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Sample records for buccal swabs suitable

  1. Evaluation of blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles for DNA profiling technique using STR markers

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, Garima; Dogra, T. D.; Raina, Anupuma

    2015-01-01

    Aim To study the short tandem repeat (STR) pattern of DNA from the blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles of the recipients of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to examine whether these tissues contain donor derived cells. Methods The study enrolled 25 patients who sustained engraftment. Peripheral blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles were collected on days 21-30, 90, and 180 after transplantation and the chimeric status of the recipients was evaluated. Results Donor deriv...

  2. Direct PCR amplification of the HVSI region in mitochondrial DNA from buccal cell swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Grujičić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been widely used in population genetics, human evolutionary and molecular anthropology studies. mtDNA hypervariable segments I and II (HVSI and HVSII were shown to be a suitable tool in genetic analyses due to the unique properties of mtDNA, such as the lack of recombination, maternal mode of inheritance, rapid evolutionary rate and high population-specific polymorphisms. Here we present a rapid and low-cost method for direct PCR amplification of a 330 bp fragment of HVSI from buccal cell samples. Avoiding the DNA isolation step makes this method appropriate for the analysis of a large number of samples in a short period of time. Since the transportation of samples and fieldwork conditions can affect the quality of samples and subsequent DNA analysis, we tested the effects of long-term storage of buccal cell swabs on the suitability of such samples for direct PCR amplification. We efficiently amplified a 330 bp fragment of HVSI even after the long-term storage of buccal cells at room temperature, +4°C or at -20°C, for up to eight months. All examined PCR products were successfully sequenced, regardless of sample storage time and conditions. Our results suggest that the direct PCR amplification of the HVSI region from buccal cells is a method well suited for large-scale mtDNA population studies.[Acknowledgments. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (Grant no. III 47025.

  3. A Non-Invasive Strategy for Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Diagnosis: Newborn Platelet Genotyping with Buccal Swabs

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    Gérald Bertrand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia results from the maternal immune response against fetal-specific antigens inherited from the father. The diagnosis is ascertained only when the maternal alloantibody and the offending antigen present in the newborn are identified. Up until now most laboratories perform DNA extraction for neonatal genotyping from newborn blood samplings. In order to avoid such an invasive procedure, two protocols of DNA extraction from buccal swabs were developed: a manual protocol using the QIAamp mini blood kit (Qiagen, and an automated procedure with the MagNA Pure Compact instrument (Roche. Both EDTA-blood and buccal swabs from thrombocytopenic newborns were genotyped manually (14 samples, automatically (15 samples or both manually and automatically (two samples. Human Platelet Antigen (HPA genotyping was performed using the BeadChip assay (BioArray, Immucor. Concordant genotypings were obtained for all samples except for one swab with the manual method. The automated DNA extraction from newborn buccal swabs with the MagNA Pure Compact instrument was chosen as the first-line strategy, with a significant gain of time in processing buccal swabs.

  4. Buccal swabbing as a noninvasive method to determine bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microbial community structures in the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Kirk, Michelle R; Jonker, Arjan; McCulloch, Alan; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of rumen microbial community structure based on small-subunit rRNA marker genes in metagenomic DNA samples provides important insights into the dominant taxa present in the rumen and allows assessment of community differences between individuals or in response to treatments applied to ruminants. However, natural animal-to-animal variation in rumen microbial community composition can limit the power of a study considerably, especially when only subtle differences are expected between treatment groups. Thus, trials with large numbers of animals may be necessary to overcome this variation. Because ruminants pass large amounts of rumen material to their oral cavities when they chew their cud, oral samples may contain good representations of the rumen microbiota and be useful in lieu of rumen samples to study rumen microbial communities. We compared bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic community structures in DNAs extracted from buccal swabs to those in DNAs from samples collected directly from the rumen by use of a stomach tube for sheep on four different diets. After bioinformatic depletion of potential oral taxa from libraries of samples collected via buccal swabs, bacterial communities showed significant clustering by diet (R = 0.37; analysis of similarity [ANOSIM]) rather than by sampling method (R = 0.07). Archaeal, ciliate protozoal, and anaerobic fungal communities also showed significant clustering by diet rather than by sampling method, even without adjustment for potentially orally associated microorganisms. These findings indicate that buccal swabs may in future allow quick and noninvasive sampling for analysis of rumen microbial communities in large numbers of ruminants. PMID:26276109

  5. Buccal swab analysis of mitochondrial enzyme deficiency and DNA defects in a child with suspected myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers (MERRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorns, William R; Valencia, Ignacio; Jayaraman, Aditya; Sheth, Sudip; Legido, Agustin; Goldenthal, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    The authors describe mitochondrial studies in a 6-year-old patient with a seizure disorder that can be seen in myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers. Using a recently developed noninvasive approach, analysis of buccal mitochondrial enzyme function revealed severe respiratory complex I and IV deficiencies in the patient. In addition, analysis of buccal mitochondrial DNA showed significant amounts of the common 5 kb and 7.4 kb mitochondrial DNA deletions, also detectable in blood. This study suggests that a buccal swab approach can be used to informatively examine mitochondrial dysfunction in children with seizures and may be applicable to screening mitochondrial disease with other clinical presentations. PMID:22114216

  6. Rectal Swabs Are Suitable for Quantifying the Carriage Load of KPC-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Lerner, A; Romano, J.; Chmelnitsky, I.; Navon-Venezia, S.; Edgar, R.; Carmeli, Y

    2013-01-01

    It is more convenient and practical to collect rectal swabs than stool specimens to study carriage of colon pathogens. In this study, we examined the ability to use rectal swabs rather than stool specimens to quantify Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). We used a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay to determine the concentration of the blaKPC gene relative to the concentration of 16S rRNA genes and a quantitative culture-based...

  7. Buccal cells DNA extraction to obtain high quality human genomic DNA suitable for polymorphism genotyping by PCR-RFLP and Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Calvano Küchler; Patricia Nivoloni Tannure; Priscila Falagan-Lotsch; Taliria Silva Lopes; Jose Mauro Granjeiro; Lidia Maria Fonte Amorim

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate, by PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR, the yield and quality of genomic DNA collected from buccal cells by mouthwash after different storage times at room temperature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of volunteers was recruited to collect buccal cells using a mouthwash solution. The collected solution was divided into 3 tubes, one tube were used for immediate extraction and the remaining received ethanol and were kept at room temperature for 4 and 8 day...

  8. BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: THE CURRENT INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Mitul

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the several advantages of buccal drug delivery system (BDDS over the conventional and systemic formulation majorly. It helps to enhance bioavailability through bypassing the first pass metabolism. On this drug delivery system the formulation keeps in contact with the mucosal surface resulting in better absorption and prolonged resident time. Though all drugs are not suitable for this drug delivery system yet is useful for most of the drugs. Bioadhesive polymers roles a major part in this drug delivery system because the extent of Mucoadhesion is a very important phenomena for the buccal drug delivery system. This review covers merits and demerits of buccal drug delivery system, anatomy of oral mucosa, mechanism of drug permeation, polymers and permeation enhancer used in buccal drug delivery system. This review also covers available marketed product as buccal drug delivery system and future aspects of buccal drug delivery system.

  9. Buccal cells DNA extraction to obtain high quality human genomic DNA suitable for polymorphism genotyping by PCR-RFLP and Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Calvano Küchler

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate, by PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR, the yield and quality of genomic DNA collected from buccal cells by mouthwash after different storage times at room temperature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of volunteers was recruited to collect buccal cells using a mouthwash solution. The collected solution was divided into 3 tubes, one tube were used for immediate extraction and the remaining received ethanol and were kept at room temperature for 4 and 8 days followed by dna extraction. The concentration, purity and integrity of the dna were determined using spectrophotometry and electrophoresis. DNA quality differences among the three incubation times were also evaluated for genotyping EGF +61 a/g (rs 4444903 polymorphism by PCR-RFLP and for IRF6 polymorphism (rs 17015215 using real-time PCR. RESULTS: There was no significant difference of dna yield (p=0.75 and purity (p=0.86 among the three different incubation times. DNA obtained from different incubation times presented high-molecular weight. The PCR-RFLP and real time pcr reactions were successfully performed for all DNA samples, even those extracted after 8 days of incubation. All samples genotyped by real-time pcr presented c allele for irf6 gene polymorphism (homozygous: cc; heterozygous: Ct and the C allele was used as a reference for Ct values. The samples presented the same genotype for the different times in both techniques. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that the method described herein is simple and low cost, and that DNA can be extracted and pcr amplified after storage in mouthwash solution at room temperature.

  10. Evaluation of methods to improve the extraction and recovery of DNA from cotton swabs for forensic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Michael S; Stasulli, Dominique M; Sobestanovich, Emily M; Bille, Todd W

    2014-01-01

    Samples for forensic DNA analysis are often collected from a wide variety of objects using cotton or nylon tipped swabs. Testing has shown that significant quantities of DNA are retained on the swab, however, and subsequently lost. When processing evidentiary samples, the recovery of the maximum amount of available DNA is critical, potentially dictating whether a usable profile can be derived from a piece of evidence or not. The QIAamp DNA Investigator extraction kit was used with its recommended protocol for swabs (one hour incubation at 56°C) as a baseline. Results indicate that over 50% of the recoverable DNA may be retained on the cotton swab tip, or otherwise lost, for both blood and buccal cell samples when using this protocol. The protocol's incubation time and temperature were altered, as was incubating while shaking or stationary to test for increases in recovery efficiency. An additional step was then tested that included periodic re-suspension of the swab tip in the extraction buffer during incubation. Aliquots of liquid blood or a buccal cell suspension were deposited and dried on cotton swabs and compared with swab-less controls. The concentration of DNA in each extract was quantified and STR analysis was performed to assess the quality of the extracted DNA. Stationary incubations and those performed at 65°C did not result in significant gains in DNA yield. Samples incubated for 24 hours yielded less DNA. Increased yields were observed with three and 18 hour incubation periods. Increases in DNA yields were also observed using a swab re-suspension method for both cell types. The swab re-suspension method yielded an average two-fold increase in recovered DNA yield with buccal cells and an average three-fold increase with blood cells. These findings demonstrate that more of the DNA collected on swabs can be recovered with specific protocol alterations. PMID:25549111

  11. BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY USING ADHESIVE POLYMERIC PATCHES

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    R. Venkatalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The buccal mucosa has been investigated for local drug therapy and the systemic delivery of therapeutic peptides and other drugs that are subjected to first-pass metabolism or are unstable within the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. The mucosa of the oral cavity presents a formidable barrier to drug penetration, and one method of optimizing drug delivery is by the use of adhesive dosage forms and the mucosa has a rich blood supply and it is relatively permeable. The buccal mucosa is very suitable for a bioadhesion system because of a smooth and relatively immobile surface and accessibility. Therefore, drugs with a short biological half life, requiring a sustained released effect and exhibiting poor permeability, sensitivity to enzymatic degradation, or poor solubility may be good candidates to deliver via the oral cavity. To overcome the drawbacks of tablets flexible patches for use in the mouth have been developed. Erodible and non-erodible adhesive films have been used as bioadhesive films. These adhesive patches for oral mucosal delivery can be used to designed uni or bidirectional systems for buccal tissue absorption. The objective of this article is to review buccal drug delivery of patches (films by discussing buccal mucosa and pathways of drug absorption and their formulations.

  12. A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ritu M Gilhotra; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a cli...

  13. Manufacture and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Javier O; McConville, Jason T

    2011-02-01

    The buccal route of administration has a number of advantages including bypassing the gastrointestinal tract and the hepatic first pass effect. Mucoadhesive films are retentive dosage forms and release drug directly into a biological substrate. Furthermore, films have improved patient compliance due to their small size and reduced thickness, compared for example to lozenges and tablets. The development of mucoadhesive buccal films has increased dramatically over the past decade because it is a promising delivery alternative to various therapeutic classes including peptides, vaccines, and nanoparticles. The "film casting process" involves casting of aqueous solutions and/or organic solvents to yield films suitable for this administration route. Over the last decade, hot-melt extrusion has been explored as an alternative manufacturing process and has yielded promising results. Characterization of critical properties such as the mucoadhesive strength, drug content uniformity, and permeation rate represent the major research areas in the design of buccal films. This review will consider the literature that describes the manufacture and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal films. PMID:21130875

  14. BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: THE CURRENT INTEREST

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Mitul; Karigar Asif; Savaliya Pratik; Ramana MV; Dubal Ashwini

    2011-01-01

    This review highlights the several advantages of buccal drug delivery system (BDDS) over the conventional and systemic formulation majorly. It helps to enhance bioavailability through bypassing the first pass metabolism. On this drug delivery system the formulation keeps in contact with the mucosal surface resulting in better absorption and prolonged resident time. Though all drugs are not suitable for this drug delivery system yet is useful for most of the drugs. Bioadhesive polymers roles a...

  15. Buccal delivery of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Jacobsen, Jette

    2013-01-01

    system. The in vitro TR146 cell culture model was used to study the effect of drug concentration (5-100mM) and the impact of a bioadhesive chitosan formulation (discs) and chitosan in solution (0-20mg/mL) acting as a permeation enhancer. The permeation of metformin occurred by passive diffusion via the...... metformin discs and, metformin permeation may be increased due to a combination of bioadhesion and permeation enhancement induced by chitosan, although the permeation enhancing effect of chitosan was not statistically significant. The limited apparent buccal permeability of metformin observed in vitro...

  16. Swabs and swab-transport media kits in the isolation of upper respiratory bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, P W; Cumming, C G; Lough, H

    1982-01-01

    The recovery of upper respiratory tract bacteria on laboratory media from a variety of swabs and swab-transport media kits was examined. Organisms studied included strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. Although a wide range of results was obtained with regard to variables such as the type of swab or swab-transport media kit used, the time of plating, the temperature of storage of swab-transport me...

  17. Swab or biopsy samples for bioburden testing of allograft musculoskeletal tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varettas, Kerry

    2014-12-01

    Swab and biopsy samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue are most commonly collected by tissue banks for bacterial and fungal bioburden testing. An in vitro study was performed using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards standard 'Quality control of microbiological transport systems' (2003) to validate and evaluate the recovery of six challenge organisms from swab and biopsy samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue. On average, 8.4 to >100 and 7.2 to >100 % of the inoculum was recovered from swab and biopsy samples respectively. A retrospective review of donor episodes was also performed, consisting of paired swab and biopsy samples received in this laboratory during the period 2001-2012. Samples of allograft femoral heads were collected from living donors during hip operations. From the 3,859 donor episodes received, 21 paired swab and biopsy samples each recovered an isolate, 247 swab samples only and 79 biopsy samples only were culture positive. Low numbers of challenge organisms were recovered from inoculated swab and biopsy samples in the in vitro study and validated their use for bioburden testing of allograft musculoskeletal tissue. Skin commensals were the most common group of organisms isolated during a 12-year retrospective review of paired swab and biopsy samples from living donor allograft femoral heads. Paired swab and biopsy samples are a suitable representative sample of allograft musculoskeletal tissue for bioburden testing. PMID:24599706

  18. Buccal health in asthmatic patients.

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    Nora Sexto Delgado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Buccal health as integral and determinant part of general health makes us find different ways and methods to elevate life quality in the population. Objective: To establish the risk of suffering from dental cavities in asthmatic patients. Methods: A non match case and control study constituted by 100 children selected at simple random from the universe of asthmatic patients belonging to the General Comprehensive doctor offices number 7,9,10, 11, 43, and 44 from Area II in Cienfuegos municipality. The controlled group was selected in the same offices but from the universe of non asthmatic children. The age in both groups was from 6 to 15 years old. Visits to the children´s home were carried out for the record of the information through health oral dental and buccal health knowledge surveys. Results: The index of cavities, lost, and obturated permanent teeth was higher (3, 28 than in the control group (0, 44. The buccal hygiene indexes and the level of knowledge in both groups did not show significant differences. The most used drugs in asthma therapy were salbutamol and ketotifeno which change the buccal milieu. The odds ratio technique between asthmatic and non asthmatic patients showed 4, 9 times more at risk of suffering from dental cavities in the first group. Finally, it can be stated that the asthmatic patients are more at risk of suffering from cavities than the non asthmatic ones, so a program for buccal health in these patients should be performed.

  19. An Unusual Case of Swab Embolism

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    N. G. Naidoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular foreign body embolism is an exceptionally uncommon problem. We report on an unusual case of a surgical swab embolism which occurred during a thoracic surgical procedure.

  20. Use of cough swabs in a cystic fibrosis clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Equi, A; Pike, S.; Davies, J; Bush, A

    2001-01-01

    We audited prospectively 322 cough swabs taken from cystic fibrosis children and compared cough swabs with concomitant sputum samples in 30 expectorating patients. A positive cough swab is a strong predictor of sputum culture. However, a negative cough swab does not rule out infection. Persistent symptoms should be further investigated.



  1. [Buccal epithelium reactivity in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkin, A V; Rybalkina, D Kh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the analysis of the buccal smears from 200 healthy children and children with chronic tonsillitis and chicken pox. The smears were stained using Pappenheim's method. The peculiarity of buccal mucosa cytograms of children of different ages was the significant increase in mature forms of the cells (presence of differentiation stage 5 and 6 cells) in adolescents. They also had a lower area of epitheliocytes at all the stages of differentiation and of their nuclei. In chronic tonsillitis and chicken pox, the complex of cytological changes was detected, that included the increase of the leukocyte number, changes in the proportions of epitheliocytes in cell population, augmentation of inflammation-destruction and destruction indexes. PMID:21539088

  2. Drug recovery following buccal absorption of propranolol.

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, J A; Ohashi, K.; Wadsworth, J.; Turner, P.,

    1980-01-01

    1 Buccal absorption of propranolol in two volunteers was followed by repeated rinsing of the mouth with buffer solutions for twelve 2 min periods. Values for absorption, recovery and asymptotic recovery were calculated. 2 Large amounts of propranolol were recoverable from the buccal mucosa; recovery was biexponential and the amount recovered depended on the time allowed for absorption and on the pH of buffers used for recovery. 3 In the case of the drug studied, the buccal absorption test was...

  3. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Verhoef, J C; Ponec, M;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium with respect to the permeability of test substances with different molecular weights (M(w)). For this purpose, the apparent permeability (P(app)) values for mannitol and for...... fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled dextrans (FD) with various M(w) (4000-40000) were compared to the P(app) values obtained using porcine buccal mucosa as an in vitro model of the human buccal epithelium. The effect of 10 mM sodium glycocholate (GC) on the P(app) values was examined. To identify the...... cell culture model is a suitable in vitro model for mechanistic permeability studies of human buccal drug permeability....

  4. Formulation and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal films of glipizide

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    Semalty Mona

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive buccal films of glipizide were prepared by solvent casting technique using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, carbopol-934P and Eudragit RL-100. Prepared films were evaluated for weight, thickness, surface pH, swelling index, in vitro residence time, folding endurance, in vitro release, permeation studies and drug content uniformity. The films exhibited controlled release over more than 6 h. From the study it was concluded that the films containing 5 mg glipizide in 4.9% w/v hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and 1.5% w/v sodium carboxymethylcellulose exhibited satisfactory swelling, an optimum residence time and promising drug release. The formulation was found to be suitable candidate for the development of buccal films for therapeutic use.

  5. LYMPHANGIOMA OF THE BUCCAL MUCOSA

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    Shashidevi HARANAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangiomas are uncommon congenital hamarto‑ mas of the lymphatic system, usually diagnosed in infancy and early childhood. Most lymphangiomas are present at birth (60% and, by the age of 2 years, 80% to 90% are present. Tongue, palate, gingiva, lip, alveolar ridge and buccal mucosa are the most commonly affected sites in the oral cavity. Various methods have been tried for the treat‑ ment of lymphangioma, including surgery, radiation, laser therapy, sclerotherapy and radiofrequency ablation. This paper reports a case of lymphangioma in a 28 year-old female patient.

  6. EVA-Compatible Microbial Swab Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed spacecraft meet planetary protection requirements—and to protect our science from human contamination—we'll need to know whether micro-organisms are leaking/venting from our ships and spacesuits. This is easily done by swabbing external vents and suit surfaces for analysis, but requires a specialized tool for the job. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible swab tool that can be used to sample current space suits and life support systems. Data collected now will influence Mars life support and EVA hardware early in the planning process, before design changes become difficult and expensive.NASA’s EVA swab tool pairs a Space Shuttle-era tool handle with a commercially available swab tip mounted into a custom-designed end effector. A glove-compatible release mechanism allows the handle to quickly switch between swab tips, much like a shaving razor handle can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. Swab tips are stowed inside individual sterile containers, each fitted with a microbial filter that allows the container to equalize atmospheric pressure, but prevents cabin contaminants from rushing into the container when passing from the EVA environment into a pressurized cabin. A bank of containers arrayed inside a tool caddy allows up to six individual samples to be collected during a given spacewalk.NASA plans to use the tool in 2016 to collect samples from various spacesuits during ground testing to determine what (if any) human-borne microbial contamination leaks from the suit under simulated thermal vacuum conditions. Next, the tool will be used on board the International Space Station to assess the types of microbial contaminants found on external environmental control and life support system vents. Data will support

  7. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

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    Negrato Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  8. Simple Flame Test Techniques Using Cotton Swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes three new methods for performing simple flame tests using cotton swabs. The first method uses a Bunsen burner and solid metal salts; the second method uses a Bunsen burner and 1 M aqueous solutions of metal salts; and the third method uses candles, rubbing alcohol, and solid metal salts. These methods have the advantage of being easy to perform, require inexpensive and easily-obtained materials, and have easy cleanup and disposal methods. See the Discussion on this Tested Demonstation .

  9. Formulation and evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal ta blets of Valsartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Roy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work was to formulate and study mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Valsartan using various suitable bioadhesive polymers such as CP 934, HPMC K4M, and Na CMC. A backing layer of ethyl cellulose was used which is impermeable in nature. Six formulations of Valsartan were prepared by direct compression method. The prepared tablets were characterized by swelling studies, % matrix erosion, surface pH, bioadhesive properties, In-vitro drug dissolution and In-vitro diffusion studies. It was found that swelling index was proportional to CP and Na CMC content. As the Na CMC content increases the swelling index also increased. The surface pH of all formulations was found to be satisfactory, and values were in between the range of 5-7 pH, hence no irritation to buccal cavity is assumed. Tablets containing CP: HPMC in the ratio 1:3 has shown maximum percentage of In-vitro drug release as well as In-vivo diffusion through buccal mucosa. The drug release was found to be zero order release. The formulation F3 was considered as the optimized formulation based on satisfactory bioadhesive strength, In-vitro dissolution drug release of 59.69 ± 0.95%, In-vitro drug diffusion of 43.66 ± 0.68% for 8 h..

  10. Estimating Fatty Acid Composition of Infant Buccal Mucosal Cells by Capillary Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei; ZHANG Wei-li; LI Fang; ZHU Xiao-dong; ZHU Jian-xing

    2008-01-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty adds, i. e., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA or C22 : 6n -3), arachidonic acid (AA or C20 : 4n - 6) have been identified as essential fatty acids and play an important role in growth and development of infants. Mensurement of fatty acid composition is usually by collection of blood, but to obtain blood in infants is difficult. Nowadays, the fatty acid composition can be estimated by collecting buccal mucosal cells, which can avoid repeated blood sampling. The purpose of this paper is to compare the fatty acid composition of cheek calls with that of plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). In this study, twenty-seven infants were enrolled, and buccal mucosal cells and blood samples were obtained from these infants of the same time. Fatty acid composition of buccal mucesal cells, plasma and RBCs were measured by capillary gas chromatography. The results show that the contents of AA and DHA in the buccal mucosal cells are correlated well with that in the plasma [r=0.36 (P=0.042) and r=0.38 (P=0.033), respectively]. The ratio of AA to DHA is 1.32% in buccal mucosal cells, 1.60% in plasma and 1.55% in RBCs and there are no significant differences among groups (P = 0.134). It shows that the fatty acid composition in buccal mucosal cells can reflect the fat nutrition status in infants and can be detected by capillary gas chromatography. Estimating fatty acid composition of buccal mucosal cells in infants by capillary gas chromatography is feasible, and because of its noninvasiveness, it can be suitable for nutrition research in infants.

  11. Swab Protocol for Rapid Laboratory Diagnosis of Cutaneous Anthrax

    OpenAIRE

    Dauphin, Leslie A.; Marston, Chung K.; Bhullar, Vinod; Baker, Daniel; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Chakraborty, Apurba; Khan, Salah Uddin; Hoffmaster, Alex R.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical laboratory diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax is generally established by conventional microbiological methods, such as culture and directly straining smears of clinical specimens. However, these methods rely on recovery of viable Bacillus anthracis cells from swabs of cutaneous lesions and often yield negative results. This study developed a rapid protocol for detection of B. anthracis on clinical swabs. Three types of swabs, flocked-nylon, rayon, and polyester, were evaluated by 3 ...

  12. Mucoadhesive system formed by liquid crystals for buccal administration of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carla; Watanabe, Evandro; Borgheti-Cardoso, Livia Neves; De Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial approaches are valuable in controlling the development of buccal diseases, but some antibacterial agents have a short duration of activity. Therefore, the development of prolonged delivery systems would be advantageous. Liquid crystalline systems comprising monoolein (GMO)/water have been considered to be a potential vehicle to deliver drugs to the buccal mucosa because of the phase properties that allow for controlled drug release as well as its mucoadhesive properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a GMO/water system for the slow release of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB) on the buccal mucosa and test the properties of this system with regard to swelling, release profile, antimicrobial activity, and strength of mucoadhesion, with the overall goal of treating buccal infections. The tested systems were capable of modulating drug release, which is controlled by diffusion of the drug throughout the system. Furthermore, PHMB appeared to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the system and may synergistically act with the drug to promote antimicrobial activity against S. mutas and C. albicans, indicating that liquid crystals may be suitable for the administration of PHMB on the buccal mucosa. Therefore, this system could be proposed as a novel system for mucoadhesive drug delivery. PMID:25336429

  13. Swabs to genomes: a comprehensive workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madison I. Dunitz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The sequencing, assembly, and basic analysis of microbial genomes, once a painstaking and expensive undertaking, has become much easier for research labs with access to standard molecular biology and computational tools. However, there are a confusing variety of options available for DNA library preparation and sequencing, and inexperience with bioinformatics can pose a significant barrier to entry for many who may be interested in microbial genomics. The objective of the present study was to design, test, troubleshoot, and publish a simple, comprehensive workflow from the collection of an environmental sample (a swab to a published microbial genome; empowering even a lab or classroom with limited resources and bioinformatics experience to perform it.

  14. Sampling the Body Odor of Primates: Cotton Swabs Sample Semivolatiles Rather Than Volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkemeyer, Claudia S; Thomsen, Ruth; Jänig, Susann; Kücklich, Marlen; Slama, Anna; Weiß, Brigitte M; Widdig, Anja

    2016-07-01

    We assessed the suitability of a frequently used sampling method employing cotton swabs for collecting animal body odor for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Our method validation showed that both sampling material and sampling protocols affect the outcome of the analyses. Thus, among the tested protocols swabs of pure viscose baked before use and extracted with hexane had the least blank interferences in GC-MS analysis. Most critical for the recovery of VOCs was the handling time: the significant recovery losses of volatiles experienced with this sampling procedure suggest that a rapid processing of such samples is required. In a second part, we used swab sampling to sample the body odor of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), which lack scent glands. First results after GC-MS analysis of the samples collected from these nonhuman primates emphasize that proper analytical performance is an indispensable prerequisite for successful automated data evaluation of the complex GC-MS profiles. Moreover, the retention times and the nature of the identified chemical compounds in our samples suggest that the use of swabs is generally more appropriate for collecting semivolatile rather than VOCs. PMID:27121043

  15. Swab protocol for rapid laboratory diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Leslie A; Marston, Chung K; Bhullar, Vinod; Baker, Daniel; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hossain, M Jahangir; Chakraborty, Apurba; Khan, Salah Uddin; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2012-12-01

    The clinical laboratory diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax is generally established by conventional microbiological methods, such as culture and directly straining smears of clinical specimens. However, these methods rely on recovery of viable Bacillus anthracis cells from swabs of cutaneous lesions and often yield negative results. This study developed a rapid protocol for detection of B. anthracis on clinical swabs. Three types of swabs, flocked-nylon, rayon, and polyester, were evaluated by 3 extraction methods, the swab extraction tube system (SETS), sonication, and vortex. Swabs were spiked with virulent B. anthracis cells, and the methods were compared for their efficiency over time by culture and real-time PCR. Viability testing indicated that the SETS yielded greater recovery of B. anthracis from 1-day-old swabs; however, reduced viability was consistent for the 3 extraction methods after 7 days and nonviability was consistent by 28 days. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the PCR amplification was not impacted by time for any swab extraction method and that the SETS method provided the lowest limit of detection. When evaluated using lesion swabs from cutaneous anthrax outbreaks, the SETS yielded culture-negative, PCR-positive results. This study demonstrated that swab extraction methods differ in their efficiency of recovery of viable B. anthracis cells. Furthermore, the results indicated that culture is not reliable for isolation of B. anthracis from swabs at ≥ 7 days. Thus, we recommend the use of the SETS method with subsequent testing by culture and real-time PCR for diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax from clinical swabs of cutaneous lesions. PMID:23035192

  16. Swab-wash method for quantitation of cutaneous microflora.

    OpenAIRE

    Keyworth, N; Millar, M R; Holland, K T

    1990-01-01

    We describe a comparison of the scrub-wash method of Williamson and Kligman and a swab-wash method for the enumeration of cutaneous microflora. The swab-wash method provides a less traumatic alternative to the scrub-wash method and can be used to sample the cutaneous microflora of premature neonates.

  17. DNA profiling in peripheral blood, buccal swabs, hair follicles and semen from a patient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ya-Ting; XIE, MING-KUN; Wu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (allo-PBSCT) or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) have been widely used to treat patients exhibiting certain severe illnesses. However, previous studies have shown that the biological materials of allo-PBSCT or allo-BMT recipients may not constitute credible materials for personal identification. In the present study, four types of commonly used samples were collected from a male individual following gender-matched allo-BM...

  18. Forensic analysis of explosive residues from hand swabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the forensic examination of physical evidence for organic explosives, cotton swabs are often used to collect residue from surfaces, such as skin and post-blast debris. A preliminary study has been conducted to develop extraction method of a common energetic compound, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) from hand swabs followed by direct analysis of the resulting extract solution using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detector. Analysis was performed on an octadecylsilane-based (C18) column using acetonitrile-water mixture (55:45) as mobile phase. The mobile phase was pumped at 1.0 mL/ min and separation affected using an isocratic mode with the detection wavelength of 230 nm. The explosive residue was extracted from cotton swabs using acetone in an ultrasonic cold bath. The developed method was later applied to the real hand swabs samples, which were taken from three army personnel who handled PETN during a munition disposal operation at Asahan Camp Military Firing range. The acetone extract obtained using sonication method was found to be effective in recovering PETN from cotton swabs with relatively high recovery (89.5 %) and good sensitivity with detection limit as low as 2 ng. The content of PETN in the real hand swab samples were found to be in the range of 4.7-130 mg. (author)

  19. AB161. High resolution melting analysis of buccal DNA revealed a significant association between UGT1A1 c.211G>A and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia development in Malay population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Tian Pei; Van Rostenberghe, Hans; Ismail, Rosliza; Nawawi, Noor Namirah; Abdullah, Nurul Amierah; Ramli, Noraida; Ibrahim, Nor Rosidah; Hj Abd Majid, Noorizan; Mohd Yusoff, Narazah; Nishio, Hisahide; Yusoff, Surini

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia or neonatal jaundice (NNJ) characterised by an elevated total serum bilirubin (TSB) level may result in kernicterus or even death. Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) is the key enzyme which conjugates bilirubin with glucuronic acid for the subsequent bilirubin excretion. Conversely, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), encoded by nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 (NR1I3) gene, regulates bilirubin excretion by activating the components of the bilirubin clearance pathway. Thus, genetic variants in UGT1A1 and NR1I3 genes may modulate bilirubin excretion and lead to NNJ. This study aimed to determine the association between UGT1A1 and NR1I3 genetic variants and NNJ development in Malay population by genotyping the DNA isolated from buccal swabs. The accuracy and reliability of the genotyping results produced by buccal DNA was also compared with that of the whole blood DNA. Methods Buccal swabs were collected from 232 hyperbilirubinemia and 232 non-hyperbilirubinemia newborns admitted to and/or born in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Hyperbilirubinemia subjects were those with TSB levels ≥250 µmol/L within the first week after birth while non-hyperbilirubinemia subjects were newborns without significant hyperbilirubinemia. The UGT1A1 (c.211G>A) and NR1I3 [MPJ6_1I3008 (G>A), IVS8+116T>G and 540A>G] variants were genotyped by using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between variant genotypes and risk of NNJ. Whole blood samples were also collected from 60 subjects and genotyped to compare the HRM genotyping results with that of the buccal swabs. Results When compared with wild-type genotype, both heterozygous and homozygous variant genotypes of MPJ6_1I3008 (G>A), IVS8+116T>G and 540A>G were not significantly associated with NNJ. However, the heterozygous genotype (GA) of c.211G>A was found to increase the

  20. Formulation and evaluation of nitrendipine buccal films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nappinnai M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A mucoadhesive drug delivery system for systemic delivery of nitrendipine, a calcium channel blocker through buccal route was formulated. Mucoadhesive polymers like hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K-100, hydroxypropylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, sodium alginate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 and carbopol-934P were used for film fabrication. The films were evaluated for their weight, thickness, percentage moisture absorbed and lost, surface pH, folding endurance, drug content uniformity, In vitro residence time, In vitro release and ex vivo permeation. Based on the evaluation of these results, it was concluded that buccal films made of hydroxylpropylcellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (5±2% w/v; F-4, which showed moderate drug release (50% w/w at the end of 2 h and satisfactory film characteristics could be selected as the best among the formulations studied.

  1. Formulation and Evaluation of Nitrendipine Buccal Films

    OpenAIRE

    Nappinnai M; Chandanbala R; Balaijirajan R

    2008-01-01

    A mucoadhesive drug delivery system for systemic delivery of nitrendipine, a calcium channel blocker through buccal route was formulated. Mucoadhesive polymers like hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K-100, hydroxypropylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, sodium alginate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 and carbopol-934P were used for film fabrication. The films were evaluated for their weight, thickness, percentage moisture absorbed and lost, surface pH, folding endurance, drug...

  2. Buccal Drug Delivery of Pravastatin Sodium

    OpenAIRE

    Shidhaye, Supriya S.; Thakkar, Pritesh V.; Neha M Dand; Vilasrao J. Kadam

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize formulations of mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of pravastatin sodium using carrageenan gum as the base matrix. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) K 30, Pluronic® F 127, and magnesium oxide were used to improve tablet properties. Magnesium stearate, talc, and lactose were used to aid the compression of tablets. The tablets were found to have good appearance, uniform thickness, diameter...

  3. Buccal films of prednisolone with enhanced bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumria, Rachna; Nair, Anroop B; Goomber, Garima; Gupta, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    The conventional formulation of prednisolone is considered to be low in efficacy, primarily on account of their failure in providing and maintaining effective therapeutic drug levels. This study aims to focus on development of a mucoadhesive buccal delivery system with a twofold objective of offering a rapid as well as a prolonged delivery of prednisolone coupled with enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Buccoadhesive films of prednisolone were prepared by solvent-casting method using hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (K100), Carbopol 940 and/or Eudragit NE 40 D. Placebo films possessing the most desirable physicomechanical properties were selected for drug loading. The effect of polymer and its content on film properties, i.e. mucoadhesive strength, swelling and hydration, in vitro drug release was studied. Based on these studies, film F7D was selected for ex vivo permeation across porcine cheek mucosa. The steady state flux of prednisolone across the buccal mucosa was found to be 105.33 ± 32.07 µg/cm(2)/h. A comparative pharmacokinetic study of prepared film (F7D) and oral suspension of prednisolone was conducted. In vivo data of buccal film show greater bioavailability (AUC0-α: 24.26 ± 4.06 µg.h/ml versus 10.65 ± 2.15 µg.h/ml) and higher Cmax (2.70 ± 0.38 µg/ml versus 2.29 ± 0.32 µg/ml) value when compared to oral suspension. The data observed from this study highlight the feasibility of the buccal route as a viable option for delivery of prednisolone. PMID:24892626

  4. Speech and Swallowing Outcomes in Buccal Mucosa Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sunila John; Hassuji, Rashida M; Rajashekhar, B.

    2011-01-01

    Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms among all oral cancers in India. Understanding the role of speech language pathologists (SLPs) in the domains of evaluation and management strategies of this condition is limited, especially in the Indian context. This is a case report of a young adult with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with no deleterious habits usually associated with buccal mucosa carcinoma. Following composite resection, pectoralis maj...

  5. Rectal swabs for analysis of the intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries E Budding

    Full Text Available The composition of the gut microbiota is associated with various disease states, most notably inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and malnutrition. This underlines that analysis of intestinal microbiota is potentially an interesting target for clinical diagnostics. Currently, the most commonly used sample types are feces and mucosal biopsy specimens. Because sampling method, storage and processing of samples impact microbiota analysis, each sample type has its own limitations. An ideal sample type for use in routine diagnostics should be easy to obtain in a standardized fashion without perturbation of the microbiota. Rectal swabs may satisfy these criteria, but little is known about microbiota analysis on these sample types. In this study we investigated the characteristics and applicability of rectal swabs for gut microbiota profiling in a clinical routine setting in patients presenting with various gastro-intestinal disorders. We found that rectal swabs appeared to be a convenient means of sampling the human gut microbiota. Swabs can be performed on demand, whenever a patient presents; swab-derived microbiota profiles are reproducible, whether they are gathered at home by patients or by medical professionals in an outpatient setting and may be ideally suited for clinical diagnostics and large-scale studies.

  6. Effect of protein coating of flocked swabs on the collection and release of clinically important bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K H Harry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical swab heads are often coated with biopolymers to improve the recovery and survival of organisms. To assess the effect of swab head material coating, water absorption capacity and capture and release characteristics of four pathogenic bacteria from protein coated and uncoated flocked swabs were determined. Demonstration of no uniformly higher recovery of all test bacteria from coated swabs over their corresponding uncoated swabs suggest importance of physicochemical properties of swab tip material compared with biopolymer coating, for swab selection for clinical applications.

  7. Validation of the nylon flocked swab for planetary protection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Probst, Alexander

    The major issue of planetary protection is to prevent the contamination of extraterrestrial en-vironments by terrestrial biomolecules and life forms. In order not to affect or even to confound future life detection missions on celestial bodies, which are of interest for their chemical and bi-ological evolution, spacecraft are constructed in clean rooms and are subject to severe cleaning processes and microbiological controls before launch. Microbiological assays are used to mea-sure and control the bioburden on spacecraft itself and spacecraft hardware during assembly. The current NASA standard assays have originally been developed for the Viking programme in the 70s. Due to the stringent contamination control constrains of the upcoming ESA Ex-oMars mission, these protocols cannot be used, in particular the application of cotton swabs with wooden applicators is no longer possible. Therefore, cotton swabs will be replaced by the novel nylon flocked swabs. In the study presented here, the nylon flocked swabs were validated for the usage for measuring and controling of the bioburden on spacecraft related surfaces. The absolute recovery efficiency was determined, following the guidelines of USP1223 in preci-sion, accuracy, robustness, specificity, linearity and limit of detection. As a standard surface, stainless steel coupons were used, whereas B. atrophaeus (spores) served as standard microbial strain. Additionally, the nylon flocked swab was used for experiments on different rough and smooth surfaces with seven different Bacillus spores and two different protocols. Further details will be given concerning the new ESA standard swab procedure for the microbial examination of flight hardware and clean rooms to be used for the upcoming ExoMars mission.

  8. Nicotine permeability across the buccal TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rassing, Margrethe Rømer

    2002-01-01

    concentrations of nicotine, the P(app) values decreased, which can partly be explained by an effect on the paracellular pathway. Similar results were also obtained when using the models for bi-directional as well as for uni-directional studies. The TR146 cell culture model may be used as model for buccal...

  9. Comparison of air samples, nasal swabs, ear-skin swabs and environmental dust samples for detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Vigre, Håkan; Cavaco, Lina;

    2014-01-01

    To identify a cost-effective and practical method for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds, the relative sensitivity of four sample types: nasal swabs, ear-skin (skin behind the ears) swabs, environmental dust swabs and air was compared. Moreover, dependency...... conclusion, MRSA detection by air sampling is easy to perform, reduces costs and analytical time compared to existing methods, and is recommended for initial testing of herds. Ear-skin swab sampling may be more sensitive for MRSA detection than air sampling or nasal swab sampling....

  10. Detecting Rickettsia parkeri Infection from Eschar Swab Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Todd; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Dent, Mike; Jiang, Ju; Daly, Patrick L.; Maguire, Jason D.; Richards, Allen L.

    2013-01-01

    The typical clinical presentation of several spotted fever group Rickettsia infections includes eschars. Clinical diagnosis of the condition is usually made by analysis of blood samples. We describe a more sensitive, noninvasive means of obtaining a sample for diagnosis by using an eschar swab specimen from patients infected with Rickettsia parkeri.

  11. Development of an ELISA for evaluation of swab recovery efficiencies of bovine serum albumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Sparding

    Full Text Available After a potential biological incident the sampling strategy and sample analysis are crucial for the outcome of the investigation and identification. In this study, we have developed a simple sandwich ELISA based on commercial components to quantify BSA (used as a surrogate for ricin with a detection range of 1.32-80 ng/mL. We used the ELISA to evaluate different protein swabbing procedures (swabbing techniques and after-swabbing treatments for two swab types: a cotton gauze swab and a flocked nylon swab. The optimal swabbing procedure for each swab type was used to obtain recovery efficiencies from different surface materials. The surface recoveries using the optimal swabbing procedure ranged from 0-60% and were significantly higher from nonporous surfaces compared to porous surfaces. In conclusion, this study presents a swabbing procedure evaluation and a simple BSA ELISA based on commercial components, which are easy to perform in a laboratory with basic facilities. The data indicate that different swabbing procedures were optimal for each of the tested swab types, and the particular swab preference depends on the surface material to be swabbed.

  12. CERVICO-VAGINAL SWABS TO PREDICT PROM: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boricha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The presence of lower genital tract infections poses a threat to the health of a woman. During pregnancy, these infection s may also have a direct effect on the fetus or may indirectly predispose to fetal damage secondar y to premature labour or premature rupture of membranes. Early detection is thus import ant because maternal physiological alterations and the presence of a fetus may hamper the diagnosis and the management of such infections. Antepartum treatment of lower genital tr act infections or bacterial colonization has been found to reduce the incidence of preterm births . OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of education and socio-economic background, to assess diagnostic efficacy in pregnancy, to study the effect of intervention on the outcome of pregnan cy and finally, to study the appropriate trimester for taking a cervicovaginal swab in pregna nt women. MATERIALS AND METHODS - Our case study was a prospective study involving 100 pregnant women following up in the outpatient department of a community hospital from 200 8-2010 with respect to their cervicovaginal microbial growth in each trimester. Patients were divided into culture positive and negative groups and treated accordingly RESULTS – In our study, we found that streptococcus, candida and staphylococcus were the mo st commonly prevalent among all the microorganisms isolated. Out of 100 women, 27 were swab positive in the 1 st trimester with an increasing trend of 1% in swab positivity in subsequ ent trimesters. Among swab positive cases, 51.85%(1 st , 50%(2 nd and 51.72%(3 rd landed up in preterm labour with or without PROM. CONCLUSION – There was a very high positive correlation between the incidence of a positive swab culture and preterm events. We found that the best time for a cervicovaginal swab was during the 3 rd trimester. Our study had a high negative predictiv e value i.e. absence of growth were best in predicting that cases would not go in t o

  13. Formulation of unidirectional release buccal patches of carbamazepine and study of permeation through porcine buccal mucosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parthasarathy Govindasamy; Bhaskar Reddy Kesavan; Jayaveera Korlakunta Narasimha

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To achieve transbuccal release of carbamazepine by loading in unidirectional release mucoadhesive buccal patches. Methods:Buccal patches of carbamazepine with unidirectional drug release were prepared using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and ethyl cellulose by solvent casting method. Water impermeable backing layer (Pidilite® Biaxially-oriented polypropylene film) of patches provided unidirectional drug release. They were evaluated for thickness, mass uniformity, surface pH and folding endurance. Six formulations FA2, FA8, FA10, FB1, FB14 and FB16 (folding endurance above 250) were evaluated further for swelling studies, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, accelerated stability studies and FTIR and XRD spectral studies. Results: The ex vivo mucoadhesion time of patches ranged between 109 min (FA10) to 126 min (FB14). The ex vivo mucoadhesive force was in the range of 0.278 to 0.479 kg/m/s. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that formulation FA8 released 84%and FB16 released 99.01%of drug in 140 min. Conclusions: The prepared unidirectional buccal patches of carbamazepine provided a maximum drug release within specified mucoadhesion period and it indicates a potential alternative drug delivery system for systemic delivery of carbamazepine.

  14. Effect of permeation enhancers in the mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate for unidirectional buccal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanth, V V; Puratchikody, A; Mathew, S T; Ashok, K B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the effect of various permeation enhancers on the permeation of salbutamol sulphate (SS) buccal patches through buccal mucosa in order to improve the bioavailability by avoiding the first pass metabolism in the liver and possibly in the gut wall and also achieve a better therapeutic effect. The influence of various permeation enhancers, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), linoleic acid (LA), isopropyl myristate (IPM) and oleic acid (OA) on the buccal absorption of SS from buccal patches containing different polymeric combinations such as hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), carbopol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC), acid and water soluble chitosan (CHAS and CHWS) and Eudragit-L100 (EU-L100) was investigated. OA was the most efficient permeation enhancer increasing the flux greater than 8-fold compared with patches without permeation enhancer in HPMC based buccal patches when PEG-400 was used as the plasticizer. LA also exhibited a better permeation enhancing effect of over 4-fold in PVA and HPMC based buccal patches. In PVA based patches, both OA and LA were almost equally effective in improving the SS permeation irrespective of the plasticizer used. DMSO was more effective as a permeation enhancer in HPMC based patches when PG was the plasticizer. IPM showed maximum permeation enhancement of greater than 2-fold when PG was the plasticizer in HPMC based buccal patches. PMID:25657797

  15. Speech and swallowing outcomes in buccal mucosa carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunila John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms among all oral cancers in India. Understanding the role of speech language pathologists (SLPs in the domains of evaluation and management strategies of this condition is limited, especially in the Indian context. This is a case report of a young adult with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with no deleterious habits usually associated with buccal mucosa carcinoma. Following composite resection, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction, he developed severe oral dysphagia and demonstrated unintelligible speech. This case report focuses on the issues of swallowing and speech deficits in buccal mucosa carcinoma that need to be addressed by SLPs, and the outcomes of speech and swallowing rehabilitation and prognostic issues.

  16. Mucoadhesive buccal films of glibenclamide: Development and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Muzib, Y. Indira; Kumari, K Srujana

    2011-01-01

    Background: Glibenclamide is an oral hypoglycemic drug completely metabolized in the liver, the principal metabolite being very weakly active, buccal delivery may be useful for the treatment of diabetes more effectively. The aim of the present study was to design formulations and systematically evaluate in vitro and ex vivo performances of buccal films of glibenclamide so that the required therapeutic plasma concentrations can possibly be achieved more rapidly using the different grades of hy...

  17. Serum morphine concentrations after buccal and intramuscular morphine administration.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, A P; Fung, C.; Hanna, M.

    1987-01-01

    1. This study compared serum concentrations of morphine after administration of a buccal tablet (25mg) with those after intramuscular injection (10mg). 2. Buccal morphine was administered to eleven healthy volunteers and intramuscular morphine was given to five preoperative surgical patients. Serum morphine concentrations were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.) in samples taken up to 8 h after drug administration. 3. Mean maximum morphine concentrations were eight ti...

  18. Formulation and Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal Films of Enalapril Maleate

    OpenAIRE

    Semalty A; Semalty Mona; Nautiyal U

    2010-01-01

    Enalapril maleate is used in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris. It shows low bioavailability due to high hepatic first pass metabolism. Hence the present work was undertaken to formulate mucoadhesive buccal films of enalapril maleate with an objective to improve therapeutic efficacy, patient compliance and the bioavailability. In the present study ten formulations of mucoadhesive drug delivery system of enalapril maleate were prepared as buccal films, by solvent casting techni...

  19. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Fentanyl Buccal Soluble Film

    OpenAIRE

    Vasisht, Niraj; Gever, Larry N; Tagarro, Ignacio; Finn, Andrew L

    2010-01-01

    Objective The objectives of the study were to determine the absolute bioavailability of fentanyl from fentanyl buccal soluble film, estimate the percentage of a fentanyl dose absorbed through the buccal mucosa, and compare the bioavailability of equivalent doses administered either as single or multiple dose units. Design Open-label, randomized, four-period, Latin-square crossover pharmacokinetic study. Setting Inpatient phase 1 unit. Patients Twelve healthy volunteers. Interventions Injectab...

  20. Nuclear anomalies in the buccal cells of calcite factory workers

    OpenAIRE

    Songül Budak Diler; Serap Ergene

    2010-01-01

    The micronucleus (MN) assay on exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. To determine the genotoxic effects of calcite dust that forms during processing, MN assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal cells of 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) calcite factory workers and 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) age- and sex-matched control subjects. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates,...

  1. Fentanyl Buccal Soluble Film: A Review in Breakthrough Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2016-05-01

    Fentanyl buccal soluble film (Onsolis(®), Breakyl(®), Painkyl™) comprises two layers: a mucoadhesive layer containing the active drug, and an inactive layer with the aim of preventing the diffusion of fentanyl into the oral cavity. It is approved in several countries worldwide, including the USA and those of the EU, for the management of breakthrough cancer pain in opioid-tolerant, adult patients with cancer. This article reviews the pharmacological properties of fentanyl buccal soluble film and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in these patients. Fentanyl buccal soluble film provides an additional option for transmucosal delivery of fentanyl, with approximately half of the dose undergoing an initial, rapid absorption via the buccal mucosa (accounting for its high bioavailability). In clinical trials, fentanyl buccal soluble film was associated with significant improvements in pain intensity scores versus placebo and was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse events were typical opioid-associated adverse events, such as nausea and vomiting. Fentanyl buccal soluble film is a useful option for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain in opioid-tolerant patients. PMID:27007271

  2. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TERBUTALINE SULPHATE MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gururaj S.Kulkarni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of developing any new dosage form is reduce the side effects and increase the therapeutic effect of drug in existing dose of dosage form. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system is oral dosage form, where the tablet, gel or patch is attached to the buccal region for direct absorption of drug into blood circulation. This route can prevent the metabolism of drug in G.I tract or liver and side effects of metabolites avoided. In this study, the attempt was made to prepare mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Terbutaline sulphate with natural polymer sodium alginate with one side absorption by backing layer with ethyl cellulose. The buccal tablets of Terbutaline sulphate studied in detail. I R Spectroscopy did the compatible study between polymers and Terbutaline sulphate and No interaction was found between drug and polymers. Different formulations of oral Mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Terbutaline Sulphate (TS were prepared using polymer sodium alginate, in different concentrations by direct compression. Post compressed evaluation studies, hardness, thickness, friability; weight variation and drug content, mucoadhesive strength of tablets were studied. The in-vitro release of TS was studied in buffer pH 6.8 at 370C. All parameters of TS buccal tablets are passed the standard of mucoadhesive buccal tablets. It was found that mucoadhesive natural polymers exhibited better adhesiveness and mucoadhesiveness. The in vitro study of TS exhibited greater drug release profile with release of in the range of 79.25 to 99.85%.

  3. Condyloma acuminatum of the buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rashmi; Pandey, Manoj; Shukla, Mridula; Kumar, Mohan

    2014-06-01

    Condyloma acuminatum is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced disease. It is usually transmitted sexually, and it frequently occurs in the anogenital area. A finding of condyloma acuminatum in the oral cavity is rare. Besides HPV, other risk factors for oral condyloma include chewing betel quid and smoking. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a 2 × 2-cm verrucous white patch on his buccal mucosa. He was habituated to both betel quid and cigarette smoking. A biopsy of the lesion identified it as a verrucous hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium with HPV-related koilocytic changes. The lesion was excised, and further histopathology identified it as condyloma acuminatum. The patient was disease-free 9 months postoperatively. The possibility of condyloma acuminatum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an oral white lesion. The most common treatments are surgical excision, cryosurgery, electrocautery, and laser excision. There is no known role for antiviral therapy. PMID:24932820

  4. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas KR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  5. Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, V. A.; Ott, C. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during spaceflight missions is composed of several factors including both the concentration and characteristics of the microorganisms to which the crew are exposed. Thus, having a good understanding of the microbial ecology aboard spacecraft provides the necessary information to mitigate health risks to the crew. While preventive measures are taken to minimize the presence of pathogens on spacecraft, medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a specific culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. To address this bias in our understanding of the ISS environment, the Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment was designed to investigate and develop monitoring technology to provide better microbial characterization. For the SWAB flight experiment, we hypothesized that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. Key findings during this experiment included: a) Generally, advanced molecular techniques were able to reveal a few organisms not recovered using culture-based methods; however, there is no indication that current monitoring is "missing" any medically significant bacteria or fungi. b) Molecular techniques have tremendous potential for microbial monitoring, however, sample preparation and data analysis present challenges for spaceflight hardware. c) Analytical results indicate that some molecular techniques, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), can

  6. A mechanistic based approach for enhancing buccal mucoadhesion of chitosan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Muff-Westergaard, Christian; Sander, Camilla;

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems can enhance rapid drug absorption by providing an increased retention time at the site of absorption and a steep concentration gradient. An understanding of the mechanisms behind mucoadhesion of polymers, e.g. chitosan, is necessary for improving the...... mucoadhesiveness of buccal formulations. The interaction between chitosan of different chain lengths and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was studied using a complex coacervation model (CCM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a tensile detachment model (TDM). The effect of pH was assessed in all three models...... and the approach to add a buffer to chitosan based drug delivery systems is a means to optimize and enhance buccal drug absorption. The CCM demonstrated optimal interactions between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2. The ITC experiments showed a significantly increase in affinity between chitosan and PGM at...

  7. A REVIEW ARTICLE ON MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasvir Singh* and Pawan Deep

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: As an alternative to injection pharmaceutical researcher and scientist are trying to explore transdermal and transmucosal route over the last few years. To overcome the deficiency associated with the other route of administration buccal region of oral cavity is an alternative target for the administration of choice of drug. The disadvantages relative with the oral drug delivery is the extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic medium as a result inadequate absorption of the drugs. However parental route may overcome the drawback related with the oral route but these formulations have high cost, supervision is required and least patient compliance. By the buccal route the drug are directly pass through into systemic circulation, less hepatic metabolism and high bioavailability. The aim of the review article is an overview of buccal drug delivery, anatomy of oral mucosa, mechanism of drug penetration and their in-vitro and in-vivo mucoadhesion testing method.

  8. Retained surgical swab following breast augmentation: a rare cause of a breast mass

    OpenAIRE

    Baruah, Bedanta Prakash; Young, Phillipa; Douglas-Jones, Anthony; Mansel, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Retained surgical swab or sponge following surgery is an uncommon finding seen most commonly following abdominal and pelvic procedures. Reports of such lesions in the breast are particularly rare with only two previously published cases. We report here the first case of a retained swab following breast augmentation where unique diagnostic problems are encountered because of the presence of implants. This case shows that a retained swab should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any...

  9. Buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation: incidence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, K; Ando, T; Sakurai, K

    1999-05-01

    Buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation have been considered as one of the visible and reliable signs of bruxism. However, there have not been any reports justifying this relationship scientifically. Moreover, there have not been any studies reporting specific procedures to assess them. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine the clinical incidence of buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation and assess the possible relationship between certain factors that can influence their occurrence. A total of 244 (178 males and 66 females) dentulous adults from 20 to 59 years of age, who were employees at the Bank of Yokohama, were randomly selected. At first, the buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation were classified into three groups based in their intensity: none, mild, and severe. The incidence of both conditions in the different age groups, as well as the incidence by gender was evaluated. Furthermore, the possible relationships between buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation and age, gender, clenching awareness, grinding awareness, headache, neck stiffness, vertical dimension, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain to palpation, masticatory muscle tenderness to palpation, and the presence of premature contacts were evaluated using the chi-square test. A positive relationship was found between the occurrence of buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation and gender (p < 0.01); both conditions were observed more frequently in females than in males. A positive relationship was also found to age; the group between 20-29 years old showed the highest incidence. The vertical dimension had a positive relationship with the occurrence of both buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation. Other factors evaluated did not show any correlation. PMID:10825817

  10. Absorption of clonazepam after intranasal and buccal administration.

    OpenAIRE

    Schols-Hendriks, M W; Lohman, J J; Janknegt, R; Korten, J J; Merkus, F W; Hooymans, P M

    1995-01-01

    Serum concentrations of clonazepam after intranasal, buccal and intravenous administration were compared in a cross-over study in seven healthy male volunteers. Each subject received a 1.0 mg dose of clonazepam intranasally and buccally and 0.5 mg intravenously. A Cmax of 6.3 +/- 1.0 ng ml-1 (mean; +/- s.d.) was measured 17.5 min (median) (range 15-20 min) after intranasal administration. A second peak (4.6 +/- 1.3 ng ml-1) caused by oral absorption was seen after 1.7 h (range 0.7-3.0 h). Aft...

  11. Improvement of buccal delivery of morphine using the prodrug approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Jørgensen, A.; Christensen, C.B.;

    1997-01-01

    The feasibility of achieving buccal delivery of morphine using the prodrug approach was assessed by studies of bioactivation, in vitro permeation and in vivo absorption. The bioactivation of various morphine-3-esters was studied in human plasma and saliva. The in vitro permeation of morphine...... of 0.2. This discrepancy could however be explained by the enzymatic stability of the two esters in saliva, since it was found that morphine-3-propionate was more rapidly hydrolysed in saliva than was morphine-3-acetate. The study demonstrates that the buccal delivery of morphine can be markedly...

  12. HGF is released from buccal fibroblasts after smokeless tobacco stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, S; Christensen, S; Gron, B; Bardow, A; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of smokeless tobacco (ST) on (1) HGF, KGF and GM-CSF expression by buccal fibroblasts and (2) on keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation. Buccal fibroblasts were stimulated with different concentrations of ST extracts in a double dilution from 0.50% w/v to 0.03% w...... exposure time and on concentration of the tobacco extract. High concentration increased production of HGF 4-fold. KGF production was doubled when high concentration of tobacco was used, low concentration did not stimulate cells. GM-CSF production was low in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells...

  13. An investigation of premedication with morphine given by the buccal or intramuscular route.

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, K H; Tring, I C; Ellis, F R

    1989-01-01

    1. Premedication with 30 mg buccal morphine or 10 mg intramuscular morphine was evaluated in 40 healthy women undergoing major gynaecological surgery. 2. Buccal administration of morphine produced lower plasma morphine concentrations than intramuscular injection of morphine (P less than 0.01). 3. The mean systemic availability of the buccal tablet, during the first 5 h after administration, was approximately 3% relative to that of the intramuscular preparation. 4. Poor absorption of buccal mo...

  14. Formulation and evaluation of anti-asthmatic drug montelukast in mucoadhesive buccal patches

    OpenAIRE

    Magdy Ibrahim Mohamed; , Enas Abd El-Moneim Mohamed Radwan Afify; Mary Kamal Gad Mekhael

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To formulate and evaluate anti-asthmatic drug montelukast in mucoadhesive buccal patches. Methods: Buccal patches were formulated by using different hydrophilic polymers by solvent casting technique. Buccal patches were evaluated by seven physical appearances, in addition to in vitro drug release study. Results: All patches were uniform and translucent, and had smooth surface. In vitro release studies were conducted for montelukast buccal patches proved that...

  15. 76 FR 19997 - Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet... determined that FENTORA (fentanyl citrate) buccal tablet, 300 micrograms (mcg), was not withdrawn from sale... drug applications (ANDAs) for fentanyl citrate buccal tablet, 300 mcg, if all other legal...

  16. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE BUCCAL PATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. DEHGHAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive patches for delivery of salbutalmol sulphate were prepared using hydroxypropylmethylcelluose K4M, hydroxymethylcelluose and carbopol 934P. Gylcerine was used as plasticizer. Mucoadhesive strenght, % swelling, surface pH, film thikness and folding edurance were determined for pain patches. The results of showed Mucoadhesive strength of hydroxypropylmethylcelluose K4M plain and hydroxypropylmethylcelluose K4M combination polymeric patches greater than hydroxyethylecellulose plain and hydroxyethylecellulose combination polymeric patches. It was found that mucoadhesive strength increases with the increase in concentration of carbopol. Percent swelling of patches increase with time and with an increase in concentration of hydrophilic polymer. Incorporation of carbopol increase percent swelling. Percent swelling showed a direct relationship with mucoadhesive strength. The folding endurance of the polymeric patch was found to be 79 to 138. The surface pH of the film was found to be in region of neutral pH. The mean film thickness of the buccal polymeric patches with an increase in the amount of polymer. Drug content uniformity values of Salbutamol sulphate buccal patch were observed to be between 100.18% and 99.18% of the labelled amount. In-vitro release studies of salbutamol sulphate buccal patches showed decrease in percent release with an increase in the amount of polymer. The buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate were found to be stable at 75 +/- 5% RH 45 +/- 2°C when stored for 24 weeks.

  17. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF VENLAFAXINE HYDROCHLORIDE MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inampudi Ajit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves the formulation and evaluation of buccal tablets of venlafaxine hydrochloride, an antidepressant drug to circumvent the first pass metabolism. Buccal route is excellent for the systemic delivery, there by rendering great bioavailability. A significant reduction in dose and dosing frequency can be achieved, thereby reducing dose dependent side effects, patient compliance and prolonging duration of action. Tablets of venlafaxine HCl were prepared by direct compression method. Twelve formulations were prepared with varying concentrations of bioadhesive polymers like hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M (HPMC K4M, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, carbopol 934P and chitosan. Buccal tablets were evaluated by different parameters such as thickness, hardness, weight uniformity, content uniformity, swelling index, surface pH, ex vivo bioadhesive strength, in vitro drug release, ex vivo drug permeation and FTIR studies. The modified in vitro assembly was used to measure the bioadhesive strength of tablets with fresh porcine buccal mucosa as model tissue. The tablets were evaluated for in vitro release in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer for 8 hours in standard dissolution apparatus in order to determine the mode of release, the data was subjected to model fitting, the optimized formula followed non-fickian release mechanism with zero order kinetics. The formulation containing venlafaxine HCl and HPMC K4M in the ratio of 1:1 could be used to design effective and stable buccoadhesive tablets of venlafaxine HCl.

  18. Polymorphism of ciclopirox-olamine in mucoadhesive buccal films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Martina; Gajdosova, M.; Vetchy, D.; Policianová, Olivia; Brus, Jiří

    Aveiro : University of Aveiro, 2015. s. 16. [International conference on Advanced Nanomaterials /6./, International conference on Graphene Technology /1./, International conference on Hydrogen Energy /1./ - ANM2015. 20.07.2015-22.07.2015, Aveiro] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03636S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : MAS NMR * buccal films * ciclopirox Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  19. Owner-collected swabs of pets: a method fit for the purpose of zoonoses research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, N; Hille, K; Verspohl, J; Wefstaedt, P; Kreienbrock, L

    2013-09-01

    As part of the preparation of a large cohort study in the entire German population, this study examined the feasibility of cat and dog owners collecting nasal and oral swabs of their animals at home as a method of assessing exposure to zoonoses. In veterinary clinics in Hannover, Germany, 100 pet owners were recruited. Nasal and oral swabs of pets were taken by a veterinarian at the clinic and owners took swabs at home. Swabs were analysed regarding bacterial growth and compared (owner vs. vet) using Cohen's kappa and McNemar's test. The return rate of kits was 92%, and 77% of owners thought it unnecessary to have veterinarian assistance to swab the mouth. McNemar's test results: oral swabs 78% agreement with Gram-positive bacterial growth, 87% agreement with Gram-negative bacterial growth; with similar results for nasal swabs. Although sample quality differed, this method allowed the receipt of swabs from pets in order to obtain information about colonization with zoonotic pathogens. PMID:23114113

  20. 改良腭弓矫治后牙锁节对后牙功能恢复的影响%Influence of promote palatine arch treating buccal teeth lock on occlusion function recovery of buccal teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宁; 孙应明; 白槐延

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background: Buccal teeth occlusion lock is a kind of common malocclusion malformation in orthodonic clinic. Traditional treatment to buccal teeth occlusion lock is interactive traction of upper and lower buccal teeth.This treatment had shortcoming such as insufficient anchorage and elongation of buccal teeth.We adopted promote fix palatine arch therapy, which recovery patients' occlusion function by clinical observation.

  1. Pedicled buccal fat pad graft for root coverage in severe gingival recession defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Saurav; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Satpathy, Anurag; Das, Abhaya Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Gingival recession (GR) is a condition resulting in root exposure which leads to root sensitivity, pain, root caries, plaque retention, poor esthetics, and tooth loss. Sites exhibiting Miller Class III and IV GR are not suitable for treatment with surgical root coverage techniques, and their prognosis are very poor with current techniques. In this case report, pedicled buccal fat pad (PBFP) was employed as subepithelial graft technique for root coverage of maxillary tooth with Class III GR defect along with furcation involvement and the absence of keratinized gingiva. PBFP as the subepithelial graft is likely to increase the predictability and outcome of root coverage procedures in the treatment of cases with poor prognosis, owing to its pedicled vascularity. PBFP may be considered as a reliable modality for root coverage of such severe maxillary posterior GR defects, as reported, that could not be repaired by other conventional procedures. PMID:27143839

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination of mouth swabs during production causing a major outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassen Jørgen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2002 we investigated an outbreak comprising 231 patients in Norway, caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and linked to the use of contaminated mouth swabs called Dent-O-Sept. Here we describe the extent of contamination of the swabs, and identify critical points in the production process that made the contamination possible, in order to prevent future outbreaks. Methods Environmental investigation with microbiological examination of production, ingredients and product, molecular typing of bacteria and a system audit of production. Results Of the 1565 swabs examined from 149 different production batches the outbreak strain of P. aeruginosa was detected in 76 swabs from 12 batches produced in 2001 and 2002. In total more than 250 swabs were contaminated with one or more microbial species. P. aeruginosa was detected from different spots along the production line. The audit revealed serious breeches of production regulations. Health care institutions reported non-proper use of the swabs and weaknesses in their purchasing systems. Conclusion Biofilm formation in the wet part of the production is the most plausible explanation for the continuous contamination of the swabs with P. aeruginosa over a period of at least 30 weeks. When not abiding to production regulations fatal consequences for the users may ensue. For the most vulnerable patient groups only documented quality-controlled, high-level disinfected products and items should be used in the oropharynx.

  3. A Comparison of Tissue versus Swab Culturing of Infected Diabetic Foot Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Cao, Ying; Zou, Mengchen; Luo, Xiangrong; Jiang, Ya; Xue, Yaoming; Gao, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the efficacy of swabbing versus tissue biopsy for microbiological diagnosis of diabetic foot infection. Methods. This was a prospective trial. Fifty-six patients with diabetic foot infection were divided into the following 3 groups according to the PEDIS grading system: grade 2 (n = 10), grade 3 (n = 29), and grade 4 (n = 17). Two specimens were collected from each wound for microbial culturing after debridement, including a superficial swab and a deep tissue punch biopsy specimen. Results. Swab culturing identified all of the microorganisms isolated from the corresponding deep tissue specimens in 9/10 of grade 2 wounds (90.0%), and this proportion decreased to 12/29 (41.4%) and 7/17 (41.2%) for grades 3 and 4 wounds, respectively (p = 0.02). Moreover, the sensitivity for identifying Gram-negative bacteria, such as E. coli and Citrobacter, by swabbing was low (33.3%). In addition, some Gram-negative bacteria, such as Serratia and Ralstonia pickettii, were isolated from deep tissues but not from swabs. Conclusions. Swab culturing may be reliable for identification of pathogens in diabetic foot wounds classified as grade 2. However, it is advisable to culture deep tissue specimens for wounds of grade ≥3 because swab culturing is associated with a high risk of missing pathogens, especially Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27123004

  4. A Comparison of Tissue versus Swab Culturing of Infected Diabetic Foot Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the efficacy of swabbing versus tissue biopsy for microbiological diagnosis of diabetic foot infection. Methods. This was a prospective trial. Fifty-six patients with diabetic foot infection were divided into the following 3 groups according to the PEDIS grading system: grade 2 (n=10, grade 3 (n=29, and grade 4 (n=17. Two specimens were collected from each wound for microbial culturing after debridement, including a superficial swab and a deep tissue punch biopsy specimen. Results. Swab culturing identified all of the microorganisms isolated from the corresponding deep tissue specimens in 9/10 of grade 2 wounds (90.0%, and this proportion decreased to 12/29 (41.4% and 7/17 (41.2% for grades 3 and 4 wounds, respectively (p=0.02. Moreover, the sensitivity for identifying Gram-negative bacteria, such as E. coli and Citrobacter, by swabbing was low (33.3%. In addition, some Gram-negative bacteria, such as Serratia and Ralstonia pickettii, were isolated from deep tissues but not from swabs. Conclusions. Swab culturing may be reliable for identification of pathogens in diabetic foot wounds classified as grade 2. However, it is advisable to culture deep tissue specimens for wounds of grade ≥3 because swab culturing is associated with a high risk of missing pathogens, especially Gram-negative bacteria.

  5. Nevus of Ota with buccal mucosal pigmentation: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Ram Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nevus of Ota is a condition wherein the typical pattern of the bluish black pigmentation is noticed along with the cutaneous distribution of the trigeminal nerve. This condition is most prevalent in Japanese population but comparatively rare among Indians. We report a case of 23-year-old female presented with unilateral pigmented areas over the skin of forehead, malar area, ear and periorbital area. Blackish-blue pigmented areas were also noticed on the sclera. Brownish-black diffuse pigmented areas were also noticed on the buccal mucosa of the same side. The presence of pigmentation on the skin over pinna and oral pigmentation made our case a rare incidence. Oral pigmentations associated with nevus of Ota especially on the buccal mucosa have rarely been reported in the past.

  6. Practical action levels for chelation therapy in plutonium inhalation using nose swab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to propose action levels for chelation therapy in the case of inhalation of plutonium compounds using nose swabs. The relationship between the activity found in the nose swabs and early faecal excretion was investigated using actual cases at JAEA-NFCEL. The ratio was found to be in log-normal distribution. The action levels based on the activity of nose swab corresponding to 10 ALI (5200 mSv) are determined for the facilities at JAEA-NFCEL by using the relationship and specific information such as isotopic ratio and physicochemical characteristics of plutonium compounds. (authors)

  7. Culture-independent qunatification of Salmonella enterica in carcass gauze swabs by flotation prior to real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Schelin, Jenny; Norling, Börje;

    2010-01-01

    concentrations of ≥ 6.1×108 CFU/swab sample, but not by concentrations ≤ 6.1×106 CFU/swab sample. By using the gauze swabs directly in the flotation procedure, the homogenization step normally used for preparation of food-related samples could be excluded, which simplified the culture independent quantification...

  8. "Osteolipoma of buccal mucosa: case report and literature review"

    OpenAIRE

    Raviraj, Jayam; Kumar-Bokkasam, Vijay; Suresh, Dirasantchu; Venkata, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Osteolipoma affecting oral cavity is indeed rare. We hereby report a case of osteolipoma affecting buccal mucosa. A review of literature of osteolipoma of oral cavity, particularly on radiographic/imaging findings was done. Only 16 cases of Osteolipoma of oral cavity are reported in the literature. The radiographic findings of our case, i.e. multiple dense homogenous radio-opaque structures was reported earlier only in one case [out of 16] of osteolipoma of oral cavity

  9. Dental prosthesis and buccal lesions in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz García Alpizar; Mikhail Benet Rodíguez; Eduardo Enrique Castillo Betancourt

    2010-01-01

    Fundament: Buccal lesions in the elderly are very frequent and they constitute a problem of health due to the consequences that cause. Objective: to describe the characteristics of the removable prosthesis used by the population of 60 and more years age and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. Methods: We carried out a study descriptive of cross section in 125 elderly with oral prosthesis. The characteristics of the removable prosthesis were described and their relationship...

  10. Urethral fistula following circumcision: salvaged by buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rahul Janak; Dalela, Divakar; S N Sankhwar; Singh, Vishwajeet

    2009-01-01

    Fistula following circumcision and at times accompanied by disfigurement of the glans penis is a common problem in our country, where a large number of circumcision is performed by untrained professionals. These complications may have profound negative psychological impact on the growing child. Herein, we report the successful closure of such fistula using buccal mucosa, which occurred following circumcision (for phimosis) in a 15 year old boy. This resulted in the disfigurement of the glans ...

  11. Mucoadhesive bilayered tablets for buccal sustained release of flurbiprofen

    OpenAIRE

    Perioli, Luana; Ambrogi, Valeria; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Ricci, Maurizio; Blasi, Paolo; Rossi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was the design of sustained-release mucoadhesive bilayered tablets, using mixtures of mucoadhesive polymers and an inorganic matrix (hydrotalcite), for the topical administration of flurbiprofen in the oral cavity. The first layer, responsible for the tablet retention on the mucosa, was prepared by compression of a cellulose derivative and polyacrylic derivative blend. The second layer, responsible for buccal drug delivery, was obtained by compression of a mixture of the ...

  12. Formulation and Characterization of Mucoadhesive Buccal Films of Glipizide

    OpenAIRE

    Semalty Mona; Semalty A; Kumar G

    2008-01-01

    Mucoadhesive buccal films of glipizide were prepared by solvent casting technique using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, carbopol-934P and Eudragit RL-100. Prepared films were evaluated for weight, thickness, surface pH, swelling index, in vitro residence time, folding endurance, in vitro release, permeation studies and drug content uniformity. The films exhibited controlled release over more than 6 h. From the study it was concluded that the films containing 5...

  13. Attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii to human buccal epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, J M; MILLER, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    A standardized assay was used to measure the attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 12104 to washed human buccal epithelial cells. Treatment of the A. naeslundii cells with hyaluronidases, wheat germ lipase, protease, trypsin, heat, or sonic oscillation significantly reduced their ability to attach to epithelial cells. Treatment of the epithelial cells with the above enzymes did not influence the attachment of A. naeslundii. Extraction of A. naeslundii with NaOH also significantly reduced ...

  14. Incidence of bone metastasis in carcinoma buccal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Bhandari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head and neck cancer is a leading health problem in India due to the habit of chewing tobacco and bad oral and dental hygiene. Carcinoma buccal mucosa is more common and is 2.5% of all malignancies at our center. Most of the patients present in stage III and IV and the survival in these cases is not very good. Bone metastasis in advanced cases of carcinoma buccal mucosa is rarely reported in the world literature. Materials and Methods: We present here cases developing bone metastasis in carcinoma buccal mucosa in last 5 years. These patients were young with loco-regionally advanced disease where bone metastasis developed within 1-year of definitive treatment. Results: The flat bones and vertebrae were mainly involved and the survival was also short after diagnosis of metastasis despite the treatment with local Radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Conclusion: The exact cause of metastasis cannot be proved, but the probability of subclinical seedling of malignant cells before the eradication of the primary tumor should be considered along with advanced local and nodal disease with high grade of tumor.

  15. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF VENLAFAXINE HYDROCHLORIDE BUCCAL PATCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimoolam Senthil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves the formulation and evaluation of buccal patches of venlafaxine hydrochloride using sodium alginate with various hydrophilic polymers like carbopol 934 P, carboxymethyl cellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M in various proportions and combinations were fabricated by solvent casting technique. Venlafaxine hydrochloride an antidepressant drug to circumvent the first pass metabolism. Buccal route is excellent for the systemic delivery, there by rendering great bioavailability. A significant reduction in dose and dosing frequency can be achieved, thereby reducing dose dependent side effects, patient compliance and prolonging duration of action. Various physicomechanical parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, drug content, moisture content, moisture absorption, and various ex vivo mucoadhesion parameters like mucoadhesive strength, force of adhesion and bond strength were evaluated. An in vitro drug release study was designed, and it was carried out using commercial semipermeable membrane. All these fabricated patches were sustained for 10 hrs and obeyed first-order release kinetics. Ex vivo drug permeation study was also performed using porcine buccal mucosa, and various drug permeation parameters like flux and lag time were determined.

  16. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal films of enalapril maleate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semalty A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Enalapril maleate is used in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris. It shows low bioavailability due to high hepatic first pass metabolism. Hence the present work was undertaken to formulate mucoadhesive buccal films of enalapril maleate with an objective to improve therapeutic efficacy, patient compliance and the bioavailability. In the present study ten formulations of mucoadhesive drug delivery system of enalapril maleate were prepared as buccal films, by solvent casting technique. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose and polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-90 were used as mucoadhesive polymers. Prepared films were evaluated for their weight, thickness, surface pH, swelling index, drug content uniformity, in vitro residence time, folding endurance in vitro release and permeation studies. Films exhibited controlled release over more than 10 h in permeation studies. It was concluded that the films containing 20 mg of enalapril maleate in sodium carboxymethylcellulose 2% w/v and hydroxyethyl cellulose 2% w/v (formulation F5, showed good swelling, a convenient residence time and promising controlled drug release, thus can be selected for the development of buccal film for effective therapeutic uses.

  17. Incidence of bone metastasis in carcinoma buccal mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Head and neck cancer is a leading health problem in India due to the habit of chewing tobacco and bad oral and dental hygiene. Carcinoma buccal mucosa is more common and is 2.5% of all malignancies at our center. Most of the patients present in stage III and IV and the survival in these cases is not very good. Bone metastasis in advanced cases of carcinoma buccal mucosa is rarely reported in the world literature. Materials and Methods: We present here cases developing bone metastasis in carcinoma buccal mucosa in last 5 years. These patients were young with loco-regionally advanced disease where bone metastasis developed within 1-year of definitive treatment. Results: The flat bones and vertebrae were mainly involved and the survival was also short after diagnosis of metastasis despite the treatment with local Radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Conclusion: The exact cause of metastasis cannot be proved, but the probability of subclinical seedling of malignant cells before the eradication of the primary tumor should be considered along with advanced local and nodal disease with high grade of tumor.

  18. A case report of the mandibular infected buccal cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author observed a cystic lesion which had new radiographic entities in the 6 years old male patient and obtained the following features. 1. The main clinical feature is the swelling. 2. The lesion is situated on the buccal surface of a erupting mandibular first molar. 3. The affected molar is tilted, so that the apices are adjacent to the lingual plate of the mandible. 4. The affected molar is of normal morphology, caries-free and vital. 5. The radiographic feature is the cystic radiolucency which is extended over the buccal surface of the roots of the affected molar and slightly inferior to the root apices. 6. The dental papilla of the affected molar shows the lamina dura of relatively normal density and definitition. 7. The buccal surface shows the laminated new bone formation. 8. The inferior concave border of the lesion is delineated by a thick and calcified layer of cortical bone. 9. The lesion causes displacement of the developing second molar of which anterior cortex is partially destroyed.

  19. A case report of the mandibular infected buccal cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-11-15

    The author observed a cystic lesion which had new radiographic entities in the 6 years old male patient and obtained the following features. 1. The main clinical feature is the swelling. 2. The lesion is situated on the buccal surface of a erupting mandibular first molar. 3. The affected molar is tilted, so that the apices are adjacent to the lingual plate of the mandible. 4. The affected molar is of normal morphology, caries-free and vital. 5. The radiographic feature is the cystic radiolucency which is extended over the buccal surface of the roots of the affected molar and slightly inferior to the root apices. 6. The dental papilla of the affected molar shows the lamina dura of relatively normal density and definitition. 7. The buccal surface shows the laminated new bone formation. 8. The inferior concave border of the lesion is delineated by a thick and calcified layer of cortical bone. 9. The lesion causes displacement of the developing second molar of which anterior cortex is partially destroyed.

  20. Surgical swab counting: a qualitative analysis from the perspective of the scrub nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Lima, D; Sacks, M; Blackman, W; Benn, J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a qualitative exploration of the sociotechnical processes underlying retained surgical swabs, and to explore the fundamental reasons why the swab count procedure and related protocols fail in practice. Data was collected through a set of 27 semistructured qualitative interviews with scrub nurses from a large, multi-site teaching hospital. Interview transcripts were analysed using established constant comparative methods, moving between inductive and deductive reasoning. Key findings were associated with interprofessional perspectives, team processes and climate and responsibility for the swab count. The analysis of risk factors revealed that perceived social and interprofessional issues played a significant role in the reliability of measures to prevent retained swabs. This work highlights the human, psychological and organisational factors that impact upon the reliability of the process and gives rise to recommendations to address contextual factors and improve perioperative practice and training. PMID:24908834

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination of mouth swabs during production causing a major outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Lassen Jørgen; Engeset Eva; Jacobsen Trond; Hagestad Kristian; Bø Gjermund; Eriksen Hanne-Merete; Iversen Bjørn G; Aavitsland Preben

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2002 we investigated an outbreak comprising 231 patients in Norway, caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and linked to the use of contaminated mouth swabs called Dent-O-Sept. Here we describe the extent of contamination of the swabs, and identify critical points in the production process that made the contamination possible, in order to prevent future outbreaks. Methods Environmental investigation with microbiological examination of production, ingredients and product, mole...

  2. A Comparison of Tissue versus Swab Culturing of Infected Diabetic Foot Wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Huang; Ying Cao; Mengchen Zou; Xiangrong Luo; Ya Jiang; Yaoming Xue; Fang Gao

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the efficacy of swabbing versus tissue biopsy for microbiological diagnosis of diabetic foot infection. Methods. This was a prospective trial. Fifty-six patients with diabetic foot infection were divided into the following 3 groups according to the PEDIS grading system: grade 2 (n = 10), grade 3 (n = 29), and grade 4 (n = 17). Two specimens were collected from each wound for microbial culturing after debridement, including a superficial swab and a deep tissue punch biops...

  3. Differences in microbial signatures between rectal mucosal biopsies and rectal swabs

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo-Pérez, Félix; Amber N McCoy; Okechukwu, Charles; Carroll, Ian M.; Smith, Kevin M.; Jeremiah, Kim; Sandler, Robert S.; Asher, Gary N; Keku, Temitope O

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence the microbiota of the large bowel may influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer as well as other diseases including type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Current sampling methods to obtain microbial specimens, such as feces and mucosal biopsies, are inconvenient and unappealing to patients. Obtaining samples through rectal swabs could prove to be a quicker and relatively easier method, but it is unclear if swabs are an ad...

  4. Predictive Value of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Nasal Swab PCR Assay for MRSA Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Dangerfield, Benjamin; Chung, Andrew; Webb, Brandon; Seville, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with poor outcomes and frequently merits empirical antibiotic consideration despite its relatively low incidence. Nasal colonization with MRSA is associated with clinical MRSA infection and can be reliably detected using the nasal swab PCR assay. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the nasal swab MRSA PCR in predicting MRSA pneumonia. A retrospective cohort study was performed in a tertiary care cente...

  5. EFFECT OF PERMEATION ENHANCER ON EX-VIVO PERMEATION OF ONDANSETRON HCl BUCCAL TABLETS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Praveen Kumar et al.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to study the effect of a permeation enhancer, sodium taurocholate on permeation of Ondansetron HCl from bioadhesive buccal tablet formulation by performing ex-vivo permeation experiments using porcine buccal mucosa. Optimized formulation has selected based on in-vitro drug release studies of bilayered bioadhesive buccal tablets. To the optimized formulation, 10mM sodium taurocholate was added to increase the permeation of poorly permeable ondansetron HCl. It is w...

  6. Human buccal epithelium acquires microbial hyporesponsiveness at birth, a role for secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Menckeberg, Celia L; Hol, Jeroen; Simons-Oosterhuis, Ytje; Raatgeep, H Rolien C; de Ruiter, Lilian F; Lindenbergh-Kortleve, Dicky J.; Korteland-van Male, Anita M.; El Aidy, Sahar; van Lierop, Pieter P E; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Groeneweg, Michael; Kraal, Georg; Elink-Schuurman, Beatrix E; de Jongste, Johan C; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Repetitive interaction with microbial stimuli renders epithelial cells (ECs) hyporesponsive to microbial stimulation. Previously, we have reported that buccal ECs from a subset of paediatric patients with Crohn's disease are not hyporesponsive and spontaneously released chemokines. We now aimed to identify kinetics and mechanisms of acquisition of hyporesponsiveness to microbial stimulation using primary human buccal epithelium. DESIGN: Buccal ECs collected directly after birth and...

  7. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of glibenclamide slow release mucoadhesive buccal film

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri-Najafi, R.; Tavakoli, N.; Senemar, M.; Peikanpour, M.

    2014-01-01

    Buccal mucoadhesive systems among novel drug delivery systems have attracted great attention in recent years due to their ability to adhere and remain on the oral mucosa and to release their drug content gradually. Buccal mucoadhesive films can improve the drug therapeutic effect by enhancement of drug absorption through oral mucosa increasing the drug bioavailability via reducing the hepatic first pass effect. The aim of the current study was to formulate the drug as buccal bioadhesive film,...

  8. Campylobacter sp in eggs from cloacal swab positive breeder hens Campylobacter sp em ovos provenientes de matrizes pesadas com swab cloacal positivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter sp is a microaerophilic, thermotolerating Gram negative bacterium, known to be one of the main causes of food-borne human infections. Among the foods that carry these microorganisms, the chicken is outstanding. In Brazil, a large chicken exporting country, few researches are conducted about their prevalence in breeder hens and the transmission through eggs. The aim of this research was to verify the presence of Campylobacter sp in the shells and within the eggs from positive cloacal swab breeder hens. Microbiological analyses were made on cloacal swabs of 140 weighed breeder hens. The positive breeder hens were set aside and in a total of 244 of their eggs, Campylobacter sp was present in macerated shells and yolk contents during 7 weeks. Out of the 140 researched breeder hens, 25 (17.8% were positive from cloacal swabs, however the eggs were not positive. The physiological characteristics of the birds, their eggs and Campylobacter sp favor the bacterium entering and surviving in the eggs, but in this study, no positive result was found in macerated shells or in the yolks, indicating that vertical transmission is probably an unusual event.Campylobacter sp é reconhecida como uma das principais causas de gastrenterite humana de origem alimentar. Dentre os alimentos veiculadores desses microrganismos, a carne de frango tem sido a mais implicada. Os estudos existentes sobre a transmissão vertical da Campylobacter são escassos e não conclusivos. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a presença de Campylobacter sp na casca e interior de ovos de matrizes positivas em swabs cloacais e a possibilidade de transmissão vertical. Foram analisados swabs cloacais de 140 matrizes pesadas e seus ovos colhidos para análise durante 7 semanas consecutivas. Dos 244 ovos colhidos, 129 foram fumigados e 115 analisados sem tratamento. Foram analisados o macerado da casca e a gema. Das 140 matrizes pesquisadas, 25 (17,8% foram positivas em swabs

  9. Enhanced delivery of ketobemidone through porcine buccal mucosa in vitro via more lipophilic ester prodrugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Bundgaard, H.

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro penetration of ketobemidone and various ester prodrugs through porcine buccal mucosa in a modified Ussing chamber was investigated in order to support the selection of a prodrug derivative with optimal buccal absorption. The nine esters studied included carboxylic acid and carbonate...

  10. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rassing, M R

    1999-01-01

    P(app) of mannitol obtained in analog studies using porcine buccal mucosa in an Ussing chamber. The effect of the exposure on the electrical resistance of the TR146 cell culture model and the porcine buccal mucosa was measured, and the degree of protein leakage due to GC exposure was investigated in...

  11. Perineal urethrostomy stenosis repair with buccal mucosa: description of technique and report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Nagesh

    2008-11-01

    Perineal urethrostomy stenosis can be a difficult problem to treat, especially in patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans. We have devised a technique of using the buccal mucosa, with the idea of forming a composite stoma comprising skin and buccal mucosa. We describe the technique and short-term results in 4 patients. PMID:18789512

  12. Sensitive diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by lesion swab sampling coupled to qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emily R; Gomez, Maria Adelaida; Scheske, Laura; Rios, Ruby; Marquez, Ricardo; Cossio, Alexandra; Albertini, Audrey; Schallig, Henk; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2014-12-01

    Variation in clinical accuracy of molecular diagnostic methods for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is commonly observed depending on the sample source, the method of DNA recovery and the molecular test. Few attempts have been made to compare these variables. Two swab and aspirate samples from lesions of patients with suspected CL (n = 105) were evaluated alongside standard diagnosis by microscopic detection of amastigotes or culture of parasites from lesion material. Three DNA extraction methods were compared: Qiagen on swab and aspirate specimens, Isohelix on swabs and Boil/Spin of lesion aspirates. Recovery of Leishmania DNA was evaluated for each sample type by real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of parasitic 18S rDNA, and the diagnostic accuracy of the molecular method determined. Swab sampling combined with Qiagen DNA extraction was the most efficient recovery method for Leishmania DNA, and was the most sensitive (98%; 95% CI: 91-100%) and specific (84%; 95% CI: 64-95%) approach. Aspirated material was less sensitive at 80% (95% CI: 70-88%) and 61% (95% CI: 50-72%) when coupled to Qiagen or Boil-Spin DNA extraction, respectively. Swab sampling of lesions was painless, simple to perform and coupled with standardized DNA extraction enhances the feasibility of molecular diagnosis of CL. PMID:25111885

  13. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BUCCAL FILMS OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAMSHI KRISHNA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For systemic drug delivery, the buccal region offers an attractive route of drug administration. The main objective of the study is to formulate buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate. Salbutamol sulfate is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It’s oral bioavailability is 40% due to extensive first pass metabolism. Salbutamol sulfate patches were prepared using HPMC, SCMC and Carbopol 934 in various proportions and combinations using Glycerol and tween-80 as plasticizers. Patches were laminated on one side with a water impermeable backing layer using ethyl cellulose for unidirectional drug release. The thickness of medicated patches were ranged between 0.402 and 0.431 mm and mass varied between 0.0312 and 0.0352 g. The surface-pH of patches ranged between 6 and 7. All formulations showed good folding endurance. Formulations F9 showed good drug content and Residence time of the tested patches ranged between 108 and 174 min. The maximum in vitro release was found to be 93.89% over a period of 150 min for formulation F9. Data of in vitro release from patches were fitted to different kinetic models such as Higuchi and Korsmeyer–Peppas models to explain the release profile. Formulations F9 were best fitted to the non-Fickian kinetics and zero order release was observed.

  14. Shorebird Habitat Suitability Indicies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This dataset consists of predicted habitat suitability indices and species richness for eight shorebird species (Black-bellied Plover [Pluvialis squatarola],...

  15. An animal model of buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis induced by U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin; Pang, Liang; Qian, Yu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Yong; Wu, Mingyi; OUYANG, ZILAN; GAO, ZHI; Qiu, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    The buccal mucosa is the site with the highest risk of contracting a malignancy in habitual betel quid chewers who expose the buccal mucosa to high doses of carcinogens. Of all oral cancers, those of the buccal mucosa are associated with the poorest prognoses. Therefore, it would be helpful to have an animal model to evaluate new treatment modalities for buccal mucosa cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the imprinting control region (ICR) mouse animal model could be employed as...

  16. TELOMERASE ACTIVITY DURING 7, 12-DIMETHYLBENZ [a] ANTHRACENE-INDUCED HAMSTER BUCCAL POUCH CARCINOGENESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the roles of telomerase activity (TA) in relation to hamster buccal pouch tumor progression. Methods: male hamster were treated three times weekly with 0.5% of 7, 12-dimethyl- benzanthracene (DMBA) over a 15 weeks experimental period. Hamsters were sacrificed at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks after treatment. Telomerase activity of hamster buccal pouch tissue were measured along with the analyses of the formation of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch tumors. Results: DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinomas were found at the 6th week after dosing. Telomerase activity elevation began at the 3rd week and was increasing to a plateau at the 12th week. Conclusion: Our results show that telomerase activity in the target tissue may be detected at the early stage of the DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch tumor formation and suggests that telomerase activity may be used as a biomarker for an early clinical detection of buccal pouch cancer.

  17. Amorphous Formulation and in Vitro Performance Testing of Instantly Disintegrating Buccal Tablets for the Emergency Delivery of Naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqurshi, Abdulmalik; Kumar, Zahrae; McDonald, Rebecca; Strang, John; Buanz, Asma; Ahmed, Shagufta; Allen, Elizabeth; Cameron, Peter; Rickard, James A; Sandhu, Verity; Holt, Chris; Stansfield, Rebecca; Taylor, David; Forbes, Ben; Royall, Paul G

    2016-05-01

    , medium volume, and medium composition; naloxone tablet disintegration was extremely rapid, with full disintegration ranging from 5 to 20 s. In conclusion, rapidly disintegrating tablets have been developed which are suitable for proof-of-concept clinical trial in humans to determine the pharmacokinetics of naloxone delivered via the buccal route. PMID:26977787

  18. Collection of Human Genomic DNA From Buccal Cells for Genetics Studies: Comparison Between Cytobrush, Mouthwash, and Treated Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Mulot

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative sources such as buccal cells have already been tested for genetic studies and epidemiological investigations. Thirty-seven volunteers participated in this study to compare cytology brushes, mouthwash, and treated cards for DNA collection. Quantity and quality of DNA and cost and feasibility were assessed. The mean DNA yield at 260 nm was found to be 3.5, 4, and 2.6μg for cytobrushes, mouthwashes, and treated cards, respectively. A second quantification technique by fluorescence showed differences in the DNA yield with 1.1 and 5.2μg for cytobrushes and mouthwash, respectively. All buccal samples allowed isolation of DNA suitable for polymerase chain reaction. According to the procedure of sample collection, the yield and purity of collected DNA, and storage conditions, the use of cytobrush appears to be the more appropriate method for DNA collection. This protocol has been validated and is currently applied in three large-scale multicentric studies including adults or children.

  19. Improved laboratory efficiency and diagnostic accuracy with new double-lumen-protected swab for for endometrial specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzlo, M T; Hesser, J W; Morgan, T; Valter, P J; Thrupp, L D

    1979-01-01

    Intrauterine specimens were obtained from 22 patients with endometritis and 24 control patients following cesarean section by using both a new protected swab and a standard anaerobic swab. The protected swab improved the value of the direct smear and Gram stain, resulted in fewer false-positive cultures, better defined endometrial flora in patients with endometritis, and permitted major savings in laboratory personnel time and materials. PMID:372215

  20. Rapid PCR detection of group a streptococcus from flocked throat swabs: A retrospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Ronald

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis may improve patient care by ensuring that patients with GAS pharyngitis are treated quickly and also avoiding unnecessary use of antibiotics in those without GAS infection. Very few molecular methods for detection of GAS in clinical throat swab specimens have been described. Methods We performed a study of a laboratory-developed internally-controlled rapid Group A streptococcus (GAS PCR assay using flocked swab throat specimens. We compared the GAS PCR assay to GAS culture results using a collection of archived throat swab samples obtained during a study comparing the performance of conventional and flocked throat swabs. Results The sensitivity of the GAS PCR assay as compared to the reference standard was 96.0% (95% CI 90.1% to 98.4%, specificity 98.6% (95% CI 95.8% to 99.5%, positive predictive value (PPV 96.9% (95% CI 91.4% to 99.0% and negative predictive value (NPV of 98.1% (95% CI 95.2% to 99.2%. For conventional swab cultures, sensitivity was 96.0% (95% CI 90.1% to 98.4%, specificity 100% (95% CI 98.2% to 100%, PPV 100%, (95% CI 96.1% to 100% and NPV 98.1% (95% CI 95.2% to 99.3% Conclusions In this retrospective study, the GAS PCR assay appeared to perform as well as conventional throat swab culture, the current standard of practice. Since the GAS PCR assay, including DNA extraction, can be performed in approximately 1 hour, prospective studies of this assay are warranted to evaluate the clinical impact of the assay on management of patients with pharyngitis.

  1. Comparison of cytobrushes with swabs for recovery of endocervical cells and for Chlamydiazyme detection of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kellogg, J A; Seiple, J W; Klinedinst, J L; Levisky, J S

    1992-01-01

    Endocervical swab and cytobrush specimens from 1,301 symptomatic women were microscopically analyzed for adequacy and tested using Chlamydiazyme (CZ) (Abbott Laboratories). When the swab specimen was collected first, blocking antibody-confirmed CZ-positive results were obtained from 48 (8.0%) of 599 patients, 42 (87.5%) from swabs and 46 (95.8%) from cytobrushes (not significant). When the swab specimen was collected second, confirmed CZ-positive results were obtained from 46 (6.6%) of 702 pa...

  2. Formulation and Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal Bilayered Tablets of Salbutamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. N.G Raghavendra Rao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salbutamol is a short-acting 2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The salbutamol buccal mucoadhesive tablets were fabricated with objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and prolonging duration of action. Salbutamol mucoadhesive bilayered tablets were prepared by direct compression method using the bioadhesive polymers such as xanthan gum, sodium alginate and carbopol 937P along with ethyl cellulose as an impermeable backing layer. The prepared tablets evaluated for post-compressional parameter like weight variation, thickness, hardness, and friability, surface pH, mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release and Ex-vivo permeation study. The compatibility of drug with other ingredients was checked by FTIR studies. FTIR results revealed that there was no interaction between dug and other excipients. All the post-compressional parameter are evaluated were prescribed limits and results were within acceptable limits. The in vitro release study was carried out by using pH 6.8 buffer. The invitro drug release was in the range of 69.74% to 98.52% in eight hrs from the formulations of F1 to F6. The formulation F4 and F5 % shows the drug release 74 % and 69.74 % respectively. The results were revealed that the release of salbutamol buccal tablets was slower in formulation F4 and F5, may be due to the high concentration of xanthan gum, in comparison to other formulations. Xanthan gun, carbopol and Na-alginate were selected as the bioadhesive polymers because of their excellent bioadhesive properties. Among the all formulations studied F4 and F5 were found to be the best formulations. All the formulations showed the first order release. The stability study conducted as per the ICH guidelines and the formulations were found to be stable. The present study concludes that mucoadhesive buccal tablets of salbutamol can be a good way to bypass the extensive

  3. A novel dosage form for buccal administration of bupropion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsa Maria Galvão Almeida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bupropion is an antidepressant used in the treatment of smoking. The purpose of this study was to prepare controlled-release hydrogel films for buccal administration of bupropion and investigate its physicochemical and cytotoxic properties. The films were prepared from ultrapure sodium carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M, and medium-viscosity chitosan. Evaluation of film physicochemical characteristics was based on scanning electron microscopy, bupropion content, mechanical strength (burst strength, relaxation, resilience, and traction, and cytotoxicity. Bupropion content in bilayer films was 121 mg per 9 cm2. The presence of bupropion modified film mechanical strength, but did not compromise the use of this pharmaceutical form. As shown by the cytotoxicity results, films containing bupropion did not cause cellular damage. Bupropion administration in the form of hydrogel films is a potentially useful alternative in the treatment of smoking.

  4. Educational program on buccal health for mothers of preschool age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Menguez Becerra

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since buccal diseases are no mortal, people often fail to notice their importance. This kind of diseases appear at very early stages, however, it is possible to avoid them teaching correct behaviors in the familiar context. Objective: to prove the effectiveness of an educational intervention strategy for mothers of preschool age children. Method: A cuasi-experimental, educational intervention study was developed to modify buccal health knowledge in 40 mothers of preschool children (between 4 and 5 years, from Cruces municipality, since January 2006 and November 2007. We applied a survey to assess buccal health knowledge before and after the educational intervention, through the analysis of variables such as: brushing frequency and way, sugar diet, deforming habits, dentist consultations, breastfeeding and concern about child´s buccal health. The educative buccal health program was enforced with educational and affection-inclusive techniques complemented with didactic games as feedback. Results: Buccal health knowledge of surveyed mothers significantly increased after the intervention. Conclusions: The evaluation at the end of the program proved the effectiveness of this initiative for the acquisition and modification of knowledge related with buccal health care.

  5. Origin of primary sensory neurons innervating the buccal stretch receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T; Onozuka, M; Nagasaki, S; Watanabe, K; Ozono, S

    1999-01-01

    The primary sensory neurons innervating mechanoreceptors in oro-facial regions have their cell bodies in either the trigeminal ganglion or the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. The buccal stretch receptor (BSR), a type of mechanoreceptor in the jaw of rodents, has recently been recognized as signaling the position of the mandible. The location of the primary afferent neurons innervating this receptor is unknown. To investigate the cell bodies of the BSR afferent neurons in rats, we applied wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) to the proximal stump of the severed nerve branch of the buccal nerve that supplied the BSR. HRP-labeled cell bodies were observed in the posterolateral portion of the ipsilateral trigeminal ganglion. None was found in the contralateral trigeminal ganglion or in the brainstem. All labeled cell bodies were oval or round and closely resembled pseudo-unipolar neurons. The mean diameter of the labeled somata ranged between 25.5 and 52.5 microm, with small ( or = 41 microm) accounting for 8.8%, 54.9%, and 36.3%, respectively. Among the myelinated nerve fibers in the branch in which WGA-HRP was applied, 78.5% terminated in the BSR and had larger fiber diameters than the rest, indicating that most of the medium and large HRP-labeled cell bodies were BSR afferents. From these results and the ontogenetic origin of this receptor, it is suggested that the BSR differentiated from the mechanoreceptors in the oral mucosa or the fascia of masticatory muscles. PMID:10065945

  6. Combined cervical swab and urine specimens for PCR diagnosis of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, M; Reynolds, M.; Hoy, C.; Brayson, J.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Sampling of both the cervix and urine increases the chance of detection of Chlamydia trachomatis compared with sampling either site alone. We determined the effect of combining urine and cervical swab specimens in the clinic setting on the sensitivity of C trachomatis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing.

  7. Viability of Trichomonas vaginalis in Copan Universal Transport Medium and eSwab Transport Medium ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Rivers, C. A.; Schwebke, J R

    2008-01-01

    We compared the use of universal transport medium and eSwab transport medium held at room temperature or 37°C to bedside inoculation and immediate incubation of culture media for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis. There were no significant culturable differences in the sensitivity of either of the transport media to that of bedside inoculation.

  8. Comparison of microbiological results of deep tissue biopsy and superficial swab in diabetic foot infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Bozkurt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study, we aimed to compare superficial swab cultures with deep tissue biopsy cultures and also toevaluate the reliability of superficial swap cultures in diabetic foot infected patients.Materials and methods: To compare two culture methods, the hospitalized patients with diabetic foot infections wereretrospectively evaluated at Dicle University and Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, between October 2009and November 2010. The patients were divided two groups as with osteomyelitis (osteomyelitis group, Wagner ≥3 andwith soft tissue infections (soft tissue infection (STI group, Wagner <3. The cultures of deep tissue biopsy specimensand swab samples were collected from all patients.Results: In 75 patients with osteomyelitis, the compatibility rate in deep tissue biopsy culture with superficial swabculture was 58.7% whereas in STI group this rate was 89.1% (p<0.001. Of 41 superficial swap cultures, 33 of them (81%had the same microorganisms with the identified microorganisms in deep tissue cultures. Staphylococcus aureus was thepredominant pathogen isolated from deep tissue biopsy cultures and also from superficial swap cultures. The distributionsof microorganisms in deep tissue culture and swap cultures were similar.Conclusions: This study indicates that superficial swab culture could be valuable to identify the pathogens in infecteddiabetic wounds without osteomyelitis. The accuracy of swab specimens diminishes when osteomyelitis develops. Deeptissue culture seems more sensitive and reliable in osteomyelitis group. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1(3:122-127

  9. Swabbing often fails to detect amphibian Chytridiomycosis under conditions of low infection load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaehyub; Bataille, Arnaud; Kosch, Tiffany A; Waldman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (denoted Bd), causes large-scale epizootics in naïve amphibian populations. Intervention strategies to rapidly respond to Bd incursions require sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods. Chytridiomycosis usually is assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) amplification of amphibian skin swabs. Results based on this method, however, sometimes yield inconsistent results on infection status and inaccurate scores of infection intensity. In Asia and other regions where amphibians typically bear low Bd loads, swab results are least reliable. We developed a Bd-sampling method that collects zoospores released by infected subjects into an aquatic medium. Bd DNA is extracted by filters and amplified by nested PCR. Using laboratory colonies and field populations of Bombina orientalis, we compare results with those obtained on the same subjects by qPCR of DNA extracted from swabs. Many subjects, despite being diagnosed as Bd-negative by conventional methods, released Bd zoospores into collection containers and thus must be considered infected. Infection loads determined from filtered water were at least 1000 times higher than those estimated from swabs. Subjects significantly varied in infection load, as they intermittently released zoospores, over a 5-day period. Thus, the method might be used to compare the infectivity of individuals and study the periodicity of zoospore release. Sampling methods based on water filtration can dramatically increase the capacity to accurately diagnose chytridiomycosis and contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between Bd and its hosts. PMID:25333363

  10. Swabbing often fails to detect amphibian Chytridiomycosis under conditions of low infection load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyub Shin

    Full Text Available The pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (denoted Bd, causes large-scale epizootics in naïve amphibian populations. Intervention strategies to rapidly respond to Bd incursions require sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods. Chytridiomycosis usually is assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR amplification of amphibian skin swabs. Results based on this method, however, sometimes yield inconsistent results on infection status and inaccurate scores of infection intensity. In Asia and other regions where amphibians typically bear low Bd loads, swab results are least reliable. We developed a Bd-sampling method that collects zoospores released by infected subjects into an aquatic medium. Bd DNA is extracted by filters and amplified by nested PCR. Using laboratory colonies and field populations of Bombina orientalis, we compare results with those obtained on the same subjects by qPCR of DNA extracted from swabs. Many subjects, despite being diagnosed as Bd-negative by conventional methods, released Bd zoospores into collection containers and thus must be considered infected. Infection loads determined from filtered water were at least 1000 times higher than those estimated from swabs. Subjects significantly varied in infection load, as they intermittently released zoospores, over a 5-day period. Thus, the method might be used to compare the infectivity of individuals and study the periodicity of zoospore release. Sampling methods based on water filtration can dramatically increase the capacity to accurately diagnose chytridiomycosis and contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between Bd and its hosts.

  11. Frequency and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Acinetobacter Species Isolated from Pus and Pus Swab Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from pus and pus swab specimens at a tertiary care setting. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from July 2008 to July 2012. Methodology: Data regarding positive culture and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern was retrieved from the pus and pus swab culture records of the Microbiology Department, AFIP, Rawalpindi. Only those pus and pus swab specimens which yielded the growth of Acinetobacter species were included in the study. Results:Out of 2781, 1848 were of pure pus while 933 were pus swab specimens. Out of 2538 culture positive isolates, 276 (10.9 percentage) were identified as Acinetobacterspecies. Among 276 Acinetobacter species, 245 (88.8 percentage) were Acinetobacter baumannii and 31 (11.2 percentage) were Acinetobacter johnsonii. Male/female ratio of the affected patients was 5.6:1. Doxycycline was the most sensitive antibiotic to which 45 percentage of the tested isolates were sensitive. Sensitivity to all other antimicrobials was 15 percentage or less. Conclusion: About 11 percentage of soft tissue and wound infections are caused by Acinetobacter species in our set up particularly in male. Doxycycline was the most sensitive antibiotic. Sensitivity to all other antimicrobials was 15 percentage or less. In vitro sensitivity to carbapenems is very low. (author)

  12. Prevalence of Salmonella in finger swabs and nail cuts of hotel workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Pulikodan Francis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Salmonella infections are usually acquired via the food chain as a result of the ability of Salmonella serovarsto colonize and persist within the gastrointestinal tract of their host. Proper hygiene and enforcement of public healthis the key to prevent Salmonella disease. This study was aimed to assess the finger swabs and nail cuts of hotel workersbacteriologically.Materials and methods: In total various samples were collected from 40 hotel workers and processed to detect theSalmonella carrier. The finger swabs and nail cuts of hotel workers were collected and assessed bacteriologically forsalmonella strains.Results: A total of 35 finger swabs were bacteriologically assessed. Among 35 swabs 27 are male and eight are females.After conformation 23 samples (65.7% showed positive to Salmonella. Also from a battery of 38 samples from nail cuts30 (79.0% showed positive to Salmonella.Conclusion: The lack of public sanitary facilities can be another hurdle to keep the desirable hands hygiene of the vendors.In our study it is reported that severity of the current scenario among the hotel worker hygiene and they are theunknowingly playing role in spread of diseases like Salmonellosis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(1: 1-4

  13. The potential of chitosan in enhancing peptide and protein absorption across the TR146 cell culture model-an in vitro model of the buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portero, Ana; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the potential of chitosan (CS) to enhance buccal peptide and protein absorption, the TR146 cell culture model, a model of the buccal epithelium, was used.......To investigate the potential of chitosan (CS) to enhance buccal peptide and protein absorption, the TR146 cell culture model, a model of the buccal epithelium, was used....

  14. Educative intervention for knowledge development on buccal health in elementary school.

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Lidia García Álvarez; Nora Sexto Delgado; Nereida Moya Padilla; Raúl López Fernández

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is high prevalence of buccal diseases which could be avoided with appropriate hygienic and alimentary habits that are supposed to be learned since the first stages of life. Objective: To verify the efficacy of an educative strategy on buccal health to develop buccal self-care through its application in girls and boys. Methods: An intervention study was developed with before and after design in 80 children of 5th grade and teachers of the primary school “Armando Mestre Martín...

  15. Differences in motility pattern between human buccal fibroblasts and periodontal and skin fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepekhin, Eugene; Grøn, Birgitte; Berezin, Vladimir;

    2002-01-01

    -assisted microscope work-station. For evaluation of cell morphology, cell contours were recognized semiautomatically and used for determination of cell area, cell spreading and number and length of processes. We found that the cellular displacement of the buccal fibroblasts was only approximately 50% of the cellular...... displacement of periodontal and skin fibroblasts. The decreased cellular displacement of the buccal fibroblasts was found to be due to both lower cellular speed and less persistence in direction. The buccal fibroblasts also displayed smaller areas and longer processes. The differences in cellular morphology...

  16. Surge and Swab Pressure Calculation: Calculation of Surge and Swab Pressure Changes in Laminar and Turbulent Flow While Circulating Mud and Pumping

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Andreas Grav

    2014-01-01

    Pressure changes due to Surge and Swabs has in many years been a big concern in the industry. If the pressure changes become too high, the formation can fracture, and formation influx can lead to a kick. In worst case scenarios this kick can lead on to blow out and put human life in danger. This thesis focuses the fundamental theory and on a program that can calculate the pressure changes in turbulent and laminar flow conditions for non-Newtonian fluids. The program lets you choose what secti...

  17. The effect of swab sample choice on the detection of avian influenza in apparently healthy wild ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Heisey, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, avian influenza viruses have been isolated from cloacal swab specimens, but recent data suggest that the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus can be better detected from respiratory tract specimens. To better understand how swab sample type affects the detection ability of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses we collected and tested four swab types: oropharyngeal swabs (OS), cloacal swabs (CS), the two swab types combined in the laboratory (LCS), and the two swab types combined in the field (FCS). A total of 1968 wild waterfowl were sampled by each of these four methods and tested for avian influenza virus using matrix gene reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR. The highest detection rate occurred with the FCS (4.3%) followed by the CS (4.0%). Although this difference did not achieve traditional statistical significance, Bayesian analysis indicated that FCS was superior to CS with an 82% probability. The detection rates for both the LCS (2.4%) and the OS (0.4%) were significantly different from the FCS. In addition, every swab type that was matrix RT-PCR positive was also tested for recovery of viable influenza virus. This protocol reduced the detection rate, but the ordering of swab types remained the same: 1.73% FCS, 1.42% CS, 0.81% LCS, and 0% OS. Our data suggest that the FCS performed at least as well as any other swab type for detecting LPAI viruses in the wild ducks tested. When considering recent studies showing that HPAI H5N1 can be better detected in the respiratory tract, the FCS is the most appropriate sample to collect for HPAI H5N1 surveillance while not compromising LPAI studies.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Mucoadhesive Buccal Nanoparticles Using Chitosan and Dextran Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Ji Woon; Lee, Ji-Soo; Ko, Sanghoon; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate buccal mucoadhesive nanoparticles (NPs) using the natural mucoadhesive polymers. The natural mucoadhesive polymers chitosan (CS) and dextran sulfate sodium salt (DS) were used to prepare mucoadhesive NPs using the ionic gelation method. As the molecular weight of DS decreased, the amount of mucin and the number of buccal cells adsorbed on DS increased. The CS/DS NPs ranged from 100 to 200 nm in diameter. The adhesive interactions of CS/DS NPs with mucin were not significantly different from those of CS/sodium triphosphate pentabasic (TPP) NPs; however, CS/DS NPs exhibited 5 times greater mucoadhesive activity to buccal cells compared to control CS/TPP NPs in ex vivo adhesion tests. These results indicate that the buccal mucoadhesive properties of NPs can be improved using natural mucoadhesive polymers. PMID:27222213

  19. Testing hypotheses of dietary reconstruction from buccal dental microwear in Australopithecus afarensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebaranz, F; Martínez, L M; Galbany, J; Turbón, D; Pérez-Pérez, A

    2009-12-01

    A recent study of occlusal microwear in Australopithecus afarensis described this species as an opportunistic dweller, living in both forested and open environments and greatly relying on fallback resources and using fewer food-processing activities than previously suggested. In the present study, analysis of buccal microwear variability in a sample of A. afarensis specimens (n=75 teeth) showed no significant correlations with the ecological shift that took place around 3.5Ma in Africa. These results are consistent with the occlusal microwear data available. In fact, significant correlations between buccal and occlusal microwear variables were found. However, comparison of the buccal microwear patterns showed clear similarities between A. afarensis and those hominoid species living in somewhat open environments, especially the Cameroon gorillas. A diet based mainly on succulent fruits and seasonal fallback resources would be consistent with the buccal microwear patterns observed. PMID:19875149

  20. A STUDY OF SEX CHEROMATIN FORM BUCCAL SMEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of sex of an individual is an important subject in Forensic Medicine and Criminology and in Civil Law. The determination of sex is necessary in both living and the dead bodies. The expert opinion of the medico legal specialist regarding positive identification of an individual will be required for the following reasons. For the identification of the sex of individual whether living or dead , For deciding cases relating to legitimacy, divorce, paternity, affiliation, marriage, education, im potence, right to disposal of property, and in intersex condition & in cases of concealed sex. Determination of sex will be done by presumptive, probable and certain signs of sex. Sex chromatin is a planoconvex mass of about 1 micron in diameter lying near nuclear membrane - Barr body. In the buccal smear the percentage of the nuclei containing chromatin body ranges from 0 to 4 in males & 20n to 80 in females . In females neutrophil leucocytes contain a small nuclear attachment of drum stick form - David son bo dy in up to 6% of cell . This is absent in males . Exact sex determination can be made by using a single specimen of buccal smear , saliva or hair follicle, by the combined treatment of quinacrinedi hydrochloride staining for Y chromosome which is seen as bright florescent body in the nuclei of male cell & florescent feulgen reaction using acriflavin Schiff reagent for X chromosomes , which is seen as bright yellow spot in the nuclei . The percentage of quanacrine positive bodies ranges from 45 to 80% in male s , and 0 to 4% in females . With feulgen reaction technique florescent bodies are found in 50 to 70 % of cell in females, and 0 to 2% in males. Determination of sex chromatin pattern was done by examination of oral smears technique on 50 males and 50 female s who have attended the Casualty of Government General Hospital, Ananthapuramu., A. P . , in the Dept . of forensic Medicine from 17 - 06 - 2012 to 30 - 12 - 2014. Slides were

  1. Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Yeol Lee; Hyo-Won Ahn; Yeek Herr; Young-Hyuk Kwon; Seong-Hun Kim; Eun-Cheol Kim

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were reposit...

  2. Design, development and in vitro characterization of Pioglitazone loaded mucoadhesive buccal devices

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Raj Kaur; Malik, Prashant; Gulati, Neha; Nagaich, Upendra

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The mucoadhesive buccal patches were developed and evaluated for systemic administration of Pioglitazone in the oral cavity. Pioglitazone belongs to a novel class of oral antidiabetic drugs known as Thiazolidinediones. Materials and Methods: The mucoadhesive buccal patches of Pioglitazone was formulated using Eudragit RS100 and HPMC K4M (mucoadhesive polymer) and were prepared by solvent casting method. Different patch formulations were evaluated for its physical parameters like thick...

  3. DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF BIOADHESIVE DOSAGE FORM FOR BUCCAL ROUTE

    OpenAIRE

    K. P. Giradkar

    2010-01-01

    Buccal route offer attractive route of administration for systemic drug delivery. The buccal patch of Tizanidine Hydrochloride (TZH)( skeletal muscle relaxant) was developed to achieve good absorption of drug in treatment of painful muscle spasticity to release the drug for prolonged period of time(8hrs) so as to reduce frequency of administration of available conventional dosage form of TZH. The polymeric film was composed of different proportions of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) and...

  4. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Bhat; Ravi M. Subrahmanya

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 w...

  5. Development and Evaluation of Buccal Bioadhesive Tablet of an Anti-emetic Agent Ondansetron

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Nisreen; Khar, R. K.; ALI, MUSHIR; Ali, Javed

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate a buccal adhesive tablet containing ondansetron hydrochloride (OH). Special punches and dies were fabricated and used while preparing buccal adhesive tablets. The tablets were prepared using carbopol (CP 934), sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose low viscosity (SCMC LV), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC 15cps) as mucoadhsive polymers to impart mucoadhesion and ethyl cellulose to act as an impermeable backing layer. The f...

  6. Associations between cigarette smoking and mitochondrial DNA abnormalities in buccal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Duanjun; Goerlitz, David S.; Dumitrescu, Ramona G.; Han, Dingfen; Seillier-Moiseiwitsch, Françoise; Spernak, Stephanie M.; Orden, Roy Anthony; Chen, Jinguo; Goldman, Radoslav; Shields, Peter G.

    2008-01-01

    DNA alterations in mitochondria are believed to play a role in carcinogenesis and are found in smoking-related cancers. We sought to replicate earlier findings for the association of smoking with increased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in buccal cells and further hypothesized that there would be an increased number of somatic mtDNA mutations in smokers. Buccal cells and blood lymphocytes were studied from 42 healthy smokers and 30 non-smokers. Temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis...

  7. Ex Vivo Correlation of the Permeability of Metoprolol Across Human and Porcine Buccal Mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Marxen, Eva; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge;

    2014-01-01

    model is predictive for human buccal absorption. Human (n = 9-10) and porcine (n = 6-7) buccal mucosa were mounted in a modified Ussing chamber, and the kinetics of metoprolol and mannitol transport was assessed for a period of 5.5 h with the pH values of donor medium set at 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0. In...

  8. Formulation and evaluation of a bioadhesive patch for buccal delivery of tizanidine

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed S. Pendekal; Tegginamat, Pramod K

    2012-01-01

    Tizanidine hydrochloride (THCl) is an antispasmodic agent which undergoes extensive first pass metabolism making it a possible candidate for buccal delivery. The aim of this study was to prepare a monolayered buccal patch containing THCl using the emulsification solvent evaporation method. Fourteen formulations were prepared using the polymers Eudragit® RS 100 or Eudragit® RL 100 and chitosan. Polymer solutions in acetone were combined with a THCl aqueous solution (in some cases containing ch...

  9. Onset of buccal pumping in catshark embryos: how breathing develops in the egg capsule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketeru Tomita

    Full Text Available Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the "internal gills." The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1 regression of the external gill filaments, (2 development of blood vessels within the "internal gills," (3 completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4 development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening.

  10. Educative intervention for knowledge development on buccal health in elementary school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lidia García Álvarez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is high prevalence of buccal diseases which could be avoided with appropriate hygienic and alimentary habits that are supposed to be learned since the first stages of life. Objective: To verify the efficacy of an educative strategy on buccal health to develop buccal self-care through its application in girls and boys. Methods: An intervention study was developed with before and after design in 80 children of 5th grade and teachers of the primary school “Armando Mestre Martínez” in Cienfuegos, from September 2005 to March 2006. Initially, learning necessities and buccal hygiene were determined in both groups and later we verified the strategy efficiency. Initial information was obtained through surveys, focal groups, experts’ opinions and observation. Wilcoxon rank test was used for matched samples and Mc Nemar test for variables verification. Findings: Significant differences were obtained between the initial and final knowledge on buccal health and buccal hygiene coefficient. Qualitative methods showed audience approval of this strategy. Conclusions: Educative strategy applications allowed children learning actions of self-care as correct teeth brushing, use of dental floss, appropriate dietary selection and identification of prejudicial habits.

  11. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 were females in the age group of 20-30 years were selected as per inclusion criteria and were grouped as Group I having Class I malocclusion and as Group II having Class II malocclusions based on angle ANB. 12 linear and 2 angular cephalometric measurements and 4 study cast measurements were used to correlate with the buccal corridor linear ratio (BCLR, calculated on smile photograph using the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California, USA. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Buccal corridor space is larger in individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion when compared with individuals with Class I malocclusions. There exists a significant difference in buccal corridor space between males and females. Conclusion: The present study helps in establishing the correlation between certain factors and the amount of buccal corridor space in individuals having skeletal Class II pattern.

  12. Detection of Brucella spp. in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus by a real-time PCR using blowhole swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingzhong; Conway, Jessica; Phillips, Kristen M; Stolen, Megan; Durden, Wendy N; Fauquier, Deborah; McFee, Wayne E; Schwacke, Lori

    2016-08-01

    Blowhole swabs are a simple and non-invasive method for collecting samples from cetaceans and can be used for screening large numbers of animals in the field. This study reports a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp. using blowhole swab samples from bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus stranded in the coastal region of Virginia, South Carolina and northern Florida, USA, between 2013 and 2015. We used real-time PCR results on lung samples from the same dolphins in order to estimate the relative sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR of blowhole swabs. Brucella DNA was detected in lung tissue of 22% (18/81) and in blowhole swabs of 21% (17/81) of the sampled dolphins. The relative sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR on blowhole swabs as compared to the real-time PCR on lung samples was 94% (17/18) and 100% (63/63), respectively. These results indicate that real-time PCR on blowhole swabs may be used as a non-invasive test for rapid detection of Brucella spp. in the respiratory tract of dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of blowhole swabs for detection of bacterial pathogens by real-time PCR in bottlenose dolphins. PMID:27503920

  13. Identification of rhabdoviral sequences in oropharyngeal swabs from German and Danish bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Melina; Freuling, Conrad M.; Müller, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the frame of active lyssavirus surveillance in bats, oropharyngeal swabs from German (N = 2297) and Danish (N = 134) insectivorous bats were investigated using a newly developed generic pan-lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR).Findings: In total, 15 RT......-qPCR positive swabs were detected. Remarkably, sequencing of positive samples did not confirm the presence of bat associated lyssaviruses but revealed nine distinct novel rhabdovirus-related sequences. Conclusions: Several novel rhabdovirus-related sequences were detected both in German and Danish insectivorous...... bats. The results also prove that the novel generic pan-lyssavirus RT-qPCR offers a very broad detection range that allows the collection of further valuable data concerning the broad and complex diversity within the family Rhabdoviridae....

  14. A simple and novel method for retrieval of Pasteurellaceae from swab samples collected in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie J; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Bojesen, Anders M

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally it has been difficult or impossible to collect and preserve bacterial samples of especially fastidious bacteria in mixed primary cultures, unless the samples could be transported to a laboratory within approximately 24 h. Therefore, a simple novel method for preserving swab samples...... enabled the bacteria to survive for at least 330 days at -20°C. The 100% recovery of target organisms in the polar bear samples even following lengthy storage and transport demonstrates that the method is very useful under remote field conditions....... until bacterial isolation can be completed in the laboratory was developed and evaluated. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were used as a representative for fastidious bacteria. A 7.5% glucose serum medium was used as freeze medium. Swab samples were soaked in the medium a maximum of 2 h after collection and...

  15. Azithromycin buccal patch in treatment of chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Sajith Abdul; Vandana, K. L.; Thimmashetty, J.; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to explore the clinical, microbiological, and biochemical impact of azithromycin (AZM) buccal patch in chronic generalized patients as a monotherapy as well as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy. Materials and Methods: A parallel design was used forty periodontitis patients were randomly allocated into five groups, namely Group 1 scaling root planing (SRP) alone, Group 2 (SRP + AZM patch group), Group 3 (SRP + AZM tablet group), Group 4 (AZM patch monotherapy), and Group 5 (AZM tablet as monotherapy). Plaque index, gingival bleeding index, modified gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were assessed at baseline and 21 and 90 days. Subgingival pooled plaque sample was collected to assess periodontopathogens like Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) by anaerobic culture method. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was also evaluated at baseline and 21 days. Periodontal maintenance was performed in Group 1 until 90th day, and clinical parameter was assessed at the end of 90th day. Results: SRP + AZM tablets showed greater reduction in clinical parameters (P periodontal parameters, microbial parameters, and TNF-α level. It is safe to use AZM + SRP as a mode of nonsurgical treatment in periodontitis patients. PMID:27127325

  16. Dental prosthesis and buccal lesions in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz García Alpizar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: Buccal lesions in the elderly are very frequent and they constitute a problem of health due to the consequences that cause. Objective: to describe the characteristics of the removable prosthesis used by the population of 60 and more years age and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. Methods: We carried out a study descriptive of cross section in 125 elderly with oral prosthesis. The characteristics of the removable prosthesis were described and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. The square chi tests and the analysis of relative risk were use to determine the association between the variables, also we used a logistical regression model to determine the independent relationship of each factor with the presence of the lesions. Results: We was a 12% of the people with stomatitis sub prosthesis, 8% presented lesions growth hyperplasic and 5,6% they were have angular queilitis. The lesions in the oral mucosa increased in people with prosthesis in not well state, bad hygiene this and in the female sex. Conclusion: the chronic lesions were the more prevalence in this study and they were very related with factors like: state of the conservation the prosthesis, time use, hygiene this and sex of the individual; but when determining the independent influence from each factor with the presence lesions, we established that only the state of conservation of the prosthesis and their hygiene affected of the important way to the old men of this study.

  17. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BUCCAL TABLET OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari Atul L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive tablets containing salbutamol sulphate were prepared using direct compression method. Carbopol 934P, HPMC K4M, and xanthan gum were used as bioadhesive polymer. HPMC K4M and Xanthan gum were used in different ratios. The tablets were evaluated for their physical characteristics like thickness, hardness, friability, weight variation, uniformity of content, surface pH, Ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro swelling study, in-vitro bioadhesion study and in-vitro drug release pattern. Tablet exhibited extended release for a period of six hours. The mechanism of drug release was found to be non-fackian diffusion and followed the first order kinetic. Increased of carbopol 934 P delayed the release rate. Swelling index was calculated with respect to time. Swelling index increased as the weight gain by the tablets increased proportionally with the rate of hydration. Optimized tablets (F8 showed satisfactory results by adhesive strength of 10.9 ±1.1 g and Ex vivo mucoadhesion time of 9 h. The surface pH of all batches was between 6 to7 and hence tablets should not caused irritation in buccal cavity. Formulation batches containing carbopol 934 P lowered the drug release as compared to other batches. The optimized formulation was subjected to three different aggreavated condition of temperature 0-4ºC, at RT and at temperature 45ºC for two months. The effect of temperature study revealed there was no significant change observed in two months.

  18. Cytokeratin expression in human fetal tongue and buccal mucosa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M M Vaidya; Sharda S Sawant; Anita M Borges; N K Naresh; Manda C Purandare; A N Bhisey

    2000-09-01

    Expression of cytokeratins (CK), a subset of intermediate filament (IF) proteins in epithelia, is developmentally regulated. CK expression may also change after malignant transformation. Our earlier studies on CK expression in human oral tumours and pre-cancerous lesions have shown specific changes in CK expression. We analysed CK expression in human tongue and buccal mucosa (BM) in fetuses in the embryonic age group of 16 to 27 weeks using biochemical and immunohistochemical techniques to find out whether there is any similarity in CK expression in human oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and fetal oral tissues. CK 1, 8 and 18 were detected in a majority of samples using both techniques. Our earlier studies had shown aberrant expression of CK 1 and 18 in many of the oral SCC and leukoplakias. Studies by immunohistochemistry showed that these different CK antigens were expressed in different cell layers. CK 1(2) were present in the stratified epithelial layers whereas CK 8 and 18 were restricted to glandular epithelium. Till 27 weeks of gestation, both tongue and BM expressed CK 1, 8 and 18 along with CK 6 and 16. Thus, fetal tissues showed some similarities in CK pattern with their respective SCC.

  19. PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF TIMOLOL MALEATE MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimoolam Senthil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was concerned with preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing antihypertensive drug, Timolol maleate to circumvent the first pass effect and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency and dose related side effects. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Eight formulations were developed with varying concentrations of polymers like chitosan, hydroxyethylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. The formulated tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, surface pH, drug content uniformity, swelling index, bioadhesive strength and in vitro drug dissolution study. FTIR studies showed no evidence on interactions between drug, polymers and excipients. The in vitro release of Timolol maleate was performed under sink conditions (Phosphate buffer pH 6.8, 37±0.5ºC, 50rpm using USP-XXIV dissolution apparatus type II. The best in vitro drug release profile was achieved with the formulation F5 which contains the drug, chitosan and HPMC K4M in the ratio of 1:2.5:10. The surface pH, bioadhesive strength and swelling index of formulation F5 was found to be 6.34, 36.50g and 80%, respectively. The formulation F5, containing 10 mg of Timolol maleate exhibited 7 hrs sustained drug release i.e. 98.18% with desired therapeutic concentration. The in vitro release kinetics studies of optimized formulation reveal that follows zero order kinetics.

  20. Comparison of microbiological results of deep tissue biopsy and superficial swab in diabetic foot infections

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Fatma; Gülsün, Serda; Tekin, Recep; Hoşoğlu, Salih; Acemoğlu, Hamit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we aimed to compare superficial swab cultures with deep tissue biopsy cultures and also to evaluate the reliability of superficial swap cultures in diabetic foot infected patients. Materials and methods: To compare two culture methods, the hospitalized patients with diabetic foot infections were retrospectively evaluated at Dicle University and Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, between October 2009 and November 2010. The patients were divided two group...

  1. Comparison of microbiological results of deep tissue biopsy and superficial swab in diabetic foot infections

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Bozkurt; Hamit Acemoğlu; Salih Hoşoğlu; Recep Tekin; Serda Gülsün

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we aimed to compare superficial swab cultures with deep tissue biopsy cultures and also toevaluate the reliability of superficial swap cultures in diabetic foot infected patients.Materials and methods: To compare two culture methods, the hospitalized patients with diabetic foot infections wereretrospectively evaluated at Dicle University and Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, between October 2009and November 2010. The patients were divided two groups as wit...

  2. Evaluation of a PCR Test for Detection of Treponema pallidum in Swabs and Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Grange, P. A.; Gressier, L.; Dion, P. L.; Farhi, D; Benhaddou, N.; Gerhardt, P; Morini, J. P.; Deleuze, J.; Pantoja, C.; Bianchi, A.; Lassau, F; Avril, M. F.; Janier, M; Dupin, N.

    2012-01-01

    Syphilis diagnosis is based on clinical observation, serological analysis, and dark-field microscopy (DFM) detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis, in skin ulcers. We performed a nested PCR (nPCR) assay specifically amplifying the tpp47 gene of T. pallidum from swab and blood specimens. We studied a cohort of 294 patients with suspected syphilis and 35 healthy volunteers. Eighty-seven of the 294 patients had primary syphilis, 103 had secondary syphil...

  3. Value of bacterial culture of vaginal swabs in diagnosis of vaginal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadić Dane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Vaginal and cervical swab culture is still very common procedure in our country’s everyday practice whereas simple and rapid diagnostic methods have been very rarely used. The aim of this study was to show that the employment of simple and rapid diagnostic tools [vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy (VFWMM, vaginal pH and potassium hydroxide (KOH test] offers better assessment of vaginal environment than standard microbiologic culture commonly used in Serbia. Methods. This prospective study included 505 asymptomatic pregnant women undergoing VFWMM, test with 10% KOH, determination of vaginal pH and standard culture of cervicovaginal swabs. Combining findings from the procedures was used to make diagnoses of bacterial vaginosis (BV and vaginitis. In addition, the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN was determined in each sample and analyzed along with other findings. Infections with Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were confirmed or excluded by microscopic examination. Results. In 36 (6% patients cervicovaginal swab cultures retrieved several aerobes and facultative anaerobes, whereas in 52 (11% women Candida albicans was isolated. Based on VFWMM findings and clinical criteria 96 (19% women had BV, 19 (4% vaginitis, and 72 (14% candidiasis. Of 115 women with BV and vaginitis, pH 4.5 was found in 5, and of 390 with normal findings 83 (21% had vaginal pH 4.5. Elevated numbers of PMN were found in 154 (30% women - in 83 (54% of them VFWMM was normal. Specificity and sensitivity of KOH test and vaginal pH determination in defining pathological vaginal flora were 95% and 81%, and 79% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion. Cervicovaginal swab culture is expensive but almost non-informative test in clinical practice. The use of simpler and rapid methods as vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy, KOH test and vaginal pH offers better results in diagnosis, and probably in the treatment and prevention of sequels of vaginal

  4. Comparison of Swabbing and Biopsy for Studying the Flora of the Bovine Uterus

    OpenAIRE

    Messier, S; Higgins, R.; Couture, Y; Morin, M.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of uterine biopsy as a sampling procedure for bacteriological examination, and to assess the importance of obligate anaerobes in the bovine uterus. The aerobic and anaerobic uterine flora of cows with postpartum metritis, cows in postpartum period without metritis and repeat-breeder cows was examined by using swab and biopsy sampling techniques. Obligate anaerobes were isolated in all the 11 cows with postpartum metritis and in three ...

  5. Prevalence of Salmonella in finger swabs and nail cuts of hotel workers

    OpenAIRE

    Steffi Pulikodan Francis; Prabhu Nagarajan; Akhilesh Upgade

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Salmonella infections are usually acquired via the food chain as a result of the ability of Salmonella serovarsto colonize and persist within the gastrointestinal tract of their host. Proper hygiene and enforcement of public healthis the key to prevent Salmonella disease. This study was aimed to assess the finger swabs and nail cuts of hotel workersbacteriologically.Materials and methods: In total various samples were collected from 40 hotel workers and processed to detect theSalm...

  6. Prevalence of Salmonella in finger swabs and nail cuts of hotel workers

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Steffi Pulikodan; Prabhu NAGARAJAN; Upgade, Akhilesh

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Salmonella infections are usually acquired via the food chain as a result of the ability of Salmonella serovars to colonize and persist within the gastrointestinal tract of their host. Proper hygiene and enforcement of public health is the key to prevent Salmonella disease. This study was aimed to assess the finger swabs and nail cuts of hotel workers bacteriologically. Materials and methods: In total various samples were collected from 40 hotel workers and processed to detect...

  7. Utilization and Assessment of Throat Swab and Urine Specimens for Diagnosis of Chikungunya Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Hanumaiah, H; Raut, Wrunda C

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne infection with clinical presentation of fever, arthralgia, and rash. The etiological agent Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is generally transmitted from primates to humans through the bites of infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Outbreaks of Chikungunya occur commonly with varied morbidity, mortality, and sequele according to the epidemiological, ecological, seasonal, and geographical impact. Investigations are required to be conducted as a part of the public health service to understand and report the suspected cases as confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. Holistic sampling at a time of different types would be useful for laboratory testing, result conclusion, and reporting in a valid way. The use of serum samples for virus detection, virus isolation, and serology is routinely practiced, but sometimes serum samples from pediatric and other cases may not be easily available. In such a situation, easily available throat swabs and urine samples could be useful. It is already well reported for measles, rubella, and mumps diseases to have the virus diagnosis from throat swabs and urine. Here, we present the protocols for diagnosis of CHIKV using throat swab and urine specimens. PMID:27233262

  8. Evaluation of a PCR Test for Detection of Treponema pallidum in Swabs and Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, P. A.; Gressier, L.; Dion, P. L.; Farhi, D.; Benhaddou, N.; Gerhardt, P.; Morini, J. P.; Deleuze, J.; Pantoja, C.; Bianchi, A.; Lassau, F.; Avril, M. F.; Janier, M.

    2012-01-01

    Syphilis diagnosis is based on clinical observation, serological analysis, and dark-field microscopy (DFM) detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis, in skin ulcers. We performed a nested PCR (nPCR) assay specifically amplifying the tpp47 gene of T. pallidum from swab and blood specimens. We studied a cohort of 294 patients with suspected syphilis and 35 healthy volunteers. Eighty-seven of the 294 patients had primary syphilis, 103 had secondary syphilis, 40 had latent syphilis, and 64 were found not to have syphilis. The T. pallidum nPCR results for swab specimens were highly concordant with syphilis diagnosis, with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 95%. Reasonable agreement was observed between the results obtained with the nPCR and DFM methods (kappa = 0.53). No agreement was found between the nPCR detection of T. pallidum in blood and the diagnosis of syphilis, with sensitivities of 29, 18, 14.7, and 24% and specificities of 96, 92, 93, and 97% for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), plasma, serum, and whole-blood fractions, respectively. HIV status did not affect the frequency of T. pallidum detection in any of the specimens tested. Swab specimens from mucosal or skin lesions seemed to be more useful than blood for the efficient detection of the T. pallidum genome and, thus, for the diagnosis of syphilis. PMID:22219306

  9. Dose confirmation of irradiation sterilization application for a kind of medium isopropyl alcohol swab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to ISO11137-2:2006 method one, ISO11737-1; 1995, ISO11737-2:1998, Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2005), dose of irradiation sterilization for a kind of medium isopropyl alcohol swab was studied. The experiments included microbial limit determination, irradiation dose verification, sterility test and method validation. Results showed that, the swabs had high degree of antibacterial activity, but which could be counteracted by the added normal saline (at a dose of 400 ml/swab). Under the experiments circumstances, average initial bioburden is 5.36 CFU/SIP (Sample Item Portion), a verification dose of 4.6 kGy is required to give an SAL (sterility assurance level) of 10-2, while a sterilization dose is found to be 16.8 kGy, which is required to give an SAL of 10-6. The validation for the methods of initial bioburden determination and sterility test were also studied. The recovery rates of Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus Rosenbach, Escherichia coli in three parallels were all no less than 70%. The microorganism growth were all observed of B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Clostridium Sporogenes, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger. (authors)

  10. "Land Productivity and Economic Development: Caloric Suitability vs. Agricultural Suitability"

    OpenAIRE

    Oded Galor; Omer Ozak

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes that the Caloric Suitability Index (CSI) dominates the commonly used measure of agricultural suitability in the examination of the effect of land productivity on comparative economic development. The analysis demonstrates that the agricultural suitability index does not capture the large variation in the potential caloric yield across equally suitable land, reflecting the fact that land suitable for agriculture is not necessarily suitable for the most caloric-intensive ...

  11. Real-Time PCR Improves Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection Compared With Culture Using Self-Collected Vaginal swabs

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Caliendo; Jordan, J. A.; Green, A.M.; Ingersoll, J; DiClemente, R J; Wingood, G M

    2005-01-01

    Objective. To compare a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with broth culture for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis using self-collected vaginal swabs.Methods. Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained from adolescent and young adult African-American women participating in HIV-1 prevention programs. T. vaginalis culture was performed using the InPouch TV System. Samples for the real-time PCR assay were collected using the BDProbeTec ET Culturette Direct Dry Swab system and ...

  12. Real-time PCR improves detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection compared with culture using self-collected vaginal swabs.

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Caliendo; Jordan, J. A.; Green, A.M.; Ingersoll, J; DiClemente, R J; Wingood, G M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with broth culture for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis using self-collected vaginal swabs. METHODS: Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained from adolescent and young adult African-American women participating in HIV-1 prevention programs. T. vaginalis culture was performed using the InPouch TV System. Samples for the real-time PCR assay were collected using the BDProbeTec ET Culturette Direct Dry Swab system and...

  13. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  14. Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Kabell, Susanne; Kusk, M.; Zhang, M.F.; Jorgensen, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection...... of a suitable internal control gene, real time PCR parameters were evaluated for three candidate genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 28S rRNA and beta-actin to IBDVs. Based on this P-actin was selected as an internal control for quantification of IBDVs in BF. All BF samples with...... primers. The method described here is robust and may sever as a useful tool with high capacity for diagnostics as well as in viral pathogenesis studies....

  15. Immunohistochemical studies of neurochemical markers in normal human buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliges, M; Hellman, M; Ahlström, U; Johansson, O

    1994-04-01

    The content of various substances, such as regulatory peptides, hormones and structural proteins, was investigated in normal buccal mucosa using indirect immunofluorescence. Thin nerve fibres, which from a morphological point of view were most probably sensory, showed immunoreactivity for substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide K (NPK) and neurokinin A (NKA). Also galanin (GAL), gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone (gamma-MSH) and somatostatin (SOM) stained thin fibres were found in the propria, which were, however, few in number and the gamma-MSH staining was weak. CGRP, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), peptide histidine isoleucine amide (PHI) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactive nerve fibres were observed in close connection to blood vessels. SOM positive cells with processes were found, mostly scattered, in the connective tissue. A population of cells within the epithelium also showed somatostatin immunoreactivity. Protein S-100 (S-100) stained distinct populations of cells at two separate locations. In the propria, cells with one or two slender processes were seen, being mostly single but sometimes forming groups. In the epithelium, dendritic cells with many processes with or without 'spines' were observed, mainly located to the basal layer of the lamina epithelialis. Single nerve fibres and nerve bundles were also stained. Neurofilament (NF) positive fibres, singly and in bundles, as well as endorgan-like structures were seen. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) both stained the same structures, namely single fibres, nerve bundles, nerves surrounding vessels and innervating muscles and glands (if present in the section), as well as Merkel cells. Also with these two markers endorgan-like structures were seen. No clear innervation of the epithelium could be observed with the markers used. No methionine-enkephalin (ENK) or synaptophysin (SYN) immunoreactive material was found. PMID:7523335

  16. Small Buccal Fat Pad Cells Have High Osteogenic Differentiation Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumachi, Niina; Akita, Daisuke; Kano, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Taro; Toriumi, Taku; Kazama, Tomohiko; Oki, Yoshinao; Tamura, Yoko; Tonogi, Morio; Isokawa, Keitaro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Honda, Masaki

    2016-03-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have mesenchymal stem cells' (MSCs) characteristics. Generally, mature adipocytes are 60-110 μm in diameter; however, association between adipocyte size and dedifferentiation efficiency is still unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the dedifferentiation efficiency of adipocytes based on cell diameter. Buccal fat pad was harvested from five human donors and dissociated by collagenase digestion. After exclusion of unwanted stromal cells by centrifugation, floating adipocytes were collected and their size distribution was analyzed. The floating adipocytes were then separated into two groups depending on cell size using 40- and 100-μm nylon mesh filters: cell diameters less than 40 μm (small adipocytes: S-adipocytes) and cell diameters of 40-100 μm (large adipocytes: L-adipocytes). Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of adipocyte dedifferentiation and then characterized the resultant DFAT cells. The S-adipocytes showed a higher capacity to dedifferentiate into DFAT cells (S-DFAT cells) compared to the L-adipocytes (L-DFAT cells). The S-DFAT cells also showed a relatively higher proportion of CD146-positive cells than L-DFAT cells, and exhibited more osteogenic differentiation ability based on the alkaline phosphatase activity and amount of calcium deposition. These results suggested that the S- and L-DFAT cells had distinct characteristics, and that the higher dedifferentiation potential of S-adipocytes compared to L-adipocytes gives the former group an advantage in yielding DFAT cells. PMID:26651216

  17. Assessing the ability of swab data to determine the true burden of infection for the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    OpenAIRE

    Clare, F.; Daniel, O; Garner, T.; Fisher, M.

    2016-01-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a pathogenic fungus which causes the disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians by infecting the animals’ epidermis. The most commonly applied method for the detection of Bd is the use of a sterile swab, rubbed over the keratinized areas of an amphibian and then processed to yield DNA for detection by qPCR. This method has been used to infer a threshold of lethal infection in some species; however, how reliable and reproducible the swabbing method is at dete...

  18. Evaluation of the Abbott TESTPACK RSV enzyme immunoassay for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal swab specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Swierkosz, E M; Flanders, R; Melvin, L; Miller, J D; Kline, M W

    1989-01-01

    The Abbott TESTPACK RSV assay (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.), a rapid (20-min) enzyme immunoassay, was compared with culture and direct immunofluorescence (DFA) of nasopharyngeal cells for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens, collected from 234 infants, were placed in viral transport medium. Portions of specimen in transport medium were used for each test. Of 234 specimens, 70 (30%) were culture positiv...

  19. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria on Rectal Swabs and Factors Affecting Resistance to Antibiotics in Patients Undergoing Prostate Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Beom; Jung, Seung Il; Hwang, Eu Chang; Kwon, Dong Deuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on rectal swabs in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy and the factors affecting resistance to antibiotics were evaluated. Materials and Methods Two hundred twenty-three men who underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from November 2011 to December 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Rectal swabs were cultured on MacConkey agar to identify antibiotic-resistant bacteria in rectal flora before TRUS-guide...

  20. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits. PMID:25223623

  1. Delivery of Piroxicam With A Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablet: In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riza Kepsutlu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam (PX is one of the most potent non-steroidal, antiinflammatory agents which also exhibit anti-pyretic activity in various types of non-rheumatic pains. Although the drug is well absorbed following oral administration, gastric irritation is still the most serious adverse effect. Thus there is a need for an alternative drug delivery system with better GI tolerability. Buccal administration of drugs provides a convenient route of administration for both systemic and and local actions and bypasses first-pass effects and avoids GI side effects. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop buccal tablets of piroxicam by using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and chitosan as mucoadhesive agents. Tablets were prepared with direct compression method and evaluated for physical properties. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the release rate of PX from the formulations affected by type and ratio of polymers. The release mechanism of PX from buccal tablets follows diffusive mechanism with first order and Higuchi release kinetics. In vivo studies of optimum buccal tablet formulation carried out on human healthy volunteers showed that the relative bioavailability of PX was 67.52 ± 21.47%. These results demonstrate that buccal tablet formulation of PX seems to be an alternative drug delivery for patients especially suffering from GI disturbances

  2. Evidence for homologous peptidergic neurons in the buccal ganglia of diverse nudibranch mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, W H; Willows, A O

    1992-03-01

    The buccal ganglia of seven nudibranches (Aeolidia papillosa, Armina californica, Dirona albolineata, D. picta, Hermissenda crassicornis, Melibe leonina, and Tritonia diomedea) were examined to explore possible homologies between large cells that reacted with antibodies directed against small cardioactive peptide B (SCPB). The buccal ganglion of each species possessed a pair of large, dorsal-lateral, whitish neurons that contained an SCPB-like peptide. We refer to these neurons as the SLB (SCPB-immunoreactive Large Buccal) cells. In all species examined, the SLB cells project out the gastroesophageal nerves and appear to innervate the esophagus. In each species, an apparent rhythmic feeding motor program (FMP) was observed by intracellular recording from both SLB neurons and other neurons in isolated preparations of the buccal ganglia. SLB cells often fire at a high frequency, and usually burst in a specific phase relation to the FMP activity. Stimulation of SLB cells enhances expression of the feeding motor program, either by potentiating existing activity or eliciting the FMP in quiescent preparations. Finally, perfusion of isolated buccal ganglia with SCPB excites the SLB cells and activates FMPs. Thus, both the immunohistochemical and electrophysiological data suggest that the SLB cells within three suborders of the opisthobranchia (Dendronotacea, Arminacea, and Aeolidacea) are homologous. A comparison of our data with previously published studies indicates that SLB cell homologs may exist in other gastropods as well. PMID:1527526

  3. Preparation and in-vivo evaluation of dimenhydrinate buccal mucoadhesive films with enhanced bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz Pekoz, Ayca; Sedef Erdal, Meryem; Okyar, Alper; Ocak, Meltem; Tekeli, Fatma; Kaptan, Engin; Sagirli, Olcay; Araman, Ahmet

    2016-06-01

    Dimenhydrinate (DMH)-loaded buccal bioadhesive films for the prevention and treatment of motion sickness were prepared and optimized. This study examines the rate of drug release from the films for prolonged periods of time to reduce or limit the frequency of DMH administration. Based on preliminary studies using various polymers and concentrations, hydroxyethylcellulose (2.5, 3.0, and 3.2%), and xanthan gum (2.8%) were chosen as matrix polymers. The films were analyzed with respect to their mechanical, physicochemical, bioadhesive, swelling, and in-vitro release properties. In in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies, xanthan gum-based DMH buccal film was associated with significantly increased DMH plasma levels between 1 h and 5 h after DMH dosing when compared with an oral drug solution. The area under the curve AUC0-7 h value of the mucoadhesive buccal film was two-fold higher than the oral DMH solution. Histological analysis revealed that DMH films cause mild morphological and inflammatory changes in rabbit buccal mucosa. The DMH buccal film is effective for approximately 7 h, thus representing an option for single-dose antiemetic therapy. This dosage regimen could be particularly beneficial for chain travelers who travel for long periods of time. PMID:26460061

  4. A case of buccal mucosal and maxillary tumor seemed to be radiation induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of radiation-induced cancer was reported. A 46-year-old man developed buccal mucosal and maxillary cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) 19 years after external radiation therapy for buccal papilloma. Previous irradiation was 60Co, 186.5 Gy. Latent period was 19 years, but 7 years after the irradiation osteomyelitis arose in the mandible. X-ray films of the mandible revealed an osteolytic and osteosclerotic lesion. Conservative treatment of the osteomyelitis was not so effective. Partital resection of the mandible and resection of buccal scar tissue combined with reconstructive surgery of the cheek using a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap were performed in September, 1984. The histological examination of the resected specimen showed squamous cell carcinoma and the ultrastructural study on this case was further performed. In spite of wide excision and intra-arterial chemotherapy combined with irradiation, the patient died of the carcinoma in October, 1986. (author)

  5. DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH in buccal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Cortés-Gutiérrez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH is a recently developed technique that allows cell-by-cell detection and quantification of DNA breakage in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. The present investigation was conducted to adapt the methodology of DBD-FISH to the visualization and evaluation of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells. DBD-FISH revealed that DNA damage increased significantly according to H2O2 concentration (r2=0.91. In conclusion, the DBD-FISH technique is easy to apply in buccal cells and provides prompt results that are easy to interpret. Future studies are needed to investigate the potential applicability of a buccal cell DBD-FISH model to human biomonitoring and nutritional work.

  6. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H M; Rassing, M R; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium. For this purpose, the permeability of water, mannitol and testosterone across the TR146 cell culture model was compared to the permeability across human, monkey and...... determined. The mannitol and testosterone permeability across the TR146 cell culture model could be related to the permeability across porcine and human buccal mucosa. The permeability of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists across the TR146 cell culture model varied between 2.2 x 10(-6) cm/s (atenolol) and 165...... increased the permeability only for the hydrophilic atenolol, which may help explain the mechanism for GC-induced enhancement. The present results indicate that the TR146 cell culture model can be used as an in vitro model for permeability studies and mechanistic studies of human buccal drug delivery of...

  7. Detection of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV) Genome from Nasal Swabs of Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratta, Barkha; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Singh, Shanker K; Kumar, Ajay; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2016-07-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) one of the most important viruses of small ruminants has a restricted host range. We report here the presence of PPRV virus in the nasal swabs of 3 out of 12 dogs in a routine microarray screening. The presence of PPRV sequence was further confirmed by PCR and sequencing. The sequence analysis revealed that the PPRV virus has close similarities with the viruses present in Indian subcontinent but was not identical to the vaccine virus used in India. Results suggest possible crossing of species barrier but requires further serological evidences. PMID:27040823

  8. Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection by PCR Using Vaginal Swab Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Madico, Guillermo; Thomas C Quinn; Rompalo, Anne; Mckee, Kelly T.; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    1998-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the world. A PCR test using vaginal swab samples for the detection of T. vaginalis was developed to add T. vaginalis infection to the growing list of STDs that can be detected by DNA amplification techniques. A primer set, BTUB 9/2, was designed to target a well-conserved region in the beta-tubulin genes of T. vaginalis. All strains (15 of 15) of T. vaginalis tested were successfully detected ...

  9. Differences between buccal and lingual bone quality and quantity of peri-implant regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Elias, Kathy L; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Clements, Matthew; Brantley, William A; Lee, Damian J; Han, Jung-Suk

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether peri-implant bone tissue properties are different between the buccal and lingual regions treated by growth factors. Four dental implant groups were used: titanium (Ti) implants, alumina-blasted zirconia implants (ATZ-N), alumina-blasted zirconia implants with demineralized bone matrix (DBM) (ATZ-D), and alumina-blasted zirconia implants with rhBMP-2 (ATZ-B). These implants were placed in mandibles of six male dogs. Nanoindentation elastic modulus (E) and plastic hardness (H) were measured for the buccal and lingual bone tissues adjacent and away from the implants at 3 and 6 weeks post-implantation. A total of 2281 indentations were conducted for 48 placed implants. The peri-implant buccal region had less bone quantity resulting from lower height and narrower width of bone tissue than the lingual region. Buccal bone tissues had significant greater mean values of E and H than lingual bone tissues at each distance and healing period (pimplant treatment groups displayed lower mean values of the E at the lingual bone tissues than at the buccal bone tissues (pimplant group (p=0.758). The DBM and rhBMP-2 treatments stimulated more peri-implant bone remodeling at the lingual region, producing more immature new bone tissues with lower E than at the buccal region. This finding suggests that the growth factor treatments to the zirconia implant system may help balance the quantity and quality differences between the peri-implant bone tissues. PMID:26773652

  10. Buccal bone loss after immediate implantation can be reduced by the flapless approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR BELÉM NOVAES JR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the buccal bone remodeling after immediate implantation with flap or flapless approach. Material and Methods: The mandibular bilateral premolars of 3 dogs were extracted and immediately three implants were placed in both hemi-arches of each dog. Randomly, one hemi-arch was treated with the flapless approach, while in the contra lateral hemi-arch tooth extractions and implant placement were done after mucoperiosteal flap elevation. Non-submerged healing of 12 weeks was provided for both groups. Histomorphometric analysis was done to compare buccal and lingual bone height loss, bone density and bone-to-implant contact in the groups. Fluorescence analysis was performed to investigate the dynamic of bone remodeling in the different groups. Results: There was a significant association between the surgical flap and the extent of bone resorption around immediate implants. The loss of buccal bone height was significantly lower in the flapless group when compared to the flap group (0.98 mm x 2.14 mm, respectively, p<0.05. The coronal and apical buccal bone densities of the flap group were significantly higher when compared to the lingual components, showing anatomical differences between the bone plates. Fluorescence analysis showed no major differences in bone healing between the flap and flapless groups, supporting that the higher loss of buccal bone height is linked to the anatomic characteristics of this plate and to the negative influence of the detachment of the periosteum in immediate implant therapy. Conclusion: The flapless approach for immediate post-extraction implants reduces the buccal bone height loss.

  11. A cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of buccal bone thickness following maxillary expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to determine the buccal alveolar bone thickness following rapid maxillary expansion (RME) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Twenty-four individuals (15 females, 9 males; 13.9 years) that underwent RME therapy were included. Each patient had CBCT images available before (T1), after (T2), and 2 to 3 years after (T3) maxillary expansion therapy. Coronal multiplanar reconstruction images were used to measure the linear transverse dimensions, inclinations of teeth, and thickness of the buccal alveolar bone. One-way ANOVA analysis was used to compare the changes between the three times of imaging. Pairwise comparisons were made with the Bonferroni method. The level of significance was established at p<0.05. The mean changes between the points in time yielded significant differences for both molar and premolar transverse measurements between T1 and T2 (p<0.05) and between T1 and T3 (p<0.05). When evaluating the effect of maxillary expansion on the amount of buccal alveolar bone, a decrease between T1 and T2 and an increase between T2 and T3 were found in the buccal bone thickness of both the maxillary first premolars and maxillary first molars. However, these changes were not significant. Similar changes were observed for the angular measurements. RME resulted in non-significant reduction of buccal bone between T1 and T2. These changes were reversible in the long-term with no evident deleterious effects on the alveolar buccal bone.

  12. A cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of buccal bone thickness following maxillary expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyalcin, Sercan; Englih, Jeryl D.; Stephens, Claude R.; Winkelmann, Sam [Dept. of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (United States); Schaefer, Jeffrey S. [Todd Hughes Orthodontics, Houston (United States)

    2013-06-15

    This study was performed to determine the buccal alveolar bone thickness following rapid maxillary expansion (RME) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Twenty-four individuals (15 females, 9 males; 13.9 years) that underwent RME therapy were included. Each patient had CBCT images available before (T1), after (T2), and 2 to 3 years after (T3) maxillary expansion therapy. Coronal multiplanar reconstruction images were used to measure the linear transverse dimensions, inclinations of teeth, and thickness of the buccal alveolar bone. One-way ANOVA analysis was used to compare the changes between the three times of imaging. Pairwise comparisons were made with the Bonferroni method. The level of significance was established at p<0.05. The mean changes between the points in time yielded significant differences for both molar and premolar transverse measurements between T1 and T2 (p<0.05) and between T1 and T3 (p<0.05). When evaluating the effect of maxillary expansion on the amount of buccal alveolar bone, a decrease between T1 and T2 and an increase between T2 and T3 were found in the buccal bone thickness of both the maxillary first premolars and maxillary first molars. However, these changes were not significant. Similar changes were observed for the angular measurements. RME resulted in non-significant reduction of buccal bone between T1 and T2. These changes were reversible in the long-term with no evident deleterious effects on the alveolar buccal bone.

  13. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  14. Conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs as an in-vivo model for buccal absorption - pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from bioadhesive tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Morten B;

    2014-01-01

    significantly different to the buccal anaesthetised groups (120 ± 0 and 165 ± 15 min) for buccal tablet pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, respectively. Also, the absolute bioavailability from the anaesthetised buccal tablet pH 8.9 (20.7 ± 4.0%) had a significant increase compared to all other buccal tablet groups. In...

  15. Poloxamer bioadhesive hydrogel for buccal drug delivery: Cytotoxicity and trans-epithelial permeability evaluations using TR146 human buccal epithelial cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ni; Mignet, Nathalie; Dumortier, Gilles; Olivier, Elodie; Seguin, Johanne; Maury, Marc; Scherman, Daniel; Rat, Patrice; Boudy, Vincent

    2015-11-30

    A salbutamol sulfate (SS)-Poloxamer bioadhesive hydrogel specially developed for buccal administration was investigated by studying interactions with TR146 human buccal epithelium cells (i.e. cellular toxicity (i) and trans-epithelial SS diffusion (ii)). The assessment of cell viability (MTT, Alamar Blue), membrane integrity (Neutral Red), and apoptosis assay (Hoechst 33342), were performed and associated to Digital Holographic Microscopy analysis. After the treatment of 2h, SS solution induced drastic cellular alterations that were prevented by hydrogels in relation with the concentrations of poloxamer and xanthan gum. The formulation containing P407 19%/P188 1%/Satiaxane 0.1% showed the best tolerance after single and multiple administrations and significantly reduced the trans-epithelial permeability from 5.00±0.29 (×10(3)) (SS solution) to 1.83±0.22 cm/h. Digital Holographic Microscopy images in good agreement with the viability data confirmed the great interest of this direct technique. In conclusion, the proposed hydrogels represent a safe and efficient buccal drug delivery platform. PMID:26403384

  16. Evaluation of a novel real-time PCR test based on the ssrA gene for the identification of group B streptococci in vaginal swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Thomas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the implementation of prevention guidelines, early-onset group B streptococci (GBS disease remains a cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Strategies to identify women who are at risk of transmitting GBS to their infant and the administration of intrapartum antibiotics have greatly reduced the incidence of neonatal GBS disease. However, there is a requirement for a rapid diagnostic test for GBS that can be carried out in a labour ward setting especially for women whose GBS colonisation status is unknown at the time of delivery. We report the design and evaluation of a real-time PCR test (RiboSEQ GBS test for the identification of GBS in vaginal swabs from pregnant women. Methods The qualitative real-time PCR RiboSEQ GBS test was designed based on the bacterial ssrA gene and incorporates a competitive internal standard control. The analytical sensitivity of the test was established using crude lysate extracted from serial dilutions of overnight GBS culture using the IDI Lysis kit. Specificity studies were performed using DNA prepared from a panel of GBS strains, related streptococci and other species found in the genital tract environment. The RiboSEQ GBS test was evaluated on 159 vaginal swabs from pregnant women and compared with the GeneOhm™ StrepB Assay and culture for the identification of GBS. Results The RiboSEQ GBS test is specific and has an analytical sensitivity of 1-10 cell equivalents. The RiboSEQ GBS test was 96.4% sensitive and 95.8% specific compared to "gold standard" culture for the identification of GBS in vaginal swabs from pregnant women. In this study, the RiboSEQ GBS test performed slightly better than the commercial BD GeneOhm™ StrepB Assay which gave a sensitivity of 94.6% and a specificity of 89.6% compared to culture. Conclusion The RiboSEQ GBS test is a valuable method for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of GBS in pregnant women. This study also validates the

  17. Evaluation of a novel real-time PCR test based on the ssrA gene for the identification of group B streptococci in vaginal swabs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wernecke, Martina

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the implementation of prevention guidelines, early-onset group B streptococci (GBS) disease remains a cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Strategies to identify women who are at risk of transmitting GBS to their infant and the administration of intrapartum antibiotics have greatly reduced the incidence of neonatal GBS disease. However, there is a requirement for a rapid diagnostic test for GBS that can be carried out in a labour ward setting especially for women whose GBS colonisation status is unknown at the time of delivery. We report the design and evaluation of a real-time PCR test (RiboSEQ GBS test) for the identification of GBS in vaginal swabs from pregnant women. METHODS: The qualitative real-time PCR RiboSEQ GBS test was designed based on the bacterial ssrA gene and incorporates a competitive internal standard control. The analytical sensitivity of the test was established using crude lysate extracted from serial dilutions of overnight GBS culture using the IDI Lysis kit. Specificity studies were performed using DNA prepared from a panel of GBS strains, related streptococci and other species found in the genital tract environment. The RiboSEQ GBS test was evaluated on 159 vaginal swabs from pregnant women and compared with the GeneOhm StrepB Assay and culture for the identification of GBS. RESULTS: The RiboSEQ GBS test is specific and has an analytical sensitivity of 1-10 cell equivalents. The RiboSEQ GBS test was 96.4% sensitive and 95.8% specific compared to "gold standard" culture for the identification of GBS in vaginal swabs from pregnant women. In this study, the RiboSEQ GBS test performed slightly better than the commercial BD GeneOhm StrepB Assay which gave a sensitivity of 94.6% and a specificity of 89.6% compared to culture. CONCLUSION: The RiboSEQ GBS test is a valuable method for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of GBS in pregnant women. This study also validates the ssrA gene as a suitable and

  18. Pilot study of participant-collected nasal swabs for acute respiratory infections in a low-income, urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas CY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celibell Y Vargas,1 Liqun Wang,1 Yaritza Castellanos de Belliard,1 Maria Morban,1 Hilbania Diaz,1 Elaine L Larson,2,3 Philip LaRussa,1 Lisa Saiman,1,4 Melissa S Stockwell1,5,6 1Department of Pediatrics, 2School of Nursing, 3Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 4Department of Infection Prevention and Control, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, 5Department of Population and Family Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 6NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA Objective: To assess the feasibility and validity of unsupervised participant-collected nasal swabs to detect respiratory pathogens in a low-income, urban minority population. Methods: This project was conducted as part of an ongoing community-based surveillance study in New York City to identify viral etiologies of acute respiratory infection. In January 2014, following sample collection by trained research assistants, participants with acute respiratory infection from 30 households subsequently collected and returned a self-collected/parent-collected nasal swab via mail. Self/parental swabs corresponding with positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction primary research samples were analyzed. Results: Nearly all (96.8%, n=30/31 households agreed to participate; 100% reported returning the sample and 29 were received (median time: 8 days. Most (18; 62.1% of the primary research samples were positive. For eight influenza-positive research samples, seven (87.5% self-swabs were also positive. For ten other respiratory pathogen-positive research samples, eight (80.0% self-swabs were positive. Sensitivity of self-swabs for any respiratory pathogen was 83.3% and 87.5% for influenza, and specificity for both was 100%. There was no relationship between level of education and concordance of results between positive research samples and their matching participant swab. Conclusion: In this pilot study, self-swabbing

  19. Multidisciplinary management of a mandibular buccal plate perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Nugraeni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endodontists often have difficulty in the management of endo-perio cases, because they cannot visually detect the condition of outer root surfaces, especially in bucco-lateral roots. The bone defect is rare and its treatment needs collaboration of endodontists and periodontists. An endodontist treats cases based on dental history, radiograph of root canals to measure root canals, to uncover abnormalities and to diagnose, but as the endodontists cannot directly see the affected parts, the unseen portion of the tooth could only be seen after flap surgery. Purpose: This case presents the importance of multidisciplinary approach by the endodontist and periodontitis to treat bucal plate perforations in endo-perio cases. Case: The first patient, a 47-year-old female had endodontic treatment and a porcelain crown restoration; however, after several months she felt pain. The second patient, a 45 year-old female had endodontic treatment and after six months she feel painful. Case management: The first patient, was referred to a periodontist. The opening flap surgery has been done, a bone defect was found in tooth 45. Subsequently, the exposed crater was filled with a bone graft and the pain disappeared. The second patient, with improper endodontic treatment. The flap surgery was conducted, there was found a bone defect in tooth 36. The last treatment, a bone graft has been covered and then the pain was not present. Conclusion: Proper diagnosis and treatment of perforations on the buccal aspect of a root was able to eliminate pain and avoid tooth extraction.Latar belakang: Endodontis sering mengalami kesulitan dalam menangani kasus endo-perio karena secara visual kondisi ini tidak tampak diluar permukaan akar, khususnya pada akar bukolateral. Defek tulang sangatlah jarang dan perawatannya membutuhkan kolaborasi endodotis dan periodontis. Seorang endodontis merawat kasus-kasus berdasarkan riwayat gigi, radiografis saluran akar untuk melihat

  20. Value of the oral swab for the molecular diagnosis of dogs in different stages of infection with Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschar, Mariana; de Oliveira, Eveline Tozzi Braga; Laurenti, Marcia Dalastra; Marcondes, Mary; Tolezano, Jose Eduardo; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Corbett, Carlos Eduardo P; da Matta, Vania Lucia Ribeiro

    2016-07-30

    This study was based on the need to employ a sensitive and specific method with samples that could be easily collected for diagnosing dogs infected with Leishmania infantum. To this end, we used real time-PCR (qPCR) to assess the value of the oral swab (OS) in detecting infected sick dogs (SD; n=62), including, for the first time, the analysis of apparently healthy infected dogs (AD; n=30), both from endemic areas for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). For comparison, we also evaluated the performance of the conjunctival swab (CS), blood (BL), lymph node (LN) and serology. We detected the presence of Leishmania DNA in the oral cavity in 62 out of the 92 dogs studied. The OS positivity (67.4%) was equivalent to the CS (68.5%) (p>0.05), higher than BL (52.2%) (p≤0.05), and lower than LN (84.8%) (p≤0.05). OS and CS performed well in SD dogs (82.3% and 83.9%, respectively) but not in AD dogs (36.7% for both samples). BL showed the lowest positivity (52.2%) and provided equivalent results between AD (60.0%) and SD (48.4%) dogs (p>0.05). LN yielded the highest positivity (84.8%), and it was also higher in the SD population (93.5%) compared to the AD population (66.7%) (p≤0.05). Parasite load was high in LN, moderate in OS and CS, and low in BL, showing the relationship between the levels of parasitism and the positivity rates found in these samples. Serology was positive in 82.2% of the SD group and in 70% of the AD dogs (p>0.05). Among the 20 seronegative dogs, seven (35%) were positive in either OS or CS, and 12 (60%) were positive when both noninvasive samples were jointly considered. The OS/CS combination resulted in a significant increase of positivity (p≤0.05) for the AD dogs (from 36.7% to 63.4%), as well as OS/serology (80%) and OS/CS/serology (83.4%). For the SD population, positivity reached up to 95.2% with the same combinations, showing that combination of samples and/or tests is required for the identification of dogs infected with L. infantum and that the

  1. Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Yeol Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM, during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19±14.60° and 28.12±11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9±19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface.

  2. Periodontal responses to augmented corticotomy with collagen membrane application during orthodontic buccal tipping in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeol; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface. PMID:25276824

  3. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Jahanbakhshi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on result of this study, corticotomy can accelerates the rate of orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement.

  4. Characterization of chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate nanocomposite films for buccal delivery of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Khunawattanakul, Wanwisa; Strachan, Clare J;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare and characterize chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate (CS-MAS) nanocomposite films as a buccal delivery system for nicotine (NCT). The effects of the CS-MAS ratio on the physicochemical properties, release and permeation, as well as on the mucoadhesive...

  5. Design and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems containing metoprolol tartrate

    OpenAIRE

    Ramana M; Nagda C; Himaja M

    2007-01-01

    Mucoadhesive buccal tablets of metoprolol tartarate were fabricated with objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and prolonging duration of action. The mucoadhesive polymers used in formulation were Carbopol-934, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose. The formulations were characterized for physiochemical parameters, in vitro release studies and in vivo placebo studies. The best mucoadhesive performance and in vitro drug release profil...

  6. EFFECT OF PERMEATION ENHANCER ON EX-VIVO PERMEATION OF ONDANSETRON HCl BUCCAL TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Praveen Kumar et al.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to study the effect of a permeation enhancer, sodium taurocholate on permeation of Ondansetron HCl from bioadhesive buccal tablet formulation by performing ex-vivo permeation experiments using porcine buccal mucosa. Optimized formulation has selected based on in-vitro drug release studies of bilayered bioadhesive buccal tablets. To the optimized formulation, 10mM sodium taurocholate was added to increase the permeation of poorly permeable ondansetron HCl. It is well known that natural surfactants like bile salts increase the permeability of drugs by perturbation of intercellular lipids. The results indicated that, from pure drug solution (5 mg/mL about 88.63% cumulative percentage of drug permeated across porcine buccal mucosa with flux of 0.0235 mg.h-1cm-2. However, the optimized formulation with sodium taurocholate increased flux (0.0523 mg.h-1cm-2 and cumulative amount of drug permeated (65.44% in comparison to formulation without permeation enhancer (38.45%, 0.0186 mg.h-1cm-2 with enhancement ratio of 2.81.

  7. PREPARATION AND IN VITRO ASSESSMENT OF VARIOUS MUCOSA-ADHESIVE FILMS FOR BUCCAL DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED-AL1REZA MORTAZAVI REZA ABOOFAZELI

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine various polymers considered to have mucosa-adhesive properties for the preparation of buccal-adhesive films and their in vitro evaluation. A number of materials, such as cellulose derivatives, carbopols and natural polymers, were employed for the preparation of buccal-adhesive films. Aqueous solutions containing the mucosa-adhesive polymer and a plasticizer were prepared and used to prepare films by the "solvent cast" method. Prepared films were then evaluated in terms of their physical appearance and film forming ability, in vitro mucosa-adhesive strength and duration of mucosa-adhesion. Results showed that among the various materials examined, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC formed very flexible films with the greatest mucosa-adhesive strength. Further studies showed that the combination of carbopols and CMC, along with glycerin as the plasticizer, resulted in the formation of films with desirable appearance and a relatively stronger mucosa-adhesive strength than films containing CMC alone. In vitro studies showed that films containing carbopol 934P, CMC and glycerin gave the greatest mucosa-adhesive strength and longer mucosa-adhesion. In conclusion, this formulation is proposed as a good base for the preparation of buccal-adhesive films and patches. Furthermore, it is suggested that in the development of buccal-adhesive drug delivery systems, and in particular films and patches, duration of mucosa-adhesion determined by in vitro experiments is a critical factor in the selection of the ultimate formulation.

  8. BUCCAL ADVANCEMENT FLAP DAN ANTROSTOMI: UNTUK TERAPI ORO ANTRAL FISTULA (Laporan Kasus)

    OpenAIRE

    Rizal Rivandi

    2015-01-01

    Buccal advancement flap is one of the many ways of treating oro antral fistula. This technique is frequently used by dentists because it is easier to do and has several advantages compared to other techniques. This paper reports a case of oro antral fistula caused by complication of a tooth extraction, with discussions about definition, ethics and other therapies of oro antral fistula.

  9. The buccal mucosa as an alternative route for the systemic delivery of risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemstra, Lars B; Finnin, Barrie C; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of the buccal mucosa for the systemic delivery of risperidone (RISP), and to determine the impact of Azone® (AZ) on the transport of RISP via this route. The permeability of RISP through porcine buccal mucosa was assessed in modified Ussing chambers at various concentrations to determine the mechanisms involved in transport across the tissue. The effect of AZ was assessed by administering AZ 5% (w/w) to the tissue as a pretreatment or together with RISP in solution or in a mucoadhesive gel formulation. RISP permeated the buccal mucosa via a passive diffusion mechanism and pretreatment or coadministration of AZ 5% did not significantly modify the permeation of RISP. Application of a RISP mucoadhesive gel resulted in a steady state flux of 64.65 ± 8.0 µg/cm(2)/h, which when extrapolated to the in vivo setting, is predicted to result in RISP plasma concentrations of 11.2-56.1 µg/L for mucosal application areas between 2 and 10 cm(2). Given that these predicted concentrations are within the therapeutic range of RISP required in humans, delivery of RISP via the buccal mucosa has the potential to result in therapeutically relevant plasma concentrations for the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:20845457

  10. A Comparison of Buccal Midazolam and Intravenous Diazepam for the Acute Treatment of Seizures in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghofrani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study is to compare efficacy and safety of buccal midazolam with intravenous diazepam in control of seizures in Iranian children.Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial. 92 patients with acute seizures, ranging from 6 months to 14 years were randomly assigned to receive either buccal midazolam (32 cases or intravenous diazepam (60 cases at the emergency department of a children's hospital. The primary outcome of this study was cessation of visible seizure activity within 5 minutes from administration of the first dosage. The second dosage was used in case the seizure remained uncontrolled 5 minutes after the first one.Findings: In the midazolam group, 22 (68.8% patients were relieved from seizures in 10 minutes.Meanwhile, diazepam controlled the episodes of 42 (70% patients within 10 minutes. The difference was,however, not statistically significant (P=0.9. The mean time required to control the convulsive episodes after administration of medications was not statistically significant (P=0.09. No significant side effects were observed in either group. Nevertheless, the risk of respiratory failure in intravenous diazepam is greater than in buccal midazolam.Conclusion: Buccal midazolam is as effective as and safer than intravenous diazepam in control of seizures.

  11. Histopathological evaluation of urethroplasty with dorsal buccal mucosa: an experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanne F. Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Buccal mucosa is a widely accepted tissue for urethroplasty. The exact healing and tissue integration process, mainly the histological characteristics of dorsal buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty when used dorsally to reconstruct the urethral plate has not previously been assessed, and thus we developed an experimental model to address this question. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 New Zealand rabbits (weight 2.5 kg we surgically created a dorsal penile urethral defect. A buccal mucosa graft was sutured to the corpora and tunica albuginea, and the ventral urethra anastomosed to this new urethral plate. The animals were divided in three groups and sacrificed 1, 3 and 6 weeks after surgery (groups 1, 2 and 3. A retrograde urethrogram was obtained at autopsy in the last group and the penis analyzed histologically with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's staining. RESULTS: The urethrograms showed no evidence of fistula or stricture. In group 1 the histopathological analysis showed submucosal lymph-mononuclear inflammatory edema, numerous eosinophils and squamous epithelium integrated into the adjacent urothelium. In group 2 there was no evidence of an inflammatory response but rather complete subepithelial hyaline healing, which was more marked in group 3. CONCLUSION: Healing of buccal mucosa grafts to reconstruct the urethral plate can be achieved by total integration of the squamous epithelium with the urothelium, maintaining the original histological properties of the graft with no fibrosis or retraction.

  12. Leiomyosarcoma of the buccal mucosa: a case report with immunohistochemistry findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Renu; Bharathan, Shantha

    2008-06-01

    Leiomyosarcoma is a relatively uncommon malignant lesion that exhibits smooth muscle differentiation. Occurrence of this tumor in the oral cavity is exceedingly rare, reflecting the paucity of smooth muscle in this region. This article presents a rare case of leiomyosarcoma of the buccal mucosa, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. PMID:18587214

  13. Formulation and evaluation of a bioadhesive patch for buccal delivery of tizanidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Pendekal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tizanidine hydrochloride (THCl is an antispasmodic agent which undergoes extensive first pass metabolism making it a possible candidate for buccal delivery. The aim of this study was to prepare a monolayered buccal patch containing THCl using the emulsification solvent evaporation method. Fourteen formulations were prepared using the polymers Eudragit® RS 100 or Eudragit® RL 100 and chitosan. Polymer solutions in acetone were combined with a THCl aqueous solution (in some cases containing chitosan by homogenization at 9000 rpm for 2 min in the presence of triethyl citrate as plasticizer and cast in novel Teflon molds. Physicochemical properties such as film thickness, in vitro drug release and in vitro mucoadhesion were evaluated after which permeation across sheep buccal mucosa was examined in terms of flux and lag time. Formulations prepared using a Eudragit® polymer alone exhibited satisfactory physicomechanical properties but lacked a gradual in vitro drug release pattern. Incorporation of chitosan into formulations resulted in the formation of a porous structure which did exhibit gradual release of drug. In conclusion, THCl can be delivered by a buccal patch formulated as a blend of Eudragit® and chitosan, the latter being necessary to achieve gradual drug release.

  14. Randomized comparison of vaginal self-sampling by standard vs. dry swabs for Human papillomavirus testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate if human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (Self-HPV) using a dry vaginal swab is a valid alternative for HPV testing. Women attending colposcopy clinic were recruited to collect two consecutive Self-HPV samples: a Self-HPV using a dry swab (S-DRY) and a Self-HPV using a standard wet transport medium (S-WET). These samples were analyzed for HPV using real time PCR (Roche Cobas). Participants were randomized to determine the order of the tests. Questionnaires assessing preferences and acceptability for both tests were conducted. Subsequently, women were invited for colposcopic examination; a physician collected a cervical sample (physician-sampling) with a broom-type device and placed it into a liquid-based cytology medium. Specimens were then processed for the production of cytology slides and a Hybrid Capture HPV DNA test (Qiagen) was performed from the residual liquid. Biopsies were performed if indicated. Unweighted kappa statistics (κ) and McNemar tests were used to measure the agreement among the sampling methods. A total of 120 women were randomized. Overall HPV prevalence was 68.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 59.3–77.2) by S-WET, 54.4% (95% CI 44.8–63.9) by S-DRY and 53.8% (95% CI 43.8–63.7) by HC. Among paired samples (S-WET and S-DRY), the overall agreement was good (85.7%; 95% CI 77.8–91.6) and the κ was substantial (0.70; 95% CI 0.57-0.70). The proportion of positive type-specific HPV agreement was also good (77.3%; 95% CI 68.2-84.9). No differences in sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade one (CIN1) or worse between the two Self-HPV tests were observed. Women reported the two Self-HPV tests as highly acceptable. Self-HPV using dry swab transfer does not appear to compromise specimen integrity. Further study in a large screening population is needed. ClinicalTrials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01316120

  15. Genotoxic Effects of Tobacco on Buccal Epithelium: Cell Nuclear Anomalies as Biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Das Biswas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use has toxic effects on different organs. This study was carried out to assess the effect of indigenous tobacco both in smoking (bidi and smokeless (gutkha, zarda and khaini forms on buccal cells at chromosomal level, through assessment of different nuclear anomalies as biomarker. Methods:This study was done on people living in Durgapur and its adjacent areas, West Bengal, India during January to July 2011. The samples were collected from 50 smokers (case group, 50 smokeless tobacco consumers or chewers (case group and 50 non-tobacco consumers (control group. Micronucleus assay was used to assess buccal cell nuclear changes. Buccal smears collected from study subjects were prepared on a grease free slide. Prepared slides were observed under light microscope and 2 to 5 fields were observed randomly for counting the different anomalies. In each field, the frequency of each anomaly was assessed in 100 cells and reported with percentage. Results:Chewers had significantly the highest frequency of all nuclear anomalies compared to smokers and healthy controls (HCs. Smokers also had significantly more anomalies compared to HCs. Condensed chromatin (CC, karyolysis (KL and bi-nucleation (BN in chewers and CC, pyknosis and BN in smokers were the most frequent anomalies. KL was significantly more frequent in chewers compared to smokers (59.8 ± 6.4 vs. 24.2 ± 12.4%, P < 0.001, however, the frequency of other nuclear anomalies were not significantly different in these two study groups. Presence of each nuclear anomaly was significantly greater in older ages in all study groups. Conclusion:Tobacco can cause and increase the rate of nuclear anomalies in both smoking and smokeless forms compared to HCs. The genotoxic effects of tobacco on buccal cells are partly age-related. Cell nuclear anomalies in buccal tissue can be used as biomarker indicating the detrimental effects of tobacco.

  16. Single stage dorsal inlay buccal mucosal graft with tubularized incised urethral plate technique for hypospadias reoperations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Jing Ye; Ping Ping; Yi-Dong Liu; Zheng Li; Yi-Ran Huang

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To report the experience with single stage dorsal inlay buccal mucosal grafts using the Snodgrass technique for complex redo cases. Methods: From May 2004 to December 2005, a total of 53 patients aged from 3 to 34 years old(average 11.62 ± 7.18 years) with failed previous hypospadias surgery were included in the present study. Indica- tions included urethral strictures and repair breakdown. The unhealthy urethra was unroofed from the meatus in the ventral midline, a buccal mucosal graft was inlayed between the incised urethral plate and fixed to the corporacavemosa. The neourethra was tubularized, and covered with subcutaneous (dartos) tissue and penile skin. Glanuloplasty was also performed in all cases. Outcome analysis included clinical follow-up, and endoscopy in 2 selected cases. Results: The buccal mucosal graft was 3.0-7.5 cm in length and 0.7-2.0 cm in width. All patients required glanuloplasty, with buccal mucosal grafts extended to the tip of the glans. After a follow-up of 14-30 months (mean 22.6 months), the total complication rate was 15.1%, with five cases of fistula and three cases of stricture. Conclusion: Inlaying dorsal buccal mucosal grafts applying the Snodgrass technique is a reliable method for creating a substitute urethral plate for tubularization. The recurrent rate of urethral stricture and fistula is at an acceptable level for redo cases. This approach represents an effective, simple and safe option for reoperations. (Asain J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 682- 686)

  17. An improved cryopreservation method for porcine buccal mucosa in ex vivo drug permeation studies using Franz diffusion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Sonia; Domenech, José; Colom, Helena; Calpena, Ana C; Clares, Beatriz; Gimeno, Álvaro; Lauroba, Jacinto

    2014-08-18

    The use of isolated animal models to assess percutaneous absorption of molecules is frequently reported. The porcine buccal mucosa has been proposed as a substitute for the buccal mucosa barrier on ex vivo permeability studies avoiding unnecessary sacrifice of animals. But it is not always easy to obtain fresh buccal mucosa. Consequently, human and porcine buccal mucosa is sometimes frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen, but this procedure is not always feasible. One cheaper and simpler alternative is to freeze the buccal mucosa of freshly slaughtered pigs in a mechanical freezer, using DMSO and albumin as cryoprotective agents. This study compared the ex vivo permeability parameters of propranolol hydrochloride through porcine buccal mucosa using a Franz diffusion cell system and HPLC as detection method. The freezing effects on drug permeability parameters were evaluated. Equally histological studies were performed. Furthermore, the use of the parameter transmucosal water loss (TMWL) as an indicator of the buccal mucosa integrity was evaluated just as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is utilized for skin integrity. The results showed no difference between fresh and frozen mucosal flux, permeability coefficient or lag time of propranolol. However, statistical significant difference in TMWL between fresh and frozen mucosa was observed. PMID:24813111

  18. Perceptions of brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo PITHON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the esthetic perception and attractiveness of the smile with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types by brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals. Material and Methods: The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial type of face was changed to create three different facial types with five different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22% and 28%. To achieve this effect, a photo editing software was used (Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems Inc, San Francisco, CA, EUA. The images were submitted to evaluators with brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces, who evaluated the degree of esthetic perception and attractiveness by means of a visual analog scale measuring 70 mm. The differences between evaluators were verified by the Mann-Whitney test. All statistics were performed with a confidence level of 95%. Results: Brachyfacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Mesofacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2%, 10% and 15% as more attractive. Dolichofacial individuals perceived the mesofacial type of face with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Evaluators of the female sex generally attributed higher scores than the male evaluators. Conclusion: To achieve an enhanced esthetic smile it is necessary to observe the patient’s facial type. The preference for narrow buccal corridors is an esthetic characteristic preferred by men and women, and wide buccal corridors are less attractive.

  19. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo examination of buccal absorption of metoprolol with varying pH in TR146 cell culture, porcine buccal mucosa and Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Meng-Lund, Emil; Andersen, Morten B.;

    2013-01-01

    This work studied the buccal absorption of metoprolol in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo as a function of buffered pH at 7.4, 8.5, 9.0 and 9.5. Permeability studies showed a correlation (r(2)=0.92) between in vitro TR146 cell culture and ex vivo porcine buccal mucosa in a modified Ussing chamber. A...

  20. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

  1. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  2. Evaluation of penicillin G residues by kidney inhibition swab tests in sow body fluids and tissues following intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2011, the USDA-Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) changed the method used for screening swine tissues for antimicrobial residues to the Kidney Inhibition Swab (KIS(TM)) from the Fast Antimicrobial Screen Test. A high dose of penicillin G procaine relative to a label dose is commonly used ...

  3. Evaluation of penicillin G residues by kidney inhibition swab tests in sow body fluids and tissues following intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2011, the USDA-Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) changed the method used for screening swine tissues for antimicrobial residues from the Fast Antimicrobial Screen Test to the Kidney Inhibition Swab (KIS(TM)). Here, we describe the use of KIS(TM) test for the detection of penicillin G res...

  4. Pseudo-Outbreak of Cupriavidus pauculus Infection at an Outpatient Clinic Related to Rinsing Culturette Swabs in Tap Water▿

    OpenAIRE

    Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Elkins, Camille; Swyers, Lettie; Bannerman, Tammy; Pancholi, Preeti

    2010-01-01

    Cupriavidus pauculus is a water microorganism rarely isolated from clinical specimens. We describe a pseudo-outbreak in which multiple strains that were associated with moistening of culturette swabs with tap water were isolated from a single clinic before collecting the patient specimen.

  5. Modifying Effects of Piper longum on Cell Surface Abnormalities in 7, 12-dimethylbenz(AAnthracene Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namasivayam Senthil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study has investigated the modifying effects of ethanolic extract of Piper longum dried fruits (PLDFEE on cell surface abnormalities in DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. DMBA painting in hamster buccal pouch three times per week for 14 weeks resulted in well developed, well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. An increase in glycoconjugates (protein bound hexose, total sialic acid and fucose in plasma and buccal mucosa tissues and decrease in erythrocyte membrane glycoconjugates were observed in DMBA painted hamsters as compared to control animals. Oral administration of (PLDFEE restored the status of glycoconjugates and lipids during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis. Our results indicate that (PLDFEE has protected the cell surface and maintained the structural integrity of the cell membranes during DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

  6. The role of tobacco as an etiological agent for oral cancer: Cytomorphometrical analysis of the buccal mucosa in tobacco users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results confirmed that tobacco chewing and smoking influenced the cytomorphology of normal appearing buccal mucosa and the degree of these changes were found to be greater in chewers as compared to smokers.

  7. Cytological study of exfoliated buccal mucosa cells of tribes in Orissa State (India) with high risk for oral cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghose U; Parida B.

    1995-01-01

    Buccal mucosa scrapings from 50 individuals belonging to tribes of Koraput district in Orissa State (India), were smeared and fixed. The cells were stained adopting Feulgen technique. All the tribes are active tobacco and alcohol users. The individuals were asked about their age, sex, food habit, tobacco and alcohol consumption habit, period of consumption and daily consumption quantity. Micronuclei were scored from the smeared cells as increase in micronucleus frequency in buccal mucosa cell...

  8. A buccal cell model comet assay: Development and evaluation for human biomonitoring and nutritional studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comet assay is a widely used biomonitoring tool for DNA damage. The most commonly used cells in human studies are lymphocytes. There is an urgent need to find an alternative target human cell that can be collected from normal subjects with minimal invasion. There are some reports of buccal cells, collected easily from the inside of the mouth, being used in studies of DNA damage and repair, and these were of interest. However, our preliminary studies following the published protocol showed that buccal cells sustained massive damage and disintegrated at the high pH [O. Ostling, K.J. Johanson. Microelectrophoretic study of radiation-induced DNA damages in individual mammalian cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123 (1984) 291-298] used, but that at lower pH were extremely resistant to lysis, an essential step in the comet assay. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a protocol than enabled buccal cell lysis and DNA damage testing in the comet assay, and to use the model to evaluate the potential use of the buccal cell model in human biomonitoring and nutritional study. Specifically, we aimed to investigate intra- and inter-individual differences in buccal cell DNA damage (as strand breaks), the effect of in vitro exposure to both a standard oxidant challenge and antioxidant treatment, as well as in situ exposure to an antioxidant-rich beverage and supplementation-related effects using a carotenoid-rich food. Successful lysis was achieved using 0.25% trypsin for 30 min followed by proteinase K (1 mg/ml) treatment for 60 min. When this procedure was performed on cells pre-embedded in agarose on a microscope slide, followed by electrophoresis (in 0.01 M NaOH, 1 mM EDTA, pH 9.1, 18 min at 12 V), a satisfactory comet image was obtained, though inter-individual variation was quite wide. Pre-lysis exposure of cells to a standard oxidant challenge (induced by H2O2) increased DNA strand breaks in a dose related manner, and incubation of cells in Trolox

  9. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Amjad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB and lidocaine HCl (LID was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9 were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC and sodium alginate (SA. The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release, which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach.

  10. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amjad; Syed, Muhammad Ali; Abbas, Nasir; Hanif, Sana; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Hussain, Khalid; Akhlaq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2016-06-01

    A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB) and lidocaine HCl (LID) was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9) were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate (SA). The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release), which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach. PMID:27279067

  11. An Innovative Technique for Columellar Reconstruction using ‘Flip-Over’ Buccal Mucosa Flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Kapil S.; Pabari, Mansi

    2016-01-01

    Loss of columella is a significant deformity and its reconstruction proves to be quite difficult. An 18-year-old lady had loss of columella due to burn while steam inhalation at a young age and required reconstruction for the same. Labial mucosa has been used as a source of tissue for columellar reconstruction since long. We describe a modification of the buccal mucosal flap to manage a difficult case of columellar deficiency. The buccal mucosa flap was used to cover the columellar defect in the usual manner in the first stage and in second stage, along with division of the base, the residual length of the mucosal flap was used to add to the thickness of columella by doubling it on itself.

  12. The cytological status of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Bazeliuk; B.M. Salimbaeva

    2006-11-15

    Sixty-four persons were examined. The examination was undertaken to study the cytomophological parameters of the cells of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners. Group 1 consisted of 18 donors without contact with industrial dust; Group 2 comprised 24 apparently healthy miners; Group 3 included 22 workers (drift miners) with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis, grade 1 respiratory failure. The patients with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis had noticeably worse morphofunctional characteristics of the epithelium that displayed extensive fields with pronounced structural changes, such as destruction and desquamation of the integumentary epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Nasal mucosal atrophic changes were observed in 50% of the examined miners. Examination of the buccal epithelium in apparently healthy miners (code 0) and in workers with Stage I anthracosilicosis revealed the increased proportion of microfloral (Streptococcus) contamination by 79% and 3.7 times, respectively.

  13. Study of criteria influencing the success rate of DNA swabs in operational conditions: A contribution to an evidence-based approach to crime scene investigation and triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, S

    2016-01-01

    DNA is nowadays swabbed routinely to investigate serious and volume crimes, but research remains scarce when it comes to determining the criteria that may impact the success rate of DNA swabs taken on different surfaces and situations. To investigate these criteria in fully operational conditions, DNA analysis results of 4772 swabs taken by the forensic unit of a police department in Western Switzerland over a 2.5-year period (2012-2014) in volume crime cases were considered. A representative and random sample of 1236 swab analyses was extensively examined and codified, describing several criteria such as whether the swabbing was performed at the scene or in the lab, the zone of the scene where it was performed, the kind of object or surface that was swabbed, whether the target specimen was a touch surface or a biological fluid, and whether the swab targeted a single surface or combined different surfaces. The impact of each criterion and of their combination was assessed in regard to the success rate of DNA analysis, measured through the quality of the resulting profile, and whether the profile resulted in a hit in the national database or not. Results show that some situations-such as swabs taken on door and window handles for instance-have a higher success rate than average swabs. Conversely, other situations lead to a marked decrease in the success rate, which should discourage further analyses of such swabs. Results also confirm that targeting a DNA swab on a single surface is preferable to swabbing different surfaces with the intent to aggregate cells deposited by the offender. Such results assist in predicting the chance that the analysis of a swab taken in a given situation will lead to a positive result. The study could therefore inform an evidence-based approach to decision-making at the crime scene (what to swab or not) and at the triage step (what to analyse or not), contributing thus to save resource and increase the efficiency of forensic science

  14. “Osteolipoma of buccal mucosa: Case report and literature review”

    OpenAIRE

    Raviraj, Jayam; Kumar-Bokkasam, Vijay; Suresh, Dirasantchu; Venkata, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Osteolipoma affecting oral cavity is indeed rare. We hereby report a case of osteolipoma affecting buccal mucosa. A review of literature of osteolipoma of oral cavity, particularly on radiographic/imaging findings was done. Only 16 cases of Osteolipoma of oral cavity are reported in the literature. The radiographic findings of our case, i.e. multiple dense homogenous radio-opaque structures was reported earlier only in one case [out of 16] of osteolipoma of oral cavity. Key words:Lipoma, oste...

  15. Soft tissue buccal carcinoma - a role of MDCT and PET/CT during the staging procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: The incidence of buccal mucosa carcinoma is 8-10 % of cancers developing in the oral mucosa. Most often it develops on prior pre-neoplasia: leucoplakia, lichen. Characterized by painless in the early growth. The tumor is widely and quickly grows into the underlying tissues. Contracture are common. Histologically settled mostly squamous cell carcinoma and rarely glandular small salivary glands. What you will learn: A case study about a patient referred by a dentist with a painless swelling of the face on the right, with tightly - elastin texture appeared about 3 months ago is presented . Patient has difficulty swallowing, talking and breathing and limited mouth opening. Discussion: A MDCT study with intravenous contrast medium was performed for findings staging. It is found a heterodense tumor formation, involving the nasopharynx and oropharynx right without infiltration of main blood vessels with destruction of almost the entire branch of the mandible, with an interruption of the processus caronoideus integrity as well as the lateral wall and floor of the right maxillary sinus. The diagnose is buccal tumor formation in stage T4 N2V, Mx. The patient was referred to a specialized hospital for active treatment in maxillofacial surgery, where a biopsy was done and the histological result is: moderately differentiated buccal and gingival squamous cell carcinoma. From X-ray study of the lungs and heart several pulmonary nodules are identified and there is a possibility for metastatic lesions. Patient was referred for restaging and conducting whole body PET/CT. It is found a metabolically active tumor formation with data for regional lymphatic dissemination in the right. Conclusion: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common cancer of the oral cavity (90-95 %). Buccal carcinoma represents 9.8% of cancer of the oral cavity and maxillofacial area. Treatment is complex. The five-year survival in T3 and T4 stages is 20-30%

  16. Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive buccal patches of losartan potassium by using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Ikram, Md.; Gilhotra, Neeraj; Gilhotra, Ritu Mehra

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was undertaken with an aim to systematically design a model of factors that would yield an optimized sustained release dosage form of an anti-hypertensive agent, losartan potassium, using response surface methodology (RSM) by employing 32 full factorial design. Materials and Methods: Mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared using different grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (K4M and K100M) and polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 by solvent casting method. The amount o...

  17. Medicine and ionizing rays: a help sheet in analysing risks in exo-buccal dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a synthesis of useful knowledge for radioprotection in the case of exo-buccal dental radiology. In the first part, several aspects are considered: the concerned personnel, the course of treatment procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels, the strategy to control the risks (reduction of risks, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention and medical monitoring), and risk control assessment

  18. Thermosensitive and Mucoadhesive Sol-Gel Composites of Paclitaxel/Dimethyl-β-Cyclodextrin for Buccal Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Soon Gil; Lee, Sang-Eun; Kang, Bong-Seok; Ng, Choon Lian; Davaa, Enkhzaya; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a buccal paclitaxel delivery system using the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F127 (PF127) and the mucoadhesive polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). The anticancer agent paclitaxel is usually used to treat ovarian, breast, and non-small-cell lung cancer. To improve its aqueous solubility, paclitaxel was incorporated into an inclusion complex with (2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DMβCD). The formation of the paclitaxel inclusion complex was evaluated usi...

  19. Biomarkers measured in buccal and blood leukocyte DNA as proxies for colon tissue global methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Ashbury, Janet E.; Taylor, Sherryl A; Tse, M Yat; Stephen C Pang; Louw, Jacob A; Vanner, Stephen J.; King, Will D

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in clarifying the role of global DNA methylation levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology. Most commonly, in epidemiologic studies, methylation is measured in DNA derived from blood leukocytes as a proxy measure of methylation changes in colon tissue. However, little is known about the correlations between global methylation levels in DNA derived from colon tissue and more accessible tissues such as blood or buccal cells. This cross-sectional study utilized DNA ...

  20. Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Oral Film of Dicyclomine as potential route of Buccal Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Alka Tomar; Kiran Sharma; Chauhan, Nitesh S.; Ashu Mittal; Umakant Bajaj

    2012-01-01

    Buccal delivery is considered to be an important alternative to the peroral route for the systemic administration of drugs, as it considered the most convenient, easy, safest route of administration. Oral mucosa has rich vasculization, offers better permeability to many drugs & it act as an excellent site for the absorption of drugs. Fast dissolving oral film (FDOF) is used as a novel approach, as it dissolve rapidly in mouth and directly reaches to the systemic circulation. Oral film technol...

  1. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of chitosan buccal films of ondansetron hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Koland, Marina; Charyulu, R Narayana; Vijayanarayana, K; Prabhu, Prabhakara

    2011-01-01

    Buccal films of ondanstron hydrochloride were fabricated from mucoadhesive polymer, chitosan, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP K30) for the purpose of prolonging drug release and improving its bioavailability. All fabricated film formulations prepared were smooth and translucent, with good flexibility. The weight and thickness of all the formulations were found to be uniform. Drug content in the films ranged from 98 – 99%, indicating favorable drug loading and uniformity. The inclusion of PVP K...

  2. Treatment of Oroantral Fistula in Pediatric Patient using Buccal Fat Pad

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Aviral; Singhal, Ruchi; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Virendra; Bhagol, Amrish

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brief background: Oroantral communication (OAC) is the space created between the maxillary sinus and the oral cavity, which, if not treated, will progress to oroantral fistula (OAF). Several methods of surgical OAC repair have been described, but only a few have gained recognition. Materials and methods: A 13 years old male child patient with complaint of difficulty in drinking water and change in voice diagnosed as OAF managed with closure with buccal fat pad (BFP). Discussion: Oroa...

  3. Relationship between germination of Candida albicans and increased adherence to human buccal epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, L H; Pearsall, N N

    1980-01-01

    A strong correlation was shown between germination and increased adherence of Candida albicans to human buccal epithelial cells, indicating that germination or other changes in the fungi accompanying germination were responsible for enhanced adherence. Partial inhibition of germination by cysteine resulted in a comparably lower adherence. Preferential adherence of germinated fungi occurred in competition assays with nongerminated and germinated fungi. The enhanced adherence to human mucosal c...

  4. Buccal Cavity Protozoa in Patients Referred to the Faculty of Dentistry in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    MR Jahani; Ebrahimi, A.; Hekmat, S.; MJ Gharavi

    2006-01-01

    Buccal cavity as a compound ecosystem has always been ignored in parasitic infection studies; however it seems that studying on mouth and tooth prevalent parasitic infections is of great importance. In this study, from 120 patients of both sexes referred to Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, (2001-2002) 240 samples were taken from the plaques and calculus of depth of tooth and gum pockets. Wet-mount technique is regarded as the best and quickest diagnostic meth...

  5. Development of Buccal Patches for Delivery of Darifenacin from Beta-Cyclodextrin Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Swati C. Jagdale; Prachyasuman Mohanty; Chabukswar, Aniruddha R.; Kuchekar, Bhanudas S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug-cyclodextrin complexes improve aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. Solubilisation followed by buccal delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs can be advantageous for increasing drug absorption. Darifenacin is an antispasmodic used against urinary incontinence and specifically blocks M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in smooth muscle. M3 receptors are mainly located in exocrine glands, smooth muscle and vascular endothelium. The...

  6. Formulation and In-Vitro Evaluation of Chitosan Based Omeprazole Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Amit E. Birari; Dhiraj A. Khairnar

    2014-01-01

    The present study is concerned with formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing proton pump inhibitors drug, Omeprazole to circumvent the first pass effect and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency and dose related side effects. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Nine formulations were prepared with Chitosan as primary polymer and Carbopol 934, Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC K4M) and Xanthan gum as a secondary po...

  7. Buccal mucosal graft onlay repair for a ureteric ischemic injury following a pyeloplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Vipul; Dassi, Vimal; Andankar, Mukund G.

    2010-01-01

    A 38-year-old female presented with long stricture in the left upper ureter following a pyeloplasty causing persistent flank pain. A left PCNL with an antegrade endopyelotomy was attempted in view of a concomitant left renal 1.5 cm calculus in the lower calyx but it failed. Subsequently, a buccal mucosal onlay graft was applied on the strictured ureter. Follow-up at 3 months showed good uptake of the graft with patent passage for urine drainage.

  8. BUCCAL ADVANCEMENT FLAP DAN ANTROSTOMI: UNTUK TERAPI ORO ANTRAL FISTULA (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Rivandi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Buccal advancement flap is one of the many ways of treating oro antral fistula. This technique is frequently used by dentists because it is easier to do and has several advantages compared to other techniques. This paper reports a case of oro antral fistula caused by complication of a tooth extraction, with discussions about definition, ethics and other therapies of oro antral fistula.

  9. A REPORT OF SOLITARY LARGE BUCCAL FIBROMA TREATED USING DIODE LASER : 6 MONTH FOLLOW UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriparna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic or irritational fibroma is a common benign reactive oral lesion and the treatment of choice is surgical excision. The use of lasers in dental practice has become a very common treatment modality. Here we present a case of a large fibroma on the buccal mucosa which was excised using diode lasers. This procedure proved to be an efficient treatment modality without any unfavourable postoperative consequences

  10. Development and characterization of Eudragit based mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Prasanth Viswanadhan; Puratchikody, Ayarivan; Mathew, Sam Thomarayil; Balaraman, Ashok Kumar

    2011-01-01

    For systemic drug delivery, the buccal region offers an attractive route of drug administration. Salbutamol sulfate is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It’s oral bioavailability is ∼40% due to extensive first pass metabolism. Salbutamol sulfate patches were prepared using Eudragit L-100, HPMC, PVA and Carbopol 934 in various proportions and combinations using PEG-400/PG as ...

  11. Buccal problems related to the stomatognatic system in adolescents: an extension experience

    OpenAIRE

    Miliane Gonçalves Gonzaga; Éder da Silva Dolens; Vinícius Pedrazzi; Bruna Maria Moreira; João Paulo Mardegan Issa

    2015-01-01

    Disorders associated with the stomatognathic system are common in adolescents and are often caused by buccal dysfunctions associated with bacteria, acidic foods, poor hygiene, drunkorexia, bigorexia, smoking, piercings, and eating disorders. The aim of this study was to inform students of the University of São Paulo, School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto, about these frequent problems in adolescents, considering their biopsychosocial aspects, and encourage interaction between college a...

  12. Micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal cells from hairdresser who expose to hair products

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    Koh Hui Yee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hairdresser is one of the fastest growing occupations in today’s society. Hairdresser help styling, cutting, colouring, perming, curling, straightening hair and various treatment to customer. Somehow, hairdresser are constantly exposed to chemical substances such as aromatic amines, hydrogen peroxide, thioglycolic acid, formaldehyde in hair products which can cause damage to human’s genome. Micronucleus is one of the effective biomarker for processes associated with the induction of DNA damage. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the micronucleus frequencies in buccal mucosa epithelial cells of hairdresser who were exposed to chemical of hair products. Method: This study was conducted on twenty female subjects, who were divided into 2 groups: exposed and non-exposed (control group. All subjects recruited were working in the same beauty salon. Buccal cells were obtained from each individual by using cytobrush. The cells were stained with modified Feulgen-Ronssenback method and counting of micronucleus per 1000 cell was done under light microscope. The data were analyzed using independent t-test and one-way Anova (p<0.05. Result: The result showed a significant difference in micronucleus frequency between 2 groups. There were a significantly increase of micronucleus frequency in hairdressers and increase of  micronucleus frequency with the longer duration of exposure. Conclusion: It concluded that the chemical substances of hair products had affected the micronucleus frequency ofthe epithelial cells in buccal mucosa of hairdressers.

  13. Prediction of outcome in buccal cancers treated with radical radiotherapy based on the early tumor response

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    G V Giri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: Aim was to assess the clinical significance of the rate of tumor regression in carcinoma buccal mucosa undergoing radical radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty six patients were enrolled in the study with proven buccal cancers requiring radical radiotherapy, from 1990 to 1996. Radiotherapy was delivered using a combination of external beam and brachytherapy with preloaded cesium 137 needles. The response to the radiation was assessed at the completion of external beam radiation and 6 weeks after brachytherapy. An analysis correlating various parameters influencing the long term disease free survival and overall survival was done. Results: Response assessed at the end of external beam radiation correlated strongly with the overall survival and the disease free interval (P=0.000. No other factor influenced the survival. Conclusion: The rate of the tumor regression can predict the overall outcome in patients with buccal cancers treated with radiation. Completion of the planned course of radiation in patients who do not show a substantial reduction in size by 4.5 weeks of conventional radiation does not improve the results.

  14. The Use of Buccal Fat Pad in the Treatment of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Newer Method

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    K. Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. This study was to evaluate the use of buccal fat pad as an interpositioning material in surgical management of oral sub mucous fibrosis. Materials and methods. A series of 8 cases with proven oral sub mucous fibrosis, with mouth opening less than 20 mm, involving the buccal mucosa were treated surgically in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University, Chennai. Pedicled buccal fat pad was used as an interpositioning material to cover the raw areas in the oral cavity after incision and release of fibrous bands. Results. In 8 patients, the range of pre operative mouth opening was 3–18 mm (mean 14 mm. As the result of the successful surgical procedure, the size of the intra operative mouth opening was ranged from 25–38 mm (mean 33.25 mm. The patients were discharged 5–7 days after the operation. The range of the mouth opening at this time was 25–36 mm (mean 30.63 mm. The results were evaluated using student’s t test and found to be statistically significant. The pedicled grafts took up uneventfull.

  15. Buccal mucosa carcinoma: surgical margin less than 3 mm, not 5 mm, predicts locoregional recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most treatment failure of buccal mucosal cancer post surgery is locoregional recurrence. We tried to figure out how close the surgical margin being unsafe and needed further adjuvant treatment. Between August 2000 and June 2008, a total of 110 patients with buccal mucosa carcinoma (25 with stage I, 31 with stage II, 11 with stage III, and 43 with Stage IV classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer 6th edition) were treated with surgery alone (n = 32), surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy (n = 38) or surgery plus adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (n = 40). Main outcome measures: The primary endpoint was locoregional disease control. The median follow-up time at analysis was 25 months (range, 4-104 months). The 3-year locoregional control rates were significantly different when a 3-mm surgical margin (≤3 versus >3 mm, 71% versus 95%, p = 0.04) but not a 5-mm margin (75% versus 92%, p = 0.22) was used as the cut-off level. We also found a quantitative correlation between surgical margin and locoregional failure (hazard ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.14 - 4.11; p = 0.019). Multivariate analysis identified pN classification and surgical margin as independent factors affecting disease-free survival and locoregional control. Narrow surgical margin ≤3 mm, but not 5 mm, is associated with high risk for locoregional recurrence of buccal mucosa carcinoma. More aggressive treatment after surgery is suggested

  16. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants

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    Haque SE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shaikh Ershadul Haque, Angappan Sheela Materials Chemistry Division, Centre for Nanomaterials, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, India Abstract: Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met, an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7. The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. Keywords: chitosan, sodium starch glycolate, microcrystalline cellulose, drug-delivery system, immediate release

  17. Lamprey buccal gland secretory protein-2 (BGSP-2 inhibits human T lymphocyte proliferation

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    Jing SUN, Shuiyan YU, Zhuang XUE, Cenjie LIU, Yu WU, Xin LIU, Qingwei LI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lamprey is a representative of the agnathans, the most ancient class of vertebrates. Parasitic lampreys secrete anticoagulant from their buccal glands and prevent blood coagulation of host fishes. We identified a buccal gland secretory protein-2 (BGSP-2 from a buccal gland cDNA library of Lampetra japonica. The full-length BGSP-2 gene was cloned and the recombinant BGSP-2 protein was generated. The role of BGSP-2 on lymphocyte proliferation was studied by examining its effects on human T lymphocytes. We found that lamprey BGSP-2 was able to effectively block the proliferation of T cells in vitro by inducing G1/S cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, it inhibited the proliferation of human T lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA at a minimum concentration of 0.1μg/ml. Our data suggest that lamprey BGSP-2 is able to block the mitosis of human T lymphocytes at the G1/S point, and has the potential of anti-proliferative effect on PHA-activated T lymphocytes [Current Zoology 56 (2: 252–258, 2010].

  18. Buccal dental microwear analyses support greater specialization in consumption of hard foodstuffs for Australopithecus anamensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebaranz, Ferran; Galbany, Jordi; Martínez, Laura; Turbón, Daniel; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Molar occlusal microwear texture and anisotropy analyses of 3 Australopithecus anamensis fossil specimens have shown complexity values similar to those of Au. afarensis, indicating that neither of these hominin species had a diet dominated by hard food. However, many researchers have suggested that these were some of the earliest hominins to have such diets. Here we examine buccal microwear patterns of 5 Au. anamensis, 26 Au. afarensis, 48 Hominoidea and 80 Cercopithecoidea primate specimens for independent evidence of dietary adaptations of Au. anamensis. The buccal microwear results obtained suggest that the diet of Au. anamensis relied heavily on hard, brittle food, at least seasonally. This is similar to the diet of the extant Cercopithecoidea primates, including Papio anubis and Chlorocebus aethiops, both of which live in wooded, seasonal savannah environments and have diets that include fruit and grasses, but also underground storage organs (USOs), such as corms or blades, as well as leaves and seeds, and also Mandrillus and Cercocebus, from forested environments with frugivorous-granivorous diets. Furthermore, the buccal microwear patterns of Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis clearly differed - in clear contrast to occlusal enamel texture observations-, which support previous dietary interpretations based on both anatomical and palaeocological reconstructions. PMID:22781583

  19. Research of Optimization Method of Swabbing Parameters of All Rods Pumping Wells in the Entire Oilfield

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    Zhang Xishun

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the drawbacks of the optimization and design methods and the practical production goal of least energy consumption, a new theory is raised that the gas of the layer released energy in the lifting process including two parts: dissolved-gas expansion energy and free-gas expansion energy. The motor’s input power of rod pumping system is divided into hydraulic horse power, gas expansion power, surface mechanical loss power, subsurface loss power. Using the theory of energy-conservation, the simulation model of free-gas expansion power has been established, the simulating models of the motor’s input power which are based on the energy method have been improved and the simulation precision of system efficiency has been enhanced. The entire optimization design models have been set up in which the single-well output is taken as the optimum design variable, the planed production of all oil wells in an overall oilfield as the restraint condition and the least input power of the overall oilfield as the object. Synthesizing the optimization design results of the single well and the entire oilfield, the optimal output and the optimal swabbing parameters of all wells can be got. The actual optimizing examples show that the total power consumption designed by the entire optimization method is less 12.95% than that by the single optimization method.

  20. Molecular diagnosis of African tick bite fever using eschar swabs in a traveller returning from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Nicole; Burgmann, Heinz; Forstner, Christina; Ramharter, Michael; Széll, Marton; Schötta, Anna-Margarita; Stanek, Gerold; Markowicz, Mateusz

    2016-08-01

    African tick bite fever is an emerging infectious disease among travellers caused by the pathogen Rickettsia africae. Most travel-associated cases have been reported from countries in southern Africa. So far it has rarely been reported among travellers to eastern Africa and our patient is one of the first described cases imported from Tanzania. A woman presented with fever, chills, headache, myalgia and a rickettsial eschar on her ankle after returning from Tanzania. The diagnosis of African tick bite fever is often based on clinical grounds due to a lack of reliable diagnostic tests at commencement of symptoms. In this patient direct molecular detection of R. africae was performed by PCR from a sample obtained non-invasively with a swab from the rickettsial eschar. A positive PCR result was achieved although the patient had already started antibiotic treatment with doxycycline. In conclusion, this non-invasive method enables early diagnosis of African tick bite fever by direct molecular detection of R. africae and might improve the management of undifferentiated fever in travellers from Africa. PMID:27488618

  1. Discovery of a novel Parvovirinae virus, porcine parvovirus 7, by metagenomic sequencing of porcine rectal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinski, Rachel M; Mitra, Namita; Hause, Ben M

    2016-08-01

    Parvoviruses are a diverse group of viruses containing some of the smallest known species that are capable of infecting a wide range of animals. Metagenomic sequencing of pooled rectal swabs from adult pigs identified a 4103-bp contig consisting of two major open reading frames encoding proteins of 672 and 469 amino acids (aa) in length. BLASTP analysis of the 672-aa protein found 42.4 % identity to fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) parvovirus 2 (EhPV2) and 37.9 % to turkey parvovirus (TuPV) TP1-2012/HUN NS1 proteins. The 469-aa protein had no significant similarity to known proteins. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that PPV7, EhPV2, and TuPV represent a novel genus in the family Parvoviridae. Quantitative PCR screening of 182 porcine diagnostic samples found a total of 16 positives (8.6 %). Together, these data suggest that PPV7 is a highly divergent novel parvovirus prevalent within the US swine. PMID:26995221

  2. Multisite Evaluation of Cepheid Xpert Carba-R Assay for Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Organisms in Rectal Swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tato, M; Ruiz-Garbajosa, P; Traczewski, M; Dodgson, A; McEwan, A; Humphries, R; Hindler, J; Veltman, J; Wang, H; Cantón, R

    2016-07-01

    Rapid identification of patients who are colonized with carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO) is included in multiple national guidelines for containment of these organisms. In a multisite study, we evaluated the performance of the Cepheid Xpert Carba-R assay, a qualitative diagnostic test that was designed for the rapid detection and differentiation of the blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, and blaIMP-1 genes from rectal swab specimens. A double rectal swab set was collected from 383 patients admitted at four institutions (2 in the United States, 1 in the United Kingdom, 1 in Spain). One swab was used for reference culture (MacConkey broth containing 1 mg/liter of meropenem and subcultured to a MacConkey agar plate with a 10-μg meropenem disk) and for sequencing of DNA obtained from carbapenem-nonsusceptible isolates for carbapenemase identification. The other swab was used for the Xpert Carba-R assay. In addition to the clinical rectal swabs, 250 contrived specimens (108 well-characterized CPO and 142 negative controls spiked onto negative rectal swabs) were tested. Overall, 149/633 (23.5%) samples were positive by the Xpert Carba-R assay. In 6 samples, multiple targets were detected (4 VIM/OXA-48, 1 IMP-1/NDM, and 1 NDM/KPC). The Xpert Carba-R assay detected 155 targets (26 IMP-1, 30 VIM, 27 NDM, 33 KPC, 39 OXA-48) within a time range of 32 to 48 min. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Xpert Carba-R assay compared to those of the reference culture and sequencing results were 96.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.2% to 98.9%), 98.6% (95% CI, 97.1% to 99.4%), 95.3%, and 99.0%, respectively. The Cepheid Xpert Carba-R assay is an accurate and rapid test to identify rectal colonization with CPO, which can guide infection control programs to limit the spread of these organisms. PMID:27122379

  3. Morphological study of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of the flatfish common solea (Solea solea) and its relation to the type of feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Neveen El Said Reda El Bakary

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the surface architecture of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of Solea solea which are considered one of the most important predators in benthic communities. Methods: Adult Solea solea were obtained from Mediterranean Sea near Damietta. The heads were removed and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Its buccal cavity is asymmetrical and divided into roof and floor and the tongue for histological studies. Results: The buccal cavity roof is formed from upper ...

  4. A new transmucosal drug delivery system for patients with breakthrough cancer pain: the fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet

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    Enno Freye

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enno FreyeCenter of Ambulatory Pain Medicine, Neuss-Uedesheim, GermanyAbstract: Breakthrough pain, a transitory severe pain with the background of otherwise controlled persistent pain has a prevalence between 52% and 67% in outpatients with cancer. Medications for such sudden-onset pain require non-invasive delivery of a potent and short-acting opioid for rapid pain relief. Although oral transmucosal delivery of fentanyl citrate (OTFC has been shown to provide better pain relief than a typical oral opioid administration such as morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR in the management of breakthrough pain in patients with cancer-related pain, newer delivery systems offer a potential for further enhancement of pain relief. The fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet (FBT formulation employs a novel drug delivery system that relies on an effervescence reaction to improve buccal fentanyl absorption. Using the effervescence reaction results in the production and dissipation of carbon dioxide with a dynamic shift in pH as the tablet dissolves. The induced low pH favors dissolution of fentanyl citrate in saliva (higher water solubility. The subsequent increase in pH thereafter favors the buccal absorption of non-ionized fentanyl across the buccal mucosa. Such a pH “pumping” mechanism increases the permeation of fentanyl into and through the buccal to the vascular system from where the agent is transported to the specific opioid receptor sites in the CNS. Compared with OTFC, data in healthy volunteers show that the effervescence reaction employed in FBT increases the total amount and the speed of absorption of fentanyl being absorbed. Compared with OTFC there is an increase in peak fentanyl blood concentrations, and an enhancement of the amount of buccal delivery of fentanyl. Such favorable data are underlined by the results of clinical studies where the FBT technology was studied in patients with breakthrough pain in chronic malignant pathologies

  5. PCR confirmation of Chlamydophila felis from nasal and conjunctival swab samples of a domestic cat in Croatia

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    Gregurić-Gračner Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now there is no evidence that chlamydiosis does exist among cats in the Republic of Croatia regardless of the fact that feline chlamydiosis is a worldwide disease. This report describes the clinical examination of a one year old cat with bilateral conjunctivitis, as well as the diagnostic methods used to confirm infection with Chlamydophila (Cp. felis. We have used rapid enzyme immunoassay test (EIA for antigen detection, in order to examine the swabs taken from the eyes and nostrils. The positive result was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence (DIF made on scrapings from cat's conjunctivas. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR made on swabs taken from cat's conjunctivas and nostrils and sequencing the PCR product was used to confirmed infection of cat precisely with Chlamydophila felis. No increase of IgG antibodies against chlamydias was noted using indirect immunofluorescence (IFA method.

  6. Culture-independent quantification of Salmonella enterica in carcass gauze swabs by flotation prior to real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Schelin, Jenny; Norling, Börje; Vigre, Håkan; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Rådström, Peter

    To facilitate quantitative risk assessment in the meat production chain, there is a need for culture-independent quantification methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of flotation, a non-destructive sample preparation method based on traditional buoyant density centrifugation, for...... culture-independent quantification of intact Salmonella in pig carcass gauze swabs (100 cm2) prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR). A novel approach was investigated, excluding the homogenization step prior to flotation, to improve the detection limit and speed up the quantification procedure. The buoyant...... density of two Salmonella strains in different growth conditions was determined to be 1.065 – 1.092 g/ml. Based on these data, an optimal discontinuous flotation with three different density layers, 1.200, 1.102 and 1.055 g/ml, was designed for extracting intact Salmonella cells from pig carcass swabs...

  7. Evaluation of a conjunctival swab polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Leishmania infantum in dogs in a non-endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisweid, K; Weber, K; Sauter-Louis, C; Hartmann, K

    2013-10-01

    Due to the increasing numbers of dogs imported from or visiting Mediterranean countries, canine leishmaniasis has become an important infectious disease in countries where natural transmission typically does not occur. Although conjunctival swabs have recently been described as a useful diagnostic tool in endemic areas, their usefulness in non-endemic areas is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a conjunctival swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in dogs in a non-endemic area. Dogs (n=74) that were presented for suspected canine leishmaniasis or for screening purposes after a history of travelling were prospectively included. PCR results from conjunctival swabs were compared to those from bone marrow, lymph nodes and blood and also to antibody results determined by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dogs were considered infected if bone marrow, lymph node, or blood PCR was positive and were defined as not infected if bone marrow PCR, the gold standard of testing, was negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the conjunctival swab PCR were 78.4% (confidence interval [CI] 95%, 62.8-88.6) and 93.8% (CI 95%, 79.8-98.3), respectively. There was substantial agreement between PCR results from conjunctival swabs and lymph nodes (κ=0.642), fair to moderate agreement between conjunctival swabs and bone marrow (κ=0.483), and almost no agreement between conjunctival swabs and blood (κ=0.070). Dogs with high antibody titres were more likely to be positive on conjunctival swab PCR than dogs with negative or doubtful antibody titres (P<0.001). Thus, conjunctival swab PCR is a good non-invasive test to diagnose Leishmania infection in dogs in non-endemic countries. PMID:23993391

  8. Evaluation of isolation procedures and chromogenic agar media for detection of MRSA in nasal swabs from pigs and veal calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Graveland, Haitske; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Van Nes, Arie; Schoormans, Anky; Broekhuizen-Stins, Marian; Schothorst, Isabella Oosting-Van; Heederik, Dick; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Since the emergence of MRSA in livestock, screening of animals for the detection of MRSA is widely practised. Different procedures are published for animal samples but a systematic comparison of methods has not been performed. The objective of this study was to compare three available commonly used procedures and three chromogenic agars for detecting MRSA in nasal swabs from pigs (n=70) and veal calves (n=100). Procedures 1 and 2 used a pre-enrichment comprising Mueller Hi...

  9. Evaluation of Automated and Manual Commercial DNA Extraction Methods for Recovery of Brucella DNA from Suspensions and Spiked Swabs

    OpenAIRE

    Dauphin, Leslie A.; Hutchins, Rebecca J.; Bost, Liberty A.; Bowen, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated automated and manual commercial DNA extraction methods for their ability to recover DNA from Brucella species in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) suspension and from spiked swab specimens. Six extraction methods, representing several of the methodologies which are commercially available for DNA extraction, as well as representing various throughput capacities, were evaluated: the MagNA Pure Compact and the MagNA Pure LC instruments, the IT 1-2-3 DNA sample purification kit...

  10. Current Microbial Isolates from Wound Swabs, Their Culture and Sensitivity Pattern at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Pondei, Kemebradikumo; Fente, Beleudanyo G.; Oladapo, Oluwatoyosi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Wound infections continue to be problematic in clinical practice where empiric treatment of infections is routine. Objectives: A retrospective cross-sectional study to determine the current causative organisms of wound infections and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital (NDUTH), Okolobiri, Bayelsa State of Nigeria. Methods: Records of wound swabs collected from 101 patients with high suspicion of wound infection were analysed. Sm...

  11. Rapid diagnosis of diarrhea caused by Shigella sonnei using dipsticks; comparison of rectal swabs, direct stool and stool culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Duran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated a dipstick test for rapid detection of Shigella sonnei on bacterial colonies, directly on stools and from rectal swabs because in actual field situations, most pathologic specimens for diagnosis correspond to stool samples or rectal swabs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The test is based on the detection of S. sonnei lipopolysaccharide (LPS O-side chains using phase I-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles, and displayed on a one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 5 ng/ml of LPS was detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in 6 minutes. This is the optimal time for lecture to avoid errors of interpretation. In distilled water and in reconstituted stools, an unequivocal positive reaction was obtained with 4 x 10(6 CFU/ml of S. sonnei. The specificity was 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and different unrelated strains. When tested on 342 rectal swabs in Chile, specificity (281/295 was 95.3% (95% CI: 92.9% - 97.7% and sensitivity (47/47 was 100%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 95.5 % of cases (328/342 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 77% (95% CI: 65% - 86.5% and 100% respectively. When tested on 219 stools in Chile, Vietnam, India and France, specificity (190/198 was 96% (95% CI 92%-98% and sensitivity (21/21 was 100%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 96.3 % of cases (211/219 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 72.4% (95% CI 56.1%-88.6% and 100 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: This one-step dipstick test performed well for diagnosis of S. sonnei both on stools and on rectal swabs. These data confirm a preliminary study done in Chile.

  12. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in simulated and true clinical throat swab specimens by nanorod array-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L Hennigan

    Full Text Available The prokaryote Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of respiratory disease in humans, accounting for 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia and the leading cause of pneumonia in older children and young adults. The limitations of existing options for mycoplasma diagnosis highlight a critical need for a new detection platform with high sensitivity, specificity, and expediency. Here we evaluated silver nanorod arrays (NA as a biosensing platform for detection and differentiation of M. pneumoniae in culture and in spiked and true clinical throat swab samples by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS. Three M. pneumoniae strains were reproducibly differentiated by NA-SERS with 95%-100% specificity and 94-100% sensitivity, and with a lower detection limit exceeding standard PCR. Analysis of throat swab samples spiked with M. pneumoniae yielded detection in a complex, clinically relevant background with >90% accuracy and high sensitivity. In addition, NA-SERS correctly classified with >97% accuracy, ten true clinical throat swab samples previously established by real-time PCR and culture to be positive or negative for M. pneumoniae. Our findings suggest that the unique biochemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy, combined with reproducible spectral enhancement by silver NA, holds great promise as a superior platform for rapid and sensitive detection and identification of M. pneumoniae, with potential for point-of-care application.

  13. Comparison between nasopharyngeal swab and nasal wash, using culture and PCR, in the detection of potential respiratory pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Batrawy Sherouk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasopharyngeal carriage of potential pathogens is important as it is both the major source of transmission and the prerequisite of invasive disease. New methods for detecting carriage could improve comfort, accuracy and laboratory utility. The aims of this study were to compare the sensitivities of a nasopharyngeal swab (NPS and a nasal wash (NW in detecting potential respiratory pathogens in healthy adults using microbiological culture and PCR. Results Healthy volunteers attended for nasal washing and brushing of the posterior nasopharynx. Conventional and real-time PCR were used to detect pneumococcus and meningococcus. Statistical differences between the two nasal sampling methods were determined using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test; differences between culture and PCR methods were determined using the McNemar test. Nasal washing was more comfortable for volunteers than swabbing (n = 24. In detection by culture, the NW was significantly more likely to detect pathogens than the NPS (p Conclusions Nasal washing and PCR may provide effective alternatives to nasopharyngeal swabbing and classical microbiology, respectively.

  14. Cytogenetic damage in circulating lymphocytes and buccal mucosa cells of head-and-neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated cytogenetic damage by measuring the frequency of micronucleated cells (MNC) in peripheral blood and buccal mucosa of head-and-neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. MNC frequencies were assessed in 31 patients before, during, and after radiotherapy, and in 17 healthy controls matched for gender, age, and smoking habits. Results showed no statistically significant difference between patients and controls prior to radiotherapy in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes or buccal mucosa cells. During treatment, increased MNC frequencies were observed in both cell types. Micronucleated lymphocyte levels remained high in samples collected 30 to 140 days after the end of treatment, while MNC frequency in buccal mucosa decreased to values statistically similar to baseline values. There is controversy over the effects of age, smoking habit, tumor stage, and/or metastasis on MNC frequency. However, increased frequency of micronucleated buccal mucosa cells was seen in patients under 60 years old and in those with tumors >4 cm. In conclusion, the data show that radiotherapy has a potent clastogenic effect in circulating lymphocytes and buccal mucosa cells of head-and-neck cancer patients, and that the baseline MNC frequency in these two tissues is not a sensitive marker for head-and neck neoplasm. (author)

  15. CT ANATOMY OF BUCCAL FAT PAD AND ITS ROLE IN VOLUMETRIC ALTERATIONS OF FACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Guryanov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is the revision of the anatomy of buccal fat pad and its role in a volumetric pattern of face. Bichat fat pad is a fatty anatomical structure with body and numerous process enclosed between the bony and muscular structures in temporal, pterygopalatine fossae and extents to the cheek area. Nevertheless, the opinion about its structure and role in forming of volume pattern of face sometimes could be controversial. The Bichat fat pad consists on predominately hormone insensitive fat tissue with underdeveloped stroma, this leads to the stability of the fat pad volume and lesser radiodensity in contrast to the subcutaneous fat. Moreover, the buccal fat pad is delimited from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area by the strong capsule. This feature allows us to use CT to divide the Bichat fat pad from the surrounding tissues. The thorough embryological data provide the distinction of Bichat fat pad from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area even at the stage of development. On the other hand, the border between the masticatory muscles and the processes of the fat pad is not evident and resembles cellular spaces in the other anatomical areas. To elicit the role of the buccal fat pad in volume pattern of face and its function we have performed the several experiments, analyzed the postoperative results after Bichat fat pad resection using surface scanner and CT data. At first, we have performed the gravity test: the patient’s face photogrammetry scanning in horizontal and vertical position of head and it revealed the excess of volume in temporal area in horizontal position. To exclude mechanism of overflowing of the skin and subcutaneous fat over the zygomatic arch we have placed the markers on the skin surface at the different areas of face including the projection of ligaments and found out that the migration of soft tissue over the zygomatic arch is about 3-5 mm and almost the same in temporal area. However, the acquired result was

  16. Validation of a same-day real-time PCR method for screening of meat and carcass swabs for Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Flemming

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major sources of human Salmonella infections is meat. Therefore, efficient and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain is necessary. Validation of alternative methods is needed to prove that the performance is equal to established methods. Very few of the published PCR methods for Salmonella have been validated in collaborative studies. This study describes a validation including comparative and collaborative trials, based on the recommendations from the Nordic organization for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal of a same-day, non-commercial real-time PCR method for detection of Salmonella in meat and carcass swabs. Results The comparative trial was performed against a reference method (NMKL-71:5, 1999 using artificially and naturally contaminated samples (60 minced veal and pork meat samples, 60 poultry neck-skins, and 120 pig carcass swabs. The relative accuracy was 99%, relative detection level 100%, relative sensitivity 103% and relative specificity 100%. The collaborative trial included six laboratories testing minced meat, poultry neck-skins, and carcass swabs as un-inoculated samples and samples artificially contaminated with 1–10 CFU/25 g, and 10–100 CFU/25 g. Valid results were obtained from five of the laboratories and used for the statistical analysis. Apart from one of the non-inoculated samples being false positive with PCR for one of the laboratories, no false positive or false negative results were reported. Partly based on results obtained in this study, the method has obtained NordVal approval for analysis of Salmonella in meat and carcass swabs. The PCR method was transferred to a production laboratory and the performance was compared with the BAX Salmonella test on 39 pork samples artificially contaminated with Salmonella. There was no significant difference in the results obtained by the two methods. Conclusion The real-time PCR method for

  17. Buccal Cell Cytokeratin 14 Correlates with Multiple Blood Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifert, Wayne R; Nguyen, Tori; Rembach, Alan; Martins, Ralph; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie; Masters, Colin L; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C; Macaulay, S Lance; François, Maxime; Fenech, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may reflect early stages of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our hypothesis was that cytokeratin 14 (CK14) expression could be used with blood-based biomarkers such as homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate to identify individuals with MCI or AD from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) flagship study of aging. Buccal cells from 54 individuals were analyzed by a newly developed method that is rapid, automated, and quantitative for buccal cell CK14 expression levels. CK14 was negatively correlated with plasma Mg²⁺ and LDL, while positively correlated with vitamin B12, red cell hematocrit/volume, and basophils in the MCI group and positively correlated with insulin and vitamin B12 in the AD group. The combined biomarker panel (CK14 expression, plasma vitamin B12, and homocysteine) was significantly lower in the MCI (p = 0.003) and AD (p = 0.0001) groups compared with controls. Receiver-operating characteristic curves yielded area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.829 for the MCI (p = 0.002) group and 0.856 for the AD (p = 0.0003) group. These complex associations of multiple related parameters highlight the differences between the MCI and AD cohorts and possibly an underlying metabolic pathology associated with the development of early memory impairment. The changes in buccal cell CK14 expression observed in this pilot study supports previous results suggesting the peripheral biomarkers and metabolic changes are not restricted to brain pathology alone in MCI and AD and could prove useful as a potential biomarker in identifying individuals with an increased risk of developing MCI and eventually AD. PMID:26402008

  18. Anti-angiogenic activities of CRBGP from buccal glands of lampreys (Lampetra japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi; Liu, Yu; Duan, Dandan; Gou, Meng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jihong; Li, Qingwei; Xiao, Rong

    2016-04-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), characterized by 16 conserved cysteines, are distributed in a wide range of organisms, such as secernenteas, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. In the previous studies, a novel CRISP family member (cysteine-rich buccal gland protein, CRBGP) was separated from the buccal gland of lampreys (Lampetra japonica, L. japonica). Lamprey CRBGP could not only suppress depolarization-induced contraction of rat tail arterial smooth muscle, but also block voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). In the present study, the anti-angiogenic activities of lamprey CRBGP were investigated using endothelial cells and chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) models. In vitro assays, lamprey CRBGP is able to induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis by disturbing the calcium homeostasis and mitochondria functions. In addition, lamprey CRBGP could inhibit proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and tube formation of HUVECs by affecting the organization of F-actin and expression level of matrix metallo-proteinase 2 (MMP-2), matrix metallo-proteinase 9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) which are related to angiogenesis. In vivo assays, lamprey CRBGP could suppress the blood vessel formation in CAM models. Therefore, lamprey CRBGP is an important protein present in the buccal gland of lampreys and might help lampreys suppress the contraction of blood vessels, nociceptive responses and wound healing of host fishes during their feeding time. In addition, lamprey CRBGP might have the potential to act as an effective anti-angiogenic factor for the treatment of abnormal angiogenesis induced diseases. PMID:26616010

  19. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of buccal tablet formulations of ritodrine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hiraku; Sakata, Osamu; Yumoto, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Buccal tablets of ritodrine (RD) hydrochloride (HCl), called RD-HCl, were prepared using the direct compression method with alginate (AL), lactose (LC), magnesium stearate (ST), and microcrystalline cellulose (MC) as excipients. The tablets were evaluated based on hardness, and tablets weighing 80 mg and with hardness of greater than 30 N were chosen as appropriate ones. As a result, tablets composed of RD-HCl (4 mg)/LC (38.5 mg)/ST (0.5 mg)/MC (37 mg) and RD-HCl (4 mg)/AL(7 mg)/LC (28.5 mg)/ST (0.5 mg)/MC (37 mg), called D9 and D10, respectively, were selected. These tablets were further evaluated based on in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption studies in rats. D9 rapidly released RD, achieved an effective plasma concentration from 15 min to 7 h after its buccal administration, and did not exceed the toxic plasma level of 80 ng/mL. D10 gradually released RD, and maintained an effective concentration from 1 h to 7 h after its buccal administration, without exceeding the toxic plasma level. The absorption was more prolonged in D10 than D9. Their in vivo release was considered to be caused gradually from the amount of RD remaining in the oral cavity at 7 h, in particular D10. The superior retention of D10 in plasma and oral cavity appeared to be related to its higher mucoadhesive properties. Although these results were obtained using rats, they suggest that the chosen tablets should have adequate characteristics from the viewpoints of plasma levels. PMID:26027834

  20. Comparative Mapping of GABA-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Buccal Ganglia of Nudipleura Molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2016-04-15

    Phylogenetic comparisons of neurotransmitter distribution are important for understanding the ground plan organization of nervous systems. This study describes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in the buccal ganglia of six sea slug species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Euthyneura, Nudipleura). In the nudibranch species, Hermissenda crassicornis, Tritonia diomedea, Tochuina tetraquetra, and Dendronotus iris, the number of GABA-ir neurons was highly consistent. Another nudibranch, Melibe leonina, however, contained approximately half the number of GABA-ir neurons. This may relate to its loss of a radula and its unique feeding behavior. The GABA immunoreactivity in a sister group to the nudibranchs, Pleurobranchaea californica, differed drastically from that of the nudibranchs. Not only did it have significantly more GABA-ir neurons but it also had a unique GABA distribution pattern. Furthermore, unlike the nudibranchs, the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution was also different from that of other, more distantly related, euopisthobranch and panpulmonate snails and slugs. This suggests that the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution may be a derived feature, unique to this lineage. The majority of GABA-ir axons and neuropil in the Nudipleura were restricted to the buccal ganglia, commissures, and connectives. However, in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, we detected a few GABA-ir fibers in buccal nerves that innervate feeding muscles. Although the specific functions of the GABA-ir neurons in the species in this study are not known, the innervation pattern suggests these neurons may play an integrative or regulatory role in bilaterally coordinated behaviors in the Nudipleura. PMID:26355705

  1. In vivo, in vitro evaluation of linseed mucilage based buccal mucoadhesive microspheres of venlafaxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerkar, Pankaj Padmakar; Gattani, Surendra

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present research work was to extract linseed mucilage, use it as a mucoadhesive agent and to develop mucoadhesive microspheres for buccal delivery with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism, by enhancing residence time in the buccal cavity. Linseed mucilage was extracted and used to prepare microspheres with varying concentrations of mucilage from formulation F1-F4 (1-2.5%) by spray-drying technique. The microspheres were evaluated for the yield, particle size, incorporation efficiency, swelling property, in vitro mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, histological study, and stability. Microspheres were characterized by differential scanning colorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction study. Further, the bioavailability study using the New Zealand rabbits was carried out. Formulation F4 showed the maximum mucoadhesion 89.37 ± 1.35%, 92.10 ± 1.37% incorporation efficiency, highest swelling index 0.770 ± 1.23. F4 showed a marked increase in the bioavailability after buccal administration (51.86 ± 3.95) as compared to oral route (39.60 ± 6.16). Also it took less time to reach maximum plasma concentration of 21.38 ± 1.05 ng/ml as compared to oral solution where it required 180 min to reach maximum plasma concentration of 17.98 ± 1.14. It is concluded from the results that linseed mucilage can be used in the production of the mucoadhesive microspheres. PMID:20954808

  2. Ectopic compound odontoma in the buccal mucosa: report of a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venigalla, Aparna; Guttikonda, Leela Krishna; Nelakurthi, Hasini; Babburi, Suresh; Pinisetti, Soujanya; Kotti, Ajay Banerji; Kalapala, Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Eruption of tooth into extraosseous locations is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a six-year-old girl child with tooth-like structure erupting from the right buccal mucosa. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic examination suggested the diagnosis of compound odontoma. Very few cases have been reported so far, where tooth has been located completely in the soft tissue and a variety of names have been used for that condition. A brief review of the literature and the ambiguity in naming the situation is discussed. PMID:25810930

  3. Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa Underlying a Giant Cutaneous Horn: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous horn is a conical, dense, and hyperkeratotic protrusion that often appears similar to the horn of an animal. Giant cutaneous horns are rare; no incidence or prevalence has been reported. The significance of cutaneous horns is that they occur in association with, or as a response to, a wide variety of underlying benign, premalignant, and malignant cutaneous diseases. A case of giant cutaneous horn of left oral commissure along with carcinoma left buccal mucosa is reported here as an extremely rare oral/perioral pathology.

  4. Design and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems containing metoprolol tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramana M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive buccal tablets of metoprolol tartarate were fabricated with objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and prolonging duration of action. The mucoadhesive polymers used in formulation were Carbopol-934, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose. The formulations were characterized for physiochemical parameters, in vitro release studies and in vivo placebo studies. The best mucoadhesive performance and in vitro drug release profile were exhibited by the tablets containing hydroxyethylcellulose and Carbopol-934 in ratio 1:2. This product was more comfortable to the user due to absence of erosion, faster hydration rate and less viscosity of surrounding environment. In vivo placebo studies did not show any side effects.

  5. Reconstruction of palate with buccal fat pad secondary to resection of desmoplastic ameloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhimappa Mallappa Rudagi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA is an unusual variant of ameloblastoma exhibiting important differences in the anatomical distribution, radiographic features and histologic appearance compared with the classic type of ameloblastoma. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of DA in the anterior left maxilla and to describe a simple method of reconstruction with the use of buccal fat pad (BFP. BFP is an excellent choice for reconstruction of small to medium sized defects. It should be manipulated gently and hemostasis should be achieved meticulously during this surgery. It should not be sutured under tension.

  6. “Osteolipoma of buccal mucosa: Case report and literature review”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar-Bokkasam, Vijay; Suresh, Dirasantchu; Venkata, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Osteolipoma affecting oral cavity is indeed rare. We hereby report a case of osteolipoma affecting buccal mucosa. A review of literature of osteolipoma of oral cavity, particularly on radiographic/imaging findings was done. Only 16 cases of Osteolipoma of oral cavity are reported in the literature. The radiographic findings of our case, i.e. multiple dense homogenous radio-opaque structures was reported earlier only in one case [out of 16] of osteolipoma of oral cavity. Key words:Lipoma, osteolipoma, panoramic radiography, radio-opaque, radiography. PMID:27034764

  7. Two, four, six, eight... stop and count before it is too late! An audit on swab, needle and instrument counts in theatre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, T.

    2014-07-01

    A concurrent audit was conducted over a four week period to determine if the counting of swabs, needles and instruments for surgery adhered to local policy and recommended guidelines. Data were collected on 30 abdominal surgical procedures. This audit highlighted failings in the count process. It identified poor communication within the multidisciplinary team. There needs to be an increased awareness about local policy, national and international guidelines regarding the counting of swabs, needles and instruments for all surgical procedures.

  8. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J.; Schougaard, H.;

    2006-01-01

    The reproduction rate of horses is one of the lowest within domestic livestock despite advances the veterinary medicine. Infertility in horses may be due mainly to the lack of suitable selection criteria in the breeding of horses. However, acquired infertility due to genital, bacterial infections...... of artificial insemination of modern sport horses....

  9. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J; Schougaard, H;

    2007-01-01

    The reproduction rate of horses is one of the lowest within domestic livestock despite advances the veterinary medicine. Infertility in horses may be due mainly to the lack of suitable selection criteria in the breeding of horses. However, acquired infertility due to genital, bacterial infections...... of artificial insemination of modern sport horses....

  10. Absorption and tolerability of fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF) in patients with cancer in the presence of oral mucositis

    OpenAIRE

    Finn AL; Hill WDC; Tagarro I; Gever LN

    2011-01-01

    Andrew L Finn1, WD Charlie Hill2, Ignacio Tagarro3, Larry N Gever41Product Development, BioDelivery Sciences International, Inc, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Co-founding partner, InVisions Consultants, LLC, San Antonio, TX, USA; 3Marketing Centre CIP CNS, Meda Pharma S.A.U., Madrid, Spain; 4Medical Affairs, Meda Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Somerset, NJ, USAPurpose: Fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF) consists of a small, bilayered, water-soluble polymer film that adheres to the buccal mucosa and rapidly deli...

  11. Design and evaluation of buccal films as paediatric dosage form for transmucosal delivery of ondansetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trastullo, Ramona; Abruzzo, Angela; Saladini, Bruno; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara; Bigucci, Federica

    2016-08-01

    In the process of implementation and innovation of paediatric dosage forms, buccal films for transmucosal administration of drug represent one of the most interesting approach. In fact, films are able to provide an extended duration of activity allowing minimal dosage and frequency and offer an exact and flexible dose, associated with ease of handling. The objective of the present study was to develop polymeric films for the sustained release of ondansetron hydrochloride, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT3 receptors indicated in paediatrics for the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy and postoperatively. Films were prepared by casting and drying of aqueous solutions containing different weight ratios of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) with chitosan (CH) or sodium hyaluronate (HA) or gelatin (GEL) and characterized for their physico-chemical and functional properties. The presence of HA, GEL and CH did not improve the mucoadhesive properties of HPMC film. The inclusion of GEL and CH in HPMC film increased in vitro drug release with respect to the inclusion of HA, although films containing HA showed the highest water uptake. Moreover in agreement with the release behaviour, the inclusion of CH and GEL provided higher drug permeation through porcine buccal mucosa with respect to HPMC film and ensured linear permeation profiles of drug. PMID:27267732

  12. Development of Buccal Patches for Delivery of Darifenacin from Beta-Cyclodextrin Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati C. Jagdale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-cyclodextrin complexes improve aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. Solubilisation followed by buccal delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs can be advantageous for increasing drug absorption. Darifenacin is an antispasmodic used against urinary incontinence and specifically blocks M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in smooth muscle. M3 receptors are mainly located in exocrine glands, smooth muscle and vascular endothelium. The oral absorption of darifenacin is poor owing to its low solubility. It also has poor bioavailability (15-19% due to a high rate of first-pass metabolism. Complexation with beta-cyclodextrin was carried out to enhance solubility. The best results were obtained by co-grinding in a 1:1 molar ratio of drug: β-cyclodextrin. The solid inclusion complexes were characterized by DSC, X-ray diffractometry and FTIR. Inclusion complexes showed higher dissolution rates than the pure drug. Controlledrelease mucoadhesive patches were prepared with two hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC polymers, K100M CR and K15. The patches were assessed for surface pH, folding endurance, swelling, mucoadhesive properties, in-vitro residence time, vapor transmission test and in-vitro (cellophane, egg membrane and exvivo (goat buccal mucosa release. Formulations Ha2 (2% HPMC K100M CR and Pa4 (4% HPMC K15 showed good mucoadhesive strength, in-vitro and exvivo residence times, with controlled release for 10 hours.

  13. Reference values and repeatability of buccal mucosal bleeding time in healthy sedated cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatzas, Dimitrios G; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Kazakos, Giorgos M; Kostoulas, Polychronis; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Polizopoulou, Zoe S

    2014-02-01

    Bleeding time is a screening test for the evaluation of primary haemostasis. As there is currently limited information on the reference interval (RI) and repeatability of the test in the cat compared with the dog, the purpose of the study was to establish the RI of buccal mucosa bleeding time (BMBT) in healthy cats and to investigate the intra-observer repeatability of the test. Fifty-six cats were prospectively enrolled in the study. The animals were deemed to be healthy based on history, physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and negative serological testing for feline leukaemia and immunodeficiency viruses. All cats were sedated with ketamine, dexmedetomidine and morphine, and the BMBT was sequentially measured in the left and right exposed buccal mucosa following a standardised incision made by a commercially available, disposable, bleeding time device. The mean BMBT was 58.6 s and the RIs ranged from 34 to 105 s (Bootstrap estimation). The intra-observer repeatability was up to 87 s (Bland-Altman plot). The results of this study imply that the combination of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and morphine is a safe and useful sedative protocol allowing for the reliable measurement of BMBT in the cat. The RI of feline BMBT may range from 34 to 105 s and the BMBT may differ by up to 87 s for any two consecutive readings for an individual cat. PMID:23985755

  14. Micronucleus induction by repeated exposure of diagnostic X-ray on oral buccal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography is the important diagnostic tools essential for diagnosis and planning of orthodontic treatment. X-ray is ionizing radiation which showed various effects include breaking the bond of biological molecules, inducing loss of ability of cell death, increases nuclear alterations. Micronuclei-x000D-(MN) are small chromatin bodies that appear in the cytoplasm by the-x000D- condensation of acrocentric chromosomal fragments or by whole chromosomes. This -x000D- is a sensitive indicator of genetic damage. -x000D- x000D-. To evaluate micronucleus induction by repeated exposure of diagnostic X-ray on human buccal cell. Methods: 25 patients who visiting to ABSMIDS, Department of Oral medicine and Radiology for dental checkup exposed to diagnostic X-ray more than 4 times have been selected for this study. The buccal cell for analysis was collected from the cheek mucosa by means of gentle scraping of epithelial using ice-cream sticks and placed in Buffer saline. This sample was smeared on glass slide and then fixed in methanol:glacial acetic acid (3:1). Air dried and stained with Giemsa for 15-25 minutes. Then 250 cells in each slides were analyzed under microscope and frequency of micronucleus was scored (n=4). Repeated X-ray exposed cells showed micronucleus (1.25%) and nuclear alteration (2.3%) compare to the control. Repeated X-ray exposure leads to induces detectable number of micronucleus and nuclear alterations. (author)

  15. Buccal mucosal cancer patient who failed to recover taste acuity after partial oral cavity irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a patient who suffered from prolonged loss of taste acuity after partial oral cavity irradiation. The electric taste threshold (ETT) of each point in the oral cavity was measured with an electric gustometer to evaluate quantitative local taste acuity. A subjective total taste acuity (STTA) scale was used to evaluate subjective total taste acuity. A 61-year-old male patient with right buccal mucosal cancer underwent radiation therapy more than 11 years ago, and has suffered from loss of taste acuity since then. He received electron beam irradiation to part of the oral cavity and right upper neck, mainly the right buccal mucosa near the retromolar trigone and a metastatic right submandibular node. He did not receive irradiation to the anterior portion of the tongue or left side of the posterior portion of the tongue. His ETT scores for each point were equal to or greater than 26, and his STTA score was grade 3. The present case implies that radiation damage to part of the oral cavity can cause the loss of subjective total taste acuity. (author)

  16. Low-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy preserves good quality of life in buccal mucosa cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the results and long-term changes in radiation toxicity of stage I-II buccal mucosa cancer patients treated by low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy with 198Au grains. A total of 133 stage I-II buccal mucosa carcinomas patients received 198Au grain implantation brachytherapy between January 1982 and July 2005: 75 of them were treated by 198Au grain implantation alone and 58 were treated by 198Au implantation in combination with external irradiation. The average 198Au-grain dose was 70 Gy in 7 days. Gross tumor areas ranged from 2.4 cm2 to 9 cm2, and the clinical target areas ranged from 6 cm2 to 15 cm2. The follow-up periods ranged from 3 months to 20 years (mean: 5 years 11 months and median: 5 years 1 months). Failure at the site of the primary lesion occurred in 17 patients. Post-treatment mucosal ulceration developed in 15 patients, and all were cured within 25 months by conservative treatment. Osteoradionecrosis was diagnosed in 8 patients, but only one patient required surgical treatment. No severe complications or aggravation of complications developed more than 10 years after treatment. The results of low-dose-rate (LDR)-brachytherapy (BT) alone and LDR-BT in combination with external irradiation at a total dose of 25 Gy were acceptable from the standpoint of cure rate and quality of life (QOL). (author)

  17. Development of buccal adhesive tablet with prolonged antifungal activity: Optimization and ex vivo deposition studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madgulkar A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to prepare buccal adhesive tablets of miconazole nitrate. The simplex centroid experimental design was used to arrive at optimum ratio of carbopol 934P, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M and polyvinylpyrollidone, which will provide desired drug release and mucoadhesion. Swelling index, mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release of the prepared tablet was determined. The drug release and bioadhesion was dependent on type and relative amounts of the polymers. The optimized combination was subjected to in vitro antifungal activity, transmucosal permeation, drug deposition in mucosa, residence time and bioadhesion studies. IR spectroscopy was used to investigate any interaction between drug and excipients. Dissolution of miconazole from tablets was sustained for 6 h. based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the prepared slow release buccoadhesive tablets of miconazole would markedly prolong the duration of antifungal activity. Comparison of in vitro antifungal activity of tablet with marketed gel showed that drug concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration were achieved immediately from both formulations but release from tablet was sustained up to 6 h, while the gel showed initially fast drug release, which did not sustain later. Drug permeation across buccal mucosa was minimum from the tablet as well as marketed gel; the deposition of drug in mucosa was higher in case of tablet. In vitro residence time and bioadhesive strength of tablet was higher than gel. Thus the buccoadhesive tablet of miconazole nitrate may offer better control of antifungal activity as compared to the gel formulation.

  18. Buccal health in asthmatic patients. Salud bucal en pacientes asmáticos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel González Beriao

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Buccal health as integral and determinant part of general health makes us find different ways and methods to elevate life quality in the population. Objective: To establish the risk of suffering from dental cavities in asthmatic patients. Methods: A non match case and control study constituted by 100 children selected at simple random from the universe of asthmatic patients belonging to the General Comprehensive doctor offices number 7,9,10, 11, 43, and 44 from Area II in Cienfuegos municipality. The controlled group was selected in the same offices but from the universe of non asthmatic children. The age in both groups was from 6 to 15 years old. Visits to the children´s home were carried out for the record of the information through health oral dental and buccal health knowledge surveys. Results: The index of cavities, lost, and obturated permanent teeth was higher (3, 28 than in the control group (0, 44. The buccal hygiene indexes and the level of knowledge in both groups did not show significant differences. The most used drugs in asthma therapy were salbutamol and ketotifeno which change the buccal milieu. The odds ratio technique between asthmatic and non asthmatic patients showed 4, 9 times more at risk of suffering from dental cavities in the first group. Finally, it can be stated that the asthmatic patients are more at risk of suffering from cavities than the non asthmatic ones, so a program for buccal health in these patients should be performed.

    Fundamento: La salud bucal como parte integrante y determinante de la salud general del hombre, nos obliga cada vez con mayor rigor y nivel científico a la búsqueda de diferentes vías y métodos para elevar la calidad de vida de la población. Objetivo: Establecer el riesgo de padecer caries dental de los pacientes asmáticos. Métodos: Estudio de casos y

  19. Testosterone Buccal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in which the body does not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone is used only for men with ... systems may control your condition but will not cure it. Continue to use testosterone even if you ...

  20. Current Microbial Isolates from Wound Swab and Their Susceptibility Pattern in a Private Medical College Hospital in Dhaka city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Sultana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound infection is one of the major health problems that are caused and aggravated by the invasion of pathogenic organisms where empiric treatment is routine. Objective: To isolate and identify the bacteria causing wound infection and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Materials and method: A total of 263 wound swab and pus samples were collected during the period of January to December 2012 from Delta Medical College and Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Swabs from the wound were inoculated on appropriate media and cultured and the isolates were identified by standard procedures as needed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method according to ‘The Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute’ guidelines. Results: In this study 220 bacterial isolates were recovered from 263 samples showing an isolation rate of 83.65%. The predominant bacteria isolated from infected wounds were Staphylococcus aureus 89 (40.45% followed by Escherichia coli 62 (28.18%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 34 (15.45%, Enterococci 18 (8.18%, Acinetobacter 5 (2.27%, Klebsiella 9 (4.09% and Proteus 3 (3.36%. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to linezolid (94.38%, fusidic acid (91.01%, vancomycin (87.64%, amikacin (74.15% and gentamicin (73.03%. Among the Gram negative isolates Escherichia coli was predominant and showed sensitivity to imipenem (93.54% amikacin (83.87% colistin (53.22% and piperacillin and tazobactum (53.22% and pseudomonas showed sensitivity to amikacin (73.52%, imipenem (70.58% and colistin (70.58%. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen from wound swab and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of various isolates help to assist the clinician in appropriate selection of empirical antibiotics against wound infection.

  1. Evaluation of Multiple Methods for Detection of Gastrointestinal Colonization of Carbapenem-Resistant Organisms from Rectal Swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, Patricia J; Martin, Isabella; Opene, Belita; Tamma, Pranita D; Carroll, Karen C; Milstone, Aaron M

    2016-06-01

    Rectal swabs from high-risk patients were screened for carbapenem-resistant organisms (CROs) using several methods. The direct MacConkey plate method was the most sensitive for CROs (95%), while chromID CARBA and the Check-Direct CPE screen assay were the most sensitive for the detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) (100%; all blaKPC). All methods had a specificity of >90% for CROs, and for CPOs, the specificity ranged from 85 to 98%. Broth enrichment methods performed poorly compared to direct inoculation methods, negating the need for the broth enrichment step. PMID:27053674

  2. Suitable footwear for enhanced safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Safety shoes are the theme of a new safety campaign. Always remember that accidents can happen - even to your feet! When entering hazardous areas such as underground halls, work sites, experiment assembly sites, workshops etc., sandals, ordinary shoes or similar light footwear should not be worn. Whatever the risks to which you may be exposed, always think safety and wear suitable footwear, i.e. safety shoes, which have non-slip soles and steel reinforcements to protect your feet from being crushed, fractured or pierced. Is it serious, Doctor? "Some traumas resulting from foot-related accidents - open fractures for instance - can be quite serious," explains CERN Works Doctor Véronique Fassnacht. "But the most common injuries are sprained ankles sustained during simple falls caused by differences in floor-levels (e.g. false floors). Fractures, bruising, surface wounds or deep wounds caused by objects falling onto the top of the foot are also quite common." ...

  3. Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of…

  4. Efficacy and safety of fentanyl buccal for cancer pain management by administration through a soluble film: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than half of patients receiving prescription medicine for cancer pain have been reported to experience inadequate pain relief or breakthrough pain. Buccal administration can deliver lipophilic opioids rapidly to the systemic circulation through the buccal mucosa, limiting gastrointestinal motility and first-pass metabolism. This review updates the safety and efficacy of fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF) in patients with cancer pain. Literature was identified through searches of Medline (PubMed). Search terms included combinations of the following: cancer pain, fentanyl, fentanyl buccal soluble film, pharmacology, kinetics, safety, efficacy and toxicity. FBSF is an oral transmucosal form of fentanyl citrate developed as a treatment of breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant patients with cancer. Studies have shown that it is well tolerated in the oral cavity, with adequate bioavailability and safety in cancer patients. Further studies are warranted to evaluate, in comparison with other short-acting opioids, its efficacy in the management of breakthrough cancer pain, its addictive potential and its economic impact in cancer patients

  5. Expression of p75NGFR, a Proliferative and Basal Cell Marker, in the Buccal Mucosa Epithelium during Re-epithelialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the expression of p75NGFR, a proliferative and basal cell marker, in the mouse buccal mucosa epithelium during wound healing in order to elucidate the role of epithelial stem cells. Epithelial defects were generated in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa of 6-week-old mice using CO2 laser irradiation. BrdU was immediately administered to mice following laser irradiation. They were then sacrificed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Paraffin sections were prepared and the irradiated areas were analyzed using immunohistochemistry with anti-p75NGFR, BrdU, PCNA, and CK14 antibodies. During re-epithelialization, PCNA (–)/p75NGFR (+) cells extended to the wound, which then closed, whereas PCNA (+)/p75NGFR (+) cells were not observed at the edge of the wound. In addition, p75NGFR (–)/CK14 (+), which reflected the presence of post-mitotic differentiating cells, was observed in the supra-basal layers of the extended epithelium. BrdU (+)/p75NGFR (+), which reflected the presence of epithelial stem cells, was detected sparsely in buccal basal epithelial cells after healing, and disappeared after 7 days. These results suggest that p75NGFR (+) keratinocytes are localized in the basal layer, which contains oral epithelial stem cells, and retain the ability to proliferate in order to regenerate the buccal mucosal epithelium

  6. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilkerson, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Meisner, L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma of the alveolus and buccal mucosa in a renal transplant recipient on long-term immunosuppression

    OpenAIRE

    Tamojit Chaudhuri; Kamlesh Yadava

    2012-01-01

    An increased risk of skin, head-neck (particularly lip) and lymphoreticular malignancies is well documented in renal transplant patients receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, but squamous cell carcinoma of the alveolus and buccal mucosa has not been reported previously in these patients.

  8. EFFECT OF POST-BRUSHING WATER RINSING ON CARIES-LIKE LESIONS AT APPROXIMAL AND BUCCAL SITES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SJOGREN, K; BIRKHED, D; RUBEN, J; ARENDS, J

    1995-01-01

    The aim was to study the effect of two different water rinsing procedures after tootbrushing with an NaF-containing dentifrice on the degree of de- or remineralization of enamel and dentine at approximal and buccal sites. Seven adults, wearing complete dentures, participated in two experimental peri

  9. Evaluation of 292 ocular swabs, vitreous and aqueous cultures in pathologies with severe prognosis during a 24-month observation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Giardini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Different part of the eye can be infected by bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses (5. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of ocular swabs culture in pathologies with severe prognosis. Methods.We examined 292 patients with a severe diseases: 98% of those used topical and/or systemic antibiotic therapy.All sample were cultured both into a chocolate agar medium and into an Haemophilus selective agar and, at the same time, inoculated onto a modified blood cuture. Results. 75 out of 292 (25.7% patients tested negative.The most representative microorganisms were: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (20%, Staphylococcus aureus (12%, member of the Pseudomonadaceae family (10.9%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (9%, alpha haemolytic streptococci (8.2%, Fungus and Yeast (5.4%. Considering the type of cultures: 54.5% of the vitreous cultures were positive and 45.5% were negative; 38.2% of the positive cultures were referred to endophthalmitis, with prevalence of CNS (32.5% and S. aureus (22.9%, while 27.6% were due to an abscesces, with prevalence of members of the Pseudomonadaceae family (53.3%, CNS (23.3% and S. pneumoniae (16.7%. Conclusions. This data suggest the importance of the ocular swabs, vitreous and aqueous cultures in the therapeutic approach of the diseases with a severe prognosis and emphasize the good performance of the modified Bactec Plus system.

  10. Current Microbial Isolates from Wound Swabs, Their Culture and Sensitivity Pattern at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondei, Kemebradikumo; Fente, Beleudanyo G.; Oladapo, Oluwatoyosi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Wound infections continue to be problematic in clinical practice where empiric treatment of infections is routine. Objectives: A retrospective cross-sectional study to determine the current causative organisms of wound infections and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital (NDUTH), Okolobiri, Bayelsa State of Nigeria. Methods: Records of wound swabs collected from 101 patients with high suspicion of wound infection were analysed. Smears from the wound swabs were inoculated on appropriate media and cultured. Bacterial colonies were Gram stained and microscopically examined. Biochemical tests were done to identify pathogen species. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic testing. Results: Prevalence of wound infection was 86.13% (CI: 79.41–92.85). Most bacteria were Gram negative bacilli with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most prevalent pathogen isolated. The bacterial isolates exhibited a high degree of resistance to the antibiotics tested (42.8% to 100% resistance). All isolates were resistant to cloxacillin. Age group and sex did not exert any effect on prevalence, aetiological agent or antimicrobial resistance pattern. Conclusion: We suggest a multidisciplinary approach to wound management, routine microbiological surveillance of wounds, rational drug use and the institution of strong infection control policies. PMID:23874138

  11. The pressures of suction feeding: the relation between buccal pressure and induced fluid speed in centrarchid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Timothy E; Day, Steven W; Wainwright, Peter C

    2006-09-01

    Suction feeding fish rapidly expand their oral cavity, resulting in a flow of water directed towards the mouth that is accompanied by a drop in pressure inside the buccal cavity. Pressure inside the mouth and fluid speed external to the mouth are understood to be mechanically linked but the relationship between them has never been empirically determined in any suction feeder. We present the first simultaneous measurements of fluid speed and buccal pressure during suction feeding in fishes. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and high-speed video were used to measure the maximum fluid speed in front of the mouth of four largemouth bass and three bluegill sunfish by positioning a vertical laser sheet on the mid-sagittal plane of the fish. Peak magnitude of pressure inside the buccal cavity was quantified using a transducer positioned within a catheter that opened into the dorsal wall of the buccal cavity. In both species the time of peak pressure preceded the time of peak fluid speed by as much as 42 ms, indicating a role for unsteady flow effects in shaping this relation. We parameterized an existing model of suction feeding to determine whether the relationship between peak pressures and fluid speeds that we observed could be predicted using just a few kinematic variables. The model predicted much higher fluid speeds than we measured at all values of peak pressure and gave a scaling exponent between them (0.51) that was higher than observed (0.36 for largemouth bass, 0.38 for bluegill). The scaling between peak buccal pressure and peak fluid speed at the mouth aperture differed in the two species, supporting the recent conclusion that species morphology affects this relation such that a general pattern may not hold. PMID:16916963

  12. Epidemiological study on Buccal Health in the 12 years old population of Health Care Area VIII in Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumaidi Colina Sánchez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 12 years-old children population is worldwide taken as a reference age to compare the buccal health condition of different countries, by means of various indicators that measure the presence of the main buccal diseases. The knowledge of these epidemiological profiles generates information to guide the services planning policies of the Primary Health Care. Objective: To characterize 12 years-old population's buccal health condition. Methods: Cross- sectional descriptive correlative study with a stratified probabilistic sample of 90 children starting from a universe conformed by the 269 adolescents that constitute the total of the 12 years old population of the Health Care Area VIII in Cienfuegos municipality. Pearson’s chi-square and Mantel-Haenszel lineal tendency tests were used with the determination of the relative risk and reliance intervals of 95%. Results: The decay prevalence reached 54, 4%. The COP-D index was 2, 45 being the decayed component the major percentage with 4.6%. The periodontal disease was more frequent in boys than in girls, with 54, 9% and 30, 8% respectively. 80,9% of the segments is healthy. In those affected, the calculation prevailed in 11,7%. It was determined that faulty obturations, inheritance and faulty buccal hygiene were the most affecting risk factors for children with decays, while in the periodontal disease it was faulty buccal hygiene. Malocclusions presented a prevalence rate of 40%. Out of which, 55,6% required secondary level attention. Those with habits present a risk 2 times superior of making sick. The sick epidemiological category was present in 77,8% of the total. Conclusions: We emphasize the prevention need as core issue of the primary medical care in the world today; being the General-Integral Dentist a transforming agent that according to his/her formation is capable to assume the existent health problem and to modify it positively, acting from the earliest ages.

  13. Autotransplantation of a Buccally Erupted Matured Mandibular Third Molar to Replace a Grossly Decayed Second Molar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodh, Ranjeet; Kaushik, Aishvarya; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Autotransplantation can be a treatment option for tooth loss as an alternative to fixed or implant-supported prostheses. It has predictable results comparable to implants, with reported success rates often greater than 90%. In present case, buccally erupted matured third molar was autotransplanted in extraction socket of grossly carious mandibular second molar. The tooth was splinted for 1 week followed by root canal treatment. After 12 months follow up, tooth was in perfect state of function and aesthetic with healthy periapical and periodontal architecture. High success rate was found in immature tooth transplantation in previous case reports. This case report describes that even matured tooth can also be used as donor if atraumatic extraction is possible and endodontic treatment is well performed. PMID:27042593

  14. Autotransplantation of a Buccally Erupted Matured Mandibular Third Molar to Replace a Grossly Decayed Second Molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sukhwant Singh; Bodh, Ranjeet; Kaushik, Aishvarya; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2016-02-01

    Autotransplantation can be a treatment option for tooth loss as an alternative to fixed or implant-supported prostheses. It has predictable results comparable to implants, with reported success rates often greater than 90%. In present case, buccally erupted matured third molar was autotransplanted in extraction socket of grossly carious mandibular second molar. The tooth was splinted for 1 week followed by root canal treatment. After 12 months follow up, tooth was in perfect state of function and aesthetic with healthy periapical and periodontal architecture. High success rate was found in immature tooth transplantation in previous case reports. This case report describes that even matured tooth can also be used as donor if atraumatic extraction is possible and endodontic treatment is well performed. PMID:27042593

  15. Role of TDF and ERD concepts in radical radiotherapy of squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective analysis of 36 patients with Ca buccal mucosa treated with radical radiotherapy was carried out. Radiation therapy was given either as external radiotherapy alone or as external radiotherapy followed by interstitial brachytherapy. External radiotherapy dose varied from, 40 to 70 Gy in 15 to 35 fractions by 5 fr/wk schedule. Interstitial brachytherapy dose varied from 15 to 32 Gy at dose rte of 32 to 48 cGy per hr. Total radiotherapy dose varied from 40 to 75 Gy. Response and disease free survival showed statistically significant correlation with dose, TDF (time dose fractionation) and ERD (extrapolated response dose). For favourable response and disease free survival, minimum TDF of 119 and ERD of 77 Gy is suggested

  16. Exo-buccal dental radiology - Radiation protection: medical sheet ED 4250

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the various aspects and measures related to radiation protection when performing exo-buccal examinations (by either panoramic radiography or by volume tomography). It presents the concerned personnel, describes the operational process of snapshot taking, indicates the associated hazards and the risk related to ionizing radiation, and describes how the risk is to be assessed and how exposure levels are to be determined (elements of risk assessment, delimitation of controlled and monitored areas, personnel classification, and choice of the dose monitoring method). It describes the various components of a risk management strategy (risk reduction, technical measures regarding the installation and the personnel, training and information, prevention and medical monitoring). It briefly presents how risk management is to be assessed, and mentions other related risks

  17. A simple and high-resolution HPLC-PDA method for simultaneous quantification of local anesthetics in in vitro buccal permeation enhancement studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Renê O; Cubayachi, Camila; Lopez, Renata F V; de Gaitani, Cristiane M; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; de Freitas, Osvaldo

    2016-06-01

    A simple, isocratic, high-resolution and prompt HPLC-PDA method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of prilocaine (PCL) and lidocaine (LCL) hydrochlorides in in vitro buccal iontophoresis-driven permeation studies. A reversed-phase C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 3μm, 110Å) was used for the chromatographic separation. The mobile phase contained acetonitrile: 0.1M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 (1:1, v/v), plus 0.05% (v/v) diethylamine. The isocratic flow rate was set at 1 mL/min and the detection wavelength was 203 nm. PCL and LCL eluted in 8.9 min and 13 min, respectively, and the system suitability parameters varied within an acceptable range. The method was selective, sensitive, precise, accurate and robust, producing a linear plot at the concentration range of 0.25 to 10 µg/mL. The application of this method was demonstrated by a significant enhancement of the permeation of PCL and LCL with the application of iontophoresis (1 mA/cm(2) per 1 h) through isolated porcine esophageal epithelium. The amount of the drug retained in the epithelium also increased with the application of an electrical current. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26379211

  18. Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future. PMID:25232046

  19. Mannheimiose pulmonar experimental em bezerros: swab nasal e nasofaringeano como auxílio diagnóstico Experimental pneumonic mannheimiosis in calves: nasal and nasopharingeal swabs for diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Souza Coutinho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Um modelo experimental de mannheimiosepneumônica bovina (MPB foi utilizado com o objetivo de avaliar as espécies bacterianas das cavidades nasais e nasofaringeanas em diferentes momentos do curso da doença, bem como verificar a eficiência diagnóstica do exame microbiológico dos swabs nasais (SN e nasofaringeanos (SNF. Um total de 28 bezerros foi distribuído aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais (G1 a G4. SN e SNF foram colhidos sete dias antes e 12 (G1, 24 (G2, 48 (G3 e 72 (G4 horas após a inoculação intrabronquial de Mannheimia haemolytica. Após a indução da MPB, a bactéria M. haemolytica biotipo A foi predominante nos SN e SNF, sendo isolada em todos os momentos avaliados, com exceção de um SN colhido 24 horas após a indução da infecção. Não houve diferença significativa nas taxas de isolamento de Pasteurella multocida nos SN ou SNF, colhidos antes e após a indução da MPB. Contudo, esta bactéria passou a ser isolada mais freqüentemente após a indução da MPB, principalmente no SNF. Portanto, pode-se concluir que o exame microbiológico de SN e SNF é um teste auxiliar no diagnóstico da MPB.An experimental model of bovine pneumonic mannheimiosis (BPM was used to evaluate the nasal and nasopharynx bacterial species of calves during the course of the disease and for checking the diagnostic efficiency of nasal swab (NS and nasopharingeal swab (NPS microbiological exams. A total of 28 calves were randomized into four experimental groups (G1-G4. NS and NPS were obtained 7 days before and 12 (G1, 24 (G2, 48 (G3 e 72 (G4 hours after intrabronchial inoculation of Mannheimia haemolytica. After the induction of BPM, M. haemolytica biotype A was the predominant isolated bacterium in NS and NPS in all evaluated sampling times, except for one NS (harvested 24 hours. There were no significant statistical differences for the rates of Pasteurella multocida isolation in NS and NPS, harvested before and after the induction

  20. Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis DNA by use of self-obtained vaginal swabs with the BD ProbeTec Qx assay on the BD Viper system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Pol, Barbara; Williams, James A; Taylor, Stephanie N; Cammarata, Catherine L; Rivers, Charles A; Body, Barbara A; Nye, Melinda; Fuller, Deanna; Schwebke, Jane R; Barnes, Mathilda; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection worldwide, and improved diagnostic methods are critical for controlling this pathogen. Diagnostic assays that can be used in conjunction with routine chlamydia/gonorrhea nucleic acid-based screening are likely to have the most impact on disease control. Here we describe the performance of the new BD T. vaginalis Qx (TVQ) amplified DNA assay, which can be performed on the automated BD Viper system. We focus on data from vaginal swab samples, since this is the specimen type routinely used for traditional trichomonas testing and the recommended specimen type for chlamydia/gonorrhea screening. Vaginal swabs were obtained from women attending sexually transmitted disease or family planning clinics at 7 sites. Patient-collected vaginal swabs were tested by the TVQ assay, and the Aptima T. vaginalis (ATV) assay was performed using clinician-collected vaginal swabs. Additional clinician-collected vaginal swabs were used for the wet mount and culture methods. Analyses included comparisons versus the patient infection status (PIS) defined by positive results with the wet mount method or culture, direct comparisons assessed with κ scores, and latent class analysis (LCA) as an unbiased estimator of test accuracy. Data from 838 women, 116 of whom were infected with T. vaginalis, were analyzed. The TVQ assay sensitivity and specificity estimates based on the PIS were 98.3% and 99.0%, respectively. The TVQ assay was similar to the ATV assay (κ=0.938) in direct analysis. LCA estimated the TVQ sensitivity and specificity as 98.3 and 99.6%, respectively. The TVQ assay performed well using self-collected vaginal swabs, the optimal sample type, as recommended by the CDC for chlamydia/gonorrhea screening among women. PMID:24391200

  1. The utility of polyester and cotton as swabbing substrates for the removal of cellular material from surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Christina M; Kaufman, Stacie R; Quarino, Lawrence

    2011-03-01

    Various types of cotton and polyester fabrics were tested to ascertain the optimal physical and chemical characteristics of fabrics needed for the removal of cellular material from surfaces. DNA quantitation values obtained on dried saliva stains showed no difference between cotton and polyester across all constructions and solvent conditions. Fabrics used dry and with water yielded higher quantitation values than those used with isopropanol. Quantitation values were also higher for wovens and nonwovens than knits across all solvent conditions. Low thread count fabrics used with water yielded higher quantitation values, but no correlation between thread count and quantitation values was observed with dry fabrics. A low thread count woven fabric, however, outperformed other tested fabrics when swabbing object surfaces in a highly used room. Full DNA profiles from fingerprints on glass surfaces were obtained with low thread count woven and nonwoven fabrics but not with the knit fabric tested. PMID:21342191

  2. APTIMA assay on SurePath liquid-based cervical samples compared to endocervical swab samples facilitated by a real time database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader Samer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC cervical samples are increasingly being used to test for pathogens, including: HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC using nucleic acid amplification tests. Several reports have shown the accuracy of such testing on ThinPrep (TP LBC samples. Fewer studies have evaluated SurePath (SP LBC samples, which utilize a different specimen preservative. This study was undertaken to assess the performance of the Aptima Combo 2 Assay (AC2 for CT and GC on SP versus endocervical swab samples in our laboratory. Materials and Methods: The live pathology database of Montefiore Medical Center was searched for patients with AC2 endocervical swab specimens and SP Paps taken the same day. SP samples from CT- and/or GC-positive endocervical swab patients and randomly selected negative patients were studied. In each case, 1.5 ml of the residual SP vial sample, which was in SP preservative and stored at room temperature, was transferred within seven days of collection to APTIMA specimen transfer tubes without any sample or patient identifiers. Blind testing with the AC2 assay was performed on the Tigris DTS System (Gen-probe, San Diego, CA. Finalized SP results were compared with the previously reported endocervical swab results for the entire group and separately for patients 25 years and younger and patients over 25 years. Results: SP specimens from 300 patients were tested. This included 181 swab CT-positive, 12 swab GC-positive, 7 CT and GC positive and 100 randomly selected swab CT and GC negative patients. Using the endocervical swab results as the patient′s infection status, AC2 assay of the SP samples showed: CT sensitivity 89.3%, CT specificity 100.0%; GC sensitivity and specificity 100.0%. CT sensitivity for patients 25 years or younger was 93.1%, versus 80.7% for patients over 25 years, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.02. Conclusions: Our results show that AC2 assay of 1.5 ml SP

  3. The effects of sex, age and cigarette smoking on micronucleus and degenerative nuclear alteration frequencies in human buccal cells of healthy Bosnian subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hilada Nefić; Jasmin Mušanović; Kemajl Kurteshi; Enida Prutina; Elvira Turcalo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study was performed to establish a baseline value of micronucleus frequency in buccal cells and to estimate the impact of the most common factors (sex and age, and smoking) on micronucleus and degenerative nuclear alteration frequencies in the sample of healthy Bosnian subjects.Methods: The Buccal Micronucleus Cytome (BMCyt) assay, based on scoring not only micronucleus frequency but also other genome damage markers, dead or degenerated cells, provides a measure of cytotoxi...

  4. Soft tissues healing at immediate transmucosal implants placed into molar extraction sites associated with buccal self-contained dehiscences. A 12-month controlled clinical trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Iorio Siciliano, Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess soft tissues healing at immediate transmucosal implants placed into molar extraction sites associated with buccal self-contained dehiscences. Study design: 12-month controlled clinical trial. Material and methods: Test subjects received immediate transmucosal implants placed in molar extraction sockets displaying a buccal bone dehiscence with a height and width of ≥ 3 mm, respectively. Peri-implant marginal defects were treated according to the principles of Guided Bone ...

  5. Deletion of ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 increases adhesion of Candida albicans to human vascular endothelial and buccal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiaomin; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2007-01-01

    C. albicans yeast forms deleted for ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 are more adherent than a relevant control strain to human vascular endothelial cell monolayers and buccal epithelial cells. In the buccal and vaginal reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) disease models, however, mutant and control strains caused a similar degree of tissue destruction. Deletion of ALS5 or ALS6 significantly slowed growth of the mutant strain; this phenotype was not affected by addition of excess uridine to the culture medi...

  6. Pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory potential of andrographolide during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Karthikeyan Sekar; Baskaran Nagarethinam; Arjun Kumar Singh; Manoharan Shanmugam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Aim of the present study was to investigate the modulating effect of andrographolide on apoptotic and inflammatory markers during 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Methods: Oral tumors were developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. The expression pattern of molecular markers were assayed using immunohistochemistry (p53, Bcl-2 and Bax), ELISA...

  7. Increase in DNA damage in lymphocytes and micronucleus frequency in buccal cells in silica-exposed workers

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    Ajanta Halder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay was applied to study the genotoxic properties of silica in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL. The study was designed to evaluate the DNA damage of lymphocytes and the end points like micronuclei from buccal smears in a group of 45 workers, occupationally exposed to silica, from small mines and stone quarries. The results were compared to 20 sex and age matched normal individuals. There was a statistically significant difference in the damage levels between the exposed group and the control groups. The types of damages (type I -type 1V were used to measure the DNA damage. The numbers of micronuclei were higher in the silica-exposed population. The present study suggests that the silica exposure can induce lymphocyte DNA damage and produces significant variation of micronuclei in buccal smear.

  8. Sensory disturbances of buccal and lingual nerve by muscle compression: A case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvira-González, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several studies on cadavers dissection have shown that collateral branches of the trigeminal nerve cross muscle bundles on their way, being a possible etiological factor of some nerve disturbances. Case Report A 45-year-old man attended to the Temporomandibular Joint and Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology in Hospital Odontològic of Barcelona University, referring tingling in the left hemifacial región and ipsilateral lingual side for one year, with discomfort when shaving or skin compression. Discussion Several branches of the trigeminal nerve follow a path through the masticatory muscles, being the lingual nerve and buccal nerve the most involved. The hyperactivity of the muscle bundles that are crossed by nerve structures generates a compression that could explain certain orofacial neuropathies (numbness and / or pain) in which a clear etiologic factor can not be identified. Key words:Buccal nerve, paresthesia, idiopathic trigeminal sensory neuropathy. PMID:26855715

  9. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

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    Hilary M A Prescott

    Full Text Available Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca; red panda (Ailurus fulgens; and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica. m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of

  10. Transmucosal Implant Placement with Submarginal Connective Tissue Graft in Area of Shallow Buccal Bone Dehiscence: A Three-Year Follow-Up Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Martina; Felice, Pietro; Mazzotti, Claudio; Marzadori, Matteo; Gherlone, Enrico F; Zucchelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present case series study was to evaluate the short- and long-term (3 years) soft tissue stability of a surgical technique combining transmucosal implant placement with submarginal connective tissue graft (CTG) in an area of shallow buccal bone dehiscence. A sample of 20 patients were treated by positioning a transmucosal implant in an intercalated edentulous area. A CTG sutured to the inner aspect of the buccal flap was used to cover the shallow buccal bone dehiscence. Clinical evaluations were made at 6 months (T₁) and 1 (T₂) and 3 (T₃) years after the surgery. Statistically significant increases in buccal soft tissue thickness and improvement of vertical soft tissue level were achieved at the T₁, T₂, and T₃ follow-ups. A significant increase in keratinized tissue height was also found at T₃. No significant marginal bone loss was recorded. The submarginal CTG technique was able to provide simultaneous vertical and horizontal soft tissue increases around single implants with shallow buccal bone dehiscence and no buccal mucosal recession or clinical signs of mucositis or peri-implantitis at 1 and 3 years. PMID:27560667

  11. Dental prosthesis and buccal lesions in the elderly Prótesis dentales y lesiones mucosas en el adulto mayor

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Enrique Castillo Betancourt; Beatriz García Alpizar; Mikhail Benet Rodíguez

    2010-01-01

    Fundament: Buccal lesions in the elderly are very frequent and they constitute a problem of health due to the consequences that cause. Objective: to describe the characteristics of the removable prosthesis used by the population of 60 and more years age and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. Methods: We carried out a study descriptive of cross section in 125 elderly with oral prosthesis...

  12. Detection of IL28B SNP DNA from buccal epithelial cells, small amounts of serum, and dried blood spots.

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    Philippe Halfon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Point mutations in the coding region of the interleukin 28 gene (rs12979860 have recently been identified for predicting the outcome of treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. This polymorphism detection was based on whole blood DNA extraction. Alternatively, DNA for genetic diagnosis has been derived from buccal epithelial cells (BEC, dried blood spots (DBS, and genomic DNA from serum. The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability and accuracy of alternative routes of testing for single nucleotide polymorphism allele rs12979860CC. METHODS: Blood, plasma, and sera samples from 200 patients were extracted (400 µL. Buccal smears were tested using an FTA card. To simulate postal delay, we tested the influence of storage at ambient temperature on the different sources of DNA at five time points (baseline, 48 h, 6 days, 9 days, and 12 days. RESULTS: There was 100% concordance between blood, plasma, sera, and BEC, validating the use of DNA extracted from BEC collected on cytology brushes for genetic testing. Genetic variations in HPTR1 gene were detected using smear technique in blood smear (3620 copies as well as in buccal smears (5870 copies. These results are similar to those for whole blood diluted at 1/10. A minimum of 0.04 µL, 4 µL, and 40 µL was necessary to obtain exploitable results respectively for whole blood, sera, and plasma. No significant variation between each time point was observed for the different sources of DNA. IL28B SNPs analysis at these different time points showed the same results using the four sources of DNA. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that genomic DNA extraction from buccal cells, small amounts of serum, and dried blood spots is an alternative to DNA extracted from peripheral blood cells and is helpful in retrospective and prospective studies for multiple genetic markers, specifically in hard-to-reach individuals.

  13. Orthodontic forces released by low-friction versus conventional systems during alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Camporesi, Matteo; Defraia, Efisio

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the forces released by passive stainless steel self-ligating brackets (SLBs) and by a non-conventional elastomeric ligature-bracket system on conventional brackets ([slide ligatures on conventional brackets (SLCB)]) when compared with conventional elastomeric ligatures on conventional brackets (CLCB) during the alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth in the maxillary arch. An experimental model consisting of five brackets was used to assess the forces released by the three different bracket-ligature systems with 0.012-inch super-elastic (SE) nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in the presence of different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment of the canine (ranging from 1.5 to 6 mm). The forces released by each wire/bracket/ligature combination with the three different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment were tested 20 times. Comparisons between the different types of wire/bracket/ligature systems were carried out by means of analysis of variance on ranks with Dunnett's post hoc test (P systems. At 3 mm of apical misalignment a significantly greater amount of orthodontic force was released by SLB or SLCB when compared with CLCB, while no significant differences were found among the three systems at 3 mm of buccal canine displacement. When correction of a large amount of misalignment (6 mm) was attempted, a noticeable amount of force for alignment was still generated by the passive SLB and SLCB systems while no force was released in presence of CLCB. PMID:20631083

  14. Training with Inedible Food in "Aplysia" Causes Expression of C/EBP in the Buccal but Not Cerebral Ganglion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, David; Lyons, Lisa C.; Perelman, Alexander; Green, Charity L.; Motro, Benny; Eskin, Arnold; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2008-01-01

    Training with inedible food in "Aplysia" increased expression of the transcription factor C/EBP in the buccal ganglia, which primarily have a motor function, but not in the cerebral or pleural ganglia. C/EBP mRNA increased immediately after training, as well as 1-2 h later. The increased expression of C/EBP protein lagged the increase in mRNA.…

  15. The influence of dietary carbohydrates on in vitro adherence of four Candida species to human buccal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Elteen, Khaled H.

    2011-01-01

    The adherence of four Candida species to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) following treatment with the most commonly consumed dietary carbohydrates was investigated in vitro. Adhesion of C. albicans , C. tropicalis , C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis was significantly promoted by incubation in minimal medium containing a high concentration (500 mM) of fructose, galactose, glucose, maltose, sorbitol or sucrose (p<0.001). C. albicans grown in galactose elicited maximal increase in adhesion...

  16. The buccal cytome and micronucleus frequency is substantially altered in Down's syndrome and normal ageing compared to young healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The buccal micronucleus cytome assay was used to investigate biomarkers for DNA damage, cell death and basal cell frequency in buccal cells of healthy young, healthy old and young Down's syndrome cohorts. With normal ageing a significant increase in cells with micronuclei (P < 0.05, average increase +366%), karyorrhectic cells (P < 0.001, average increase +439%), condensed chromatin cells (P < 0.01, average increase +45.8%) and basal cells (P < 0.001, average increase +233%) is reported relative to young controls. In Down's syndrome we report a significant increase in cells with micronuclei (P < 0.001, average increase +733%) and binucleated cells (P < 0.001, average increase +84.5%) and a significant decrease in condensed chromatin cells (P < 0.01, average decrease -52%), karyolytic cells (P < 0.001, average decrease -51.8%) and pyknotic cells (P < 0.001, average decrease -75.0%) relative to young controls. These changes show distinct differences between the cytome profile of normal ageing relative to that for a premature ageing syndrome, and highlight the diagnostic value of the cytome approach for measuring the profile of cells with DNA damage, cell death and proportion of cells with proliferative potential (i.e., basal cells). Significant correlations amongst cell death biomarkers observed in this study were used to propose a new model of the inter-relationship of cell types scored within the buccal micronucleus cytome assay. This study validates the use of a cytome approach to investigate DNA damage, cell death and cell proliferation in buccal cells with ageing

  17. Treatment of urethral strictures in balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) using circular buccal mucosal meatoplasy: Experience of 15 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulmuttalip Simsek; Sinasi Yavuz Onol; Omer Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) related strictures involving the external urethral meatus. We reviewed our result with the use of circular mucosal graft in the reconstruction of strictures. Methods: Between March 1997 and January 2012, 15 patients underwent circular buccal mucosal urethroplasy for BXO related anterior urethral strictures. Urethral catheter was removed within 2 weeks. Follow-up included patient symptoms assessment, cosmetic outcome and uroflowmetry. Results: Me...

  18. Evaluation of the Perception of the Children and Knowledge of the Educators on Buccal Health, Diet and Hygiene

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    Leonardo dos Santos ANTUNES

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose was to evaluate the level of perception and knowledge on buccal health, diet and hygiene in children and educators of a public school of Niterói-Rio de Janeiro. Method: The sample constituted by 60 children (4 7 years subdivided in two groups of analysis (G1- 4 to 5 years and G2- 6 to 7 years and 25 teachers. For collection of the data two forms had been used (F1- children and F2- educators; F1 contain figures of the food and hygiene resources, while F2 presented questions regarding buccal health, diet and hygiene. The data had been tabulated and analyzed (SPSS 11.0. Results: It was identified that only 24% of the educators presented knowledge necessary on hygienic cleaning to guide parents and children. Although 76% know the importance of foods for teeth, 47.36% didn´t know what kind of food were more healthful (p < 0.05. About the children, 83.3% of G1 and 93.3% of G2 had perceived the importance of the hygiene for teeth, and only 13.3% of G1 and 16.7% of G2 had even so recognized the diet as a representative factor for the buccal health. Conclusion: The authors concluded that even so the majority of the children perceives the importance of the buccal hygiene, these do not recognize the paper of the diet for the maintenance of the health, what it comes to the meeting of the lack of preparation of the educators to guide them, having the necessity of bigger integration school-dentist through lectures and instructions.

  19. Tissue engineered pre-vascularized buccal mucosa equivalents utilizing a primary triculture of epithelial cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, M; Frerick-Ochs, E V; Bauer, H-K; Schiegnitz, E; Flesch, D; Brieger, J; Stein, R; Al-Nawas, B; Brochhausen, C; Thüroff, J W; Unger, R E; Brenner, W

    2016-01-01

    Artificial generated buccal mucosa equivalents are a promising approach for the reconstruction of urethral defects. Limiting in this approach is a poor blood vessel supply after transplantation, resulting in increased morbidity and necrosis. We generated a pre-vascularized buccal mucosa equivalent in a tri-culture of primary buccal epithelial cells, fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells, using a native collagen membrane as a scaffold. A successful pre-vascularization and dense formation of capillary-like structures at superficial areas was demonstrated. The lumen size of pre-formed blood vessels corresponded to the capillary size in vivo (10-30 μm). Comparing native with a highly cross-linked collagen membrane we found a distinct higher formation of capillary-like structures on the native membrane, apparently caused by higher secretion of angiogenic factors such as PDGF, IL-8 and angiopoietin by the cells. These capillary-like structures became functional blood vessels through anastomosis with the host vasculature after implantation in nude mice. This in vitro method should result in an accelerated blood supply to the biomaterial with cells after transplantation and increase the succes rates of the implant material. PMID:26606446

  20. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  1. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  2. LUPEOL PROTECTS ABNORMALITIES IN CELL SURFACE MOITIES DURING 7, 12-DIMETHYLBENZ[A]ANTHRACENE INDUCED HAMSTER BUCCAL POUCH CARCINOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Palanimuthu and S. Manoharan*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, possesses diverse pharmacological and biochemical activities including anticancer and antioxidant effects. Abnormalities in the status of glycoconjugates and lipids in the cell results in malignant transformation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of lupeol on cell surface glycoconjugates and lipids abnormalities during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was developed in the buccal pouches of golden Syrian hamsters by treating with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin, three times a week, for 14 weeks. The status of glycoconjugates and lipids were measured using specific colorimetric methods. We observed 100% tumor formation with marked abnormalities in the status of glycoconjugates and lipids in hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of lupeol at a dose of 50mg/kg bw, completely prevented the formation of tumors and restored the status of glycoconjugates and lipids in hamsters treated with DMBA. The results of the present study thus suggest that lupeol has the potential to protect cell surface abnormalities during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

  3. The Development of Seabuckthorn Cough-relieving Buccal Tablet%沙棘止咳含片的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山永凯

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the traditional folk cough-relieving prescription, taking Qinghai seabuck- thorn as the main material, complementary with winter fruit pear juice, bulbus fritillariae cirrhosae as auxiliary material, makes seabuckthorn cough-relieving buccal tablet, discusses the production process, blend the best taste with the orthogonal experiment method; Therefore, we have tested the influence of seabuckthorn cough-relieving buccal tablet in stopping cough of mice caused by aqueous ammonia and eliminating phlegm. The results shows that seabuckthorn cough-relieving buccal tablet has obvious cough-relieving and eliminating phlegm effect.%在民间传统止咳偏方的基础上,以沙棘汁为主原料,辅以冬果梨汁、川贝母、薏苡仁浸提液,制作出沙棘止咳含片,探讨了生产工艺,用正交试验法调配出最佳口味;并且试验了沙棘止咳含片对小鼠氨水所致咳嗽的镇咳作用和小鼠祛痰作用测试,结果表明:沙棘止咳含片具有明显的止咳和祛痰作用。

  4. Inhibitory activity of the isoflavone biochanin A on intracellular bacteria of genus Chlamydia and initial development of a buccal formulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hanski

    Full Text Available Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump inhibitors, but their therapeutic use is limited by poor water-solubility and intense first-pass metabolism. Here, we report on effects of isoflavones against C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis and describe buccal permeability and initial formulation development for biochanin A. Biochanin A was the most potent Chlamydia growth inhibitor among the studied isoflavones, with an IC50 = 12 µM on C. pneumoniae inclusion counts and 6.5 µM on infectious progeny production, both determined by immunofluorescent staining of infected epithelial cell cultures. Encouraged by the permeation of biochanin A across porcine buccal mucosa without detectable metabolism, oromucosal film formulations were designed and prepared by a solvent casting method. The film formulations showed improved dissolution rate of biochanin A compared to powder or a physical mixture, presumably due to the solubilizing effect of hydrophilic additives and presence of biochanin A in amorphous state. In summary, biochanin A is a potent inhibitor of Chlamydia spp., and the in vitro dissolution results support the use of a buccal formulation to potentially improve its bioavailability in antichlamydial or other pharmaceutical applications.

  5. Surgical treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws with the use of buccal fat pad: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luiz Fernando Mathias; Alonso, Kleber; Basso, Elaine Cristina; Dib, Luciano Lauria

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BROJ) has been described since 2003 as an adverse effect of bisphosphonate medications. These drugs act on the vasculature and bone remodeling, mainly on osteoclastic activity and can cause areas of necrotic bone exposure. Treatment for the BROJ is not yet defined, but surgical treatment is one of the forms proposed, which may cause oral deformities like sinus communication in some cases. In situations like this the buccal fat pad is an important alternative for coating nasal-oral communications, due its large blood supply, elasticity, absence of restriction by age and safety. This paper presents the case of a 58-year-old woman with BROJ in the left maxilla caused by the use of zoledronic acid for metastatic breast cancer. The extensive necrotic bone area was surgically removed resulting in oral sinus communication. A buccal fat pad was used to cover the defect. More studies should be performed regarding the treatment of BROJ but, if necessary, a buccal fat pad flap could be an alternative to solve nasal-oral communications related to BROJ. PMID:26200161

  6. Application of kidney inhibition swab tests to evaluate penicillin-G residues in sow tissues and body fluids following intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney inhibition swab (KIS) tests, recently adapted by the US FSIS for antibiotics on-site screening, were employed to evaluate the depletion of penicillin-G residues from kidney, liver, muscle, serum, and urine of sows after intramuscular (IM) penicillin-G procaine administration. Sows (n=130; 22...

  7. Evaluation of different sampling media for their potential use as a combined swab for the collection of both organic and inorganic explosive residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song-im, Nopporn; Benson, Sarah; Lennard, Chris

    2012-10-10

    Commercially available skin cleansing alcohol wipes and conventional swabs were investigated for their use as a universal sampling medium for the simultaneous collection of both organic and inorganic explosive residues. Six compounds with the potential to be encountered in casework [pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), triacetone triperoxide (TATP), ammonium nitrate, and sodium chlorate] were selected as representative target compounds. Quantities of these target compounds were deposited on four different substrates (glass, plastic, aluminium foil and laminate). Two chosen alcohol wipes demonstrated better overall performance in the recovery of both the organic and inorganic representative compounds from each of the test surfaces compared to the results obtained using conventional cotton and polyester swabs, pre-moistened with various solvents, and a direct methanol wash (used as a control). Results obtained using dry cotton swabs indicated that it was not an effective swabbing system for the collection of both organic and inorganic explosive residues on common substrates. PMID:22658743

  8. Comparison of nasopharyngeal aspirate and nasal swab specimens for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in different settings in a developing country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, L G; Trautner, S; Kofoed, P-E;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) for diagnostic purposes using nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) and nasal swabs (NS) in different clinical settings in a community study in Guinea-Bissau. METHOD: During 1996-98 paired specimens were obtained from 635 children under 5...

  9. Evaluation of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in buccal cells of tobacco chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjeet Kaur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic substances i.e. chemicals, mutagens and radiations are those substances which are toxic to the genetic material. Damage to the genetic material can be assessed in number of ways by studying chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and other nuclear aberrations like micronuclei, binucleated cells etc. Present research was conducted on 10 tobacco chewers. Slides were prepared from their buccal mucosal cells by cell suspension technique. Cells were spread on slide and stained with May Grunwald stain followed by Giemsa stain. Standard slides were examined under trinocular Zeiss microscope at 800 X-magnification. 500 cells were examined for each 10 tobacco chewers. Slides shows Binucleated cells (BN, Micronucleated cells (MN and Karyolytic cells. Study concludes that age, duration of exposure and other addictions like smoking and intake of alcohol affects the frequencies of nuclear abnormalities. Duration of exposure significantly affects BN frequency but not MN frequency. The mean values for MN cells were not different but for BN cells they were different among two age groups taken.

  10. Potential Uses, Limitations, and Basic Procedures of Micronuclei and Nuclear Abnormalities in Buccal Cells

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    Olivia Torres-Bugarín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomarkers as tools to evaluate genotoxicity is increasing recently. Methods that have been used previously to evaluate genomic instability are frequently expensive, complicated, and invasive. The micronuclei (MN and nuclear abnormalities (NA technique in buccal cells offers a great opportunity to evaluate in a clear and precise way the appearance of genetic damage whether it is present as a consequence of occupational or environmental risk. This technique is reliable, fast, relatively simple, cheap, and minimally invasive and causes no pain. So, it is well accepted by patients; it can also be used to assess the genotoxic effect derived from drug use or as a result of having a chronic disease. Furthermore the beneficial effects derived from changes in life style or taking additional supplements can also be evaluated. In the present paper, we aim to focus on the explanation of MN test and its usefulness as a biomarker; we further give details about procedures to perform and interpret the results of the test and review some factors that could have an influence on the results of the technique.

  11. Dorsal onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty in long anterior urethral stricture

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    Biswajit Datta

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the success of buccal mucosal graft (BMG urethroplasty by the dorsal onlay technique in long anterior urethral stricture (> 2 cm long through the midline perineal incision. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1998 to December 2003, 43 patients with long anterior urethral strictures were managed by dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty. After voiding trial, they were followed up at 3 months with uroflowmetry, retrograde urethrogram (RGU and American Urological Association symptoms score (AUA symptoms scores. Successful outcome was defined as normal voiding with a maximum one attempt of VIU after catheter removal. Patients were further followed-up with uroflowmetry at 3 months interval and RGU every 6 months interval. RESULTS: Mean stricture length was 4.8 cm (range 3 to 9 cm and mean follow up was 48 months (range 12 to 84 months. Only five patients were found to develop stricture at anastomotic site, during follow-up. Two of them voided normally after single attempt of VIU. Other three patients (6.9% required further open surgery or repeat VIU during follow up and were considered as failure. CONCLUSION: Dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty is a simple technique with good surgical outcome.

  12. Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Oral Film of Dicyclomine as potential route of Buccal Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Tomar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Buccal delivery is considered to be an important alternative to the peroral route for the systemic administration of drugs, as it considered the most convenient, easy, safest route of administration. Oral mucosa has rich vasculization, offers better permeability to many drugs & it act as an excellent site for the absorption of drugs. Fast dissolving oral film (FDOF is used as a novel approach, as it dissolve rapidly in mouth and directly reaches to the systemic circulation. Oral film technology fulfills all the requirements of potential solid dosage form. The aim of this study is to formulate and evaluate the (FDOF of an anticholinergic drug (Dicyclomine and improved bioavailability of drugs as compared to conventional solid oral dosage forms. Oral films were prepared by using HPMC (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, PVA (polyvinylalcohol, Eudragid RL-100, combination of two polymers and other excipients. Films were prepared by the solvent casting method. Films were evaluated for mechanical properties, Morphology study, swelling properties, disintegration time, dissolution time and in- vitro drug release. X1 formulation shows maximum in- vitro drug release 93.88%, following first order kinetics (r2 =0.9915. The release exponent ‘n’ was found to be for X1 is 0.4487, which appears to indicate a Fickian diffusion and may indicate that the drug release was controlled by first order release.

  13. Carbopol 934-sodium alginate-gelatin mucoadhesive ondansetron tablets for buccal delivery: Effect of PH modifiers

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    Kotagale N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at developing mucoahesive tablets of ondansetron hydrochloride using bioadhesive polymers like carbopol-934, sodium alginate and gelatin. Tablets prepared by direct compression using different polymer with varying ratio were evaluated for hardness, friability, uniformity of weight, disintegration time, microenvironmental pH, bioadhesion and in vitro release. Hardness, friability disintegration time and drug release were found within pharmacopoeial limit. Microenvironmental pH decreased whereas bioadhesive strength, water uptake, and in vitro release increased with increase in carbopol-934. Increasing sodium alginate and gelatin increased the microenviromental pH and decreased bioadhesive strength, water uptake and in vitro release. With a view to investigate the modulation of drug release from formulation by addition of pH modifiers viz. citric acid and sodium bicarbonate, the tablets with carbopol-934 (2.0, sodium alginate (0.5 and gelatin (6.5 were used and the effect of pH modifiers on microenvironmental pH, bioadhesion, water uptake, in vitro permeation and in vitro release was studied. Microenvironmental pH, bioadhesive strength, water uptake, in vitro release and permeation decreased with increasing concentration of citric acid whereas microenvironmental pH, water uptake and release were enhanced and bioadhesive strength was lowered with increase in sodium bicarbonate. Present study demonstrates carbopol-934, sodium alginate, gelatin polymer system with added pH modifier can be successfully formulated for buccal delivery of ondansetron with desired release profile.

  14. Buccal Cavity Protozoa in Patients Referred to the Faculty of Dentistry in Tehran, Iran

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    MR Jahani

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Buccal cavity as a compound ecosystem has always been ignored in parasitic infection studies; however it seems that studying on mouth and tooth prevalent parasitic infections is of great importance. In this study, from 120 patients of both sexes referred to Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, (2001-2002 240 samples were taken from the plaques and calculus of depth of tooth and gum pockets. Wet-mount technique is regarded as the best and quickest diagnostic method for Trichomonas. tenax while Entamoeba. gingivalis is best diagnosed by Trichrome vitelli staining method using Bovin fixative. 41.7% and 9.2% of the cases were infected by Entamoeba. gingivalis and T.tenax, respectively, while 3.3% were infected by both parasitic protozoa. Infection to mouth amoeba was more prevalent in males at the age of 21-30 yr old while no relation was found between age/sex as to infection with Trichomonas. tenax. Accordingly, a direct relation was found between the frequency of the parasites and some factors such as periodontal tissue condition, degree of gum bleeding and inflammation, gum color and tooth decay.

  15. Nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of petrol station attendants in Udaipur, Rajasthan

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    Rashmi Metgud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The petroleum derivatives consist of a complex mixture of chemical compounds one among which is benzene. Petrol station workers who pump fuel to vehicles absorb the products of fuel fumes and the products of combustion. Materials and Methods: To study the occupational exposure to petroleum derivatives such as benzene, exfoliated buccal cells from 40 petrol station attendants and 40 age-matched control subjects were examined for micronuclei, binucleation, karyorrhexis and karyolysis frequency by using feulgen and Giemsa stains. Statistical evaluation was performed with ANOVA test. Results: In the present study, inter-comparison of mean values for micronuclei, binucleation, karyorrhexis and karyolysis using Fuelgen stain between smokers of study and control group, as well as between smokers and non-smokers of study and control group revealed statistically highly significant results with P value 0.00002 and 0.0001 respectively. Whereas inter comparison between non-smokers of study and control group using Feulgen stain and inter comparison between smokers of study and control group, using Giemsa stain revealed statistically significant results with P value 0.0034 and 0.0004, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that the studied individuals belong to a risk group and should periodically undergo biological monitoring and proper care.

  16. Formulation and In-Vitro Evaluation of Chitosan Based Omeprazole Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablets

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    Amit E. Birari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing proton pump inhibitors drug, Omeprazole to circumvent the first pass effect and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency and dose related side effects. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Nine formulations were prepared with Chitosan as primary polymer and Carbopol 934, Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC K4M and Xanthan gum as a secondary polymer. All formulations were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, surface pH, drug Content uniformity, swelling index, and bioadhesive strength and in-vitro drug dissolution study. Physical compatibility studies showed no evidence on interactions between drug, polymers, and excipients. The in vitro release of Omeprazole was performed under sink conditions (Phosphate buffer PH 6.8, 37±0.5ºC, rpm 50 using USP dissolution apparatus type II. The best in-vitro drug release profile was achieved with the formulation F8 which contains the Chitosan combine with Xanthan gum. The surface pH and swelling index of formulation F8 was found to be 6.8, and 60 %, respectively.

  17. The flavonoid quercetin modulates the hallmark capabilities of hamster buccal pouch tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi Vidya; Vinothini, Govindarajah; Murugan, Ramalingam Senthil; Manikandan, Palrasu; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated the protective effects of dietary phytochemicals against cancer risk. Quercetin, a ubiquitous dietary flavonoid, has attracted considerable attention owing to its potent antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. The present study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive as well as the therapeutic ability of quercetin to modulate the key hallmark capabilities of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinomas. We analyzed the expression of markers associated with cell proliferation and survival (PCNA, p21, p53, cyclin D1, GST-P), apoptosis (Fas, Fas-L, Bcl-2 family proteins, cytochrome-C, Apaf-1, caspases, PARP, survivin, cFLIP, API1), invasion (MMPs, TIMP-2, RECK), angiogenesis (PlGF, VEGF, VEGF receptors, HIF-1α), as well as the epigenetic markers (HDAC-1, DNMT1) by immunohistochemical, Western blot, and RT-PCR analyses. Simultaneous administration of quercetin to DMBA-painted hamsters reduced tumor incidence and tumor burden, while posttreatment of quercetin resulted in a significant tumor growth delay. In addition, quercetin administration induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and blocked invasion and angiogenesis. We found a positive correlation between the inhibition of HDAC-1 and DNMT1 by quercetin and its anticancer properties. A dietary phytochemical such as quercetin that modulates a plethora of molecules offers promise as an ideal candidate for multitargeted cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:21294050

  18. [A microbiological study of swabs taken laparoscopically in cases of salpingitis and tubal sterility. Research for Chlamydia trachomatis and for mycoplasmas (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Suchet, J; Catalan, F; Loffredo, V; Serfaty, D; Piboulet, A; Perol, Y; Sanson, M J; Debache, C; Pigeau, F; Coppin, R; de Brux, J; Paynard, T

    1980-01-01

    Research was made for chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum in the peritoneum and the tubes of 99 women divided into 4 groups: 17 of them were being investigated because of acute salpingitis (Group A), 17 were being investigated for tubal sterility with chronic inflammation diagnosed laparoscopically (Group B), 29 were being investigated for tubal sterility without any laparoscopic evidence of inflammation (Group C) and 36 women had absolutely normal pelves and were being investigated for sterility. These were the control group (D). Swabs were also taken from the lower genital tracts as well as serological tests for chlamydia trachomatis and cytological samplings of the fluid from the Pouch of Douglas and the histology of the tubes. In the 17 women who had acute salpingitis the swabs 4 cases of C.T. and 4 of U.U. In the 46 women who had tubal sterility the laparoscopic swabs showed cases of C.T. and 7 of U.U. The swabs were most often positive in Group B. This group is characterised by a special appearence of the inflammation, with fluid present and viscous adhesions as well as peritoneal inflammatory cysts. These altogether help to make a presumptive diagnosis of C.T. infection on laparoscopy. In the control group of 36 cases there was no sign of C.T. in any case, although 2 swabs from the peritoneum showed U.U. So there is a statistically significant difference between the groups that were suspicious and the control group whether the results were obtained by cultures or by serological diagnosis. On the other hand there is no definitive difference as far as U.U. is concerned. These observations, which are similar to those published by other authors, lead us to think that micro-organisms and especially chlamydia trachomatis could be the bacteriological agent responsible for chronic inflammatory states found so frequently in women with tubal sterility. PMID:6450231

  19. Simulation of surge and swab pressures in well drilling operations; Simulacao do problema de 'surge' e 'swab' em atividades de perfuracao de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Fernando T.G.M.C. de; Kimura, Hudson Faglioni; Ramalho, Vanessa; Negrao, Cezar O. Ribeiro; Junqueira, Silvio L.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Martins, Andre Leibsohn [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The movements of the well drilling pipe, known as trips, cause variations in the well inner pressure. When the pipe is moving downwards, in an operation called 'running', the pressure increases and is known as surge pressure and, when it is moving upwards, in an operation called 'pulling', the pressure decreases and it is so called a swab pressure. The study of this phenomenon is of great importance not only due to financial reasons but also for the determination of speeds and accelerations which should be used in running and pulling operations. Among the researchers have studied this problem, Fontenot and Clark are two of the most important. They formulated the problem solution through considerations about the friction factor. The present work's target is to develop a computational program which allows the calculus of those pressures, according to previous investigations and models found in the literature and for different types of fluids as well, such as Bingham fluid and Power Law fluid. (author)

  20. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bigmouth Buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), a freshwater fish. The models are scaled to produce an indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Other habitat suitability models found in the literature are also included. Habitat suitability indices (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  1. Educative intervention for knowledge development on buccal health in elementary school. Intervención educativa para el desarrollo de conocimientos sobre salud bucal en la enseñanza primaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl López Fernández; Nereida Moya Padilla; Nora Sexto Delgado; Olga Lidia García Álvarez

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is high prevalence of buccal diseases which could be avoided with appropriate hygienic and alimentary habits that are supposed to be learned since the first stages of life. Objective: To verify the efficacy of an educative strategy on buccal health to develop buccal self-care through its application in girls and boys. Methods: An intervention study was developed with before and after desig...

  2. The effects of sex, age and cigarette smoking on micronucleus and degenerative nuclear alteration frequencies in human buccal cells of healthy Bosnian subjects

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    Hilada Nefić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was performed to establish a baseline value of micronucleus frequency in buccal cells and to estimate the impact of the most common factors (sex and age, and smoking on micronucleus and degenerative nuclear alteration frequencies in the sample of healthy Bosnian subjects.Methods: The Buccal Micronucleus Cytome (BMCyt assay, based on scoring not only micronucleus frequency but also other genome damage markers, dead or degenerated cells, provides a measure of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.Results: Our results showed the baseline buccal micronucleus frequency was 0.135% or 1.35‰, as well as positive correlations between micronucleus frequencies and formations of degenerative nuclear alterations (nuclear buds, karyolytic and karyorrhectic cells. The number of micronuclei in buccal cells was significantly higher in females than in males. There was positive association between the age and frequency of analysed cytogenetic biomarkers. Buccal cell micronuclei and degenerative nuclear alternations were more frequent among cigarette smokers than non-smokers and significantly higher in female smokers than in male smokers. Cytogenetic damages showed significantly positive correlation between intensity of smoking and the number of nuclear alterations. The years of smoking had a significant influence not only on the number of nuclear alterations but also in micronuclei and nuclear buds in buccal cells.Conclusions: The sex influences the number of micronuclei in human buccal cells. The ageing increased the number of micronuclei and other biomarkers of DNA damage. The cigarette smoking significantly increases the frequencies of micronuclei and nuclear buds, pyknotic, karyolytic and karyorrhectic cells.

  3. Morphological specializations of the buccal cavity in relation to the food and feeding habit of a carp Cirrhinus mrigala: a scanning electron microscopic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashpal, Madhu; Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Swati; Mittal, Ajay Kumar

    2009-06-01

    The buccal cavity of an herbivorous fish, Cirrhinus mrigala, was investigated by scanning electron microscopy to determine its surface ultrastructure. The buccal cavity shows significant adaptive modifications in relation to food and feeding ecology of the fish. The buccal cavity of the fish is of modest size and limited capacity, which is considered an adaptation with respect to the small-sized food items primarily consumed by the fish that could be accommodated in a small space. Modification of surface epithelial cells, on the upper jaw, into characteristic structures-the unculi-is considered an adaptation to browse or scrap, to grasp food materials, e.g., algal felts, and to protect the epithelial surface against abrasions, likely to occur during their characteristic feeding behavior. Differentiation of the highly specialized lamellar organ on the anterior region of the palate could be an adaptation playing a significant role in the selection, retention, and sorting out of palatable food particles from the unpalatable items ingested by the fish. The filamentous epithelial projections and the lingulate epithelial projections on the palatal organ in the posterior region of the palate are considered to serve a critical function in final selection, handling, maneuvering, and propelling the food particles toward the esophagus. The abundance of different categories of taste buds in the buccal cavity suggests that gustation is well developed and the fish is highly responsive in the evaluation and the selection of the preferred palatable food items. The secretions of mucous cells in the buccal cavity are associated with multiple functions-particle entrapment, lubrication of the buccal epithelium and food particles to assist smooth passage of food, and to protect the epithelium from possible abrasion. These morphological characteristics ensure efficient working of the buccal cavity in the assessment of the quality and palatability of ingested food, their retention and

  4. Some virulence genes of Escherichia coli isolated from cloacal swabs of healthy Alagoas Curassows (Pauxi mitu in Brazil

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    André A.B. Saidenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Birds of the Cracidae family (curassows, guans, and chachalacas are endemic of the Neotropics and 50 species are currently classified. Brazil has 22 species, seven of which are considered threatened. The Alagoas Curassow (Pauxi mitu species is considered extinct in the wild; but about 120 birds are alive in captivity. Conservation of this species depends entirely on correct management. Health reports of both wildlife and captive curassows are rare. In this study the presence of Escherichia coli was evaluated in 23 healthy Alagoas Curassows from two private breeding centres. E. coli was isolated from cloacal swabs, and the presence of genes encoding cytotoxic necrotising factor 1 (cnf1, alpha-haemolysin (hly, aerobactin (iuc, serum resistance (iss and the following adhesions: S fimbriae (sfa, pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap and temperature-sensitive haemagglutinin (tsh were investigated. E. coli was isolated from 78.3% (18/23 of the birds, and the percentage of curassows colonized by E. coli was similar between the two facilities. From the 22 E. coli isolates, 15 (68.2% were positive for at least one virulence factor by PCR, and the most frequently found gene was iss (50%. No curassows had clinical signs of disease. Nevertheless, the presence of some E. coli strains may be a concern to the wildlife in captivity. Additional health surveillance studies are essential to guarantee successful conservation programmes for threatened cracids in Brazil.

  5. Detection and differentiation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviaeby PCR from tracheal swabs from birds with respiratory symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycoplasmas are worldwide pathogens that affect the poultry industry causing respiratory illness which cause a negative economic impact. Two mycoplasmas species are the most important in the commercial poultry: mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and mycoplasma synoviae (MS). By its importance and necessity to know and differentiate between mycoplasmas species in local's poultry houses this study used the PCR technique like a diagnosis tool, using tracheal swabs from bird with respiratory symptoms. A total of 91 samples from broilers, layers and breeders farms located in the departments of Cundinamarca and Boyaca was processed. The punctual prevalence founded in this study was 39.6 % for mg and 47.3 % for MS. statistical differences for type of production and positive samples for mg y MS (p < 0.05) were founded, a bigger number of positive samples from layers and breeder in comparison to broilers were found. In the same way, the positive samples for the layers and breeder from the age group between 20 and 60 weeks was greater, while for the broilers group most of the positive samples were from five weeks old birds for mg and two weeks old birds for MS.

  6. Healthy Farms in Slovakia: Antibiotic Sensitivity of Escherichia coli Isolated from Rectal Swabs of Chicken and Ram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Pochop

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was determine of antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolated from rectal swabs of chicken and ram from two different conventional breeding from Slovakia. For the antibiotic susceptibility testing disk diffusion method was used. A tested bacterium, Escherichia coli was exposed against four antibiotics: amikacin, gentamycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. For the identification of this strain, we used Chromogenic coliform agar, Triple sugar iron agar and biochemical test (ENTEROtest 24. For genetic identification of Escherichia coli Step One Real Time PCR with using special primer was used. Was determined that antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli was not found. Was found susceptibility in all cases of Escherichia coli isolates. Antibiotic resistance is a biological danger. Bacteria, which we study, are considered to reservoirs of resistant genes and they are facultative and obligate pathogens. If these pathogen bacteria cause diseases those these diseases are difficult to treat. In this study, we determined that we have healthy farms in Slovakia too. In this farm antibiotic was not use and we do not determined any resistance to antibiotics, which we used in experiment.

  7. Simultaneous liquid chromatographic determination of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in human buccal mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y S; Peng, Y M

    1992-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data have suggested that some micronutrients, including various carotenoids, retinoids, and alpha-tocopherol, may have chemopreventive activity against certain types of human cancer. In order to define the role of these micronutrients in cancer prevention, it is necessary to measure their concentrations in the target tissues, since these are critical to the chemopreventive effect. We have developed a sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography procedure for the simultaneous determination of lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, cis-beta-carotene, retinol, retinyl palmitate, alpha-tocopherol, and gamma-tocopherol in an easily accessible human target tissue, the buccal mucosal cells. This procedure used a gradient of two mobile phases which consisted of acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran, methanol, 1% ammonium acetate, and butylated hydroxytoluene (in v/v/v/v/w): mobile phase A, 85:5:5:5:0.05; mobile phase B, 55:35:5:5:0.05. The run time, including reequilibration, was 47 min: from 100% A to 100% B in 27 min, remaining at that mobile phase for 10 min, then back to 100% A at 43 min at a constant flow rate of 1.3 ml/min. The high-performance liquid chromatography effluent was monitored at 300, 325, and 452 nm for tocopherols, retinoids, and carotenoids, respectively, with a photodiode array detector. The average recovery was 83% for lycopene and > 92% for others. The precision of the assay for all the compounds was less than 10% in a 1-month period. The micronutrients were extracted by incubating the cells with protease, followed by vortex mixing with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in ethanol containing 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene, and, finally, hexane extraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1305470

  8. Mucoadhesive patches of Salbutamol sulphate for unidirectional buccal drug delivery: development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puratchikody, Ayarivan; Prasanth, V V; Mathew, Sam T; Kumar, B Ashok

    2011-07-01

    Mucoadhesive buccal patches of Salbutamol Sulphate were prepared using five different polymers (polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP]), polyvinyl alcohol [PVA], water soluble chitosan [CH(WS)], acid soluble chitosan [CH(AS)], hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose [HPMC])in various proportions and combinations (CH(WS)/PVP/HPMC, CH(WS)/PVA/HPMC, CH(AS)/PVP/HPMC, and CH(AS)/PVA/HPMC). A 3(2) full factorial design was used to design the experiments. A total of 72 patches were prepared. Thickness of the patches ranged between 0.3±0.003 and 0.6±0.009 mm. Mass of the patches were in the range of 68.12±4.6 to 95.02±7.2 mg. Patches showed increased mass whenever PEG -400 was used as plasticizer. The surface pH of patches were acidic to neutral (pH 4-pH 7). Patches showed satisfactory drug loading efficiency (85%to 97%). Eight formulations(C9, C18, C27, C36, D9, D18, D27, and D36)-which showed high folding endurance- were selected for further characterization. Patches with PEG -400 showed higher swelling index when compared to PG. The residence time of the patches ranged between 115 min and 120 min. Formulation C18 showed the maximum in vitro drug release of 101.4 % over a period of 120 min. Formulations D36 and C36 were best fitted to Higuchi model. The remaining formulations were best fitted to the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. Drug permeation was fast and showed the similar profile as that of the in vitro drug release. Patches were stable, during and at the end of the accelerated stability study. PMID:21453255

  9. Diet-related buccal dental microwear patterns in Central African Pygmy foragers and Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez-Rozzi, Fernando V; De Juan, Joaquín; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs), are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager-farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo) and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations. PMID:24367696

  10. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathiba Duvuru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer.

  11. Creating Drug Solubilization Compartments via Phase Separation in Multicomponent Buccal Patches Prepared by Direct Hot Melt Extrusion-Injection Molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhijjaj, Muqdad; Bouman, Jacob; Wellner, Nikolaus; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Creating in situ phase separation in solid dispersion based formulations to allow enhanced functionality of the dosage form, such as improving dissolution of poorly soluble model drug as well as being mucoadhesive, can significantly maximize the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dosage form. This formulation strategy can benefit a wide range of solid dosage forms for oral and alternative routes of delivery. This study using buccal patches as an example created separated phases in situ of the buccal patches by selecting the excipients with different miscibility with each other and the model drug. The quaternary dispersion based buccal patches containing PEG, PEO, Tween 80, and felodipine were prepared by direct hot melt extrusion-injection molding (HME-IM). The partial miscibility between Tween 80 and semicrystalline PEG-PEO led to the phase separation after extrusion. The Tween phases acted as drug solubilization compartments, and the PEG-PEO phase had the primary function of providing mucoadhesion and carrier controlled dissolution. As felodipine was preferably solubilized in the amorphous regions of PEG-PEO, the high crystallinity of PEG-PEO resulted in an overall low drug solubilizing capacity. Tween 80 was added to improve the solubilization capacity of the system as the model drug showed good solubility in Tween. Increasing the drug loading led to the supersaturation of drug in Tween compartments and crystalline drug dispersed in PEG-PEO phases. The spatial distribution of these phase-separated compartments was mapped using X-ray micro-CT, which revealed that the domain size and heterogeneity of the phase separation increased with increasing the drug loading. The outcome of this study provides new insights into the applicability of in situ formed phase separation as a formulation strategy for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs and demonstrated the basic principle of excipient selection for such technology. PMID:26551593

  12. Diet-related buccal dental microwear patterns in Central African Pygmy foragers and Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Romero

    Full Text Available Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs, are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager-farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations.

  13. Effect of the parasitic isopod, Catoessa boscii (Isopoda, Cymothoidae), a buccal cavity parasite of the marine fish, Carangoides malabaricus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganapathy Rameshkumar; Samuthirapandian Ravichandran

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of isopod parasite Catoessa boscii (C. boscii) on Carangoides malabaricus (C. malabaricus). Methods:The host fish C. malabaricus infested by C. boscii were collected directly from the trawlers landed at Parangipettai coast during December 2008 to November 2009. Data regarding the total length, width, weight and sex of the host fish were recorded. Effect of infestation on C. malabaricus, the length and weight data were analysed and host specificity of isopods was also examined. Results:During the sampling period, 585 C. malabaricus were examined. Among them, 218 specimens were found to carry 243 parasites. Three pairs of isopods (one male with one female) were recorded from the host fish and each pair was attached to the tongue in the buccal cavity of the host. Another pair was also found where the male and male, female and female isopod had settled on the tongue in the buccal cavity. Gross lesions observed in the buccal cavity of infested fish showed small pin-holes in the tongue region, through which dactyls of pereopod’s penetrating claws dig into the host tissues. The maximum weight loss was reported in females (5.43%) than in males (3.75%) of C. malabaricus. Due to infestation of different isopod parasites in both male and female fish, the effects on the length-weight relationship of C. malabaricus were compared. The rate of increased growth in weight in uninfested female fish was found to be higher than that of the infested. The weight gain is faster in uninfested fish than in the infested fish. Conclusions:From the above mentioned observations, it is clear that the worst of fish on account of the infestation of isopods are the C. malabaricus succumbed to the attack of isopod parasites. Although, the infestation did not cause immediate death, it had affected the normal growth of the host fish.

  14. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam-Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-12-05

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam-swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (culture and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated how the false negative rate depends on test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam-swab sampling at low concentrations.

  15. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-04-16

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (plating/counting and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated false negative as a function of affecting test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam swab sampling at low concentrations.

  16. The Use of Multiplex PCR to Determine the Prevalence of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Raw Milk, Feta Cheese, and Hand Swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinhom, Mohamed M A; Abdel-Latef, Gihan K; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) can cause mastitis in cattle and, therefore, can be present in milk. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of coagulase positive S. aureus and its enterotoxin genes sea, seb, and sec in isolates recovered from raw milk, feta cheese, and human hand swabs of milk and cheese handlers in Beni-Suef province, Egypt. A total of 100 samples of raw milk and 50 samples of pasteurized-milk feta cheese were collected. In addition, 50 hand swabs from milk handlers and 25 hand swabs from cheese handlers were examined for the presence of coagulase positive S. aureus. The isolates were characterized by multiplex PCR for detection of sea, seb, and sec genes, and for resistance to 5 classes of commonly used antibiotics. Twelve (12/100), 12 (6/50), and 17% (13/75) of milk, cheese, and hand swab samples, respectively, were positive for coagulase positive S. aureus. One isolate was obtained from each positive sample (31 isolates), and none contained genes for SEA or SEC production. Twenty-five percent, 33%, and 31%, respectively, of the isolates contained the genes for SEB, resulting in 3%, 4%, and 5% of samples being positive for toxin producing coagulase positive S. aureus, respectively. At least one isolate was resistant to each of the antibiotics tested. Despite the low potential for SEB production shown, preventative measures, such as maintenance of the cold-chain and good hygienic practices should be implemented to further reduce the potential risk to public health from SEB, and to reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26588209

  17. Evaluation of Presto(plus) assay and LightMix kit Trichomonas vaginalis assay for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in dry vaginal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waaij, Dewi J; Ouburg, Sander; Dubbink, Jan Henk; Peters, Remco P H; Morré, Servaas A

    2016-08-01

    This is an evaluation study of the Presto(plus) Assay for T. vaginalis by comparing to the TIB MOLBIOL LightMix Kit Trichomonas vaginalis Assay using 615 dry collected vaginal and rectal swabs. Discordant samples were analyzed by the Qiagen® Microbial DNA qPCR for TV Assay. Both assays showed comparable performances (McNemar p>0.05). PMID:27268968

  18. Evaluation of Remel Spectra CRE Agar for Detection of Carbapenem-Resistant Bacteria from Rectal Swabs Obtained from Residents of a Long-Term-Care Facility

    OpenAIRE

    LaBombardi, Vincent J.; Urban, Carl M.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Chen, Liang; Osorio, Giuliana; Kopacz, Joanna; Labaze, Georges; Segal-Maurer, Sorana

    2015-01-01

    We compared the Remel Spectra CRE agar plate to CDC standard methodology for the isolation of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) from 300 rectal swab specimens obtained from patients residing in a long-term-care facility (LTCF). Multiplex PCR experiments were performed on isolates to identify specific Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) and additional β-lactamases. Of the 300 patients, 72 (24%) harbored CRE and were PCR positive for KPC enzymes. The Remel Spectra CRE plates ...

  19. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Smallmouth Buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

    1982-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  20. Comparison of illumigene Group A Streptococcus Assay with Culture of Throat Swabs from Children with Sore Throats in the New Zealand School-Based Rheumatic Fever Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Arlo; Bissessor, Liselle; Farrell, Elizabeth; Shulman, Stanford T; Zheng, Xiaotian; Lennon, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis is a particularly important condition in areas of New Zealand where the incidence of acute rheumatic fever remains unacceptably high. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of GAS pharyngitis are cornerstones of the Rheumatic Fever Prevention Programme, but these are hindered by the turnaround time of culture. Tests with excellent performance and rapid turnaround times are needed. For this study, throat swabs (Copan ESwabs) were collected from schoolchildren self-identifying with a sore throat. Samples were tested by routine culture and the illumigene GAS assay using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Discrepant results were resolved by retesting of the same specimen by an alternative molecular assay. Seven hundred fifty-seven throat swab specimens were tested by both methods. The performance characteristics of the illumigene assay using culture on blood agar as the "gold standard" and following discrepancy analysis were as follows: sensitivity, 82% and 87%, respectively; specificity, 93% and 98%, respectively; positive predictive value, 61% and 88%, respectively; and negative predictive value, 97% and 97%, respectively. In our unique setting of a school-based throat swabbing program, the illumigene assay did not perform quite as well as described in previous reports. Despite this, its improved sensitivity and rapid turnaround time compared with those of culture are appealing. PMID:26560542

  1. Genetic Characterization of Fungi Isolated from the Environmental Swabs collected from a Compounding Center Known to Cause Multistate Meningitis Outbreak in United States Using ITS Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad M. Sulaiman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A multistate fungal meningitis outbreak started in September of 2012 which spread in 20 states of the United States. The outbreak has been fatal so far, and has affected 751 individuals with 64 deaths among those who received contaminated spinal injections manufactured by a Compounding Center located in Massachusetts. In a preliminary study, Food and Drug Administration (FDA investigated the outbreak in collaboration with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, state and local health departments, and identified four fungal and several bacterial contaminations in the recalled unopened injection vials. This follow-up study was carried out to assess DNA sequencing of the ITS1 region of rRNA gene for rapid identification of fungal pathogens during public health outbreak investigations. A total of 26 environmental swabs were collected from several locations at the manufacturing premises of the Compounding Center known to have caused the outbreak. The swab samples were initially examined by conventional microbiologic protocols and a wide range of fungal species were recovered. Species-identification of these microorganisms was accomplished by nucleotide sequencing of ITS1 region of rRNA gene. Analysis of data confirmed 14 additional fungal species in the swabs analyzed.

  2. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of primary school children exposed to air pollutants: micronuclei analysis of buccal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircigil, Gonca Çakmak; Erdem, Onur; Gaga, Eftade O; Altuğ, Hicran; Demirel, Gülçin; Özden, Özlem; Arı, Akif; Örnektekin, Sermin; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; van Doorn, Wim; Burgaz, Sema

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing attempt in the world to determine the exposures of children to environmental chemicals. To analyze the genotoxic effect of air pollution, micronucleus (MN) assay was carried out in buccal epithelial cells (BECs) of children living in an urban city of Turkey. Children from two schools at urban-traffic and suburban sites were investigated in summer and winter seasons for the determination of BEC-MN frequency (per mille) and frequency of BEC with MN (per mille). The same children were also recruited for lung function measurements within a MATRA project ("Together Towards Clean Air in Eskisehir and Iskenderun") Measured NO2 and SO2 concentrations did not exceed the European Union (EU) limit levels either in urban-traffic or suburban regions. Higher O3 concentrations were measured in the suburban site especially in the summer period. Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) levels which did not differ statistically between two regions were above the EU limits in general. Although BEC-MN frequencies of children living in the suburban sites were higher in general, the difference between two regions was not significant either in the summer or winter periods. BEC-MN frequencies of the urban-traffic children were found to be significantly higher in summer period (mean ± SD, 2.68 ± 1.99) when compared to winter period (1.64 ± 1.59; p = 0.004). On the other hand, no seasonality was observed for the suburban children. Similar results have been obtained in the BEC frequency with MN in our study. In summer, BEC-MN frequencies were significantly increased with the decrease in pulmonary function levels based on forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75%) levels (p < 0.05). As a conclusion, children living in urban-traffic and suburban areas in the city of Eskişehir exhibited similar genotoxicity. Seasonal variation in genotoxicity may be interpreted as relatively high ozone levels and increasing time spent at

  3. Inhibitory effects of Zengshengping fractions on DMBA-induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xiao-bing; SUN Zheng; CHEN Xiao-xin; WU Hong-ru; ZHANG Xin-yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Zengshengping (ZSP) tablets had inhibitory effects on oral precancerous lesions by reducing the incidence of oral cancer.However,the severe liver toxicity caused by systemic administration of ZSP limits the long-term use of this anti-cancer drug.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tumor inhibitory effects due to the topical application of extracts from ZSP,a Chinese herbal drug,on 7,12-dimethlbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced oral tumors in hamsters.The study also investigated the anti-cancer mechanisms of the ZSP extracts on oral carcinogenesis.Methods DMBA (0.5%) was applied topically to the buccal pouches of Syrian golden hamsters (6-8 weeks old) three times per week for six weeks in order to induce the development of oral tumors.Different fractions of ZSP were either applied topically to the oral tumor lesions or fed orally at varying dosages to animals with oral tumors for 18 weeks.Tumor volume was measured by histopathological examination.Tumor cell proliferation was evaluated by counting BrdU labeled cells and by Western blotting for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein levels.The protein levels of apoptosis marker Caspase-3 and regulator Bcl-2 protein were also measured by Western blotting.Results Topical application of DMBA to the left pouch of hamsters induced oral tumor formation.Animals treated with DMBA showed a loss in body weight while animals treated with ZSP maintained normal body weights.Both the ZSP n-butanol fraction and water fraction significantly reduced tumor volume by 32.6% (P <0.01) and 22.9% (P <0.01)respectively.Topical application of ZSP also markedly decreased the BrdU-positive cell numbers in oral tumor lesions and reduced the expression level of MAPK.In addition,ZSP promoted tumor cell apoptosis by increasing Caspase-3 expression but decreasing Bcl-2 protein production.Conclusion The n-butanol and water fractions of ZSP are effective at inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and stimulating

  4. Esthetic effect of the buccal corridor size and amount of tooth-gingival display on smile attractiveness in two student population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Zarif Najafi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 3- Dentist   Background and Aims: An attractive, well-balanced smile is a paramount treatment objective of the modern orthodontic therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the buccal corridor size and tooth-gingival display on the smile esthetics as perceived by two groups of the students.   Materials and Methods: A colored image of a woman frontal posed smile was selected. The image was altered digitally to produce different buccal corridor sizes (6%, 12.5% and 20% and different tooth-gingival displays (maxillary central incisors and 2 mm of gingival, maxillary central incisors and dental papilla and 80% of the maxillary central incisors. The different buccal corridor sizes and tooth-gingival displays were combined to produce 9 images. These altered images were rated by 120 medical and dental students using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test, Pairwise comparison LSD test, Repeated measure MANOVA and ICC (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient.   Results: The smile which had the buccal corridor size of 12.5% and complete incisor display without gingival display received the highest rates among the nine smile images in the dental students group. But in the medical students group the smile with the buccal corridor size of 12.5% and 2 mm gingival display, received the highest rates among the nine smile images. There was no significant difference in judging between the male and female raters for the both groups (P>0.05. The dental students were more critical about the increasing of the gingival display.   Conclusion: In the treatment procedure that may lead to the combination of wide buccal corridor and more tooth-gingival show, more caution should be considered.

  5. Enabling Noninvasive Systemic Delivery of the Kv1.3-Blocking Peptide HsTX1[R14A] via the Buccal Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liang; Boyd, Ben J; Larson, Ian C; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2016-07-01

    The peptide HsTX1[R14A] is a potent and selective blocker of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3, a well-recognized therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases. To overcome the poor oral absorption and consequent need for regular injections, the potential of the buccal mucosa for systemic delivery of HsTX1[R14A] was investigated. For in vitro studies, FITC-HsTX1[R14A] and HsTX1[R14A], in solution or formulated in a mucoadhesive chitosan-based gel (3%, w/v) with or without cetrimide (5%, w/w), were applied to porcine buccal epithelium mounted between Ussing chambers and buccal mucosal permeation assessed. HsTX1[R14A] was also administered to Swiss outbred mice at a dose of 10 mg/kg in the same formulations. In vitro, administration of FITC-HsTX1[R14A] and HsTX1[R14A] in the chitosan gel containing cetrimide resulted in detectable buccal permeation with 0.75% and 0.58%, respectively, of the applied dose appearing in the receptor chamber over 5 h. After buccal administration to mice, HsTX1[R14A] was detected in plasma, with the presence of cetrimide in the gel further enhancing plasma exposure, with area under the plasma concentration-time curve values of 77.9 ± 9.7 and 31.0 ± 2.3 nM·h, respectively. The buccal mucosa is a promising alternative administration route for the systemic delivery of HsTX1[R14A] for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:27312508

  6. A Case of Hyalinizing Clear Cell Carcinoma, So-Called Clear Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified, of the Minor Salivary Glands of the Buccal Mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC), so-called clear cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified (CCC (NOS)), of the salivary glands is a rare and low-grade malignant tumor. We report a case of HCCC so-called CCC (NOS) (referred to as HCCC) of the minor salivary gland of the buccal mucosa. A 52-year-old woman had presented with a gradually growing and indolent mass in the right buccal mucosa for about two years. The first biopsy histopathologically suggested the possibility of malignancy deri...

  7. Effects of toluidine blue and destaining reagents used in sexual assault examinations on the ability to obtain DNA profiles from postcoital vaginal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmeister, M N; Whelan, M; Borer, U V; Gehrig, C; Binda, S; Berzlanovich, A; Rauch, E; Dirnhofer, R

    1997-03-01

    Toluidine blue is an important tool to detect and document genital and perianal injuries following sexual assault. Application of toluidine blue dye and its subsequent removal from unstained areas by means of a destaining reagent, such as diluted acetic acid or a lubricant has been shown to increase the detection rate of posterior fourchette lacerations from 16% to 40% in adult rape victims. Currently, limited information on toluidine blue positive findings in sexually active control groups imposes some limitation on the interpretation of these injuries. Because injuries could otherwise be attributed to improper handling of an examination speculum or the improper insertion of the examining finger, the toluidine blue test should be performed prior to any digital or speculum examination and thus prior to the collection of forensic evidence. For forensic DNA identity testing, it becomes pertinent to determine whether toluidine blue and the destaining reagents used in a sexual assault examination have an adverse effect on the recovery of high molecular weight DNA from postcoital vaginal swabs and thereby have an impact on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis or PCR-based tests. It is known that some of the lubricants used can have a destructive effect on sperm motility. In order to investigate the potential effects, postcoital vaginal swabs were taken 6 h after sexual intercourse and exposed directly to 1% toluidine blue in aqueous solution, 1-10% acetic acid, and various surgical and vaginal lubricants. Subsequently, the DNA was isolated and DNA identity typing (RFLP and PCR-based) was performed. The results demonstrate, that these reagents have no negative effect on the ability to obtain DNA profiles, either RFLP or PCR-based, from shallow and deep vaginal swabs. The quantity and quality of extractable high molecular weight DNA obtained was comparable with that from uncontaminated postcoital vaginal swabs. RFLP patterns and PCR-based typing

  8. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  9. Microsurgical Urethroplasty for Complex Bulbar Urethral Strictures Using the Radial Forearm Free Flap Prelaminated with Buccal Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ajay; Sham, Eric; Chee, Justin

    2016-06-01

    Background Complex bulbar urethral strictures are a heterogeneous group, including those secondary to radiotherapy, failed previous open urethroplasty, and total bulbar necrosis following pelvic trauma. Traditional urethroplasty techniques in this group are unpredictable. We describe a novel technique of a buccal mucosa-prelaminated radial forearm free flap urethroplasty, which seeks to improve the quality of life for this group of patients. Methods Known, reliable techniques from two surgical specialties were combined to create a novel surgical solution, consisting of a radial forearm free flap prelaminated with buccal mucosa. Prospective data were collected on patient and stricture characteristics, complications, and results, including voiding flow rates, urethrography, and cystourethroscopy. Success was defined as the ability to void per urethra. The procedure was performed in four patients, previously considered unreconstructable and who were suprapubic catheter dependent. Results Microsurgical transfer was successful in all four cases. All patients were voiding per urethra and remained catheter free at a minimum of 12-month follow-up. There was no significant donor morbidity and all patients were able to return to their usual occupation. Mean voiding flow rates were 17.3 mL/s. Flexible cystoscopy revealed well-vascularized, patent neomucosa. Conclusions We demonstrate proof of concept for a novel technique of microsurgical urethroplasty. We believe this technique may have widespread application in the treatment of radiation-induced and other complex urethral strictures where traditional urethroplasty has limited success. PMID:26848566

  10. Comparison of transverse dental changes induced by the palatally applied Frog appliance and buccally applied Karad's integrated distalizing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaygisiz, Emine; Unver, Fatih; Tortop, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the transverse dental changes induced by the palatally applied Frog appliance and buccally applied Karad's integrated distalizing system (KIDS). Methods We evaluated the pre- and post distalization orthodontic models of 39 patients, including 19 treated using the Frog appliance, which is palatally positioned (Frog group), and 20 treated using KIDS, which is buccally positioned (KIDS group). Changes in intermolar and interpremolar distances and the amount of maxillary premolar and molar rotation were evaluated on model photocopies. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical evaluations. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Significant distopalatal rotation of premolars and distobuccal rotation of molars were observed in Frog group (p < 0.05), while significant distopalatal rotation of molars (p < 0.05), with no significant changes in premolars, was observed in KIDS group. The amount of second premolar and first molar rotation was significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, expansion in the region of the first molars and second premolars was significantly greater in KIDS group than in Frog group (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusions Our results suggest that the type and amount of first molar rotation and expansion vary with the design of the distalization appliance used. PMID:27019824

  11. Pre-formulation and systematic evaluation of amino acid assisted permeability of insulin across in vitro buccal cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyire, Affiong; Alayedi, Maryam; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate alternative safe and effective permeation enhancers for buccal peptide delivery. Basic amino acids improved insulin solubility in water while 200 and 400 μg/mL lysine significantly increased insulin solubility in HBSS. Permeability data showed a significant improvement in insulin permeation especially for 10 μg/mL of lysine (p permeability but was toxic to the cells. It was hypothesized that both amino acids and insulin were ionised at buccal cavity pH and able to form stable ion pairs which penetrated the cells as one entity; while possibly triggering amino acid nutrient transporters on cell surfaces. Evidence of these transport mechanisms was seen with reduction of insulin transport at suboptimal temperatures as well as with basal-to-apical vectoral transport, and confocal imaging of transcellular insulin transport. These results obtained for insulin are the first indication of a possible amino acid mediated transport of insulin via formation of insulin-amino acid neutral complexes by the ion pairing mechanism. PMID:27581177

  12. [Comparison of ertapenem-EMB Agar with traditional methods for screening carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from rectal swabs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perçin, Duygu; Colakoğlu, Selcan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Ekincioğlu, Pınar

    2012-10-01

    Detection of rectal colonization with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is the most important step in the infection control protocols in order to prevent infections caused by CRKP which has an increasing incidence all over the world. In this study, it was aimed to compare the detection rate of 2 mg/L ertapenem EMB agar medium with the other methods recommended by various international guidelines. These methods include direct plate method using ertapenem disc, enrichment method in tryptic soy broth containing 2 mg/L ertapenem and the investigation of the predominant betalactamases in the colonized patients. The lowest inoculum detected by different methods was determined by using simulative challenge test prepared for this purpose. The ability to detect CRKP from rectal swabs was evaluated by using the clinical specimens of 801 patients. For all bacteria isolated, carbapenem susceptibility was evaluated by using E-test method, the presence of beta-lactamases was determined by using modified Hodge test (MHT), and the carbapenemase genes were investigated by using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The lowest inoculum detected by ertapenem-EMB agar was 50 CFU/mL whereas the lowest inocula were 1 x 105 and 1 x 103, respectively by tryptic soy broth with ertapenem and direct plate method. No resistance gene were identified by PCR in 13 (39.4%) of 33 isolates, whereas blaOXA-48 was detected in 19 (95%) and blaIMP in 1 (5%) of 20 positive isolates. All of the positive strains were resistant to imipenem and ertapenem, while 2 (10%) strains were found to be susceptible to doripenem and meropenem. While MHT was negative in all strains which were negative for resistance genes, all resistance gene positive strains except one blaOXA-48 strain that was also sensitive to doripenem and meropenem, were found to be positive with MHT. According to the results of PCR, the sensitivities of the three methods were found to be 80%. The specificities, positive and

  13. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in human buccal mucosal tissue and cell cultures. Complex mixtures related to habitual use of tobacco and betel quid inhibit the activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Egyhazi, S; Hansson, J; Bhide, S V; Kulkarni, P S; Grafström, R C

    1997-10-01

    Extracts prepared from tissue specimens of normal, non-tumourous human buccal mucosa, and cultured buccal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, exhibited O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity by catalysing the repair of the premutagenic O6-methylguanine lesion in isolated DNA with rates of 0.2 to 0.3 pmol/mg protein. An SV40 T antigen-immortalized buccal epithelial cell line termed SVpgC2a and a buccal squamous carcinoma line termed SqCC/Y1, both of which lack normal tumour suppressor gene p53 function, exhibited about 50 and 10% of the MGMT activity of normal cells, respectively. The normal, experimentally transformed and tumourous buccal cell types showed MGMT mRNA levels which correlated with their respective levels of MGMT activity. Exposure of buccal cell cultures to various organic or water-based extracts of products related to the use of tobacco and betel quid, decreased both cell survival (measured by reduction of tetrazolium dye) and MGMT activity (measured subsequently to the exposures in cellular extracts). Organic extracts of bidi smoke condensate and betel leaf showed higher potency than those of tobacco and snuff. An aqueous snuff extract also decreased both parameters, whereas an aqueous areca nut extract was without effect. The well-established sulph-hydryl-reactive agent Hg2+, a corrosion product of dental amalgam, served as a positive control and decreased MGMT activity following treatment of cells within a range of 1-10 microM. Taken together, significant MGMT activities were demonstrated in buccal tissue specimens and in the major buccal mucosal cell types in vitro. Lower than normal MGMT activity in two transformed buccal epithelial cell lines correlated with decreased MGMT mRNA and lack of functional p53. Finally, in vitro experiments suggested the potential inhibition of buccal mucosal MGMT activity by complex mixtures present in the saliva of tobacco and betel nut chewers. PMID:9363996

  14. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2010-12-16

    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  15. Spring Season Habitat Suitability Index raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster represents a continuous surface of sage-grouse habitat suitability index (HSI, created using ArcGIS 10.2.2) values for Nevada during spring, which is a...

  16. Suitable scale of Weigan River plain oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ShunJun; SONG YuDong; TIAN ChangYan; LI YueTan; LI XiuCang; CHEN XiaoBing

    2007-01-01

    Desert coexists with oasis in long time, and the existence and development of oasis system demand better oasis vegetation ecological system. Oasis scale of arid zone plain encircling water should be determined in case of desertification caused by land over-reclamation under the circumstance of water resources shortage. Steady oasis with virtuous circle must have appropriate land use structure for agriculture, forestry and graziery. The study on the suitable scale and developmental space of oasis will provide theoretical and applicable foundation for effective construction of oases. By analyzing the hydrothermal, water and soil balance, an optimal mathematical model has been established. Based on hydrometeorology data collected for years in Weigan River plain, and by the principle of water balance,a calculation has been made of the water resources for evapotranspiration and the optimal acreage of oasis and cultivated land, which shows that the water resources for evapotranspiration in the Weigan River plain oasis is 22.32×108 m3 and the optimal oasis acreage under the condition of conventional irrigation mode is 3716.06 km2, in which the suitable cultivated land acreage is 1564.79 km2. Under the condition of water-saving irrigation, the suitable oasis acreage is 5515.49 km2, in which the suitable cultivated land acreage is 2322.31 km2. The oasis area had reached 4123 km2, and the cultivated land acreage had reached 1507 km2 after the Agriculture Irrigation Drainage Water Project of World Bank Loan in Weigan River basin was finished in 1997. The oasis and cultivated land acreage will be more suitable, and the oasis scale can be enlarged moderately by means of water saving irrigation.

  17. An SEM study of the cephalic region, buccal cavity and male tail of the species of the genus Strongylus Müller, 1780 (Nematoda, Strongyloidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, L M

    1984-06-01

    The four species of the genus Strongylus Müller, 1780, namely, S. equinus, S. edentatus, S. vulgaris and S. asini were examined with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The buccal cavity of each species was cut transversely and longitudinally and the scanning electron micrographs illustrate the shape of the buccal cavity and the dorsal gutter. The micrographs also show the presence of denticles near the oral rim of the buccal cavity of S. edentatus and the shape of the teeth in the buccal cavity of S. equinus, S. vulgaris and S. asini. The bursa of the four species has three symmetrical lobes, one dorsal and two lateral. The length of the three lobes in relation to each other varies between the species. The genital cone has a single large ventral papilla, a pair of dorsal raylets, a median dorsal cuticular appendage and a variety of cuticular appendages lateral and ventral to the cloaca. The development and arrangement of these components differs between the four species of the genus and can be used as a supportive character for specific identification. PMID:6747258

  18. The use of piezoelectric surgery to lateralize the inferior alveolar nerve with simultaneous implant placement and immediate buccal cortical bone repositioning: a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vicente, J C; Peña, I; Braña, P; Hernández-Vallejo, G

    2016-07-01

    A prospective study was conducted to assess a variation of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) lateralization. This study included 13 patients. An osteotomy was made with a piezoelectric device, and the IAN bundle was moved buccally. Dental implants were then inserted medial to the nerve bundle, and the inner surface of the buccal cortical bone plate was shaped to reduce its thickness. Finally, the bone plate was repositioned to restore the original shape and contour of the mandible. Neurosensory examinations of the lower lip and chin were performed using three tests: light touch, pain, and two-point discrimination. Three months after surgery, the function of the IAN was judged to be completely restored at 11 of the 13 surgical sites. Differences in the tests comparing the operated and non-operated sides were not significant. No implants were lost, and all patients were satisfied with the result. Although IAN lateralization in conjunction with dental implant placement is rarely indicated, the use of a piezoelectric device to perform a buccal osteotomy with final repositioning of the buccal cortical plate over the bony defect contributes to the recovery of the contour and shape of the mandible, without impairment of IAN function. PMID:26897328

  19. Mifepristone followed by home administration of buccal misoprostol for medical abortion up to 70 days of amenorrhoea in a general practice in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Adriana A.; Jong, Betty Meyboom-de; Kleiverda, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of home administration of buccal misoprostol after mifepristone for medical abortion up to 70 days' gestation in a general practice in Curacao, where induced abortion is severely restricted by law. Methods In a prospective study 330 women received 200 mg

  20. Morphological study of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of the flatfish common solea (Solea solea) and its relation to the type of feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neveen El Said Reda El Bakary

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the surface architecture of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of Solea solea which are considered one of the most important predators in benthic communities. Methods: Adult Solea solea were obtained from Mediterranean Sea near Damietta. The heads were removed and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Its buccal cavity is asymmetrical and divided into roof and floor and the tongue for histological studies. Results:The buccal cavity roof is formed from upper jaw, velum and the palate. The upper jaw has several wing like processes with teeth arranged in several rows which may help in cutting and pushing the food to the entrance of the digestive canal while the floor is formed from the lower jaw and the tongue. The tongue is divided into apex, body and root. There is a gradual decrease of goblet cells in the tongue from anterior to posterior. These goblet cells function in protection of the epithelium. Conclusions:Teeth in the floor of the buccal cavity and taste buds can be considered adaptive changes of the oral cavity related to the feeding habits and was a source to identify new and better methods of nutrition in aquaculture of Solea solea.

  1. Morphological study of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of the flatfish common solea (Solea solea and its relation to the type of feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen El Said Reda El Bakary

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Teeth in the floor of the buccal cavity and taste buds can be considered adaptive changes of the oral cavity related to the feeding habits and was a source to identify new and better methods of nutrition in aquaculture of Solea solea.

  2. Pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory potential of andrographolide during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Sekar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim of the present study was to investigate the modulating effect of andrographolide on apoptotic and inflammatory markers during 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Methods: Oral tumors were developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. The expression pattern of molecular markers were assayed using immunohistochemistry (p53, Bcl-2 and Bax, ELISA (COX-2 and real-time PCR (NFκB. Results: We noticed 100% tumor formation accompanied by deregulation in the apoptotic and inflammatory markers in the buccal mucosa of hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of andrographolide at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w to hamsters treated with DMBA, not only completely prevented the tumor formation but also modulated the status of above mentioned molecular markers in favor of inhibiting cell proliferation as evidenced by no tumor formation. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the anti-tumor effect of andrographolide could partly be attributed to its apoptotic and anti-inflammatory potential during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(4: 313-319

  3. Preliminary geological suitability assessment for LILW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the growing need for a final disposal of LILW, the final solution for the short-lived LILW is the key issue of radioactive waste management in Slovenia at the moment. ARAO - the Slovenian Agency for Radwaste Management - is intensely involved in the re-initiated site selection process for a LILW repository. In this new process we are trying to combine as best as possible the technical, geologically-led and the advocacy-site selection processes. By a combination of technical and volunteer approach to the site selection we wish to guarantee high public involvement and sufficient flexibility of the process to adapt to specific conditions or new circumstances while the project is ongoing. In the technical phase, our tendency is to retain a larger number of potential areas/sites. We also keep open the possibility of choosing the type of repository. The decision between the surface and underground option will be made only once the site has been defined. In accordance with the IAEA recommendations the site selection process is divided into four stages: the conceptual and planning stage, area survey stage, site characterisation stage and site confirmation stage. Last year the area survey stage was started. In the preliminary geological suitability assessment the required natural predisposition of Slovene territory was assessed in order to locate geologically suitable formations. The assessment of natural conditions of the system was based on consideration of the main geological, hydro-geological and seismotectonic conditions. It was performed with ARC/INFO technology. The results are compiled in a map, showing potential areas for underground and surface disposal of LILW in Slovenia. It has been established that there is a potential suitability for both surface and underground disposal on about 10 000 km2 of the Slovenian territory, which represents almost half of the entire Slovenian territory. These preliminary results are now being carefully re-examined. As an

  4. Screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in clinical swabs using a high-throughput real-time PCR-based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornskov, D; Kolmos, B; Bendix Horn, P; Nederby Nielsen, J; Brandslund, I; Schouenborg, P

    2008-01-01

    2005, all patients and healthcare personnel have been screened for MRSA colonisation, involving analysis of 300-400 samples daily. To deal with this number of samples, a PCR-based method customised for high-throughput analysis and a system for fast reporting of MRSA carrier status were developed. Swab...... pattern. This is a cost-effective approach, as the greatest expense in hospitals involves the isolation of patients of unknown MRSA status. The method was evaluated by testing 2194 clinical samples, with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94%, respectively. The analytical sensitivity was 97%, with...

  5. Sphere-forming-like cells (squamospheres) with cancer stem-like cell traits from VX2 rabbit buccal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuk-Kwan Chen; Anderson Hsien-Cheng Huang; Li-Min Lin

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that spheroid type cells grown under suspension culture conditions have cancer stem cell (CSC) traits in a number of cancers, but this phenomenon has not yet been reported in the VX2 rabbit oral cancer model. Hence, this study aimed to study the spheroid cells from VX2 rabbit buccal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and assess their CSC characteristics. Five adult male New Zealand white outbred rabbits were used to generate VX2 rabbit buccal SCC. Sphere-forming cell culture was performed for the VX2 rabbit buccal SCC specimens. The self-renewal capability;cluster of designation (CD) 44, CD133, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1), Nestin, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and reduced expression protein-1 (Rex-1) expression with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR);chemoresistance to cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil;and in vivo tumorigenicity of spheroid cell transplantation in nude mice were evaluated to determine the CSC characteristics of the resulting spheroid cells. We successfully obtained spheroid cells from the VX2 rabbit OSCC tissues. The spheroid cells exhibited CSC traits, including the expression of CSC and stem cell markers (CD44, Bmi-1, Nestin, Oct4 and Rex-1), capacity to generate new spheroid colonies within 1 week of reseeding from single-dissociated spheroid cells, chemoresistance capacity and generation of tumour xenografts (with histological features resembling those of the original VX2 rabbit buccal SCC) from the transplantation of 103 undifferentiated spheroid cells into nude mice. In summary, we demonstrated that spheroid cells with CSC cell traits can be derived from VX2 rabbit buccal SCCs, indicating that this animal cancer model is applicable for studying CSCs in human oral cancers.

  6. Mapping global environmental suitability for Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Jane P; Kraemer, Moritz Ug; Brady, Oliver J; Pigott, David M; Shearer, Freya M; Weiss, Daniel J; Golding, Nick; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Gething, Peter W; Cohn, Emily; Brownstein, John S; Khan, Kamran; Tatem, Andrew J; Jaenisch, Thomas; Murray, Christopher Jl; Marinho, Fatima; Scott, Thomas W; Hay, Simon I

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus was discovered in Uganda in 1947 and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which also act as vectors for dengue and chikungunya viruses throughout much of the tropical world. In 2007, an outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia sparked public health concern. In 2013, the virus began to spread across other parts of Oceania and in 2015, a large outbreak in Latin America began in Brazil. Possible associations with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome observed in this outbreak have raised concerns about continued global spread of Zika virus, prompting its declaration as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. We conducted species distribution modelling to map environmental suitability for Zika. We show a large portion of tropical and sub-tropical regions globally have suitable environmental conditions with over 2.17 billion people inhabiting these areas. PMID:27090089

  7. Mapping global environmental suitability for Zika virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Jane P; Kraemer, Moritz UG; Brady, Oliver J; Pigott, David M; Shearer, Freya M; Weiss, Daniel J; Golding, Nick; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Gething, Peter W; Cohn, Emily; Brownstein, John S; Khan, Kamran; Tatem, Andrew J; Jaenisch, Thomas; Murray, Christopher JL; Marinho, Fatima; Scott, Thomas W; Hay, Simon I

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus was discovered in Uganda in 1947 and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which also act as vectors for dengue and chikungunya viruses throughout much of the tropical world. In 2007, an outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia sparked public health concern. In 2013, the virus began to spread across other parts of Oceania and in 2015, a large outbreak in Latin America began in Brazil. Possible associations with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome observed in this outbreak have raised concerns about continued global spread of Zika virus, prompting its declaration as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. We conducted species distribution modelling to map environmental suitability for Zika. We show a large portion of tropical and sub-tropical regions globally have suitable environmental conditions with over 2.17 billion people inhabiting these areas. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15272.001 PMID:27090089

  8. Induction of micronuclei in buccal mucosa on chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellappa, Sudha; Balakrishnan, Mythili; Raman, Sangeetha; Palanisamy, Subashini

    2009-06-01

    Betel quid containing areca nut and chewing tobacco is used in many parts of India. In this study we evaluated the micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosa of healthy individuals from southern India, who were regularly chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco. A total of 44 subjects were examined. The study population included 15 chewers, 14 chewers with smoking habit and 15 controls with the mean age of 38.57 +/- 0.54, 34.50 +/- 0.95, and 33.28 +/- 0.89 years, respectively. The mean percentage of MN was 1.90 +/- 1.03 in chewers, 2.00 +/-1.12 in chewers with smoking habits and 0.81 +/- 0.66 in controls. There was no significant difference between the mean percentages of the two experimental groups. It can be concluded that a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut, and tobacco is unsafe for oral health. PMID:19550099

  9. Gross Morphometric Studies on the Tongue, Buccal Cavity and Hard Palate of the Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igado, O O; Omobowale, T O; Ajadi, R A; Nottidge, H O

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the gross morphometric studies of the tongue, hard palate and buccal cavity of the fruit bat (Eidolon helvum). Sixty bats of both sexes were used for this study. The tongue was excised, and the weight and various linear measurements were determined. Linear measurements were also determined on the hard palate. The gross distribution of the lingual papillae was observed to be the same in both sexes; values obtained for the weight and length of the tongue were higher in the females, although no statistically significant differences were observed (P > 0.05). The number of ridges on the hard palate displayed sexual dimorphism. Results obtained from this study may find application in the field of comparative and clinical anatomy of wildlife and also in feeding physiology. PMID:25115593

  10. Peridiontal disease, buccal hygiene and smoking habit. Palmira municipality, 2007. Enfermedad periodontal, higiene bucal y tabaquismo. Municipio Palmira 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Quiñones Betancourt

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Peridontal diseases are among the most common diseases affecting human beings, and these are more frequent after the age of 35. Smoking habit is one of the risk factors usually linked with the development of these diseases. Objective: To characterize the relation between periodontal condition and buccal hygiene in patients with smoking habit. Method: Descriptive, cross-sectional, epidemiological study including 95 smokers from Palmira municipality; January-November, 2007. Peridontal treatment index was used in the community, as well as the simplified buccal hygiene index. Results: There was high prevalence of periodontal disease (85, 2%; buccal hygiene was directly related with smoking habit. Conclusions: The study shows an important relation between the periodontal disease in smokers, buccal hygiene and smoking habit intensity.

    Fundamento: Las periodontopatías representan una de las afecciones más comunes del género humano, se observan más frecuentemente después de los 35 años. El tabaquismo constituye unos de los

  11. Treatment of urethral strictures in balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO using circular buccal mucosal meatoplasy: Experience of 15 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmuttalip Simsek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO related strictures involving the external urethral meatus. We reviewed our result with the use of circular mucosal graft in the reconstruction of strictures. Methods: Between March 1997 and January 2012, 15 patients underwent circular buccal mucosal urethroplasy for BXO related anterior urethral strictures. Urethral catheter was removed within 2 weeks. Follow-up included patient symptoms assessment, cosmetic outcome and uroflowmetry. Results: Median follow-up was 20.5 months (range 4 to 96. Mean postoperative peak urinary flow rate obtained 1 month after catheter removal was 22.4 ml per second. All patients had a normal meatus and none had recurrent stricture, chordee or erectile dysfunction. A functional and cosmetic outcome was achieved in 100% of the patients. Conclusions: Circular mucosal graft technique for treatment of meatal strictures is an efficient method for the restoration of a functional and cosmetic penis.

  12. Assessment of micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells among fisher folks exposed to mine tailings in Marinduque Island, Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elena M Ragragio; Celeste P Belleza; Mark C Narciso; Glenn L Sia Su

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the potential toxic effects of mine tailings exposure among the fisher folks residing near and far from the Calancan Bay, Marinduque, using the micronucleus assay as an endpoint.Methods: The fisher folks residing near and far from the Calancan Bay were interviewed and the presence and frequency of cells with micronucleus in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells were examined.Results: Results showed that the prevalence of cells with micronucleus was higher among the fisher folks who were directly exposed to the mine tailings as compared with those fisher folks who reside in a community without exposure of mine tailings and history of mining (P<0.05).Conclusions: The presence and the significant difference in the cells with micronuclei observed near the Calancan Bay could possibly indicate a prolonged chemical stress caused by the toxic heavy metals in the mine tailings and the environment.

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Swamp Rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  14. Niche suitability affects development: skull asymmetry increases in less suitable areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Maestri

    Full Text Available For conservation purposes, it is important to take into account the suitability of a species to particular habitats; this information may predict the long-term survival of a species. In this sense, morphological measures of developmental stress, such as fluctuating asymmetry, can be proxies for an individual's performance in different regions. In this study, we conducted tests to determine whether areas with different levels of suitability for a species (generated by ecological niche models were congruent with morphological markers that reflect environmental stress and morphological variance. We generated a Maxent niche model and compared the suitability assessments of several areas with the skull morphology data (fluctuating asymmetry and morphological disparity of populations of the Atlantic forest endemic to Brazil rodent Akodon cursor. Our analyses showed a significant negative relationship between suitability levels and fluctuating asymmetry levels, which indicates that in less suitable areas, the individuals experience numerous disturbances during skull ontogeny. We have not found an association between morphological variance and environmental suitability. As expected, these results suggest that in environments with a lower suitability, developmental stress is increased. Such information is helpful in the understanding of the species evolution and in the selection of priority areas for the conservation of species.

  15. Spatial Experiment Technologies Suitable for Unreturnable Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Weibo; Tong, Guanghui

    2016-07-01

    The system composition and main function of the bioreactor piggybacked on TZ cargo transport spacecraft are introduced briefly in the paper.The spatial experiment technologies which are suitable for unreturnable bioreactor are described in detail,including multi-channel liquid transportion and management,multi-type animal cells circuit testing,dynamic targets microscopic observation in situ etc..The feasibility and effectiveness of these technologies which will be used in space experiment in bioreactor are verified in tests and experiments on the ground.

  16. Glass compositions suitable for PFR wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous work had identified glass compositions that were suitable for vitrifying current and future high level wastes from the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) fuel reprocessing plant. Further work on these glasses has shown that: a) Foaming and crystallisation can occur under certain conditions, both probably associated with the presence of iron in the waste. Either of these could lead to greater difficulties in processing. b) Inconel 690, the preferred JCM (Joule-heated Ceramic Melter) electrode material has an acceptable corrosion rate at 12000C: ca 0.6mm · y-1. c) The leach rates are unaffected by radiation damage. The density of the glass decreases slightly with α-dose, with a dependency that extrapolates, at infinite time, to an 0.13% linear expansion. d) The concentrations of the radiologically important elements Tc, Np, Pu and Am, observed in a 'repository simulation' leach test, were satisfactorily low. (author)

  17. A monolithic bolometer array suitable for FIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, J. J.; LeDuc, H. G.; Lange, A. E.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    1997-01-01

    The development of arrays of infrared bolometers that are suitable for use in the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST) mission is reported. The array architecture is based on the silicon nitride micromesh bolometer currently baselined for use in the case of the Planck mission. This architecture allows each pixel to be efficiently coupled to one or both polarizations and to one or more spatial models of radiation. Micromesh structures are currently being developed, coupled with transistor-edge sensors and read out by a SQUID amplifier. If these devices are successful, then the relatively large cooling power available at 300 mK may enable a SQUID-based multiplexer to be integrated on the same wafer as the array, creating a monolithic, fully multiplexed, 2D array with relatively few connections to the sub-Kelvin stage.

  18. A study of the low level radiation effect on the mitotic index of the basal cells in the buccal pouch of hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the defects of the low level irradiation on the mitotic index of the basal cells in the buccal pouch of hamsters (golden hamster: APG strain). After colchicine was administrated to the hamsters through the intraperitoneal, the low level radiation (5461 mR) was exposed in the buccal pouch of hamsters. The mitotic index of the basal cells was estimated 2 hours after irradiation. The results were as follows: 1. The mean mitotic index of the control group was 4.32. 2. The mean mitotic index of the irradiated group was 2.46. 3. T-test of data in the irradiated group showed significant difference from the mitotic endex in the control group. These results suggested the lowered mitotic index of the irradiated group resulted from the low level irradiation.

  19. Absorption and tolerability of fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF in patients with cancer in the presence of oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn AL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrew L Finn1, WD Charlie Hill2, Ignacio Tagarro3, Larry N Gever41Product Development, BioDelivery Sciences International, Inc, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Co-founding partner, InVisions Consultants, LLC, San Antonio, TX, USA; 3Marketing Centre CIP CNS, Meda Pharma S.A.U., Madrid, Spain; 4Medical Affairs, Meda Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Somerset, NJ, USAPurpose: Fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF consists of a small, bilayered, water-soluble polymer film that adheres to the buccal mucosa and rapidly delivers fentanyl into the systemic circulation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the absorption of fentanyl from FBSF in patients with cancer, with and without grade 1 oral mucositis, and to assess the tolerability of FBSF in this patient population.Patients and methods: In an open-label, single-dose study, two groups of opioid-naive patients (ie, not receiving opioids on a regular basis with cancer received a 200 µg dose of FBSF. Patients in cohort I (n = 7 had grade 1 mucositis, and patients in cohort II (n = 7 were age- and gender-matched controls without mucositis. The FBSF dose was placed on the area of mucositis in cohort I and on a matching location in cohort II. Blood samples were collected up to 4 hours after administration, and safety assessments were made throughout the study.Results: Peak plasma concentration and area under the concentration–time curve from time 0 to 4 hours post-dose values of patients in the grade 1 mucositis cohort were lower than those observed in patients without mucositis. There was no application site irritation reported in any patient, regardless of mucositis status. Mild somnolence was reported by two patients with mucositis. There were no deaths or serious adverse events reported in this study.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that application of FBSF to an area of grade 1 mucositis does not result in increased fentanyl exposure or irritation of the mucosa. The 200 µg dose of FBSF was well

  20. Porcine adipose-derived stem cells from buccal fat pad and subcutaneous adipose tissue for future preclinical studies in oral surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Niada, S; L.M. Ferreira; Arrigoni, E.; Addis, A.; M. Campagnol; E. Broccaioli; Brini, A T

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are progenitor cells used in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Despite subcutaneous adipose tissue being more abundant, the buccal fat pad (BFP) is easily accessible for dentists and maxillofacial surgeons. For this reason, considering the need for preclinical study and the swine as an optimal animal model in tissue engineering applications, we compared the features of porcine ASCs (pASCs) from both tissue-harvesting sites. Metho...

  1. Educational program on buccal health for mothers of preschool age children. Programa educativo sobre salud bucal para madres con niños en edad preescolar.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoel González Beriau; Nora Sexto Delgado; Tania Menguez Becerra

    2009-01-01

    Background: Since buccal diseases are no mortal, people often fail to notice their importance. This kind of diseases appear at very early stages, however, it is possible to avoid them teaching correct behaviors in the familiar context. Objective: to prove the effectiveness of an educational intervention strategy for mothers of preschool age children. Method: A cuasi-experimental, educational intervention st...

  2. Buccal Epithelial Cells as Potential Non- invasive Materials for the Monitoring of Mitochondrial Disturbances to Track Huntington‘s Disease Progression. A Pilot Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodinová, M.; Trefilová, E.; Lišková, Irena; Klempíř, J.; Ellederová, Zdeňka; Vidinská, Daniela; Motlík, Jan; Zeman, J.; Hansíková, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 49-54. ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. Liblice, 08.11.2015-10.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington’s disease * mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I and IV * buccal epithelial cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.165, year: 2014

  3. Use of periosteal membrane as a barrier membrane for the treatment of buccal Grade II furcation defects in lower molars: A novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To use the periosteum as a barrier in treatment of buccal Grade II furcation defects of lower molars. Materials and Methods : This technique was performed on 12 patients with bilateral buccal Grade II furcation defects of lower molars. On a random basis, one furcation defect of each pair was selected for the control group and other for the experimental group. Debridement was done in the defect area in both groups. In the control group, after debridement, mucoperiosteal flap was sutured back. In the experimental group, after reflection of the mucoperiosteal flap, a portion of the periosteum along with a layer of connective tissue (periosteal membrane was incised and mobilized in the defect area for defect coverage as a barrier, and then the periosteal membrane and mucoperiosteal flap were fixed with suture, respectively. Horizontal dimension of the furcation defect was the primary outcome measure. Gingival index, probing attachment level (PAL, and vertical dimension of furcation defect were the secondary outcome measures. Clinical parameters were registered at baseline and at 6 months. Results : Every clinical parameter was improved by surgery. Significant gain in PAL as well as horizontal and vertical dimensions of the furcation defects was found. Conclusion: This periosteum displacement technique is effective for the treatment of buccal Grade II furcation defects of lower molars.

  4. Carbamazepine transbuccal delivery: the histo-morphological features of reconstituted human oral epithelium and buccal porcine mucosae in the transmucosal permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, G; Paderni, C; Saccone, R; Siragusa, M G; Lo Muzio, L; Tripodo, C; Giannola, L I; Florena, A M

    2008-01-01

    Transbuccal drug delivery is an attractive way of administration since several well-known advantages are provided, especially with respect to peroral management. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant which is useful in controlling neuropathic pain, and it is currently administered by peroral route, although its absorption and bioavailability is limited due to various factors. The oral cavity could be an interesting site for transbuccal CBZ delivery due to two properties: slow administration of constant low drug doses and less dose-related side effects. However, in transbuccal absorption a major limitation could be the low permeability of the mucosa which results in low drug bioavailability; thus the aptitude of the drug to penetrate the buccal mucosa has to be assessed by using tissue models resembling human normal mucosa. In our experience, CBZ well permeates mucosal membranes. In order to assess the efficacy of CBZ transbuccal delivery and to verify the reliability of these tissues in permeability testing before and after the passage of CBZ, the histo-morphological features of reconstituted human oral (RHO) epithelium (E) and buccal porcine mucosae were investigated. Significant histological changes due to CBZ passage were observed both in RHO-E and porcine mucosa. The main findings detected in RHO samples were cellular swellings with a signet ring-like appearance, nuclear swelling, prominent nucleoli lined against the nuclear membrane and the presence of keratohyalin granules. The most striking finding regarding porcine buccal mucosa was a cytoplasmic vacuolization, mainly involving the basal layer. PMID:19144275

  5. Optimized methods for total nucleic acid extraction and quantification of the bat white-nose syndrome fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, from swab and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L; Bohuski, Elizabeth A; Lorch, Jeffery M; Blehert, David S

    2016-03-01

    The continued spread of white-nose syndrome and its impacts on hibernating bat populations across North America has prompted nationwide surveillance efforts and the need for high-throughput, noninvasive diagnostic tools. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis has been increasingly used for detection of the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in both bat- and environment-associated samples and provides a tool for quantification of fungal DNA useful for research and monitoring purposes. However, precise quantification of nucleic acid from P. destructans is dependent on effective and standardized methods for extracting nucleic acid from various relevant sample types. We describe optimized methodologies for extracting fungal nucleic acids from sediment, guano, and swab-based samples using commercial kits together with a combination of chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical modifications. Additionally, we define modifications to a previously published intergenic spacer-based qPCR test for P. destructans to refine quantification capabilities of this assay. PMID:26965231

  6. Viral load of equine herpesviruses 2 and 5 in nasal swabs of actively racing Standardbred trotters: Temporal relationship of shedding to clinical findings and poor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Helena; Ullman, Karin; Treiberg Berndtsson, Louise; Riihimäki, Miia; Penell, Johanna; Ståhl, Karl; Valarcher, Jean-François; Pringle, John

    2015-09-30

    The equine gamma herpesviruses 2 and 5 (EHV-2 and -5) have frequently been observed in the equine population and until recently presumed low to nonpathogenic. However, recent reports linking presence of equine gamma herpesviruses with clinical signs of mild to severe lung disease, suggest that the role of these viruses in respiratory disease and poor performance syndrome is still unclear. Moreover, baseline data regarding the temporal pattern of shedding of EHV-2 and EHV-5 within stables and within individual actively racing horses have been lacking. In a prospective longitudinal study, we followed elite racing Standardbred trotters at monthly intervals for 13 months, to investigate whether the amount of EHV-2 and EHV-5 shedded in nasal secretions varied over time within and between individual horses. Sixty-six elite horses were investigated by analyzing nasal swabs and serum samples, a health check and evaluation of athletic performance monthly during the study period. Nasal swabs were analyzed with two newly developed qPCR assays for EHV-2 and EHV-5, respectively. Of 663 samples, 197 (30%) were positive for EHV-2 and 492 (74%) positive for EHV-5. Furthermore, 176 (27%) of the samples were positive for both EHV-2 and EHV-5 simultaneously. There was considerable variation in the amount and frequency of shedding of EHV-2 and EHV-5 within and between individual horses. Viral load varied seasonally, but neither EHV-2 nor EHV-5 viral peaks were associated with clinical respiratory disease and/or poor performance in racing Standardbred trotters. PMID:26093774

  7. The detection and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Shigella isolates from meat and swab samples at butchers' shops in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Legesse; Hagos, Zenabu; Zegeye, Bidir; Addis, Zelalem

    2016-01-01

    Food borne pathogens are major causes of deaths, illnesses and billions of dollars of expenses. The burden of food borne illness is worsened by the ever increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance microbes. Shigella, a bacterial pathogen associated with food, is reported to account for higher prevalence rates of food borne illness in different settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 10 to June 30, 2013, at the butcher houses of Gondar town in the Northwest of Ethiopia to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella. Cattle raw meat and swab samples from selected critical control points, including knives, chopping boards, and the hands and noses of butchers, were collected and analyzed. The identification of Shigella was carried out using colony characteristics, the Gram reaction, and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The overall hygienic status of the butcher shops was also assessed using a checklist. An observational analysis revealed that the sanitary condition of the butcher shops and their premises was poor. Of 306 samples screened, 10.5% were positive for Shigella. Approximately 7.4% of meat samples and 10.2% of swab samples were contaminated with Shigella. Out of the total Shigella isolates, 90.6%, 46.9%, 18.8% and 9.4% were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone and tetracycline, respectively. A multidrug resistance pattern was recorded in 27.8% of the isolates. In conclusion, the safety of meat sold at Gondar butchers houses was poor. The identified Shigella isolates showed high levels of drug resistance and multidrug resistance patterns for commonly used antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine. Practicing wise use of antimicrobials and strict sanitary interventions at different critical control points is strongly recommended, in addition to further in-depth studies to prevent unprecedented consequences from

  8. The Most Suitable Habitats in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Paul A.; 5756406268

    2016-06-01

    Astrophysical environments constrain life on the surface of planets. The classical habitable zone characterized by stellar luminosity and temperature may be defined both for single stars and planets in binary star systems. However, in many cases, habitability is strongly affected by stellar UV radiation, winds, and catastrophic events such as nearby supernovae, GRBs, and AGN. Planets with sufficiently thick atmospheres and strong magnetic fields provide protection against radiation from the host star(s) and some nearby radiation events. Atmospheric ozone provides significant UV shield if present. Single star and binary winds provide additional protection for habitable zone planets from galactic cosmic-rays. In certain cases, binary star winds have increased protection over single stars, by providing a longer path-length against particle fluxes, since these binaries produce a higher wind flux and thus a larger “heliosphere” than a single star of comparable mass. Metallicity also plays an important role, with improvements in habitability increasing with stellar metallicity. It is proposed that circumbinary planets, Earth-like and super-Earths, with thick atmospheres, including ozone, high metallicity, and strong magnetic fields are the most suitable habitats in the Galaxy.

  9. Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Jennifer M; Bishop, Phillip J

    2009-02-01

    Translocations are important tools in the field of conservation. Despite increased use over the last few decades, the appropriateness of translocations for amphibians and reptiles has been debated widely over the past 20 years. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation, we reviewed the results of amphibian and reptile translocation projects published between 1991 and 2006. The success rate of amphibian and reptile translocations reported over this period was twice that reported in an earlier review in 1991. Success and failure rates were independent of the taxonomic class (Amphibia or Reptilia) released. Reptile translocations driven by human-wildlife conflict mitigation had a higher failure rate than those motivated by conservation, and more recent projects of reptile translocations had unknown outcomes. The outcomes of amphibian translocations were significantly related to the number of animals released, with projects releasing over 1000 individuals being most successful. The most common reported causes of translocation failure were homing and migration of introduced individuals out of release sites and poor habitat. The increased success of amphibian and reptile translocations reviewed in this study compared with the 1991 review is encouraging for future conservation projects. Nevertheless, more preparation, monitoring, reporting of results, and experimental testing of techniques and reintroduction questions need to occur to improve translocations of amphibians and reptiles as a whole. PMID:19143783

  10. ARE FEMALES SUITABLE FOR POLICE DUTY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamboo Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Police work is a masculine job that needs physical strength and force and thus it is male-dominated working environment in Taiwan as in other countries. Under gender mainstreaming, Taiwan’s society has gradually adhere the basic female human rights for equitable employment, with one example being that the Special Examination for Police canceled limits on quotas for females in order to offer equal opportunity employment. However, police often have to face uncertain dangerous situations and so under real operation conditions, if policewomen are exposed to dangerous situations, does this meet the requirements of “protection of maternity” in R.O.C. Constitution? This study finds that females generally perform better in the examination and hence the number of Taiwan’s policewomen is set to significantly increase in the future. If this situation continues, then the fact that policewomen request equal employment on the one hand and request being protected on the other hand may affect the operations of police authorities. This study aims to explore: Whether or not women are suitable to engage in police work?

  11. The use of pedicled buccal fat pad combined with sequestrectomy in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, L; Junquera, L; Pelaz, A; Hernando, J; Megías, J

    2012-03-01

    The use of pedicled buccal fat pad flap (BFP) has proved of value for the closure of oroantral and oronasal communications and is a well-established tool in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Otherwise, the perceived limitations of surgical therapy for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) have been widely discussed, and recommendations have largely been made to offer aggressive surgery only to stage 3 patients refractary to conservative management. Oroantral communication may be a common complication after sequestrectomy and bone debridement in upper maxillary BRONJ. We report a case series of stage 3 recalcitrant maxillary BRONJ surgically treated with extensive sequestrectomy and first reconstruction using pedicled BFP. All the cases presented an uneventful postoperative healing was uneventful without dehiscence, infection, necrosis or oroantral communication. We postulate that managing initially the site with BFP and primary closure may ensure a sufficient blood supply and adequate protection for an effective bone-healing response to occur. This technique may represent a mechanic protection and an abundant source of adipose-derived adult stem cells after debridement in upper maxillary BRONJ. We evaluate in this work results, advantages and indications of this technique. PMID:22143692

  12. Development of low methoxy amidated pectin-based mucoadhesive patches for buccal delivery of triclosan: effect of cyclodextrin complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug, Mario; Kosalec, Ivan; Maestrelli, Francesca; Mura, Paola

    2012-11-01

    A novel mucoadhesive buccal patch formulation of triclosan (TR), a broad spectrum antibacterial agent, was developed using low methoxy amidated pectin (AMP). The integrity of AMP matrix was improved by addition of 20% (w/w) Carbopol (CAR). The efficiency of β-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin polymer (EPIβCD) and anionic carboxymethylated β-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin polymer (CMEPIβCD) in optimization of TR solubility and release from such a matrix was investigated and confronted to that of parent β-cyclodextrin (βCD). Loading of TR/βCD co-ground complex into AMP/CAR matrix resulted in a biphasic release profile which was sensitive upon the hydration degree of the matrix, due to lower solubilizing efficiency of βCD, while the drug release from patches loaded with TR/EPIβCD complex was significantly faster with a constant release rate. Microbiological studies evidenced faster onset and more pronounced antibacterial action of TR/EPIβCD loaded patches, clearly demonstrating their good therapeutic potential in eradication of Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic bacteria, from the oral cavity. PMID:22944449

  13. The effect of an alendronate-eluting titanium system to induce osteogenic differentiation in human buccal fat cells (HBFCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Su-Young; Yun, Young-Pil; Lee, Jae Yong; Park, Kyeongsoon; Lee, Deok-Won; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop alendronate (Aln)-eluting Ti substrates to induce osteogenic differentiation of human buccal fat cells (HBFCs). The surface of pristine Ti was modified by dopamine (DOPA) and then heparin was grafted onto the aminated Ti surfaces to achieve the Aln-eluting Ti system. Aln was subsequently immobilized on the surface of heparinized Ti (Hep-Ti). Pristine Ti and surface-modified-Ti were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle. Osteogenic differentiation of HBFCs on the surface of pristine-Ti, Hep-Ti, Aln (1 mg)/Hep-Ti, and Aln (5 mg)/Hep-Ti was demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and osteocalcin and osteopontin mRNA expression. Successful immobilization of Aln on Hep-Ti was confirmed by XPS and contact angle. Aln/Hep-Ti showed the sustained release for up to 28 days. Additionally, HBFCs cultured on Aln/Hep-Ti substrates showed significantly induced ALP activity, calcium deposition, and osteocalcin and osteopontin mRNA expression. These results suggest that Aln-eluting Ti substrates have a potential effect on osteogenic differentiation of HBFCs and will be a promising material for bone regeneration.

  14. Induction and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells from human buccal fat pads into salivary gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Miyuki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akira; Mataga, Izumi

    2016-07-01

    Atrophy or hypofunction of the salivary gland because of aging or disease leads to hyposalivation that affects patient quality of life by causing dry mouth, deterioration of mastication/deglutition, and poor oral hygiene status. Current therapy for atrophy or hypofunction of the salivary gland in clinical practice focuses on symptom relief using drugs and artificial saliva; therefore, there is still a need to develop new therapies. To investigate potential novel therapeutic targets, we induced the differentiation of salivary gland cells by co-culturing human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from buccal fat pads (hBFP-ASCs) with human salivary-gland-derived fibroblasts (hSG-fibros). We examined their potential for transplantation and tissue neogenesis. Following the culture of hBFP-ASCs and hSG-fibros, differentiated cells were transplanted into the submandibular glands of SCID mice, and their degree of differentiation in tissues was determined. We also examined their potential for functional tissue reconstitution using a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Co-cultured cells expressed salivary-glandrelated markers and generated new tissues following transplantation in vivo. Moreover, cell reconstituted glandular structures in the 3D culture system. In conclusion, coculture of hSG-fibros with hBFP-ASCs led to successful differentiation into salivary gland cells that could be transplanted to generate new tissues. PMID:26842556

  15. 带蒂颊脂垫组织学研究及临床应用%Clinical application and histological observation of pedicled buccal fat pad grafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊立洁; 陈关福; 赵士芳; 胡济安

    2002-01-01

    Objective To introduce the applied anatomy of pedicled buccal fat pad (BFP) graft and aseries of histological changes in the healing process of BFP as an uncovered pedic led graft. Methods The healing processes of BFP are demonstrated viauncovered pedicled grafts on r abbits in histological examination. Uncovered buccal fat pads were used to rep air soft tissue defects in rabbit oral cavities. Results The uncovered buccal fat pads showed complete epithelialization of their oral su rfaces at 6 to 8 weeks after surgery and were slowly replaced by fibrous tissue . Conclusions Advantages of the pedicled buccal fat pad graft include an anatomic region that is consistent and easy to excise. The operation can be performed in one incision, affecting neither appearance nor function of the area. Use of the buccal fat pad provides a good reconstruction of soft tissue defects in the mouth.%目的为了解带蒂颊脂垫组织瓣的应用解剖及无覆盖颊脂垫移植愈合过程中组织学变化.方法通过动物实验,对颊脂垫移植后的愈合过程进行了组织学观察,并对临床采用该组织瓣修复口腔内缺损30例进行观察.结果动物实验及临床观察发现,口腔内无覆盖带蒂颊脂垫移植后,在4-8周创面完全上皮化,8~ 10周再生的粘膜变得光滑,呈粉红色,类似于正常口腔粘膜.结论该组织瓣解剖恒定,易获取,供区与受区近,供区隐蔽,不影响外观及功能,为修复口腔内软组织缺损提供了一种好方法.

  16. Educational program on buccal health for mothers of preschool age children. Programa educativo sobre salud bucal para madres con niños en edad preescolar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoel González Beriau

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since buccal diseases are no mortal, people often fail to notice their importance. This kind of diseases appear at very early stages, however, it is possible to avoid them teaching correct behaviors in the familiar context. Objective: to prove the effectiveness of an educational intervention strategy for mothers of preschool age children. Method: A cuasi-experimental, educational intervention study was developed to modify buccal health knowledge in 40 mothers of preschool children (between 4 and 5 years, from Cruces municipality, since January 2006 and November 2007. We applied a survey to assess buccal health knowledge before and after the educational intervention, through the analysis of variables such as: brushing frequency and way, sugar diet, deforming habits, dentist consultations, breastfeeding and concern about child´s buccal health. The educative buccal health program was enforced with educational and affection-inclusive techniques complemented with didactic games as feedback. Results: Buccal health knowledge of surveyed mothers significantly increased after the intervention. Conclusions: The evaluation at the end of the program proved the effectiveness of this initiative for the acquisition and modification of knowledge related with buccal health care.Fundamento: Las enfermedades bucales, aunque subvaloradas por no ocasionar mortalidad de manera directa, pueden aparecer desde edades muy tempranas; sin embargo, es posible evitarlas mediante conductas que el niño sólo puede en el ámbito familiar. Objetivo: Demostrar la efectividad de una estrategia de intervención educativa en madres de niños en edad preescolar. Método: Se realizó un estudio cuasiexperimental, de intervención educativa, para modificar los conocimientos sobre salud bucal en 40 madres con hijos en edad preescolar (de 4

  17. Exercise function of quality control to evaluate the validity of health teaching to buccal outpatients%运用QC活动进行口腔门诊病人健康教育的有效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪灵; 陈树芬

    2009-01-01

    Objective Exercise function of quality control to evaluate the validity of health teaching to buccal outpatients. Methods Build up a team of quality control with a question for discussion that is Increasing Knowledge about Buccal Health Taken by Buccal Outpatients, to investigate practicality of buccal outpatients through the mothed of teaching booklets, course of lectures, demonstration, multimedia, and use the Measurement to evaluate the validity of health teaching to buccal outpatients. Results Health teaching can increase knowledge about buccal health taken by buccal outpatients. Conclusions Exercising function of quality control can resolve tht problems of practicality and evaluate effect of clinical Health teaching availably.%目的 运用QC活动对口腔科门诊病人开展健康教育的有效性进行评价.方法 成立QC小组,以"提高门诊病人口腔保健知识水平"为活动课题,对口腔科门诊病人进行现状调查,通过健康教育手册、健康讲座、示范指导、多媒体宣教等方式进行系统的教育,使用调查量表评价健康教育的有效性.结果 健康教育可提高口腔门诊病人保健知识的水平.结论 开展QC活动可以解决实际工作中的问题,并有效评价门诊健康教育的效果.

  18. Nested-PCR for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchial alveolar swabs, frozen tissues and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded swine lung samples: comparative evaluation with immunohistochemical findings and histological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection is often performed through histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC and polymerase chain reaction (PCR or a combination of these techniques. PCR can be performed on samples using several conservation methods, including swabs, frozen tissue or formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. However, the formalin fixation process often inhibits DNA amplification. To evaluate whether M. hyopneumoniae DNA could be recovered from FFPE tissues, 15 lungs with cranioventral consolidation lesions were collected in a slaughterhouse from swine bred in herds with respiratory disease. Bronchial swabs and fresh lung tissue were collected, and a fragment of the corresponding lung section was placed in neutral buffered formalin for 48 hours. A PCR assay was performed to compare FFPE tissue samples with samples that were only refrigerated (bronchial swabs or frozen (tissue pieces. M. hyopneumoniae was detected by PCR in all 15 samples of the swab and frozen tissue, while it was detected in only 11 of the 15 FFPE samples. Histological features of M. hyopneumoniae infection were presented in 11 cases and 7 of these samples stained positive in IHC. Concordance between the histological features and detection results was observed in 13 of the FFPE tissue samples. PCR was the most sensitive technique. Comparison of different sample conservation methods indicated that it is possible to detect M. hyopneumoniae from FFPE tissue. It is important to conduct further research using archived material because the efficiency of PCR could be compromised under these conditions.

  19. Climatic suitability for malaria transmission in Africa, 1911–1995

    OpenAIRE

    Small, Jennifer; Goetz, Scott J; Simon I. Hay

    2003-01-01

    Time series analysis of a climate-driven model of malaria transmission shows limited evidence for an increase in suitability during the last century across Africa. Outside areas where climate was always or never suitable,

  20. Evaluation of the Reclamation Suitability of Industrial and Mining Wasteland

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Gengjie; Bai, Zhongke

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the reclamation suitability of industrial and mining wasteland is the premise of reclamation. The wasteland was firstly categorized according to land use status and damage types. Then the evaluation process of reclamation suitability was introduced, which involves two steps, the first step was to exclude those unsuitable wasteland by the limits conditions, while the second step was to evaluate the suitability degree of those suitable wasteland. From the perspectives of soil fertil...

  1. Comparison of immunocapture and RT-PCR techniques for the detection of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) in eye and nose swabs from infected animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ) or PPRV C.I. M7 (isolate from Cote d'Ivoire). For the PPRV Guinea strain, the virus was detected by ICE in the nasal and lachrymal swabs from day 1 to 6 after infection. However, the RT-PCR, it was possible to demonstrate the excretion of the virus in the swab until day 8 after infection. With the PPRV CI M7, no virus was detected by ICE in swab after 2 days. But the RT-PCR, virus excretion could be demonstrated up to day 4 post-inoculation. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated that goats can excrete the PPRV very soon after infection by intrasmuscular route. Apparently the amount of the excreted virus is depending to the strain and the time after infection. The RT-PCR can detect the virus excretion in a longer time than can do the immunocapture technique. (author)

  2. The effect of mandibular buccal tilting on the accuracy of posterior mandibular spiral tomographic images: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate measurement of the height and buccolingual thickness of available bone has a significant role in dental implantology. The shadow of ramus on the mandibular second molar region disturbs the sharpness of conventional tomographic images. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transferring the shadow of ramus from the center of the focal plane, by changing the position of mandible, on the sharpness of the posterior mandibular region. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we used 10 dry human mandibles. Three metal balls were mounted on the midline and mandibular second molar regions bilaterally. Standard panoramic and tomographic images were taken. Then, the mandible was tilted buccaly for 8° - compensating the normal lingual inclination of the mandibular ridge and teeth on this region - and tomographic images were taken again. The height and thickness of bone were measured on the images and then compared with the real amounts measured directly on mandibles. Also, the sharpness of mandibular canals was compared between the two tomographic methods. Findings were analyzed with repeated measured ANOVA test (P<0.05. Results: The height of mandibular bone, on the images of the tilted tomography technique was more accurate compared to standard (P<0.001, but standard tomography had more accuracy in estimating the buccolingual thickness at the half-height point. Regarding the sharpness of mandibular canals, we found no significant differences between two tomographic methods. Conclusion: Buccal tilting is recommended when measuring the bone height is more important, but routine standard tomography is preferred when the thickness is requested.

  3. Antifungal susceptibility evaluation of Candida albicans isolated from buccal lesions of hiv-positive and HIV-negative patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Latercia Tranches DIAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined to 35 samples of Candidaalbicans; 14 of them were isolated from HIV-positive patients, and 21 from HIV-negative patients with oral erythematouscandidosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of agar dilution method in the determination ofsusceptibility of Candida albicans isolated from buccal lesions of HIV-positive and negative patients to some antifungalsand compare the results with the plasmatic concentration reached by each one of these drugs. The samples were evaluated invitro by the agar dilution method and showed higher MIC values to ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole andamphotericin B than the concentrations achieved by these antifungals in plasma. 88.9% of the samples presented in vitroresistance to ketoconazole and the plasmatic levels of this antifungal varied from 1 to 8 μg/mL. Regarding fluconazole anditraconazole, most samples presented MIC larger than 128 μg/mL and plasmatic concentration varying from 0.4 to 8 μg/mL.Only 11.9% of the samples were susceptible in vitro to fluconazole and 2.7% of them to itraconazol. The usageconcentrations prescribed for the topical antifungals nystatin, fenticonazole and miconazole are markedly higher than thevalues of MIC obtained. Related to nystatin, it was verified that its MIC values were between 1 and 4 μg /mL. Theplasmatic levels to this drug are extremely low. Fenticonazole presented a MIC value larger than 128 μg/mL. Relating tomiconazole, the plasmatic levels vary from 1 to 8 μg/mL and 11.9% of the samples presented in vitro susceptibility to thisdrug. No significant differences (p<0.05 were found in the susceptibility profiles of the samples obtained from HIVpositiveand HIV-negative patients.

  4. Selection of suitable sites for NPP in Slovenia (stage 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selection of suitable sites for nuclear power plants in Slovenia is considered. This includes the studies of available data on regional and local characteristics specified in general site suitability criteria for NPP. The most suitable selected sites will be included into land use urbanistic planning of Slovenia

  5. An impedance immunosensor based on low-cost microelectrodes and specific monoclonal antibodies for rapid detection of avian influenza virus H5N1 in chicken swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianhan; Wang, Ronghui; Jiao, Peirong; Li, Yuntao; Li, Yanbin; Liao, Min; Yu, Yude; Wang, Maohua

    2015-05-15

    Early screening of suspected cases is the key to control the spread of avian influenza (AI) H5N1. In our previous studies, an impedance biosensor with an interdigitated array microelectrode based biochip was developed and validated with pure AI H5 virus, but had limitations in cost and reliability of the biochip, specificity of the antibody against Asian in-field H5N1 virus and detection of H5N1 virus in real samples. The purpose of this study is to develop a low-cost impedance immunosensor for rapid detection of Asian in-field AI H5N1 virus in chicken swabs within 1h and validate it with the H5N1 virus. Specific monoclonal antibodies against AI H5N1 virus were developed by fusion of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from an H5N1-virus-immunized mouse. Dot-ELISA analysis demonstrated that the developed antibodies had good affinity and specificity with the H5N1 virus. The microelectrodes were redesigned with compact size, fabricated using an improved wet-etching micro-fabrication process with a higher qualified production rate of 70-80%, and modified with the antibodies by the Protein A method. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated that electron transfer resistor was effective with the increase in impedance after capturing of the H5N1 viruses. Linear relationship between impedance change and logarithmic value of H5N1 virus at the concentrations from 2(-1) to 2(4) HAU/50 μl was found and the lower limit of detection was 2(-1) HAU/50 μl. No obvious interferences from non-target viruses such as H6N2, H9N2, Newcastle disease virus, and infectious bronchitis virus were found. Chicken swab tests showed that the impedance immunosensor had a comparable accuracy with real-time RT-PCR compared to viral isolation. PMID:25263315

  6. Evaluation of p16 hypermethylation in oral submucous fibrosis: A quantitative and comparative analysis in buccal cells and saliva using real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyaperumal, Subadra; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the hypermethylation of p16 gene in buccal cells and saliva of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients using real-time quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to compare the values of two methods. Subjects and Methods: A total of 120 samples were taken from 60 subjects selected for this study, of which 30 were controls and 30 patients were clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with OSMF. In both groups, two sets of samples were collected, one directly from the buccal cells through cytobrush technique and the other through salivary rinse. We analyzed the samples for the presence of p16 hypermethylation using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: In OSMF, the hypermethylation status of p16 in buccal cells was very high (93.3%) and in salivary samples, it was partially methylated (50%). However, no hypermethylation was found in controls suggesting that significant quantity of p16 hypermethylation was present in buccal cells and saliva in OSMF. Conclusions: This study indicates that buccal cell sampling may be a better method for evaluation than the salivary samples. It signifies that hypermethylation of p16 is an important factor to be considered in epigenetic alterations of normal cells to oral precancer, i.e. OSMF.

  7. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David

    2011-10-01

    In Mississippi, some questions need to be answered about bioenergy crops: how much suitable land is available? How much material can that land produce? Which production systems work best in which scenarios? What levels of inputs will be required for productivity and longterm sustainability? How will the crops reach the market? What kinds of infrastructure will be necessary to make that happen? This publication helps answer these questions: • Which areas in the state are best for bioenergy crop production? • How much could these areas produce sustainably? • How can bioenergy crops impact carbon sequestration and carbon credits? âÂÃÃÂ

  8. The new heterologous fibrin sealant in combination with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the repair of the buccal branch of the facial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchaim, Daniela Vieira; Rodrigues, Antonio de Castro; Buchaim, Rogerio Leone; Barraviera, Benedito; Junior, Rui Seabra Ferreira; Junior, Geraldo Marco Rosa; Bueno, Cleuber Rodrigo de Souza; Roque, Domingos Donizeti; Dias, Daniel Ventura; Dare, Leticia Rossi; Andreo, Jesus Carlos

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the repair of the buccal branch of the facial nerve with two surgical techniques: end-to-end epineural suture and coaptation with heterologous fibrin sealant. Forty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group (CG) in which the buccal branch of the facial nerve was collected without injury; (2) experimental group with suture (EGS) and experimental group with fibrin (EGF): The buccal branch of the facial nerve was transected on both sides of the face. End-to-end suture was performed on the right side and fibrin sealant on the left side; (3) Experimental group with suture and laser (EGSL) and experimental group with fibrin and laser (EGFL). All animals underwent the same surgical procedures in the EGS and EGF groups, in combination with the application of LLLT (wavelength of 830 nm, 30 mW optical power output of potency, and energy density of 6 J/cm(2)). The animals of the five groups were euthanized at 5 weeks post-surgery and 10 weeks post-surgery. Axonal sprouting was observed in the distal stump of the facial nerve in all experimental groups. The observed morphology was similar to the fibers of the control group, with a predominance of myelinated fibers. In the final period of the experiment, the EGSL presented the closest results to the CG, in all variables measured, except in the axon area. Both surgical techniques analyzed were effective in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, where the use of fibrin sealant allowed the manipulation of the nerve stumps without trauma. LLLT exhibited satisfactory results on facial nerve regeneration, being therefore a useful technique to stimulate axonal regeneration process. PMID:27112578

  9. Dietary turmeric modulates DMBA-induced p21ras, MAP kinases and AP-1/NF-κB pathway to alter cellular responses during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemopreventive efficacy of turmeric has been established in experimental systems. However, its mechanism(s) of action are not fully elucidated in vivo. The present study investigates the mechanism of turmeric-mediated chemoprevention in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 weeks. Dietary turmeric (1%) led to decrease in DMBA-induced tumor burden and multiplicity, and enhanced the latency period in parallel, to its modulatory effects on oncogene products and various cellular responses during HBP tumorigenesis. DMBA-induced expression of ras oncogene product, p21 and downstream target, the mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly decreased by turmeric during HBP carcinogenesis. Turmeric also diminished the DMBA-induced mRNA expression of proto-oncogenes (c-jun, c-fos) and NF-κB, leading to decreased protein levels and in further attenuation of DMBA-induced AP-1/NF-κB DNA-binding in the buccal pouch nuclear extracts. Besides, buccal pouch of hamsters receiving turmeric diet showed significant alterations in DMBA-induced effects: (a) decrease in cell proliferation (diminished PCNA and Bcl2 expression), (b) enhanced apoptosis (increased expression of Bax, caspase-3 and apoptotic index), (c) decrease in inflammation (levels of Cox-2, the downstream target of AP-1/NF-κB, and PGE2) and (d) aberrant expression of differentiation markers, the cytokeratins (1, 5, 8, and 18). Together, the protective effects of dietary turmeric converge on augmenting apoptosis of the initiated cells and decreasing cell proliferation in DMBA-treated animals, which in turn, is reflected in decreased tumor burden, multiplicity and enhanced latency period. Some of these biomarkers are likely to be helpful in monitoring clinical trials and evaluating drug effect measurements

  10. Elevation of S100A4 expression in buccal mucosal fibroblasts by arecoline: involvement in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: S100A4, a member of the calcium-binding proteins, is dramatically elevated in a variety of fibrotic diseases. Areca quid chewing is the most important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF. OSF has been considered as a pre-cancerous condition of oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to determine the critical role of S100A4 expression in the pathogenesis of OSF both in vitro and in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Thirty OSF tissues from areca quid chewers and ten normal buccal mucosa samples without areca quid chewing were analyzed by using immunohistochemistry for S100A4 expression in vivo. Collagen gel contraction capability and expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1/MMP9 in arecoline-stimulated BMFs with S100A4 knockdown was presented in vitro. Initially, S100A4 expression was higher in areca quid chewing-associated OSF specimens than normal buccal mucosa specimens (p = 0.001. Arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, led to dose- and time-dependent elevation of S100A4 expression in normal buccal mucosa fibroblasts BMFs (p<0.05. The additions of pharmacological agents rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor, PD98059 (ERK inhibitor, and Bay117082 (NF-κB inhibitor were found to inhibit arecoline-induced S100A4 expression (p<0.05 in BMFs. Down-regulation of S100A4 by lentiviral infection significantly reversed arecoline-induced collagen gel contraction and TIMP1/MMP9 expression. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that S100A4 expression is significantly up-regulated in OSF specimens. Arecoline-induced S100A4 expression was down-regulated by rapamycin, PD98059, and Bay117082. Targeting S100A4 might be a potential therapeutic target for OSF through TIMP1/MMP9 down-regulation.

  11. Optimized methods for total nucleic acid extraction and quantification of the bat white-nose syndrome fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, from swab and environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle; Bohuski, Elizabeth A.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Blehert, David

    2016-01-01

    The continued spread of white-nose syndrome and its impacts on hibernating bat populations across North America has prompted nationwide surveillance efforts and the need for high-throughput, noninvasive diagnostic tools. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis has been increasingly used for detection of the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in both bat- and environment-associated samples and provides a tool for quantification of fungal DNA useful for research and monitoring purposes. However, precise quantification of nucleic acid fromP. destructans is dependent on effective and standardized methods for extracting nucleic acid from various relevant sample types. We describe optimized methodologies for extracting fungal nucleic acids from sediment, guano, and swab-based samples using commercial kits together with a combination of chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical modifications. Additionally, we define modifications to a previously published intergenic spacer–based qPCR test for P. destructans to refine quantification capabilities of this assay.

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of real-time polymerase chain reaction for the routine early detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis sputum and throat swab specimens.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Logan, Catriona

    2012-02-01

    A longitudinal study of 2099 sputa and throat swabs received from 183 pediatric cystic fibrosis patients over a 29-month period was used to evaluate the efficacy of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the early detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as compared to microbiologic culture. Real-time PCR resulted in an increased number of specimens identified as P. aeruginosa positive. The sensitivity of culture was 82% (373\\/453) and of PCR was 93% (420\\/453) when considering both positive culture and PCR results as true positives. Of the 80 specimens identified as PCR positive\\/culture negative for P. aeruginosa, the subsequent patient sample in 32.5% (26\\/80) of specimens concerned was identified as P. aeruginosa culture positive, suggesting that PCR has the potential to detect P. aeruginosa earlier than the microbiologic culture. Real-time PCR analysis found no evidence of the Liverpool and Manchester epidemic P. aeruginosa strains in the cohort examined. The findings of this study highlight the importance of specimen collection protocols to ensure that adequate samples are received at the laboratory for testing, thereby minimizing the potential for reporting of false-negative P. aeruginosa culture results.

  13. Menstrual cycle phase at the time of rape does not affect recovery of semen or amplification of STR profiles of a suspect in vaginal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdas, Loreley; Herrera, Fabiola; Arrieta, Glenn; Morelli, Concepción; Álvarez, Karla; Gómez, Aarón

    2016-02-01

    The effect of women menstrual cycle on the forensic analysis of rapes was studied in a random group of 170 victims aged among 10 and 51 years. Participants were grouped according to the day of the menstrual cycle in which they were at the moment of the assault. From each participant, samples of vaginal fluid were taken and analyzed for sperm cells, p30 protein, total human DNA and human male DNA. Moreover, amplification of suspect's autosomal STR and Y-STR was attempted. Suspects' autosomal STR profiles were obtained from 92 of the 101 samples in which spermatozoa were found; and Y-STR haplotype was obtained in 1 of the 9 samples where autosomal STR profiles of a male were not obtained. On the other hand, Y-STR haplotypes were obtained in 2 of the 21 samples negative for sperm cells but positive for p30 protein. Y-STR haplotypes were also obtained in 11 of the 48 samples negative for sperm cells and p30 protein. It was found that groups of participants did not differ on the recovery of sperm cells from the vaginal swabs, quantification of suspect's DNA or amplification of their STR profiles. It is concluded that the menstrual cycle phase at the moment of the sexual assault does not affect the main outcomes of the forensic investigation of rapes. PMID:26734988

  14. Collection by trained pediatricians or parents of mid-turbinate nasal flocked swabs for the detection of influenza viruses in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fossali Emilio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the efficiency of pediatric mid-turbinate nasal flocked swabs used by parents in 203 children aged 6 months to 5 years with signs and symptoms of respiratory disease. Two nasal samples were collected from each child in a randomised sequence: one by a trained pediatrician and one by a parent. The real-time polymerase chain reaction influenza virus detection rates were similar in the samples collected using the two methods (Cohen's kappa = 0.86, as were the cycle threshold values. In comparison with the pediatrician-collected samples, the sensitivity and specificity of the parental collections were respectively 89.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77.8-100% and 97.7% (95% CI: 95.5-100%, and the positive and negative predictive values were respectively 86.2% (95% CI: 73.7-95.1% and 98.2% (95% CI: 96.4-100%. The children were significantly more satisfied with the parental collections (median values ± standard deviation, 1.59 ± 0.55 vs 3.51 ± 0.36; p

  15. Adherence of cell surface mutants of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells and analyses of the cell surface proteins of the mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Fukayama, M; Calderone, R A

    1991-01-01

    Strains of Candida albicans, selected on the basis of their reduced agglutination with a polyclonal anti-Candida antiserum, were tested for their adherence to human buccal epithelial cells (BEC). Of four strains, one (A9V2) had reduced binding to BEC in vitro. Adherence of wild type (wt) yeast cells (A9), as measured by the percentage of BEC with adhering Candida cells, was 73.4% +/- 3.8% compared with 49.3% +/- 3.1% for A9V2 (P less than 0.01). From yeast cells of A9 and A9V2, whole-cell ext...

  16. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Adverse Childhood Events, and Buccal Cell Telomere Length in Elderly Swiss Former Indentured Child Laborers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küffer, Andreas Lorenz; O’Donovan, Aoife; Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk for age-related diseases and early mortality. Accelerated biological aging could contribute to this elevated risk. The aim of the present study was to assess buccal cell telomere length (BTL) – a proposed marker of biological age – in men and women with and without PTSD. The role of childhood trauma was assessed as a potential additional risk factor for shorter telomere length. The sample included 62 former indentured Swiss child laborers (age: M = 76.19, SD = 6.18) and 58 healthy controls (age: M = 71.85, SD = 5.97). Structured clinical interviews were conducted to screen for PTSD and other psychiatric disorders. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess childhood trauma exposure. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure BTL. Covariates include age, sex, years of education, self-evaluated financial situation, depression, and mental and physical functioning. Forty-eight (77.42%) of the former indentured child laborers screened positive for childhood trauma, and 21 (33.87%) had partial or full-blown PTSD. Results did not support our hypotheses that PTSD and childhood trauma would be associated with shorter BTL. In fact, results revealed a trend toward longer BTL in participants with partial or full PTSD [F(2,109) = 3.27, p = 0.04, η2 = 0.06], and longer BTL was marginally associated with higher CTQ scores (age adjusted: β = 0.17 [95% CI: −0.01 to 0.35], t = 1.90, p = 0.06). Furthermore, within-group analyses indicated no significant association between BTL and CTQ scores. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study exploring the association between childhood trauma and BTL in older individuals with and without PTSD. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant differences in BTL between participants with and without PTSD in our adjusted analyses, and childhood adversity was not associated with

  17. Suitability of territory for waste deposition; 1 : 1 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On this map the suitability of territory for waste deposition on the territory of the Slovak Republic is shown. The map is based on the maps of suitability of waste disposal at scale 1 : 50 000 compiled at the Statny geologicky ustav D. Stura (State Geological Institute of D. Stur). The map divides the territory to suitable, conditionally suitable, and unsuitable. The following factors were assessed: protected water-economic territories, sources of underground waters, protected natural territories, protected forests, mineral deposits, structural arrangement of rock environment with regard to the degree of threat to underground water, geodynamic phenomena, and hydrogeological characteristics. (authors)

  18. Biomonitoring with Micronuclei Test in Buccal Cells of Female Farmers and Children Exposed to Pesticides of Maneadero Agricultural Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Yslas, Idalia Jazmin; Arellano-García, María Evarista; García-Zarate, Marco Antonio; Ruíz-Ruíz, Balam; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Feminization of the agricultural labor is common in Mexico; these women and their families are vulnerable to several health risks including genotoxicity. Previous papers have presented contradictory information with respect to indirect exposure to pesticides and DNA damage. We aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect in buccal mucosa from female farmers and children, working in the agricultural valley of Maneadero, Baja California. Frequencies of micronucleated cells (MNc) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in 2000 cells were obtained from the buccal mucosa of the study population (n = 144), divided in four groups: (1) farmers (n = 37), (2) unexposed (n = 35), (3) farmers' children (n = 34), and (4) unexposed children (n = 38). We compared frequencies of MNc and NA and fitted generalized linear models to investigate the interaction between these variables and exposition to pesticides. Differences were found between farmers and unexposed women in MNc (p < 0.0001), CC (p = 0.3376), and PN (p < 0.0001). With respect to exposed children, we found higher significant frequencies in MNc (p < 0.0001), LN (p < 0.0001), CC (p < 0.0001), and PN (p < 0.004) when compared to unexposed children. Therefore working as a farmer is a risk for genotoxic damage; more importantly indirectly exposed children were found to have genotoxic damage, which is of concern, since it could aid in future disturbances of their health. PMID:26981119

  19. Evaluation of Various Nuclear Cytological Changes in Normal Buccal Mucosa and Peritumoural Area in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Receiving Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Sadia; Kashif, Muhammad; Nagi, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the role of serial cytological assay in calculating the nuclear response of contralateral normal buccal mucosa and peritumoural area of squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity in patients receiving fractionated radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy. Materials and Methods. This prospective, nonrandomized study was comprised of 76 histologically confirmed cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma on cyclical chemoradiation treatment. Chemoradiosensitivity was evaluated using serial scrape smears taken before and after immediate exposure to CCRT, at 17th day of CCRT (mid of treatment), and at the end of treatment. The nuclear changes, such as multinucleation, micronucleation, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, nuclear budding, prominent nucleoli, and binucleation occurring in both irradiated cancer cells and contralateral normal buccal mucosa, had a statistically significant dose related increase with concomitant chemoradiotherapy (p < 0.05). Conclusion. We recommend regular use of serial cytological assay during CCRT as it may prove to be a valuable tool for assessment of chemoradiosensitivity and persistence of tumour/dysplastic cells after radiotherapy. PMID:27148467

  20. ITS1 copy number varies among Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis strains: implications for qPCR estimates of infection intensity from field-collected amphibian skin swabs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V Longo

    Full Text Available Genomic studies of the amphibian-killing fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, [Bd] identified three highly divergent genetic lineages, only one of which has a global distribution. Bd strains within these linages show variable genomic content due to differential loss of heterozygosity and recombination. The current quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR protocol to detect the fungus from amphibian skin swabs targets the intergenic transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 region using a TaqMan fluorescent probe specific to Bd. We investigated the consequences of genomic differences in the quantification of ITS1 from eight distinct Bd strains, including representatives from North America, South America, the Caribbean, and Australia. To test for potential differences in amplification, we compared qPCR standards made from Bd zoospore counts for each strain, and showed that they differ significantly in amplification rates. To test potential mechanisms leading to strain differences in qPCR reaction parameters (slope and y-intercept, we: a compared standard curves from the same strains made from extracted Bd genomic DNA in equimolar solutions, b quantified the number of ITS1 copies per zoospore using a standard curve made from PCR-amplicons of the ITS1 region, and c cloned and sequenced PCR-amplified ITS1 regions from these same strains to verify the presence of the probe site in all haplotypes. We found high strain variability in ITS1 copy number, ranging from 10 to 144 copies per single zoospore. Our results indicate that genome size might explain strain differences in ITS1 copy number, but not ITS1 sequence variation because the probe-binding site and primers were conserved across all haplotypes. For standards constructed from uncharacterized Bd strains, we recommend the use of single ITS1 PCR-amplicons as the absolute standard in conjunction with current quantitative assays to inform on copy number variation and provide universal estimates of pathogen

  1. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sydor, Michael A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barrett, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in. × 2 in.) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest for vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS, 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS, 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG, with values increasing as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm2, where CFU denotes ‘colony forming units’). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results will be discussed in a subsequent report.

  2. β-lactamase producing enterobacteria isolated from surveillance swabs of patients in a cardiac intensive care unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina G Vasques

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a high incidence of infections caused by betalactamase-producing Gram-negative microorganisms in Brazil. These organisms are of clinical and epidemiological importance, since their mobile genetic elements facilitate cross-infection. The present study was conducted in sentinel rectal swabs from patients admitted to a cardiac surgery hospital in Rio de Janeiro, from January through December 2007, in a consecutive manner. The aim of the study was to characterize the genotype and phenotype of these isolates from colonized patients. Biochemical tests, antimicrobial susceptibility tests, a confirmatory test for the expression of extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL production and polymerase chain reaction for the blaTEM, blaSHV, CTX-M1, Toho-1 and AmpC genes were performed at the University Hospital of Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli 9/41 (21.95% and Klebsiella pneumoniae 14/41 (34.1%. In 24/41 (58%, the ESBL genotype was confirmed. The most prevalent genes in samples that expressed ESBL were blaTEM 13/24 (54%, AmpC 12/24 (50%, blaSHV 6/24 (25%, CTX-M1 7/24 (29%, and Toho-1 6/24 (25%. Of these, 14/24 (58% presented more than one genotype for the tested primers. In nine (37% samples other than E. coli, K. pneumoniae or Proteus spp., the phenotype for ESBL was found and confirmed by PCR. The most sensitive substrate in the approximation test in ESBL positive samples was ceftriaxone (83%. Fifty percent of the samples expressed AmpC were associated with other genes. Intermediate susceptibility to ertapenem was found in 2/41 (5%.

  3. False Negative Rates of a Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates via Real-Time PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sydor, Michael A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaiser, Brooke L.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Surface sampling for Bacillus anthracis spores has traditionally relied on detection via bacterial cultivation methods. Although effective, this approach does not provide the level of organism specificity that can be gained through molecular techniques. False negative rates (FNR) and limits of detection (LOD) were determined for two B. anthracis surrogates with modified rapid viability-polymerase chain reaction (mRV-PCR) following macrofoam-swab sampling. This study was conducted in parallel with a previously reported study that analyzed spores using a plate-culture method. B. anthracis Sterne (BAS) or B. atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores were deposited onto four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic) at nine target concentrations (2 to 500 spores/coupon; 0.078 to 19.375 colony-forming units [CFU] per cm2). Mean FNR values for mRV-PCR analysis ranged from 0 to 0.917 for BAS and 0 to 0.875 for BG and increased as spore concentration decreased (over the concentrations investigated) for each surface material. FNRs based on mRV-PCR data were not statistically different for BAS and BG, but were significantly lower for glass than for vinyl tile. FNRs also tended to be lower for the mRV-PCR method compared to the culture method. The mRV-PCR LOD95 was lowest for glass (0.429 CFU/cm2 with BAS and 0.341 CFU/cm2 with BG) and highest for vinyl tile (0.919 CFU/cm2 with BAS and 0.917 CFU/cm2 with BG). These mRV-PCR LOD95 values were lower than the culture values (BAS: 0.678 to 1.023 CFU/cm2 and BG: 0.820 to 1.489 CFU/cm2). The FNR and LOD95 values reported in this work provide guidance for environmental sampling of Bacillus spores at low concentrations.

  4. False Negative Rates of a Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates via Real-Time PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, Janine R.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Sydor, Michael A.; Kaiser, Brooke LD

    2016-06-28

    Surface sampling for Bacillus anthracis spores has traditionally relied on detection via bacterial cultivation methods. Although effective, this approach does not provide the level of organism specificity that can be gained through molecular techniques. False negative rates (FNR) and limits of detection (LOD) were determined for two B. anthracis surrogates with modified rapid viability-polymerase chain reaction (mRV-PCR) following macrofoam-swab sampling. This study was conducted in parallel with a previously reported study that analyzed spores using a plate-culture method. B. anthracis Sterne (BAS) or B. atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores were deposited onto four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic) at nine target concentrations (2 to 500 spores/coupon; 0.078 to 19.375 colony-forming units [CFU] per cm2). Mean FNR values for mRV-PCR analysis ranged from 0 to 0.917 for BAS and 0 to 0.875 for BG and increased as spore concentration decreased (over the concentrations investigated) for each surface material. FNRs based on mRV-PCR data were not statistically different for BAS and BG, but were significantly lower for glass than for vinyl tile. FNRs also tended to be lower for the mRV-PCR method compared to the culture method. The mRV-PCR LOD95 was lowest for glass (0.429 CFU/cm2 with BAS and 0.341 CFU/cm2 with BG) and highest for vinyl tile (0.919 CFU/cm2 with BAS and 0.917 CFU/cm2 with BG). These mRV-PCR LOD95 values were lower than the culture values (BAS: 0.678 to 1.023 CFU/cm2 and BG: 0.820 to 1.489 CFU/cm2). The FNR and LOD95 values reported in this work provide guidance for environmental sampling of Bacillus spores at low concentrations.

  5. Evaluation of Agricultural Land Suitability: Application of Fuzzy Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The problem of evaluation of agricultural land suitability is considered as a fuzzy modeling task. The application of individual fuzzy indicators provides an opportunity for assessment of lsand suitability of lands as degree or grade of performance when the lands are used for agricultural purposes....

  6. Comprehensive environment-suitability evaluation model about Carya cathayensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the relation between the suitable environment and the distribution areas of Carya cathayensis Sarg., the current studies are mainly committed to qualitative descriptions, but did not consider quantitative models. The objective of this study was to establish a environment-suitability evaluation model which used to predict potential suitable areas of C. cathayensis. Firstly, the 3 factor data of soil type, soil parent material and soil thickness were obtained based on 2-class forest resource survey, and other factor data, which included elevation, slope, aspect, surface curvature, humidity index, and solar radiation index, were extracted from DEM (Digital Elevation Model). Additionally, the key affecting factors were defined by PCA (Principal Component Analysis), the weights of evaluation factors were determined by AHP (Analysis Hierarchy Process) and the quantitative classification of single factor was determined by membership function with fuzzy mathematics. Finally, a comprehensive environment-suitability evaluation model was established and which was also used to predict the potential suitable areas of C. cathayensis in Daoshi Town in the study region. The results showed that 85.6% of actual distribution areas were in the most suitable and more suitable regions and 11.5% in the general suitable regions

  7. Dental prosthesis and buccal lesions in the elderly Prótesis dentales y lesiones mucosas en el adulto mayor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Enrique Castillo Betancourt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: Buccal lesions in the elderly are very frequent and they constitute a problem of health due to the consequences that cause. Objective: to describe the characteristics of the removable prosthesis used by the population of 60 and more years age and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. Methods: We carried out a study descriptive of cross section in 125 elderly with oral prosthesis. The characteristics of the removable prosthesis were described and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. The square chi tests and the analysis of relative risk were use to determine the association between the variables, also we used a logistical regression model to determine the independent relationship of each factor with the presence of the lesions. Results: We was a 12% of the people with stomatitis sub prosthesis, 8% presented lesions growth hyperplasic and 5,6% they were have angular queilitis. The lesions in the oral mucosa increased in people with prosthesis in not well state, bad hygiene this and in the female sex. Conclusion: the chronic lesions were the more prevalence in this study and they were very related with factors like: state of the conservation the prosthesis, time use, hygiene this and sex of the individual; but when determining the independent influence from each factor with the presence lesions, we established that only the state of conservation of the prosthesis and their hygiene affected of the important way to the old men of this study.Fundamento: las lesiones bucales en los ancianos son muy frecuentes y constituyen un problema de salud debido a las consecuencias que provocan. Objetivo: describir las características de las prótesis removibles usadas por la población de 60 y más años de edad y su relación con las lesiones de la mucosa oral. Métodos: se realiz

  8. CBVT analysis of canal configuration of the mesio-buccal root of maxillary first permanent molar teeth: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pratima Shenoi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: For successful endodontic treatment, it′s imperative to locate and obturate all root canals. As concluded by Ingle, the major cause for failure of root canal therapy is in ability to recognize all theexisting canals and subsequent failure in their obturation. Aim: To analyze the canal configuration of the mesio-buccal root of maxillary first permanent molar teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 recently extracted human permanent maxillary first molars were collected and stored in a container with 5% Sodium Chloride solution for four days. Teeth with open apices, external resorption, improperly formed roots and teeth with previous restorations were excluded. Using the dental modeling wax, teeth were arranged in a ′U′ shaped arch with roots embedded inside the wax and occlusal surface remaining free. 10 teeth were arranged in each arch and three such sample plates were prepared. Flat surface of the base encasing enabled the plate to be mounted on flat plastic bite plate. With bite plate roughly centered in the focal trough area Axial, Coronal and Sagittal section Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT images were taken with Kodak 9000 Extra-oral Imaging System. Images displayed on a monitor were inspected by two endodontists using Kodak Dental Imaging Software 3D Module V2.2. Statistical Analysis: When the data was observed, it was found that 24 teeth out of total 30 teeth examined showed some variation (i.e. possible additional canal along the length of the mesio-buccal root canal. Out of these 24 teeth, 13 showed presence of additional canal at coronal third, 7 showed presence of additional canal at middle third and four showed presence of additional canal in apical third level. Percentage analysis was done as there was no group comparison to be done. Results: Cone-Beam Volumetric Tomography (CBVT evaluation positively identified the variations in mesio-buccal canal in 80% of samples. Out of these, 54.16% were in coronal 3 rd

  9. A rapid polymerase chain reaction protocol to detect adenovirus in eye swabs Detecção de adenovírus em "swab" oftálmico empregando protocolo rápido por reação da polimerase em cadeia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Melo Mendes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Viruses of the Adenoviridae family are associated with many clinical syndromes, possessing 50 serotypes. These agents and viruses of the Herpesviridae family are the two major agents responsible for viral conjunctivitis, and a rapid diagnosis is important due to the epidemic character of adenoviral infections. METHODS: We developed a PCR without DNA extraction for adenovirus using primers that amplify a 300 bp fragment of the hexon capsid protein gene from many serotypes. RESULTS: Swab samples from cornea of seven patients with keratoconjunctivitis were analyzed, and one of them was PCR positive for adenovirus. The sequence of this fragment shows a 100% homology with the sequence of adenovirus type 8. CONCLUSION: Sequencing of 300 bp from the hexon gene allows to identify almost all Ad serotypes, including all serotypes related to epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (8,19,37 and almost all serotypes involved with Ad-associated conjunctivitis.OBJETIVO: Vírus da família Adenoviridae estão associados com muitas síndromes clínicas, sendo conhecidos 50 sorotipos. Vírus desta família e da família Herpesviridae são os maiores responsáveis por conjuntivite viral, sendo um rápido diagnóstico importante devido ao caráter epidêmico das infecções por adenovírus. MÉTODOS: Reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR para adenovírus foi desenvolvida utilizando iniciadores que amplificam um fragmento de 300 bp do gene da proteína hexon do capsídeo de diversos sorotipos. A reação em cadeia da polimerase foi efetuada sem a etapa de extração de DNA. RESULTADOS: Amostras de "swabs" de córneas de sete pacientes com ceratoconjuntivite foram analisadas, sendo que uma amostra foi positiva para adenovírus. O seqüenciamento deste fragmento mostrou 100% de homologia com a seqüência do adenovírus tipo 8. CONCLUSÃO: O seqüenciamento do fragmento de 300 bp do gene do hexon permite a identificação de quase todos os sorotipos de adenov

  10. [Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistant Esherichia coli by Rectal Swab Method--Annual Change of Prevalence of Quinolone-resistant and ESBL Producing Strains from 2009 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Yoshitsugu; Sako, Shinichi; Yano, Tomofumi; Kosaka, Noriko

    2015-09-01

    Although most of commonly used antimicrobial agents had been susceptible to Esherichia coli, recently there are a lot of reports concerning about community-acquired infection caused by resistant E. coli. The aim of this study is to define the prevalence of resistant E. coli in normal flora colonization by the rectal swab method. From June 2009 to December 2013, 251 male patients (50-85 year-old, median 68) planned to transrectal prostate biopsy participated in this study. Stools stuck on the glove at the digital examination were provided for culture specimen. Identification of E. coli and determination of MIC was performed by MicroScan WalkAway40plus (Siemens). Isolated E. coli were deemed quinolone-resistant strains when their MIC of levofloxacine was 4 μg/mL or above according to the breakpoint MIC by the CLSI criteria. ESBL producing ability was determined by the double disk method used by CVA contained ESBL definition disc (Eikenkagaku). Of the 251 study patients, 224 patients had positive cultures of E. coli. Twenty-four patients had quinolone-resistant strains and 9 patients had ESBL producing strains. The prevalence of quinolone-resistant strains in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 were 5.9% (2 out of 34 strains), 13.5% (5 out of 37 strains), 12.5% (4 out of 32 strains), 9.0% (6 out of 67) and 13.0% (7 out of 54 strains), respectively. The prevalence of ESBL producing strains in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 were 0% (0 out of 34 strains), 5.4% (2 out of 37 strains), 3.1% (1 out of 32 strains), 3.0% (2 out of 67 strains) and 7.4% (4 out of 54 strains), respectively. In 2013, the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli, both quinolone-resistant and ESBL producing strains, were increasing. We have to pay a close attention to the increase of resistant E. coli. PMID:26630790

  11. False Negative Rates of a Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates via Real-Time PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sydor, Michael A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Surface sampling for Bacillus anthracis spores has traditionally relied on detection via bacterial cultivation methods. Although effective, this approach does not provide the level of organism specificity that can be gained through molecular techniques. False negative rates (FNR) and limits of detection (LOD) were determined for two B. anthracis surrogates with modified rapid viability-polymerase chain reaction (mRV-PCR) following macrofoam-swab sampling. This study was conducted in parallel with a previously reported study that analyzed spores using a plate-culture method. B. anthracis Sterne (BAS) or B. atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores were deposited onto four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic) at nine target concentrations (2 to 500 spores/coupon; 0.078 to 19.375 colony-forming units [CFU] per cm²). Mean FNR values for mRV-PCR analysis ranged from 0 to 0.917 for BAS and 0 to 0.875 for BG and increased as spore concentration decreased (over the concentrations investigated) for each surface material. FNRs based on mRV-PCR data were not statistically different for BAS and BG, but were significantly lower for glass than for vinyl tile. FNRs also tended to be lower for the mRV-PCR method compared to the culture method. The mRV-PCR LOD₉₅ was lowest for glass (0.429 CFU/cm² with BAS and 0.341 CFU/cm² with BG) and highest for vinyl tile (0.919 CFU/cm² with BAS and 0.917 CFU/cm² with BG). These mRV-PCR LOD₉₅ values were lower than the culture values (BAS: 0.678 to 1.023 CFU/cm² and BG: 0.820 to 1.489 CFU/cm²). The FNR and LOD₉₅ values reported in this work provide guidance for environmental sampling of Bacillus spores at low concentrations.

  12. Evaluation of the Reclamation Suitability of Industrial and Mining Wasteland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gengjie; ZHANG; Zhongke; BAI

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the reclamation suitability of industrial and mining wasteland is the premise of reclamation. The wasteland was firstly categorized according to land use status and damage types. Then the evaluation process of reclamation suitability was introduced, which involves two steps, the first step was to exclude those unsuitable wasteland by the limits conditions, while the second step was to evaluate the suitability degree of those suitable wasteland. From the perspectives of soil fertility, soil pollution, farmland water conservancy and land damage, twelve evaluation factors, including soil depth, gravel content, bulk density, organic material content, pollution index, gradient, flatness, irrigation and drainage condition, source of borrowed earth, distance from the residential settlement, erosion modulus and damage extent, were selected to establish an index system for evaluating the abandoned industrial and mining land, aiming to provide references for the future reclamation of industrial and mining wasteland.

  13. Systèmes nanostructurés décorés par du chitosane pour la délivrance buccale de la curcumine

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzarino, Leticia,

    2013-01-01

    Cette étude décrit le développement de systèmes nanostructurés muco-adhésives, qui comprennent les nanoparticules décorées avec du chitosane et les films contenant des nanoparticules, visant la libération buccale de la curcumine. Deux différents systèmes de nanoparticules ont été développés: les nanoparticules de polycaprolactone (PCL) et les nanoparticules xyloglucane-bloc-polycaprolactone (XGO-b-PCL). Les nanoparticules de PCL ont été préparées par la technique de nanoprécipitation, alors q...

  14. Oxidative Stress on Buccal Mucosa Wound in Rats and Rule of Topical Application of Ethanolic Extracts of Mauli Banana ( Musa acuminata Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenda Fitriati Noora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a topical application of ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem on oxidative status in buccal mucosa wounds of rats. The sets involved three groups, P0 was the negative control; P1 was treated with alocair topically; and P2 was treated with ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem topically, respectively, 24h after wound creation for 3 days. The oxidative stress status was evaluated by monitoring the SOD, CAT activity, MDA and CC levels. Ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem showed significantly increased in SOD activity, decreased in MDA levels, and no significant change both in CAT activity and CC levels compared to negative control. These results showed that The ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem might affect the oxidative stress status during wound healing process.

  15. Perspectives of electric vehicles: customer suitability and renewable energy integration

    OpenAIRE

    Propfe, Bernd; Luca de Tena, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays most car makers are about to start the production of battery electric vehicles and rangeextended vehicles in series. Two crucial questions arise, one concerning the customer suitability of these vehicles, and other concerning the integration in the power system. For this purpose daily trips from an extensive survey of passenger transportation were simulated with electric vehicles (based on real world models) to analyze suitability of the electric vehicles and to identify the boundari...

  16. Department of Energy sites suitable for electrokinetic remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating sites that may be suitable for electrokinetic remediation of soils. The main selection criteria for site suitability are low hydraulic conductivity, water-soluble contaminants, and relatively low concentrations of ionic materials in the water. This report lists sites preliminarily identified as having low permeability soil, and sites with discrete layers or isolated pockets of low permeability soil

  17. The Importance of Biologically Relevant Microclimates in Habitat Suitability Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Varner; M Denise Dearing

    2014-01-01

    Predicting habitat suitability under climate change is vital to conserving biodiversity. However, current species distribution models rely on coarse scale climate data, whereas fine scale microclimate data may be necessary to assess habitat suitability and generate predictive models. Here, we evaluate disparities between temperature data at the coarse scale from weather stations versus fine-scale data measured in microhabitats required for a climate-sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochoto...

  18. Predictive modelling of climate suitability for Pinus halepensis in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gastón González, Aitor; Garcia Viñas, Juan Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    The response of Mediterranean pine species distribution to global change is a key feature of forest management in a changing environment. Climate suitability models are valuable tools for understanding and anticipating the effects of climate change on species distributions. Logistic regression was used to model climate suitability for Pinus halepensis in Spain, using National Forest Inventory as training sample. Predictive performance was evaluated using ICP Forests Level I grid as independen...

  19. Regional prediction of basin-scale brown trout habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.

    2014-09-01

    In this study we propose a novel method for the estimation of ecological indices describing the habitat suitability of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Traditional hydrological tools are coupled with an innovative regional geostatistical technique, aiming at the prediction of the brown trout habitat suitability index where partial or totally ungauged conditions occur. Several methods for the assessment of ecological indices are already proposed in the scientific literature, but the possibility of exploiting a geostatistical prediction model, such as Topological Kriging, has never been investigated before. In order to develop a regional habitat suitability model we use the habitat suitability curve, obtained from measured data of brown trout adult individuals collected in several river basins across the USA. The Top-kriging prediction model is then employed to assess the spatial correlation between upstream and downstream habitat suitability indices. The study area is the Metauro River basin, located in the central part of Italy (Marche region), for which both water depth and streamflow data were collected. The present analysis focuses on discharge values corresponding to the 0.1-, 0.5-, 0.9-empirical quantiles derived from flow-duration curves available for seven gauging stations located within the study area, for which three different suitability indices (i.e. ψ10, ψ50 and ψ90) are evaluated. The results of this preliminary analysis are encouraging showing Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies equal to 0.52, 0.65, and 0.69, respectively.

  20. Regeneration of mandibular ameloblastoma defect with the help of autologous dental pulp stem cells and buccal pad of fat stromal vascular fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, K; Sharma, Rohini; Sankaranarayanan, S; Perumal, S Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is benign odontogenic tumor, which is locally aggressive in behavior. Till date, the treatment of choice is resection and reconstruction using a variety of modalities. Inadequate resection may lead to many complications such as bone deformity and dysfunction. This report is about a 14-year-old male with ameloblastoma treated with autologous dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and evidence of bone regeneration. Marsupialization was performed; tooth was extracted and sent for DPSC cultivation. On the day of surgery, SVF was processed from buccal pad of fat, and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) was prepared from patient's peripheral blood. During the procedure, labial plate resection and curating of tumor lining were done. After which, a mesh packed with SyboGraft T-plug, prepared SVF, DPSCs, and PRF were placed over lingual cortex and pressure dressing was done. After the 1(st) month of surgery the postoperative course was uneventful, the wound shrinkage led to exposure of mesh in the intraoral region. Removal of exposed mesh was done. The correction surgery with removal of part of mesh and primary closure was achieved with SyboGraft plug, SVF and PRF. Enhanced bone formation was seen in post-operative OPG and CT Scan after 10(th) month. In this article, we propose an innovative approach to manage these cases by using a combination of autologous DPSC and buccal pad of fat SVF to regenerate a mandibular defect left by the resection of an ameloblastoma with 1.5 year follow-up. We were able to demonstrate bone regeneration using this technique with no recurrence of tumor. PMID:27563616

  1. Is Switzerland suitable for the invasion of Aedes albopictus [corrected]?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Neteler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 for the periods 2020-2049 and 2045-2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020-2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045-2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other

  2. Land Suitability Assessment for Sugarcane in "Herois de Caxito" (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baert, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of the soils surrounding the sugarcane plantation at "Herois de Caxito" (7068 ha is assessed. The main goal is to identify land suitability for the enlargement of the present plantation, using FAO land evaluation models (modified to suit Herois de Caxito conditions and GIS. Calculations of the radiationthermal production potential (RPP, land production potential (LPP, irrigation suitability index, and evaluation of the irrigation water quality are done. The water-limited production potential (WPP is found equal to the RPP, because water needs were fully met under irrigation. Maps showing the spatial distribution of the LPP and the suitability for irrigation are generated. The matching of irrigation and fertility indices has shown that, about 40% of the soils with good fertility for sugarcane production present low suitability for irrigation, the main limitations being the very fine texture and the drainage. The available surface water at Herois de Caxito (Dande river is of very good quality for irrigation of sugarcane.

  3. Suitability of non-energy GHGs for emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the suitability of different sources of non-energy greenhouse gases for emissions trading. Different forms of emissions trading are defined and criteria for determining whether a source is suitable for emissions trading are proposed. The suitability for emissions trading is assessed for: methane (CH4) from oil and gas production; CH4 from coal mines; CH4 from landfills; CH4 from wastewater treatment; CH4 from enteric fermentation; CH4 from livestock manure, nitrous oxide (N2O) from adipic acid production; N2O from fertilizer use; N2O from nitric acid production, carbon dioxide (CO2) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) from aluminum smelting; sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) from magnesium smelting and die casting; HFCs from HCFC production, other uses of SF6, PFCs and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs); CO2 from ammonia production; lime and cement production, and iron ore reduction

  4. Proposal of an Algorithm to Synthesize Music Suitable for Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Hirofumi; Nakatani, Mie; Nishida, Shogo

    This paper proposes an algorithm for synthesizing music suitable for emotions in moving pictures. Our goal is to support multi-media content creation; web page design, animation films and so on. Here we adopt a human dance as a moving picture to examine the availability of our method. Because we think the dance image has high affinity with music. This algorithm is composed of three modules. The first is the module for computing emotions from an input dance image, the second is for computing emotions from music in the database and the last is for selecting music suitable for input dance via an interface of emotion.

  5. Suitability for 3D Printed Parts for Laboratory Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicker, Andrew P. [PPPL; Bloom, Josh [PPPL; Albertson, Robert [PPPL; Gershman, Sophia [PPPL

    2014-08-01

    3D printing has become popular for a variety of users, from industrial to the home hobbyist, to scientists and engineers interested in producing their own laboratory equipment. In order to determine the suitability of 3D printed parts for our plasma physics laboratory, we measured the accuracy, strength, vacuum compatibility, and electrical properties of pieces printed in plastic. The flexibility of rapidly creating custom parts has led to the 3D printer becoming an invaluable resource in our laboratory and is equally suitable for producing equipment for advanced undergraduate laboratories.

  6. A Dynamic Hashing Algorithm Suitable for Embedded System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jianwei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing of the data numbers, the linear hashing will be a lot of overflow blocks result from Data skew and the index size of extendible hash will surge so as to waste too much memory. This lead to the above two Typical Dynamic hashing algorithm don’t suitable for embedded system that need certain real-time requirements and memory resources are very scarce. To solve this problem, this paper was proposed a dynamic hashing algorithm suitable for embedded system combining with the characteristic of extendible hashing and linear hashing.it is no overflow buckets and the index size is proportional to the adjustment number.

  7. Analysis of applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Stoimenovski, Aleksandar; Kraleva, Radoslava; Kralev, Velin

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the use of mobile learning in Bulgarian education by young children. The most used mobile operating systems are analyzed. Also some of the most used existing applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children are presented and classified. Keywords: Mobile applications for preschool children, mobile learning.

  8. A land suitability system for spate irrigation schemes in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfai, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Spate irrigation is a system used for wetting land prior to planting. Use is made of seasonal rivers (wadis) producing flash floods in the uplands, which are directed by structures to irrigate fields in the lowlands. A land suitability system for spate irrigation schemes in Eritrea was studied in th

  9. Fuzzy modeling of farmers' knowledge for land suitability classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicat, R.S.; Carranza, E.J.M.; Nidumolu, U.B.

    2005-01-01

    In a case study, we demonstrate fuzzy modeling of farmers' knowledge (FK) for agricultural land suitability classification using GIS. Capture of FK was through rapid rural participatory approach. The farmer respondents consider, in order of decreasing importance, cropping season, soil color, soil te

  10. 21 CFR 640.3 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.3 Section 640.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS...; and (7) Freedom of the arms and forearms from skin punctures or scars indicative of addiction to...

  11. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.63 Section 640.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... arms and forearms from skin punctures or scars indicative of addiction to self-injected narcotics;...

  12. Further investigations into the suitability of peanuts for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies were conducted during 2007 at multiple locations to continue investigations into the suitability and practicality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as a biodiesel feedstock. An evaluation was conducted at Dawson, GA, to assess 24 peanut cultivars for performance under low input growing ...

  13. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized

  14. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-03-07

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized. (JRD)

  15. EXPERT MODEL OF LAND SUITABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Đurđević

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 17404 soil samples (2003rd-2009th year were analysed in the eastern Croatia. The largest number of soil samples belongs to the Osijek-Baranya county, which together with both Eastern sugar beet Factories (Osijek and Županja, conduct the soil fertility control (~4200 samples/yr.. Computer model suitability assessment for crops, supported by GIS, proved to be fast, efficient enough reliable in terms of the number of analyzed soil samples. It allows the visualization of the agricultural area and prediction of its production properties for the purposes of analysis, planning and rationalization of agricultural production. With more precise data about the soil (soil, climate and reliable Digital Soil Map of Croatia, the model could be an acceptable, not only to evaluate the suitability for growing different crops but also their need for fertilizer, necessary machinery, repairs (liming, and other measures of organic matter input. The abovementioned aims to eliminate or reduce effects of limiting factors in primary agricultural production. Assessment of the relative benefits of soil presented by computer model for the crops production and geostatistical method kriging in the Osijek-Baranya county showed: 1 Average soil suitability being 60.06 percent. 2 Kriging predicted that 51751 ha (17.16% are of limited resources (N1 for growing crops whereas a 86142 ha (28.57% of land is limited suitably (S3, b 132789 ha (44.04% are moderately suitable (S2 and c 30772 ha (10.28% are of excellent fertility (S1. A large number of eastern Croatian land data showed that the computer-geostatistical model for determination of soil benefits for growing crops was automated, fast and simple to use and suitable for the implementation of GIS and automatically downloading the necessary benefit indicators from the input base (land, analytical and climate as well as data from the digital soil maps able to: a visualize the suitability for soil tillage, b predict the

  16. Detection of influenza A virus from live-bird market poultry swab samples in China by a pan-IAV, one-step reverse-transcription FRET-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Lu; Sun, Zhihao; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Huang, Ke; Li, Min; Peng, Daxin; Xu, Xiulong; Ye, Jianqiang; Li, Jing; Guo, Weina; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-01

    The persistent public health threat of animal to human transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) has stimulated interest in rapid and accurate detection of all IAV subtypes in clinical specimens of animal origin. In this study, a new set of primers and probes was designed for one-step pan-IAV reverse-transcription fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-PCR. The detection limit of one-step pan-IAV RT FRET-PCR was 10 copies of the matrix gene per reaction, and proved to be equivalent or superior to virus isolation in detecting nine IAV subtypes. Application of the pan-IAV RT FRET-PCR to oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swab specimens collected from healthy poultry in 34 live bird markets in 24 provinces of China revealed that 9.2% of the animals (169/1,839) or 6.3% of their oral-pharyngeal or cloacal swabs (233/3,678) were positive for IAV, and 56.8% of IAV-positive samples were of the H9N2 subtype. Paralleling detection of IAV in H9N2-infected SPF chickens and chickens from LBM showed that pan-IAV FRET-PCR had a higher detection limit than virus isolation in eggs while the results by FRET-PCR and virus isolation overall matched. It is expected that this strategy can be useful for facile surveillance for IAV in clinical samples from a variety of sources. PMID:27445010

  17. Detection of influenza A virus from live-bird market poultry swab samples in China by a pan-IAV, one-step reverse-transcription FRET-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Lu; Sun, Zhihao; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Huang, Ke; Li, Min; Peng, Daxin; Xu, Xiulong; Ye, Jianqiang; Li, Jing; Guo, Weina; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-01

    The persistent public health threat of animal to human transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) has stimulated interest in rapid and accurate detection of all IAV subtypes in clinical specimens of animal origin. In this study, a new set of primers and probes was designed for one-step pan-IAV reverse-transcription fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-PCR. The detection limit of one-step pan-IAV RT FRET-PCR was 10 copies of the matrix gene per reaction, and proved to be equivalent or superior to virus isolation in detecting nine IAV subtypes. Application of the pan-IAV RT FRET-PCR to oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swab specimens collected from healthy poultry in 34 live bird markets in 24 provinces of China revealed that 9.2% of the animals (169/1,839) or 6.3% of their oral-pharyngeal or cloacal swabs (233/3,678) were positive for IAV, and 56.8% of IAV-positive samples were of the H9N2 subtype. Paralleling detection of IAV in H9N2-infected SPF chickens and chickens from LBM showed that pan-IAV FRET-PCR had a higher detection limit than virus isolation in eggs while the results by FRET-PCR and virus isolation overall matched. It is expected that this strategy can be useful for facile surveillance for IAV in clinical samples from a variety of sources. PMID:27445010

  18. L’effet préventif de quelques huiles essentielles contre la croissance et la formation de biofilms de certains pathogènes de la cavité buccale

    OpenAIRE

    Abdoune, Mohamed Amine

    2014-01-01

    L’effet préventif de quelques huiles essentielles contre la croissance et la formation de biofilms de certains pathogènes de la cavité buccale. Les huiles essentielles de vingt espèces végétales récoltées dans la région de Tlemcen ont été testées sur la croissance et la formation de biofilms de cinq souches microbiennes connues par leur pathogénicité dans la cavité buccale. La plupart des huiles essentielles étaient actives surtout sur les bactéries à Gram positif et sur Candid...

  19. Comparison of Prime Movers Suitable for USMC Expeditionary Power Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, T.J.

    2000-04-18

    This report documents the results of the ORNL investigation into prime movers that would be desirable for the construction of a power system suitable for the United States Marine Corps (USMC) expeditionary forces under Operational Maneuvers From The Sea (OMFTS) doctrine. Discrete power levels of {approx}1, 5, 15, and 30 kW are considered. The only requirement is that the prime mover consumes diesel fuel. A brief description is given for the prime movers to describe their basic scientific foundations and relative advantages and disadvantages. A list of key attributes developed by ORNL has been weighted by the USMC to indicate the level of importance. A total of 14 different prime movers were scored by ORNL personnel in four size ranges (1,5, 15, & 30 kW) for their relative strength in each attribute area. The resulting weighted analysis was used to indicate which prime movers are likely to be suitable for USMC needs. No single engine or prime mover emerged as the clear-cut favorite but several engines scored as well or better than the diesel engine. At the higher load levels (15 & 30 kW), the results indicate that the open Brayton (gas turbine) is a relatively mature technology and likely a suitable choice to meet USMC needs. At the lower power levels, the situation is more difficult and the market alone is not likely to provide an optimum solution in the time frame desired (2010). Several prime movers should be considered for future developments and may be satisfactory; specifically, the Atkinson cycle, the open Brayton cycle (gas turbine), the 2-stroke diesel. The rotary diesel and the solid oxide fuel cell should be backup candidates. Of all these prime movers, the Atkinson cycle may well be the most suitable for this application but is an immature technology. Additional demonstrations of this engine will be conducted at ORNL. If this analysis is positive, then the performance of a generator set using this engine, the open Brayton and the 2-stroke diesel should

  20. Evaluation methods for ceramic suitability of raw clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajjaji M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic suitability of kaolinitic-illitic and chloritic-illitic raw clays was assessed by methods involving microstructure investigation and ceramic properties measurements, some reported diagrams and response surface methodology (RSM. Results of the former method showed that all clays are suitable for red stoneware tiles. The stoneware manufacturing is facilitated by the marked reduction of porosity due to the flow of melt, mainly originated from the breakdowns of illite. This result was partially supported by the use of a diagram involving the chemical composition of clays as well as by the RSM results. According to the later method, bricks may be manufactured under restricted firing conditions and stoneware tiles could be prepared at temperatures as low as 950°C.