population. Malaria transmission in Atopi Parish in northern Uganda is hyperendemic and age-related acquired anti-parasite immunity seems to appear by seven years of age.
Christine Echookit Akellol
Full Text Available The development of environmental regulatory framework in Uganda was initiated by the national environment action planning process in 1990, as a realization that environment needed special focus. As a result of the said process environmental policy and law were developed. The 1995 constitutional of the Republic of Uganda was among the first ever such constitution in the East African region to deliberately enshrine the right to a decent environment and to provide for sustainable development, in addition to the principle that natural resources are held in trust for the people and should be responsibly managed for their benefit. Following the constitution, a number of environment legislations were enacted and others were revised to take into account environmental cardinal principles and considerations, including embedding in them environmental regulatory provisions. Hence, in addition to the framework of National Environment Act, a number of environment sect oral legislation exists and environmental management is spread throughout the respective institutions responsible for aspects of the environment. It is therefore safe to say that Uganda has developed a lot of legislation on the environment but the challenge remains that of developing more regulations under the relevant parent Acts, effective monitoring and enforcement.
Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill of 2009 aimed at protecting the cherished culture of the people against emergent threats to the traditional heterosexual family. The Bill's justification, however, lay in myopic imaginings of a homogenous African-ness and pedestrian oblivion to pluralities within African sexualities. This paper revisits the debate that homosexuality is 'un-African'. Rhetoric analysis of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill exposes how dominant discourses of law, medicine, religion, geography and culture reinforce the view that homosexuality is foreign to Africa. Based on ethnography in contemporary Uganda, I explore how self-identified same-sex-loving individuals simultaneously claim their African-ness and their homosexuality. Their strategies include ethnic belonging, membership to kinship structures, making connections with pre-colonial histories of homosexuality, civic participation in democratic processes, national identity, organising of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and questioning support groups, language and nomenclature, visibility and voice in local communal activities, solidarity and adherence to cultural rituals. In present-day Uganda, same-sex-loving men, women and transgender people variously assert their African-ness.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low contraceptive uptake and high unmet need for contraception remain significant issues in Uganda compared to neighboring countries such as Kenya, Ethiopia, and Rwanda. Although prior research on contraceptive uptake has indicated that male partners strongly influence women’s decisions around contraceptive use, there is limited in-depth qualitative research on knowledge and concerns regarding modern contraceptive methods among Ugandan men. Methods Using in-depth interviews (N = 41, this qualitative study investigated major sources of knowledge about contraception and perceptions of contraceptive side effects among married Ugandan men. RESULTS: Men primarily reported knowledge of contraceptives based on partner’s experience of side effects, partner’s knowledge from health providers and mass media campaigns, and partner’s knowledge from her peers. Men were less likely to report contraceptive knowledge from health care providers, mass media campaigns, or peers. Men’s concerns about various contraceptive methods were broadly associated with failure of the method to work properly, adverse health effects on women, and severe adverse health effects on children. Own or partner’s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status did not impact on contraceptive knowledge. Conclusions Overall, we found limited accurate knowledge about contraceptive methods among men in Uganda. Moreover, fears about the side effects of modern contraceptive methods appeared to be common among men. Family planning services in Uganda could be significantly strengthened by renewed efforts to focus on men’s knowledge, fears, and misconceptions.
Kamonyo, Emmanuel S
Palliative care is an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problems associated with life-threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other physical, psychosocial, and spiritual problems. This update is aimed at examining palliative care development/achievements and challenges in Kenya and Uganda and the role of various actors in palliative care establishment in the region. It assesses the policy environment, progress in education, access to essential medicines, palliative care implementation efforts, and legal and human rights work. East African nations have huge disease burdens, both communicable and noncommunicable. HIV and cancer are the major causes of mortality in Kenya and Uganda and put huge demands on the health care system and on the country's economies. All these conditions will require palliative care services as the disease burden increases. Unfortunately, for many African countries, accessing palliative care services, including access to pain relief, remains very limited resulting in serious suffering for patients and their families. The interventions in Kenya and Uganda help palliative care organizations engage with their respective governments to ensure that the social and legal barriers impeding access to palliative care services are removed. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nakyanzi, Josephine Katabaazi; Kitutu, Freddy Eric; Oria, Hussein; Kamba, Pakoyo Fadhiru
The expiry of medicines in the supply chain is a serious threat to the already constrained access to medicines in developing countries. We investigated the extent of, and the main contributing factors to, expiry of medicines in medicine supply outlets in Kampala and Entebbe, Uganda. A cross-sectional survey of six public and 32 private medicine outlets was done using semi-structured questionnaires. The study area has 19 public medicine outlets (three non-profit wholesalers, 16 hospital stores/pharmacies), 123 private wholesale pharmacies and 173 retail pharmacies, equivalent to about 70% of the country's pharmaceutical businesses. Our findings indicate that medicines prone to expiry include those used for vertical programmes, donated medicines and those with a slow turnover. Awareness about the threat of expiry of medicines to the delivery of health services has increased. We have adapted training modules to emphasize management of medicine expiry for pharmacy students, pharmacists and other persons handling medicines. Our work has also generated more research interest on medicine expiry in Uganda. Even essential medicines expire in the supply chain in Uganda. Sound coordination is needed between public medicine wholesalers and their clients to harmonize procurement and consumption as well as with vertical programmes to prevent duplicate procurement. Additionally, national medicine regulatory authorities should enforce existing international guidelines to prevent dumping of donated medicine. Medicine selection and quantification should be matched with consumer tastes and prescribing habits. Lean supply and stock rotation should be considered.
Hulme, Mark F; Vickery, Juliet A; Green, Rhys E; Phalan, Ben; Chamberlain, Dan E; Pomeroy, Derek E; Nalwanga, Dianah; Mushabe, David; Katebaka, Raymond; Bolwig, Simon; Atkinson, Philip W
Reconciling the aims of feeding an ever more demanding human population and conserving biodiversity is a difficult challenge. Here, we explore potential solutions by assessing whether land sparing (farming for high yield, potentially enabling the protection of non-farmland habitat), land sharing (lower yielding farming with more biodiversity within farmland) or a mixed strategy would result in better bird conservation outcomes for a specified level of agricultural production. We surveyed forest and farmland study areas in southern Uganda, measuring the population density of 256 bird species and agricultural yield: food energy and gross income. Parametric non-linear functions relating density to yield were fitted. Species were identified as "winners" (total population size always at least as great with agriculture present as without it) or "losers" (total population sometimes or always reduced with agriculture present) for a range of targets for total agricultural production. For each target we determined whether each species would be predicted to have a higher total population with land sparing, land sharing or with any intermediate level of sparing at an intermediate yield. We found that most species were expected to have their highest total populations with land sparing, particularly loser species and species with small global range sizes. Hence, more species would benefit from high-yield farming if used as part of a strategy to reduce forest loss than from low-yield farming and land sharing, as has been found in Ghana and India in a previous study. We caution against advocacy for high-yield farming alone as a means to deliver land sparing if it is done without strong protection for natural habitats, other ecosystem services and social welfare. Instead, we suggest that conservationists explore how conservation and agricultural policies can be better integrated to deliver land sparing by, for example, combining land-use planning and agronomic support for small
Mark F Hulme
Full Text Available Reconciling the aims of feeding an ever more demanding human population and conserving biodiversity is a difficult challenge. Here, we explore potential solutions by assessing whether land sparing (farming for high yield, potentially enabling the protection of non-farmland habitat, land sharing (lower yielding farming with more biodiversity within farmland or a mixed strategy would result in better bird conservation outcomes for a specified level of agricultural production. We surveyed forest and farmland study areas in southern Uganda, measuring the population density of 256 bird species and agricultural yield: food energy and gross income. Parametric non-linear functions relating density to yield were fitted. Species were identified as "winners" (total population size always at least as great with agriculture present as without it or "losers" (total population sometimes or always reduced with agriculture present for a range of targets for total agricultural production. For each target we determined whether each species would be predicted to have a higher total population with land sparing, land sharing or with any intermediate level of sparing at an intermediate yield. We found that most species were expected to have their highest total populations with land sparing, particularly loser species and species with small global range sizes. Hence, more species would benefit from high-yield farming if used as part of a strategy to reduce forest loss than from low-yield farming and land sharing, as has been found in Ghana and India in a previous study. We caution against advocacy for high-yield farming alone as a means to deliver land sparing if it is done without strong protection for natural habitats, other ecosystem services and social welfare. Instead, we suggest that conservationists explore how conservation and agricultural policies can be better integrated to deliver land sparing by, for example, combining land-use planning and agronomic
Achen, Stella; Openjuru, George Ladaah
Hollywood movies are popular in Uganda. This paper reports a study that investigated access to English-language Hollywood movies in Uganda, by way of an ethnographic audience study carried out in slum areas of the city of Kampala. The researchers visited and participated in the watching and reviewing of English-language movies in makeshift video…
Anying, Irene Winnie; Gausset, Quentin
Northern Uganda has been plagued by a long and violent civil war that lasted from 1996 to 2006, during which 2.5 million people were internally displaced and placed in camps. During the conflict, Uganda adopted a new constitution and a new land act that recognised customary land tenure and the role...
Skaates, Maria Anne; Basajjabaka, Abubaker
A comparative analysis of the role of political parties in Denmark, the USA, and Uganda on the basis of political science theories about parties, political participation and political systems.......A comparative analysis of the role of political parties in Denmark, the USA, and Uganda on the basis of political science theories about parties, political participation and political systems....
Mujuni, John Bosco
In 2003-2007, the government of Uganda through the Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES), under the umbrella of UPHOLD and in Partnership with USAID, introduced cooperative learning as a "student-centered teaching approach" in some selected districts and schools in Uganda. This dissertation explored the current state and practice of…
Book review of: Neoliberal Moral Economy: Capitalism, Socio-Cultural Change & Fraud in Uganda by Jörg Wiegratz. London and New York, Rowman & Littlefield, 2016, 375 pp. ISBN 9781783488537.......Book review of: Neoliberal Moral Economy: Capitalism, Socio-Cultural Change & Fraud in Uganda by Jörg Wiegratz. London and New York, Rowman & Littlefield, 2016, 375 pp. ISBN 9781783488537....
Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J
After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda.
Alifrangis, Michael; Nag, Sidsel; Schousboe, Mette L
. In Ethiopia, both alleles derived from 1 lineage that was distinct from those in Uganda and Tanzania. Uganda and Tanzania triple mutants derived from the previously characterized southeastern Africa double-mutant lineage. The A581G mutation has occurred multiple times on local Pfdhps double-mutant backgrounds...
Ochieng, A.; Ahebwa, W.M.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.
Uganda reintroduced sport hunting in 2001. The policy was piloted around Lake Mburo National Park and later replicated around other protected areas. This chapter analyses the development, implementation and impact of sport hunting policy in Uganda. We do so through literature review, document
Preventing neglected club feet in Uganda: A challenge to the health workers with limited resources. E.K. Naddumba ... management, and ethno cultural beliefs. The incidence of neglected clubfeet in Uganda is estimated be .... Ensuring adequate supply chain by Ministry of. Health for materials used in the Ponseti Method,.
Sseguya, Haroon; Mazur, Robert; Abbott, Eric; Matsiko, Frank
Purpose: To examine the status and priorities for agricultural information generation, dissemination and utilization in the context of agricultural innovation systems in southeast Uganda. Design/Methodology/Approach: Group discussions were conducted with six communities in Kamuli district, southeast Uganda. The focus was on information sources and…
Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.
The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how
This article investigates the role of the Law in the Lutheran Church of Uganda. It investigates how the Law is understood and lived among Lutherans in Uganda. Luther, the sixteenthcentury Reformer, understood and interpreted the Law in terms of the social and cultural context of his time. Luther's background is very ...
In 2002 Save the Children UK carried out a study of child poverty in Uganda, as part of the on-going Uganda Participatory Poverty Assessment Programme. Using participants from all regions of the country, the researchers asked children about their perceptions of poverty and anti-poverty strategies, as well as questioning adult key informants about…
Neglected clubfoot deformity is one of the commonest musculoskeletal disorders in Uganda. It is as a result of failure to provide treatment to the congenital clubfoot deformity during the infancy period due to limited resources. The incidence of clubfoot in Uganda is estimated to be 1/1000,like elsewhere, globally.
Mermin, Jonathan; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Kirungi, Wilford; Ekwaru, John Paul; Hladik, Wolfgang; Kaharuza, Frank; Downing, Robert; Bunnell, Rebecca
Studies of factors associated with acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are often based on prevalence data that might not reflect recent infections. To determine demographic, biological, and behavioral factors for recent HIV infection in Uganda. Nationally representative household survey of cross-sectional design conducted in Uganda from August 2004 through January 2005; data were analyzed until November 2007. There were 11,454 women and 9905 men aged 15 to 59 years who were eligible. Questionnaires were completed for 10,826 women (95%) and 8830 men (89%); of those interviewed, blood specimens were collected for 10,227 women (94%) and 8298 men (94%). Specimens seropositive for HIV were tested with the BED IgG capture-based enzyme immunosorbent assay to identify recent seroconversions (median, 155 days) using normalized optical density of 0.8 and adjustments. Of the 1023 HIV infections with BED results, 172 (17%) tested as recent. In multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with recent HIV infection included female sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-5.2); current marital status (widowed vs never married, aOR, 6.1; 95% CI, 2.8-13.3; divorced vs never married, aOR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.5-6.1); geographic region (north central Uganda vs central Uganda/Kampala, aOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.7-4.1); number of sex partners in past year (> or = 2 compared with none; aOR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5); herpes simplex virus type 2 infection (aOR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.6-5.8); report of a sexually transmitted disease in the past year (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4); and being an uncircumcised man (aOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.3). Among married participants, recent HIV infection was associated with never using condoms with partners outside of marriage (aOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.7-6.1) compared with individuals having no outside partners. The risk of incident HIV infection for married individuals who used condoms with at least 1 outside partner was similar to that of those
Essen, P.A.; Ericson, L. [Univ. of Umeaa, Dept. of Ecological Botany, Umeaa (Sweden); Ehnstroem, B. [Swedish Univ., of Agricultural Sciences, Swedish Threatened Species Unit, Uppsala (Sweden); Sjoeberg, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Ecology, Umeaa (Sweden)
We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man`s past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs.
Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.
Northern Uganda has been devastated by more than 20 years of open conflict by the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) and the Government of Uganda. This war has been marked by extreme violence against civilians, who had been gathered in protected IDP (Internally Displaced Persons) camps. At the height of the displacement in 2007, the UN office for coordination of humanitarian affairs, estimated that nearly 2.5 million people were interned into approximately 220 camps throughout Northern Uganda. With the improved security since mid-2006, the people displaced by the conflict in Northern Uganda started to move out of the overcrowded camps and return either to their villages/parishes of origin or to resettlement/transit sites. However, basic water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in the return areas or any new settlements sites are minimal. People returning to their villages of origin encounter a situation where in many cases there is no access to safe water. Since 1998 ACF (Action Against Hunger, part of the Action Contre la Faim International Network) activities have been concentrated in the Acholi and Lango regions of Northern Uganda. ACF's WASH (Water, sanitation and hygiene) department interventions concern sanitation infrastructure, hygiene education and promotion as well as water points implementation. To ensure safe water access, actions are focused in borehole construction and traditional spring rehabilitation, also called "protected" springs. These activities follow the guidelines as set forth by the international WASH cluster, led by UNICEF. A three year project (2008-2010) is being implemented by ACF, to monitor the available groundwater resources in Northern Uganda. The main objectives are: 1. to monitor the groundwater quality from existing water points during different hydrological seasons, 2. to identify, if any, potential risks of contamination from population concentrations and displacement, lack of basic infrastructure and land use, and finally 3. to
Namuwulya, Prossy; Abernathy, Emily; Bukenya, Henry; Bwogi, Josephine; Tushabe, Phionah; Birungi, Molly; Seguya, Ronald; Kabaliisa, Theopista; Alibu, Vincent P.; Kayondo, Jonathan K.; Rivailler, Pierre; Icenogle, Joseph; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas
Molecular data on rubella viruses are limited in Uganda despite the importance of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Routine rubella vaccination, while not administered currently in Uganda, is expected to begin by 2015. The World Health Organization recommends that countries without rubella vaccination programs assess the burden of rubella and CRS before starting a routine vaccination program. Uganda is already involved in integrated case-based surveillance, including laboratory testing to confirm measles and rubella, but molecular epidemiologic aspects of rubella circulation have so far not been documented in Uganda. Twenty throat swab or oral fluid samples collected from 12 districts during routine rash and fever surveillance between 2003 and 2012 were identified as rubella virus RNA positive and PCR products encompassing the region used for genotyping were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the 20 sequences identified 19 genotype 1G viruses and 1 genotype 1E virus. Genotype-specific trees showed that the Uganda viruses belonged to specific clusters for both genotypes 1G and 1E and grouped with similar sequences from neighboring countries. Genotype 1G was predominant in Uganda. More epidemiological and molecular epidemiological data are required to determine if genotype 1E is also endemic in Uganda. The information obtained in this study will assist the immunization program in monitoring changes in circulating genotypes. PMID:24700073
Reckart, Madeline; Wall, Barbra Mann
This article situates women's roles in community health care during violence in Uganda in the 1970s. It examines the lived reality of Catholic missionary sister nurses, midwives, and physicians on the ground where sisters administered health care to local communities. The goal is to examine how religious women worked with local individuals and families in community health during periods of violence and war. Catholic sisters claimed to be apolitical, yet their mission work widened to include political issues. As they saw local Ugandans threatened, sisters engaged in political activities by their identification with and protection of "their people."
Akena Adyanga, Francis
This study examines African Indigenous Science (AIS) in higher education in Uganda. To achieve this, I use anticolonial theory and Indigenous knowledge discursive frameworks to situate the subjugation of Indigenous science from the education system within a colonial historical context. These theories allow for a critical examination of the intersection of power relations rooted in the politics of knowledge production, validation, and dissemination, and how this process has become a systemic and complex method of subjugating one knowledge system over the other. I also employ qualitative and autoethnographic research methodologies. Using a qualitative research method, I interviewed 10 students and 10 professors from two universities in Uganda. My research was guided by the following key questions: What is African Indigenous Science? What methodology would help us to indigenize science education in Uganda? How can we work with Indigenous knowledge and anticolonial theoretical discursive frameworks to understand and challenge the dominance of Eurocentric knowledge in mainstream education? My research findings revealed that AIS can be defined in multiple ways, in other words, there is no universal definition of AIS. However, there were some common elements that my participants talked about such as: (a) knowledge by Indigenous communities developed over a long period of time through a trial and error approach to respond to the social, economic and political challenges of their society. The science practices are generational and synergistic with other disciplines such as history, spirituality, sociology, anthropology, geography, and trade among others, (b) a cumulative practice of the use, interactions with and of biotic and abiotic organism in everyday life for the continued existence of a community in its' totality. The research findings also indicate that Indigenous science is largely lacking from Uganda's education curriculum because of the influence of colonial and
Richard A. Harper; Nathan D. McClure; Tony G. Johnson; J. Frank Green; James K. Johnson; David B. Dickinson; James L. Chamerlain; KaDonna C. Randolph; Sonja N. Oswalt
Between 1997 and 2004, the Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis Program conducted the eighth inventory of Georgia forests. Forest land area remained stable at 24.8 million acres, and covered about two-thirds of the land area in Georgia. About 24.2 million acres of forest land was considered timberland and 92 percent of that was privately owned. Family forest...
Hamill, F A; Apio, S; Mubiru, N K; Bukenya-Ziraba, R; Mosango, M; Maganyi, O W; Soejarto, D D
Continuing field interviews brought the total species used for disease treatment by herbalists of the majority Baganda Tribe of southern Uganda to 168. Literature searches provided support for the ethnomedical claims for a number of these species, and provided criteria for the species classification into four categories of use validation. They also helped guide the selection of species for recollection, for chemical extraction and further testing in laboratories of the Uganda Ministry of Health and the University of Illinois at Chicago. Many species proved active against microorganisms in several susceptibility assays conducted in Uganda and the US. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.
Namulema, Mary Jude
This study examined the relevance of economic valuation of wetlands in Uganda. A case study was done on Kiyanja-Kaku wetland in Lwengo District in Central Uganda using a semi-structured survey. Three objectives were examined i.e.: (i) To identify wetland ecosystem services in Uganda (ii) To identify the economic valuation methods appropriate for wetlands in Uganda (iii) To value clean water obtained from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland. The wetland ecosystem services were identified as provisioning, regulating, habitat, cultural and amenities services. The community had knowledge about 17 out of the 22 services as given by TEEB (2010). The economic valuation methods identified were, market price, efficiency price, travel cost, contingent valuation, hedonic pricing, and production function and benefit transfer methods. These were appropriate for valuation of wetlands in Uganda but only three methods i.e. market price, contingent valuation and productivity methods have been applied by researchers in Uganda so far. The economic value of clean water from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland to the nearby community was established by using the market price of clean water the National water and Sewerage Corporation charges for the water in Uganda to obtain the low value and the market price of water from the survey was used to obtain the high value. The estimated economic value of clean water service for a household ranges from UGX. 612174 to 4054733 (US 168.0-1095.0). The estimated economic value of clean water service from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland to the entire community ranges from UGX. 2,732,133,000.0 to 18,096,274,000.0 (US 775,228.0-4,885,994.0).
Emong, Paul; Eron, Lawrence
Uganda has embraced inclusive education and evidently committed itself to bringing about disability inclusion at every level of education. Both legal and non-legal frameworks have been adopted and arguably are in line with the intent of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on education. The CRPD, in Article 24, requires states to attain a right to education for persons with disabilities without discrimination and on the basis of equal opportunities at all levels of education. Despite Uganda's robust disability legal and policy framework on education, there is evidence of exclusion and discrimination of students with disabilities in the higher education institutions. The main objective of this article is to explore the status of disability inclusion in higher education and strategies for its realisation, using evidence from Emong's study, workshop proceedings where the authors facilitated and additional individual interviews with four students with disabilities by the authors. The results show that there are discrimination and exclusion tendencies in matters related to admissions, access to lectures, assessment and examinations, access to library services, halls of residence and other disability support services. The article recommends that institutional policies and guidelines on support services for students with disabilities and special needs in higher education be developed, data on students with disabilities collected to help planning, collaboration between Disabled Peoples Organisations (DPO's) strengthened to ensure disability inclusion and the establishment of disability support centres.
Lagoro, David Kitara; Arony, Denis Anywar
Nodding Syndrome (NS) is a childhood neurological disorder characterized by atonic seizures, cognitive decline, school dropout, muscle weakness, thermal dysfunction, wasting and stunted growth. There are recent published information suggesting associations between Nodding Syndrome (NS) with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VGKC antibodies and serum leiomidin-1 antibody cross reacting with Onchocerca Volvulus (OV). These findings suggest a neuro-inflammatory cause of NS and they are important findings in the search for the cause of Nodding Syndrome. These observations perhaps provide further, the unique explanation for the association between Nodding Syndrome and Onchocerca Volvulus. Many clinical and epidemiological studies had shown a significant correlation between NS and infestation with a nematode, Onchocerca volvulus which causes a disease, Onchocerciasis, some of which when left untreated can develop visual defect ("River Blindness"). While these studies conducted in Northern Uganda and Southern Sudan indicate a statistically significant association with (OV infection (using positive skin snips), we observe that (OV is generally endemic in many parts of Sub Saharan Africa and Latin America and that to date, no NS cases have been recorded in those regions. This letter to the Editor is to provide additional information on the current view about the relationship between Nodding Syndrome and Onchocerca Volvulus as seen in Northern Uganda.
Smith, Emily R; Vissoci, Joao Ricardo Nickenig; Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; Tran, Tu M; Fuller, Anthony T; Butler, Elissa K; de Andrade, Luciano; Makumbi, Fredrick; Luboga, Samuel; Muhumuza, Christine; Namanya, Didacus B; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Galukande, Moses; Haglund, Michael M
In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), an estimated 85% of children do not have access to surgical care. The objective of the current study was to determine the geographic distribution of surgical conditions among children throughout Uganda. Using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) survey, we enumerated 2176 children in 2315 households throughout Uganda. At the district level, we determined the spatial autocorrelation of surgical need with geographic access to surgical centers variable. The highest average distance to a surgical center was found in the northern region at 14.97km (95% CI: 11.29km-16.89km). Younger children less than five years old had a higher prevalence of unmet surgical need in all four regions than their older counterparts. The spatial regression model showed that distance to surgical center and care availability were the main spatial predictors of unmet surgical need. We found differences in unmet surgical need by region and age group of the children, which could serve as priority areas for focused interventions to alleviate the burden. Future studies could be conducted in the northern regions to develop targeted interventions aimed at increasing pediatric surgical care in the areas of most need. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper reports experiences of displaced women in Bweyale, Central Uganda. It is noted that Bweyale is an example of a settlement that has mushroomed as a result in internally displaced people. The population is composed of the natives, the migrants from different parts of Uganda, the internally displaced people mainly from Gulu and Kitgum, and refugees from Sudan. Among this population, the internally displaced people, especially women, are the most disadvantaged and poor. Despite such a discouraging situation, the women's association of Ribbe Aye Tekko has managed to build their own office and run a self-help scheme. Included in the paper is a detailed account of the experiences of a 56-year-old woman, Mary A., who was living in Bweyale as a displaced person. Although the women's association has been noted as a success, they still need more funding for their self-help schemes in order to achieve their aim of improving the standard of living of their members.
To determine the prevalence and causes of the blindness and ocular morbidity amongst Sudanese refugees; to prioritise and provide eye care services to the refugees and; to device administrative strategies and logistics of prevention and control of blinding diseases among the refugees. A mobile outreach clinic study for six weeks. Adjumani settlement camps for Sudanese refugees in Uganda. Seven hundred patients in eighteen settlement camps. Medical treatment and surgical correction offered. Cataract, trachoma and xerophthalmia are the major causes of blindness. One hundred and forty six patients (21%) were bilaterally blind, and 77 patients (11%) were unilaterally blind. The three leading causes of blindness are cataract (42%), xerophthalmia (28%) and trachoma (21%). Glaucoma and other non-specified causes were responsible for the remaining blindness (9%). The crude prevalence of blindness among the 700 patients was 20. This is an extremely high prevalence, nearly ten times higher than for Ugandans living in Uganda. In refugee settlement camps setting, residents may have a much higher prevalence of eye diseases and blindness than non-refugees.
Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Park, Sung-Joon; Odong, George; Ojara, Moris; Lamwaka, Alice
WHO and Uganda's Ministry of Health emphasize the need to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Treatment for these conditions is urgent in northern Uganda where war has negatively affected both health and the public health care system. We aimed to explore the recognized presence of selected chronic conditions in the out-patient population and to relate this 'visibility' to the ability of health units to diagnose and treat them. At six health facilities we reviewed patient registers for one month to determine the frequency of hypertension, diabetes, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We checked the availability of diagnostic instruments and medicines, and interviewed health workers. The four conditions were rarely diagnosed in the outpatient population. Hypertension was the most common, but still constituted under 1% of diagnoses. Patterns of diagnosis were uneven, with higher frequency of particular diagnoses at some health facilities. Diagnostic equipment was not sufficient and screening was irregular. Medicine was mostly available although stockouts of some relevant drugs were reported. The four conditions are relatively invisible in the outpatient population. Greater visibility would be facilitated by regular clinic days for hypertension and diabetes, availability and regular use of diagnostic instruments, and a more reliable supply of the relevant medicines.
Asua, Victor; Tukwasibwe, Stephen; Conrad, Melissa; Walakira, Andrew; Nankabirwa, Joaniter I; Mugenyi, Levicatus; Kamya, Moses R; Nsobya, Samuel L; Rosenthal, Philip J
Contributions of species other than Plasmodium falciparum to human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa are uncertain. We collected blood from children aged 6 months to 10 years diagnosed with malaria by Giemsa-stained blood smears (176 subjects) or histidine rich protein-2-based rapid diagnostic tests (323 subjects) in 2016; 50 samples from each of 10 sites across Uganda were studied to identify infecting species. Of 499 available samples, 474 demonstrated plasmodial infection by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 18S ribosomal RNA genes, including P. falciparum in 472, Plasmodium malariae in 22, Plasmodium ovale in 15, and Plasmodium vivax in four; 435 were pure P. falciparum, two did not contain P. falciparum, and the remainder were mixed infections including P. falciparum. The prevalence of nonfalciparum species varied geographically. Stratifying based on recent history of indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides, nonfalciparum infections were seen in 27/189 (14.8%) samples from sites that received and 13/285 (4.6%) samples from sites that did not receive IRS since 2010 (P = 0.0013). Overall, 39/474 (8.2%) samples from individuals diagnosed with malaria included nonfalciparum infections. Thus, a substantial proportion of episodes of malaria in Uganda include infections with plasmodial species other than P. falciparum.
Full Text Available Wetlands provide food and non-food products that contribute to income and food security in Uganda. This study determined the economic value of wetland resources and their contribution to food security in the three agroecological zones of Uganda. The values of wetland resources were estimated using primary and secondary data. Market price, Productivity, and Contingent valuation methods were used to estimate the value of wetland resources. The per capita value of fish was approximately US$ 0.49 person−1. Fish spawning was valued at approximately US$ 363,815 year−1, livestock pastures at US$ 4.24 million, domestic water use at US$ 34 million year−1, and the gross annual value added by wetlands to milk production at US$ 1.22 million. Flood control was valued at approximately US$ 1,702,934,880 hectare−1 year−1 and water regulation and recharge at US$ 7,056,360 hectare−1 year−1. Through provision of grass for mulching, wetlands were estimated to contribute to US$ 8.65 million annually. The annual contribution of non-use values was estimated in the range of US$ 7.1 million for water recharge and regulation and to US$ 1.7 billion for flood control. Thus, resource investment for wetlands conservation is economically justified to create incentives for continued benefits.
Kakuru, Willy; Turyahabwe, Nelson; Mugisha, Johnny
Wetlands provide food and non-food products that contribute to income and food security in Uganda. This study determined the economic value of wetland resources and their contribution to food security in the three agroecological zones of Uganda. The values of wetland resources were estimated using primary and secondary data. Market price, Productivity, and Contingent valuation methods were used to estimate the value of wetland resources. The per capita value of fish was approximately US$ 0.49 person⁻¹. Fish spawning was valued at approximately US$ 363,815 year⁻¹, livestock pastures at US$ 4.24 million, domestic water use at US$ 34 million year⁻¹, and the gross annual value added by wetlands to milk production at US$ 1.22 million. Flood control was valued at approximately US$ 1,702,934,880 hectare⁻¹ year⁻¹ and water regulation and recharge at US$ 7,056,360 hectare⁻¹ year⁻¹. Through provision of grass for mulching, wetlands were estimated to contribute to US$ 8.65 million annually. The annual contribution of non-use values was estimated in the range of US$ 7.1 million for water recharge and regulation and to US$ 1.7 billion for flood control. Thus, resource investment for wetlands conservation is economically justified to create incentives for continued benefits.
Bose, Purabi; Dijk, van Han
This volume provides new insights and conceptual understandings of the human and gender dimension of vulnerability in relation to the dynamics of tenure reforms in the dryland forests of Asia and Africa. The book analyzes the interaction between biophysical factors such as climate variability
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Forest Fires - Origins and Ecological Paradoxes. K Narendran. General Article Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 34-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/11/0034-0041 ...
Full Text Available This study focused on Oeosophagostomum sp., and more especially on O. bifurcum, as a parasite that can be lethal to humans and is widespread among humans and monkeys in endemic regions, but has not yet been documented in apes. Its epidemiology and the role played by non-human primates in its transmission are still poorly understood. O. stephanostomum was the only species diagnosed so far in chimpanzees. Until recently, O. bifurcum was assumed to have a high zoonotic potential, but recent findings tend to demonstrate that O. bifurcum of non-human primates and humans might be genetically distinct. As the closest relative to human beings, and a species living in spatial proximity to humans in the field site studied, Pan troglodytes is thus an interesting host to investigate. Recently, a role for chimpanzees in the emergence of HIV and malaria in humans has been documented. In the framework of our long-term health monitoring of wild chimpanzees from Kibale National Park in Western Uganda, we analysed 311 samples of faeces. Coproscopy revealed that high-ranking males are more infected than other individuals. These chimpanzees are also the more frequent crop-raiders. Results from PCR assays conducted on larvae and dried faeces also revealed that O. stephanostomum as well as O. bifurcum are infecting chimpanzees, both species co-existing in the same individuals. Because contacts between humans and great apes are increasing with ecotourism and forest fragmentation in areas of high population density, this paper emphasizes that the presence of potential zoonotic parasites should be viewed as a major concern for public health. Investigations of the parasite status of people living around the park or working inside as well as sympatric non-human primates should be planned, and further research might reveal this as a promising aspect of efforts to reinforce measures against crop-raiding.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are emerging opportunistic pathogens whose role in human and animal disease is increasingly being recognized. Major concerns are their role as opportunistic pathogens in HIV/AIDS infections. The role of open natural water sources as source and livestock/wildlife as reservoirs of infections to man are well documented. This presents a health challenge to the pastoral systems in Africa that rely mostly on open natural water sources to meet livestock and human needs. Recent study in the pastoral areas of Uganda showed infections with same genotypes of NTM in pastoralists and their livestock. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental, animal husbandry and socio-demographic factors associated with occurrence and the pastoral community knowledge of mycobacterial infections at the human-environment-livestock/wildlife interface (HELI areas in pastoral ecosystems of Uganda. Methods Two hundred and fifty three (253 individuals were subjected to a questionnaire survey across the study districts of Nakasongola and Mubende. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Humans sharing of the water sources with wild animals from the forest compared to savannah ecosystem (OR = 3.3, the tribe of herding pastoral community (OR = 7.9, number of rooms present in household (3-5 vs. 1-2 rooms (OR = 3.3 were the socio-demographic factors that influenced the level of knowledge on mycobacterial infections among the pastoral communities. Tribe (OR = 6.4, use of spring vs. stream water for domestic use (OR = 4.5, presence of sediments in household water receptacle (OR = 2.32, non separation of water containers for drinking and domestic use (OR = 2.46, sharing of drinking water sources with wild animals (OR = 2.1, duration of involvement of >5 yrs in cattle keeping (OR = 3.7 and distance of household to animal night shelters (>20 meters (OR = 3
Brett J. Butler; David N. Wear
Key FindingsPrivate landowners hold 86 percent of the forest area in the South; two-thirds of this area is owned by families or individuals.Fifty-nine percent of family forest owners own between 1 and 9 acres of forest land, but 60 percent of family-owned forests are in holdings of 100 acres or more.Two-...
Gupta, A.; Siebert, U.
This article describes the strategies and activities of the Forest Integrity Network. One of the most important underlying causes of forest degradation is corruption and related illegal logging. The Forest Integrity Network is a timely new initiative to combat forest corruption. Its approach is to
Bagorogoza, J.; de Waal, A.; van den Herik, H.J.; van de Walle, B.A.
Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the knowledge management practices of financial institutions in Uganda, in order to understand how these practices influence the high performance organisation factors and thereby the performance of the financial institutions.
Full Text Available Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda not only have to contend with the numerous problems associated with living in a settlement but also have to live with the daily threat of armed attack.
Mwavu, Edward N; Ariango, Esther; Ssegawa, Paul; Kalema, Vettes N; Bateganya, Fred; Waiswa, Daniel; Byakagaba, Patrick
...' needs in the face of global changes. We assessed agrobiodiversity in the 120 homegardens and its contribution to rural household livelihood strategies within a commercial monoculture sugarcane cultivation land matrix in eastern Uganda...
Wafula, Solomon Tsebeni; Ssemugabo, Charles; Namuhani, Noel; Musoke, David; Ssempebwa, John; Halage, Abdullah Ali
.... It is largely affecting rural communities in the Eastern, West Nile and Central regions. This study assessed prevalence and risk factors associated with tungiasis in Mayuge district, Eastern Uganda...
Gakenia, W M; Barugahara, Evyline Isingoma; Kikafunda, J
.... The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, dietary and health risk factors of nutritional anaemia amongst 11-14 year old girls attending primary schools in Masindi District of Western Uganda...
Karubanga, Gabriel; Kibwika, Paul; Okry, Florent; Sseguya, Haroon
Videos have the potential of enhancing learning among smallholder farmers. The study intended to establish whether timing and location of video shows influence learning among rice farmers in Kamwenge district, Uganda...
Gumisiriza, Robert; Hawumba, Joseph Funa; Okure, Mackay; Hensel, Oliver
Uganda's banana industry is heavily impeded by the lack of cheap, reliable and sustainable energy mainly needed for processing of banana fruit into pulp and subsequent drying into chips before milling...
Clet Wandui Masiga
Full Text Available The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an internationally binding instrument addressing issues of biosafety. Biosafety refers to the need to protect human health and the environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of modern biotechnology. Accordingly all countries to the convention are required to put in place regulatory mechanisms to enhance the safety of biotechnology in the context of the Convention’s overall goal of reducing all potential threats to biological diversity, while taking into account the risks to human health. Therefore each country party to the convention has its own procedures to enact laws to guide the safe use of biotechnology. In Uganda the process involves the drafting of the bill by the first parliamentary counsel, approval by cabinet, first reading at the parliament, committal to the responsible parliamentary sessional committee, tabling of the bill for public hearing, consultations, and final approval. In Uganda, the Committee on Science and Technology is responsible for the Biosafety Bill. In March 2013, the Committee tabled the bill for public hearing and submissions from public institutions. There were comments supporting the passage of the Bill and comments in objection.The reasons for objection are mainly due to precaution, speculation, lack of knowledge about biotechnology and biosafety, and alleged influence from biosafety entrepreneurs. This article reviews these public views, revealing controversy and possible consensus to pass the bill.
Henricson, Kristina; Palmås, Karl
This article reviews a social entrepreneurial initiative to set up a solar-powered incubator in Bubulo, Uganda, initiated by a group of Sweden-based entrepreneurship students. Using an Actor-Network Theoryinformed approach, it addresses the question of how the original aims of the initiative shifted as it moved from Sweden to Uganda, securing new allies and resources. In the tracing of this movement from northern Europe to central Africa, concepts from Actor-Network Theory, such as ‘translati...
Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J
"Banana is a staple crop consumed by Ugandan households. The Uganda National Agricultural Research Organization has implemented conventional and biotechnology programs that seek improving bananas and address the crop's most important pest and disease problems. A major thrust is the development of genetically modified (GM) bananas. The purpose of this paper is to examine potential social welfare impacts of adopting a GM banana in Uganda. The study has three objectives. First, suggest and apply...
Vincent M. Kiberu
Full Text Available Background: Most developing countries, including Uganda, have embraced the use of e-Health and m-Health applications as a means to improve primary healthcare delivery and public health for their populace. In Uganda, the growth in the information and communications technology industry has benefited the rural communities and also created opportunities for new innovations, and their application into healthcare has reported positive results, especially in the areas of disease control and prevention through disease surveillance. However, most are mere proof-of-concepts, only demonstrated in use within a small context and lack sustainability. This study reviews the literature to understand e-Health’s current implementation status within Uganda and documents the barriers and opportunities to sustainable e-Health intervention programmes in Uganda.Methods: A structured literature review of e-Health in Uganda was undertaken between May and December 2015 and was complemented with hand searching and a document review of grey literature in the form of policy documents and reports obtained online or from the Ministry of Health’s Resource Centre.Results: The searches identified a total of 293 resources of which 48 articles met the inclusion criteria of being in English and describing e-Health implementation in Uganda. These were included in the study and were examined in detail.Conclusion: Uganda has trialled several e-Health and m-Health solutions to address healthcare challenges. Most were donor funded, operated in silos and lacked sustainability. Various barriers have been identified. Evidence has shown that e-Health implementations in Uganda have lacked prior planning stages that the literature notes as essential, for example strategy and need readiness assessment. Future research should address these shortcomings prior to introduction of e-Health innovations.
Ndejjo, Rawlance; Mukama, Trasias; Kiguli, Juliet; Musoke, David
Objectives To explore community knowledge, facilitators and barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda so as to generate data to inform interventions. Design A qualitative study using focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Setting Discussions and interviews carried out in the community within two districts in Eastern Uganda. Participants Ten (10) focus group discussions with 119 screening-eligible women aged between 25 and 49 years and 11 key informant in...
Full Text Available Abstract Background From 1995-2000 the under five mortality rate in Uganda increased from 147.3 to 151.5 deaths per 1000 live births and reasons for the increase were not clear. This study was undertaken to understand factors influencing the increase in under five mortality rate during 1995-2000 in Uganda with a view of suggesting remedial actions. Methods We performed a comparative retrospective analysis of data derived from the 1995 and the 2000 Uganda demographic and health surveys. We correlated the change of under five mortality rate in Uganda desegregated by region (central, eastern, north and western with change in major known determinants of under five mortality such social economic circumstances, maternal factors, access to health services, and level of nutrition. Results The increase in under five mortality rate only happened in western Uganda with the other 3 regions of Uganda (eastern, northern and central showing a decrease. The changes in U5MR could not be explained by changes in poverty, maternal conditions, level of nutrition, or in access to health and other social services and in the prevalence of HIV among women attending for ante-natal care. All these factors did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05 using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Conclusion In order to explain these findings, there is need to find something that happened in western Uganda (but not other parts of the country during the period 1995-2000 and has the potential to change the under five mortality by a big margin. We hypothesize that the increase in under five mortality could be explained by the severe malaria epidemic that occurred in western Uganda (but not other regions in 1997/98.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Teso sub-region of Eastern Uganda had superior indices of childhood survival during the period 1959 to 1969 compared to the national average. We analysed the reasons that could explain this situation with a view of suggesting strategies for reducing childhood mortality. Methods We compared the childhood mortalities and their average annual reduction rate (AARR of Teso sub-region with those of Uganda for the period 1959 to 1969. We also compared indicators of social economic well being (such as livestock per capita and per capita intake of protein/energy. In addition data was compared on other important determinants of child survival such as level of education and rate of urbanisation. Findings In 1969 the infant mortality rate (IMR for Teso was 94 per 1000 live births compared to the 120 for Uganda. Between 1959 and 1969 the AARR for IMR for Teso was 4.57% compared to 3% for Uganda. It was interesting that the AARR for Teso was higher than that that of 4.4.% required to achieve millennium development goal number four (MDG4. The rate of urbanisation and the level of education were higher in Uganda compared to Teso during the same period. Teso had a per capita ownership of cattle of 1.12 compared to Uganda's 0.44. Teso sub region had about 3 times the amount of protein and about 2 times the amount of calories compared to Uganda. Conclusions We surmise that higher ownership of cattle and growing of high protein and energy foods might have been responsible for better childhood survival in Teso compared to Uganda.
Full Text Available Obesity is one of the fastest growing health problems in Uganda and across the world and its rising prevalence is placing additional strain on medical resources. At its simplest level obesity is a consequence of unhealthy lifestyles. Preventing its spread in Uganda will rest on the ability of society to motivate individuals to make positive healthy choices in their daily lives and many of the same techniques may be applicable to the situation in South Sudan.
Benin, Samuel; You, Liangzhi
"The Ugandan coffee industry is facing some serious challenges, including low international prices in the international coffee market, aging coffee trees and declining productivity, and, more recently, the appearance of coffee-wilt disease, which have all contributed to the decline in both the quantity and value of coffee exports. The government of Uganda, through the Uganda Coffee Development Authority (UCDA), in 1993/94 started a coffee-replanting program to both replace coffee trees that w...
Michelle Christian; Francis Mwaura
Abstract Over the last decade, Uganda has re-emerged as a global tourism destination after years of instability. The growth of Uganda’s tourism global production network, however, is slow and is characterized by a few elite firms and highly controlled travel through tightly coordinated distribution channels. Capturing the Gains research asked how and if economic upgrading in the tourism global production network was happening in Uganda, and if social upgrading followed, by exploring one touri...
Kiberu, Vincent M; Mars, Maurice; Scott, Richard E
Most developing countries, including Uganda, have embraced the use of e-Health and m-Health applications as a means to improve primary healthcare delivery and public health for their populace. In Uganda, the growth in the information and communications technology industry has benefited the rural communities and also created opportunities for new innovations, and their application into healthcare has reported positive results, especially in the areas of disease control and prevention through disease surveillance. However, most are mere proof-of-concepts, only demonstrated in use within a small context and lack sustainability. This study reviews the literature to understand e-Health's current implementation status within Uganda and documents the barriers and opportunities to sustainable e-Health intervention programmes in Uganda. A structured literature review of e-Health in Uganda was undertaken between May and December 2015 and was complemented with hand searching and a document review of grey literature in the form of policy documents and reports obtained online or from the Ministry of Health's Resource Centre. The searches identified a total of 293 resources of which 48 articles met the inclusion criteria of being in English and describing e-Health implementation in Uganda. These were included in the study and were examined in detail. Uganda has trialled several e-Health and m-Health solutions to address healthcare challenges. Most were donor funded, operated in silos and lacked sustainability. Various barriers have been identified. Evidence has shown that e-Health implementations in Uganda have lacked prior planning stages that the literature notes as essential, for example strategy and need readiness assessment. Future research should address these shortcomings prior to introduction of e-Health innovations.
Glenn A. Christensen; Paul Dunham; David C. Powell; Bruce. Hiserote
Current resource statistics for the Umatilla National Forest, based on two separate inventories conducted in 1993â96 and in 1997â2002, are presented in this report. Currently on the Umatilla National Forest, 89 percent of the land area is classified as forest land. The predominant forest type is grand fir (26 percent of forested acres) followed by the interior Douglas-...
Nakimuli-Mpungu, E; Munyaneza Godfrey,
E Nakimuli-Mpungu1,2, G Munyaneza3,41Mental Health Department, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Makerere College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kampala, Uganda; 3Butabika School of Psychiatric Clinical Officers, Ministry of Education, Kampala, Uganda; 4Rushere Community Hospital, Rushere, UgandaIntroduction: Research into psychological factors associated with disclosure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus in ...
Full Text Available Commercial tree planting in Uganda is constrained by a lack ofgood quality seedlings due to poor soils used in nurseries. Two experiments were carried out; to evaluate the effects of different soils on the growth of the pine seedlings (experiment 1 and to compare the performance of seedlings provided with different NPK fertilizer formulations and amounts(experiment 2. Soils were collected from four forest reserves: Katugo (K, South Busoga (S, and Mbarara (M and from Mubende forest reserve. Treatments were: 0, 0.5 kg and 1.0 kg levels; NPK fertilizer formulations 25−5−5 (A, 17-17-17 (B and 18−4−14 +TE (C mixed in 1 m3 of soil.Composite soil samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Experimentswere laid out in a completely randomized block design, but with a factorialtreatment structure for experiment 2. Routine nursery management practices were carried out. Seedling heights and diameter were recorded. The results showed that SOM (site 1, total N (site 2 and available P, K, Ca and Mg were below the critical values. Low nutrient concentrations reduced growth, with seedling height highest in Katugo and girth highest in the Mbarara.Results of experiment two showed that there were no significant differences in mean heights for fertilizers A and C after a 1½ months application and B had a significant difference in the mean height and girth. However, fertilizer C girth results were significant with (Pvalue = 0.021, Pvalue = 0.001 at 1½ months and 3 months respectively. After 3 months, fertilizer B had the best mean height and mean girth at level 0.5 kg with (16.75 cm, 0.23 cm respectively, compared with fertilizer C and A with (13.42 cm, 0.175 cm and (12.44 cm, 0.174 cm respectively. From the results, a general NPK fertilizer formulation 171717 is recommended for use at a rate of 0.5 kg m3 of soil.
Olobo-Okao, Joseph; Sagaki, Patrick
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala azar is a fatal and neglected disease caused by protozoan parasites. It occurs worldwide including north-eastern Uganda. This review gives a historical account of and reviews available literature on VL in Uganda to raise more awareness about the disease. Information was collected from: MEDLINE searches; records of Ministry of Health (Uganda), Amudat hospital records; records of NGOs and multilateral institutions; dissertations and personal communication. Results show that VL in Uganda was first reported in the 1950's, followed by almost four decades of neglect. Earlier records from the ministry of health and Amudat hospital on VL are also incomplete. From early 2000, reports mainly on the disease management and risk factors, started to appear in the literature. Management of VL has mainly been by NGOs and multilateral institutions including MSF Swiss. Currently DNDi is funding its management and clinical trials in Amudat hospital through LEAP. New cases of VL were reported recently from Moroto and Kotido districts and more patients continue to be received from these areas. In conclusion, management of VL is well established in Amudat hospital. However its sustainability and wider coverage remains a challenge. First-line drugs have now been registered in the country. Visceral leishmaniasis is apparently more widespread in north-eastern Uganda than originally thought. Research and surveillance on leishmaniasis is still weak. Strengthening the capacity of local institutions to; conduct surveillance and research, combined with effective management should mitigate VL in Uganda.
Full Text Available This note emphasizes the importance of appreciating the conceptual paths and theories that have historically characterized forestry development. A recent monograph on the history of forest thinking presents the theoretical evolution of silvicultural science, with particular attention to epistemological and ethical implications: the main lines of research progress are stressed by analysing the various schools of thought in this field. The reading of the monograph strengthens the evidence that always behind the facts, there are the ideas.
Leerlooijer, J.N; Bos, A.E.R; Ruiter, R.A.C; Reeuwijk, van, M.A; Rijsdijk, L.E; Nshakira, N; Kok, G
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education...
Mcmanus, M. L.
Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.
Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.
We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according to the e...
Sekiwunga, Richard; Whyte, Susan Reynolds
In Uganda teenage pregnancy is considered a problem for moral and social, as well as health, reasons. This qualitative stud,y in Busia District focused on the views of teenagers themselves as expressed in 9 focus group discussions with girls and boys. Their perspectives were contrasted with those of community leaders and mothers of adolescents. The young people blamed teenage pregnancy on failures of the parental generation. They asserted that parents and guardians were both too lenient and too harsh, that they failed to provide for their daughters' needs, and that they pressured them into early marriages instead of giving priority to education. Although poverty and family breakdown were recognized as underlying structural causes of parental failure, the teenagers experienced these factors in their everyday lives as problems with their parents and guardians. The teenagers expressed the 'enlightened' view that adolescent pregnancy was undesireable, even though many girls have few alternatives to marriage and childbearing.
Maly, Christina; McClendon, Katherine A.; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J.; Bonnevie, Erika; Wagman, Jennifer A.
The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies. PMID:28835911
Maly, Christina; McClendon, Katherine A; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J; Bonnevie, Erika; Wagman, Jennifer A
The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies.
Corbin, Joanne N
This exploratory qualitative study considers the subjective resettlement experiences of children forced into armed conflict in Northern Uganda from the perspectives of 11 former child combatants and 11 adult community members. A thematic analysis was performed on the narrative data. The bioecological model was used to provide a conceptual framework for key themes. Major findings included the overarching impact of ongoing armed conflict on returnees' lives, the important role of the family in supporting children's resettlement, the harassment of former child soldiers by community members, and the community's inability to support systematically the returning children in tangible ways. This study recommends that humanitarian services at all levels strengthen the capacity of families to care for the material and psychoemotional needs of former child soldiers within their communities.
Mugisha, Joseph O; Kuper, Hannah; Seeley, Janet
To describe older people's perceptions of anemia in a rural Ugandan population. Quantitative and qualitative data on anemia were collected from participants aged ≥50 years from January 2012 to January 2013 using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Quantitative data were collected from 1,455 participants. Qualitative data were collected from 10 people who were purposively selected. Data were analyzed using STATA software and thematic content analysis. 33.8% men and 17.4% women had anemia. Older people perceived themselves to be anemic because of symptoms and beliefs about causes. Those with anemia were more likely to perceive that they had anemia (18.4% vs. 10.2%, p Uganda should target older people and correct misconceptions about the causes and treatment of anemia.
Full Text Available The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies.
Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Park, Sung-Joon; Odong, George
Background : WHO and Uganda’s Ministry of Health emphasize the need to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Treatment for these conditions is urgent in northern Uganda where war has negatively affected both health and the public health care system. Objectives : We aimed...... under 1% of diagnoses. Patterns of diagnosis were uneven, with higher frequency of particular diagnoses at some health facilities. Diagnostic equipment was not sufficient and screening was irregular. Medicine was mostly available although stockouts of some relevant drugs were reported. Conclusions...... : The four conditions are relatively invisible in the outpatient population. Greater visibility would be facilitated by regular clinic days for hypertension and diabetes, availability and regular use of diagnostic instruments, and a more reliable supply of the relevant medicines....
The gazetted area of Budongo Forest Reserve is 825 km2 subdivided into ﬁve blocks: Nyakaﬁmjo, Siba. Kaniyo. Pabidi, Waibira and Biiso (Eggeling, 1947 and Howard,. 1991) (Table 1). Several of the dominant species are deciduous and the forest can broadly be classified as a medium altitude moist semi-deciduous forest ...
Populations of African Grey Parrots are threatened by increased forest loss and the pet trade. Budongo forest reserve has, for over 60 years, been subjected to selective logging. Mabira forest reserve faces human pressures characterised by extractive disturbances, and agricultural activities with increased boundary ...
Hollamby, Simon; Afema-Azikuru, Josephine; Sikarskie, James G; Kaneene, John B; Stuht, John N; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Bowerman, William W; Cameron, Kenneth; Gandolf, A Rae; Hui, Gretchen N; Dranzoa, Christine; Rumbeiha, Wilson K
Packed cell volumes (PCVs) and plasma chemistry parameters were measured in 15 adult and 18 nestling African fish eagles (Haliaeetus vocifer) sampled from June 2002 through January 2003 in Uganda. Morphologic measurements were obtained from 15 adult eagles. All eagles were examined for blood parasites and sexed by examination of DNA from red blood cells. Ten adults and eight nestlings were sampled from Lake Mburo and five adults and 10 nestlings were sampled from Lake Victoria near Entebbe, Uganda. Analysis of variance was conducted to assess the association between site, age, sex, and plasma chemistry parameters and the association between sex and morphologic characteristics. Plasma chemistry values for nestling and adult African fish eagles were similar to those reported for other captive and free-ranging eagle species. Packed cell volumes for nestling African fish eagles were markedly lower than values reported for nestlings of other eagle species, although the mean estimated age of nestlings sampled also was lower. A significant association (P or =0.05). An unidentified Plasmodium sp. was present in erythrocytes of three nestlings from Lake Mburo. No other blood parasites were seen. There was significant variation (P< or =0.05) in PCV, calcium, phosphorous, potassium, cholesterol concentrations, and creatine kinase activity between adults and nestlings; all were lower in adults. Aspartate transaminase activity was higher in adults. Like other Haliaeetus sp., body weight, bill depth, culmen length, footpad length, and hallux length as well as bill depth measurements were significantly (P < or = 0.05) greater for females than males. The objective of the study was to provide baseline biologic and physiologic information that may prove useful in the management and study of captive and wild populations of African fish eagles.
Full Text Available Abstract Background World wide, there is plentiful evidence regarding the role of stigma in mental illness, as well as the association between poverty and mental illness. The experiences of stigma catalyzed by poverty revolve around experiences of devaluation, exclusion, and disadvantage. Although the relationship between poverty, stigma and mental illness has been documented in high income countries, little has been written on this relationship in low and middle income countries. The paper describes the opinions of a range of mental health stakeholders regarding poverty, stigma, mental illness and their relationship in the Ugandan context, as part of a wider study, aimed at exploring policy interventions required to address the vicious cycle of mental ill-health and poverty. Methods Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with purposefully selected mental health stakeholders from various sectors. The interviews and FGDs were audio-recorded, and transcriptions were coded on the basis of a pre-determined coding frame. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted using NVivo7, adopting a framework analysis approach. Results Most participants identified a reciprocal relationship between poverty and mental illness. The stigma attached to mental illness was perceived as a common phenomenon, mostly associated with local belief systems regarding the causes of mental illness. Stigma associated with both poverty and mental illness serves to reinforce the vicious cycle of poverty and mental ill-health. Most participants emphasized a relationship between poverty and internalized stigma among people with mental illness in Uganda. Conclusion According to a range of mental health stakeholders in Uganda, there is a strong interrelationship between poverty, stigma and mental illness. These findings re-affirm the need to recognize material resources as a central element in the fight against stigma of mental illness, and the
Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of forest management across four countries in East Africa and Latin America: Kenya, Uganda, Bolivia, and Mexico. It focuses on one question: Do varying proportions of women (low, mixed, high in forest user groups influence their likelihood of adopting forest resource enhancing behavior? We found that higher proportions of females in user groups, and especially user groups dominated by females, perform less well than mixed groups or male dominated ones. We suggest that these differences may be related to three factors: gender biases in technology access and dissemination, a labor constraint faced by women, and a possible limitation to women's sanctioning authority. Mixed female and male groups offer an avenue for exploiting the strengths of women and men, while tempering their individual shortcomings.
Full Text Available Jackson Orem,1–3 Sven Sandin,1 Caroline E Weibull,1 Michael Odida,4 Henry Wabinga,4 Edward Mbidde,2,3 Fred Wabwire-Mangen,5 Chris JLM Meijer,6 Jaap M Middeldorp,6 Elisabete Weiderpass1,7,81Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Uganda Cancer Institute, 3School of Medicine, 4School of Biomedical Sciences, 5School of Public Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; 6Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 7Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo; Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 8Samfundet Folkhälsan, Helsinki, FinlandBackground: Correct diagnosis is key to appropriate treatment of cancer in children. However, diagnostic challenges are common in low-income and middle-income countries. The objective of the present study was to assess the agreement between a clinical diagnosis of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL assigned in Uganda, a pathological diagnosis assigned in Uganda, and a pathological diagnosis assigned in The Netherlands.Methods: The study included children with suspected NHL referred to the Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, between 2004 and 2008. A clinical diagnosis was assigned at the Mulago National Referral Hospital, where tissue samples were also obtained. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were used for histological diagnosis in Uganda, and were re-examined in a pathology laboratory in The Netherlands, where additional pathological, virological and serological testing was also carried out. Agreement between diagnostic sites was compared using kappa statistics.Results: Clinical and pathological diagnoses from Uganda and pathological diagnosis from The Netherlands was available for 118 children. The agreement between clinical and pathological diagnoses of NHL assigned in Uganda was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI] 84–95; kappa 0.84; P < 0
Charles H. Perry; Vern A. Everson; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Sally E. Dahir; Andrea L. Diss-Torrance; Grant M Domke; Dale D. Gormanson; Sarah K. Herrick; Steven S. Hubbard; Terry R. Mace; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Richard B. Rodeout; Luke T. Saunders; Kirk M. Stueve; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall
The second full annual inventory of Wisconsin's forests reports more than 16.7 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,400 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies slightly more than one quarter of the total forest land area; the maple/beech/birch forest-type group occupies an...
Christopher W. Woodall; Mark N. Webb; Barry T. Wilson; Jeff Settle; Ron J. Piva; Charles H. Perry; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker; Brett J. Butler; Mark Hansen; Mark Hatfield; Gary Brand; Charles. Barnett
The second full annual inventory of Indiana's forests reports more than 4.75 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the white oak/red oak/hickory forest type, which occupies nearly a third of the total forest land area. Seventy-six percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 16...
Randall S. Morin; Chuck J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Robert De Geus; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ron Piva; Rachel Riemann; Richard Widmann; Sandy Wilmot; Chris W. Woodall
The first full annual inventory of Vermont's forests reports more than 4.5 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,200 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the maple/beech/birch forest-type group, which occupies 70 percent of total forest land area. Sixty-three percent of forest land consists of large-diameter trees, 27...
Randall S. Morin; Chuck J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Susan Francher; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ron Piva; Rachel Riemann; Chris W. Woodall
The first full annual inventory of New Hampshire's forests reports nearly 4.8 million acres of forest land with an average volume of nearly 2,200 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the maple/beech/birch forest-type group, which occupies 53 percent of total forest land area. Fifty-seven percent of forest land consists of large-diameter trees, 32...
Okia, M; Mbulamberi, D B; De Muynck, A
The major risk factors associated with acquisition of T. b. rhodesiense sleeping sickness in the Busoga focus, S.E. Uganda were investigated using a case-control study. 122 cases and 244 matched controls were used in the study. For each case two age-, sex- and resistance controls (1 matched nearest neighbour control and 1 village control) were selected. Patients and controls answered the same questionnaire which had been developed and field tested before the field study started. A logistic regression model for a 1:2 matched case control design was fit to the data. The following factors were found significant: cases spent more time outside their village of residence than controls and visited more SS high risk areas than controls, more cases than controls collected firewood in the forests. Generally, cases had less domestic animals grazing near the places of man-fly contact, especially near water and firewood collecting and bathing points, and near farms and gardens, than controls. Cases had more antecedents of sleeping sickness in the family. Generally cases had a less well developed information network than controls, and belonged economically to a less powerful group. Based on these results we may conclude that the risk to develop T.b. rhodesiense sleeping sickness depends upon a multitude of economical, cultural and human behaviour factors. These factors should be taken into account in the planning and monitoring of sleeping sickness control programmes.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...
Full Text Available Collaborative forest governance enables forest-based communities access to and management responsibilities for forestry resources. Researchers argue that processes that enable social learning have the potential to contribute to the sustainable management of forests by engaging local people, helping them identify their collective needs and gain access to resource entitlements, and encouraging them to learn about and implement different management options. Although there is considerable attention to gender in the literature on collaborative forestry, particularly in developing countries, there is relatively little attention to gender in the social learning literature. Furthermore, there is almost no attention to these issues in postindustrial countries. Our purpose was to better understand how gender affects social learning and collaborative forest governance in forest-based communities in Canada and Uganda. Results showed that most participants in both countries started engaging in collaborative forest governance with limited knowledge and learned as they participated in various activities. However, we found that social learning opportunities and outcomes were affected by gender; in addition, they were also affected by the values that people held, education, and literacy. We suggest that practitioners should consider gender and other axes of difference if they want to design collaborative forest governance initiatives that are both participatory and inclusive.
van Gemert, Frederik; Kirenga, Bruce; Chavannes, Niels; Kamya, Moses; Luzige, Simon; Musinguzi, Patrick; Turyagaruka, John; Jones, Rupert; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Williams, Sian; de Jong, Corina; van der Molen, Thys
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the damage to respiratory health caused by biomass smoke and tobacco smoke. We assessed the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and related risk factors in a rural region of Uganda. METHODS: We did this prospective
This thesis examines the socio-economic effects of oil industry on the people of Kabaale Village, Hoima, and Bunyoro region in Uganda. The thesis analyses the current political economy of Uganda and how Uganda is prepared to utilize the proceeds from the oil industry for the development of the country and its people. In addition, the research examines the effects of industry on the people of Uganda by analyzing how the people of Kabaale in Bunyoro region were affected by the plans to construct oil refinery in their region. This field research was done using qualitative methods and the Historical Materialism theoretical framework guided the study. The major findings include; displacement of people from land especially women, lack of accountability from the leadership, and less citizen participation in the policy formulation and oil industry. Ugandans, East Africans and the wider Pan-African world need to re-organize their socio-economic structure to enable people own means of production; participate and form labor organizations. Additionally, there is a need for oil producing African countries to unite and setup and oil fund for resources and investment instead of relying on foreign multinationals or become rentier states.
Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Roy, Daniel M.; Teh, Yee Whye
Ensembles of randomized decision trees, usually referred to as random forests, are widely used for classification and regression tasks in machine learning and statistics. Random forests achieve competitive predictive performance and are computationally efficient to train and test, making them excellent candidates for real-world prediction tasks. The most popular random forest variants (such as Breiman's random forest and extremely randomized trees) operate on batches of training data. Online ...
Protected areas in Central Africa are a panacea as several million people are not schooled on the benefits of sustainably managing forests. Of perennial concern is the land tenure system which could provide incentives for forest management and conservation. Within this context, this article examines COMIFAC's forest ...
J.P. Siry; K. McGinley; F.W. Cubbage; P. Bettinger
We reviewed the principles and key literature related to forest tenure and sustainable forest management, and then examined the status of sustainable forestry and land ownership at the aggregate national level for major forested countries. The institutional design principles suggested by Ostrom are well accepted for applications to public, communal, and private lands....
Kauppi, Pekka E; Ausubel, Jesse H; Fang, Jingyun; Mather, Alexander S; Sedjo, Roger A; Waggoner, Paul E
Amid widespread reports of deforestation, some nations have nevertheless experienced transitions from deforestation to reforestation. In a causal relationship, the Forest Identity relates the carbon sequestered in forests to the changing variables of national or regional forest area, growing stock density per area, biomass per growing stock volume, and carbon concentration in the biomass. It quantifies the sources of change of a nation's forests. The Identity also logically relates the quantitative impact on forest expanse of shifting timber harvest to regions and plantations where density grows faster. Among 50 nations with extensive forests reported in the Food and Agriculture Organization's comprehensive Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005, no nation where annual per capita gross domestic product exceeded 4,600 dollars had a negative rate of growing stock change. Using the Forest Identity and national data from the Assessment report, a single synoptic chart arrays the 50 nations with coordinates of the rates of change of basic variables, reveals both clusters of nations and outliers, and suggests trends in returning forests and their attributes. The Forest Identity also could serve as a tool for setting forest goals and illuminating how national policies accelerate or retard the forest transitions that are diffusing among nations.
This paper explores causes of differences in estimates of poverty incidence in Uganda since the early 1990s as measured by the Uganda Bureau of Statistics and the World Bank. While both sets of estimates from the two organisations show a declining trend in poverty incidence there are important differences in the levels of poverty, the speed of the…
Nattabi, Barbara; Li, Jianghong; Thompson, Sandra C.; Orach, Christopher G.; Earnest, Jaya
HIV-related stigma continues to persist in several African countries including Uganda. This study quantified the burden of stigma and examined factors associated with stigma among 476 people living with HIV (PLHTV) in Gulu, northern Uganda. Data were collected between February and May 2009 using the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-PLWA. Females more…
Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.
Banana is a staple crop in Uganda. Ugandans have the highest per capita consumption of cooking bananas in the world (Clarke 2003). However, banana production in Uganda is limited by several productivity constraints, such as insects, diseases, soil depletion, and poor agronomic practices. To address
This research report traces all the main developments in IMF-World Bank policies in Uganda. Most of the material concerns the three IMF standby arrangements with Uganda for 1981-1984 and the World Bank Group's Structural Adjustment Programmes. These programmes introduced two contradictory policies
Yiga, Dominic Bukenya
Behavioural change programmes specifically those promoting faithfulness, partner reduction and consistent right condom use contributed to the early declines in HIV incidence and prevalence in Uganda. To guard against treatment optimism and continued risky sexual practices which might result from improved health status, ART clients are also subjected to intensive behavioural change intervention campaigns in Uganda. However, comprehensive evaluation of behavioural change interventions /programm...
Our research project funded by the British Council on multigrade teaching capacity building in Uganda and Zambia found that Uganda does not have a single higher education institution training teachers in multigrade pedagogy and Zambia has only one located at Serenje village in rural Zambia. Yet the research found that in both countries many…
Basheka, Benon C.; Nabwire, Addah
This paper examines the relationship between budget planning and the quality of educational services at Kyambogo University in Uganda. We argue that the manner in which the university's budget planning activities are conducted determines in a significant way (by 76.8%) the quality of the services offered by public universities in Uganda. The…
Muwanika, Vincent B.; Nyakaana, Silvester; Siegismund, Hans Redlef
exterminated while other populations were decimated. Recent results of genetic surveys in five large mammals in Uganda (the common warthog, savanna elephant, savanna buffalo, common hippopotamus and Uganda kob) suggest a substantial erosion of genetic diversity in the elephants and warthogs of Queen Elizabeth...
Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom
of food insecurity among low-income women (farmers) in central Uganda, positing the view that the agricultural and livelihood choices women farmers make are subject to the constraints they face and the policy alternatives available for them. Uganda is burdened with rising poverty, malnutrition and food...
Heum, Per; Mwakali, Jackson A.; Ekern, Ole Fredrik; Byaruhanga, Jackson N.M.; Koojo, Charles A.; Bigirwenkya, Naptali K.
In realization of the petroleum industry potential, Uganda's Oil and Gas policy seeks to optimize wealth creation from the industry to enhance the welfare of the citizens. This study has examined how Uganda may benefit from the participation of Ugandans and Ugandan firms in the petroleum activities. In the literature this is frequently referred to by applying the term local content. Local in this sense, however, refers to national as opposed to international or foreign contributions. Thus, we apply the concept national content to avoid any misunderstanding. Focus of our study has been on identifying the opportunities, gaps and challenges posed by the petroleum industry to recommend necessary measures to maximize the benefits of national content otherwise defined as national participation.The study has examined lessons Uganda may draw on from other countries and from the economic literature on industrial growth and national wealth. Furthermore, the specific point of departure for Uganda with regard to expected petroleum activities, Uganda's industrial base and its human resource base, has been investigated. On this basis, the study has made its recommendations.(eb)
Mbonye, Anthony K; Wamala, Joseph F; Nanyunja, Miriam; Opio, Alex; Makumbi, Issa; Aceng, Jane Ruth
There has been a rapid spread of Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic disease in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone since March 2014. Since this is the first time of a major Ebola outbreak in West Africa; it is possible there is lack of understanding of the epidemic in the communities, lack of experience among the health workers to manage the cases and limited capacities for rapid response. The main objective of this article is to share Uganda's experience in controlling similar Ebola outbreaks and to suggest some lessons that could inform the control of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The article is based on published papers, reports of previous Ebola outbreaks, response plans and experiences of individuals who have participated in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda. Lessons learnt: The success in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda has been due to high political support, effective coordination through national and district task forces. In addition there has been active surveillance, strong community mobilization using village health teams and other community resources persons, an efficient laboratory system that has capacity to provide timely results. These have coupled with effective case management and infection control and the involvement of development partners who commit resources with shared responsibility. Several factors have contributed to the successful quick containment of Ebola outbreaks in Uganda. West African countries experiencing Ebola outbreaks could draw some lessons from the Uganda experience and adapt them to contain the Ebola epidemic.
Mayega, R W; Wafula, M R; Musenero, M; Omale, A; Kiguli, J; Orach, G C; Kabagambe, G; Bazeyo, W
Most countries in sub-Saharan Africa have not conducted a disaster risk analysis. Hazards and vulnerability analyses provide vital information that can be used for development of risk reduction and disaster response plans. The purpose of this study was to rank disaster hazards for Uganda, as a basis for identifying the priority hazards to guide disaster management planning. The study as conducted in Uganda, as part of a multi-country assessment. A hazard, vulnerability and capacity analysis was conducted in a focus group discussion of 7 experts representing key stakeholder agencies in disaster management in Uganda. A simple ranking method was used to rank the probability of occurance of 11 top hazards, their potential impact and the level vulnerability of people and infrastructure. In-terms of likelihood of occurance and potential impact, the top ranked disaster hazards in Uganda are: 1) Epidemics of infectious diseases, 2) Drought/famine, 3) Conflict and environmental degradation in that order. In terms of vulnerability, the top priority hazards to which people and infrastructure were vulnerable were: 1) Conflicts, 2) Epidemics, 3) Drought/famine and, 4) Environmental degradation in that order. Poverty, gender, lack of information, and lack of resilience measures were some of the factors promoting vulnerability to disasters. As Uganda develops a disaster risk reduction and response plan, it ought to prioritize epidemics of infectious diseases, drought/famine, conflics and environmental degradation as the priority disaster hazards.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health is a neglected area of health research and practice in most of sub-Saharan African countries where the largest burden of morbidity is from infectious diseases. This even occurs despite the fact that some mental health problems may arise from infectious diseases. Methods We conducted secondary analysis of the Uganda Global School-Based Health Survey-2003 to obtain the prevalence of, and assess factors that may be associated with suicidal ideation among school-going adolescents in rural Uganda. Assessment of association was conducted through both bi-variate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Altogether 21.6% of the study participants, 21.3% males and 23.5% females had seriously considered committing suicide within the past 12 months. Loneliness, worry were positively associated with suicide ideation after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, drinking, and experience of having been bullied (OR = 1.59; 95% CI [1.12, 2.26] and OR = 1.19; 95% CI [1.12, 2.25] respectively. Males were less likely to seriously consider committing suicide than females (OR = 0.70; 95% CI [0.50, 0.98]. Conclusion Adolescent suicidal ideation is a major public health issue in rural Uganda. Measures aimed to prevent adolescent suicides in Uganda should incorporate our understanding of factors that are associated with suicide in rural Uganda such the gender disparity and the association observed with substance use.
Catrina A MacKenzie
Full Text Available Approximately 2.5 billion barrels of commercially-viable oil, worth $2 billion in annual revenue for 20 years, were discovered under the Ugandan portion of the Albertine Rift in 2006. The region also contains seven of Uganda's protected areas and a growing ecotourism industry. We conducted interviews and focus groups in and around Murchison Falls Protected Area, Uganda's largest, oldest, and most visited protected area, to assess the interaction of oil exploration with the three primary conservation policies employed by Uganda Wildlife Authority: protectionism, neoliberal capital accumulation, and community-based conservation. We find that oil extraction is legally permitted inside protected areas in Uganda, like many other African countries, and that the wildlife authority and oil companies are adapting to co-exist inside a protected area. Our primary argument is that neoliberal capital accumulation as a conservation policy actually makes protected areas more vulnerable to industrial exploitation because nature is commodified, allowing economic value and profitability of land uses to determine how nature is exploited. Our secondary argument is that the conditional nature of protected area access inherent within the protectionist policy permits oil extraction within Murchison Falls Protected Area. Finally, we argue that community-based conservation, as operationalized in Uganda, has no role in defending protected areas against oil industrialisation.
Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James
of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...
Farmer, Jenny; Langan, Charlie; Gimona, Alessandro; Poggio, Laura; Smith, Jo
Land use change in Uganda's wetlands has received very little research attention. Peat soils dominate the papyrus wetlands of the south west of the country, but the areas they are found in have been increasingly converted to potato cultivation. Our research in Uganda set out to (a) document both the annual use of and changes to these soils under potato cultivation, and (b) the extent and condition of these soils across wetland systems. During our research we found it was necessary to develop locally appropriate protocols for sampling and analysis of soil characteristics, based on field conditions and locally available resources. Over the period of one year we studied the use of the peat soil for potato cultivation by smallholder farmers in Ruhuma wetland and measured changes to surface peat properties and soil nutrients in fields over that time. Farmer's use of the fields changed over the year, with cultivation, harvesting and fallow periods, which impacted on soil micro-topography. Measured soil properties changed over the course of the year as a result of the land use, with bulk density, nitrogen content, potassium and magnesium all reducing. Comparison of changes in soil carbon stocks over the study period were difficult to make as it was not possible to reach the bottom of the peat layer. However, a layer of fallow weeds discarded onto the soil prior to preparation of the raised potato beds provided a time marker which gave insight into carbon losses over the year. To determine the peatland extent, a spatial survey was conducted in the Kanyabaha-Rushebeya wetland system, capturing peat depths and key soil properties (bulk density, organic matter and carbon contents). Generalised additive models were used to map peat depth and soil characteristics across the system, and maps were developed for these as well as drainage and land use classes. Comparison of peat cores between the two study areas indicates spatial variability in peat depths and the influence of
Full Text Available Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34 compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97. Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59. Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58. Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote
Full Text Available Self-medication with antimicrobial agents is a common form of self-care among patients globally with the prevalence and nature differing from country to country. Here we assessed the prevalence and predictors of antimicrobial self-medication in post-conflict northern Uganda. A cross-sectional study was carried out using structured interviews on 892 adult (≥18 years participants. Information on drug name, prescriber, source, cost, quantity of drug obtained, and drug use was collected. Households were randomly selected using multistage cluster sampling method. One respondent who reported having an illness within three months in each household was recruited. In each household, information was obtained from only one adult individual. Data was analyzed using STATA at 95% level of significance. The study found that a high proportion (75.7% of the respondents practiced antimicrobial self-medication. Fever, headache, lack of appetite and body weakness were the disease symptoms most treated through self-medication (30.3%. The commonly self-medicated antimicrobials were coartem (27.3%, amoxicillin (21.7%, metronidazole (12.3%, and cotrimoxazole (11.6%. Drug use among respondents was mainly initiated by self-prescription (46.5% and drug shop attendants (57.6%. On average, participants obtained 13.9±8.8 (95%CI: 12.6-13.8 tablets/capsules of antimicrobial drugs from drug shops and drugs were used for an average of 3.7±2.8 days (95%CI: 3.3-3.5. Over half (68.2% of the respondents would recommend self-medication to another sick person. A high proportion (76% of respondents reported that antimicrobial self-medication had associated risks such as wastage of money (42.1%, drug resistance (33.2%, and masking symptoms of underlying disease (15.5%. Predictors of self-medication with antimicrobial agents included gender, drug knowledge, drug leaflets, advice from friends, previous experience, long waiting time, and distance to the health facility. Despite
Ocan, Moses; Bwanga, Freddie; Bbosa, Godfrey S; Bagenda, Danstan; Waako, Paul; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper; Obua, Celestino
Self-medication with antimicrobial agents is a common form of self-care among patients globally with the prevalence and nature differing from country to country. Here we assessed the prevalence and predictors of antimicrobial self-medication in post-conflict northern Uganda. A cross-sectional study was carried out using structured interviews on 892 adult (≥18 years) participants. Information on drug name, prescriber, source, cost, quantity of drug obtained, and drug use was collected. Households were randomly selected using multistage cluster sampling method. One respondent who reported having an illness within three months in each household was recruited. In each household, information was obtained from only one adult individual. Data was analyzed using STATA at 95% level of significance. The study found that a high proportion (75.7%) of the respondents practiced antimicrobial self-medication. Fever, headache, lack of appetite and body weakness were the disease symptoms most treated through self-medication (30.3%). The commonly self-medicated antimicrobials were coartem (27.3%), amoxicillin (21.7%), metronidazole (12.3%), and cotrimoxazole (11.6%). Drug use among respondents was mainly initiated by self-prescription (46.5%) and drug shop attendants (57.6%). On average, participants obtained 13.9±8.8 (95%CI: 12.6-13.8) tablets/capsules of antimicrobial drugs from drug shops and drugs were used for an average of 3.7±2.8 days (95%CI: 3.3-3.5). Over half (68.2%) of the respondents would recommend self-medication to another sick person. A high proportion (76%) of respondents reported that antimicrobial self-medication had associated risks such as wastage of money (42.1%), drug resistance (33.2%), and masking symptoms of underlying disease (15.5%). Predictors of self-medication with antimicrobial agents included gender, drug knowledge, drug leaflets, advice from friends, previous experience, long waiting time, and distance to the health facility. Despite knowledge
Herbert, Sarah; Woldai, Tsehaie; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.
Integration of enhanced regional geo-datasets has facilitated new geological interpretation and modelling of prospectivity for orogenic gold in southwestern Uganda. The geo-datasets include historical geological maps, geological field data, digital terrain models, Landsat TM data and airborne geophysical data. The study area, bordered by the western branch of the East African Rift, covers a range of different aged terranes including the Archaean basement gneisses, Palaeoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary Buganda Toro Belt, Mesoproterozoic clastic sedimentary Karagwe Ankolean Belt and several outliers of undeformed Neoproterozoic sediments. The mineral systems approach to practical exploration targeting requires a framework to link conceptual models of mineralisation with available data. A conceptual model requires good understanding of key processes and their timing within the geodynamic history of an area. The challenge is that processes cannot be mapped, only their results or effects. In this study, a district-scale (1:100,000) investigation is considered appropriate given the scarcity of geological information and the absence of world-renowned gold deposits in southwestern Uganda. At this scale of orogenic gold mineral systems understanding, evidence for the source of gold, active pathways and the physical traps are considered critical. Following the mineral system approach, these processes critical to orogenic gold systems are translated into district-scale mappable proxies using available regional-scale datasets. Tectono-stratigraphic domains, mantle indicators and gold occurrences represent the “source of gold” as a critical process. Zones of hydrothermal alteration were extracted from radiometric data, structures involved in the orogenies and terrane contacts were extracted to represent the active pathway as a critical process and finally the physical throttle is represented by rheological contrasts and geological complexity. Then, the knowledge
J.L. Chamberlain; D. Mitchell; T. Brigham; T. Hobby; L. Zabek; J. Davis
Forest farming in North America is becoming popular as a way for landowners to diversify income opportunities, improve management of forest resources, and increase biological diversity. People have been informally "farming the forests" for generations. However, in recent years, attention has been directed at formalizing forest farming and improving it...
Bal, Tara L.
"Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…
David E. Haugen; Michael Kangas; Susan J. Crocker; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Barry T. Wilson; Dan J. Kaisershot
The first completed annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports estimates of more than 724,000 acres of forest land. Information about forest attributes and forest health is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and disease.
Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Vern A. Everson; Ian K. Brown; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Sally E. Dahir; Edward A. Jepsen; Joe Kovach; Michael D. Labissoniere; Terry R. Mace; Eunice A. Padley; Richard B. Rideout; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Greg C. Liknes; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall
The first full, annualized inventory of Wisconsin's forests was completed in 2004 after 6,478 forested plots were visited. There are more than 16.0 million acres of forest land in the Wisconsin, nearly half of the State's land area; 15.8 million acres meet the definition of timberland. The total area of both forest land and timberland continues an upward...
John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Melvin L. Warren
Forests as natural systems are intrinsically linked to the sustainability of fresh-water systems. Efforts worldwide to restore forest ecosystems seek to counteract centuries of forest conversion to agriculture and other uses. Afforestation, the practice of regenerating forests on land deforested for agriculture or other uses, is occurring at an intense pace in the...
John S. Jr. Spencer; Pamela J. Jakes
The second inventory of Iowa's forest resources shows big declines in commercial forest area and in growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1954 and 1974. Presented are text and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, stocking, future timber supply, timber use, forest management opportunities, and nontimber resources.
John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Mary Heather Noble
The significance of the urban forest resource and the powerful forces for change in the urban environment make sustainability a critical issue in urban forest management. The diversity, connectedness, and dynamics of the urban forest establish the context for management that will determine the sustainability of forest structure, health, functions, and benefits. A...
Kerry Dooley; KaDonna. Randolph
This resource bulletin describes the principal findings of the 2014 forest inventory of Oklahoma (conducted 2009â2014) and examines changes since the previous survey of Oklahoma in 2008. Topics presented include forest area, volume, biomass, number of trees, growth, mortality, removals, forest health, silvicultural treatments, and forest ownership.
Denis Rwabiita Mugizi
Full Text Available Brucellosis is endemic in livestock and humans in Uganda and its transmission involves a multitude of risk factors like consumption of milk from infected cattle. To shed new light on the epidemiology of brucellosis in Uganda the present study used phenotypic and molecular approaches to delineate the Brucella species, biovars, and genotypes shed in cattle milk. Brucella abortus without a biovar designation was isolated from eleven out of 207 milk samples from cattle in Uganda. These isolates had a genomic monomorphism at 16 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR loci and showed in turn high levels of genetic variation when compared with other African strains or other B. abortus biovars from other parts of the world. This study further highlights the usefulness of MLVA as an epidemiological tool for investigation of Brucella infections.
Mugizi, Denis Rwabiita; Muradrasoli, Shaman; Erume, Joseph; Nasinyama, George William; Waiswa, Charles; Magnusson, Ulf
Brucellosis is endemic in livestock and humans in Uganda and its transmission involves a multitude of risk factors like consumption of milk from infected cattle. To shed new light on the epidemiology of brucellosis in Uganda the present study used phenotypic and molecular approaches to delineate the Brucella species, biovars, and genotypes shed in cattle milk. Brucella abortus without a biovar designation was isolated from eleven out of 207 milk samples from cattle in Uganda. These isolates had a genomic monomorphism at 16 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci and showed in turn high levels of genetic variation when compared with other African strains or other B. abortus biovars from other parts of the world. This study further highlights the usefulness of MLVA as an epidemiological tool for investigation of Brucella infections. PMID:25793204
Verocai, Guilherme G; Hassan, Hassan K; Lakwo, Thomson; Habomugisha, Peace; Katabarwa, Moses N; Begumisa, Stephen; Clouds, Philbert; Katamanywa, James; Nahabwe, Christine; Unnasch, Thomas R
Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of larvae of other filarial species in Simulium damnosum sensu lato can distort estimates of transmission potential for Onchocerca volvulus in West Africa. However, studies conducted in foci of onchocerciasis in West Central Uganda indicated that larvae other than O. volvulus were not common in vectors collected there. Recent data collected in Northern Uganda revealed a striking discordance between estimates of the prevalence of flies carrying O. volvulus infective larvae obtained from molecular pool screening and dissection methods. To resolve this discrepancy, sequences from three mitochondrially encoded genes were analyzed from the larvae collected by dissection. All larvae analyzed were Onchocerca ochengi v. Siisa, a parasite of cattle, or Onchocerca ramachandrini, a parasite of warthogs. These results suggest that nonhuman parasite larvae are common in vectors in Northern Uganda, underscoring the necessity for molecular identification methods to accurately estimate O. volvulus transmission.
Lassen Kaspersen, Line; Føyn, Tullik Helene Ystanes
This paper investigates price transmission for agricultural commodities between world markets and the Ugandan market in an attempt to determine the impact of world market prices on the Ugandan market. Based on the realization that price formation is not a static concept, a dynamic vector...... autoregressive (VAR) model is presented. The prices of Robusta coffee and sorghum are examined, as both of these crops are important for the domestic economy of Uganda – Robusta as a cash crop, mainly traded internationally, and sorghum for consumption at household level. The analysis focuses on the spatial...... price relations, i.e. the price variations between geographically separated markets in Uganda and the world markets. Our analysis indicates that food markets in Uganda, based on our study of sorghum price transmission, are not integrated into world markets, and that oil prices are a very determining...
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a global effort to tackle the problem of child malnutrition that is still the underlying cause of death of at least 3.1 million children annually. Uganda and Tanzania are among the 22 countries with higher prevalence of child malnutrition. However, these two countries are true examples of how it is possible to reduce this scourge through simple, low-cost strategies. In 2010 I had the opportunity to learn and understand childhood malnutrition through a postgraduate course in Tanzania and Uganda – the East African Short Course in Tropical Medicine from London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM. Beginning with a review of concepts and definitions of childhood malnutrition and the links between development and nutrition, this article moves on to summarise a learning experience from Uganda and Tanzania related to the progress and effectiveness of ‘hospital-based” and ‘community-specific’ interventions.
Dungey, Claire Elisabeth; Meinert, Lotte
This chapter explores various perspectives on the shifting notion of adulthood in Uganda. Invoking Paul Willis’ book ‘Learning to Labour (2000 ) concerning working class lads in Great Britain, we explore the implicit curriculum of how young men in Uganda learn to habituate the practice...... of waiting which is both characterised by creativity and passivity. Based on fieldwork in Kisoro and Tororo, we argue that young men learn to habituate the practice of waiting through schooling which leads them toward a kind of educated, docile but often frustrated and unstable adulthood. A growing body...... of literature around the globe has focused on how youth feel trapped in endless liminality without being able to achieve the assumed permanence of adulthood. However, male adulthood in rural Uganda is far from stable, as the position can easily be lost or gained. Adult status depends on several dimensions...
Golooba-Mutebi, Frederick; Hickey, Sam
The paradigm of 'inclusive neoliberalism' that currently characterises international development places a particular emphasis on community-based responses to the often structural problems of poverty and exclusion. Such approaches have become increasingly controversial: celebrated by optimists as the most empowering way forward for marginal citizens on the one hand, and derided as an abrogation of responsibility by development trustees by sceptics on the other. Uganda provides a particularly interesting context to explore these debates, not least because it has become a standard bearer for inclusive neoliberalism at the same time that regional inequalities within it have become increasingly apparent. Our investigation of the flagship response to deep impoverishment in its northern region, the World Bank-funded Northern Uganda Social Action Fund, offers greater support to the sceptics, not least because of the ways in which the more pernicious tendencies within inclusive neoliberalism have converged with the contemporary politics of development in Uganda.
Joshi, Hem; Lenhart, Suzanne; Albright, Kendra; Gipson, Kevin
The increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Africa over the past twenty-five years continues to erode the continent's health care and overall welfare. There have been various responses to the pandemic, led by Uganda, which has had the greatest success in combating the disease. Part of Uganda's success has been attributed to a formalized information, education, and communication (IEC) strategy, lowering estimated HIV/AIDS infection rates from 18.5% in 1995 to 4.1% in 2003. We formulate a model to investigate the effects of information and education campaigns on the HIV epidemic in Uganda. These campaigns affect people's behavior and can divide the susceptibles class into subclasses with different infectivity rates. Our model is a system of ordinary differential equations and we use data about the epidemics and the number of organizations involved in the campaigns to estimate the model parameters. We compare our model with three types of susceptibles to a standard SIR model.
Mbonye, Anthony K; Clarke, Sîan E; Lal, Sham
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem in Uganda and the current policy recommends introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDTs) to facilitate effective case management. However, provision of RDTs in drug shops potentially raises a new set of issues, such as adherence...... to RDTs results, management of severe illnesses, referral of patients, and relationship with caretakers. The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of introducing RDTs in registered drug shops in Uganda and document lessons and policy implications for future scale-up of malaria control...... in the private health sector. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial introducing RDTs into registered drug shops was implemented in central Uganda from October 2010 to July 2012. An evaluation was undertaken to assess the impact and the processes involved with the introduction of RDTs into drug shops, the lessons...
George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Carol A. Alerich; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Doug Griffith; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Shawn Lehman; Tonya W. Lister; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Paul Roth; Rachel Riemann; James A. Westfall
The second full annual inventory of Pennsylvania's forests reports a stable base of 16.7 million acres of forest land. Northern hardwoods and mixed-oak forest-type groups account for 54 and 32 percent of the forest land, respectively. The State's forest land averages about 61 dry tons of wood per acre and almost 6,500 board feet (International ¼-inch...
McCarthy, Maureen S; Lester, Jack D; Stanford, Craig B
As habitat loss and fragmentation place growing pressure on endangered nonhuman primate populations, researchers find increasing evidence for novel responses in behavior. In western Uganda between the Budongo and Bugoma Forests, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) inhabit a mosaic landscape comprising forest fragments, human settlements, and agricultural land. We recorded nests and feeding evidence of unhabituated chimpanzees in this region over a 12-mo period. We found extensive evidence of nesting in introduced tree species, including eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis), guava (Psidium guajava), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), and Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea). In addition, we found instances of ground nesting, nest reuse, and composite nests constructed from branches of multiple trees. This evidence may indicate a lack of suitable nesting trees or attempts by chimpanzees to nest in areas of riparian forest that allow them to avoid human detection. We also found new evidence for eucalyptus bark feeding by chimpanzees. Such evidence suggests chimpanzees respond flexibly to mitigate anthropogenic pressures in human-dominated landscapes. The limits of such flexibility remain unknown. Further research is needed to examine systematically the factors influencing the use of such resources and to understand better the extent to which chimpanzees can persist while relying on them.
Galiwango, Ronald M; Musoke, Richard; Lubyayi, Lawrence; Ssekubugu, Robert; Kalibbala, Sarah; Ssekweyama, Viola; Mirembe, Viola; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Reynolds, Steven J; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ronald H; Kigozi, Godfrey
Rapid HIV tests are a crucial component of HIV diagnosis in resource limited settings. In Uganda, the Ministry of Health allows both serial and parallel HIV rapid testing using Determine, Stat-Pak and Uni-Gold. In serial testing, a non-reactive result on Determine ends testing. The performance of serial and parallel algorithms with Determine and Stat-Pak test kits was assessed. A cross-sectional diagnostic test accuracy evaluation using three rapid HIV test kits as per the recommended parallel test algorithm was followed by EIA-WB testing with estimates of the performance of serial testing algorithm. In 2520 participants tested by parallel rapid algorithms, 0.6% had weakly reactive result. Parallel testing had 99.7% sensitivity and 99.8% specificity. If Stat-Pak was used as the first screening test for a serial algorithm, the sensitivity was 99.6% and specificity was 99.7%. However, if Determine was used as the screening test, sensitivity was 97.3% and specificity was 99.9%. Serial testing with Stat-Pak as the initial screening test performed as well as parallel testing, but Determine was a less sensitive screen. Serial testing could be cost saving. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kanyamurwa, J M; Ampek, G T
AIDS has been reported in Africa to push households into poverty and chronic food insecurity. At the same time there are reports of significant household resilience to AIDS. This study explored how a mature epidemic in rural Uganda has affected rural farming households. It focused on gender differences in the experience of AIDS and, in particular, household capabilities to sustain livelihoods. The study compared the vulnerability of male- and female-headed households in relation to their ability to mitigate human resource losses, as well as their access to natural and physical resources, to social networks and to finance capital for production. The findings suggest that when rural households are affected by AIDS, depleting productive resources and directing resources towards immediate needs, there are gender differences in responses to, and in impacts of, the epidemic due to the different resources available to male- and female- headed households. Female-headed households were found to be more vulnerable to AIDS than male-headed counterparts. Women's remarriage opportunities were lower than men's, they faced greater risk of losing control over land and livestock and they accessed less state and private sector support. Women-headed households were more dependent on livelihood support from non-governmental organizations, which were found to provide both welfare and credit support to female-headed households affected by AIDS. Women were found to play an important role in social networks and resources at community level but themselves received little support from many formal community networks and services.
Huebl, Lena; Leick, Stephan; Guettl, Lukas; Akello, Grace; Kutalek, Ruth
The etiology and health consequences of geophagy are still poorly understood. The consumed soil, individual motives, consumption habits, and the clinical perspective of geophagy in northern Uganda were examined. A total of 50 semistructured interviews (17 pregnant, eight nonpregnant women, 10 men, and 15 health-care professionals) were conducted. Our results suggest that geophagy is not limited to pregnancy and can also be found among nonpregnant women and men. During gestation, excessive amounts of various soil types are consumed and can replace food at times. Nonpregnant women and men consume less soil and stick to one type. When pregnant, craving and alleviating gastrointestinal upset are the main motives. In men, the main reasons for geophagy were craving, hypersalivation, and natural stimulants. If soil is craved, it can show similarities to a dependency syndrome. When picked up in childhood, geophagy is more likely to be continued throughout life. The consumption habits differ and thereby vary in their possible implications on health. Our findings suggest that men should be included in further studies. Especially nurses from the antenatal care are exposed to geophagists; however, no national guidelines exist for geophagy. Further research is necessary to create guidelines to be included in medical training and practice. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
In 1996, an 18-month-old settlement created for 55,000 Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda came under attack by Ugandan rebels. By March 1997, the entire population of the settlement had migrated in search of safety. Because the refugees lost their livelihoods and cultivated fields, they had to adopt short-term coping strategies to acquire food. Two Oxfam researchers gathering information during this period for use in program planning and monitoring found that coping strategies included 1) hazarding dangerous journeys (women risked rape or abduction; men risked beating, looting, killing, or abduction) to harvest crops; 2) seeking piece-work employment; 3) exchanging sex for food; and 4) depleting assets. The crisis was particularly severe for single people (especially those with children). In families where the women but not the men could find employment, some men took on household responsibilities. As malnutrition increased, health declined. Observed changes to household gender relations included new sexual divisions of labor, assumption by females of decision-making power, increased domestic quarreling, and marital break-down (especially in cases where women had been raped). On the community level, women assumed more responsibility as men withdrew socially or left the settlement. These findings point to the importance of providing refugees with seeds, with small loans to stimulate business, and with the means to rebuild their sense of community.
Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J.; Foppen, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.
Groundwater in unsewered urban areas is heavily contaminated by onsite sanitation activities and is believed to be an important source of nutrients ex-filtrating into streams and thus contributing to eutrophication of Lakes in urban areas. Currently the fate of nutrients and especially phosphorus leached into groundwater in such areas is not well known. In this study, we undertook an extensive investigation of groundwater in Bwaise slum, Kampala Uganda to understand the distribution and fate of sanitation-related nutrients N and P that are leached into groundwater. Transects of monitoring wells were installed in Bwaise slum and downstream of the slum. From these wells, water levels were measured and water quality analyses done to understand the distribution and composition of the nutrients, how they evolve downstream and the possible subsurface processes affecting their fate during transport. These findings are necessary to evaluate the risk of eutrophication posed by unsewered areas in urban cities and to design/implement sanitation systems that will effectively reduce the enrichment of these nutrients in groundwater. Key words: fate, groundwater, nutrients, processes, slums
Pfeiffer, Anett; Elbert, Thomas
The population in Northern Uganda has been exposed to extreme levels of traumatic stress and thousands abducted forcibly became rebel combatants. Using structured interviews, the prevalence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety was assessed in 72 former abducted adults, 62 of them being former child soldiers. As retrospective reports of exposure to traumatic stress increased, anxiety and PTSD occurrence increased (r = .45). 49% of respondents were diagnosed with PTSD, 70% presented with symptoms of depression, and 59% with those of anxiety. In a multiple linear regression analysis four factors could best explain the development of PTSD symptoms: male respondents (sex) living in an IDP-Camp (location) with a kinship murdered in the war (family members killed in the war) and having experienced a high number of traumatic events (number of traumatic events) were more likely to develop symptoms of PTSD than others. In disagreement to a simple dose-response-effect though, we also observed a negative correlation between the time spent with the rebels and the PTSD symptom level. Former abductees continue to suffer from severe mental ill-health. Adaptation to the living condition of rebels, however, may lower trauma-related mental suffering.
Christensen, David; Drysdale, David; Hansen, Kenneth; Vanhille, Josefine; Wolf, Andreas
Municipal solid waste management systems of many developing countries are commonly constrained by factors such as limited financial resources and poor governance, making it a difficult proposition to break with complex, entrenched and unsustainable technologies and systems. This article highlights strategic partnerships as a way to affect a distributed agency among several sets of stakeholders to break so-called path dependencies, which occur when such unsustainable pathways arise, stabilize and become self-reinforcing over time. Experiences from a North-South collaborative effort provide some lessons in such partnership building: In Uganda and Denmark, respectively, the World Wildlife Fund and the network organization access2innovation have mobilized stakeholders around improving the municipal solid waste management system in Kasese District. Through a municipal solid waste management system characterization and mapping exercise, some emergent lessons and guiding principles in partnership building point to both pitfalls and opportunities for designing sustainable pathways. First, socio-technical lock-in effects in the municipal solid waste management system can stand in the way of partnerships based on introducing biogas or incineration technologies. However, opportunities in the municipal solid waste management system can exist within other areas, and synergies can be sought with interlinking systems, such as those represented with sanitation. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gladwin, J; Dixon, R A; Wilson, T D
This paper reports on research investigating the health management information system (HMIS) implementation process in Uganda, utilizing the diffusion of innovation and dynamic equilibrium organizational change models. Neither perspective guided the HMIS development process. Instead, technological issues, rather than wider organizational issues, dominated the planned change. The need to consider the organizational context when changing information systems arises because the process is more complex than some practitioners have realized, when attempting to understand the causes of information management problems and developing HMIS in low-income countries. In particular, information system developers had not acknowledged that they were promoting an informational approach to management when they promoted a change from a centralized reporting system to a HMIS supporting use of information at the level of collection. Strategies to facilitate this approach were not advocated. Organizational theory can contribute to the diffusion of innovation framework. It has yielded an integration of Rogers's diffusion of innovation framework and Leavitt's concept of organizational forces in equilibrium. The diffusion framework describes the process, but the organizational model has given the context and reason for aspects of the process. The diffusion model does not predict what needs to change within the organization when a particular innovation is introduced, or how much. The addition of the organizational model has helped. These frameworks can facilitate the introduction of future information management innovations and allow practitioners to perceive their introduction as a staged process needing to be managed. Implications for practice are identified.
Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe
Full Text Available Engaging in lean construction efforts could prove to be highly rewarding for building firms in Uganda. However, lean construction is risky and can be disastrous if not properly managed. Lean production efforts in some other countries have not been successful due to the many barriers to its successful implementation. To enable sound lean construction efforts and to increase the chances of success in eliminating waste, a thorough investigation of the barriers is essential. This study presents 31 barriers and investigates their influence (strength on the success of lean construction initiatives. Structured interviews were carried out with technical managers of building firms to assess their perception of the barriers to lean production based on their experience at their firms. The strongest barrier is the provision of inputs exactly when required. Additionally, the barriers were ranked according to the ease of overcoming each. The easiest barrier to overcome is keeping the required items in the right place. Finally, a graphical aid is provided to enable decision makers to concentrate their efforts on the influential (strong, yet easy to overcome barriers. A lack of buildable designs and a participative management style for the workforce are the most important barriers to successful waste reduction in terms of strength and ease of overcoming. On the other hand, a lack of an organisational culture that supports teamwork, a lack of prefabrication and a lack of knowledgeable and skilled workers are regarded as low in strength, and at the same time difficult to overcome.
Full Text Available Background: Uganda has embraced inclusive education and evidently committed itself to bringing about disability inclusion at every level of education. Both legal and non-legal frameworks have been adopted and arguably are in line with the intent of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD on education. The CRPD, in Article 24, requires states to attain a right to education for persons with disabilities without discrimination and on the basis of equal opportunities at all levels of education. Objectives: Despite Uganda’s robust disability legal and policy framework on education, there is evidence of exclusion and discrimination of students with disabilities in the higher education institutions. The main objective of this article is to explore the status of disability inclusion in higher education and strategies for its realisation, using evidence from Emong’s study, workshop proceedings where the authors facilitated and additional individual interviews with four students with disabilities by the authors. Results: The results show that there are discrimination and exclusion tendencies in matters related to admissions, access to lectures, assessment and examinations, access to library services, halls of residence and other disability support services. Conclusion: The article recommends that institutional policies and guidelines on support services for students with disabilities and special needs in higher education be developed, data on students with disabilities collected to help planning, collaboration between Disabled Peoples Organisations (DPO’s strengthened to ensure disability inclusion and the establishment of disability support centres.
This study aims to explore the life experiences and expectations of young women of Busoga in Eastern Uganda. Using qualitative methods, a small group of young women drew, wrote stories and made videos together. The data which emerged from this exercise were analysed alongside the researcher's own observations. Basoga society's main expectation of young women is that they will work in the home. Yet, young women describe very different ideas of what they want from their lives; this includes a desire for access to a good educational experience, and different expectations for family life than cultural norms. They find, however, that there are many barriers to meeting those expectations. The study is important because it acknowledges and forefronts Ugandan young women's life expectations. Typically, development focuses on "outsider" considerations rather than "insider" views and desires. The desires of the marginalised, such as young women in Africa, are a particularly neglected subject. There is a need for continued efforts to explore and include young women's experiences and expectations countering gender inequality and as part of ongoing gender empowerment and sexual health strategies.
Sandiford, Michael; Neall, Fiona B.; Powell, Roger
Sapphirine-cordierite-quartz and spinel-cordierite-quartz form relic assemblages of probable Archaean age in Fe-rich aluminous metapelites from Labwor Hills, Uganda, and reflect an unusually high temperature metamorphism (˜1,000° C) at pressures in the vicinity of 7 9 kbars and a(O2) near the magnetite-hematite buffer. Subsequent reaction textures include the replacement of spinel and cordierite by sillimanite and hypersthene and formation of sapphirine-hypersthene-K-feldspar-quartz symplectites which are interpreted as pseudomorphs after osumilite. A petrogenetic grid appropriate to these assemblages suggests these reaction textures may be due to cooling at constant or increasing pressure and constant a(O2), or decreasing a(O2) at constant temperature and pressure. The former interpretation is supported by the coexistence of ilmenohematite and magnetite during the development of the reaction textures, and by the comparatively low Al2O3-contents of secondary hypersthene. This pressure-temperature path implies that: (1) metamorphism occurred at deep levels within normal thickness crust, probably less than 40 45 km thick, due to an extreme thermal perturbation induced either by emplacement of mantle-derived magmas or by thinning of the subcontinental lithosphere in an extensional tectonic regime, (2) the excavation and surface exposure of the granulites is due to a subsequent, postgranulite facies metamorphism, crustal thickening most probably involving their incorporation into an allochthonous upper crustal thrust sheet during the formation of the Mozambique foldbelt.
Full Text Available Since the rise to power of the Movement government under the leadership of Yoweri Museveni in 1986, Uganda has largely been show-cased as an emerging democracy on the continent. Among other things, Museveni's regime has been acclaimed for the restoration of periodic national elections, the making of the Constitution and the overall promotion of democratic governance, most especially through the adoption of a decentralised system with a commendable institutional and legal framework. Decentralisation is believed to promote service delivery at the local level, accountability for government resources by local leaders, and the involvement of the masses in local planning and the implementation of government programmes. It is now over twenty years since decentralisation was adopted as a system of government but the quality of service delivery and the accountability for government resources at the local level remains just as deplorable as the extent to which the masses are involved in the planning and implementation of government programmes in their localities. This paper examines the challenges that inhibit the realisation of the noble objectives of decentralisation, notwithstanding the apparently impressive institutional and legal framework.
Negin, Joel; Geddes, Louise; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Kuteesa, Monica; Karpiak, Stephen; Seeley, Janet
Sexual behavior among older adults with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa has been understudied despite the burgeoning of this population. We examined sexual behavior among older adults living with HIV in Uganda. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 50 years of age or older and living with HIV. Quantitative data were collected through face-to-face interviews, including demographic characteristics, health, sexual behavior and function, and mental health. Of respondents, 42 were men and 59 women. More than one-quarter of these HIV-positive older adults were sexually active. A greater proportion of older HIV-positive men reported being sexually active compared to women (54 vs. 15%). Among those who are sexually active, a majority never use condoms. Sixty-one percent of men regarded sex as at least somewhat important (42%), while few women shared this opinion (20%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that odds of sexual activity in the past year were significantly increased by the availability of a partner (married/cohabitating), better physical functioning, and male gender. As more adults live longer with HIV, it is critical to understand their sexual behavior and related psychosocial variables in order to improve prevention efforts.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The population in Northern Uganda has been exposed to extreme levels of traumatic stress and thousands abducted forcibly became rebel combatants. Methods Using structured interviews, the prevalence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety was assessed in 72 former abducted adults, 62 of them being former child soldiers. Results As retrospective reports of exposure to traumatic stress increased, anxiety and PTSD occurrence increased (r = .45. 49% of respondents were diagnosed with PTSD, 70% presented with symptoms of depression, and 59% with those of anxiety. In a multiple linear regression analysis four factors could best explain the development of PTSD symptoms: male respondents (sex living in an IDP-Camp (location with a kinship murdered in the war (family members killed in the war and having experienced a high number of traumatic events (number of traumatic events were more likely to develop symptoms of PTSD than others. In disagreement to a simple dose-response-effect though, we also observed a negative correlation between the time spent with the rebels and the PTSD symptom level. Conclusions Former abductees continue to suffer from severe mental ill-health. Adaptation to the living condition of rebels, however, may lower trauma-related mental suffering.
Ahumada, Jorge A; Silva, Carlos E F; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Martin, Emanuel; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; O'Brien, Tim; Rovero, Francesco; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R; Winarni, Nurul; Andelman, Sandy J
Terrestrial mammals are a key component of tropical forest communities as indicators of ecosystem health and providers of important ecosystem services. However, there is little quantitative information about how they change with local, regional and global threats. In this paper, the first standardized pantropical forest terrestrial mammal community study, we examine several aspects of terrestrial mammal species and community diversity (species richness, species diversity, evenness, dominance, functional diversity and community structure) at seven sites around the globe using a single standardized camera trapping methodology approach. The sites-located in Uganda, Tanzania, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Suriname, Brazil and Costa Rica-are surrounded by different landscape configurations, from continuous forests to highly fragmented forests. We obtained more than 51 000 images and detected 105 species of mammals with a total sampling effort of 12 687 camera trap days. We find that mammal communities from highly fragmented sites have lower species richness, species diversity, functional diversity and higher dominance when compared with sites in partially fragmented and continuous forest. We emphasize the importance of standardized camera trapping approaches for obtaining baselines for monitoring forest mammal communities so as to adequately understand the effect of global, regional and local threats and appropriately inform conservation actions.
Nathaniel J. Dominy
Full Text Available Since the completion of the Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS in 1995, the integration of GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS technology has expanded to a great number of ecological and conservation applications. In tropical rain forest ecology, however, the technology has remained relatively neglected, despite its great potential. Notwithstanding cost, this is principally due to (1 the difficulty of quality satellite reception beneath a dense forest canopy, and (2 a degree of spatial error unacceptable to fine-scale vegetation mapping. Here, we report on the technical use of GPS/GIS in the rain forest of Kibale National Park, Uganda, and the methodology necessary to acquire high-accuracy spatial measurements. We conclude that the stringent operating parameters necessary for high accuracy were rarely obtained while standing beneath the rain forest canopy. Raising the GPS antenna to heights of 25-30 m resolved this problem, allowing swift data collection on the spatial dispersion of individual rain forest trees. We discuss the impact of the 1996 Presidential Decision Directive that suspended U.S. military-induced GPS error on 1 May 2000, and comment on the potential applications of GPS/GIS technology to the ecological study and conservation of tropical rain forests.
Background Uganda has a long history of health research, but still faces critical health problems. It has made a number of recent moves towards building science and technology capacity which could have an impact on local health, if innovation can be fostered and harnessed. Methods Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 30 people from across the science-based health innovation system, including government officials, researchers in research institutes and universities, entrepreneurs, international donors, and non-governmental organization representatives. Results Uganda has a range of institutions influencing science-based health innovation, with varying degrees of success. However, the country still lacks a coherent mechanism for effectively coordinating STI policy among all the stakeholders. Classified as a least developed country, Uganda has opted for exemptions from the TRIPS intellectual property protection regime that include permitting parallel importation and providing for compulsory licenses for pharmaceuticals. Uganda is unique in Africa in taking part in the Millennium Science Initiative (MSI), an ambitious though early-stage $30m project, funded jointly by the World Bank and Government of Uganda, to build science capacity and encourage entrepreneurship through funding industry-research collaboration. Two universities – Makerere and Mbarara – stand out in terms of health research, though as yet technology development and commercialization is weak. Uganda has several incubators which are producing low-tech products, and is beginning to move into higher-tech ones like diagnostics. Its pharmaceutical industry has started to create partnerships which encourage innovation. Conclusions Science-based health product innovation is in its early stages in Uganda, as are policies for guiding its development
Kamunyori, Sheila; Al-Bader, Sara; Sewankambo, Nelson; Singer, Peter A; Daar, Abdallah S
Uganda has a long history of health research, but still faces critical health problems. It has made a number of recent moves towards building science and technology capacity which could have an impact on local health, if innovation can be fostered and harnessed. Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 30 people from across the science-based health innovation system, including government officials, researchers in research institutes and universities, entrepreneurs, international donors, and non-governmental organization representatives. Uganda has a range of institutions influencing science-based health innovation, with varying degrees of success. However, the country still lacks a coherent mechanism for effectively coordinating STI policy among all the stakeholders. Classified as a least developed country, Uganda has opted for exemptions from the TRIPS intellectual property protection regime that include permitting parallel importation and providing for compulsory licenses for pharmaceuticals. Uganda is unique in Africa in taking part in the Millennium Science Initiative (MSI), an ambitious though early-stage $30m project, funded jointly by the World Bank and Government of Uganda, to build science capacity and encourage entrepreneurship through funding industry-research collaboration. Two universities - Makerere and Mbarara - stand out in terms of health research, though as yet technology development and commercialization is weak. Uganda has several incubators which are producing low-tech products, and is beginning to move into higher-tech ones like diagnostics. Its pharmaceutical industry has started to create partnerships which encourage innovation. Science-based health product innovation is in its early stages in Uganda, as are policies for guiding its development. Nevertheless, there is political will for the
Westerhaus, Michael J; Finnegan, Amy C; Zabulon, Yoti; Mukherjee, Joia S
In northern Uganda, physical and structural violence (political repression, economic inequality, and gender-based discrimination) increase vulnerability to HIV infection. In settings of war, traditional HIV prevention that solely promotes risk avoidance and risk reduction and assumes the existence of personal choice inadequately addresses the realities of HIV transmission. The design of HIV prevention strategies in northern Uganda must recognize how HIV transmission occurs and the factors that put people at risk for infection. A human rights approach provides a viable model for achieving this aim.
Kiene, Susan M; Hopwood, Sarah; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K
There is a high unmet need for contraceptives in developing countries such as Uganda, with high population growth, where efforts are needed to promote family planning and contraceptive use. Despite this high need, little research has investigated applications of health-behaviour-change theories to contraceptive use among this population. This study tested the Theory of Planned Behaviour's ability to predict contraceptive-use-related behaviours among post-partum women in rural Uganda. Results gave modest support to the theory's application and suggest an urgent need for improved theory-based interventions to promote contraceptive use in the populations of developing countries. © The Author(s) 2013.
Nayebare, Shedrack R; Wilson, Lloyd R; Carpenter, David O; Dziewulski, David M; Kannan, Kurunthachalam
Providing sources of sustainable and quality potable water in Uganda is a significant public health issue. This project aimed at identifying and prioritizing possible actions on how sustainable high quality potable water in Uganda's water supply systems could be achieved. In that respect, a review of both the current water supply systems and government programs on drinking water in Uganda was completed. Aspects of quantity, quality, treatment methods, infrastructure, storage and distribution of water for different water systems were evaluated and compared with the existing water supply systems in the U.S., Latin America and the Caribbean, for purposes of generating feasible recommendations and opportunities for improvement. Uganda utilizes surface water, groundwater, and rainwater sources for consumption. Surface water covers 15.4% of the land area and serves both urban and rural populations. Lake Victoria contributes about 85% of the total fresh surface water. Potable water quality is negatively affected by the following factors: disposal of sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural pesticides and fertilizers, and surface run-offs during heavy rains. The total renewable groundwater resources in Uganda are estimated to be 29 million m3/year with about 20,000 boreholes, 3000 shallow-wells and 200,000 springs, serving more than 80% of the rural and slum communities. Mean annual rainfall in Uganda ranges from 500 mm to 2500 mm. Groundwater and rainwater quality is mainly affected by poor sanitation and unhygienic practices. There are significant regional variations in the accessibility of potable water, with the Northeastern region having the least amount of potable water from all sources. Uganda still lags behind in potable water resource development. Priorities should be placed mainly on measures available for improvement of groundwater and rainwater resource utilization, protection of watersheds, health education, improved water treatment methods and
Daar Abdallah S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda has a long history of health research, but still faces critical health problems. It has made a number of recent moves towards building science and technology capacity which could have an impact on local health, if innovation can be fostered and harnessed. Methods Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 30 people from across the science-based health innovation system, including government officials, researchers in research institutes and universities, entrepreneurs, international donors, and non-governmental organization representatives. Results Uganda has a range of institutions influencing science-based health innovation, with varying degrees of success. However, the country still lacks a coherent mechanism for effectively coordinating STI policy among all the stakeholders. Classified as a least developed country, Uganda has opted for exemptions from the TRIPS intellectual property protection regime that include permitting parallel importation and providing for compulsory licenses for pharmaceuticals. Uganda is unique in Africa in taking part in the Millennium Science Initiative (MSI, an ambitious though early-stage $30m project, funded jointly by the World Bank and Government of Uganda, to build science capacity and encourage entrepreneurship through funding industry-research collaboration. Two universities – Makerere and Mbarara – stand out in terms of health research, though as yet technology development and commercialization is weak. Uganda has several incubators which are producing low-tech products, and is beginning to move into higher-tech ones like diagnostics. Its pharmaceutical industry has started to create partnerships which encourage innovation. Conclusions Science-based health product innovation is in its early stages in Uganda, as are policies for guiding
Kiene, Susan M.; Hopwood, Sarah; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K.
There is a high unmet need for contraceptives in developing countries such as Uganda, with high population growth, where efforts are needed to promote family planning and contraceptive use. Despite this high need, little research has investigated applications of health behaviour change theories to contraceptive use amongst this population. The present study tested the Theory of Planned Behaviour’s ability to predict contraceptive use-related behaviours among postpartum women in rural Uganda. Results gave modest support to the theory’s application and suggest an urgent need for improved theory-based interventions to promote contraceptive use in the populations of developing countries. PMID:23928989
Mbonye, Anthony K; Birungi, Josephine; Yanow, Stephanie
Malaria is a public health problem in Uganda; affecting mainly women and children. Effective treatment has been hampered by over-diagnosis and over-treatment with anti-malarial drugs among patients presenting with fever. In order to understand the effect of drug pressure on sulfadoxine-pyrimetham......Malaria is a public health problem in Uganda; affecting mainly women and children. Effective treatment has been hampered by over-diagnosis and over-treatment with anti-malarial drugs among patients presenting with fever. In order to understand the effect of drug pressure on sulfadoxine...
Marchant, Robert; Taylor, David; Hamilton, Alan
Deposits beneath Mubwindi Swamp provide a partial record of vegetation history since at least 43,000 yr ago. We studied pollen from two cores and obtained nine radiocarbon ages from one of these cores and three radiocarbon ages from the other. Pollen deposited before and soon after the last glacial maximum represents vegetation very different from the modern vegetation of the Mubwindi Swamp catchment. Although species now associated with higher altitudes were dominant some elements of moist lower montane forest persisted, possibly because of favorable soils or topography. The pollen data provides evidence for a late glacial montane forest refuge near Mubwindi Swamp. Moist lower montane forest became much more widespread soon after the glacial maximum. The only irrefutably Holocene sediments from Mubwindi Swamp date to the past 2500 yr. During this time a combination of climatic and human-induced changes in vegetation can be seen in the pollen records.