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Sample records for buccal pouch carcinogenesis

  1. TELOMERASE ACTIVITY DURING 7, 12-DIMETHYLBENZ [a] ANTHRACENE-INDUCED HAMSTER BUCCAL POUCH CARCINOGENESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the roles of telomerase activity (TA) in relation to hamster buccal pouch tumor progression. Methods: male hamster were treated three times weekly with 0.5% of 7, 12-dimethyl- benzanthracene (DMBA) over a 15 weeks experimental period. Hamsters were sacrificed at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks after treatment. Telomerase activity of hamster buccal pouch tissue were measured along with the analyses of the formation of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch tumors. Results: DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinomas were found at the 6th week after dosing. Telomerase activity elevation began at the 3rd week and was increasing to a plateau at the 12th week. Conclusion: Our results show that telomerase activity in the target tissue may be detected at the early stage of the DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch tumor formation and suggests that telomerase activity may be used as a biomarker for an early clinical detection of buccal pouch cancer.

  2. Inhibitory effects of Zengshengping fractions on DMBA-induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xiao-bing; SUN Zheng; CHEN Xiao-xin; WU Hong-ru; ZHANG Xin-yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Zengshengping (ZSP) tablets had inhibitory effects on oral precancerous lesions by reducing the incidence of oral cancer.However,the severe liver toxicity caused by systemic administration of ZSP limits the long-term use of this anti-cancer drug.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tumor inhibitory effects due to the topical application of extracts from ZSP,a Chinese herbal drug,on 7,12-dimethlbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced oral tumors in hamsters.The study also investigated the anti-cancer mechanisms of the ZSP extracts on oral carcinogenesis.Methods DMBA (0.5%) was applied topically to the buccal pouches of Syrian golden hamsters (6-8 weeks old) three times per week for six weeks in order to induce the development of oral tumors.Different fractions of ZSP were either applied topically to the oral tumor lesions or fed orally at varying dosages to animals with oral tumors for 18 weeks.Tumor volume was measured by histopathological examination.Tumor cell proliferation was evaluated by counting BrdU labeled cells and by Western blotting for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein levels.The protein levels of apoptosis marker Caspase-3 and regulator Bcl-2 protein were also measured by Western blotting.Results Topical application of DMBA to the left pouch of hamsters induced oral tumor formation.Animals treated with DMBA showed a loss in body weight while animals treated with ZSP maintained normal body weights.Both the ZSP n-butanol fraction and water fraction significantly reduced tumor volume by 32.6% (P <0.01) and 22.9% (P <0.01)respectively.Topical application of ZSP also markedly decreased the BrdU-positive cell numbers in oral tumor lesions and reduced the expression level of MAPK.In addition,ZSP promoted tumor cell apoptosis by increasing Caspase-3 expression but decreasing Bcl-2 protein production.Conclusion The n-butanol and water fractions of ZSP are effective at inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and stimulating

  3. LUPEOL PROTECTS ABNORMALITIES IN CELL SURFACE MOITIES DURING 7, 12-DIMETHYLBENZ[A]ANTHRACENE INDUCED HAMSTER BUCCAL POUCH CARCINOGENESIS

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    D. Palanimuthu and S. Manoharan*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, possesses diverse pharmacological and biochemical activities including anticancer and antioxidant effects. Abnormalities in the status of glycoconjugates and lipids in the cell results in malignant transformation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of lupeol on cell surface glycoconjugates and lipids abnormalities during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was developed in the buccal pouches of golden Syrian hamsters by treating with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin, three times a week, for 14 weeks. The status of glycoconjugates and lipids were measured using specific colorimetric methods. We observed 100% tumor formation with marked abnormalities in the status of glycoconjugates and lipids in hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of lupeol at a dose of 50mg/kg bw, completely prevented the formation of tumors and restored the status of glycoconjugates and lipids in hamsters treated with DMBA. The results of the present study thus suggest that lupeol has the potential to protect cell surface abnormalities during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

  4. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

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    Prathiba Duvuru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer.

  5. Pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory potential of andrographolide during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

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    Karthikeyan Sekar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim of the present study was to investigate the modulating effect of andrographolide on apoptotic and inflammatory markers during 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Methods: Oral tumors were developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. The expression pattern of molecular markers were assayed using immunohistochemistry (p53, Bcl-2 and Bax, ELISA (COX-2 and real-time PCR (NFκB. Results: We noticed 100% tumor formation accompanied by deregulation in the apoptotic and inflammatory markers in the buccal mucosa of hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of andrographolide at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w to hamsters treated with DMBA, not only completely prevented the tumor formation but also modulated the status of above mentioned molecular markers in favor of inhibiting cell proliferation as evidenced by no tumor formation. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the anti-tumor effect of andrographolide could partly be attributed to its apoptotic and anti-inflammatory potential during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(4: 313-319

  6. Anticancer Effects of Fusion Protein CAtin on DMBA-induced Carcinogenesis in Buccal Pouch of Chinese Hamster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jie-ying; LI Xiao; LI Chang; ZHANG Xiao-fei; LI Zhi-xin; ZHAO Shuang; LIU Xiao; ZENG Lin; CHI Bao-rong

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant expression ofcarcinoembryonic antigen(CEA)is a common feature for multiple types of cancer,which makes it an attractive target for anticancer therapy.CAtin is a novel dual cancer-specific fusion protein,composed of an anti-CEA single-chain disulfide-stabilized Fv antibody(scdsFv)and Apoptin,a tumor-specific apoptosis-inducing protein.Oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC)is an important healthcare problem in the clinic.To evaluate the anticancer effects of CAtin on OSCC,7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene(DMBA)was used to induce oral carcinogenesis and premalignant lesions in the buccal pouch of Chinese hamster,and the antitumor effects of CAtin were determined in pre-cancer,cancer and post-operatative cancer models,respectively.The results show that the administration of CAtin delayed the malignant transformation of early stage cancerous lesions,inhibited the growth of established solid oral tumors and reduced the post-operatative relapse of lesions,with no significant systemic toxicity.This study demonstrates that CAtin may have potential for the treatment of OSCC,and the development of preventive strategies based on CAtin may offer a practical approach for the treatment of human oral tumors.

  7. [6]-Shogaol, a Novel Chemopreventor in 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis.

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    Kathiresan, Suresh; Govindhan, Annamalai

    2016-04-01

    Oral cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Despite advances in chemotherapy for the cancer management, the survival rate has not yet been improved. Dietary nutrient has been receiving a lot of attention and interest in the chemotherapeutic development. [6]-Shogaol is a major bioactive compound identified in ginger that possesses many pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of [6]-shogaol on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma induced in HBP by painting with 0.5% 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), thrice in a week for 16 weeks. We observed 100% tumour incidence, decreased levels of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, and phase II detoxification enzymes (GST, GR and GSH) in DMBA-induced hamsters. Further, enhanced activity of phase I enzymes (cytochrome p450 and b5) and over-expression of mutant p53, Bcl-2 and decreased expression of wild type p53 and Bax were noticed in DMBA-induced hamsters. Our results indicated that [6]-shogaol (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight) treated with DMBA-painted hamsters, considerably reversed tumour incidence, improved antioxidant status, phase II detoxification enzymes, and also inhibit lipid peroxidation and phase I enzymes. Moreover, [6]-shogaol inhibits mutant p53 and Bcl-2 expression and significantly restored normal p53, Bax levels. Thus, we concluded that [6]-shogaol prevents DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis through its antioxidant as well as modulating apoptotic signals.

  8. Chemopreventive effects of diverse dietary phytochemicals against DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis via the induction of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective antioxidant, detoxification, and DNA repair enzymes.

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    Kavitha, K; Thiyagarajan, P; Rathna Nandhini, J; Mishra, Rajakishore; Nagini, S

    2013-08-01

    Identifying agents that activate nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor-2 (Nrf2), a key regulator of various cytoprotective antioxidant, and detoxifying enzymes has evolved as a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention. In the present study, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of structurally diverse phytochemicals- astaxanthin, blueberry, chlorophyllin, ellagic acid, and theaphenon-E on Nrf2 signaling, and xenobiotic-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model. We observed that these phytochemicals induce nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 while downregulating its negative regulator, Keap-1. This was associated with reduced expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, the cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the activation of DMBA, and the oxidative stress marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine coupled with upregulation of the phase II detoxification enzymes glutathione S-transferases and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, these dietary phytochemicals also enhanced the DNA repair enzymes 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), xeroderma pigmentosum D (XPD), xeroderma pigmentosum G (XPG), and x-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1). Our data provide substantial evidence that the dietary phytochemicals inhibit the development of HBP carcinomas through the activation of Nrf2/Keap-1 signaling and by upregulating cytoprotective enzymes. The extent of the chemopreventive effects of the phytochemicals was in the order: chlorophyllin > blueberry > ellagic acid > astaxanthin > theaphenon-E. Thus these dietary phytochemicals that function as potent activators of Nrf2 and its orchestrated response are novel candidates for cancer chemoprevention.

  9. Sunitinib Improves Some Clinical Aspects and Reverts DMBA-Induced Hyperplasic Lesions in Hamster Buccal Pouch

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    de Souza, Fernanda Lopes; Oliveira, Mariana; Nunes, Marianne Brochado; Serafim, Lucas Horstmann; Azambuja, Alan Arrieira; Braga, Luisa Maria G. de M.; Saur, Lisiani; de Souza, Maria Antonieta Lopes; Xavier, Léder Leal

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a public health problem. The hamster buccal pouch model is ideal for analyzing the development of OSCC. This research analysed the effects of sunitinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) in precancerous lesions induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in this model. Thirty-four male hamsters, divided into six groups: control—C (n = 7), acetone—A (n = 12), carbamide peroxide—CP (n = 5 ), acetone and CP—A+CP (n = 8), 1% DMBA in acetone and CP—DA+CP (n = 6), and 1% DMBA in acetone and CP and 4-week treatment with sunitinib—DA+CP+S (n = 7). The aspects evaluated were anatomopathological features (peribuccal area, paws, nose, and fur), histological sections of the hamster buccal pouches (qualitatively analyzed), epithelium thickness, and the rete ridge density (estimated). Sunitinib was unable to attenuate the decrease in weight gain induced by DMBA; no increase in volume was detected in the pouch and/or ulceration, observed in 43% of the animals in the DA+CP group. DA+CP groups presented a significant increase in rete ridge density compared to the control groups (P < 0.01) which was reverted by sunitinib in the DA+CP+S group. Sunitinib seems to have important benefits in early stage carcinogenesis and may be useful in chemoprevention. PMID:24693453

  10. Gene expression signature of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas: modulation by chlorophyllin and ellagic acid.

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    Ramamurthi Vidya Priyadarsini

    Full Text Available Chlorophyllin (CHL, a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and ellagic acid (EA, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound in berries, grapes, and nuts have been reported to exert anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines and in animal tumour models. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying chemoprevention and changes in gene expression pattern induced by dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis model by whole genome profiling using pangenomic microarrays. In hamsters painted with DMBA, the expression of 1,700 genes was found to be altered significantly relative to control. Dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid modulated the expression profiles of 104 and 37 genes respectively. Microarray analysis also revealed changes in the expression of TGFβ receptors, NF-κB, cyclin D1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs that may play a crucial role in the transformation of the normal buccal pouch to a malignant phenotype. This gene expression signature was altered on treatment with chlorophyllin and ellagic acid. Our study has also revealed patterns of gene expression signature specific for chlorophyllin and ellagic acid exposure. Thus dietary chlorophyllin and ellagic acid that can reverse gene expression signature associated with carcinogenesis are novel candidates for cancer prevention and therapy.

  11. Gene expression signature of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas: modulation by chlorophyllin and ellagic acid.

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    Vidya Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi; Kumar, Neeraj; Khan, Imran; Thiyagarajan, Paranthaman; Kondaiah, Paturu; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2012-01-01

    Chlorophyllin (CHL), a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound in berries, grapes, and nuts have been reported to exert anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines and in animal tumour models. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying chemoprevention and changes in gene expression pattern induced by dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model by whole genome profiling using pangenomic microarrays. In hamsters painted with DMBA, the expression of 1,700 genes was found to be altered significantly relative to control. Dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid modulated the expression profiles of 104 and 37 genes respectively. Microarray analysis also revealed changes in the expression of TGFβ receptors, NF-κB, cyclin D1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may play a crucial role in the transformation of the normal buccal pouch to a malignant phenotype. This gene expression signature was altered on treatment with chlorophyllin and ellagic acid. Our study has also revealed patterns of gene expression signature specific for chlorophyllin and ellagic acid exposure. Thus dietary chlorophyllin and ellagic acid that can reverse gene expression signature associated with carcinogenesis are novel candidates for cancer prevention and therapy.

  12. Raman spectroscopic detection of early stages in DMBA-induced tumor evolution in hamster buccal pouch model: an exploratory study

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    Ghanate, Avinash D.; Kumar, G.; Talathi, Sneha; Maru, G. B.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2011-08-01

    Oral cancers are the serious health problem in developing as well as developed world, and more so in India and other south Asian countries. Survival rate of these cancers, despite advances in treatment modalities are one of the poorest which is attributed to lack of reliable screening and early detection methods. The hamster buccal pouch (HBP)carcinogenesis model closely mimics human oral cancers. Optical spectroscopy methods are sensitive enough to detect subtle biochemical changes and thus hold great potential in early detection of cancers. However, efficacy of these techniques in classifying of sequential evolution of tumors has never been tested. Therefore, in this study, we have explored the feasibility of Raman spectroscopic classification of different stages of cancers in hamster model. Strong vibrational modes of lipids (1440, 1654, and 1746 cm-1) are seen in control tissue spectra, whereas strong protein bands are seen in spectra of DMBA treated tissues. These differences were exploited to classify control and treated tissues using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Principle Component Analysis (PCA)-Limit test, Factorial Discriminant Analysis (FDA), Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA), PLS-DA and non- linear decision tree methods. All these techniques have shown good classification between spectra of different stages of tumor evolution and results were further successfully verified by leave-one-out and single blinded methods. Thus findings of this study, first of its kind,demonstrate the feasibility of Raman spectroscopic detection of early changes in tumor evolution.

  13. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

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    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Chen, Ying-Ru; Lee, Jeng-Woei

    2010-02-01

    One of the best strategies to prevent the occurrence of oral cancer is to eliminate oral precancers and block their further malignant transformation. Previous studies showed that photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy (photosan-PDT) is very effective for human head and neck cancers. To avoid the systemic photodynamic toxicity of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twelve 10-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were used in this study. DMBA was applied to the left buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks and mineral oil was painted on the right buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks as the normal controls. Six hamsters were euthanized for tissue harvest. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were consistently induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions in the remaining 6 hamsters were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan-gel. We found that PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan-gel. The precancerous lesions in 4 hamsters were treated with topical photosan-PDT using the 635-nm LED light once or twice a week. Complete regression of the precancerous lesions was found after 2-4 PDT treatments by visual and histological examination. Our findings indicate that topical photosan-PDT is a very effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  14. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

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    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  15. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

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    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  16. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

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    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  17. Inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis and its derived carcinoma cell line.

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    Toyohara, Yukiyo; Hashitani, Susumu; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu; Noguchi, Kazuma; Yamamoto, Nobuto; Urade, Masahiro

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) on carcinogenesis and tumor growth, using a 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, as well as the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages against HCPC-1, a cell line established from DMBA-induced cheek pouch carcinoma. DMBA application induced squamous cell carcinoma in all 15 hamsters of the control group at approximately 10 weeks, and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden within 20 weeks. By contrast, 2 out of the 14 hamsters with GcMAF administration did not develop tumors and the remaining 12 hamsters showed a significant delay of tumor development for approximately 3.5 weeks. The growth of tumors formed was significantly suppressed and none of the hamsters died within the 20 weeks during which they were observed. When GcMAF administration was stopped at the 13th week of the experiment in 4 out of the 14 hamsters in the GcMAF-treated group, tumor growth was promoted, but none of the mice died within the 20-week period. On the other hand, when GcMAF administration was commenced after the 13th week in 5 out of the 15 hamsters in the control group, tumor growth was slightly suppressed and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden. However, the mean survival time was significantly extended. GcMAF treatment activated peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo, and these activated macrophages exhibited a marked cytocidal effect on HCPC-1 cells. Furthermore, the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages was enhanced by the addition of tumor-bearing hamster serum. These findings indicated that GcMAF possesses an inhibitory effect on tumor development and growth in a DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model.

  18. Chemopreventive efficacy of Phyllanthus emblica L. (amla) fruit extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced oral carcinogenesis--a dose-response study.

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    Krishnaveni, Mani; Mirunalini, Sankaran

    2012-11-01

    Phyllanthus emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae), a novel natural fruit has long been used as a home remedy by the medical practitioners. In this report, we investigated the chemopreventive effect of P. emblica fruit methanolic extract (PFMet) on oxidant-antioxidant status in hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Buccal pouch carcinoma was induced in hamsters by painting with DMBA (0.5% in mineral oil) on the left buccal pouch three times a week for 14 weeks. By means of HPLC analysis, ascorbic acid (24.13%), gallic acid (10.45%), ellagic acid (1.74%) and quercetin (0.009%) were identified and quantified in the PFMet. The results showed that depleted activities of SOD, CAT and TBARS level and significant elevation were observed in the levels of GSH, vitamin E and activity of GPx in DMBA group of buccal pouch. The level of TBARS was significantly enhanced and the activities of enzymatic (SOD, CAT and GPx) and non-enzymatic (vitamin E, vitamin C and GSH) antioxidants were diminished significantly in plasma of tumor bearing animals. The effects were dose dependent and the above noted parameters were renovated to near normal after supplementation with different doses of PFMet (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW). The data obtained in this study clearly indicate that PFMet at a dose of 200mg/kg BW possesses optimum chemopreventive effect against DMBA-induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

  19. Lupeol, a bioactive triterpene, prevents tumor formation during 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced oral carcinogenesis.

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    Palanimuthu, D; Baskaran, N; Silvan, S; Rajasekaran, D; Manoharan, S

    2012-10-01

    The oral cancer chemopreventive efficacy of lupeol, a bioactive triterpene, was assessed by monitoring the tumor incidence and using the status of phase I and II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants as biochemical end points during 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral tumors were developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5 % DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. Well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma with marked abnormalities in the status of biochemical markers were noticed in hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of lupeol at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw completely inhibited the formation of oral tumors and restored the status of biochemical markers during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis. The present study thus demonstrates the chemopreventive potential of lupeol in DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis. The chemopreventive potential of lupeol is probably due to its antioxidant or free radical scavenging property and modulating effect on phase I and II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in favour of the excretion of carcinogenic metabolites during DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

  20. In Vivo Antineoplastic Effects of the NSAID Sulindac in an Oral Carcinogenesis Model.

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    Katoumas, Konstantinos; Nikitakis, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despina; Dontas, Ismene; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    The antineoplastic properties of the NSAID sulindac have long been studied. The purpose of this study was to explore sulindac's in vivo effects on oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) oncogenesis using the hamster cheek pouch oral carcinogenesis model (HOCM). Thirty Syrian golden hamsters were divided into three experimental and two control groups (n = 6 each). The animals' right buccal pouches were treated with carcinogen for 9 weeks in one experimental and one control group and for 14 weeks in all other three groups. The animals of two experimental groups received sulindac from the 1st week and those of the third experimental group from the 10th week. After the end of carcinogenesis, treated buccal pouches were removed and examined. In animals treated with carcinogen for 14 weeks, development of oral SCC and tumor volume were significantly lower in animals that received sulindac from the first week of the experiment. Oral SCC developing in animals that received sulindac were more frequently well differentiated compared with the control group. In animals treated with carcinogen for 9 weeks, the animals that received sulindac developed lower grade of epithelial dysplasia. Proliferation index Ki-67 and positivity for the antiapoptotic molecule survivin were lower in the animals that received sulindac. Treatment with sulindac appears to delays the progression of oral premalignant lesions to oral SCC in the HOCM, also resulting in smaller and better differentiated tumors. These in vivo antineoplastic effects may be related to sulindac's ability to decrease cell proliferation and to prevent survivin expression.

  1. Evaluation of the chemopreventive response of naringenin-loaded nanoparticles in experimental oral carcinogenesis using laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfikkarali, N. K.; Krishnakumar, N.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the chemopreventive effects of prepared naringenin-loaded nanoparticles (NARNPs) relative to the efficacy of free naringenin (NAR) in modifying the carcinogenic process and to study the changes in the endogenous fluorophores during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis by laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) spectroscopy. LIAF emission spectra from the hamster buccal mucosa of the control and experimental groups of animals were recorded in the 350-700 nm spectral range on a miniature fiber optic spectrometer from different anatomical sites of each group, with excitation at 404 nm from a diode laser. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. DMBA-painted animals revealed morphological changes, hyperplasia, dysplasia and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. LIAF emission spectra showed significant difference between the control and tumor tissues. The tumor tissues are characterized by an increase in the emission of porphyrins and a decrease in the emission of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogenase (NADH) and flavin adenine nucleotide (FAD) when compared to the control tissues. Furthermore, oral administration of NAR and its nanoparticulates restored the status of endogenous fluorophores in the buccal mucosa of DMBA-painted animals. On a comparative basis, the treatment of nanoparticulate naringenin was found to be more effective than free naringenin in completely preventing the formation of squamous cell carcinoma and in improving the status of endogenous porphyrins to a normal range in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. The result of the present study further suggests that LIAF spectroscopy may be a very valuable tool for rapid and sensitive detection of endogenous fluorophore changes in response to chemopreventive agents.

  2. Daily rhythm variations of the clock gene PER1 and cancer-related genes during various stages of carcinogenesis in a golden hamster model of buccal mucosa carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hua Ye, Kai Yang, Xue-Mei Tan, Xiao-Juan Fu, Han-Xue LiDepartment of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Recent studies have demonstrated that the clock gene PER1 regulates various tumor-related genes. Abnormal expressions and circadian rhythm alterations of PER1 are closely related to carcinogenesis. However, the dynamic circadian variations of PER1 and tumor-related genes at different stages of carcinogenesis remain unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the daily rhythm variation of PER1 and expression of tumor-related genes VEGF, KI67, C-MYC, and P53 in different stages of carcinogenesis.Materials and methods: Dimethylbenzanthracene was used to establish a golden hamster model of buccal mucosa carcinogenesis. Hamsters with normal buccal mucosa, precancerous lesion, and cancerous lesion were sacrificed at six different time points during a 24-hour period of a day. Pathological examination was conducted using routine hematoxylin and eosin staining. PER1, VEGF, KI67, C-MYC, and P53 mRNAs were detected by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and a cosinor analysis was applied to analyze the daily rhythm.Results: PER1, VEGF, C-MYC, and P53 mRNA exhibited daily rhythmic expression in three carcinogenesis stages, and KI67 mRNA exhibited daily rhythmic expression in the normal and precancerous stages. The daily rhythmic expression of KI67 was not observed in cancerous stages. The mesor and amplitude of PER1 and P53 mRNA expression decreased upon the development of cancer (P<0.05, whereas the mesor and amplitude of VEGF, KI67, and C-MYC mRNA increased upon the development of cancer (P<0.05. Compared with the normal tissues, the acrophases of PER1, VEGF, and C-MYC mRNA occurred earlier, whereas the acrophases of P53 and KI67 mRNA lagged remarkably in the precancerous lesions. In the cancer stage, the acrophases

  3. Circadian variations of clock gene Per2 and cell cycle genes in different stages of carcinogenesis in golden hamster buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xue-Mei; Ye, Hua; Yang, Kai; Chen, Dan; Wang, Qing-Qing; Tang, Hong; Zhao, Ning-Bo

    2015-05-07

    Previous studies have suggested that the expression of clock genes have circadian rhythms, and many cell cycle genes are regulated by clock genes. The disruption of circadian rhythms appears to be associated with the acceleration of cancer development. To investigate the circadian patterns of the clock gene Per2 and of cell cycle genes p53, Cyclin D1, CDK1 and Cyclin B1 in different stages of carcinogenesis, the daily mRNA profiles of these genes were detected by real-time RT-PCR in dimethylbenzanthracene-induced cancer, in precancerous lesions and in normal tissues. Per2, p53, Cyclin D1 and CDK1 showed circadian rhythms in the 3 different stages of carcinogenesis, whereas the circadian rhythm of Cyclin B1 was absent in the precancerous lesions. The mesors and amplitudes of Per2 and p53 were decreased (P circadian pattern variations of these genes in different stages of carcinogenesis.

  4. 层粘连蛋白在金黄地鼠颊囊癌形成中的表达%The expression of laminin in the course golden hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永生; 杨燕

    2004-01-01

    目的检测了层粘连蛋白(LN)在金黄地鼠颊囊癌发生、发展过程中的表达,探索LN与颊囊癌侵袭性的关系.方法金黄地鼠60只,随机分成6组,1~5组用0.5%二甲基苯蒽涂擦金地鼠颊囊,每周3次,分别于6、8、10、12及14周处死.免疫组化法观察颊囊病变中LN的表达.结果轻、中、重度不典型增生原位癌中LN表达呈连续、线状;侵袭癌中LN则模糊、消失;侵袭前沿LN表达缺失;分化好的癌巢周围LN呈连续、线状..结论LN可作为口腔癌侵袭性诊断的指标,可反映癌细胞的分化程度,可直观、准确地对原位癌进行诊断.

  5. 两种建立金黄地鼠颊囊癌模型方法的对照研究%Comparison between Two Methods of Establishing Induced Buckle Pouch Carcinogenesis Model in Syrian Golden Hamster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志革; 张宝平; 张红; 门海燕; 徐越; 付文强; 刘斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 二甲基苯并蒽丙酮注射法建立金黄地鼠颊囊癌动物模型,并与传统涂抹法相比较,为颊囊癌研究提供理想的动物模型.方法 随机将81只金黄地鼠分为注射组、涂抹组和空白对照组.DM-BA丙酮注射组60只地鼠,将注射浓度预设为0.5%、0.4%、0.3%、0.2%、0.1%5个组,每组12只地鼠,每周两次,于注射后每周进行大体观察、监测体重并计算肿瘤生长率,至3、6、9、12周麻醉后各处死3只,进行组织学观察;涂抹组15只地鼠,以0.5% DMBA丙酮涂抹,每周三次,至6、9、12、15、18周后麻醉处死3只;空白对照组不做任何处理,于12周全部处死行组织学观察.结果 注射浓度组0.4%、0.3%、0.2%、0.1%分别在13,9,12,16周时出现约为0.8cm×0.6 cm×0.5cm大小的肿瘤;12周时成瘤率分别为25%、87%、42%、58%;死亡率分别为48%、11%、13%、10%;相比0.5% DMBA丙酮涂抹组,12周时成瘤率为48%,死亡率为37%,至18周时才出现颊黏膜高分化鳞癌.结论 经筛选采用0.3% DMBA丙酮液注射法可诱发形成口腔鳞癌动物模型,缩短建模周期,降低建模成本,能为科学研究提供较为理想的动物模型.%Objective To establish hamster buckle pouch carcinogenesis model with injection of DMBA acetone solution at different concentrations, and compares it with the traditional paint method. Methods Eighty one golden hamsters were assigned randomly into three groups: 60 hamsters in the injection groups were injected with DMBA acetone solution according at the concentrations of 0. 5% ,0. 4% ,0. 3% ,0. 2% ,0. 1 % respectively, twice a week, for 9 weeks. 15 hamsters as the paint group were painted with 0. 5% DMBA acetone solution,and 6 hamsters without any treatment belonged to the control group. General observation, weight, histopathology were executed every week. Three animals in every group were sacrificed by anesthesia at 3,6,9,12,18 weeks respectively

  6. Congenital Pouch Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Gharpure

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Face The Examiner:QUESTIONS1. What are the diagnostic features of congenital pouch colon (CPC?Ans: A male patient with CPC often have a wide colovesical fistula and present with anorectal malformation and meconuria; on plain abdominal film, a single large bowel loop occupying more than 50% of the abdominal cavity is also a diagnostic sign. Girls (persistent cloaca/vestibular fistula/anteriorly placed anus etc. often present late with intractable constipation or multiple episodes of enterocolitis and persistent abdominal distension with common cloaca or anterior ectopic anus/ rectovestibular fistula. The congenital pouch colon can be identified as replacement of a part or entire colon in the configuration of pouch that lacks taenia coli, haustrations, appendices epiploicae, abnormal blood supply and a wide fistula with genitourinary system in a patient of anorectal malformation.

  7. Modulating effect of lupeol on the expression pattern of apoptotic markers in 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced oral carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, S; Palanimuthu, D; Baskaran, N; Silvan, S

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis, also known as cell suicide or programmed cell death, removes unwanted and genetically damaged cells from the body. Evasion of apoptosis is one of the major characteristic features of rapidly proliferating tumor cells. Chemopreventive agents inhibit or suppress tumor formation through apoptotic induction in target tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pro-apoptotic potential of lupeol during 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Topical application of 0.5% DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks in the buccal pouches of golden Syrian hamsters resulted in oral squamous cell carcinoma. The expression pattern of apoptotic markers was analyzed using immunohistochemistry (p53, Bcl-2, Bax) and ELISA reader (caspase 3 and 9). In the present study, 100% tumor formation with defects in apoptotic markerexpression pattern was noticed in hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of lupeol at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw completely prevented the formation oral tumors as well as decreased the expression p53 and Bcl-2, while increasing the expression of Bax and the activities of caspase 3 and 9. The present study thus indicated that lupeol might inhibit DMBA-induced oral tumor formation through its pro-apoptotic potential in golden Syrian hamsters.

  8. Andrographolide inhibits oral squamous cell carcinogenesis through NF-κB inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L-J; Zhou, X; Wang, W; Tang, F; Qi, C-L; Yang, X; Wu, S; Lin, Y-Q; Wang, J-T; Geng, J-G

    2011-10-01

    The NF-κB family of transcription factors is essential for promoting cell proliferation and preventing cell apoptosis. We have previously shown that Andrographolide (Andro) isolated from an herbal plant, Andrographis paniculata, covalently modifies reduced cysteine(62) in the oligonucleotide binding pocket of p50 for inhibition of NF-κB activation. Here we report that Andro, but not its inactive structural analog 4H-Andro, potently suppressed squamous cell carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) in the hamster model of cheek buccal pouch. Compared with 4H-Andro, Andro reduced phosphorylation of p65 (Ser536) and IκBα (Ser32/36) for inhibiting aberrant NF-κB activation, suppressed c-Myc and cyclin D1 expression and attenuated neoplastic cell proliferation, promoted cancerous cell apoptosis, and mitigated tumor-induced angiogenesis. Consistently, Andro retarded growth, decreased proliferation, and promoted apoptosis of Tb cells, a human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line, in time- and dose-dependent manners, with concomitant reduction of the expression of NF-κB targeting molecules in vitro. Our results thus demonstrate that NF-κB activation plays important roles in the pathogenesis of chemically induced squamous cell carcinoma. By inhibition of aberrant NF-κB activation, Andro treats chemically induced oral squamous cell carcinogenesis.

  9. Crohn's Disease of the Ileoanal Pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightner, Amy L; Pemberton, John H; Loftus, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) of the pouch is an increasingly recognized diagnosis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. This post-ileal pouch-anal anastomosis diagnosis in conjunction with pouchitis remains the leading reason for pouch excision. Unfortunately, CD of the pouch remains a difficult diagnosis with lack of a uniform definition largely because of its similarity to common postoperative pouch complications, including pouchitis, abscess formation, or stricture at the anastomosis. Once diagnosed, treatment algorithms largely include multimodal therapy including biologics. This review focuses on the definition, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment for CD of the pouch, a postoperative de novo diagnosis of CD.

  10. Raman spectroscopic investigation of the chemopreventive response of naringenin and its nanoparticles in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, N.; Sulfikkarali, N. K.; Manoharan, S.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2013-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique that can be used to optically probe the biomolecular changes associated with tumor progression. The aim of the present study is to investigate the biomolecular changes in chemopreventive response of prepared naringenin-loaded nanoparticles (NARNPs) relative to efficacy of free naringenin (NAR) during 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis by Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. Raman spectra differed significantly between the control and tumor tissues, with tumors showing higher percentage signals for nucleic acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan and a lower in the percentage of phospholipids. Moreover, oral administration of free NAR and NARNPs significantly increased phospholipids and decreased the levels of tryptophan, phenylalanine and nucleic acid contents. On a comparative basis, NARNPs was found to have a more potent antitumor effect than free NAR in completely preventing the formation of squamous cell carcinoma and in improving the biochemical status to a normal range in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis. The present study further suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be a valuable tool for rapid and sensitive detection of specific biomolecular changes in response to chemopreventive agents.

  11. Poor Outcomes of Complicated Pouch-Related Fistulas after Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, M D; Kjeldsen, J; Qvist, N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Development of a pouch-related fistula tract is an uncommon but highly morbid complication to restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Pouch failure with permanent ileostomy is reported in 21%-30% of patients, yet the factors contributing to pouch excision...... with diagnosed pouch-related fistulas were registered with information related to fistula classification, treatments, and outcome. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The final analysis included 48 (10.7%) of the 447 total ileal pouch-anal anastomosis patients with complicated pouch-related fistulas. Pouch-vaginal fistulas......, pouch-perianal fistulas, and other pouch-related fistulas were observed in 19 (63%), 29 (60%), and 10 (21%) patients, respectively, corresponding to an accumulated risk of 8%, 6%, and 2%, respectively. Time from ileal pouch-anal anastomosis surgery to fistula presentation was 24 (0.2-212) months...

  12. Buccal Mucosal Graft Urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Arlen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At our institution, the majority of buccal mucosal graft urethroplasties are performed using a two-team approach with an otolaryngologic surgeon. We report our two-surgeon experience with buccal mucosal grafting for reconstruction of all anterior urethral strictures. Twenty-four men underwent autologous buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty between October 2001 and September 2008 for recurrent urethral stricture disease. Twenty-two underwent a single-stage repair and two underwent a two-stage repair. Medical charts were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, comorbidities, etiology, location and length of stricture, and prior interventions in order to identify predictors of buccal urethroplasty success, defined as no evidence of stricture recurrence. All patients underwent retrograde urethrogram and cystoscopy. Operative and anesthesia times were evaluated. We determined an overall success rate of 83.3% (20 of 24 cases. Mean anesthesia time for single-stage urethroplasty was 155 min and mean operative time was 123 min. One of the two two-stage urethroplasties experienced stricture recurrence (50%. The single-stage buccal graft success rate was 86.4% (19 of 22 cases. Two of the four who developed recurrent stricture disease that required intervention had undergone a previous mesh urethroplasty. Complications developed in four of 24 patients (16.6%, including superficial wound infection (one, superficial wound dehiscence (two, and abscess/fistula formation requiring reoperation (one. The buccal mucosa is an ideal tissue for both single- and two-stage substitution urethroplasty for patients with recurrent stricture disease. Our two-surgeon technique minimizes anesthesia and operative times, and contributes to the overall high success rate and relatively low complication rate.

  13. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    in ostomy pouch attributes. The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each...... pouches when cost is included as an attribute. A total of 254 patients responded to the survey and preferences were estimated using a random parameter logit econometric specification. Results: Respondents had significantly positive WTP for all potential attribute improvements presented in the survey...

  14. Circadian rhythm variation of the clock genes Per1 and cell cycle related genes in different stages of carcinogenesis of buccal mucosa in animal model%鼠口腔黏膜癌变过程中生物钟基因Per1与细胞周期基因昼夜节律的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭雪梅; 叶华; 杨凯; 陈丹; 唐洪

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression and circadian rhythm variation of biological clock gene Per1 and cell cycle genes p53,CyclinD1,cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK1),CyclinB1 in different stages of carcinogenesis in buccal mucosa and its relationship with the development of buccal mucosa carcinoma.Methods Ninety golden hamsters were housed under 12 hours light-12 hours dark cycles,and the model of buccal squamous cell carcinoma was established by using the dimethylbenzanthracene(DMBA) to smear the golden hamster buccal mucosa.Before the DMBA was used and after DMBA was used 6 weeks and 14 weeks respectively,the golden hamsters were sacrificed at 6 different time points (5 rats per time point) within 24 hour,including 4,8,12,16,20 and 24 hour after lights onset(HALO),and the normal buccal mucosa,precancerous lesions and cancer tissue were obtained,respectively.HE stained sections were prepared to observe the canceration of each tissue.Real time RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of Per1,p53,CyclinD1,CDK1 and CyclinB1,and a cosine analysis method was applied to determine the circadian rhythm variation of Per1,p53,CyclinD1,CDK1 and CyclinB1 mRNA expression,which were characterized by median,amplitude and acrophase.Results The expression of Per1,p53,CDK1 and CyclinD1 mRNA in 6 different time points within 24 hours in the tissues of three different stages of carcinogenesis had circadian rhythm,respectively.However,the CyclinB 1 mRNA was expressed with circadian rhythm just in normal and cancer tissue (P<0.05),while in precancerous lesions the circadian rhythm was in disorder (P>0.05).As the development of carcinoma,the median of Per 1 and p53 mRNA expression were significantly decreased (P<0.05),yet the median of CDK1,CyclinB1 and CyclinD1 mRNA expression were significantly increased (P<0.05).The amplitude of Per1,p53 and CyclinD1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased as the development of carcinoma (P<0.05),however the amplitude of CDK1 m

  15. The role of pouch compliance measurement in the management of pouch dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Yasuko; Molina, Maria E; Norton, Christine

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Ileal pouch anal anastomosis is an established option for patients who require total proctocolectomy and restoration of bowel continuity. However, the functional results are not always good and low pouch compliance has been suggested as one possible cause. We aimed to review the results .......07). CONCLUSIONS: Measuring pouch compliance does not offer new information accounting for idiopathic pouch dysfunction and has little influence on the clinical management. Udgivelsesdato: 2010...... of pouch compliance tests over 11 years to assess whether measuring pouch compliance is a useful diagnostic tool to guide management of pouch dysfunction. METHODS: The results of pouch compliance tests performed between 1996 and 2007 together with the details of symptoms, treatments and outcome were...

  16. Buccal delivery of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Jacobsen, Jette

    2013-01-01

    system. The in vitro TR146 cell culture model was used to study the effect of drug concentration (5-100mM) and the impact of a bioadhesive chitosan formulation (discs) and chitosan in solution (0-20mg/mL) acting as a permeation enhancer. The permeation of metformin occurred by passive diffusion via...... metformin discs and, metformin permeation may be increased due to a combination of bioadhesion and permeation enhancement induced by chitosan, although the permeation enhancing effect of chitosan was not statistically significant. The limited apparent buccal permeability of metformin observed in vitro...

  17. Male issues of the ileal pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kani, Haluk T; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-01

    : Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the standard surgical treatment modality for patients with ulcerative colitis who require colectomy. There are special issues related to male gender. We performed systemic literature review on the topic, incorporating the experience in our specialized Center for Ileal Pouch Disorders, and provide recommendations for the identification and management for the gender-specific issues in male patients with ileal pouches. Chronic pouchitis, particularly ischemic pouchitis, anastomotic leak, and presacral sinus are more common in male patients than their female counterparts. Sexual dysfunction can occur after pouch surgery, particularly in those with pouch failure. Diagnosis and management of benign and malignant prostate diseases can be challenging due to the altered pelvic anatomy from the surgery. Digital rectal examination for prostate cancer screening is not reliable. Transpouch biopsy of prostate may lead to pouch fistula or abscess. Pelvic radiation therapy may have an adverse impact on the pouch function. In conclusion, sexual dysfunction and enlarged prostate can occur in patients with the ileal pouch. The measurement of serum prostate-specific antigen is a preferred method for the screening of prostate cancer. If biopsy of the prostate is needed, the perineal route is recommended. The risk for pouch dysfunction and the benefit for oncologic survival of pelvic radiation for prostate cancer should be carefully balanced.

  18. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  19. Chemical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair - i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.A sociedade obtém numerosos benefícios da utilização de compostos químicos. A aplicação dos pesticidas, por exemplo, permitiu obter alimento em quantidade suficiente para satisfazer as necessidades alimentares de milhões de pessoas, condição relacionada com o aumento da esperança de vida. Os benefícios estão, por

  20. Gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail Gomceli; Baris Demiriz; Mesut Tez

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths.Despite complete resection of gastric cancer and lymph node dissection,as well as improvements in chemotherapy and radiotherapy,there are still 700 000 gastric cancer-related deaths per year worldwide and more than 80% of patients with advanced gastric cancer die of the disease or recurrent disease within 1 year after diagnosis.None of the treatment modalities we have been applying today can influence the overall survival rates:at present,the overall 5-year relative survival rate for gastric cancer is about 28%.Cellular metaplasia due to chronic inflammation,injury and repair are the most documented processes for neoplasia.It appears that chronic inflammation stimulates tumor development and plays a critical role in initiating,sustaining and advancing tumor growth.It is also evident that not all inflammation is tumorigenic.Additional mutations can be acquired,and this leads to the cancer cell gaining a further growth advantage and acquiring a more malignant phenotype.Intestinalization of gastric units,which is called "intestinal metaplasia";phenotypic antralization of fundic units,which is called "spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia"; and the development directly from the stem/progenitor cell zone are three pathways that have been described for gastric carcinogenesis.Also,an important factor for the development of gastrointestinal cancers is peritumoral stroma.However,the initiating cellular event in gastric metaplasia is still controversial.Understanding gastric carcinogenesis and its precursor lesions has been under intense investigation,and our paper attempts to high-light recent progress in this field of cancer research.

  1. Pouch Techniques in Rectal Cancer Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph A. Maurer

    2009-01-01

    Rectal cancer of the middle and distal third of the rectum are nowadays managed by low or ultra-low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision and coloanal anastomosis. Following straight coloanal anastomosis, patients often suffer from high stool frequency, urgency and, occasionally, fecal incontinence. To overcome these problems, several types of colonic reservoirs (pouches) have been proposed. The following article elucidates the indications and contraindications for the creation of a pouch. Furthermore, the paper gives a short overview of the different pouch designs that are widely accepted and currently in use, with special emphasis of the typical advantages, disadvantages and feasibility. Current guide-lines recommend to perform a colonic pouch since it provides functional benefits over straight coloanal anastomosis with no increase in postoperative complications.

  2. Buccal health in asthmatic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Sexto Delgado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Buccal health as integral and determinant part of general health makes us find different ways and methods to elevate life quality in the population. Objective: To establish the risk of suffering from dental cavities in asthmatic patients. Methods: A non match case and control study constituted by 100 children selected at simple random from the universe of asthmatic patients belonging to the General Comprehensive doctor offices number 7,9,10, 11, 43, and 44 from Area II in Cienfuegos municipality. The controlled group was selected in the same offices but from the universe of non asthmatic children. The age in both groups was from 6 to 15 years old. Visits to the children´s home were carried out for the record of the information through health oral dental and buccal health knowledge surveys. Results: The index of cavities, lost, and obturated permanent teeth was higher (3, 28 than in the control group (0, 44. The buccal hygiene indexes and the level of knowledge in both groups did not show significant differences. The most used drugs in asthma therapy were salbutamol and ketotifeno which change the buccal milieu. The odds ratio technique between asthmatic and non asthmatic patients showed 4, 9 times more at risk of suffering from dental cavities in the first group. Finally, it can be stated that the asthmatic patients are more at risk of suffering from cavities than the non asthmatic ones, so a program for buccal health in these patients should be performed.

  3. Congenital pouch colon in female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of 5-year (May 2000 to April 2005 29 patients of congenital pouch colon (CPC were managed by single pediatric surgeon in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of a tertiary hospital. Of these, 11 were girls (M: F: 1.6:1. Detailed anatomy could be studied in nine patients, were included in this study. Age of presentation in female subjects ranged 1 day to 8 years. On examination, eight of the nine patients had single perineal opening suggesting a very high incidence of association of cloaca in female subjects with CPC. Four had short urogenital sinus with colonic pouch opening in the posterior wall of urinary bladder. In other two patients, CPC terminated in short cloaca. Anomalies of mullerian structures such as uterus didelphus and septate vagina ware commonly encountered. Proximal diversion with or without pouch excision was done as the initial preliminary treatment for all those patients who presented in early life. Of the nine girls, two died after the preliminary surgery. Only five patients have undergone definitive surgery. Definitive surgery included abdomino-perineal pull-through of proximal normal colon ( n =2, tubularization of pouch with abdomino- posterior sagittal- pull through ( n =2 and abdomino-posterior sagittal urethra-vaginoanorectoplasty with pull through of tapered pouch colon in one patient. Two of these patients had concomitant bowel vaginoplasty. Three patients with tubularized pouches had constipation and spurious diarrhea. However, good pseudo-continence of bowel was achieved on regular bowel washes. The cosmetic appearance of perineum in all these three patients was acceptable. The patients in whom pouch excision was done had diarrhea and severe perineal excoriation resistant to conservative management.

  4. Buccal and sublingual vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; Vrieling, Hilde; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Jiskoot, Wim; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-28

    Because of their large surface area and immunological competence, mucosal tissues are attractive administration and target sites for vaccination. An important characteristic of mucosal vaccination is its ability to elicit local immune responses, which act against infection at the site of pathogen entry. However, mucosal surfaces are endowed with potent and sophisticated tolerance mechanisms to prevent the immune system from overreacting to the many environmental antigens. Hence, mucosal vaccination may suppress the immune system instead of induce a protective immune response. Therefore, mucosal adjuvants and/or special antigen delivery systems as well as appropriate dosage forms are required in order to develop potent mucosal vaccines. Whereas oral, nasal and pulmonary vaccine delivery strategies have been described extensively, the sublingual and buccal routes have received considerably less attention. In this review, the characteristics of and approaches for sublingual and buccal vaccine delivery are described and compared with other mucosal vaccine delivery sites. We discuss recent progress and highlight promising developments in the search for vaccine formulations, including adjuvants and suitable dosage forms, which are likely critical for designing a successful sublingual or buccal vaccine. Finally, we outline the challenges, hurdles to overcome and formulation issues relevant for sublingual or buccal vaccine delivery.

  5. Models of Inflammation: Carrageenan Air Pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Djane B; Vasko, Michael R; Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2016-03-18

    The subcutaneous air pouch is an in vivo model that can be used to study the components of acute and chronic inflammation, the resolution of the inflammatory response, the oxidative stress response, and potential therapeutic targets for treating inflammation. Injection of irritants into an air pouch in rats or mice induces an inflammatory response that can be quantified by the volume of exudate produced, the infiltration of cells, and the release of inflammatory mediators. The model presented in this unit has been extensively used to identify potential anti-inflammatory drugs.

  6. Congenital pouch colon: Increasing association with low anorectal anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavai Arunachalam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of type IV congenital pouch colon associated with low anorectal anomaly are reported here. Pouch colon may be a cause of intractable constipation in children operated for low anorectal anomaly. Excellent results can be obtained by exicision of the pouch. The radiological and pathological features of this condition are discussed.

  7. Use of buccal mucosa in hypospadias repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Diaz, Omar; Castellan, Miguel; Gosalbez, Rafael

    2013-08-01

    Hypospadias is an embryological disorder that results in an abnormal ventral positioning of the urethral meatus. Among multiple surgical techniques described to correct this anomaly, the use of buccal mucosa grafts has gained popularity among pediatric urologists, pediatric surgeons and plastic surgeons. Buccal mucosa grafts have shown favorable histological changes that result in an excellent scaffold for urethral reconstructive surgery. This review describes the evolution of the use of buccal mucosa grafts in hypospadias repair.

  8. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  9. Label-free vascular imaging in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model for pre-cancer detection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fangyao; Morhard, Robert; Liu, Heather; Murphy, Helen; Farsiu, Sina; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2016-03-01

    Inducing angiogenesis is one hallmark of cancer. Tumor induced neovasculature is often characterized as leaky, tortuous and chaotic, unlike a highly organized normal vasculature. Additionally, in the course of carcinogenesis, angiogenesis precedes a visible lesion. Tumor cannot grow beyond 1-2 mm in diameter without inducing angiogenesis. Therefore, capturing the event of angiogenesis may aid early detection of pre-cancer -important for better treatment prognoses in regions that lack the resources to manage invasive cancer. In this study, we imaged the neovascularization in vivo in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model using a, non-invasive, label-free, high resolution, reflected-light spectral darkfield microscope. Hamsters' cheek pouches were painted with 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to induce pre-cancerous to cancerous changes, or mineral oil as control. High resolution spectral darkfield images were obtained over the course of pre-cancer development and in control cheek pouches. The vasculature was segmented with a multi-scale Gabor filter with an 85% accuracy compared with manually traced masks. Highly tortuous vasculature was observed only in the DMBA treated cheek pouches as early as 6 weeks of treatment. In addition, the highly tortuous vessels could be identified before a visible lesion occurred later during the treatment. The vessel patterns as determined by the tortuosity index were significantly different from that of the control cheek pouch. This preliminary study suggests that high-resolution darkfield microscopy is promising tool for pre-cancer and early cancer detection in low resource settings.

  10. In vivo human buccal permeability of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Charlotte L; Olin, Helle B D; Dalhoff, Kim;

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to examine the in vivo buccal pH-dependent permeability of nicotine in humans and furthermore compare the in vivo permeability of nicotine to previous in vitro permeability data. The buccal permeability of nicotine was examined in a three-way cross-over study in eight healthy non-smok...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... collection of fecal material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically... colostomy appliance, ostomy collector, colostomy pouch, urinary ileostomy bag, urine collecting...

  12. Osteolipoma of the buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alvimar-Lima; de Castro, Eni-Vaz-Franco-Lima; Felipini, Renata-Callestini; Ribeiro, Ana-Carolina-Prado; Soubhia, Ana-Maria-Pires

    2010-03-01

    Lipomas are benign mesenchymal neoplasms of soft tissue that can be found in any part of the human body. Conversely, their presence in the oral mucosa is rather uncommon, with approximately 4% of the cases occurring in the oral cavity. In such cases, they are likely to have originated from mature adipose tissue and to be among several described histological variants of lipomas, which are identified according to the predominant type of tissue. There is a rare lipoma, known as an osteolipoma or an ossifying lipoma; however, little has been written this type of lipoma characterized by a classical lipoma with areas of osseous metaplasia. Considering the few cases of oral osteolipomas previously described in the English-related literature and the consequent risk of misdiagnosis and overtreatment, this paper describes an extreme case of an osteolipoma affecting the buccal mucosa of an adult patient. This paper focuses particularly on the pathogenesis of this lesion and the discussion of a correct diagnosis.

  13. Sulphomucin expression in ileal pouches: emerging differences between ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis pouches.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bambury, Niamh

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: We characterized the expression of sialomucin and sulphomucin in pouches fashioned for familial adenomatous polyposis and ulcerative colitis. We correlated sulphomucin expression with bacterial colonization and mucosal inflammation. METHODS: Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained. Mucosal biopsies from 9 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and 12 with ulcerative colitis were obtained. Sulphomucin levels were assessed by using the high iron-diamine stain. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with villous height, crypt depth, and total mucosal thickness. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. Colonization by a panel of seven bacterial species (including sulphate reducing bacteria) was established and correlated with sulphomucin levels. RESULTS: High-iron-diamine positivity (i.e., sulphomucin expression) was greater in ulcerative colitis pouch mucous gel (2.083 +\\/- 0.5 vs. 0.556 +\\/- 0.4, P = 0.003). Sulphomucin expression correlated with reduced crypt depth, villous height, and total mucosal thickness. In the ulcerative colitis group, chronic inflammatory infiltrate scores were significantly greater for high-iron-diamine-positive patients. Colonization by sulphate reducing bacteria was increased in high-iron-diamine-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Sulphomucin expression is increased in the mucous gel layer of the ulcerative colitis pouch compared with that of the familial adenomatous polyposis pouch. Sulphomucin expression is associated with colonization by sulphate-reducing bacteria and increased chronic inflammation.

  14. Pouch emptying of solid foods after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl;

    1985-01-01

    To obtain information on possible determinants of weight loss after horizontal gastroplasty, pouch emptying was prospectively investigated in 27 morbidly obese patients. A scintigraphic method was used. Examinations were carried out every 6 months until 2 years after surgery. Pouch emptying was d...

  15. Congenital pouch colon: is it really a rare pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabek, Cüneyt; Demirbağ, Suzi; Sürer, Ilhami; Kocaoğlu, Murat; Ongürü, Onder; Calişkan, Bahadir; Oztürk, Haluk

    2007-12-01

    Congenital pouch colon is a condition of a shortened and pouch-like dilated colon and it is usually associated with an anorectal malformation. The pathogenesis and embryology of congenital pouch colon are not well understood, but dietary, environmental factors and familial inheritance may be contributing factors in this pathology. Most of the cases in the literature have been reported from India. This increased regional incidence may be attributed to the lack of awareness of this pathology or its mislabeling rather than regional distribution. Congenital pouch colon is classified into four types based on the length of the abnormal colon. A variable dilatation of the rectum and sigmoid is always present in anorectal malformation. However, there is no clear definition of a limit for the dilatation of the rectum and sigmoid observed in anorectal malformation. Furthermore, many surgeons do not routinely take a biopsy from a dilated rectum or sigmoid during a colostomy procedure in anorectal malformation cases. For these reasons, type IV congenital pouch colon can be easily underdiagnosed. Surgical treatment options in type IV congenital pouch colon include resection of the affected sites of the colon or excisional tapering coloplasty. In the undiagnosed cases, congenital pouch colon results in severe constipation and overflow incontinence. We herein report two additional new cases of type IV congenital pouch colon.

  16. 钾离子通道Kv3.4在大鼠颊黏膜癌变中的表达研究%The study of the potassium ion channel Kv 3 .4 in buccal mucosa carcinogenesis of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋成成; 周俊蛟; 伍宝琴; 聂敏海

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of the Kv3 .4 protein and Kv3 .4 mRNA in various stages of oral carcino‐genesis .Methods The expression of Kv3 .4 protein and Kv3 .4 mRNA were detected by immunohistochemistry (SP method) and RT‐PCR technique respectively in the oral carcinogenesis of SD rat which were induced by 4NQO .Results With the aggravation of the epithelial dysplasia ,Kv3 .4 protein and Kv3 .4 mRNA expression increased gradually .They were strongly positive in oral squa‐mous cell carcinoma .Conclusion The expression of Kv3 .4 protein and Kv3 .4 mRNA levels increased consistently with the aggra‐vation of the epithelial dysplasia .%目的:检测Kv3.4蛋白和Kv3.4 mRNA在大鼠颊黏膜癌变过程中的表达水平。方法采用免疫组织化学(SP)法及RT‐PCR技术检测4NQO诱导的58只SD大鼠颊黏膜癌变各阶段组织中Kv3.4蛋白和Kv3.4 mRNA的表达。结果随上皮异常增生程度的增加,Kv3.4蛋白和Kv3.4 mRNA表达逐渐增加,在口腔鳞状细胞癌中呈强阳性表达。结论在大鼠颊黏膜癌变过程中,Kv3.4蛋白和Kv3.4 mRNA呈现出相似的一致性增高的趋势。

  17. Randomized crossover comparison of adhesively coupled colostomy pouching systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Kirsten; Seidler, Heidi

    2005-03-01

    Ostomy pouching systems affect well being and quality of life, making selection of the appropriate system a key element of ostomy care. Several innovative adhesively coupled, two-piece systems are on the market. They feature flexible low profiles, allowing pouch removal/replacement without changing the skin barrier or wafer. This facilitates inspection or pouch changes without disrupting peristomal skin. Because few controlled trials compare pouching system effectiveness, a prospective, randomized open-label, crossover study was conducted. Under the supervision of ostomy care nurses in six outpatient clinics in Germany, clinical performance of and patient preferences for two adhesively coupled, closed-end pouching systems were compared during normal use. One is a gelatin/pectin-based skin barrier sealed to the pouch with a company-specific adhesive coupling technology (System E); the other, a grooved base plate wafer adhesive pouch coupling system (System F). Seventeen attributes and seven end-of-study measures that included comfort, flexibility, wear time, ease of removal, and overall performance were assessed. Informed, consenting participants were randomly assigned to use one system for five skin barrier/wafer changes or up to 15 days and subsequently switched to the alternative system for a similar period. The 39 participants used a total of 1,645 pouches and 342 skin barriers. All were found safe as determined by incidence and nature of the reported peristomal skin problems, subject withdrawals, and adverse events for both systems. However, System E provided longer pouch wear times (P System E on 10 of the 17 attributes (P System Fon none. More participants preferred System E on all seven end-of-study measures, five significantly (comfort, flexibility, wear time, ease of removal, and overall performance; (P < 0.02). These participant-reported, ostomy-related outcomes underscore the importance of product evaluation and selection for persons with an ostomy.

  18. Ileal pouch surgery for ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon P Bach; Neil J Mortensen

    2007-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing and remitting disease characterised by chronic mucosal and submucosal inflammation of the colon and rectum.Treatment may vary depending upon the extent and severity of inflammation. Broadly speaking medical treatments aim to induce and then maintain remission.Surgery is indicated for inflammatory disease that is refractory to medical treatment or in cases of neoplastic transformation. Approximately 25% of patients with UC ultimately require colectomy. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the standard of care for patients with ulcerative colitis who ultimately require colectomy. This review will examine indications for IPAA, patient selection, technical aspects of surgery,management of complications and long term outcome following this procedure.

  19. Cerrobend shielding stents for buccal carcinoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Yangchen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common oral malignant neoplasms, especially in the South Asian region. Radiotherapy, which plays a significant role in the treatment of this carcinoma, has severe adverse effects. Different types of prosthesis may be constructed to protect healthy tissues from the adverse effects of treatment and concentrate radiation in the region of the tumor mass. However, the technique for fabrication of shielding stent with Lipowitz's alloy (cerrobend/Wood's alloy has not been well documented. This article describes detailed technique for fabrication of such a stent for unilateral buccal carcinoma patients to spare the unaffected oral cavity from potential harmful effects associated with radiotherapy.

  20. Experience with 40 cases of congenital pouch colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghritlaharey R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and management aspect of congenital pouch colon. Materials and Methods : This retrospective study was carried out on 40 cases of congenital pouch colon managed in the department of paediatric surgery from 01, January 2000 to 31, December 2005. Results : The incidence of congenital pouch colon (CPC in the present study was 11.290 % (40 of 354 of all anorectal malformations (ARM and 19.60% (40 of 204 of high ARM. Of these 40 cases of CPC included in the study, 82.5% were male and 17.5% were female. The average age of presentation to hospital was 3.36 days with a range of 1-11 days; of these 25% patients were admitted with poor general condition. Preoperative diagnosis of CPC was possible in 75% of cases in our study. 60% ( n =24 of cases had incomplete pouch colon (Type III and IV while 40% ( n =16 had complete pouch colon (Type I and II. Right transverse colostomy was done in 16 patients and colostomy at descending colon just proximal to pouch in two patients for incomplete (Type III and IV CPC as a primary initial procedure. Ileostomy was done in 14 patients and window colostomy in three patients for complete (Type I and II CPC. As definitive procedures, pouch excision and abdomino-perineal pull-through of colon was done in 17 patients, coloplasty and abdomino-perineal pull-through of coloplasty colon was done in four patients and pouch excision and abdomino-perineal pull-through of terminal ileum in four patients in our series. None of our patients underwent primary single stage procedure. Conclusion: (1 CPC comprises 11.290 % of all ARM and 19.60% of high ARM. (2 Right transverse colostomy was opted for incomplete pouch colon, while Ileostomy and window colostomy were opted for complete pouch colon as initial surgical procedures. (3 Staged surgical procedures for management of CPC were well tolerated in our series.

  1. Formulation of unidirectional release buccal patches of carbamazepine and study of permeation through porcine buccal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthasarathy Govindasamy

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: The prepared unidirectional buccal patches of carbamazepine provided a maximum drug release within specified mucoadhesion period and it indicates a potential alternative drug delivery system for systemic delivery of carbamazepine.

  2. Oxidative damage and carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen is an essential element to conduct life processes but some of the metabolic byproducts e.g. reactive oxygen species (ROS), are toxic for living organisms. Endogenous ROS are produced e.g. reduction of dioxygen; some exogenous sources of radicals also exist, including nicotine and ionizing radiation. Reactive oxygen species include superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process. The exact reasons for the...

  3. Sawmill chemicals and carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, J

    2001-01-01

    Workers in wood industries are exposed to variable medleys of chemicals, both natural and synthetic. Additional exposures include fungi, bacteria, bark and wood dusts, solvents, paints, and various other wood coatings. These individual and conglomerate exposures have been associated with diverse occupational illnesses and hazards, including cancers. In this commentary, I summarize both experimental and epidemiologic carcinogenesis results for several chemicals used in the wood industry, as we...

  4. [Cyclooxygenase 2 and carcinogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sylvie; Bruyneel, Erik; Rodrigue, Christelle M; Shahin, Emami; Gespach, Christian

    2004-05-01

    The membrane glycoprotein Cox2 is regulated at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels by pro-inflammatory agents, cytokines, growth factors, oncogenes, and tumor-promoters. Cox2 is expressed during early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis from the premalignant adenoma stage, and adenocarcinomas of stomach, colon, breast, lung and prostate. Its expression is detected in neoplastic, inflammatory, endothelial and stromal cells. Cox2 is involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins and thromboxanes, as well as the synthesis of malonaldehyde (MDA, a mutagen) and the production of hydrogen peroxide, which promotes carcinogenesis. The Cox2 products act in turn on serpentine receptors coupled to heterotrimeric G-proteins (R-TXA2, R-PG) that are connected to signaling elements implicated in oncogenesis. Thus, Cox2 plays a key role in early stages of carcinogenesis by promoting the proliferation of tumoral cells and their resistance to apoptosis, as well as angiogenesis, tumor cell invasion and setting up of the metastatic process. These mechanisms establish the rationale behind the therapeutic targeting of Cox2 in human solid tumors.

  5. Conservative Socket Regeneration with Buccal Wall Defect Using Guided Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim

    2016-01-01

    Progressive alveolar bone resorption after tooth extraction may lead to surgical and prosthetic-driven difficulties, especially when deciding to use a dental implant to replace the extracted tooth. This case report discusses an irreparable lower left second premolar tooth with a periodontal lesion on the buccal side. A preservative tooth extraction was performed. Then, the socket was grafted with bovine bone, a collagen membrane was placed between the buccal bone and the attached gingiva, covering the bone dehiscence buccally, and the socket without a flap was raised. After a 6-month healing period, there was minimal socket width resorption and a shallow buccal vestibule. The implant was placed with high primary stability and sufficient buccal plate thickness. In conclusion, this guided tissue regeneration technique can minimize alveolar bone resorption in a socket with buccal dehiscence, but technical difficulties and shallowing of the buccal vestibule still exist.

  6. Conservative Socket Regeneration with Buccal Wall Defect Using Guided Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim

    2016-01-01

    Progressive alveolar bone resorption after tooth extraction may lead to surgical and prosthetic-driven difficulties, especially when deciding to use a dental implant to replace the extracted tooth. This case report discusses an irreparable lower left second premolar tooth with a periodontal lesion on the buccal side. A preservative tooth extraction was performed. Then, the socket was grafted with bovine bone, a collagen membrane was placed between the buccal bone and the attached gingiva, covering the bone dehiscence buccally, and the socket without a flap was raised. After a 6-month healing period, there was minimal socket width resorption and a shallow buccal vestibule. The implant was placed with high primary stability and sufficient buccal plate thickness. In conclusion, this guided tissue regeneration technique can minimize alveolar bone resorption in a socket with buccal dehiscence, but technical difficulties and shallowing of the buccal vestibule still exist. PMID:27857817

  7. Oxidants, antioxidants and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gibanananda; Husain, Syed Akhtar

    2002-11-01

    Reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), such as superoxide anions (O2*-) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (*OH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) are directly or indirectly involved in multistage process of carcinogenesis. They are mainly involved in DNA damage leading sometimes to mutations in tumour suppressor genes. They also act as initiator and/or promotor in carcinogenesis. Some of them are mutagenic in mammalian systems. O2*-, H2O2 and *OH are reported to be involved in higher frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosome breaks and gaps (CBGs). MDA, a bi-product of lipid peroxidation (LPO), is said to be involved in DNA adduct formations, which are believed to be responsible for carcinogenesis. NO, on the other hand, plays a duel role in cancer. At high concentration it kills tumour cells, but at low concentration it promotes tumour growth and metastasis. It causes DNA single and double strand breaks. The metabolites of NO such as peroxynitrite (OONO-) is a potent mutagen that can induce transversion mutations. NO can stimulate O2*-/H2O2/*OH-induced LPO. These deleterious actions of oxidants can be countered by antioxidant defence system in humans. There are first line defense antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT). SOD converts O2*- to H2O2, which is further converted to H2O with the help of GPx and CAT. SOD inhibits *OH production. SOD also act as antipoliferative agent, anticarcinogens, and inhibitor at initiation and promotion/transformation stage in carcinogenesis. GPx is another antioxidative enzyme which catalyses to convert H2O2, to H2O. The most potent enzyme is CAT. GPx and CAT are important in the inactivation of many environmental mutagens. CAT is also found to reduce the SCE levels and chromosomal aberrations. Antioxidative vitamins such as vitamin A, E, and C have a number of biological activities such as immune stimulation, inhibition of

  8. Mifepristone With Buccal Misoprostol for Medical Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Objective: To summarize clinical outcomes and adverse effects of medical abortion regimens consisting of mifepristone followed by buccal misoprostol in pregnancies through 70 days of gestation. Data Sources: We used PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists from published reports to identify relevant studies published between November 2005 and January 2015 usi...

  9. Sulfate-reducing bacteria colonize pouches formed for ulcerative colitis but not for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis remains the "gold standard" in surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Pouchitis occurs mainly in patients with a background of ulcerative colitis, although the reasons for this are unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize differences in pouch bacterial populations between ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous pouches. METHODS: After ethical approval was obtained, fresh stool samples were collected from patients with ulcerative colitis pouches (n = 10), familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 7) pouches, and ulcerative colitis ileostomies (n = 8). Quantitative measurements of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were performed. RESULTS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from 80 percent (n = 8) of ulcerative colitis pouches. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were absent from familial adenomatous polyposis pouches and also from ulcerative colitis ileostomy effluent. Pouch Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, and Clostridium perfringens counts were increased relative to ileostomy counts in patients with ulcerative colitis. Total pouch enterococci and coliform counts were also increased relative to ileostomy levels. There were no significant quantitative or qualitative differences between pouch types when these bacteria were evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria are exclusive to patients with a background of ulcerative colitis. Not all ulcerative colitis pouches harbor sulfate-reducing bacteria because two ulcerative colitis pouches in this study were free of the latter. They are not present in familial adenomatous polyposis pouches or in ileostomy effluent collected from patients with ulcerative colitis. Total bacterial counts increase in ulcerative colitis pouches after stoma closure. Levels of Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, Clostridium perfringens, enterococci, and coliforms were similar in both pouch groups. Because sulfate-reducing bacteria are

  10. Transposition of the rectus abdominis muscle for complicated pouch and rectal fistulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, KTC; Kuijpers, HC; van Nieuwenhoven, EJ; van Goor, Harry; Spauwen, PH

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Operative repair for complicated pouch and rectal fistulas is often difficult. We present our experience with ten consecutive patients operated on for complicated pouch and rectal fistulas by transposition of the rectus abdominis muscle. METHODS: Ten patients with high and complex pouch and

  11. Electroosmotic flow as a result of buccal iontophoresis--buccal mucosa properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscicka-Studzinska, Aleksandra; Kijeńska, Ewa; Ciach, Tomasz

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and to better understand the properties of buccal mucosa as a semipermeable membrane and a portal for drug administration by iontophoretic and electroosmotic means. In vitro experiments showed that buccal mucosa at the pH of about 7.4 behaved as a cation-exchange membrane and non-linear resistor. It had lower resistance and was more permeable for water than a skin. The electroosmotic volume flow through mucosa depended on current density, mucosa resistance and electrolyte concentration. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (in concentration range 0.001-0.005 mol L(-1)) and urea (in concentration range 0.42-1.67 mol L(-1)) did not promote a water transfer through buccal mucosa, however, both substances enhanced flow through the skin.

  12. Pouch Salvage Surgery for Treatment of Colitis and Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: Report of Five Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derakhshani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The restorative proctocolectomy (RPC with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA is currently the preferred surgical method for most patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis and sometimes, functional bowel diseases. Infection around the pouch, remaining rectal stump, stricture at anastomosis site, pouch dysfunction and refractory pouchitis can lead to pouch failure. Pouch salvage surgery could prevent pouch failure in some cases. Case Presentation In this report, five patients were introduced, who underwent pouch salvage surgery after RPC/IPAA surgery failure. Two of the patients were male and three were female and the relevant age range was 16 to 41. Initially, RPC/IPAA surgery was performed on these five patients. Four of the patients underwent RPC/IPAA surgery as a result of ulcerative colitis and, one of the patients as a result of familial adenomatous polyposis. However, due to pouch failure from the RPC/IPAA surgery, pouch-salvage surgery was performed on each of these five patients. Two of the patients underwent pouch-salvage surgery due to infection and pouch fistula, and the other three underwent this surgery due to the remaining rectal stump, anastomosis stenosis and pouch dysfunction. The average time for when pouch-salvage surgery was performed was 3.5 years (three months to five years after the initial operation and the patients were under follow-up care for two to seven years. Conclusions After performing pouch salvage operation, pouch function was acceptable in all patients and we could close ileostomies of all of them.

  13. Bone regeneration using the pouch-and-tunnel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzi, Robert; Etienne, Daniel; Takei, Henry; Carranza, Fermin

    2009-10-01

    Several surgical techniques, such as the papilla preservation flap, the modified papilla preservation flap, and the sulcular incision flap, have attempted to achieve clot stabilization and graft coverage in an attempt to regenerate lost tissue due to periodontal disease. This case report focuses on soft tissue root coverage and bone regeneration in a one-wall osseous defect using the pouch-and-tunnel surgical procedure. The pouch-and-tunnel surgical technique is a minimally invasive periodontal plastic surgical procedure that uses subepithelial connective tissue as a free graft in a pouch beneath the gingival margin, created by sulcular incisions around the involved teeth. The autogenous bone graft placed in this one-wall osseous defect through a sulcular incision after root planing is protected in a stable pouch-like recipient site with an abundant blood supply. The free connective tissue graft also prevents epithelial migration into the recipient site. The use of Emdogain may help with cementogenesis around the planed root surface. This technique warrants further evaluation of cases with similar defects using this surgical procedure. (Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2009;29:515-521.).

  14. Using Giant African Pouched Rats ("Cricetomys Gambianus") to Detect Landmines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Within the past decade, giant pouched rats have been used successfully to detect landmines. This manuscript summarizes how these rats are trained and used operationally. The information provided is intended to be of practical value toward strengthening best practices in using "Cricetomys" for humanitarian purposes while simultaneously…

  15. Scintigraphic evaluation of pouch function in patients with ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend

    scintigraphic intestinal transit time, scintigraphic defecography and any association with QoL, and pouch function. Method A cross-sectional study including 20 patients with ulcerative colitis and an IPAA. Scintigraphic transit time was determined after oral administration of a Tc-99m-labelled omelette...

  16. Scintigrapfic evaluation of pouch function in patients with ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mie Dilling; Hvidsten, Svend; Simonsen, Jane Angel

    with QoL and pouch function. Method It is a cross-sectional study including 20 patients with ulcerative colitis and an IPAA. Scintigraphic transit time was determined after oral administration of a Tc-99m-labelled omelette. Defecography was performed with instillation of a radioactive labelled paste...

  17. Breath hydrogen analysis in patients with ileoanal pouch anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, E; Meyer, J N; Rumessen, J J;

    1995-01-01

    The possible influence on functional outcomes of hydrogen production in the ileoanal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy was investigated by means of lactulose H2 breath tests. Eight of 15 patients had significant increases in breath hydrogen after 10 g lactulose. One patient declined to part...

  18. Organisation og tidlige operationsresultater efter ileo-pouch-anal-anastomose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungmann, Ken; Bendixen, Anette; Laurberg, Søren;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the operation of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis. However, the procedure is complex with a long learning curve, and carries a risk of both early and late complications...

  19. Methylation in esophageal carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Long Wu; Feng-Ying Sui; Xiao-Ming Jiang; Xiao-Hong Jiang

    2006-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been demonstrated to be changes that are frequently involved in esophageal cancer pathogenesis. However, hypermethylation of CpG islands, an epigenetic event, is coming more and more into focus in carcinogenesis of the esophagus. Recent studies have proved that promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is frequently observed in esophageal carcinomas and seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this tumor type. In this review, we will discuss current research on genes that are hypermethylated in human esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions of the esophagus. We will also discuss the potential use of hypermethylated genes as targets for detection, prognosis and treatment of esophageal cancer.

  20. [Iron function and carcinogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akatsuka, Shinya; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2016-07-01

    Though iron is an essential micronutrient for humans, the excess state is acknowledged to be associated with oncogenesis. For example, iron overload in the liver of the patients with hereditary hemocromatosis highly increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, as to asbestos-related mesothelioma, such kinds of asbestos with a higher iron content are considered to be more carcinogenic. Iron is a useful element, which enables fundamental functions for life such as oxygen carrying and electron transport. However, in the situation where organisms are unable to have good control of it, iron turns into a dangerous element which catalyzes generation of reactive oxygen. In this review, I first outline the relationships between iron and cancer in general, then give an explanation about iron-related animal carcinogenesis models.

  1. The suction pouch for management of simple or complex enterocutaneous fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Containing effluent from an enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) requires expertise, critical thinking skills, and creativity. Using a combination of products readily available to WOC nurses practicing in the United States, I have designed a suction pouch that reliably contains fistula output. A standard ostomy pouch can be converted into a suction pouch by adding a large, single-lumen catheter into the pouch, sealing it, and connecting the assembly to low continuous suction. The resulting pouch can be used by itself to drain effluent from an ECF or it can be used in combination with wound dressings, or a negative pressure wound therapy system. Application of a suction pouch extends the integrity of the appliance and diverts succus away from the wound bed or the newly applied skin graft with increased reliability. This article describes the technique used to create a suction pouch, followed by 4 brief case descriptions that demonstrate feasibility of its use for the management of ECFs.

  2. MYC and gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danielle Queiroz Calcagno; Mariana Ferreira Leal; Paulo Pimentel Assumpcao; Marilia de Arruda Cardoso Smith; Rommel Rodriguez Burbano

    2008-01-01

    MYC is an oncogene involved in cell cycle regulation, cell growth arrest, cell adhesion, metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. It has been described as a key element of several carcinogenesis processes in humans. Many studies have shown an association between MYC deregulation and gastric cancer. MYC deregulation is also seen in gastric preneoplastic lesions and thus it may have a role in early gastric carcinogenesis. Several studies have suggested that amplification is the main mechanism of MYC deregulation in gastric cancer. In the present review, we focus on the deregulation of the MYC oncogene in gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis, including its association with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and clinical applications.

  3. Gene amplification in carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimari Bizari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene amplification increases the number of genes in a genome and can give rise to karyotype abnormalities called double minutes (DM and homogeneously staining regions (HSR, both of which have been widely observed in human tumors but are also known to play a major role during embryonic development due to the fact that they are responsible for the programmed increase of gene expression. The etiology of gene amplification during carcinogenesis is not yet completely understood but can be considered a result of genetic instability. Gene amplification leads to an increase in protein expression and provides a selective advantage during cell growth. Oncogenes such as CCND1, c-MET, c-MYC, ERBB2, EGFR and MDM2 are amplified in human tumors and can be associated with increased expression of their respective proteins or not. In general, gene amplification is associated with more aggressive tumors, metastases, resistance to chemotherapy and a decrease in the period during which the patient stays free of the disease. This review discusses the major role of gene amplification in the progression of carcinomas, formation of genetic markers and as possible therapeutic targets for the development of drugs for the treatment of some types of tumors.

  4. Elicitation of preferences for improvements in ostomy pouches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    This paper attempts to examine and measure ostomates’ preferences for improvements in ostomy pouches. Described are the study design, elicitation procedure and resulting preference structure of the Swedish ostomate sample. The method used to elicit the preferences is a Discrete Choice Experiment...... the attributes and allows for the estimation of individuals’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) for the attributes of ostomy pouches when cost is included as an attribute. The data consists of 254 ostomates responding to the survey. The respondents have positive WTP for all improvement attributes presented to them...... in the survey, with strongest preferences for reducing the number of leakages. The DCE utilised in the survey performs well in terms of reliability and validity of the obtained results. The results suggest that since reducing leakages is the most important attribute for the respondents when making their choices...

  5. DNA methylation and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, A V; Kisseljova, N P

    2001-03-01

    In the world of easy things truth is opposed to lie; in the world of complicated things one profound truth is opposed to another not less profound than the first. Neils Bohr The hypothesis of the exclusively genetic origin of cancer ("cancer is a disease of genes, a tumor without any damage to the genome does not exist") dominated in the oncology until recently. A considerable amount of data confirming this hypothesis was accumulated during the last quarter of the last century. It was demonstrated that the accumulation of damage of specific genes lies at the origin of a tumor and its following progression. The damage gives rise to structural changes in the respective proteins and, consequently, to inappropriate mitogenic stimulation of cells (activation of oncogenes) or to the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes that inhibit cell division, or to the combination of both (in most cases). According to an alternative (epigenetic) hypothesis that was extremely unpopular until recently, a tumor is caused not by a gene damage, but by an inappropriate function of genes ("cancer is a disease of gene regulation and differentiation"). However, recent studies led to the convergence of these hypotheses that initially seemed to be contradictory. It was established that both factors--genetic and epigenetic--lie at the origin of carcinogenesis. The relative contribution of each varies significantly in different human tumors. Suppressor genes and genes of repair are inactivated in tumors due to their damage or methylation of their promoters (in the latter case an "epimutation", an epigenetic equivalent of a mutation, occurs, producing the same functional consequences). It is becoming evident that not only the mutagens, but various factors influencing cell metabolism, notably methylation, should be considered as carcinogens.

  6. Delayed buccal fat pad herniation: An unusual complication of buccal flap in cleft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuli Puneet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal musculomucosal flap is commonly used in cleft palate surgery for providing additional lining when nasal mucosa is inadequate. We report an unusual complication of progressively increasing fat herniation from the sutured donor site which started appearing on the third postoperative day. This necessitated excision of the protruding fat pad on the seventh postoperative day. The possible mechanism and precautions for prevention of this complication are discussed.

  7. A disguised tuberculosis in oral buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her oral and systemic conditions improved rapidly. Although oral manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of oral ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.

  8. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  9. Lugol's test reexamined again: buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edwin L; Leon, Julie A

    2004-01-01

    Lugol's iodine staining technique was used to examine oral samples from 10 men and 10 women. Examination of saliva samples before and after extraction with water shows that the low levels (49 positive cells and 3,951 negative cells) of glycogen in buccal epithelial cells become even lower after water extraction (0 positive cells and 4,000 negative cells). In addition to the 20 samples used in this paper, 40 oral swabs extracted with water were examined under classroom conditions with much less than 1% of the epithelial cells being positive for glycogen. Furthermore, 119 saliva samples from chewed gauze in sexual assault kits were extracted with water and all of them yielded less than 1% glycogen positive cells. This paper proposes that when more than 1% of the nucleated squamous epithelial cells are glycogen positive with Lugol's test after extraction in water, it is reasonable to eliminate the mouth as a source of these glycogen positive cells.

  10. Nicotine permeability across the buccal TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rassing, Margrethe Rømer

    2002-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate and compare the effect of pH and drug concentration on nicotine permeability across the TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa in vitro. As a further characterization of the TR146 cell culture model, it was explored whether the results were...... comparable for bi-directional and uni-directional transport in the presence of a transmembrane pH gradient. Nicotine concentrations between 10(-5) and 10(-2) M were applied to the apical side of the TR146 cell culture model or the mucosal side of porcine buccal mucosa. Buffers with pH values of 5.5, 7...... concentrations of nicotine, the P(app) values decreased, which can partly be explained by an effect on the paracellular pathway. Similar results were also obtained when using the models for bi-directional as well as for uni-directional studies. The TR146 cell culture model may be used as model for buccal...

  11. Formulation of unidirectional release buccal patches of carbamazepine and study of permeation through porcine buccal mucosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parthasarathy Govindasamy; Bhaskar Reddy Kesavan; Jayaveera Korlakunta Narasimha

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To achieve transbuccal release of carbamazepine by loading in unidirectional release mucoadhesive buccal patches. Methods:Buccal patches of carbamazepine with unidirectional drug release were prepared using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and ethyl cellulose by solvent casting method. Water impermeable backing layer (Pidilite® Biaxially-oriented polypropylene film) of patches provided unidirectional drug release. They were evaluated for thickness, mass uniformity, surface pH and folding endurance. Six formulations FA2, FA8, FA10, FB1, FB14 and FB16 (folding endurance above 250) were evaluated further for swelling studies, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, accelerated stability studies and FTIR and XRD spectral studies. Results: The ex vivo mucoadhesion time of patches ranged between 109 min (FA10) to 126 min (FB14). The ex vivo mucoadhesive force was in the range of 0.278 to 0.479 kg/m/s. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that formulation FA8 released 84%and FB16 released 99.01%of drug in 140 min. Conclusions: The prepared unidirectional buccal patches of carbamazepine provided a maximum drug release within specified mucoadhesion period and it indicates a potential alternative drug delivery system for systemic delivery of carbamazepine.

  12. How I do it: the stapled ileal J pouch at restorative proctocolectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, S T

    2011-12-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) following proctocolectomy is the preferred option for patients with medically refractory ulcerative colitis, indeterminate colitis, and familial adenomatous polyposis. However, it remains a procedure associated with morbidity and mortality. Pelvic sepsis, pouch fistulae, and anastomotic dehiscence predispose to pouch failure. We report our experience with an adaptation for the formation of the stapled ileal J pouch using the GIA™ 100 stapling device (Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts, USA). When creating the J pouch, we remove the bevelled plastic protector from the thin fork of the stapling device, allowing the staple line to be completed to the tip of the stapled efferent limb of the pouch, thereby minimizing potential blind ending in the efferent limb and injury to the transverse staple line.

  13. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyo; Jun; Ahn; Dong; Soo; Lee

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to theoccurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cag A and vac A are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.

  14. Carcinogenesis mechanisms of Fusobacterium nucleatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Pourya; Eslami, Hosein; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2017-03-07

    Transformed cells of cancers may be related to stromal cells, immune cells, and some bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum. This review aimed to evaluate carcinogenesis mechanisms of Fusobacterium spp. in the oral cavity, pancreatic and colorectal cancers. These cancers are the three of the ten most prevalence cancer in the worldwide. Recent findings demonstrated that F. nucleatum could be considered as the risk factor for these cancers. The most important carcinogenesis mechanisms of F. nucleatum are chronic infection, interaction of cell surface molecules of these bacteria with immune system and stromal cells, immune evasion and immune suppression. However, there are some uncertainty carcinogenesis mechanisms about these bacteria, but this review evaluates almost all the known mechanisms. Well-characterized virulence factors of F. nucleatum such as FadA, Fap2, LPS and cell wall extracts may act as effector molecules in the shift of normal epithelial cells to tumor cells. These molecules may provide new targets, drugs, and strategies for therapeutic intervention.

  15. Pouchitis and pre-pouch ileitis developed after restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takashi Iwata; Takayuki Yamamoto; Satoru Umegae; Koichi Matsumoto

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of pouchitis and pre-pouch ileitis, and inflammation in the neo-terminal ileum proximal to the pouch, developed after restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis. A 35-year old female presented with fever and abdominal pain five weeks after ileostomy closure following proctocolectomy. Computed tomography showed collection of feces in the pouch and proximal ileum. A drainage tube was placed in the pouch perianally,and purulent feces were discharged. With antibiotic treatment, her symptoms disappeared, but two weeks later, she repeatedly developed fever and abdominal pain along with anal bleeding. Pouchscopy showed mucosal inflammation in both the pouch and the pre-pouch ileum. The mucosal cytokine production was elevated in the pouch and pre-pouch ileum. With antibiotic and corticosteroid therapy, her symptoms were improved along with improvement of endoscopic inflammation and decrease of mucosal cytokine production. The fecal stasis with bacterial overgrowth is the major pathogenesis of pouchitis and pre-pouch ileitis in our case.

  16. Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss the basic aspects of DNA methylation and CpG island methylation, in particular the epigenetic alterations of certain critical genes implicated in gastric carcinogenesis and its relevance of clinical implications.

  17. Environmental and chemical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogan, Gerald N; Hecht, Stephen S; Felton, James S; Conney, Allan H; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2004-12-01

    People are continuously exposed exogenously to varying amounts of chemicals that have been shown to have carcinogenic or mutagenic properties in experimental systems. Exposure can occur exogenously when these agents are present in food, air or water, and also endogenously when they are products of metabolism or pathophysiologic states such as inflammation. It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens may contribute significantly to the causation of a sizable fraction, perhaps a majority, of human cancers, when exposures are related to "life-style" factors such as diet, tobacco use, etc. This chapter summarizes several aspects of environmental chemical carcinogenesis that have been extensively studied and illustrates the power of mechanistic investigation combined with molecular epidemiologic approaches in establishing causative linkages between environmental exposures and increased cancer risks. A causative relationship between exposure to aflatoxin, a strongly carcinogenic mold-produced contaminant of dietary staples in Asia and Africa, and elevated risk for primary liver cancer has been demonstrated through the application of well-validated biomarkers in molecular epidemiology. These studies have also identified a striking synergistic interaction between aflatoxin and hepatitis B virus infection in elevating liver cancer risk. Use of tobacco products provides a clear example of cancer causation by a life-style factor involving carcinogen exposure. Tobacco carcinogens and their DNA adducts are central to cancer induction by tobacco products, and the contribution of specific tobacco carcinogens (e.g. PAH and NNK) to tobacco-induced lung cancer, can be evaluated by a weight of evidence approach. Factors considered include presence in tobacco products, carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, human uptake, metabolism and adduct formation, possible role in causing molecular changes in oncogenes or suppressor genes, and other relevant data

  18. Speech and swallowing outcomes in buccal mucosa carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunila John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms among all oral cancers in India. Understanding the role of speech language pathologists (SLPs in the domains of evaluation and management strategies of this condition is limited, especially in the Indian context. This is a case report of a young adult with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with no deleterious habits usually associated with buccal mucosa carcinoma. Following composite resection, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction, he developed severe oral dysphagia and demonstrated unintelligible speech. This case report focuses on the issues of swallowing and speech deficits in buccal mucosa carcinoma that need to be addressed by SLPs, and the outcomes of speech and swallowing rehabilitation and prognostic issues.

  19. Variation in buccal surface morphology of deciduous first molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Simratvir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The buccal bulge of the deciduous first molars has always been a restorative challenge to the pediatric dentist. Morphologically it may vary from a slight prominence to a well-developed cusp-like structure. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the variable buccal surface morphology of deciduous first molar and its clinical relevance. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted whereby 2016 patients visiting the outpatient clinic of dental hospital over 1 year were evaluated. Any variation in buccal surface morphology of the deciduous first molars was recorded photographically or by replicating in dental stone. Results: Varied morphological patterns on buccal surface were observed for which a new classification scheme has been proposed. Conclusion: The surface morphology of deciduous teeth crowns must be studied carefully as it may be indicative of pulpal extensions and accessory roots, requiring consideration during restorative treatment planning.

  20. Radiation carcinogenesis: radioprotectors and photosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper outlines 1) some of the salient features of radiation carcinogenesis that are pertinent to the questions of how the carcinogenic effects might be influenced, 2) the effects of radioprotectors on ionizing radiation-induced cancer, and 3) the effect of photosensitizers on UVR-induced skin cancer.

  1. Dose response problems in carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, K S

    1979-03-01

    The estimation of risks from exposure to carcinogens is an important problem from the viewpoint of protection of human health. It also poses some very difficult dose-response problems. Two dose-response models may fit experimental data about equally well and yet predict responses that differ by many orders of magnitude at low doses. Mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not sufficiently understood so that the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses can be satisfactorily predicted. Mathematical theories of carcinogenesis and statistical procedures can be of use with dose-reponse problems such as this and, in addition, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. In this paper, mathematical dose-response models of carcinogenesis are considered as well as various proposed dose-response procedures for estimating carcinogenic risks at low doses. Areas are suggested in which further work may be useful. These areas include experimental design problems, statistical procedures for use with time-to-occurrence data, and mathematical models that incorporate such biological features as pharmacokinetics of carcinogens, synergistic effects, DNA repair, susceptible subpopulations, and immune reactions.

  2. The hamster cheek pouch model for field cancerization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti-Hughes, Andrea; Aromando, Romina F; Pérez, Miguel A; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, Maria E

    2015-02-01

    External carcinogens, such as tobacco and alcohol, induce molecular changes in large areas of oral mucosa, which increase the risk of malignant transformation. This condition, known as 'field cancerization', can be detected in biopsy specimens using histochemical techniques, even before histological alterations are identified. The efficacy of these histochemical techniques as biomarkers of early cancerization must be demonstrated in appropriate models. The hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, universally employed in biological studies and in studies for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer, is also an excellent model of field cancerization. The carcinogen is applied in solution to the surface of the mucosa and induces alterations that recapitulate the stages of cancerization in human oral mucosa. We have demonstrated that the following can be used for the early detection of cancerized tissue: silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions; the Feulgen reaction to stain DNA followed by ploidy analysis; immunohistochemical analysis of fibroblast growth factor-2, immunohistochemical labeling of proliferating cells to demonstrate an increase of epithelial cell proliferation in the absence of inflammation; and changes in markers of angiogenesis (i.e. those indicating vascular endothelial growth factor activity, endothelial cell proliferation and vascular density). The hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer was also proposed and validated by our group for boron neutron capture therapy studies for the treatment of oral cancer. Clinical trials of this novel treatment modality have been performed and are underway for certain tumor types and localizations. Having demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy to control tumors in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, we adapted the model for the long-term study of field cancerized tissue. We demonstrated the inhibitory effect of boron neutron capture therapy on tumor development in field

  3. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TERBUTALINE SULPHATE MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gururaj S.Kulkarni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of developing any new dosage form is reduce the side effects and increase the therapeutic effect of drug in existing dose of dosage form. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system is oral dosage form, where the tablet, gel or patch is attached to the buccal region for direct absorption of drug into blood circulation. This route can prevent the metabolism of drug in G.I tract or liver and side effects of metabolites avoided. In this study, the attempt was made to prepare mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Terbutaline sulphate with natural polymer sodium alginate with one side absorption by backing layer with ethyl cellulose. The buccal tablets of Terbutaline sulphate studied in detail. I R Spectroscopy did the compatible study between polymers and Terbutaline sulphate and No interaction was found between drug and polymers. Different formulations of oral Mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Terbutaline Sulphate (TS were prepared using polymer sodium alginate, in different concentrations by direct compression. Post compressed evaluation studies, hardness, thickness, friability; weight variation and drug content, mucoadhesive strength of tablets were studied. The in-vitro release of TS was studied in buffer pH 6.8 at 370C. All parameters of TS buccal tablets are passed the standard of mucoadhesive buccal tablets. It was found that mucoadhesive natural polymers exhibited better adhesiveness and mucoadhesiveness. The in vitro study of TS exhibited greater drug release profile with release of in the range of 79.25 to 99.85%.

  4. Tunguska, 1908: the gas pouch and soil fluidization hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Siberian taiga explosion of 30 June 1908 remains one of the great mysteries of the 20th century: millions of trees put down over an area of 2200 km2 without trace of a crater or meteorite fragments. Hundred years of failed searches have followed, resulting in as many flawed hypothesis which could not offer satisfactory explanations: meteorite, comet, UFO, etc. In the author's opinion, the cause is that the energy the explorers looked for was simply not there! The author's hypothesis is that a meteoroid encountered a gas pouch in the atmosphere, producing a devastating explosion, its effects being amplified by soil fluidization.

  5. Manufacturability of Heat and Serve Ration in Institutional Pouch System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    If a four-seal tester (designed to pressurize filled pouches by use of a hypodermic needle through the pouch wall) is used, all four seals can be...well-known in the field of decision theory . There is no mystery about it. The computational method assumes that people are not always consistent when

  6. Scintigraphic Small Intestinal Transit Time and Defaecography in Patients with J-Pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Dilling Kjaer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective methods for examination of pouch function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and treatment of dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of scintigraphic intestinal transit time and defaecography compared to the results of pouch function, mucosal condition and a questionnaire on quality of life (QoL. This cross-sectional study included 21 patients. Scintigraphic transit time and defaecography was determined with the use of Tc-99m. Pouch function was assessed by number of bowel movements, pouch volume, and continence. Pouch mucosal condition was evaluated by endoscopy and histology. Median transit time was 189 min (105–365. Median ejection fraction at defaecography (EF was 49% (3–77 and 62% (17–98 after first and second defecation. Median pouch volume was 223 mL (100–360. A median daily stool frequency of nine (4–25 was reported and three (14% patients suffered from daytime incontinence. No patients had symptomatic or endoscopic pouchitis; however, the histology showed unspecific inflammation in 19 (90% patients. There was no correlation between transit time, evacuation fraction (EF and pouch function in univariate analysis. However, we found a high body mass index (BMI and a low bowel movement frequency to be associated with a longer transit time by multivariate analysis. Scintigraphic determination of transit time and defaecography are feasible methods in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, but the clinical relevance is yet doubtful.

  7. Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic “Salvage” Rectopexy for Recurrent Ileoanal J-Pouch Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Ragupathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Total restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (RP/IPAA has become the standard of care for the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis. Despite its correlation with an excellent quality of life and favorable long-term outcomes, RP/IPAA has been associated with several complications. Prolapse of the ileoanal pouch is a rare and debilitating complication that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pouch failure. Limited data exist regarding the prevalence and treatment of pouch prolapse. We present the case of a recurrent J-pouch prolapse treated with a novel minimally invasive “salvage” approach involving a robotic-assisted laparoscopic rectopexy with mesh.

  8. A mouse air pouch model for evaluating the immune response to Taenia crassiceps infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Emanuelle B; Sakai, Yuriko I; Gaspari, Elizabeth De

    2014-02-01

    The experimental system of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci infection in BALB/c mice is considered to be the most representative model of cysticercosis. In our work, mice were sacrificed 7 and 30days after infection, and pouch fluid was collected to determine the number of accumulated cells and the concentrations of IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and nitric oxide. The injection of 50 nonbudding cysticerci into normal mouse dorsal air pouches induced a high level of IFNγ and nitric oxide production relative to the parasite load. The air pouch provides a convenient cavity that allows studying the cellular immunological aspects of the T. crassiceps parasite. The nonbudding cysticerci recovered from the air pouches contained cells that can reconstitute complete cysts in the peritoneal cavity of mice. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the air pouch model is an alternative tool for the evaluation of the immune characteristics of T. crassiceps infection.

  9. Proctocolectomy and ileostomy to pouch surgery for ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultén, L

    1998-04-01

    The development of continence-preserving and sphincter-preserving procedures for operation of ulcerative colitis has a long and interesting history. Reported clinical results on the continent ileostomy (Kock pouch) and the pelvic pouch procedure have often been enthusiastic; and when confronted with the options patients have mostly been in no doubt in selecting "the best operation." However, even if the continent ileostomy and subsequently restorative proctocolectomy were great innovations, it is by no means obvious that they should be recommended as the first choice for all patients. For patients old enough to join in a responsible discussion the pros and cons of the various operations available today must first be carefully described and a decision reached that reasonably meets the patient's wishes and that seems to the surgeon to be soundly based. When comparing the postoperative morbidity, long-term outcome, and quality of life assessment of the options, such a decision is in fact far from easy. Thus panproctocolectomy and ileostomy for ulcerative colitis can be considered a comparatively safe, predictable operation that can cure the patient and allow a short hospital stay, a quick recovery, and rehabilitation. It should also enable the patient to be free of hospital supervision after a year or so. Although there is a major change in body image and sexual disturbances may occur, the operation is in fact still the yardstick by which the other options should be compared. Despite the great attraction of rectum- and sphincter-preserving operations, there will always be patients for whom panproctocolectomy and a conventional end-ileostomy is the superior alternative. The ileal pouch operations are technically demanding and should probably best be restricted to specialist centers even in the future. Complications, if they arise, are often serious, and the hospital stay is often counted in weeks. The functional result may be good, but defects in continence are common

  10. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas KR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  11. Vinyl acetate induces intracellular acidification in mouse oral buccal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Tetsuji; Wagner, Mark; Melvin, James E; Bogdanffy, Matthew S

    2005-08-14

    Vinyl acetate exposure in drinking water has been associated with tumor formation in the upper gastrointestinal tract of rats and mice. One potential mechanism for inducing carcinogenesis involves acidification of the intracellular environment due to the metabolism of vinyl acetate to acetic acid. Prolonged intracellular acidification is thought to produce cytotoxic and/or mitogenic responses that are the sentinel pharmacodynamic steps toward cancer. To determine whether exposure to vinyl acetate affects the intracellular pH of intact oral cavity tissue, isolated mouse oral buccal epithelium was loaded with the pH-sensitive dye BCECF, and then exposed to vinyl acetate concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 microM for up to 4 min. Extracellular vinyl acetate exposure induced a progressive intracellular acidification that was reversible upon removal of the vinyl acetate. The rate of the acidification was concentration-dependent and increased exponentially within the concentration range tested. The magnitude of the vinyl acetate-induced acidification was inhibited by pretreatment with the carboxylesterase inhibitor bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that vinyl acetate contributes to the generation and progression of oral cavity tumors via a process of intracellular acidification. Such a process has been proposed to have practical dose-response thresholds below which the intracellular environment can be maintained within homeostatic bounds and the contribution of exposure to carcinogenic risk is negligible.

  12. A REVIEW ARTICLE ON MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasvir Singh* and Pawan Deep

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: As an alternative to injection pharmaceutical researcher and scientist are trying to explore transdermal and transmucosal route over the last few years. To overcome the deficiency associated with the other route of administration buccal region of oral cavity is an alternative target for the administration of choice of drug. The disadvantages relative with the oral drug delivery is the extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic medium as a result inadequate absorption of the drugs. However parental route may overcome the drawback related with the oral route but these formulations have high cost, supervision is required and least patient compliance. By the buccal route the drug are directly pass through into systemic circulation, less hepatic metabolism and high bioavailability. The aim of the review article is an overview of buccal drug delivery, anatomy of oral mucosa, mechanism of drug penetration and their in-vitro and in-vivo mucoadhesion testing method.

  13. Microbiology of the pericoronal pouch in mandibular third molar pericoronitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, W K; Theilade, E; Comfort, M B; Lim, P L

    1993-10-01

    The microorganisms associated with mandibular third molar pericoronitis were investigated using direct microscopy and anaerobic culture method. The pericoronal pouch was sampled with paper points in A) 8 patients without mandibular third molar pericoronitis and B) 6 patients with mandibular third molar pericoronitis. Under the microscope, the microflora was found to be a complex mixture comprising gram-positive and gram-negative cocci, rods and filaments (including fusiform and curved rods), motile rods and spirochetes. Significantly higher proportions of motile, gram-negative rods were found in group B than in group A. The predominant cultivable microflora of 9 samples: A (4) and B (5) comprised several species of facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria, namely Peptostreptococcus, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Eubacterium, Propionibacterium, Veillonella, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Bacteriodes, Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus, Stomatococcus, Lactobacillus, Neisseria, Capnocytophaga, Haemophilus, Selenomonas and Centipeda species. The microflora in pericoronitis appeared similar to that of diseased periodontal pockets.

  14. Endoscopic gastric pouch plication – a novel endoluminal incision free approach to revisional bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virk CS

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 10-40% of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB patients regain significant weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery due to dilation of the pouch and/or the gastrojejunal (GJ anastomosis. Traditional revision surgery is associated with significant morbidity (e.g. post-anastomotic GJ leak where less invasive endoluminal procedures may represent safer alternatives. The present article reports a case of the safe and successful use of endoluminal gastric pouch plication (EGPP using the StomaphyX™ device to correct both a dilated gastric pouch and a dilated gastrojejunostomy in a post-RYGB patient who regained significant weight.

  15. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study on a Lithium Sulfur Pouch Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef;

    2016-01-01

    The impedance behavior of a 3.4 Ah pouch Lithium-Sulfur cell was extensively characterized using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. EIS measurements were performed at various temperatures and over the entire state-of-charge (SOC) interval without applying a superimposed DC...... current. The obtained results have revealed a high dependency of the pouch cell’s impedance spectrum on the operating conditions. An equivalent electrical circuit was proposed to further analyze the results and to quantify the contributions of different resistances to the total impedance of the Li-S pouch...

  16. HGF is released from buccal fibroblasts after smokeless tobacco stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, S; Christensen, S; Gron, B;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of smokeless tobacco (ST) on (1) HGF, KGF and GM-CSF expression by buccal fibroblasts and (2) on keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation. Buccal fibroblasts were stimulated with different concentrations of ST extracts in a double dilution from 0.50% w/v to 0.03% w...... on exposure time and on concentration of the tobacco extract. High concentration increased production of HGF 4-fold. KGF production was doubled when high concentration of tobacco was used, low concentration did not stimulate cells. GM-CSF production was low in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells...

  17. Radiogenic cell transformation and carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Mei, M.; Durante, M.; Craise, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation carcinogenesis is one of the major biological effects considered important in the risk assessment for space travel. Various biological model systems, including both cultured cells and animals, have been found useful for studying the carcinogenic effects of space radiations, which consist of energetic electrons, protons and heavy ions. The development of techniques for studying neoplastic cell transformation in culture has made it possible to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. Cultured cell systems are thus complementary to animal models. Many investigators have determined the oncogenic effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation in cultured mammalian cells. One of the cell systems used most often for radiation transformation studies is mouse embryonic cells (C3H10T1/2), which are easy to culture and give good quantitative dose-response curves. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for heavy ions with various energies and linear energy transfer (LET) have been obtained with this cell system. Similar RBE and LET relationship was observed by investigators for other cell systems. In addition to RBE measurements, fundamental questions on repair of sub- and potential oncogenic lesions, direct and indirect effect, primary target and lesion, the importance of cell-cell interaction and the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in radiogenic carcinogenesis have been studied, and interesting results have been found. Recently several human epithelial cell systems have been developed, and ionizing radiation have been shown to transform these cells. Oncogenic transformation of these cells, however, requires a long expression time and/or multiple radiation exposures. Limited experimental data indicate high-LET heavy ions can be more effective than low-LET radiation in inducing cell transformation. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses can be performed with cloned transformants to provide insights into basic genetic

  18. Recurrent Fistula between Ileal Pouch and Vagina—Successful Treatment with a Gracilis Muscle Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride Aydin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fistulae between an ileal pouch and the vagina are an uncommon complication of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis following proctocolectomy and mucosectomy in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis coli. Several reports describe the successful use of muscle flaps to close recurrent pouch-vaginal-fistulae (PVF. However, series only contain small numbers and an optimal management has not yet been determined. We report the case of a 26-year old woman with a third recurrence of a PVF after proctocolectomy for treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis in October 2005. Because local approaches failed, definitive closure of the fistula was achieved by interposition of a gracilis muscle flap between the pouch-anal anastomosis and the vagina. The postoperative course was uneventful; the patient was discharged 7 days after surgery and remained free of recurrence and symptomatic complaints for 22 months now. The gracilis muscle flap proved to be an effective method in the treatment of recurrent PVF.

  19. Scintigraphic small intestinal transit time and defaecography in patients with J-pouch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend;

    2015-01-01

    Objective methods for examination of pouch function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and treatment of dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of scintigraphic intestinal transit time and defaecography compared to the results of pouch...... mucosal condition was evaluated by endoscopy and histology. Median transit time was 189 min (105–365). Median ejection fraction at defaecography (EF) was 49% (3–77) and 62% (17–98) after first and second defecation. Median pouch volume was 223 mL (100–360). A median daily stool frequency of nine (4......–25) was reported and three (14%) patients suffered from daytime incontinence. No patients had symptomatic or endoscopic pouchitis; however, the histology showed unspecific inflammation in 19 (90%) patients. There was no correlation between transit time, evacuation fraction (EF) and pouch function in univariate...

  20. Open versus laparoscopic (assisted) ileo pouch anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Usama Ahmed; Keus, Frederik; Heikens, Joost T.; Bemelman, Willem A.; Berdah, Stephane V.; Gooszen, H. G.; van Laarhoven, Cees J. H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Restorative proctocolectomy with ileo pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the main surgical treatment for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). With the advancements of minimal-invasive surgery this demanding operation is increasingly being performed

  1. J-pouch ileoanal anastomosis in children and adolescents with ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Vibeke; Hesselfeldt, Peter; Qvist, Niels;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate, over a 10-year period, severe surgical complications, functional outcome, patient satisfaction and impact on social life after colectomy and J-pouch ileoanal anastomosis for children and adolescents

  2. Liver Development, Regeneration, and Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet W. C. Kung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of putative liver stem cells has brought closer the previously separate fields of liver development, regeneration, and carcinogenesis. Significant overlaps in the regulation of these processes are now being described. For example, studies in embryonic liver development have already provided the basis for directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells. As a result, the understanding of the cell biology of proliferation and differentiation in the liver has been improved. This knowledge can be used to improve the function of hepatocyte-like cells for drug testing, bioartificial livers, and transplantation. In parallel, the mechanisms regulating cancer cell biology are now clearer, providing fertile soil for novel therapeutic approaches. Recognition of the relationships between development, regeneration, and carcinogenesis, and the increasing evidence for the role of stem cells in all of these areas, has sparked fresh enthusiasm in understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and has led to new targeted therapies for liver cirrhosis and primary liver cancers.

  3. In vivo bioavailability studies of sumatriptan succinate buccal tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Jayakar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available    Back ground and the purpose of study: Sumatriptan succinate is a Serotonin 5- HT1 receptor agonist, used in treatment of migraine. It is absorbed rapidly but incompletely when given orally and undergoes first - pass metabolism, resulting in a low absolute bioavailability of about 15%. The aim of this work was to design mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate to improve its bioavailability. Methods:Mucoadhesive polymers carbopol 934 (Carbopol, HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M along with ethyl cellulose as an impermeable backing layer were used for the preparation of mucoadhesive bilayered tablets . In vivo bioavailability studies was also conducted in rabbits for optimized formulation using oral solution of sumatriptan succinate as standard. Results:Bilayered buccal tablets (BBT containing the mixture of Carbopol and HPMC K4M in the ratio 1:1 (T1 had the maximum percentage of in vitro drug release within 6 hrs. The optimized formulation (T1 followed non-Fickian release mechanism. The percentage relative bioavailability of sumatriptan succinate from selected bilayered buccal tablets (T1 was found to be 140.78%. Conclusions: Bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate was successfully prepared with improved bioavailability.

  4. [Enlargement of the buccal aperture via. Technical consideration (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, J; Pasturel, A; Pochan, Y; Barbier, M

    1979-01-01

    For a long time we know that it is possible to take out from the mouth a part or all the mandibule which presents a local malignant tumour. When the tumour is too extensed, the buccal aperture can be enlarged. The authors describe a new surgical technique which resolves this problem with notable and faithful advantages.

  5. A mechanistic based approach for enhancing buccal mucoadhesion of chitosan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Muff-Westergaard, Christian; Sander, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems can enhance rapid drug absorption by providing an increased retention time at the site of absorption and a steep concentration gradient. An understanding of the mechanisms behind mucoadhesion of polymers, e.g. chitosan, is necessary for improving the muco......Mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems can enhance rapid drug absorption by providing an increased retention time at the site of absorption and a steep concentration gradient. An understanding of the mechanisms behind mucoadhesion of polymers, e.g. chitosan, is necessary for improving...... the mucoadhesiveness of buccal formulations. The interaction between chitosan of different chain lengths and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was studied using a complex coacervation model (CCM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a tensile detachment model (TDM). The effect of pH was assessed in all three models...... and the approach to add a buffer to chitosan based drug delivery systems is a means to optimize and enhance buccal drug absorption. The CCM demonstrated optimal interactions between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2. The ITC experiments showed a significantly increase in affinity between chitosan and PGM at pH 5...

  6. Buccal cortical bone thickness on CBCT for mini-implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Jong Gook; Lim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Byoung Jin; Kim, Jae Duk [School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Cortical bone thickness is one of the important factor in mini-implant stability. This study was performed to investigate the buccal cortical bone thickness at every interdental area as an aid in planning mini-implant placement. Two-dimensional slices at every interdental area were selected from the cone-beam computed tomography scans of 20 patients in third decade. Buccal cortical bone thickness was measured at 2, 4, and 6 mm levels from the alveolar crest in the interdental bones of posterior regions of both jaws using the plot profile function of Ez3D2009TM (Vatech, Yongin, Korea). The results were analyzed using by Mann-Whitney test. Buccal cortical bone was thicker in the mandible than in the maxilla. The thickness increased with further distance from the alveolar crest in the maxilla and with coming from the posterior to anterior region in the mandible (p?0.01). The maximum CT value showed an increasing tendency with further distance from the alveolar crest and with coming from posterior to anterior region in both jaws. Interdental buccal cortical bone thickness varied in both jaws, however our study showed a distinct tendency. We expect that these results could be helpful for the selection and preparation of mini-implant sites.

  7. Computed tomography-guided endoscopic needle knife therapy for ileal pouch sinus

    OpenAIRE

    Nyabanga, Custon T.; Veniero, Joseph; Shen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis surgery can be complicated by anastomotic leaks, leading to the formation of abscess and chronic sinus that have been routinely managed by a surgical approach. We developed the endoscopic needle knife sinusotomy (NKSi) technique, which has become a valid alternative. The basic principle of endoscopic NKSi is dissection and drainage of the sinus through its orifice internally into the lumen of pouch body. The success of NKSi requires an access to the sinus from the...

  8. Cadmium carcinogenesis – some key points

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The article presents briefly the main mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis and the most important sites of cancer (lung, breast, prostate, testes, kidney) induced by cadmium. In spite of some evidence showing carcinogenic potential of cadmium, further research is still required to elucidate the relative contributions of various molecular mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis

  9. Cadmium carcinogenesis – some key points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Strumylaite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents briefly the main mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis and the most important sites of cancer (lung, breast, prostate, testes, kidney induced by cadmium. In spite of some evidence showing carcinogenic potential of cadmium, further research is still required to elucidate the relative contributions of various molecular mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis

  10. Recurrent Volvulus of an Ileal Pouch Requiring Repeat Pouchopexy: A Lesson Learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Myrelid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Restorative surgery for ulcerative colitis with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA is frequently accompanied by complications. Volvulus of the ileal pouch is one of the most rarely reported late complications and to our knowledge no report exists on reoperative surgery for this condition. Case Report. A 58-year-old woman who previously had undergone restorative proctocolectomy due to ulcerative colitis with an IPAA presented with volvulus of the pouch. She was operated with a single row pouchopexy to the presacral fascia. Two months later she returned with a recurrent volvulus. At reoperation, the pouch was found to have become completely detached from the fascia. A new pexy was made by firmly anchoring the pouch with two rows of sutures to the presacral fascia as well as with sutures to the lateral pelvic walls. At follow-up after five months she was free of symptoms. Conclusion. This first report ever on reoperative surgery for volvulus of a pelvic pouch indicates that a single row pouchopexy might be insufficient for preventing retwisting. Several rows seem to be needed.

  11. Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofo, Luigi; Caprino, Paola; Sacchetti, Franco; Bossola, Maurizio

    2016-08-27

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (RP-IPAA) is the gold standard surgical treatment for ulcerative colitis. However, despite the widespread use of RP-IPAA, many aspects of this treatment still remain controversial, such as the approach (open or laparoscopic), number of stages in the surgery, type of pouch, and construction type (hand-sewn or stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis). The present narrative review aims to discuss current evidence on the short-, mid-, and long-term results of each of these technical alternatives as well as their benefits and disadvantages. A review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Ovid databases was performed to identify studies published through March 2016. Few large, randomized, controlled studies have been conducted, which limits the conclusions that can be drawn regarding controversial issues. The available data from retrospective studies suggest that laparoscopic surgery has no clear advantages compared with open surgery and that one-stage RP-IPAA may be indicated in selected cases. Regarding 2- and 3-stage RP-IPAA, patients who underwent these surgeries differed significantly with respect to clinical and laboratory variables, making any comparisons extremely difficult. The long-term results regarding the pouch type show that the W- and J-reservoirs do not differ significantly, although the J pouch is generally preferred by surgeons. Hand-sewn and stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomoses have their own advantages, and there is no clear benefit of one technique over the other.

  12. 改良腭弓矫治后牙锁节对后牙功能恢复的影响%Influence of promote palatine arch treating buccal teeth lock on occlusion function recovery of buccal teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宁; 孙应明; 白槐延

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background: Buccal teeth occlusion lock is a kind of common malocclusion malformation in orthodonic clinic. Traditional treatment to buccal teeth occlusion lock is interactive traction of upper and lower buccal teeth.This treatment had shortcoming such as insufficient anchorage and elongation of buccal teeth.We adopted promote fix palatine arch therapy, which recovery patients' occlusion function by clinical observation.

  13. STUDIES ON MELOXICAM SOLID DISPERSION INCORPORATED BUCCAL PATCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jafar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. Life style effects of arthritis includes; Depression, Anxiety, Feelings of helplessness, Limitations on daily activities, Job limitations etc. Meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is widely used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondulytis and osteoarthritis. It is also indicated for the management of dental pain, Post-traumatic and post-operative pain, inflammation and swelling. Recently it is considered as a potential drug for prevention and treatment of colorectal polyps. One of the major problems with this drug is its low solubility in biological fluids, which results into poor bioavailability and GI-Side effects after oral administration. The present work was aimed at overcoming these limitations of the drug. The first problem i.e. Poor solubility of meloxicam was overcome by solid dispersion technique and the same work was than published in a reputed online journal. The present study was the continuation of the published work, in this study buccal patches were prepared using varying percentage of carbopol 934p, HPMC (muco adhesive polymers and 50% W/W of propylene glycol (Plasticizer by solvent casting technique, using 32 factorial design. Prepared blank buccal patches were evaluated for various physical and mechanical parameters, patches which comply with reported results were selected for meloxicam and its solid dispersion incorporation. Meloxicam solid dispersion incorporated buccal patches were prepared and evaluated for drug content, in-vitro diffusion, in-vivo release of meloxicam in rabbits and stability study. All solid dispersion incorporated patches showed increased in-vitro drug release (i.e. between 94% to 99.98% over an extended period of 8hrs as compared to plain drug incorporated buccal patch. Whereas plain drug incorporated buccal patch showed only 31.22% in-vitro drug release in 8hrs. Release of meloxicam was slightly

  14. Experimental modal analysis of lithium-ion pouch cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, James Michael; Marco, James

    2015-07-01

    If future electric and hybrid electric vehicle batteries are to be designed such that the impact of vibration induced resonance is minimized, engineers tasked with the design of the vehicle's energy storage system must have a rigorous understanding of key system attributes such as the natural frequencies of the cell, the level of damping present and the mode shapes induced within the battery under mechanical load. This paper describes the underpinning theory and experimental method employed when using the impulse excitation technique to quantify the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a commercially available 25 Ah Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Laminate Pouch Cell. Experimental results are presented for fifteen cells at five different values of state of charge (SOC). The results indicate that irrespective of the energy content within the cell, the same four modes of vibration (torsion and bending) exist within a frequency range of 191 Hz-360 Hz. This is above the frequency range (0-150 Hz) typically associated with road-induced vibration. The results also indicate that the cell's natural frequencies of vibration and damping do not vary with changing values of SOC.

  15. Selenium in human mammary carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overvad, Kim; Grøn, P.; Langhoff, Otto;

    1991-01-01

    /l and TNM stage II 76 +/- 13 micrograms selenium/l), indicating disease-mediated changes. The evaluation of selenium as a risk indicator in human breast cancer was therefore restricted to TNM stage I patients (n = 36). Multiple logistic regression analyses including variables associated with selenium levels...... revealed no association between selenium levels and breast cancer risk.......In a case-referent study on the possible role of selenium in human mammary carcinogenesis, serum selenium was found to be 79 +/- 12 micrograms/l in 66 cases and 81 +/- 12 micrograms/l in 93 referents. An internal trend in serum selenium was observed among cases (TNM stage I 81 +/- 11 micrograms...

  16. Oxidative Stress and HPV Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico De Marco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental work has conclusively demonstrated that infection with certain types of human papillomaviruses, the so-called high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV, represent a most powerful human carcinogen. However, neoplastic growth is a rare and inappropriate outcome in the natural history of HPV, and a number of other events have to concur in order to induce the viral infection into the (very rare neoplastic transformation. From this perspective, a number of putative viral, host, and environmental co-factors have been proposed as potential candidates. Among them oxidative stress (OS is an interesting candidate, yet comparatively underexplored. OS is a constant threat to aerobic organisms being generated during mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, as well as during inflammation, infections, ionizing irradiation, UV exposure, mechanical and chemical stresses. Epithelial tissues, the elective target for HPV infection, are heavily exposed to all named sources of OS. Two different types of cooperative mechanisms are presumed to occur between OS and HPV: I The OS genotoxic activity and the HPV-induced genomic instability concur independently to the generation of the molecular damage necessary for the emergence of neoplastic clones. This first mode is merely a particular form of co-carcinogenesis; and II OS specifically interacts with one or more molecular stages of neoplastic initiation and/or progression induced by the HPV infection. This manuscript was designed to summarize available data on this latter hypothesis. Experimental data and indirect evidences on promoting the activity of OS in viral infection and viral integration will be reviewed. The anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenetic role of NO (nitric oxide and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase will be discussed together with the OS/HPV cooperation in inducing cancer metabolism adaptation. Unexplored/underexplored aspects of the OS interplay with the HPV-driven carcinogenesis

  17. Cyclooxygenase-2 and prostate carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tajamul; Gupta, Sanjay; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2003-03-10

    In recent years a dramatic surge has occurred on studies defining to the role of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in causation and prevention of cancer. Prostaglandin (PG) endoperoxidase synthase also commonly referred to as COX is a key enzyme involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid to PGs and other eicosanoids. COX exists as two isoforms, namely COX-1 and COX-2 with distinct tissue distribution and physiological functions. COX-1 is constitutively expressed in many tissues and cell types and is involved in normal cellular physiological functions whereas COX-2 is pro-inflammatory in nature and is inducible by mitogens, cytokines, tumor promoters and growth factors. A large volume of data exists showing that COX-2 is overexpressed in a large number of human cancers and cancer cell lines. The possibility of COX-2 as a candidate player in cancer development and progression evolved from the epidemiological studies which suggest that regular use of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could significantly decrease the risk of developing cancers in experimental animals and in humans. In our recently published study (Prostate, 42 2000 73-78), we provided the first evidence that COX-2 is overexpressed in human prostate adenocarcinoma. Many other studies verified our initial observation and reported that compared to normal tissue, COX-2 is overexpressed in human prostate cancer. It should be noted that some recent work has suggested that COX-2 is only up-regulated in proliferative inflammatory atrophy of the prostate, but not in prostate carcinoma. In this scenario, COX-2 inhibitors could afford their effects against prostate carcinogenesis by modulating COX-2 activity in other cells in prostate. An exciting corollary to this ongoing work is that selective COX-2 inhibitors may exhibit chemopreventive and even chemotherapeutic effects against prostate carcinogenesis in humans.

  18. Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) cheek pouch as an experimental model to investigate human skin and keloid heterologous graft

    OpenAIRE

    Hochman,Bernardo; Ferreira,Lydia Masako; Bôas, Flaviane Cássia Vilas [UNIFESP; Mariano, Mario

    2004-01-01

    To describe the integration process of grafts of total human skin and keloid in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) cheek pouch, whose sub-epithelium is naturally an "Immunologically Privileged Site". Fragments of human normal skin and keloid from the breast region of mulatto female patients were transplanted into the cheek pouch subepithelium in situ. Surgical procedure and grafted pouches for microscopic exam at several time points of the transplantation were standardized. The integration of gra...

  19. Contaminated fistula following J-pouch ileoanal reservoir. Treatment with a collagen sponge containing gentamicin and metronidazole. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R; Bülow, Steffen; Moesgaard, F

    1991-01-01

    In a 55-year-old woman, a 1 x 5 cm fistula developed in the ileoanal anastomosis after restorative proctocolectomy with J-pouch ileoanal reservoir and temporary ileostomy for intractable ulcerative colitis. The fistula extended between the pouch and the sacral bone. Lasting closure was achieved b...... by intrafistular placement of a collagen sponge containing gentamicin and soaked in metronidazole solution and pouch drainage through a transanal Foley catheter....

  20. [Buccal bony exostoses induced by free gingival grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H; Slutzkey, S

    2011-01-01

    Buccal Bony Exostoses (BBE) is a local benign osseous overgrowth continuous with the facial aspect of the jaw. Post operative BBE may be the result of dermal grafts used to restore the buccal vestibulum, of connective tissue graft placement, and of Free Gingival Grafts (FGG) procedures. In 46 patients in whom 72 FGG procedures were performed by the senior author (HT) over the past 12 years, BBE was clinically and radiographically diagnosed. In one case the tumor was surgically removed. The etiology, pathogenesis and frequency of BBE following FGG procedures was reviewed and discussed. We suggest that the BBE may develop owing to periosteal surgical trauma during FGG procedures, and suggest that this phenomenon receives further attention.

  1. Nasal and buccal drug delivery: management forum conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, John D

    2012-07-01

    The scope of the conference (Nasal and Buccal Drug Delivery Conference, Management Forum; Chairs Franz Merkus and Julie Suman) was to consider innovations in drug delivery via the nose and oral cavity, notably for the delivery of vaccines, antimalarials and rapidly acting sedatives. Presentations from experts from academia, government agencies and commercial organisations were made over the 2 days. The advantages of both routes were ease of application, patient acceptability and no requirement to produce sterile products. These routes worked best for drugs that are water soluble--but with some lipophilicity--only require low doses, are acceptable to the patient and have low irritancy (particulary for the nasal route). Challenges relate to the effectiveness of deposition from the delivery systems and the efficient clearance mechanisms. It was concluded that for many drugs, buccal and nasal delivery could become the route of choice for their application; vaccines, in particular, appear to show promise for nasal delivery.

  2. Nevus of ota with buccal mucosal pigmentation: a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shishir Ram; Subhas, Babu G; Rao, Kumuda Arvind; Castellino, Renita

    2011-01-01

    Nevus of Ota is a condition wherein the typical pattern of the bluish black pigmentation is noticed along with the cutaneous distribution of the trigeminal nerve. This condition is most prevalent in Japanese population but comparatively rare among Indians. We report a case of 23-year-old female presented with unilateral pigmented areas over the skin of forehead, malar area, ear and periorbital area. Blackish-blue pigmented areas were also noticed on the sclera. Brownish-black diffuse pigmented areas were also noticed on the buccal mucosa of the same side. The presence of pigmentation on the skin over pinna and oral pigmentation made our case a rare incidence. Oral pigmentations associated with nevus of Ota especially on the buccal mucosa have rarely been reported in the past.

  3. Nevus of Ota with buccal mucosal pigmentation: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Ram Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nevus of Ota is a condition wherein the typical pattern of the bluish black pigmentation is noticed along with the cutaneous distribution of the trigeminal nerve. This condition is most prevalent in Japanese population but comparatively rare among Indians. We report a case of 23-year-old female presented with unilateral pigmented areas over the skin of forehead, malar area, ear and periorbital area. Blackish-blue pigmented areas were also noticed on the sclera. Brownish-black diffuse pigmented areas were also noticed on the buccal mucosa of the same side. The presence of pigmentation on the skin over pinna and oral pigmentation made our case a rare incidence. Oral pigmentations associated with nevus of Ota especially on the buccal mucosa have rarely been reported in the past.

  4. Formulation and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal films of glipizide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semalty Mona

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive buccal films of glipizide were prepared by solvent casting technique using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, carbopol-934P and Eudragit RL-100. Prepared films were evaluated for weight, thickness, surface pH, swelling index, in vitro residence time, folding endurance, in vitro release, permeation studies and drug content uniformity. The films exhibited controlled release over more than 6 h. From the study it was concluded that the films containing 5 mg glipizide in 4.9% w/v hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and 1.5% w/v sodium carboxymethylcellulose exhibited satisfactory swelling, an optimum residence time and promising drug release. The formulation was found to be suitable candidate for the development of buccal films for therapeutic use.

  5. Improvement of buccal delivery of morphine using the prodrug approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Jørgensen, A.; Christensen, C.B.;

    1997-01-01

    The feasibility of achieving buccal delivery of morphine using the prodrug approach was assessed by studies of bioactivation, in vitro permeation and in vivo absorption. The bioactivation of various morphine-3-esters was studied in human plasma and saliva. The in vitro permeation of morphine...... and various morphine-3-esters was studied using porcine buccal mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers and finally the in vivo absorption of the compounds evaluated following administration in rats. Both the results from the in vitro permeation and from the absorption of the prodrugs studied suggested a parabolic...... relationship to the lipophilicity of the compounds. In the in vitro studies the optimal permeation was achieved for the prodrug morphine-3-propionate having a log P value of approximately 0.7. In contrast to that optimal in vivo absorption was obtained for the prodrug morphine-3-acetate having a log P value...

  6. Dental prosthesis and buccal lesions in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz García Alpizar; Mikhail Benet Rodíguez; Eduardo Enrique Castillo Betancourt

    2010-01-01

    Fundament: Buccal lesions in the elderly are very frequent and they constitute a problem of health due to the consequences that cause. Objective: to describe the characteristics of the removable prosthesis used by the population of 60 and more years age and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. Methods: We carried out a study descriptive of cross section in 125 elderly with oral prosthesis. The characteristics of the removable prosthesis were described and their relationship...

  7. Formulation and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal films of glipizide

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Mucoadhesive buccal films of glipizide were prepared by solvent casting technique using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, carbopol-934P and Eudragit RL-100. Prepared films were evaluated for weight, thickness, surface pH, swelling index, in vitro residence time, folding endurance, in vitro release, permeation studies and drug content uniformity. The films exhibited controlled release over more than 6 h. From the study it was concluded that the films containing 5...

  8. Human pharmacokinetics of intravenous, sublingual, and buccal buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, J J; Lalani, S; Magluilo, J; Levine, B; Darwin, W D

    1996-10-01

    Buprenorphine is a potent opioid analgesic used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. At higher doses, it has demonstrated potential for treating heroin dependence. This study was undertaken to investigate buprenorphine pharmacokinetics by different routes of administration at dosages approximating those used in opioid-dependence studies. Six healthy men who were nondependent but who had a history of heroin use were administered buprenorphine in a crossover design study by intravenous (1.2 mg), sublingual (4.0 mg), and buccal (4.0 mg) routes of administration. Plasma samples were collected up to 96 h and assayed for buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine by negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine were analyzed by nonlinear regression analysis with standard noncompartmental methods. Buprenorphine biovailability by the sublingual and buccal routes was estimated as 51.4% and 27.8%, respectively, although there was considerable interindividual variability by both routes of administration. The terminal elimination half-lives were longer for the sublingual and buccal routes than for the intravenous route. The extended elimination half-lives may be due to a shallow depot effect involving sequestration of buprenorphine in the oral mucosa. Norbuprenorphine mean peak plasma concentrations were less than 1 ng/mL and were highly variable among different routes of administration and individuals. The terminal elimination half-life of norbuprenorphine was longer than buprenorphine.

  9. Incidence of bone metastasis in carcinoma buccal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Bhandari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head and neck cancer is a leading health problem in India due to the habit of chewing tobacco and bad oral and dental hygiene. Carcinoma buccal mucosa is more common and is 2.5% of all malignancies at our center. Most of the patients present in stage III and IV and the survival in these cases is not very good. Bone metastasis in advanced cases of carcinoma buccal mucosa is rarely reported in the world literature. Materials and Methods: We present here cases developing bone metastasis in carcinoma buccal mucosa in last 5 years. These patients were young with loco-regionally advanced disease where bone metastasis developed within 1-year of definitive treatment. Results: The flat bones and vertebrae were mainly involved and the survival was also short after diagnosis of metastasis despite the treatment with local Radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Conclusion: The exact cause of metastasis cannot be proved, but the probability of subclinical seedling of malignant cells before the eradication of the primary tumor should be considered along with advanced local and nodal disease with high grade of tumor.

  10. An integrin-dependent role of pouch endoderm in hyoid cartilage development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Gage Crump

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharyngeal endoderm is essential for and can reprogram development of the head skeleton. Here we investigate the roles of specific endodermal structures in regulating craniofacial development. We have isolated an integrinalpha5 mutant in zebrafish that has region-specific losses of facial cartilages derived from hyoid neural crest cells. In addition, the cranial muscles that normally attach to the affected cartilage region and their associated nerve are secondarily reduced in integrinalpha5- animals. Earlier in development, integrinalpha5 mutants also have specific defects in the formation of the first pouch, an outpocketing of the pharyngeal endoderm. By fate mapping, we show that the cartilage regions that are lost in integrinalpha5 mutants develop from neural crest cells directly adjacent to the first pouch in wild-type animals. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Integrinalpha5 functions in the endoderm to control pouch formation and cartilage development. Time-lapse recordings suggest that the first pouch promotes region-specific cartilage development by regulating the local compaction and survival of skeletogenic neural crest cells. Thus, our results reveal a hierarchy of tissue interactions, at the top of which is the first endodermal pouch, which locally coordinates the development of multiple tissues in a specific region of the vertebrate face. Lastly, we discuss the implications of a mosaic assembly of the facial skeleton for the evolution of ray-finned fish.

  11. Downregulation of keratin 76 expression during oral carcinogenesis of human, hamster and mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikant Ambatipudi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Keratins are structural marker proteins with tissue specific expression; however, recent reports indicate their involvement in cancer progression. Previous study from our lab revealed deregulation of many genes related to structural molecular integrity including KRT76. Here we evaluate the role of KRT76 downregulation in oral precancer and cancer development. METHODS: We evaluated KRT76 expression by qRT-PCR in normal and tumor tissues of the oral cavity. We also analyzed K76 expression by immunohistochemistry in normal, oral precancerous lesion (OPL, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and in hamster model of oral carcinogenesis. Further, functional implication of KRT76 loss was confirmed using KRT76-knockout (KO mice. RESULTS: We observed a strong association of reduced K76 expression with increased risk of OPL and OSCC development. The buccal epithelium of DMBA treated hamsters showed a similar trend. Oral cavity of KRT76-KO mice showed preneoplastic changes in the gingivobuccal epithelium while no pathological changes were observed in KRT76 negative tissues such as tongue. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates loss of KRT76 in oral carcinogenesis. The KRT76-KO mice data underlines the potential of KRT76 being an early event although this loss is not sufficient to drive the development of oral cancers. Thus, future studies to investigate the contributing role of KRT76 in light of other tumor driving events are warranted.

  12. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Maliakal, Pius; Meng, Xiaofeng

    2002-01-01

    Tea has received a great deal of attention because tea polyphenols are strong antioxidants, and tea preparations have inhibitory activity against tumorigenesis. The bioavailability and biotransformation of tea polyphenols, however, are key factors limiting these activities in vivo. The inhibition of tumorigenesis by green or black tea preparations has been demonstrated in animal models on different organ sites such as skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, forestomach, stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas, and mammary gland. Epidemiological studies, however, have not yielded clear conclusions concerning the protective effects of tea consumption against cancer formation in humans. The discrepancy between the results from humans and animal models could be due to 1) the much higher doses of tea used in animals in comparison to human consumption, 2) the differences in causative factors between the cancers in humans and animals, and 3) confounding factors limiting the power of epidemiological studies to detect an effect. It is possible that tea may be only effective against specific types of cancer caused by certain etiological factors. Many mechanisms have been proposed for the inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea, including the modulation of signal transduction pathways that leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation and transformation, induction of apoptosis of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells, as well as inhibition of tumor invasion and angiogenesis. These mechanisms need to be evaluated and verified in animal models or humans in order to gain more understanding on the effect of tea consumption on human cancer.

  13. Computed tomography-guided endoscopic needle knife therapy for ileal pouch sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyabanga, Custon T; Veniero, Joseph; Shen, Bo

    2016-11-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis surgery can be complicated by anastomotic leaks, leading to the formation of abscess and chronic sinus that have been routinely managed by a surgical approach. We developed the endoscopic needle knife sinusotomy (NKSi) technique, which has become a valid alternative. The basic principle of endoscopic NKSi is dissection and drainage of the sinus through its orifice internally into the lumen of pouch body. The success of NKSi requires an access to the sinus from the pouch side. One of the most challenging situations for NKSi is a closed orifice of the sinus, which leaves an isolated chronic abscess cavity. Here we report a case of complicated presacral sinus with a closed orifice that was not amenable to NKSi, necessitating a CT-guided guide wire placement and subsequent NKSi.

  14. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  15. Giant African Pouched Rats as Detectors of Tuberculosis in Human Sputum: Comparison of Two Techniques for Sputum Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Alisha M.; Mahoney, Amanda; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Jubitana, Maureen; Kazwala, Rudovic; Mfinanga, Godfrey S.; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that pouched rats can detect the presence of "Mycobacterium tuberculosis," which causes tuberculosis, in human sputum samples obtained from clinical facilities. Although pouched rats evaluate sputum samples quickly, preparing the samples is relatively slow. The present study evaluated whether the rats can detect…

  16. Contaminated fistula following J-pouch ileoanal reservoir. Treatment with a collagen sponge containing gentamicin and metronidazole. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R; Bülow, Steffen; Moesgaard, F

    1991-01-01

    In a 55-year-old woman, a 1 x 5 cm fistula developed in the ileoanal anastomosis after restorative proctocolectomy with J-pouch ileoanal reservoir and temporary ileostomy for intractable ulcerative colitis. The fistula extended between the pouch and the sacral bone. Lasting closure was achieved...

  17. Endoscopic closure instead of surgery to close an ileal pouch fistula with the over-the-scope clip system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yao; Gong, Jian-Feng; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2017-01-01

    An ileal pouch fistula is an uncommon complication after an ileal pouch anal anastomosis. Most patients who suffer from an ileal pouch fistula will need surgical intervention. However, the surgery can be invasive and has a high risk compared to endoscopic treatment. The over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system was initially developed for hemostasis and leakage closure in the gastrointestinal tract during flexible endoscopy. There have been many successes in using this approach to apply perforations to the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, this approach has not been used for ileal pouch fistulas until currently. In this report, we describe one patient who suffered a leak from the tip of the “J” pouch and was successfully treated with endoscopic closure via the OTSC system. A 26-year-old male patient had an intestinal fistula at the tip of the “J” pouch after an ileal pouch anal anastomosis procedure. He received endoscopic treatment via OTSC under intravenous anesthesia, and the leak was closed successfully. Endoscopic closure of a pouch fistula could be a simpler alternative to surgery and could help avoid surgery-related complications. PMID:28250903

  18. Mucormycosis of pouch of douglas in a diabetic lady: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Mondal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a severe fungal infection which is rare in clinical practice. This infection is usually acquired by inhalation; other portals of entry are ingestion and traumatic implantation, especially in immuno-compromised patients. Here, we present a case of mucormycosis in a 44 year old diabetic woman. The patient had collection of fluid in the Pouch of Douglas and history of bleeding per vagina. Hysterectomy was done which showed a blackish serosal surface of the posterior uterus. Subsequent investigations revealed mycormycosis affecting the pouch of Douglas. Patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin B and is now keeping well.

  19. [Monoamines stimulations in experimental carcinogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I; Spuzić, I; Rakić, Lj

    1994-01-01

    Facts about the role of CNS monoamines in cancerogenesis have been accumulated for many years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of interaction of psychoactive drug (Piracetam) and other treatments on survival time of tumour-bearing rats. 138 Wistar rats were used in the experiment. The animals were injected 1% 3--Methilcholantren suspension in 10% Tylose, s.c. under the dorsal skin of the neck in a dose of 3 mg/animal. Within 4-9 months after a single injection, the rats developed tumours at the site of injection. The surgical removal was performed when tumours reached the size of 1-3 cm. After surgical extirpation of tumours different groups of animals were treated by cyclophosphamide (s.c. one-time dose of 50 mg/kg for female and 100 mg/kg for male) or by psychoactive drug (Piracetam) administrated by GE tube 5 time/week, 100 mg/kg. Autopsy and histological examinations were carried out in all animals. Survival time (> 120 days) was the greatest in group B (Piracetam, after surgical removal of tumours) 81.2%, and group C (Cyclophosphamid, after surgical removal of tumours) 68.8% and in group A (only surgical removal of tumours) 50%. In group B the incidence of metastases was the smallest (87.1% of animals were without metastases), compared with group C (45.4% of animals were without metastases) and group A (27.3% of animals were without metastases). The diference is statistically significant. The mechanism of antineoplastic effect of Piracetam consisted of the interaction of influences both on metabolism of the Central nervous system and the tumour. Probably, it is the neurotransmitter modulation that had its effect on carcinogenesis not only by regulation/disregulation of brain homeostasis, but also via direct effect on intracellular processes during cell development and differentation.

  20. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rassing, M R

    1999-01-01

    (app) of mannitol obtained in analog studies using porcine buccal mucosa in an Ussing chamber. The effect of the exposure on the electrical resistance of the TR146 cell culture model and the porcine buccal mucosa was measured, and the degree of protein leakage due to GC exposure was investigated in the TR146 cell...... culture model. The porcine buccal mucosa was approximately ten times less permeable to mannitol than the TR146 cell culture model. The P(app)TC. Increased P(app) values correlated with a decrease in the electrical resistance of the TR146 cell culture model and the porcine buccal mucosa. GC was shown...

  1. Puborectal sling interposition combined with seton drainage for pouch-vaginal fistula after rectal cancer surgery with colonic J pouch-anal reconstruction: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Aya; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Okigami, Masato; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Hiro, Junichiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Koji; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2014-01-01

    The management of postoperative rectovaginal fistula (RVF) after rectal cancer surgery is difficult and requires reconstruction of the anastomotic site and fistula. Though various surgical procedures have been reported for the repair of RVFs, the results of surgical repair are often unsatisfactory, and failure of the initial repair leads to difficulty in the later operations. Furthermore, it has been reported that cases associated with local infection result in low success rates. We report a case of an 80-year-old woman with a recurrent colonic J pouch-vaginal fistula after anoabdominal rectal resection with partial internal sphincteric resection, who achieved a good outcome following a repair using a puborectal sling interposition combined with seton drainage. It may be a useful option for RVF management in repair of such pouch-vaginal fistula after coloanal anastomosis with intersphincteric resection.

  2. Carcinogenesis of the Oral Cavity: Environmental Causes and Potential Prevention by Black Raspberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bayoumy, Karam; Chen, Kun-Ming; Zhang, Shang-Min; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Amin, Shantu; Stoner, Gary; Guttenplan, Joseph B

    2017-01-17

    Worldwide, cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx comprise the sixth most common malignancies. Histologically, more than 90% of oral cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Epidemiologic data strongly support the role of exogenous factors such as tobacco, alcohol, and human papilloma virus infection as major causative agents. Avoidance of risk factors has only been partially successful, and survival rates have not improved despite advances in therapeutic approaches. Therefore, new or improved approaches to prevention and/or early detection are critical. Better understanding of the mechanisms of oral carcinogenesis can assist in the development of novel biomarkers for early detection and strategies for disease prevention. Toward this goal, several animal models for carcinogenesis in the oral cavity have been developed. Among these are xenograft, and transgenic animal models, and others employing the synthetic carcinogens such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in hamster cheek pouch and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide in rats and mice. Additional animal models employing environmental carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene and N'-nitrosonornicotine have been reported. Each model has certain advantages and disadvantages. Models that (1) utilize environmental carcinogens, (2) reflect tumor heterogeneity, and (3) accurately represent the cellular and molecular changes involved in the initiation and progression of oral cancer in humans could provide a realistic platform. To achieve this goal, we introduced a novel nonsurgical mouse model to study oral carcinogenesis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), an environmental pollutant and tobacco smoke constituent, and its diol epoxide metabolite (±)-anti-11,12-dihydroxy-13,14-epoxy-11,12,13,14-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene [(±)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE]. On the basis of a detailed comparison of oral cancer induced by DB[a,l]P with that induced by the other above-mentioned oral carcinogens with respect to dose, duration, species and

  3. Myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa: A rare tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Jeevan; Ahmad, Fahad; Chand, Vimal

    2014-04-01

    Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of salivary glands that account for Myoepithelial tumors were first described in 1943. Their malignant variant, myoepithelial carcinoma, was first reported by Stromeyer et al., in 1975, characterized by distinct morphologic heterogeneity and an infiltrative growth pattern into adjacent tissues. Here, we report a rare case of a 55-year-old female with myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa. It was also rare because of unusual location of tumor. Our patient was treated with wide local resection and remained free of disease for 15 months.

  4. Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T D

    1999-01-24

    multiple causes of carcinogenesis and shifts the risk-assessment logic to considerations of "what dose does?" in contrast to the current process of the substance-specific question of "what dose is?" Whether reactive oxygen is the proximate or contributing cause of disease or simply a better estimate of biologically effective dose, it has enormous advantages for improved risk- and policy-based decisions. Various estimates of immune system modulation will be given based on radiobiology.

  5. Mycotic encephalitis, sinus osteomyelitis, and guttural pouch mycosis in a 3-year-old Arabian colt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Barbara; Nation, Patrick N

    2011-12-01

    Mycotic encephalitis caused severe ataxia and other neurologic deficits in a horse. The finding of a single, large focus of cerebral malacia, with histopathologic evidence of fungal elements, suggested infection was a result of direct transfer from the frontal sinuses, rather than hematogenous spread from the guttural pouch.

  6. Prophylactic Laparoscopic Total Gastrectomy with Jejunal Pouch Reconstruction in Patients Carrying a CDH1 Germline Mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, L.; Sluis, P.C. van der; Ausems, M.G.; Horst, S. van der; Siersema, P.D.; Ruurda, J.P.; Offerhaus, G.J.; Hillegersberg, R. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For patients with an identified germline E-cadherin-1 (CDH1) mutation, prophylactic gastrectomy is the treatment of choice to eliminate the high risk of developing diffuse gastric cancer. Laparoscopic total gastrectomy with jejunal pouch reconstruction is a novel approach that may be esp

  7. The embryology and management of congenital pouch colon associated with anorectal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, R; Bagga, D; Malhotra, C J; Mohta, A; Dhar, A; Kumar, A

    1994-03-01

    Forty-one infants with a pouch colon malformation accompanied by a high anorectal anomaly were treated between January 1986 and December 1990. The 41 cases constituted 9% of all anorectal malformations and 15.2% of high defects managed during this period. There were 32 boys and nine girls; three of the girls had an associated cloaca. Many of the babies presented in poor condition, with gross abdominal distension caused by the distended colonic pouch. The typical radiological feature was an enormously distended colonic shadow occupying more than 50% of the width of the abdomen. At the time of surgery, the patients were classified into 4 subgroups based on the length of the normal colon. All but three infants had a high wide fistula, with the genitourinary tract consisting of a colovesical fistula in males and a colovaginal or colocloacal fistula in females. Frequent associated malformations included duplication of the appendix and vesicoureteric reflux. The operations performed initially were a window colostomy of the pouch with or without division-ligation of the fistula, end-colostomy after fistula ligation, or subtotal pouch excision with tubularization of the remaining colon and end-colostomy. Thirteen of the 41 patients have undergone a definitive pull-through operation using the posterior sagittal approach, including two children in whom one-stage reconstruction of a cloaca was performed. Standardized management of this complex anomaly is proposed for the initial operation and for definitive reconstruction.

  8. Apparatus and methods for packaging and storing moisture sensitive products in resealable pouches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to apparatus and methods for storing moisture-sensitive products such as moisture-curable orthopedic splinting/casting product, in flexible, preferably elongated, pouches. The product is folded into a repeating series of discrete sections where each section has...

  9. [Organisation and early outcome of restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungmann, K.; Bendixen, A.; Laurberg, S.;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the operation of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis. However, the procedure is complex with a long learning curve, and carries a risk of both early and late complications...

  10. Mucosectomy and stapled pouch-anal anastomosis in familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, S

    2012-01-01

    In familial adenomatous polyposis, a restorative proctocolectomy with an ileo-anal pouch may be performed either with a mucosectomy and a hand-sewn anastomosis or as a stapled anastomosis without a mucosectomy. The disadvantage of the former is suboptimal bowel function and the disadvantage...

  11. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BUCCAL FILMS OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAMSHI KRISHNA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For systemic drug delivery, the buccal region offers an attractive route of drug administration. The main objective of the study is to formulate buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate. Salbutamol sulfate is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It’s oral bioavailability is 40% due to extensive first pass metabolism. Salbutamol sulfate patches were prepared using HPMC, SCMC and Carbopol 934 in various proportions and combinations using Glycerol and tween-80 as plasticizers. Patches were laminated on one side with a water impermeable backing layer using ethyl cellulose for unidirectional drug release. The thickness of medicated patches were ranged between 0.402 and 0.431 mm and mass varied between 0.0312 and 0.0352 g. The surface-pH of patches ranged between 6 and 7. All formulations showed good folding endurance. Formulations F9 showed good drug content and Residence time of the tested patches ranged between 108 and 174 min. The maximum in vitro release was found to be 93.89% over a period of 150 min for formulation F9. Data of in vitro release from patches were fitted to different kinetic models such as Higuchi and Korsmeyer–Peppas models to explain the release profile. Formulations F9 were best fitted to the non-Fickian kinetics and zero order release was observed.

  12. Preparation and evaluation of buccal bioadhesive films containing clotrimazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Jain, S; Muthu, M S; Tiwari, S; Tilak, R

    2008-01-01

    Buccal bioadhesive films, releasing topical drugs in the oral cavity at a slow and predetermined rate, provide distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms. The aim of present study was to prepare and evaluate buccal bioadhesive films of clotrimazole for oral candidiasis. The film was designed to release the drug at a concentration above the minimum inhibitory concentration for a prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration of the available conventional dosage forms. The different proportions of sodium carboxymethylcellulose and carbopol 974P (CP 974P) were used for the preparation of films. Carbopol was used to incorporate the desired bioadhesiveness in the films. The films were prepared by solvent casting method and evaluated for bioadhesion, in vitro drug release and effectiveness against Candida albicans. In vitro drug release from the film was determined using a modified Franz diffusion cell while bioadhesiveness was evaluated with a modified two-arm balance using rabbit intestinal mucosa as a model tissue. Films containing 5% CP 974P of the total polymer were found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force, residence time and in vitro drug release. The microbiological studies revealed that drug released from the film could inhibit the growth of C. albicans for 6 h. The drug release mechanism was found to follow non-Fickian diffusion.

  13. Diet, lifestyle, and molecular alterations that drive colorectal carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental factors have been repeatedly implicated in the etiology of colorectal cancer, and much is known about the molecular events involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. The relationships between environmental risk factors and the molecular alterations that drive colorectal carcinogenesis are

  14. Influence of buccal corridor dimension on smile esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cunha Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of buccal corridor width on smile esthetics of male and female, Caucasian and Afro-descendant subjects by means of digitally manipulated photographs, as well as compare assessments of full-face view (FFV and close-up view of the mouth (CUVM images. METHODS: Facial photographs were taken of four adults' smile, two Caucasians and two Afro-descendants of both genders. The resulting images were digitally manipulated with the aim of rendering - from each original smile - three other smiles simulating three different buccal corridor widths, namely, narrow, medium width and wide. The rendered images, 12 of which portraying FFVs and 12 providing CUVMs, were assessed by 60 examiners who rated the attractiveness of each smile by means of a visual analog scale (VAS. The data were treated with ANOVA and Tukey's post test to compare the different buccal corridors, and Student's t test to compare the two image views (FFV and CUVM. RESULTS: Medium width buccal corridors were considered the most attractive in the four individuals investigated, both in the assessment of FFVs and CUVMs (p 0.05. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was found between the analyses of FFVs and CUVMs (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: The buccal corridor exercised a remarkable influence on smile esthetics, with the medium width group being rated as the most attractive. No influence was exerted by the individuals' face, ethnicity or gender.OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência do corredor bucal na estética de sorrisos femininos e masculinos, de leucodermas e melanodermas, por meio de fotografias manipuladas, bem como comparar essa avaliação numa vista facial completa e numa vista aproximada da boca. MÉTODOS: foram realizadas fotografias faciais do sorriso de quatro indivíduos adultos, sendo dois leucodermas e dois melanodermas, de ambos os sexos. As imagens geradas foram manipuladas a fim de produzir, a partir de cada sorriso original, três outros

  15. Effect of sodium aurothiomalate on carrageenan induced inflammation of the air pouch in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Y M; Wong, M K

    1992-01-01

    Acute inflammation was induced by injecting carrageenan into a 6 day old air pouch in mice. Sodium aurothiomalate was then given twice to each of three groups of mice via different routes. It was found that the mice injected intravenously with sodium aurothiomalate showed the most striking reduction in the number of exudate leucocytes in the inflammatory cavity, although the amount of gold found in their inflamed pouch lining tissue was the least. The amount of gold in plasma was highest in the mice injected intravenously with sodium aurothiomalate and the least amount of gold was found in the mice injected directly into the air pouch with sodium aurothiomalate. The amount of gold in the inflamed pouch lining tissue reached its peak at 24 hours after injection and a significant decrease of exudate leucocytes was only seen 24 and 72 hours after injection. The amount of gold in the exudate fluid was negligible at all the times studied. No significant difference was noted in the degree of inflammatory suppression when increasing doses of sodium aurothiomalate were injected into the air pouch. These findings show that there is no direct correlation between the gold concentration in the inflamed tissue and suppression of the inflammatory reactions in the cavity. Chemotactic and phagocytic analysis of leucocytes in the exudate showed that there was a significant suppression of the neutrophil activities in all the mice treated with sodium aurothiomalate. It is therefore concluded that the significant reduction in the number of exudate leucocytes at the carrageenan induced inflammatory site after treatment with sodium aurothiomalate is most likely due to the direct action of gold on the functional activities of circulating neutrophils.

  16. Ex Vivo Correlation of the Permeability of Metoprolol Across Human and Porcine Buccal Mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Marxen, Eva; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge;

    2014-01-01

    .0. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin and Alcian blue-van Gieson were used as tissue stains to evaluate the histology and the presence of acidic polysaccharides (e.g., mucins), respectively. The permeability of metoprolol was decreased in human buccal mucosa by almost twofold when compared with porcine buccal mucosa...

  17. Ex vivo correlation of the permeability of metoprolol across human and porcine buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Marxen, Eva; Pedersen, Anne Marie L; Müllertz, Anette; Hyrup, Birgitte; Holm, Rene; Jacobsen, Jette

    2014-07-01

    The pH partition theory proposes a correlation between fraction of unionized drug substance and permeability. The aim of this study was to compare the permeability of metoprolol and mannitol in ex vivo human and porcine buccal mucosa models at varying pH to validate whether the porcine permeability model is predictive for human buccal absorption. Human (n = 9-10) and porcine (n = 6-7) buccal mucosa were mounted in a modified Ussing chamber, and the kinetics of metoprolol and mannitol transport was assessed for a period of 5.5 h with the pH values of donor medium set at 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin and Alcian blue-van Gieson were used as tissue stains to evaluate the histology and the presence of acidic polysaccharides (e.g., mucins), respectively. The permeability of metoprolol was decreased in human buccal mucosa by almost twofold when compared with porcine buccal mucosa with a positive correlation (r(2) = 0.96) between the permeability assessed in porcine and human buccal mucosa. There was no change in the degree of either epithelial swelling or desquamation when treating with the pH 9.0 donor medium for 5.5 h. These data suggest that buccal mucosa from pigs can be used to predict human buccal absorption.

  18. Perineal urethrostomy stenosis repair with buccal mucosa: description of technique and report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Nagesh

    2008-11-01

    Perineal urethrostomy stenosis can be a difficult problem to treat, especially in patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans. We have devised a technique of using the buccal mucosa, with the idea of forming a composite stoma comprising skin and buccal mucosa. We describe the technique and short-term results in 4 patients.

  19. Development and evaluation of tamarind seed xyloglucan-based mucoadhesive buccal films of rizatriptan benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avachat, Amelia M; Gujar, Kishore N; Wagh, Kishor V

    2013-01-16

    Mucoadhesive buccal films were developed using tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) as novel mucoadhesive polysaccharide polymer for systemic delivery of rizatriptan benzoate through buccal route. Formulations were prepared based on 3(2) factorial design with concentrations of TSX and carbopol 934P (CP) as independent variables. Three dependent variables considered were tensile strength, bioadhesion force and drug release. DSC analysis revealed no interaction between drug and polymers. Ex vivo diffusion studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cell, while bioadhesive properties were evaluated using texture analyzer with porcine buccal mucosa as model tissue. Results revealed that bilayer film containing 4% (w/v) TSX and 0.5% (w/v) CP in the drug layer and 1% (w/v) ethyl cellulose in backing layer demonstrated diffusion of 93.45% through the porcine buccal mucosa. Thus, this study suggests that tamarind seed polysaccharide can act as a potential mucoadhesive polymer for buccal delivery of a highly soluble drug like rizatriptan benzoate.

  20. Sirt3, Mitochondrial ROS, Ageing, and Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gius

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One fundamental observation in cancer etiology is that the rate of malignancies in any mammalian population increases exponentially as a function of age, suggesting a mechanistic link between the cellular processes governing longevity and carcinogenesis. In addition, it is well established that aberrations in mitochondrial metabolism, as measured by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS, are observed in both aging and cancer. In this regard, genes that impact upon longevity have recently been characterized in S. cerevisiae and C. elegans, and the human homologs include the Sirtuin family of protein deacetylases. Interestingly, three of the seven sirtuin proteins are localized into the mitochondria suggesting a connection between the mitochondrial sirtuins, the free radical theory of aging, and carcinogenesis. Based on these results it has been hypothesized that Sirt3 functions as a mitochondrial fidelity protein whose function governs both aging and carcinogenesis by modulating ROS metabolism. Sirt3 has also now been identified as a genomically expressed, mitochondrial localized tumor suppressor and this review will outline potential relationships between mitochondrial ROS/superoxide levels, aging, and cell phenotypes permissive for estrogen and progesterone receptor positive breast carcinogenesis.

  1. A Systems Approach to Radiation Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlatky, Lynn

    Understanding carcinogenesis risk is complicated by a number of factors, among these the lack of a common platform to integrate and analyze the available data, and the inherently systemsbiologic nature of the problem. We have investigated mechanistic approaches to radiogenic risk estimation that draw on unifying biological principles and incorporate data from multiscale sources. The resultant modeling takes into account that carcinogenesis is a multi-scale phenomenon, critically influenced by determinants not only at the molecular level, but at the cell and tissue-levels as well. To account for cell-level carcinogenesis progression as influenced by inter-tissue signaling, we have developed a dynamic carrying capacity construct that couples the growth of a tumor with the degree of induced vascularization. We have also characterized the molecular responses to radiation incorporating tissue-level angiogenesis implications, and have found striking radiation-quality-dependent responses. The molecular-level events of initiation and promotion are considered in our Two-Stage Logistic model, while incorporating in a rudimentary way the larger-scale growth-limiting role of cell-cell interactions. These and other recent studies undertaken to elaborate radiation-induced carcinogenesis are discussed, in pursuit of a more complete paradigm for understanding radiation induction of cancer and the consequent risk.

  2. Experimental radiation carcinogenesis: what have we learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews the need for animal experiments in development of a biological model for radioinduced carcinogenesis. He concludes they are vital for: (1) study of mechanisms; (2) establishment of generalizations; (3) elucidation of dose-response and time-dose relationships; and (4) determination of dose-distributions and their results, particularly for radionuclides. (PSB)

  3. Interposition of Ileal J-Pouch for Rectum Reconstruction in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ghahramani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gold standard of the management of rectal cancer in the middle and lower parts is low anterior resection with coloanal anastomosis. About 50% of the patients undergoing this procedure might experience some complications because of the low capacity of the neorectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate ileal J-pouch interposition as a neorectum between the anal canal and the remaining colon in comparison to coloanal anastomosis and transverse coloplasty. Methods: Twelve dogs, weighing 23-27 kg, were divided into three groups. After laparotomy, the volume of the primary rectum was measured so that it could be compared with that of the neorectum at the end of the study. After rectal resection in Group A, the colon was directly anastomosed to the anus. In Group B, a 5-cm longitudinal incision was made 2 cm proximal to the anastomosis and was sutured transversely (coloplasty. In Group C, a 5-cm ileal J-pouch was interposed between the colon and anus. After 8 weeks, the neorectum was evaluated for volume, radiology, and pathology. Results: All the samples were alive until the end of the study. The healing of the anastomotic lines was acceptable (pathologically in all. The mean volume expansion was 20.9% in Group A, 21.7% in Group B, and 118.2% in Group C, with the latter being significantly higher than that of the other groups (P=0.03. Colon J-pouch and coloplasty after proctectomy in some situations have not been performable. This study evaluated the performance of ileal J-pouch interposition. Conclusion: This study showed that ileal J-pouch interposition might produce an acceptable reservoir function and that it seems feasible and safe in selected cases. Please cite this article as: Ghahramani L, Yazdani S, Derakhshani S, Rezaianzadeh A, Jalli R, Geramizadeh B, Safarpour AR, Rahimikazerooni S, Hosseini SV. Interposition of Ileal J-Pouch for Rectum Reconstruction in Dog. Iran J Med Sci. 2014;39(2:117-122.

  4. A novel dosage form for buccal administration of bupropion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsa Maria Galvão Almeida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bupropion is an antidepressant used in the treatment of smoking. The purpose of this study was to prepare controlled-release hydrogel films for buccal administration of bupropion and investigate its physicochemical and cytotoxic properties. The films were prepared from ultrapure sodium carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M, and medium-viscosity chitosan. Evaluation of film physicochemical characteristics was based on scanning electron microscopy, bupropion content, mechanical strength (burst strength, relaxation, resilience, and traction, and cytotoxicity. Bupropion content in bilayer films was 121 mg per 9 cm2. The presence of bupropion modified film mechanical strength, but did not compromise the use of this pharmaceutical form. As shown by the cytotoxicity results, films containing bupropion did not cause cellular damage. Bupropion administration in the form of hydrogel films is a potentially useful alternative in the treatment of smoking.

  5. Myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa: A rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Lata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of salivary glands that account for < 1% of all salivary gland tumors. The most common sites of involvement are major salivary glands mainly parotid gland. Intraorally, it can arise from minor salivary glands; palate is the most common site of occurrence. It also occurs in nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity and larynx in head and neck region. Myoepithelial tumors were first described in 1943. Their malignant variant, myoepithelial carcinoma, was first reported by Stromeyer et al., in 1975, characterized by distinct morphologic heterogeneity and an infiltrative growth pattern into adjacent tissues. Here, we report a rare case of a 55-year-old female with myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa. It was also rare because of unusual location of tumor. Our patient was treated with wide local resection and remained free of disease for 15 months.

  6. The benefits of a laparoscopic approach in ileal pouch anal anastomosis formation: a single institutional retrospective case-matched experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J

    2010-06-01

    A laparoscopic approach to ileoanal pouch formation is novel. By using prospectively gathered data, laparoscopic and open restorative proctocolectomy procedures in mucosal ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients were compared using a case-matched design.

  7. Sexual Function and Body Image are Similar after Laparoscopy-Assisted and Open Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Mie Dilling; Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Qvist, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is performed in patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis where the majority of patients are sexually active. Laparoscopic surgery is becoming the preferred technique for most colorectal interventions, and we examined...

  8. J-pouch Ileoanal Anastomosis in Children and Adolescents with Ulcerative Colitis: Functional Outcome, Satisfaction and Impact on Social Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, V; Hesselfeldt, Peter; Qvist, N;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate, over a 10-year period, severe surgical complications, functional outcome, patient satisfaction and impact on social life after colectomy and J-pouch ileoanal anastomosis for children and adolescents

  9. Evaluation of a mucoadhesive buccal patch for delivery of peptides: in vitro screening of bioadhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Bhatt, P P; Johnston, T P

    1998-10-01

    We have assessed the bioadhesive properties of several different mucoadhesive buccal patches. The patches consisted of custom coformulations of silicone polymers and Carbopol 974P. The contact angle of water was measured for each of the test formulations, using an ophthalmic shadow scope. The corresponding work of adhesion between the water and the patches (W1), and between the patches and freshly-excised rabbit buccal mucosa (W2) was then calculated, using a modification of Dupre's equation. The bioadhesive strength between the patches and excised rabbit buccal mucosa was also assessed. The results of the contact-angle measurements indicated that the contact angle decreased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol in the formulation. Additionally, the calculated values of both W1 and W2 increased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol in the buccal-patch formulations. A correlation (r not equal to 0.9808) was found between the measured contact angle and the calculated values for W2. The direct measurement of the force required to separate a buccal patch from excised rabbit buccal mucosa with the INSTRON demonstrated that the adhesive strength increased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol. This preliminary study has shown that the measurement of contact angles alone may provide a useful technique for estimating the work of adhesion, and may serve as a convenient and rapid screening procedure to identify potential mucoadhesive buccal-patch formulations.

  10. Overview and Future Potential of Buccal Mucoadhesive Films as Drug Delivery Systems for Biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Nicolini, Miguel; Morales, Javier O

    2017-01-01

    The main route of administration for drug products is the oral route, yet biologics are initially developed as injectables due to their limited stability through the gastrointestinal tract and solubility issues. In order to avoid injections, a myriad of investigations on alternative administration routes that can bypass enzymatic degradation and the first-pass effect are found in the literature. As an alternative site for biologics absorption, the buccal route presents with a number of advantages. The buccal mucosa is a barrier, providing protection to underlying tissue, but is more permeable than other alternative routes such as the skin. Buccal films are polymeric matrices designed to be mucoadhesive properties and usually formulated with permeability enhancers to improve bioavailability. Conventionally, buccal films for biologics are manufactured by solvent casting, yet recent developments have shown the potential of hot melt extrusion, and most recently ink jet printing as promising strategies. This review aims at depicting the field of biologics-loaded mucoadhesive films as buccal drug delivery systems. In light of the literature available, the buccal epithelium is a promising route for biologics administration, which is reflected in clinical trials currently in progress, looking forward to register and commercialize the first biologic product formulated as a buccal film.

  11. In-vitro characterization of buccal iontophoresis: the case of sumatriptan succinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telò, Isabella; Tratta, Elena; Guasconi, Barbara; Nicoli, Sara; Pescina, Silvia; Govoni, Paolo; Santi, Patrizia; Padula, Cristina

    2016-06-15

    Buccal administration of sumatriptan succinate might be an interesting alternative to the present administration routes, due to its non-invasiveness and rapid onset of action, but because of its low permeability, a permeation enhancement strategy is required. The aim of this work was then to study, in-vitro, buccal iontophoresis of sumatriptan succinate. Permeation experiments were performed in-vitro across pig esophageal epithelium, a recently proposed model of human buccal mucosa, using vertical diffusion cells. The iontophoretic behavior of the tissue was characterized by measuring its isoelectric point (Na(+) transport number and the electroosmotic flow of acetaminophen determination) and by evaluating tissue integrity after current application. The results obtained confirm the usefulness of pig esophageal epithelium as an in-vitro model membrane for buccal drug delivery. The application of iontophoresis increased sumatriptan transport, proportionally to the current density applied, without tissue damage: electrotransport was the predominant mechanism. Integrating the results of the present work with literature data on the transport of other molecules across the buccal mucosa and across the skin, we can draw a general conclusion: the difference in passive transport across buccal mucosa and across the skin is influenced by permeant lipophilicity and by the penetration pathway. Finally, buccal iontophoretic administration of sumatriptan allows to administer 6mg of the drug in 1h, representing a promising alternative to the current administration routes.

  12. Crohn's-like complications in patients with ulcerative colitis after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, N S; Sanford, W W; Bodzin, J H

    1997-11-01

    Total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become an established surgical procedure for ulcerative colitis. Occasional patients who have undergone IPAA develop persistent or recurrent episodes of pouchitis (chronic pouchitis), from which a subset also develop gastrointestinal and systemic complications that are identical to those seen in Crohn's disease. These complications include enteric stenoses or fistulas in the pouch or pouch inlet segment, perianal fistulas or abscesses, pouch fistulas, arthritis, iridocyclitis, and pyoderma gangrenosum. The development of Crohn's-like gastrointestinal complications in a patient with chronic pouchitis frequently engenders concern that the pathologist misinterpreted the proctocolectomy specimen as ulcerative colitis instead of Crohn's disease. We describe eight patients who developed chronic pouchitis and Crohn's-like complications after IPAA and total proctocolectomy. In each case, concern was voiced about misinterpretation of the proctocolectomy specimen as ulcerative colitis instead of Crohn's disease after the development of the Crohn's-like complications. Preoperatively, all eight patients had characteristic clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of ulcerative colitis. Review of the pathology specimens indicated that all eight had ulcerative colitis. Crohn's-like complications are most likely related to chronic pouchitis, which probably is a form of recrudescent ulcerative colitis within the novel environment of the pouch. A diagnosis of Crohn's disease after IPAA surgery should only be made when reexamination of the original proctocolectomy specimen shows typical pathologic features of Crohn's disease, Crohn's disease arises in parts of the gastrointestinal tract distant from the pouch, pouch biopsies contain active enteritis with granulomas, or excised pouches show the characteristic features of Crohn's disease, including granulomas. There were no histologic differences in the total

  13. Guttural pouch mycosis in horses: a retrospective study of 28 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobesova, O; Schwarz, B; Velde, K; Jahn, P; Zert, Z; Bezdekova, B

    2012-12-01

    The medical records of 28 horses with guttural pouch mycosis were reviewed. The most commonly observed clinical signs were nasal discharge, epistaxis, dysphagia and/or cough. All 28 horses had the disease unilaterally, however, in five of them, it had spread into the contralateral pouch via the mesial septum. Three horses were treated medically, 11 horses underwent surgery and seven horses were treated both medically and surgically. Fifty percent of horses (14/28) were euthanased or died, fifty percent of horses (14/28) survived. There was no significant correlation between treatment method (medical, surgical, combination) and survival rate. The most common reason for euthanasia was dysphagia due to pharyngeal dysfunction. There was a highly significant correlation between the presence of dysphagia and non-survival (p=0.008).

  14. The relationship between hatching rate and number of embryos of the brood pouch in Littorina saxatilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Padín, P.; Carballo, M.; Caballero, A.; Rolán-Alvarez, E.

    2008-10-01

    Littorina saxatilis is an ovoviviparous organism in which shelled embryos can be directly observed in nearly all mature females captured in the wild. This characteristic has been used a number of times as an indirect estimate for fecundity of natural populations. However, there is no experimental corroboration that the number of embryos within a female brood pouch is actually related to the rate of hatching per unit of time, a more realistic estimate of female fecundity. In order to make this corroboration we estimated the correlation between the number of embryos in the brood pouch and the hatching rate of isolated females grown in the laboratory. We also compared the hatching rates of females from two sympatric ecotypes (RB and SU) of this species, which differ significantly in the number of embryos. We found a high agreement between hatching rate and number of embryos, concluding that the latter is a good proxy for fecundity.

  15. Cystic Endometrioma with Coexisting Fibroma Originating in a Supernumerary Ovary in the Rectovaginal Pouch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Asumi; Kodama, Hiroko; Ogura, Kanako; Miwa, Ayako; Sugimori, Yayoi; Matuoka, Shozo; Matsumoto, Toshiharu

    2017-01-01

    A supernumerary ovary is an exceedingly rare disorder, in which the structure containing ovarian tissue is located at some distance from the normally placed ovary. 16 cases of endometriosis or tumors originating in a supernumerary ovary have been published in the English literature, but no case of coexisting endometriosis and a tumor has been published. We present the case of a 40-year-old female with cystic endometrioma with coexisting fibroma originating in a supernumerary ovary in the rectovaginal pouch. The present case is the first to be reported with coexisting endometriosis and a tumor originating in a supernumerary ovary. Our experience with this case and the results of our previous studies of rectovaginal endometriosis indicated that the possibility of originating in a supernumerary ovary shall be examined in cases of cystic endometrioma in the rectovaginal pouch. PMID:28210515

  16. Nd:YAG photovaporization of residual equine guttural-pouch mycotic lesions after internal carotid occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Lloyd P.; Tudor, R. A.; Little, Edwina D. E.

    1998-07-01

    Hospital records reviewed over a 12-year period determined that 6 horses had been presented for guttural pouch mycosis. All had a history of epistaxis and several had accompanying neurologic signs, including dysphagia. Initially, conformation of the disease was obtained by radiographic and endoscopic examinations. Surgical treatment was directed at controlling and preventing additional hemorrhage by occluding the arterial source of the hemorrhage. Direct treatment of the mycotic plaque present within the guttural pouch was conducted using transendoscopic technique to direct irradiation from the Nd:YAG laser. The protocol described for the laser application was successful in resolving the lesions and was less complicated and stressful than previously reported topically applied chemical protocols.

  17. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H M; Rassing, M R; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    and porcine buccal mucosa. Further, the permeability rates of ten beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, labetalol, metoprolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, timolol and tertatolol) across the TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa were related to their lipophilicity...... x 10(-6) cm/s (metoprolol). For propranolol the cellular permeability value (P(c)) was lower than expected, probably due to accumulation in the TR146 cell layers. Limited correlation of permeability with k' was observed both for the TR146 cell culture model and the porcine buccal mucosa, although...

  18. One-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Barbagli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the reader with the detailed description of current techniques of one-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty. The paper provides the reader with the preoperative patient evaluation paying attention to the use of diagnostic tools. The one-stage penile urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft with the application of glue is preliminary showed and discussed. Two-stage penile urethroplasty is then reported. A detailed description of first-stage urethroplasty according Johanson technique is reported. A second-stage urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft and glue is presented. Finally postoperative course and follow-up are addressed.

  19. Enhanced delivery of ketobemidone through porcine buccal mucosa in vitro via more lipophilic ester prodrugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Bundgaard, H.

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro penetration of ketobemidone and various ester prodrugs through porcine buccal mucosa in a modified Ussing chamber was investigated in order to support the selection of a prodrug derivative with optimal buccal absorption. The nine esters studied included carboxylic acid and carbonate...... esters formed at the phenolic hydroxy group of ketobemidone. The esters were all rapidly hydrolyzed to the parent drug in a porcine buccal epithelial homogenate and only free ketobemidone was detected in the receptor compartment of the Ussing chamber. All the ester prodrugs showed enhanced rates...

  20. Effects of chlorhexidine on the structure and permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, B.V.; Squier, C.A.; Hall, B.K.

    1984-10-01

    This study examined the effects of chlorhexidine (CHD) on the clinical appearance, morphology, and in vitro permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa. The cheek pouches were treated daily for 3 weeks with topical applications of saline, 0.2% CHD, or 2.0% CHD. Treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in the formation of discrete white lesions in every animal in the group, whereas no changes were identified in any animal treated with 0.2% CHD or saline. Upon microscopic examination it was determined that treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in a statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness, when compared to the other groups, and the lesions were found to consist of hyperplastic areas of epithelium with associated inflammatory cell accumulations. Daily treatments with 2.0% CHD, 0.2% CHD or saline had no effect on the very low permeability of cheek pouch mucosa to /sup 14/C-CHD. However, treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in decreased permeability to /sup 3/H/sub 2/O when compared to the other groups. Treatment with 2.0% CHD also resulted in a thickened permeability barrier, as determined using a tracer, horseradish peroxidase. It is concluded that topical applications of 0.2% T CHD have no detectable effect on cheek-pouch mucosa while applications of 2.0% CHD result in hyperplasia and a decrease in mucosal permeability. Results suggest that CHD should be used with caution clinically and at a concentration of 0.2% or less.

  1. Expansion of Lithium Ion Pouch Cell Batteries: Observations from Neutron Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    electrolyte interface (SEI), and one which is reversible and follows the battery state of charge, expanding upon charging [4]. They attributed the...National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research. The collimated neutron beam originates from a 20MW reactor , which...electrodes stacked inside the pouch and electrically connected in parallel. The batteries were then filled with electrolyte , sealed, formed (cycled

  2. Two-staged management for all types of congenital pouch colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra K Ghritlaharey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to review our experience with two-staged management for all types of congenital pouch colon (CPC. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study included CPC cases that were managed with two-staged procedures in the Department of Paediatric Surgery, over a period of 12 years from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2011. Results: CPC comprised of 13.71% (97 of 707 of all anorectal malformations (ARM and 28.19% (97 of 344 of high ARM. Eleven CPC cases (all males were managed with two-staged procedures. Distribution of cases (Narsimha Rao et al.′s classification into types I, II, III, and IV were 1, 2, 6, and 2, respectively. Initial operative procedures performed were window colostomy (n = 6, colostomy proximal to pouch (n = 4, and ligation of colovesical fistula and end colostomy (n = 1. As definitive procedures, pouch excision with abdomino-perineal pull through (APPT of colon in eight, and pouch excision with APPT of ileum in three were performed. The mean age at the time of definitive procedures was 15.6 months (ranges from 3 to 53 months and the mean weight was 7.5 kg (ranges from 4 to 11 kg. Good fecal continence was observed in six and fair in two cases in follow-up periods, while three of our cases lost to follow up. There was no mortality following definitive procedures amongst above 11 cases. Conclusions: Two-staged procedures for all types of CPC can also be performed safely with good results. The most important fact that the definitive procedure is being done without protective stoma and therefore, it avoids stoma closure, stoma-related complications, related cost of stoma closure and hospital stay.

  3. Congenital pouch colon and segmental dilatation of the colon: A report of two unusual cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Puri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes two unusual cases of anorectal malformation. The first had a type III congenital pouch colon with a colovesical fistula. In the other very similar case, segmental dilatation of the colon was present along with penoscrotal hypospadias and, distally, a length of normal colon ending in a rectourethral fistula. In both patients, the appendix was short, stubby and a Y-shaped duplication of the normal colon was present just proximal to the dilated segment of colon.

  4. Modeling Lithium Ion Battery Safety: Venting of Pouch Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram.; Yang, Chuanbo.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the successful completion of the NREL July milestone entitled “Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Safety - Complete Case-Studies on Pouch Cell Venting,” as part of the 2013 Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This work aims to bridge the gap between materials modeling, usually carried out at the sub-continuum scale, and the

  5. Pouched Rats’ Detection of Tuberculosis in Human Sputum: Comparison to Culturing and Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mahoney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting. Tanzania. Objective. To compare microscopy as conducted in direct observation of treatment, short course centers to pouched rats as detectors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Design. Ten pouched rats were trained to detect tuberculosis in sputum using operant conditioning techniques. The rats evaluated 910 samples previously evaluated by smear microscopy. All samples were also evaluated through culturing and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed on culture growths to classify the bacteria. Results. The patientwise sensitivity of microscopy was 58.0%, and the patient-wise specificity was 97.3%. Used as a group of 10 with a cutoff (defined as the number of rat indications to classify a sample as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis of 1, the rats increased new case detection by 46.8% relative to microscopy alone. The average samplewise sensitivity of the individual rats was 68.4% (range 61.1–73.8%, and the mean specificity was 87.3% (range 84.7–90.3%. Conclusion. These results suggest that pouched rats are a valuable adjunct to, and may be a viable substitute for, sputum smear microscopy as a tuberculosis diagnostic in resource-poor countries.

  6. Functional morphology of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikera S. Ibe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A gross morphological study of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840 was undertaken in order to document its normal features and assess the structure-function paradigm. The study was conducted by direct observation of 29 adult African giant pouched rats’ brains. In the telencephalon, the cerebral cortex was devoid of prominent gyri and sulci, but the large olfactory bulb and tract relaying impulses to the olfactory cortex were very prominent. The large size of the olfactory bulb correlated with the established sharp olfactory acuity of the rodent. In the mesencephalic tectum, the caudal colliculi were bigger than the rostral colliculi, indicating a more acute sense of hearing than sight. In the metencephalon, the cerebellar vermis, the flocculus and the paraflocculus were highly coiled and, thus, well developed. The myelencephalon revealed a better organised ventral surface than dorsal surface; the cuneate fascicle, the intermediate sulcus and the lateral sulcus were not evident on the dorsal surface, but there were clearly visible pyramids and olivary prominence on the ventral surface. In conclusion, the highly coiled cerebellar vermis, flocculus and paraflocculus, as well as the conspicuous pyramids and olivary prominence are indicative of a good motor coordination and balance in the African giant pouched rat.

  7. Hormonal correlates of breeding behavior and pouch color in the Magnificent Frigatebird, Fregata magnificens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorno, José Luis; Núñez-de la-Mora, Alejandra; D'Alba, Liliana; Wingfield, John C

    2010-10-01

    It is well known that testosterone (T) influences the expression of the behavior and many sexual traits during reproduction in vertebrates. However, patterns of circulating concentrations of T vary tremendously across free-living populations. Here the profiles of plasma T levels in the Magnificent Frigatebird, Fregata magnificens, are presented during the courtship, incubation and chick rearing stages of breeding. In addition, the predicted interrelationship of T and the expression of a sexually selected trait, the red gular pouch of males is investigated. Plasma levels of corticosterone (Cort) are reported in relation to the demands of breeding conditions in colonies. Blood samples were obtained from 26 males and 32 females in the 1993-1994 breeding season and 41 courting males in 1997. Pouch color and size were also estimated in these males. As expected, T levels changed across the breeding stages: birds showed high levels of T during courtship and much lower circulating levels during incubation and chick rearing. Consistent with the expected effect of T, individual pouch color and size correlated with circulating levels of this hormone. In this highly dimorphic species no correlation was found between T and body condition or tail asymmetry. Cort, in contrast, did not change across the three reproductive stages.

  8. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOLOGIC FUNCTION OF COLONIC POUCH ANASTOMOSES AFTER EXCISION FOR RECTAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhongrong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the physiology value of colonic pouch anastomosis after rectal cancer excision. Methods:Forty-six patients with total mesonectal excision for carcinoma were randomized to either a straight (GroupA, n=23) or a colonic pouch anastomosis (Group B,n=23). The neorectal physiologic function of patients in both groups was evaluated, which included laboratory studies. Results: Sphincter pressures in both groups were similar. Preoperative compliance of the rectum was restored after surgery in the Group B, 0.296 (0.224-0.347) L/Kpa, but there was a significant decrease after surgery in the Group A, 0.194 (0.112-0.235) L/Kpa P<0.001. By a multiple regression analysis, neo-rectal compliance was associated with favorable clinical function, and hypermotility of the canal was associated with adverse clinical function. Conclusion: Colonic pouch-anastomosis restores neorectal compliance, which is important for good function after iow anterior resection.

  9. The potential of chitosan in enhancing peptide and protein absorption across the TR146 cell culture model-an in vitro model of the buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portero, Ana; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the potential of chitosan (CS) to enhance buccal peptide and protein absorption, the TR146 cell culture model, a model of the buccal epithelium, was used.......To investigate the potential of chitosan (CS) to enhance buccal peptide and protein absorption, the TR146 cell culture model, a model of the buccal epithelium, was used....

  10. Genetic and epigenetic alterations in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpu, Yannick; Hanoun, Naïma; Lulka, Hubert; Sicard, Flavie; Selves, Janick; Buscail, Louis; Torrisani, Jérôme; Cordelier, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. Despite significant progresses in the last decades, the origin of this cancer remains unclear and no efficient therapy exists. PDAC does not arise de novo: three remarkable different types of pancreatic lesions can evolve towards pancreatic cancer. These precursor lesions include: Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) that are microscopic lesions of the pancreas, Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms (IPMN) and Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms (MCN) that are both macroscopic lesions. However, the cellular origin of these lesions is still a matter of debate. Classically, neoplasm initiation or progression is driven by several genetic and epigenetic alterations. The aim of this review is to assemble the current information on genetic mutations and epigenetic disorders that affect genes during pancreatic carcinogenesis. We will further discuss the interest of the genetic and epigenetic alterations for the diagnosis and prognosis of PDAC. Large genetic alterations (chromosomal deletion/amplification) and single point mutations are well described for carcinogenesis inducers. Mutations classically occur within key regions of the genome. Consequences are various and include activation of mitogenic pathways or silencing of apoptotic processes. Alterations of K-RAS, P16 and DPC4 genes are frequently observed in PDAC samples and have been described to arise gradually during carcinogenesis. DNA methylation is an epigenetic process involved in imprinting and X chromosome inactivation. Alteration of DNA methylation patterns leads to deregulation of gene expression, in the absence of mutation. Both genetic and epigenetic events influence genes and non-coding RNA expression, with dramatic effects on proliferation, survival and invasion. Besides improvement in our fundamental understanding of PDAC development, highlighting the molecular alterations that occur in pancreatic carcinogenesis could

  11. Study of chemical and radiation induced carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmura, A.

    1995-11-01

    The study of chemical and radiation induced carcinogenesis has up to now based many of its results on the detection of genetic aberrations using the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. FISH is time consuming and this tends to hinder its use for looking at large numbers of samples. We are currently developing new technological advances which will increase the speed, clarity and functionality of the FISH technique. These advances include multi-labeled probes, amplification techniques, and separation techniques.

  12. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by retinoids. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nettesheim, P.

    1979-01-01

    Progress made in recent years in the search for retinoids with anticarcinogenic activity is reviewed. There are many studies to be found in the literature which show no substantial effect of retinoids on carcinogenesis or tumor growth. Some of these negative findings may be related to the carcinogen dose used, the type of retinoid used, the dose, dose schedule or mode of administration of the retinoid. Others may indicate that the particular type of tumor or tumor system is, indeed, refractory to retinoids in general or to those retinoids that were tested. A great gap still exists in our knowledge concerning the pharmake-kinetics of most retinoids their availability to various normal and cancerous tissues, and the role and existence of transport and binding proteins. There are studies which indicate that under certain conditions, particularly conditions of topical application, some retinoids may even enhance carcinogenesis. It seems, however, indisputable by now that some retinoids are effective inhibitors of carcinogenesis in some organ systems and can even inhibit the growth of some established tumors. While the mechanisms of these inhibitory effects are presently not understood, it does seem clear that they are not mediated via the cytotoxic mechanisms typical of chemotherapeutic agents. The hope that retinoids might become an effective tool to halt the progression of some neoplastic diseases, seems to be justified.

  13. A STUDY OF SEX CHEROMATIN FORM BUCCAL SMEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of sex of an individual is an important subject in Forensic Medicine and Criminology and in Civil Law. The determination of sex is necessary in both living and the dead bodies. The expert opinion of the medico legal specialist regarding positive identification of an individual will be required for the following reasons. For the identification of the sex of individual whether living or dead , For deciding cases relating to legitimacy, divorce, paternity, affiliation, marriage, education, im potence, right to disposal of property, and in intersex condition & in cases of concealed sex. Determination of sex will be done by presumptive, probable and certain signs of sex. Sex chromatin is a planoconvex mass of about 1 micron in diameter lying near nuclear membrane - Barr body. In the buccal smear the percentage of the nuclei containing chromatin body ranges from 0 to 4 in males & 20n to 80 in females . In females neutrophil leucocytes contain a small nuclear attachment of drum stick form - David son bo dy in up to 6% of cell . This is absent in males . Exact sex determination can be made by using a single specimen of buccal smear , saliva or hair follicle, by the combined treatment of quinacrinedi hydrochloride staining for Y chromosome which is seen as bright florescent body in the nuclei of male cell & florescent feulgen reaction using acriflavin Schiff reagent for X chromosomes , which is seen as bright yellow spot in the nuclei . The percentage of quanacrine positive bodies ranges from 45 to 80% in male s , and 0 to 4% in females . With feulgen reaction technique florescent bodies are found in 50 to 70 % of cell in females, and 0 to 2% in males. Determination of sex chromatin pattern was done by examination of oral smears technique on 50 males and 50 female s who have attended the Casualty of Government General Hospital, Ananthapuramu., A. P . , in the Dept . of forensic Medicine from 17 - 06 - 2012 to 30 - 12 - 2014. Slides were

  14. Evaluation of resorbable membrane in treatment of human gingival isolated buccal recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Narang

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Resorbable membrane is a versatile treatment modality for coverage of isolated buccal gingival recession. Although membrane exposure occurred in four patients, it did not interfere with post operative healing.

  15. Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Buccal Mucosa 19 Years after Radical Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernani Gil-Julio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC has high metastatic potential, which requires early diagnosis to optimize the chance of cure. Metastasis of RCC to the head and neck region is less common and metastasis to the buccal mucosa is extremely rare. This phenomenon occurs mostly in patients with generalized dissemination, especially with lung metastases. In this article we report a case of buccal mucosa metastasis from RCC in a 65-year-old man who presented 19 years after undergoing a left radical nephrectomy for clear cell RCC. Surgical excision of the buccal lesion was performed without evidence of recurrence or new metastatic lesions after 6 years of followup. To our knowledge, this is the first case of metastasis to the buccal mucosa from a RCC reported in the literature.

  16. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck Nielsen, H; Rømer Rassing, M; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal mucosa with respect to the enzyme activity in the tissues. For this purpose, the contents of aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase and esterase in homogenate supernatants of the TR146...... cell culture model, and human and porcine buccal epithelium were compared. The esterase activity in the intact cell culture model and in the porcine buccal mucosa was compared. Further, the TR146 cell culture model was used to study the permeability rate and metabolism of leu-enkephalin. The activity...... of the three enzymes in the TR146 homogenate supernatants was in the same range as the activity in homogenate supernatants of human buccal epithelium. In the TR146 cell culture model, the activity of aminopeptidase (13.70+/-2.10 nmol/min per mg protein) was approx. four times the activity of carboxypeptidase...

  17. Buccal absorption of ketobemidone and various ester prodrugs in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Jorgensen, A.; Rasmussen, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    The buccal absorption of ketobemidone, a strong narcotic analgesic, and various carboxylate and carbonate ester prodrugs was studied in rats. The compounds were administered in the form of aqueous solutions of pH 7.4. The absolute bioavailability of ketobemidone following buccal dosing was 26......% whereas the bioavailability of ketobemidone following buccal administration of the prodrugs ranged from 37 to 98%. The highest bioavailability was obtained with the ethyl carbonate ester. An apparent parabolic correlation between bioavailability and lipophilicity of the compounds was seen. All esters were...... rapidly hydrolyzed to ketobemidone after both buccal and intravenous administration. The acute toxicity of the esters after i.v. administration to mice and rats was similar to that of the parent drug. It is concluded that esterification of the phenolic hydroxyl group in ketobemidone to give a more...

  18. Buccal vs. nasogastric tube administration of tacrolimus after pediatric liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorhuis, JF; Scheenstra, R; Peeters, PMJG; Albers, MJIJ

    2006-01-01

    Tacrolimus is an important drug for immunosuppression after liver transplantation. Bioavailability of enterally administered tacrolimus is poor, and further reduced by gastric residuals or by enteral nutrition. Buccal administration might be an alternative route especially in children. Tacrolimus tr

  19. Relative Telomere Repeat Mass in Buccal and Leukocyte-Derived DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnicum, Casey T.; Dolan, Conor V.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Weber, Zachary M.; Petersen, Jason L.; Beck, Jeffrey J.; Codd, Veryan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Davies, Gareth E.; Ehli, Erik A.

    2017-01-01

    Telomere length has garnered interest due to the potential role it may play as a biomarker for the cellular aging process. Telomere measurements obtained from blood-derived DNA are often used in epidemiological studies. However, the invasive nature of blood draws severely limits sample collection, particularly with children. Buccal cells are commonly sampled for DNA isolation and thus may present a non-invasive alternative for telomere measurement. Buccal and leukocyte derived DNA obtained from samples collected at the same time period were analyzed for telomere repeat mass (TRM). TRM was measured in buccal-derived DNA samples from individuals for whom previous TRM data from blood samples existed. TRM measurement was performed by qPCR and was normalized to the single copy 36B4 gene relative to a reference DNA sample (K562). Correlations between TRM from blood and buccal DNA were obtained and also between the same blood DNA samples measured in separate laboratories. Using the classical twin design, TRM heritability was estimated (N = 1892, MZ = 1044, DZ = 775). Buccal samples measured for TRM showed a significant correlation with the blood-1 (R = 0.39, p < 0.01) and blood-2 (R = 0.36, p < 0.01) samples. Sex and age effects were observed within the buccal samples as is the norm within blood-derived DNA. The buccal, blood-1, and blood-2 measurements generated heritability estimates of 23.3%, 47.6% and 22.2%, respectively. Buccal derived DNA provides a valid source for the determination of TRM, paving the way for non-invasive projects, such as longitudinal studies in children. PMID:28125671

  20. Histopathological changes of free buccal mucosa and colonic mucosa grafts after translation to dog bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yue-min; LI Tai; SA Ying-long; QIAO Yong; ZHANG Hui-zhen; ZHANG Xin-ru; ZHANG Jiong; CHEN Zhong; XIE Hong; SI Jie-min

    2005-01-01

    @@ Over the past years, more cases using buccal mucosa for urethral reconstruction have been reported.1-4 The excellent early results with this tissue led some authors to extend their indications for its use. However, patients with complex, long-segment urethral strictures and significant scar tissue formation after the failure of previous urethroplasty, still present an operative challenge. The buccal mucosa may not be useful for the treatment of the complicated lengthy urethral strictures because of limited material.

  1. Colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis after ultralow anterior resection with upper sphincter excision for low-lying rectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae-Gahb Park; Min Ro Lee; Seok-Byung Lim; Chang Won Hong; Sang Nam Yoon; Sung-Bum Kang; Seung Chul Heo; Seung-Yong Jeong; Kyu Joo Park

    2005-01-01

    AIM: There is some evidence of functional superiority of colonic J-pouch over straight coloanal anastomosis (CAA)in ultralow anterior resection (ULAR) or intersphincteric resection. On the assumption that colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis is superior to straight CAA in ULAR with upper sphincter excision (USE: excision of the upper part of the internal sphincter) for low-lying rectal cancer, we compare functional outcome of colonic J-pouch vs the straight CAA.METHODS: Fifty patients of one hundred and thirty-three rectal cancer patients in whom lower margin of the tumors were located between 3 and 5 cm from the anal verge received ULAR including USE from September 1998 to January 2002. Patients were randomized for reconstruction using either a straight (n = 26) or a colonic J-pouch anastomosis (n = 24) with a temporary diverting-loop ileostomy. All patients were followed-up prospectively by a standardized questionnaire [Fecal Inco-ntinence Severity Index (FISI) scores and Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life (FIQL) scales].RESULTS: We found that, compared to straight anastomosis patients, the frequency of defecation was significantly lower in J-pouch anastomosis patients for 10 mo afterileostomy takedown. The FISI scores and FIQL scales were significantly better in J-pouch patients than in straight patients at both 3 and 12 mo after ileostomy takedown.Furthermore, we found that FISI scores highly correlated with FIQL scales.CONCLUSION: This study indicates that colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis decreases the severity of fecal incontinence and improves the quality of life for 10 mo after ileostomy takedown in patients undergoing ULAR with USE forlow-lying rectal cancer.

  2. Educative intervention for knowledge development on buccal health in elementary school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lidia García Álvarez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is high prevalence of buccal diseases which could be avoided with appropriate hygienic and alimentary habits that are supposed to be learned since the first stages of life. Objective: To verify the efficacy of an educative strategy on buccal health to develop buccal self-care through its application in girls and boys. Methods: An intervention study was developed with before and after design in 80 children of 5th grade and teachers of the primary school “Armando Mestre Martínez” in Cienfuegos, from September 2005 to March 2006. Initially, learning necessities and buccal hygiene were determined in both groups and later we verified the strategy efficiency. Initial information was obtained through surveys, focal groups, experts’ opinions and observation. Wilcoxon rank test was used for matched samples and Mc Nemar test for variables verification. Findings: Significant differences were obtained between the initial and final knowledge on buccal health and buccal hygiene coefficient. Qualitative methods showed audience approval of this strategy. Conclusions: Educative strategy applications allowed children learning actions of self-care as correct teeth brushing, use of dental floss, appropriate dietary selection and identification of prejudicial habits.

  3. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 were females in the age group of 20-30 years were selected as per inclusion criteria and were grouped as Group I having Class I malocclusion and as Group II having Class II malocclusions based on angle ANB. 12 linear and 2 angular cephalometric measurements and 4 study cast measurements were used to correlate with the buccal corridor linear ratio (BCLR, calculated on smile photograph using the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California, USA. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Buccal corridor space is larger in individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion when compared with individuals with Class I malocclusions. There exists a significant difference in buccal corridor space between males and females. Conclusion: The present study helps in establishing the correlation between certain factors and the amount of buccal corridor space in individuals having skeletal Class II pattern.

  4. Onset of buccal pumping in catshark embryos: how breathing develops in the egg capsule.

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    Taketeru Tomita

    Full Text Available Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the "internal gills." The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1 regression of the external gill filaments, (2 development of blood vessels within the "internal gills," (3 completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4 development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening.

  5. Treatment of inadequate lactation with oral sulpiride and buccal oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylikorkala, O; Kauppila, A; Kivinen, S; Viinikka, L

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-six puerperal women with inadequate lactation were treated with 50 mg sulpiride (N = 24) or placebo (N = 12) three times a day for two weeks. These treatments were supplemented with buccal oxytocin (100 IU, 300 IU, or 400 IU) or placebo preceding each breast-feeding on the sixth and 14th and on the seventh and 13th days of oral treatment, respectively. One woman treated with sulpiride and three women treated with placebo discontinued the trial because of the lack of the effect of treatment. The concentration of prolactin in maternal serum was higher (P less than .001) during sulpiride than placebo treatment at one week (380 +/- 43 ng/ml vs 23 +/- 7 ng/ml, mean +/- SE) and two weeks of treatment (381 +/- 38 ng/ml vs 34 +/- 10 ng/ml). Also, the daily breast milk yield, as measured objectively, was greater (P less than .05) during sulpiride than placebo treatment both at one week (628 +/- 51 ml vs 440 +/- 68 ml) and two weeks of treatment (684 +/- 67 ml vs 423 +/- 60 ml). Various doses of oxytocin failed to stimulate the milk secretion in the presence or absence of sulpiride-induced hyperprolactinemia. Thus, sulpiride improved inadequate lactation, whereas exogenous oxytocin alone or together with sulpiride had no effect on lactation in these mothers whose infants were able to suckle normally.

  6. Small Buccal Fat Pad Cells Have High Osteogenic Differentiation Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumachi, Niina; Akita, Daisuke; Kano, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Taro; Toriumi, Taku; Kazama, Tomohiko; Oki, Yoshinao; Tamura, Yoko; Tonogi, Morio; Isokawa, Keitaro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Honda, Masaki

    2016-03-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have mesenchymal stem cells' (MSCs) characteristics. Generally, mature adipocytes are 60-110 μm in diameter; however, association between adipocyte size and dedifferentiation efficiency is still unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the dedifferentiation efficiency of adipocytes based on cell diameter. Buccal fat pad was harvested from five human donors and dissociated by collagenase digestion. After exclusion of unwanted stromal cells by centrifugation, floating adipocytes were collected and their size distribution was analyzed. The floating adipocytes were then separated into two groups depending on cell size using 40- and 100-μm nylon mesh filters: cell diameters less than 40 μm (small adipocytes: S-adipocytes) and cell diameters of 40-100 μm (large adipocytes: L-adipocytes). Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of adipocyte dedifferentiation and then characterized the resultant DFAT cells. The S-adipocytes showed a higher capacity to dedifferentiate into DFAT cells (S-DFAT cells) compared to the L-adipocytes (L-DFAT cells). The S-DFAT cells also showed a relatively higher proportion of CD146-positive cells than L-DFAT cells, and exhibited more osteogenic differentiation ability based on the alkaline phosphatase activity and amount of calcium deposition. These results suggested that the S- and L-DFAT cells had distinct characteristics, and that the higher dedifferentiation potential of S-adipocytes compared to L-adipocytes gives the former group an advantage in yielding DFAT cells.

  7. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  8. Dental prosthesis and buccal lesions in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz García Alpizar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: Buccal lesions in the elderly are very frequent and they constitute a problem of health due to the consequences that cause. Objective: to describe the characteristics of the removable prosthesis used by the population of 60 and more years age and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. Methods: We carried out a study descriptive of cross section in 125 elderly with oral prosthesis. The characteristics of the removable prosthesis were described and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. The square chi tests and the analysis of relative risk were use to determine the association between the variables, also we used a logistical regression model to determine the independent relationship of each factor with the presence of the lesions. Results: We was a 12% of the people with stomatitis sub prosthesis, 8% presented lesions growth hyperplasic and 5,6% they were have angular queilitis. The lesions in the oral mucosa increased in people with prosthesis in not well state, bad hygiene this and in the female sex. Conclusion: the chronic lesions were the more prevalence in this study and they were very related with factors like: state of the conservation the prosthesis, time use, hygiene this and sex of the individual; but when determining the independent influence from each factor with the presence lesions, we established that only the state of conservation of the prosthesis and their hygiene affected of the important way to the old men of this study.

  9. Micronucleus frequency in buccal mucosa cells of mobile phone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzsche, Henning; Stopper, Helga

    2010-03-01

    Mobile phones are being used extensively throughout the world, with more than four billion accounts existing in 2009. This technology applies electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. Health effects of this radiation have been subject of debate for a long time, both within the scientific community and within the general public. This study investigated the effect of mobile phone use on genomic instability of the human oral cavity's mucosa cells. 131 Individuals donated buccal mucosa cells extracted by slightly scraping the oral cavity with a cotton swab. Every participant filled out a questionnaire about mobile phone use including duration of weekly use, overall period of exposure and headset usage. 13 Individuals did not use mobile phones at all, 85 reported using the mobile phone for three hours per week or less, and 33 reported use of more than three hours per week. Additionally, information on age, gender, body weight, smoking status, medication and nutrition was retrieved. For staining of the cells a procedure using alpha-tubulin-antibody and chromomycin A(3) was applied. Micronuclei and other markers were evaluated in 1000 cells per individual at the microscope. A second scorer counted another 1000 cells, resulting in 2000 analyzed cells per individual. Mobile phone use did not lead to a significantly increased frequency of micronuclei.

  10. Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of buccal candidiasis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Martins, Joyce da Silva; Faria, Raquel Lourdes; Colombo, Carlos Eduardo Dias; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2009-11-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effects of photodynamic therapy on buccal candidiasis in rats. After experimental candidiasis had been induced on the tongue dorsum, 72 rats were distributed into four groups according to treatment: treated with laser and methylene blue photosensitizer (L+P+); treated only with laser (L+P-); treated only with photosensitizer (L--P+); not treated with laser or photosensitizer (L-P-). The rats were killed immediately, 1 day, or 5 days after treatment, for microscopic analysis of the tongue dorsum. Observation verified that the photodynamic therapy group (L+P+) exhibited fewer epithelial alterations and a lower chronic inflammatory response than the L-P- group. The group L+P- presented more intense epithelial alterations and chronic inflammatory response than the remaining groups. The L-P+ group showed tissue lesions similar to those of the L-P- group. In conclusion, rats treated with photodynamic therapy developed more discrete candidiasis lesions than did the remaining groups.

  11. Cytokeratin expression in human fetal tongue and buccal mucosa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M M Vaidya; Sharda S Sawant; Anita M Borges; N K Naresh; Manda C Purandare; A N Bhisey

    2000-09-01

    Expression of cytokeratins (CK), a subset of intermediate filament (IF) proteins in epithelia, is developmentally regulated. CK expression may also change after malignant transformation. Our earlier studies on CK expression in human oral tumours and pre-cancerous lesions have shown specific changes in CK expression. We analysed CK expression in human tongue and buccal mucosa (BM) in fetuses in the embryonic age group of 16 to 27 weeks using biochemical and immunohistochemical techniques to find out whether there is any similarity in CK expression in human oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and fetal oral tissues. CK 1, 8 and 18 were detected in a majority of samples using both techniques. Our earlier studies had shown aberrant expression of CK 1 and 18 in many of the oral SCC and leukoplakias. Studies by immunohistochemistry showed that these different CK antigens were expressed in different cell layers. CK 1(2) were present in the stratified epithelial layers whereas CK 8 and 18 were restricted to glandular epithelium. Till 27 weeks of gestation, both tongue and BM expressed CK 1, 8 and 18 along with CK 6 and 16. Thus, fetal tissues showed some similarities in CK pattern with their respective SCC.

  12. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutani, Mitsuko; Fujimori, Hiroaki

    2013-12-01

    Cancer develops through diverse genetic, epigenetic and other changes, so-called 'multi-step carcinogenesis', and each cancer harbors different alterations and properties. Here in this article we review how poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is involved in multi-step and diverse pathways of carcinogenesis. Involvement of poly- and mono-ADP-ribosylation in carcinogenesis has been studied at molecular and cellular levels, and further by animal models and human genetic approaches. PolyADP-ribosylation acts in DNA damage repair response and maintenance mechanisms of genomic stability. Several DNA repair pathways, including base-excision repair and double strand break repair pathways, involve PARP and PARG functions. These care-taker functions of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation suggest that polyADP-ribosyation may mainly act in a tumor suppressive manner because genomic instability caused by defective DNA repair response could serve as a driving force for tumor progression, leading to invasion, metastasis and relapse of cancer. On the other hand, the new concept of 'synthetic lethality by PARP inhibition' suggests the significance of PARP activities for survival of cancer cells that harbor defects in DNA repair. Accumulating evidence has revealed that some PARP family molecules are involved in various signaling cascades other than DNA repair, including epigenetic and transcriptional regulations, inflammation/immune response and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, suggesting that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation both promotes and suppresses carcinogenic processes depending on the conditions. Expanding understanding of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation suggests that strategies to achieve cancer prevention targeting poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation for genome protection against life-long exposure to environmental carcinogens and endogenous carcinogenic stimuli.

  13. Localised inhibition of FGF signalling in the third pharyngeal pouch is required for normal thymus and parathyroid organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Jennifer R; Jackson, Abigail L; Gordon, Julie; Lickert, Heiko; Manley, Nancy R; Basson, M Albert

    2012-09-01

    The thymus and parathyroid glands are derived from the third pharyngeal pouch endoderm. The mechanisms that establish distinct molecular domains in the third pouch and control the subsequent separation of these organ primordia from the pharynx are poorly understood. Here, we report that mouse embryos that lack two FGF feedback antagonists, Spry1 and Spry2, display parathyroid and thymus hypoplasia and a failure of these organ primordia to completely separate from the pharynx. We show that FGF ligands and downstream reporter genes are expressed in highly regionalised patterns in the third pouch and that sprouty gene deletion results in upregulated FGF signalling throughout the pouch endoderm. As a consequence, the initiation of markers of parathyroid and thymus fate is altered. In addition, a normal apoptotic programme that is associated with the separation of the primordia from the pharynx is disrupted, resulting in the maintenance of a thymus-pharynx attachment and a subsequent inability of the thymus to migrate to its appropriate position above the heart. We demonstrate that the sprouty genes function in the pharyngeal endoderm itself to control these processes and that the defects in sprouty-deficient mutants are, at least in part, due to hyper-responsiveness to Fgf8. Finally, we provide evidence to suggest that parathyroid hypoplasia in these mutants is due to early gene expression defects in the third pouch, whereas thymus hypoplasia is caused by reduced proliferation of thymic epithelial cells in the thymus primordium.

  14. Mechanisms of carcinogenesis prevention by flavonoids

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    G. A. Belitsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of anticancerogenic effects of flavanoids and isocyanates from the plants widely consumed in the midland belt of Russia were reviewed. Data of studies both in vitro and in vivo were analyzed. Special attention was paid to inhibition of targets responsible for carcinogen metabolic activation, carcinogenesis promotion and tumor progression as well as neoangiogenesis. Besides that the antioxidant properties of flavonoids and their effects on cell cycle regulation, apoptosis initiation and cell mobility were considered.

  15. Effects of propionyl-L-carnitine on ischemia-reperfusion injury in hamster cheek pouch microcirculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominga Lapi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose Propionyl-L-carnitine (pLc exerts protective effects in different experimental models of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of intravenously and topically applied pLc on microvascular permeability increase induced by I/R in the hamster check pouch preparation. Methods The hamster check pouch microcirculation was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Microvascular permeability, leukocyte adhesion to venular walls, perfused capillary length and capillary red blood cell velocity (VRBC were evaluated by computer-assisted methods. E-selectin expression was assessed by in vitro analysis. Lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS formation were determined by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and 2’-7’-dichlorofluorescein (DCF, respectively. Results In control animals, I/R caused a significant increase in permeability and in the leukocyte adhesion in venules. Capillary perfusion and VRBC decreased. TBARS levels and DCF fluorescence significantly increased compared with baseline. Intravenously infused pLc dose-dependently prevented leakage and leukocyte adhesion, preserved capillary perfusion and induced vasodilation at the end of reperfusion, while ROS concentration decreased. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase prior to pLc caused vasoconstriction and partially blunted the pLc-induced protective effects; inhibition of the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF abolished pLc effects. Topical application of pLc on check pouch membrane produced the same effects as observed with intravenous administration. pLc decreased the E-selectin expression. Conclusions pLc prevents microvascular changes induced by I/R injury. The reduction of permeability increase could be mainly due to EDHF release induce vasodilatation together with NO. The reduction of E-selectin expression prevents leukocyte adhesion and permeability increase.

  16. A novel arterial pouch model of saccular aneurysm by concomitant elastase and collagenase digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Background: An ideal aneurysm model of cerebral aneurysm is of great importance for studying the pathogenesis of the lesion and testing new techniques for diagnosis and treatment. Several models have been created in rabbits and are now widely used in experimental studies; however, every model has certain intrinsic limitations. Here we report the development of a novel saccular aneurysm model in rabbits using an arterial pouch that is subject to in vitro pre-digestion with combined elastase and collagenase. Methods: A segment of right common carotid artery (CCA) was dissected out and treated with elastase (60 U/ml, 20 min) followed by type I collagenase (1 mg/ml, 15 min) in vitro. The graft was anastomosed to an arterial arch built with the left CCA and the remaining right CCA, while the other end of the graft was ligated. The dimension and tissue structure of the pouch were analysed immediately, 2 or 8 weeks after operation. Findings: Ten terminal aneurysms were produced. The gross morphology of the aneurysm resembles the human cerebral terminal aneurysms. We have observed the following pathological changes:(1) growth of the aneurysm (mean diameter increased from (2.0±0.1) to (3.2±0.3) mm at 2 weeks, P<0.001, n=7~10); (2) thinning of the aneurysmal wall (the mean wall thickness decreased to 44% at 2 weeks), which was accompanied by significant losses of elastic fibres, collagen and the cellular component; and (3) spontaneous rupture (3 out of 9, one aneurysm ruptured 24 h after operation with the other two at 2 and 4 weeks respectively). Conclusion: This rabbit arterial pouch model mimics human cerebral aneurysms in relation to morphology and histology. In particular, this model exhibited an increased tendency of spontaneous rupture.

  17. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

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    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  18. Estimating Fatty Acid Composition of Infant Buccal Mucosal Cells by Capillary Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei; ZHANG Wei-li; LI Fang; ZHU Xiao-dong; ZHU Jian-xing

    2008-01-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty adds, i. e., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA or C22 : 6n -3), arachidonic acid (AA or C20 : 4n - 6) have been identified as essential fatty acids and play an important role in growth and development of infants. Mensurement of fatty acid composition is usually by collection of blood, but to obtain blood in infants is difficult. Nowadays, the fatty acid composition can be estimated by collecting buccal mucosal cells, which can avoid repeated blood sampling. The purpose of this paper is to compare the fatty acid composition of cheek calls with that of plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). In this study, twenty-seven infants were enrolled, and buccal mucosal cells and blood samples were obtained from these infants of the same time. Fatty acid composition of buccal mucesal cells, plasma and RBCs were measured by capillary gas chromatography. The results show that the contents of AA and DHA in the buccal mucosal cells are correlated well with that in the plasma [r=0.36 (P=0.042) and r=0.38 (P=0.033), respectively]. The ratio of AA to DHA is 1.32% in buccal mucosal cells, 1.60% in plasma and 1.55% in RBCs and there are no significant differences among groups (P = 0.134). It shows that the fatty acid composition in buccal mucosal cells can reflect the fat nutrition status in infants and can be detected by capillary gas chromatography. Estimating fatty acid composition of buccal mucosal cells in infants by capillary gas chromatography is feasible, and because of its noninvasiveness, it can be suitable for nutrition research in infants.

  19. Azithromycin buccal patch in treatment of chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Sajith Abdul; Vandana, K. L.; Thimmashetty, J.; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to explore the clinical, microbiological, and biochemical impact of azithromycin (AZM) buccal patch in chronic generalized patients as a monotherapy as well as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy. Materials and Methods: A parallel design was used forty periodontitis patients were randomly allocated into five groups, namely Group 1 scaling root planing (SRP) alone, Group 2 (SRP + AZM patch group), Group 3 (SRP + AZM tablet group), Group 4 (AZM patch monotherapy), and Group 5 (AZM tablet as monotherapy). Plaque index, gingival bleeding index, modified gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were assessed at baseline and 21 and 90 days. Subgingival pooled plaque sample was collected to assess periodontopathogens like Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) by anaerobic culture method. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was also evaluated at baseline and 21 days. Periodontal maintenance was performed in Group 1 until 90th day, and clinical parameter was assessed at the end of 90th day. Results: SRP + AZM tablets showed greater reduction in clinical parameters (P < 0.05) AZM as monotherapy did not offer clinical benefits over SRP. Baseline data were compared at the end, i.e., 90th day a significant reduction in plaque scores, gingival bleeding, and PPD was observed however no significant gain in the clinical attachment was observed. Conclusion: The monotherapy resulted in no improvement of periodontal parameters, microbial parameters, and TNF-α level. It is safe to use AZM + SRP as a mode of nonsurgical treatment in periodontitis patients. PMID:27127325

  20. Effects on the pouch of different digestive tract reconstruction modes assessed by radionuclide scintigraphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of three digestive tract reconstruction procedures on pouch function, after radical surgery undertaken because of gastric cancer, as assessed by radionuclide dynamic imaging. METHODS: As a measure of the reservoir function, with a designed diet containing technetium-99m (99mTc), the emptying time of the gastric substitute was evaluated using a 99mTc-labeled solid test meal. Immediately after the meal, the patient was placed in front of a γ camera in a supine position and the rad...

  1. Effect of Withania somnifera on glycosaminoglycan synthesis in carrageenin-induced air pouch granuloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, V.H.; Sadique, J.

    1987-12-01

    The effect of W. somnifera on glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the granulation tissue of carrageenin-induced air pouch granuloma was studied. W. somnifera was shown to exert significant inhibitory effect on incorporation of /sup 35/S into the granulation tissue. The uncoupling effect on oxidative phosphorylation (ADP/O ratio reduction) was also observed in the mitochondria of granulation tissue. Further, Mg/sup 2 +/ dependent ATPase activity was found to be influenced by W. somnifera. W. somnifera also reduced the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in the mitochondria of granulation tissue.

  2. Carcinogenesis--a new point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkyan, L; Gambashidze, K

    2014-04-01

    Presented article suggests the novel hypothesis of carcinogenesis, where the key moment for all types (biological, physical, chemical) of carcinogenesis has been discussed. For confirmation of the hypothesis thorough theoretical analysis of the mechanisms of malignant transformation of cells after influence of any type of carcinogens and results of experiments have been presented. Hypothesis highlights are formulated as follows: 1) Covalent bond disorders between S+-methionine and Fe3+ atoms in cytochrome; 2) Electron transport chain blockade with certain ligand after its penetration in cytochrome pocket with further formation of 6th coordination bond between ligand and Fe atom (in one case increase in mitochondrial pH precede-, and in other, it follows electron transport chain blockade in cytochromes); 3) Fe3+ reduction up to Fe2+ leading to blockade of aerobic glycolysis; 4) Decrease in enzyme (Е1-TDP, oxidases etc.) activity due to mitochondrial pH alterations; 5) Production of S-adenosylmethionine owing to lipoic acid amide leading to accumulation of homocysteine in cytoplasm with further penetration in cell nucleus producing DNA mutations; 6) Fe2+ wash-out from cytochrome and its deposition in ferritin.

  3. Aberrant DNA methylation in cervical carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Juan Yang

    2013-01-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus(HPV) is known to cause cervical cancer; however,additional genetic and epigenetic alterations are required for progression from precancerous disease to invasive cancer.DNA methylation is an early and frequent molecular alteration in cervical carcinogenesis.In this review,we summarize DNA methylation within the HPV genome and human genome and identify its clinical implications.Methylation of the HPV long control region (LCR) and L1 gene is common during cervical carcinogenesis and increases with the severity of the cervical neoplasm.The L1 gene of HPV16 and HPV18 is consistently hypermethylated in invasive cervical cancers and can potentially be used as a clinical marker of cancer progression.Moreover,promoters of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) involved in many cellular pathways are methylated in cervical precursors and invasive cancers.Some are associated with squamous cell carcinomas,and others are associated with adenocarcinomas.Identification of methylated TSGs in Pap smear could be an adjuvant test in cervical cancer screening for triage of women with high-risk HPV,atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance,or low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL).However,consistent panels must be validated for this approach to be translated to the clinic.Furthermore,reversion of methylated TSGs using demethylating drugs may be an alternative anticancer treatment,but demethylating drugs without toxic carcinogenic and mutagenic properties must be identified and validated.

  4. J-pouch Ileoanal Anastomosis in Children and Adolescents with Ulcerative Colitis: Functional Outcome, Satisfaction and Impact on Social Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, V; Hesselfeldt, Peter; Qvist, N

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate, over a 10-year period, severe surgical complications, functional outcome, patient satisfaction and impact on social life after colectomy and J-pouch ileoanal anastomosis for children and adolescents ... were extracted retrospectively from medical records and obtained by mailed questionnaire. RESULTS: Thirty patients (18 girls) with a median age of 15 years (range, 7-17 years) were identified. Two patients (7%) had the J-pouch removed because of intractable diarrhea. Twenty-seven of 28 patients...... with preserved J-pouch answered the questionnaire. The median follow-up was 3.7 years (range, 0.3-9.2 years). Surgical complications included eight of 30 patients (27%) with small bowel obstruction, one of 30 (4%) with intra-abdominal abscess and two of 30 (7%) with perforation of the small intestine. The median...

  5. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits.

  6. Genotoxic effects of panoramic radiation by assessing the frequency of micronuclei formation in exfoliated buccal epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya KB

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Panoramic radiography is one of the most commonly used radiographic methods to complement clinical examination. Ionizing radiation is a well-known mutagen and carcinogen in the human population. So this study was undertaken to evaluate the possible genotoxic effects of panoramic radiation by assessing the frequency of micronuclei formation in the exfoliated buccal epithelium. Methods: 50 patients of either sex in the age range of 15 to 75 years with apparently normal oral mucosa with no adverse habits and without any oral lesions were included in the present study after their consent. Buccal epithelial cells were obtained from the buccal mucosa by scraping with the toothbrush immediately before and after 10 +/- 2 days of exposure to panoramic radiography. Cytological preparations were stained and observed under microscope. Student's paired and lsquo;t' test was used for the comparison between mean frequency of micronuclei in buccal epithelial cells in patients before and after panoramic radiography. Results: Significant increase (P <0.0001 in the frequency of cells with micronuclei and total number of micronuclei after panoramic radiography was detected. Conclusion: The X-radiation emitted during panoramic radiography does induce some genotoxic changes in the form of increased frequency of micronuclei in target buccal epithelial cells. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 541-544

  7. Influence of Smile Arc and Buccal Corridors on Facial Attractiveness: A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Shashank; Vaz, Anna C; Singh, Baldeep; Taneja, Lavina; Vinod, KS; Verma, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Two aspects of the smile: the Smile Arc (SA) and Buccal Corridors (BC) have been the interest of the orthodontist in recent years. Aim The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the smile arc and buccal corridors on facial attractiveness as evaluated by orthodontists, general dentists and laymen. Materials and Methods Two subjects (one male & one female) were selected from the regional population fulfilling the criteria of an ideal smile arc and ideal buccal corridors. Frontal smile view photographs of these subjects were taken and modified by using adobe photoshop 7.0 to create combination of three smile arc variance and three buccal corridors variations respectively which were shown to 25 orthodontists, 25 general dentists & 25 laymen, to rate the facial attractiveness of each image on a rating scale. Results All the three groups (laypersons, dentists and orthodontists) showed significant difference in ratings, indicating that they had different perceptions on the facial attractiveness. Conclusion Orthodontists were more precise in discerning the smile arc and buccal corridors compared to dentists and laypersons. PMID:27790573

  8. Efficacy and usability of buccal midazolam in controlling acute prolonged convulsive seizures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Khosroshahi, Nahid; Karimi, Parviz; Malamiri, Reza Azizi; Bavarian, Behrouz; Zarch, Anoushiravan Vakili; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Kompani, Farshid

    2010-09-01

    A Prolonged convulsive seizure is the most common neurological medical emergency with poor outcome. An ideal anticonvulsant should be easy-to-use, effective, and safe, and it should also have a long-lasting effect. Benzodiazepines, give via the intravenous or rectal route have generally been used as first-line drugs. In small children, IV access can be difficult and time consuming. Midazolam is a potent anticonvulsant and is rapidly absorbed from the rectal, nasal, and buccal mucosa. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and usability of buccal midazolam in controlling seizures in children with acute prolonged seizures, by comparing it with rectal diazepam. Ninety-eight patients were enrolled, with 49 patients in each treatment group. In the buccal midazolam group, 42 (88%) patients were controlled in less than 4 min of drug administration, and all of the patients were controlled within 5 min of drug administration. In the rectal diazepam group, 24 (49%) patients were controlled in less than 4 min and 40 (82%) patients were controlled within 5 min of drug administration. The time for drug administration and drug effect was significantly less with buccal midazolam than with rectal diazepam (p valuediazepam group, 7 (14%) parents were satisfied. Buccal midazolam was significantly more acceptable than rectal diazepam (p valuediazepam but more convenient to use in the controlling acute prolonged seizures in children, especially in situations in which there is a difficulty in gaining IV access, for example, in infants.

  9. Influence of anatomic reference on the buccal contour of prosthetic crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Sabrina Queirós Vasconcelos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During clinical practice, when performing prosthetic rehabilitation with single crowns, improper reproduction of the dental contour by the dental laboratory is a common occurrence. Therefore, the present study evaluated the fidelity of the reproduction of the buccal contour in an upper left canine performed by three Dental Prosthesis Technicians (DPT using the indirect laminate veneer technique. First, the DPTs confected the veneers based on a model obtained from the upper arch of a dental dummy, containing a replica of an upper left canine with a prosthetic preparation for a laminate veneer. Then, the same DPTs received other identical models, now with the replica of the upper left canine with no preparation, to be used as an anatomical reference for confecting the laminate veneers. The laminate veneers were then bonded to the plaster models and had their buccal contour individually measured. Measurements were also made of the buccal contour of the reference canine. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and the t-test (p = 0.05. Results showed 100% of buccal overcontour when the laminate veneers were compared to the reference canine, regardless of which DPT confected the veneer and regardless of using or not the anatomical reference. The DPTs who participated in the present study were unable to acomplish a faithful anatomical reproduction of the buccal contour, creating an overcontour in all samples. This situation may be responsible for increasing the probability of periodontal and esthetic harm in clinical practice.

  10. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of buccal bioadhesive films containing salbutamol sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay; Soni, Rajeev; Rawat, Manoj Kumar; Jain, Achint; Deshpande, Shripad Bhimarao; Deshpande, Shripad Bheemrao; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Muthu, Madaswamy Sona

    2010-03-01

    The aim of present study was to prepare and evaluate buccal bioadhesive films of salbutamol sulphate (SS) for the treatment of asthma. The films were designed to release the drug for a prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration of the available conventional dosage forms of SS. The different proportions of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and Carbopol 940P (CP 940P) were used for the preparation of films. Carbopol was used to incorporate the desired bioadhesiveness in the films. The films were prepared by solvent casting method and evaluated for bioadhesion, in vitro drug release and anti asthmatic effect (bronchoprotection) in histamine induced bronchospasm of guinea pigs. In vitro drug release from the film was determined using a modified Franz diffusion cell while bioadhesiveness was evaluated with a modified two-arm balance using guinea pig buccal mucosa as a model tissue. Films containing SCMC : CP 940P ratio of 76 : 24 was found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force and in vitro drug release. The drug release mechanism was found to follow non-Fickian diffusion as release mechanism. The prolonged in vivo effect (bronchoprotection) obtained from the buccal bioadhesive film of SS administered via buccal route may improve the treatment of asthmatic disorders by reducing the frequency of administration which is associated with the tolerance effect of SS. Additionally for the clinical benefit, it is also expected to reduce the major adverse effects of SS such as tachycardia and arrhythmias via buccal absorption.

  11. A comparative ex vivo drug permeation study of beta-blockers through porcine buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Sonia; Lauroba, Jacinto; Calpena, Ana; Colom, Helena; Gimeno, Alvaro; Domenech, José

    2014-07-01

    Apparent permeability coefficients (kp) of a series of beta-blockers: acebutolol, atenolol, labetalol, metoprolol, oxprenolol and propranolol, through porcine buccal mucosa were determined. The aim of the study was to determine the permeation parameters (apparent permeability coefficient, kp; flux, J; and lag time, TL) as a measure of the intrinsic permeability of porcine buccal mucosa to these drugs, in order to predict the efficacy of their possible administration through human buccal mucosa. A positive linear correlation was observed between the apparent permeability coefficient, kpand the partition coefficient, P. Oxprenolol and propranolol are the drugs that presented the highest values of kp: 0.3231×10(2) cm/h and 0.5666×10(2) cm/h, respectively. Multiple linear regression (MLR) using least square estimation was performed on the data set with logkpas dependent variable and the descriptors as predictor variables. The potential systemic capacity after a buccal administration was predicted by estimating the plasma concentrations at steady-stated (Css). Considering the entire process of permeation ex vivo, propranolol and oxprenolol would seem to be the best candidates for administration through the buccal mucosa.

  12. Use of buccal myomucosal flap for palatal lengthening in cleft palate patient: Experience of 20 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Varghese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of the buccal myomucosal flap in secondary repairs of cleft palate in 20 patients. Patients and Methods: Totally, 20 patients, who underwent secondary palatoplasty between 5 years and 8 years in which a buccal myomucosal flap was used, were reviewed retrospectively. All patients had undergone at least one previous attempted repair at other institutions. Indications for the secondary repair included velopharyngeal incompetence and/or oronasal fistula. Patients were evaluated preoperatively for oronasal fistula status, velopharyngeal competence, nasal resonance, speech quality, and nasal escape. Results: The buccal myomucosal flap was used in all 20 patients, and there was marked increase in the quality of speech as well as nasal regurgitation decreased. In patients with levator dysfunction due to poor primary surgery and glottal speech the results were inconclusive Conclusion: Palate re-repair combined with a buccal myomucosal flap, occasionally in conjunction with other techniques, is an effective method for correcting failed cleft palate repairs. Minimum donor site morbidity and complication makes the buccal flap a useful armamentarium of a cleft surgeon.

  13. A newer variant of congenital pouch colon with rectal agenesis: management strategy and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A 3-day-old male baby presented with clinico-radiological features of rectal atresia with colo-urinary fistula. There was no radiological evidence of congenital pouch colon (CPC), but per-operatively CPC of unusual anatomy was found. The CPC was intermediate between type I and type II of Narsimha’s classification. The pouch had rudimentary appendix and proximal colovesical fistula. The distal end of CPC was free. In the first stage, diverting ileostomy was done. In follow-up, after 1 month be...

  14. Redo Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis combined with anti-TNF-α maintenance therapy for Crohn's disease with pelvic fistula: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Toshimitsu; Okita, Yoshiki; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Ohi, Masaki; Tanaka, Koji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2014-10-01

    Pouch failure has been reported to occur after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for Crohn's disease. We report two cases of patients with Crohn's disease, who underwent redo ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (redo-IPAA) combined with anti-TNF-α maintenance therapy, with good functional results. The first patient, a man with presumed ulcerative colitis, suffered pelvic fistula recurrence and anastomotic dehiscence. He underwent redo-IPAA, at which time longitudinal ulcers were found. Infliximab was started 4 days postoperatively and continued. The second patient, a woman treated for ulcerative colitis, underwent laparoscopic IPAA 8 years later. After the development of a pelvic fistula, twisted mesentery of the ileal pouch was found intraoperatively and Crohn's disease was diagnosed. Adalimumab therapy resulted in fistula closure. Redo-IPAA was performed to normalize the twisted mesentery of the ileal pouch. No complications have been observed in either patient, both of whom have experienced good functional results after closure of the covering stomas.

  15. The pouch and tunnel technique for management of multiple gingival recession defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sneha; Dhage, Aditi; Gundannavar, Gayatri

    2014-01-01

    The desire for improved esthetics has increased tremendously over the years. Periodontal plastic surgery deals with regenerative procedures designed to restore form, function and enhance esthetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of subepithelial connective tissue graft using pouch and tunnel technique as root coverage procedure. Three patients corresponding to a total of 8 sites participated in the study. Maxillary teeth with miller's class I gingival recession were included in the study. All the sites were treated using subepithelial connective tissue graft using pouch and tunneling technique. Patients were followed up for a period of 6 months and 1 year. All the treated teeth showed 100% root coverage at the end of 6 months and 1 year. Gingival recession is a common occurrence and its prevalence increases with age. It can lead to clinical problems, diminished cosmetic appeal and hence esthetic concern. There are various techniques for root coverage. Subepithelial connective tissue graft has shown the best predictability (95%) of root coverage in Millers class I & II cases. This technique preserves the intermediate papilla, accelerates the initial wound healing & also applies less traction. Due to minimal trauma at the recipient site, this procedure may be advantageous in treatment of recession as compared to other treatment modalities.

  16. A new sand pouch-plant infection technique for enumeration of rhizobia in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Martyniuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A sand pouch-plant infection technique for counting most probable numbers of rhizobia in soil is described. Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifoli detected by the plant infection method performed in enclosed glass tubes or in sand pouches did not differ significantly. The described method was used to assess numbers of R. leguminosarum bv. trifoli (R.l.t. and bv. viciae (R.l.v. in 20 soils of Poland. Logarithms of the populations of R.l.t. in the tested soils ranged from not detectable level to 4.76 and those of R.l.v. from 2.23 to 5.84 in g1 of soil dry mass. Numbers of R.l.t. were significantly correlated with soil clay, C org, and total N contents but not with the soil pH (in KCI, while numbers of R.l.v. showed significant correlation only with the soil pH.

  17. Matrix metalloproteinases in the restorative proctocolectomy pouch of pediatric ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura M(a)kitalo; Maija Piekkala; Merja Ashorn; Mikko Pakarinen; Antti Koivusalo; Riitta Karikoski; Johanna Natunen

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in pouch mucosa of pediatric onset ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS:In this cross-sectional study,28 patients with pediatric onset UC underwent ileal pouch biopsy 13 years (median) after proctocolectomy.Expression of MMPs-3,-7,-8,-9,-12 and-26 and TIMPs-1,-2 and-3 in samples was examined using immunohistochemichal methods,and another biopsy was used to evaluate the grade of histological inflammation.Two investigators independently graded the immunohistochemical specimens in a semiquantitative fashion,using a scale marking staining intensity as follows:0 =less than 20 positive cells; 1 =20-50 positive cells; 2 =50-200 positive cells; 3 =over 20 positive cells.Fecal calprotectin and blood inflammatory markers [serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate] were determined during a follow-up visit to examine correlations between these markers and the expression of MMPs and TIMPs.RESULTS:Of the 28 patients with pediatric onset UC,nine had not experienced pouchitis,whereas thirteen reported a single episode,and six had recurrent pouchitis (≥ 4 episodes).At the time of the study,six patients required metronidazole.In all of the others,the most recent episode of pouchitis had occurred over one month earlier,and none were on antibiotics.Only four samples depicted no sign of inflammation,and these were all from patients who had not had pouchitis.Two samples were too small to determine the grade of inflammation,but both had suffered pouchitis,the other recurrent.No sample depicted signs of colonic metaplasia.Most pouch samples showed expression of epithelial (e) and stromal (s) MMP-3 (e,n =22; s,n =20),MMP-7 (e,n =28; s,n =27),MMP-12 (e,n =20; s,n =24),TIMP-2 (e,n =23; s,n =23) and MMP-3 (e,n =23; s,n =28) but MMP-8 (e,n =0; s,n =1),MMP-9 (e,n =0; s,n =9) and MMP-26 (e,n =0; s,n =3) and TIMP-1 (n =0,both) were lacking.In samples with low grade of inflammatory activity

  18. Differences in motility pattern between human buccal fibroblasts and periodontal and skin fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepekhin, Eugene; Grøn, Birgitte; Berezin, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    Migration of fibroblasts from surrounding normal tissue into the wound bed is an important requirement for successful wound healing. This study investigated the motility pattern of buccal, periodontal and skin fibroblasts to determine whether differences in the wound healing efficiency...... at these sites can be explained by differences in the motile behavior of their respective fibroblast populations. The migratory characteristics were studied in a two-dimensional culture system. The migration of single cells was time-lapse video recorded at intervals of 15 min for a period of 6 h using a computer...... displacement of periodontal and skin fibroblasts. The decreased cellular displacement of the buccal fibroblasts was found to be due to both lower cellular speed and less persistence in direction. The buccal fibroblasts also displayed smaller areas and longer processes. The differences in cellular morphology...

  19. DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH in buccal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Cortés-Gutiérrez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH is a recently developed technique that allows cell-by-cell detection and quantification of DNA breakage in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. The present investigation was conducted to adapt the methodology of DBD-FISH to the visualization and evaluation of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells. DBD-FISH revealed that DNA damage increased significantly according to H2O2 concentration (r2=0.91. In conclusion, the DBD-FISH technique is easy to apply in buccal cells and provides prompt results that are easy to interpret. Future studies are needed to investigate the potential applicability of a buccal cell DBD-FISH model to human biomonitoring and nutritional work.

  20. DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) in buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; Fernández, J L; López-Fernández, C; Gosálvez, J

    2012-12-28

    DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) is a recently developed technique that allows cell-by-cell detection and quantification of DNA breakage in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. The present investigation was conducted to adapt the methodology of DBD-FISH to the visualization and evaluation of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells. DBD-FISH revealed that DNA damage increased significantly according to H2O2 concentration (r2=0.91). In conclusion, the DBD-FISH technique is easy to apply in buccal cells and provides prompt results that are easy to interpret. Future studies are needed to investigate the potential applicability of a buccal cell DBD-FISH model to human biomonitoring and nutritional work.

  1. Prosthetic improvement of pronounced buccally positioned zygomatic implants: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Ataís; Santos, Mateus Bertolini Fernandes dos; Pimentel, Marcele Jardim; Nóbilo, Mauro Antonio de Arruda; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek

    2014-08-01

    This report presents a prosthetic technique for the improvement of surgically positioned, buccally placed zygomatic implants with the use of custom abutments for improved retention screw position and an esthetic implant reconstruction. The patient presented four zygomatic implants with pronounced buccal inclination. The anterior implants were inclined toward the location where the anterior artificial teeth should be placed during rehabilitation. As the manufacturer does not provide angulated abutments, we attempted the waxing and overcasting of a prosthetic abutment, repositioning the access holes of the prosthetic screws to a more palatal position. This clinical report demonstrates that abutment customization could be an interesting way to relocate the access holes of the prosthetic screws in cases of zygomatic implants with pronounced buccal inclination.

  2. HIV infection induces morphometrical changes on the oral (buccal mucosa and tongue) epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompermayer, Adriane Bastos; Gil, Francisca Berenice Dias; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Fernandes, Angela; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess morphological and morphometrical alterations of oral squamous epithelial cells in type 1 HIV infected individuals. Oral smears were collected from tongue and buccal mucosa of 30 HIV infected (experimental) and 30 non-infected (control) individuals by liquid-based exfoliative cytology. The cells were morphologically analyzed and the nuclear area (NA), the cytoplasmic area (CA) and the nucleus-to-cytoplasm area ratio (NA/CA) were calculated. No morphological differences were found between the groups. The mean values of CA were decreased in tongue (P=.00006) and buccal mucosa (P=.00242) in HIV infected individual, while mean values of NA were increased (P=.00308 and .00095, respectively) in the same group. NA/CA ratio for experimental group was increased in both collected places, with P=.00001 (tongue) and P=.00000 (buccal mucosa). This study revealed that HIV infection was able to induce morphometrical changes on the oral epithelial cells.

  3. (Radiation carcinogenesis in the whole body system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1990-12-14

    The objectives of the trip were: to take part in and to give the summary of a Symposium on Radiation Carcinogenesis at Tokyo, and to give a talk at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences at Chiba. The breadth of the aspects considered at the conference was about as broad as is possible, from effects at the molecular level to human epidemiology, from the effects of tritium to cancer induction by heavy ions. The events induced by cancer that lead to cancer and the events that are secondary are beginning to come into better focus but much is still not known. Interest in suppressor genes is increasing rapidly in the studies of human tumors and many would predict that the three or four suppressor genes associated with cancer are only the first sighting of a much larger number.

  4. Role of retinoic receptors in lung carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyi-Vamos Ferenc

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several in vitro and in vivo studies have examined the positive and negative effects of retinoids (vitamin A analogs in premalignant and malignant lesions. Retinoids have been used as chemopreventive and anticancer agents because of their pleiotropic regulator function in cell differentiation, growth, proliferation and apoptosis through interaction with two types of nuclear receptors: retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors. Recent investigations have gradually elucidated the function of retinoids and their signaling pathways and may explain the failure of earlier chemopreventive studies. In this review we have compiled basic and recent knowledge regarding the role of retinoid receptors in lung carcinogenesis. Sensitive and appropriate biological tools are necessary for screening the risk population and monitoring the efficacy of chemoprevention. Investigation of retinoid receptors is important and may contribute to the establishment of new strategies in chemoprevention for high-risk patients and in the treatment of lung cancer.

  5. Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis and Human Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang van Tong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer may be induced by many environmental and physiological conditions. Infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites have been recognized for years to be associated with human carcinogenicity. Here we review current concepts of carcinogenicity and its associations with parasitic infections. The helminth diseases schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis are highly carcinogenic while the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, has a dual role in the development of cancer, including both carcinogenic and anticancer properties. Although malaria per se does not appear to be causative in carcinogenesis, it is strongly associated with the occurrence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma in areas holoendemic for malaria. The initiation of Plasmodium falciparum related endemic Burkitt lymphoma requires additional transforming events induced by the Epstein-Barr virus. Observations suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis may be a relevant co-factor in HTLV-1-related T cell lymphomas. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of parasitic infection-induced carcinogenicity.

  6. A cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of buccal bone thickness following maxillary expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyalcin, Sercan; Englih, Jeryl D.; Stephens, Claude R.; Winkelmann, Sam [Dept. of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (United States); Schaefer, Jeffrey S. [Todd Hughes Orthodontics, Houston (United States)

    2013-06-15

    This study was performed to determine the buccal alveolar bone thickness following rapid maxillary expansion (RME) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Twenty-four individuals (15 females, 9 males; 13.9 years) that underwent RME therapy were included. Each patient had CBCT images available before (T1), after (T2), and 2 to 3 years after (T3) maxillary expansion therapy. Coronal multiplanar reconstruction images were used to measure the linear transverse dimensions, inclinations of teeth, and thickness of the buccal alveolar bone. One-way ANOVA analysis was used to compare the changes between the three times of imaging. Pairwise comparisons were made with the Bonferroni method. The level of significance was established at p<0.05. The mean changes between the points in time yielded significant differences for both molar and premolar transverse measurements between T1 and T2 (p<0.05) and between T1 and T3 (p<0.05). When evaluating the effect of maxillary expansion on the amount of buccal alveolar bone, a decrease between T1 and T2 and an increase between T2 and T3 were found in the buccal bone thickness of both the maxillary first premolars and maxillary first molars. However, these changes were not significant. Similar changes were observed for the angular measurements. RME resulted in non-significant reduction of buccal bone between T1 and T2. These changes were reversible in the long-term with no evident deleterious effects on the alveolar buccal bone.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following intravenous and buccal administration in cats, and effects on thermal threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, A R; Pypendop, B H; Shilo-Benjamini, Y; Stanley, S D; Ilkiw, J E

    2014-06-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine, following i.v. and buccal administration, and the relationship between buprenorphine concentration and its effect on thermal threshold. Buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) was administered intravenously or buccally to six cats. Thermal threshold was determined, and arterial blood sampled prior to, and at various times up to 24 h following drug administration. Plasma buprenorphine concentration was determined using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Compartment models were fitted to the time-concentration data. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models were fitted to the concentration-thermal threshold data. Thermal threshold was significantly higher than baseline 44 min after buccal administration, and 7, 24, and 104 min after i.v. administration. A two- and three-compartment model best fitted the data following buccal and i.v. administration, respectively. Following i.v. administration, mean ± SD volume of distribution at steady-state (L/kg), clearance (mL·min/kg), and terminal half-life (h) were 11.6 ± 8.5, 23.8 ± 3.5, and 9.8 ± 3.5. Following buccal administration, absorption half-life was 23.7 ± 9.1 min, and terminal half-life was 8.9 ± 4.9 h. An effect-compartment model with a simple effect maximum model best predicted the time-course of the effect of buprenorphine on thermal threshold. Median (range) ke0 and EC50 were 0.003 (0.002-0.018)/min and 0.599 (0.073-1.628) ng/mL (i.v.), and 0.017 (0.002-0.023)/min and 0.429 (0.144-0.556) ng/mL (buccal).

  8. Buccal bone loss after immediate implantation can be reduced by the flapless approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR BELÉM NOVAES JR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the buccal bone remodeling after immediate implantation with flap or flapless approach. Material and Methods: The mandibular bilateral premolars of 3 dogs were extracted and immediately three implants were placed in both hemi-arches of each dog. Randomly, one hemi-arch was treated with the flapless approach, while in the contra lateral hemi-arch tooth extractions and implant placement were done after mucoperiosteal flap elevation. Non-submerged healing of 12 weeks was provided for both groups. Histomorphometric analysis was done to compare buccal and lingual bone height loss, bone density and bone-to-implant contact in the groups. Fluorescence analysis was performed to investigate the dynamic of bone remodeling in the different groups. Results: There was a significant association between the surgical flap and the extent of bone resorption around immediate implants. The loss of buccal bone height was significantly lower in the flapless group when compared to the flap group (0.98 mm x 2.14 mm, respectively, p<0.05. The coronal and apical buccal bone densities of the flap group were significantly higher when compared to the lingual components, showing anatomical differences between the bone plates. Fluorescence analysis showed no major differences in bone healing between the flap and flapless groups, supporting that the higher loss of buccal bone height is linked to the anatomic characteristics of this plate and to the negative influence of the detachment of the periosteum in immediate implant therapy. Conclusion: The flapless approach for immediate post-extraction implants reduces the buccal bone height loss.

  9. High-throughput sequencing of forensic genetic samples using punches of FTA cards with buccal swabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Buchard, Anders; Børsting, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    with buccal swabs and compared the results with those obtained with DNA extracted using the EZ1 DNA Investigator Kit. Concordant profiles were obtained for all samples. Our protocol includes simple punch, wash, and PCR steps, reducing cost and hands-on time in the laboratory. Furthermore, it facilitates......Here, we demonstrate that punches from buccal swab samples preserved on FTA cards can be used for high-throughput DNA sequencing, also known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS). We typed 44 reference samples with the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel using washed 1.2 mm punches from FTA cards...

  10. Effect of cryoprotectants for maintaining drug permeability barriers in porcine buccal mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marxen, Eva; Axelsen, Mary Carlos; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge;

    2016-01-01

    if permeability barriers for small molecules (nicotine and diazepam) were maintained after freezing porcine buccal mucosa with cryoprotectants to -80°C. Combinations of dimethyl sulfoxide, bovine serum albumin, glycerol and sucrose were used as cryoprotectants. The permeability of nicotine and diazepam across...... tissue. Freezing with or without cryoprotectants did not significantly affect the flux of diazepam compared to fresh tissue. Only minor histological changes were seen in frozen/thawed porcine buccal mucosa compared to fresh tissue. In conclusion, permeability barriers for nicotine and diazepam were...

  11. Pouchitis-associated iritis (uveitis) following total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-to-anal anastomosis in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H J

    2001-02-01

    A 26-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis treated with a proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-to-anal anastomosis developed an erosive and ulcerative pouchitis. Although no ophthalmological manifestations were present before the staged surgical procedures, iritis developed after appearance of the pouchitis. Both conditions subsequently resolved with oral corticosteroids and metronidazole.

  12. Pouchitis-Associated Iritis (Uveitis Following Total Proctocolectomy and Ileal Pouch-to-Anal Anastomosis in Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis treated with a proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-to-anal anastomosis developed an erosive and ulcerative pouchitis. Although no ophthalmological manifestations were present before the staged surgical procedures, iritis developed after appearance of the pouchitis. Both conditions subsequently resolved with oral corticosteroids and metronidazole.

  13. Determination of the behavior and performance of commercial Li-Ion pouch cells by means of isothermal calorimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment-based research, there is an attempt to determine the evolution of surface temperature distribution, thermal behaviour and performance of a battery cell at the same time. The pouch type commercial test cell has a 13Ah capacity and Lithium Titanate Oxide (LTO) based anode...

  14. Carvedilol alleviates adjuvant-induced arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema: Modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arab, Hany H., E-mail: hany_h_arab@yahoo.com [Biochemistry Division, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Sawalhi, Maha M. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-04-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease with cardiovascular complications as the leading cause of morbidity. Carvedilol is an adrenergic antagonist which has been safely used in treatment of several cardiovascular disorders. Given that carvedilol has powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to investigate its protective potential against arthritis that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness especially in RA patients with concomitant cardiovascular disorders. Two models were studied in the same rat; adjuvant arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 21 days) effectively suppressed inflammation in both models with comparable efficacy to the standard anti-inflammatory diclofenac (5 mg/kg/day p.o.). Notably, carvedilol inhibited paw edema and abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates. The latter observation was confirmed by the histopathological assessment of the pouch lining that revealed mitigation of immuno-inflammatory cell influx. Carvedilol reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and protein thiols) and lowered the release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), and eicosanoids (PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4}) in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. Interestingly, carvedilol, per se, didn't present any effect on assessed biochemical parameters in normal rats. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-arthritic effects of carvedilol that could be mediated through attenuation of leukocyte migration, alleviation of oxidative stress and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids. - Highlights: ► Carvedilol possesses promising anti-arthritic properties. ► It markedly suppressed inflammation in adjuvant arthritis and air pouch edema. ► It abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates and linings. ► It reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers in sera and exudates of

  15. Epstein-Barr virus in hepatocellular carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Li; Bao-An Wu; Yong-Ming Zeng; Guang-Can Chen; Xin-Xin Li; Jun-Tian Chen; Yu-Wen Guo; Man-Hong Li; Yi Zeng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: In recent years, studies have suggested that EpsteinBart virus (EBV) is associated with HCC. The present study was to determine the prevalence of EBV in HCC patients,and whether EBV acted synergistically with hepatitis viruses in HCC carcinogenesis.METHODS: Liver tissue 115 HCC patients and 26 noncarcinoma patients were studied. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect EBV BamHI W DNA, EBV LMP1 DNA, HBV X DNA, and HBV S DNA. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to detect HCV RNA and HDV RNA. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect LMP1,HBsAg, HBcAg and HCV. The positive ratios were compared between HCC group and control group by χ2 test.RESULTS: Totally, 78 HCC samples whose β-globulin DNA was positively detected by amplified PCR were selected.PCR was performed in all cases for EBV DNA and HBV DNA.RT-PCR was performed in 18 cases for HCV RNA and HDV RNA. EBV BanHI W and EBV LMP1 were positive in 18 and 6 cases, respectively. HBV X gene and HBV S gene were positive in 42 and 27 cases respectively. HCV was positive in one of the 18 cases, and none was positive for HDV. The positive rates were 28.2% (22 of 78) for EBV DNA (BamHI W and/or LMP1) and 56.4% (44 of 78) for HBV DNA (X gene and/or S gene) respectively. In addition, 12 cases were positive for both EBV DNA and HBV DNA. Among the 26 cases in the control group, 2 cases were positive for EBV BamHI W, 4positive for HBV X gene and 3 positive for HBV S gene. The positive rates were 8.0% (2 of 26) and 23.1% (6 of 26),respectively, for EBV DNA and HBV DNA. The result of DNA sequencing of BamHI W was 100% homologous with the corresponding sequence of B95-8. There was significant difference in EBV infection rate between HCC patients and controls (χ2 = 4.622, P<0.05). The difference in HBV infection rate was also significant (χ2 = 8.681, P<0.05). However, there was no obvious correlation between HBV and EBV in HCC patients (χ2 = 0.835,P>0.05). LMP1, HBV (HBsAg, HBc

  16. Ultrasonography of wallaby prenatal development shows that the climb to the pouch begins in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Barbara; Roellig, Kathleen; Menzies, Brandon R; Shaw, Geoff; Buentjen, Ina; Herbert, Catherine A; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2013-01-01

    Marsupials have a functional placenta for a shorter period of time compared to that of eutherian species, and their altricial young reach the teats without any help from the mother. We have monitored the short intrauterine development of one marsupial, the tammar wallaby, with high-resolution ultrasound from reactivation of the 100-cell diapausing blastocyst to birth. The expanding blastocyst could be visualized when it had reached a diameter of 1.5 mm. From at least halfway through pregnancy, there are strong undulating movements of the endometrium that massage the expanding vesicle against the highly secretory endometrial surface. These unique movements possibly enhance exchange of uterine secretions and gases between the mother and embryo. There was a constant rate of development measured ultrasonographically from mid-gestation, regardless of when the blastocyst reactivated. Interestingly climbing movements by the fetus began in utero about 3 days before birth, mimicking those required to climb to the pouch.

  17. Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch: initial development and preliminary performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iseli, A.M.; Kwen, H.D.; Ul-Alam, M.; Balasubramanian, M.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2011-11-07

    The objective is to produce a proof of concept prototype Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch (ECHRP) with self-decontamination capability to provide increased protection to emergency response personnel. The key objective was to decrease the concentration of toxic chemicals through the use of an absorbent and reactive nanocellulose liner. Additionally, nanomaterials with biocidal properties were developed and tested as a 'stand-alone' treatment. The setting was a private company research laboratory. The main outcome measures were production of a functional prototype. A functional prototype capable of mitigating the threats due to sulfur mustard, Soman, and a large variety of liquid and vapor toxic industrial chemicals was produced. Stand-alone biocidal treatment efficacy was validated. The ECHRP provides superior protection from both chemical and biological hazards to various emergency response personnel and human remains handlers.

  18. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of Blake's pouch cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vicente Brusius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blake's pouch cyst (BPC is a midline cystic malformation of the posterior fossa, within Dandy-Walker's complex (DWC, often associated with hydrocephalus. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV has been an alternative to conventional methods for BPC treatment. This study aimed at reporting our experience with ETV in a series of patients with BPC. METHODS: Of 33 patients diagnosed with midline posterior fossa cyst, 26 met the protocol criteria for DWC, and eight subjects with BPC were selected (aged one month to two years old. All cases were treated with ETV. RESULTS: Five patients were male; and three were prenatally diagnosed. They had hydrocephalus and motor deficiencies. Motor assessment at a five-year follow-up yielded normal findings. All patients improved, and only one had residual cognitive dysfunction, despite overall neurological improvement. There were no complications. CONCLUSIONS: ETV was a safe and effective procedure, reducing risks and morbidity associated with open surgery and shunt-related problems.

  19. Absent upper blind Pouch in a case of tracheo-esophageal fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Mohan Harjai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A common upper airway and digestive tract is a rare congenital anomaly that is usually fatal and its exact incidence is not known. It is a diagnostic challenge as it requires high index of suspicion. It should be considered in a neonate with respiratory distress in a non-vigorous baby requiring endotracheal intubation, which is difficult even in expert hand. We present a newborn with suspected tracheo-esophageal fistula that was diagnosed intraoperatively to have absent upper blind pouch of the esophagus and on autopsy found to have laryngeal atresia with absent vocal cords and a common aerodigestive tract continuing distally with trachea. The neonate was ventilated with endotracheal tube (ETT placement which in retrospect we came to know that it was in the esophagus. The neonate also had associated multiple congenital anomalies of VACTERL association. The importance of teamwork between neonatologist, pediatric surgeon, anesthesiologist, and radiologist is highlighted for diagnosis and management of such rare cases.

  20. Diet-related DNA adduct formation in relation to carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2016-08-01

    The human diet contributes significantly to the initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. It has become clear that the human diet contains several groups of natural foodborne chemicals that are at least in part responsible for the genotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic potential of certain foodstuffs. Electrophilic chemicals are prone to attack nucleophilic sites in DNA, resulting in the formation of altered nucleobases, also known as DNA adducts. Since DNA adduct formation is believed to signal the onset of chemically induced carcinogenesis, the DNA adduct-inducing potential of certain foodstuffs has been investigated to gain more insight into diet-related pathways of carcinogenesis. Many studies have investigated diet-related DNA adduct formation. This review summarizes work on known or suspected dietary carcinogens and the role of DNA adduct formation in hypothesized carcinogenesis pathways.

  1. A characterization of anaerobic colonization and associated mucosal adaptations in the undiseased ileal pouch.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, F M

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: The resolution of pouchitis with metronidazole points to an anaerobic aetiology. Pouchitis is mainly seen in patients with ulcerative colitis pouches (UCP). We have recently found that sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), a species of strict anaerobe, colonize UCP exclusively. Herein, we aimed to correlate levels of different bacterial species (including SRB) with mucosal inflammation and morphology. METHODS: Following ethical approval, fresh faecal samples and mucosal biopsies were taken from 9 patients with UCP and 5 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis pouches (FAPP). For the purposes of comparison, faecal samples and mucosal biopsies were also taken from the stomas of 7 of the 9 patients with UC (UCS). Colonization by four types of strict anaerobes (SRB, Clostridium perfringens, Bifidobacteria and Bacteroides) as well as by three types of facultative anaerobes (Enterococci, Coliforms and Lactobacilli) was evaluated. Inflammatory scores and mucosal morphology were assessed histologically in a blinded fashion by a pathologist. RESULTS: In general, strict anaerobes predominated over facultative in the UCP (P = 0.041). SRB were present in UCP exclusively. Even after exclusion of SRB from total bacterial counts, strict anaerobes still predominated. In the UCS, facultative anaerobes predominated. Strict and facultative anaerobes were present at similar levels in the FAPP. Enterococci were present at significantly reduced levels in the UCP when compared with the UCS (P = 0.031). When levels of SRB and other anaerobic species were individually correlated with mucosal inflammation and morphology, no trends were observed. CONCLUSION: We have previously identified that SRB exclusively colonize UCP. In addition we have now identified a novel increase in the strict\\/facultative anaerobic ratio within the UCP compared to UCS. These stark differences in bacterial colonization, however, appear to have limited impact on mucosal inflammation or morphology.

  2. Rapidly-growing buccal mass in a 6-month-old infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Brierley, D; Hunter, K D; Lee, N

    2015-11-01

    Lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis are rare benign tumours of fetal-embryonal adipocytes that usually present in young children, which is why they are not often included in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions in infants. We describe a case of a 6-month-old infant with an intraoral buccal lipoblastoma.

  3. Effects of Tobacco Smoking on the Dorsum of the Tongue and Buccal Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shammari, Abdullah Faraj; AL Ibrahim, Ibrahim Khalil; Alaauldeen, Amjad Ibrahim; Merza, Randa Fouad; Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim

    2016-10-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of tobacco smoking on the dorsum of the tongue and buccal epithelium. Methodology: This case control cross-sectional study was conducted with 174 smoking and non-smoking volunteers living in the city of Hail, Northern KSA. Cytological Materials were obtained from buccal mucosa and dorsum of the tongue, and assessed using cytopathological methods. Results: In buccal smears, cytological atypia was observed in 17 out of 101 (16.8%) smoker cases but only 3/73(4.1%) of the controls. For cytological atypia in buccal and tongue smears, the adjusted odd ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were found to be 4.7 (1.3-16.8), P < 0.016)) and 4.3 (0.93- 20.2), P <0.06)), respectively, in the two sites. Conclusion: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for occurrence of cytological atypia, which might subsequently develop into oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. Oral exfoliative cytology is an easy and cheap non-invasive procedure which appears highly suitable for screening populations at risk of developing oral cancer.

  4. Statistical optimization of insulin-loaded Pluronic F-127 gels for buccal delivery of basal insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nilanjana; Madan, Parshotam; Lin, Senshang

    2012-01-01

    The principle of statistical optimization was employed to fabricate insulin-loaded Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) gel formulations having the potential for buccal delivery of basal insulin. A two-level resolution III fractional factorial design was applied to simultaneously evaluate five independent formulation variables: PF-127 concentration, insulin concentration, sodium sulfate concentration, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) concentration, and presence of sodium glycocholate. The amount of insulin released and permeated from gels as well as gelation time and mucoadhesion force of gels were measured and used as dependent response variables for formulation optimization. Optimization of a gel formulation was achieved by applying constrained optimization via regression analysis. In vitro permeation flux of insulin from the optimized formulation through procine buccal mucosa was 93.17 (±0.058, n = 3) μg/cm(2). Plasma insulin levels following buccal administration of the optimized formulation at 10, 25 and 50 IU/kg to healthy rats were found to be dose dependent and basal insulin levels were maintained at least for 8 h. Furthermore, continuous hypoglycemia for at least 8 h was observed with 89%, 51% and 25% of blood glucose reduction, respectively, for these three doses. The results of this investigation conclude the feasibility of development of optimized buccal insulin-loaded Pluronic F-127 gels for basal insulin delivery.

  5. A Comparison of Buccal Midazolam and Intravenous Diazepam for the Acute Treatment of Seizures in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghofrani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study is to compare efficacy and safety of buccal midazolam with intravenous diazepam in control of seizures in Iranian children.Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial. 92 patients with acute seizures, ranging from 6 months to 14 years were randomly assigned to receive either buccal midazolam (32 cases or intravenous diazepam (60 cases at the emergency department of a children's hospital. The primary outcome of this study was cessation of visible seizure activity within 5 minutes from administration of the first dosage. The second dosage was used in case the seizure remained uncontrolled 5 minutes after the first one.Findings: In the midazolam group, 22 (68.8% patients were relieved from seizures in 10 minutes.Meanwhile, diazepam controlled the episodes of 42 (70% patients within 10 minutes. The difference was,however, not statistically significant (P=0.9. The mean time required to control the convulsive episodes after administration of medications was not statistically significant (P=0.09. No significant side effects were observed in either group. Nevertheless, the risk of respiratory failure in intravenous diazepam is greater than in buccal midazolam.Conclusion: Buccal midazolam is as effective as and safer than intravenous diazepam in control of seizures.

  6. Testing Dietary Hypotheses of East African Hominines Using Buccal Dental Microwear Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Laura Mónica; Estebaranz-Sánchez, Ferran; Galbany, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    There is much debate on the dietary adaptations of the robust hominin lineages during the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition. It has been argued that the shift from C3 to C4 ecosystems in Africa was the main factor responsible for the robust dental and facial anatomical adaptations of Paranthropus taxa, which might be indicative of the consumption of fibrous, abrasive plant foods in open environments. However, occlusal dental microwear data fail to provide evidence of such dietary adaptations and are not consistent with isotopic evidence that supports greater C4 food intake for the robust clades than for the gracile australopithecines. We provide evidence from buccal dental microwear data that supports softer dietary habits than expected for P. aethiopicus and P. boisei based both on masticatory apomorphies and isotopic analyses. On one hand, striation densities on the buccal enamel surfaces of paranthropines teeth are low, resembling those of H. habilis and clearly differing from those observed on H. ergaster, which display higher scratch densities indicative of the consumption of a wide assortment of highly abrasive foodstuffs. Buccal dental microwear patterns are consistent with those previously described for occlusal enamel surfaces, suggesting that Paranthropus consumed much softer diets than previously presumed and thus calling into question a strict interpretation of isotopic evidence. On the other hand, the significantly high buccal scratch densities observed in the H. ergaster specimens are not consistent with a highly specialized, mostly carnivorous diet; instead, they support the consumption of a wide range of highly abrasive food items. PMID:27851745

  7. Formulation and evaluation of anti-asthmatic drug montelukast in mucoadhesive buccal patches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdy Ibrahim Mohamed; Mary Kamal Gad Mekhael

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To formulate and evaluate anti-asthmatic drug montelukast in mucoadhesive buccal patches. Methods:Buccal patches were formulated by using different hydrophilic polymers by solvent casting technique. Buccal patches were evaluated by seven physical appearances, in addition toin vitro drug release study. Results: All patches were uniform and translucent, and had smooth surface. In vitro release studies were conducted for montelukast buccal patches proved that release in the range of 75.26%-92.30% in 8 h. Emission of montelukast from all patches simulated zero order and diffusion mechanism. Finally it can be concluded that F3, F15 and F16 are the best formulation. Conclusions: The investigation concluded that patch of 5 mg of montelukast sodium were formulated by using sodium alginate with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K100M with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, and hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K100M with sodium alginate (F3, F15 and F16 formulations) were the best formulations.

  8. Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Yeol Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM, during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19±14.60° and 28.12±11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9±19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface.

  9. Neuraminidase-enhanced attachment of Bacteroides intermedius to human erythrocytes and buccal epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, K; Ono, M.; Kato, T.

    1989-01-01

    Bacteroides intermedius strains strongly agglutinated only neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes. The neuraminidase-dependent hemagglutinating activity of B. intermedius was abolished by heating or treating with protease. The adherence of these microorganisms to human buccal epithelial cells was enhanced by neuraminidase pretreatment of the cells (P less than 0.01).

  10. A Non-Invasive Strategy for Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Diagnosis: Newborn Platelet Genotyping with Buccal Swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Bertrand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia results from the maternal immune response against fetal-specific antigens inherited from the father. The diagnosis is ascertained only when the maternal alloantibody and the offending antigen present in the newborn are identified. Up until now most laboratories perform DNA extraction for neonatal genotyping from newborn blood samplings. In order to avoid such an invasive procedure, two protocols of DNA extraction from buccal swabs were developed: a manual protocol using the QIAamp mini blood kit (Qiagen, and an automated procedure with the MagNA Pure Compact instrument (Roche. Both EDTA-blood and buccal swabs from thrombocytopenic newborns were genotyped manually (14 samples, automatically (15 samples or both manually and automatically (two samples. Human Platelet Antigen (HPA genotyping was performed using the BeadChip assay (BioArray, Immucor. Concordant genotypings were obtained for all samples except for one swab with the manual method. The automated DNA extraction from newborn buccal swabs with the MagNA Pure Compact instrument was chosen as the first-line strategy, with a significant gain of time in processing buccal swabs.

  11. Reactivation of inactive X chromosome in buccal smear of carcinoma of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natekar Prashant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal mucosal smears of 100 female patients of carcinoma of breast were compared with 100 controls matched accordingly. The frequency of Barr bodies was significantly lower in carcinoma of breast patients (menstruating and menopausal women P < 0.001 when compared with controls indicating reactivation of the inactive X chromosome.

  12. Histopathological evaluation of urethroplasty with dorsal buccal mucosa: an experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanne F. Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Buccal mucosa is a widely accepted tissue for urethroplasty. The exact healing and tissue integration process, mainly the histological characteristics of dorsal buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty when used dorsally to reconstruct the urethral plate has not previously been assessed, and thus we developed an experimental model to address this question. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 New Zealand rabbits (weight 2.5 kg we surgically created a dorsal penile urethral defect. A buccal mucosa graft was sutured to the corpora and tunica albuginea, and the ventral urethra anastomosed to this new urethral plate. The animals were divided in three groups and sacrificed 1, 3 and 6 weeks after surgery (groups 1, 2 and 3. A retrograde urethrogram was obtained at autopsy in the last group and the penis analyzed histologically with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's staining. RESULTS: The urethrograms showed no evidence of fistula or stricture. In group 1 the histopathological analysis showed submucosal lymph-mononuclear inflammatory edema, numerous eosinophils and squamous epithelium integrated into the adjacent urothelium. In group 2 there was no evidence of an inflammatory response but rather complete subepithelial hyaline healing, which was more marked in group 3. CONCLUSION: Healing of buccal mucosa grafts to reconstruct the urethral plate can be achieved by total integration of the squamous epithelium with the urothelium, maintaining the original histological properties of the graft with no fibrosis or retraction.

  13. Formulation and evaluation of a bioadhesive patch for buccal delivery of tizanidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Pendekal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tizanidine hydrochloride (THCl is an antispasmodic agent which undergoes extensive first pass metabolism making it a possible candidate for buccal delivery. The aim of this study was to prepare a monolayered buccal patch containing THCl using the emulsification solvent evaporation method. Fourteen formulations were prepared using the polymers Eudragit® RS 100 or Eudragit® RL 100 and chitosan. Polymer solutions in acetone were combined with a THCl aqueous solution (in some cases containing chitosan by homogenization at 9000 rpm for 2 min in the presence of triethyl citrate as plasticizer and cast in novel Teflon molds. Physicochemical properties such as film thickness, in vitro drug release and in vitro mucoadhesion were evaluated after which permeation across sheep buccal mucosa was examined in terms of flux and lag time. Formulations prepared using a Eudragit® polymer alone exhibited satisfactory physicomechanical properties but lacked a gradual in vitro drug release pattern. Incorporation of chitosan into formulations resulted in the formation of a porous structure which did exhibit gradual release of drug. In conclusion, THCl can be delivered by a buccal patch formulated as a blend of Eudragit® and chitosan, the latter being necessary to achieve gradual drug release.

  14. Chemokine production by buccal epithelium as a distinctive feature of pediatric Crohn disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, GM; Hol, J; de Ruiter, L.; Bouquet, J; Sinaasappel, M; van der Woude, J; Laman, JD; Hop, WCJ; Buller, HA; Escher, JC; Nieuwenhuis, EES

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) represent an aberrant immune response by the mucosal immune system to luminal bacteria. Because the oral mucosa harbors the first epithelial cells that interact with microorganisms, we assessed the immunologic activity of buccal epithelium in children wi

  15. Characterization of chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate nanocomposite films for buccal delivery of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Khunawattanakul, Wanwisa; Strachan, Clare J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare and characterize chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate (CS-MAS) nanocomposite films as a buccal delivery system for nicotine (NCT). The effects of the CS-MAS ratio on the physicochemical properties, release and permeation, as well as on the mucoadhesive...

  16. Cell Selection as Driving Force in Lung and Colon Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Schöllnberger, Helmut; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Hoogenveen, Rudolf; Vineis, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is the result of mutations and subsequent clonal expansions of mutated, selectively advantageous cells. To investigate the relative contributions of mutation versus cell selection in tumorigenesis, we compared two mathematical models of carcinogenesis in two different cancer types: lung and colon. One approach is based on a population genetics model, the Wright-Fisher process, whereas the other approach is the two-stage clonal expansion model. We compared the dynamics of tumori...

  17. Genomic Instability and Colon Carcinogenesis: From the Perspective of Genes

    OpenAIRE

    RAO, CHINTHALAPALLY V.; Yamada, Hiroshi Y.

    2013-01-01

    Colon cancer is the second most lethal cancer; approximately 600,000 people die of it annually in the world. Colon carcinogenesis generally follows a slow and stepwise process of accumulation of mutations under the influence of environmental and epigenetic factors. To adopt a personalized (tailored) cancer therapy approach and to improve current strategies for prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy overall, advanced understanding of molecular events associated with colon carcinogenesis...

  18. Comfrey (Symphytum officinale. L. and Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: A Short-Term Carcinogenesis Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Pereira Lavieri Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Comfrey or Symphytum officinale (L. (Boraginaceae is a very popular plant used for therapeutic purposes. Since the 1980s, its effects have been studied in long-term carcinogenesis studies, in which Comfrey extract is administered at high doses during several months and the neoplastic hepatic lesions are evaluated. However, the literature on this topic is very poor considering the studies performed under short-term carcinogenesis protocols, such as the ‘resistant hepatocyte model’ (RHM. In these studies, it is possible to observe easily the phenomena related to the early phases of tumor development, since pre-neoplastic lesions (PNLs rise in about 1–2 months of chemical induction. Herein, the effects of chronic oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey ethanolic extract were evaluated in a RHM. Wistar rats were sequentially treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (ip and 2-acetilaminofluorene (po, and submitted to hepatectomy to induce carcinogenesis promotion. Macroscopic/microscopic quantitative analysis of PNL was performed. Non-parametric statistical tests (Mann–Whitney and χ2 were used, and the level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Comfrey treatment reduced the number of pre-neoplastic macroscopic lesions up to 1 mm (P ≤ 0.05, the percentage of oval cells (P = 0.0001 and mitotic figures (P = 0.007, as well as the number of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA positive cells (P = 0.0001 and acidophilic pre-neoplastic nodules (P = 0.05. On the other hand, the percentage of cells presenting megalocytosis (P = 0.0001 and vacuolar degeneration (P = 0.0001 was increased. Scores of fibrosis, glycogen stores and the number of nucleolus organizing regions were not altered. The study indicated that oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey alcoholic extract reduced cell proliferation in this model.

  19. In vitro release and permeation of oxytocin from a mucoadhesive buccal patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Bhatt, P P; Johnston, T P

    1996-12-01

    A biocompatible, mucoadhesive patch was evaluated for potential use in the delivery of peptides. The model peptide oxytocin was incorporated into the polymeric patch matrix and the diffusion of oxytocin across excised rabbit buccal epithelium was studied following patch application. Penetration of oxytocin across excised mucosa from an applied patch did not exhibit a characteristic lag time for diffusion, with the steady-state flux of oxytocin being 0.062 +/- 0.019 microgram/cm2/hr. However, when finite-dose diffusion studies were conducted to quantitate transport of oxytocin across rabbit buccal mucosa, the mean apparent permeability coefficient (P), diffusion coefficient (D), partition coefficient (K), and lag time (tlag) were (1.94 +/- 0.74) x 10(-7) cm/sec, (9.20 +/- 1.65) x 10(-8) cm2/sec, 0.13 +/- 0.05 and 1.86 +/- 0.31 hr, respectively. The release of oxytocin from the mucoadhesive buccal patches in vitro proceeded very rapidly during the first 2 hr, with 72% of the amount initially incorporated into the patches released at 24 hr. The disappearance rate of intact, parent oxytocin when an oxytocin solution was placed in direct contact with the serosal and mucosal sides of freshly excised rabbit buccal mucosa was 0.74 +/- 0.34 microgram/cm2/hr and 3.38 +/- 1.07 micrograms/cm2/hr, respectively. Thus, the buccal patch evaluated in these studies appears to be suitable for transmucosal delivery of peptides.

  20. Genotoxic Effects of Tobacco on Buccal Epithelium: Cell Nuclear Anomalies as Biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Das Biswas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use has toxic effects on different organs. This study was carried out to assess the effect of indigenous tobacco both in smoking (bidi and smokeless (gutkha, zarda and khaini forms on buccal cells at chromosomal level, through assessment of different nuclear anomalies as biomarker. Methods:This study was done on people living in Durgapur and its adjacent areas, West Bengal, India during January to July 2011. The samples were collected from 50 smokers (case group, 50 smokeless tobacco consumers or chewers (case group and 50 non-tobacco consumers (control group. Micronucleus assay was used to assess buccal cell nuclear changes. Buccal smears collected from study subjects were prepared on a grease free slide. Prepared slides were observed under light microscope and 2 to 5 fields were observed randomly for counting the different anomalies. In each field, the frequency of each anomaly was assessed in 100 cells and reported with percentage. Results:Chewers had significantly the highest frequency of all nuclear anomalies compared to smokers and healthy controls (HCs. Smokers also had significantly more anomalies compared to HCs. Condensed chromatin (CC, karyolysis (KL and bi-nucleation (BN in chewers and CC, pyknosis and BN in smokers were the most frequent anomalies. KL was significantly more frequent in chewers compared to smokers (59.8 ± 6.4 vs. 24.2 ± 12.4%, P < 0.001, however, the frequency of other nuclear anomalies were not significantly different in these two study groups. Presence of each nuclear anomaly was significantly greater in older ages in all study groups. Conclusion:Tobacco can cause and increase the rate of nuclear anomalies in both smoking and smokeless forms compared to HCs. The genotoxic effects of tobacco on buccal cells are partly age-related. Cell nuclear anomalies in buccal tissue can be used as biomarker indicating the detrimental effects of tobacco.

  1. Buccal Corridors: A Fact or a Myth in the Eyes of Laymen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhiny, Omnia A.; Harhash, Asmaa Y.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to investigate laymen knowledge of the existence of the buccal corridor and whether it was an important factor for them in judging smile attractiveness and the effect of introducing the knowledge to them on their further judgment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine subjects were randomly selected with variable buccal corridor percentages. They were coached to smile in a posed fashion and full face smile photographs were taken from a standardised distance. The photographs were randomly arranged in a power point presentation and displayed to a panel of thirty-nine randomly selected laymen judges. The judges made their beauty judgment on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and filled a questionnaire. After their education about the buccal corridor, they were asked to make a second judgment on a second sheet with VAS and with a different random sequence of the photographs. RESULTS: Intra-class correlation agreement for all the judges between the first and second scores was 0.713. The Spearman’s rho Correlation coefficient indicated a positive correlation for all the photos. For the male judges, the agreement between the ratings was 0.839, and the correlation was positive for all the photos. For the female judges, the agreement between the ratings was 0.510, and the correlation was positive for all the photographs. Hundred percent of the judges were not familiar with the buccal corridor. Eighty percent of the female judges and 44.4% of the male judges mentioned that it would affect their further judgment. CONCLUSION: Laymen build their esthetic judgments on what we teach them, and modifying treatment plans to include corrections of buccal corridors for esthetic reasons only is a myth. PMID:28028418

  2. Single stage dorsal inlay buccal mucosal graft with tubularized incised urethral plate technique for hypospadias reoperations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Jing Ye; Ping Ping; Yi-Dong Liu; Zheng Li; Yi-Ran Huang

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To report the experience with single stage dorsal inlay buccal mucosal grafts using the Snodgrass technique for complex redo cases. Methods: From May 2004 to December 2005, a total of 53 patients aged from 3 to 34 years old(average 11.62 ± 7.18 years) with failed previous hypospadias surgery were included in the present study. Indica- tions included urethral strictures and repair breakdown. The unhealthy urethra was unroofed from the meatus in the ventral midline, a buccal mucosal graft was inlayed between the incised urethral plate and fixed to the corporacavemosa. The neourethra was tubularized, and covered with subcutaneous (dartos) tissue and penile skin. Glanuloplasty was also performed in all cases. Outcome analysis included clinical follow-up, and endoscopy in 2 selected cases. Results: The buccal mucosal graft was 3.0-7.5 cm in length and 0.7-2.0 cm in width. All patients required glanuloplasty, with buccal mucosal grafts extended to the tip of the glans. After a follow-up of 14-30 months (mean 22.6 months), the total complication rate was 15.1%, with five cases of fistula and three cases of stricture. Conclusion: Inlaying dorsal buccal mucosal grafts applying the Snodgrass technique is a reliable method for creating a substitute urethral plate for tubularization. The recurrent rate of urethral stricture and fistula is at an acceptable level for redo cases. This approach represents an effective, simple and safe option for reoperations. (Asain J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 682- 686)

  3. Multistage chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaga, T.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Weeks, C.E.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Skin tumors in mice can be induced by the sequential application of a subthreshold dose of a carcinogen (initiation phase) followed by repetitive treatment with a noncarcinogenic tumor promoter. The initiation phase requires only a single application of either a direct acting carcinogen or a procarcinogen which has to be metabolized before being active and is essentially an irreversible step which probably involves a somatic cell mutation. There is a good correlation between the skin tumor initiating activites of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their ability to bind covalently to epidermal DNA. Laboratory results suggest that bay region diol-epoxides are the ultimate carcinogenic form of PAH carcinogens. Potent inhibitors and stimulators of PAH tumor initiation appear to affect the level of the PAH diol-epoxide reacting with specific DNA bases. Reecent data suggests that the tumor promotion stage involves at least three important steps: (1) the induction of embryonic looking cells (dark cells) in adult epidermis; (2) an increased production of epidermal prostaglandins and polyamines; (3) sustained proliferation of dark cells. Retinoic acid specifically inhibits step two whereas the anti-inflammatory steriod fluocinolone acetonide is a potent inhibitor of steps one and three. The mechanism and the importance of a specific sequence for each step in chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin are detailed.

  4. Stress and radiation carcinogenesis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalisnik, M.; Vraspir-Porenta, O.; Kham-Lindtner, T.; Logonder-Mlinsek, M.; Skrk, J.; Pajntar, M. (Ljubljana Univ. (Yugoslavia). Medicinski Fakultet)

    1981-01-01

    In the present experiment irritation consisting of the combination of an optic signal followed by a mild electric shock administered at regular intervals was started in 2 groups of animals at the age of 3 months. At 4 months of age, one of the irritated and one of the non-irritated groups were exposed to whole-body gamma irradiation with 20 daily doses of 0.5 Gy (50 rad), 1.4 Gy/min (140 rad/min), while the other 2 groups were sham-irradiated. The animals were autopsied and the specimens were microscopically studied for the presence of malignant tumors. Malignant tumors particularly involving the testes and lungs, and leukosis were found in 29% of males, whereas in females the tumor incidence with mammary, pulmonary and ovarian involvement and leukosis was 39%. The irradiation decreased the minimum latency time in the irritated males and both female groups. In males, the irritation lowered the cumulative prevalence of malignant tumors, a significant decrease being noted at the age of 15 months. In females, it was increased, with a significant rise observed to occur at the end of the experiment. The opposite effects of irritation on the radiation carcinogenesis in males and females can be attributed to the radiation-induced specific alterations of the gonads in females and, in part, to a longer survival time observed in the irradiated females.

  5. Hypoxia and Angiogenesis in Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Horrée

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α plays an essential role in the adaptive response of cells to hypoxia, triggering biologic events associated with aggressive tumor behavior. Methods: Expression of HIF-1α and proteins in the HIF-1α pathway (Glut-1, CAIX, VEGF in paraffin-embedded specimens of normal (n = 17, premalignant (n = 17 and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (n = 39 was explored by immunohistochemistry, in relation to microvessel density (MVD. Results: HIF-1α overexpression was absent in inactive endometrium but present in hyperplasia (61% and carcinoma (87%, with increasing expression in a perinecrotic fashion pointing to underlying hypoxia. No membranous expression of Glut-1 and CAIX was noticed in inactive endometrium, in contrast with expression in hyperplasia (Glut-1 0%, CAIX 61%, only focal and diffuse and carcinoma (Glut-1 94.6%, CAIX 92%, both mostly perinecrotically. Diffuse HIF-1α was accompanied by activation of downstream targets. VEGF was significantly higher expressed in hyperplasias and carcinomas compared to inactive endometrium. MVD was higher in hyperplasias and carcinomas than in normal endometrium (p < 0.001. Conclusion: HIF-1α and its downstream genes are increasingly expressed from normal through premalignant to endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium, paralleled by activation of its downstream genes and increased angiogenesis. This underlines the potential importance of hypoxia and its key regulator HIF-1α in endometrial carcinogenesis.

  6. Wnt signaling and colon carcinogenesis: Beyond APC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Najdi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway via mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC is a critical event in the development of colon cancer. For colon carcinogenesis, however, constitutive signaling through the canonical Wnt pathway is not a singular event. Here we review how canonical Wnt signaling is modulated by intracellular LEF/TCF composition and location, the action of different Wnt ligands, and the secretion of Wnt inhibitory molecules. We also review the contributions of non-canonical Wnt signaling and other distinct pathways in the tumor micro environment that cross-talk to the canonical Wnt pathway and thereby influence colon cancer progression. These ′non-APC′ aspects of Wnt signaling are considered in relation to the development of potential agents for the treatment of patients with colon cancer. Regulatory pathways that influence Wnt signaling highlight how it might be possible to design therapies that target a network of signals beyond that of APC and β-catenin.

  7. Perceptions of brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo PITHON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the esthetic perception and attractiveness of the smile with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types by brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals. Material and Methods: The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial type of face was changed to create three different facial types with five different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22% and 28%. To achieve this effect, a photo editing software was used (Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems Inc, San Francisco, CA, EUA. The images were submitted to evaluators with brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces, who evaluated the degree of esthetic perception and attractiveness by means of a visual analog scale measuring 70 mm. The differences between evaluators were verified by the Mann-Whitney test. All statistics were performed with a confidence level of 95%. Results: Brachyfacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Mesofacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2%, 10% and 15% as more attractive. Dolichofacial individuals perceived the mesofacial type of face with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Evaluators of the female sex generally attributed higher scores than the male evaluators. Conclusion: To achieve an enhanced esthetic smile it is necessary to observe the patient’s facial type. The preference for narrow buccal corridors is an esthetic characteristic preferred by men and women, and wide buccal corridors are less attractive.

  8. An improved cryopreservation method for porcine buccal mucosa in ex vivo drug permeation studies using Franz diffusion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Sonia; Domenech, José; Colom, Helena; Calpena, Ana C; Clares, Beatriz; Gimeno, Álvaro; Lauroba, Jacinto

    2014-08-18

    The use of isolated animal models to assess percutaneous absorption of molecules is frequently reported. The porcine buccal mucosa has been proposed as a substitute for the buccal mucosa barrier on ex vivo permeability studies avoiding unnecessary sacrifice of animals. But it is not always easy to obtain fresh buccal mucosa. Consequently, human and porcine buccal mucosa is sometimes frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen, but this procedure is not always feasible. One cheaper and simpler alternative is to freeze the buccal mucosa of freshly slaughtered pigs in a mechanical freezer, using DMSO and albumin as cryoprotective agents. This study compared the ex vivo permeability parameters of propranolol hydrochloride through porcine buccal mucosa using a Franz diffusion cell system and HPLC as detection method. The freezing effects on drug permeability parameters were evaluated. Equally histological studies were performed. Furthermore, the use of the parameter transmucosal water loss (TMWL) as an indicator of the buccal mucosa integrity was evaluated just as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is utilized for skin integrity. The results showed no difference between fresh and frozen mucosal flux, permeability coefficient or lag time of propranolol. However, statistical significant difference in TMWL between fresh and frozen mucosa was observed.

  9. An animal model of buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis induced by U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Pang, Liang; Qian, Yu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Yong; Wu, Mingyi; Ouyang, Zilan; Gao, Zhi; Qiu, Lihua

    2013-04-01

    The buccal mucosa is the site with the highest risk of contracting a malignancy in habitual betel quid chewers who expose the buccal mucosa to high doses of carcinogens. Of all oral cancers, those of the buccal mucosa are associated with the poorest prognoses. Therefore, it would be helpful to have an animal model to evaluate new treatment modalities for buccal mucosa cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the imprinting control region (ICR) mouse animal model could be employed as a cancer model for buccal mucosa cancer. Sixty male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups, a normal group (n=10) and a cancer-induced group (n=50). Each mouse in the cancer group was inoculated with 0.05 ml U14 cancer cell suspension (1×10(7)/ml) on the buccal mucosa. Histological staining and gene expression assays revealed that neck lymph node metastasis animal models were established. After 20 days, the cheek tumor formation rate of the ICR mice reached 100%. Furthermore, the neck lymph node metastasis rate was 53%. We identified that U14 cells produce strong metastasis in ICR mice. Metastasis of the tumor to the lymph node began with carcinoma metastasis encroaching on the marginal sinus. Then it infiltrated to the cortex and medulla and the infiltration continued until the normal lymph node structure was completely damaged. This animal model may be employed in medical research on buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that U14 cell-induced mouse buccal mucosa cancer may be a potential cancer model for human buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Molecular aspects of carcinogenesis in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandros Koliopanos; Constantinos Avgerinos; Constantina Paraskeva; Zisis Touloumis; Dionisisa Kelgiorgi; Christos Dervenis

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PCa) is one of the most aggressive human solid tumors, with rapid growth and metastatic spread as well as resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, leading rapidly to virtually incurable disease. Over the last 20 years, however, signiifcant advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular biology of PCa, with a focus on the cytogenetic abnormalities in PCa cell growth and differentiation. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search and manual cross-referencing were utilized to identify published data for PCa molecular biology studies between 1986 and 2008, with emphasis on genetic alterations and developmental oncology. RESULTS: Activation of oncogenes, deregulation of tumor suppressor and genome maintenance genes, upregulation of growth factors/growth factor receptor signaling cascade systems, and alterations in cytokine expression, have been reported to play important roles in the process of pancreatic carcinogenesis. Alterations in the K-ras proto-oncogene and the p16INK4a, p53, FHIT, and DPC4 tumor suppressor genes occur in a high percentage of tumors. Furthermore, a variety of growth factors are expressed at increased levels. In addition, PCa often exhibits alterations in growth inhibitory pathways and evades apoptosis through p53 mutations and aberrant expression of apoptosis-regulating genes, such as members of the Bcl family. Additional pathways in the development of an aggressive phenotype, local inifltration and metastasis are still under ongoing genetic research. The present paper reviews recent studies on the pathogenesis of PCa, and includes a brief reference to alterations reported for other types of pancreatic tumor. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in molecular genetics and biology have improved our perception of the pathogenesis of PCa. However, further studies are needed to better understand the fundamental changes that occur in PCa, thus leading to better diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  11. Magnesium: its role in nutrition and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczyk, Urszula; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg2+) plays a key role in many essential cellular processes such as intermediary metabolism, DNA replication and repair, transporting potassium and calcium ions, cell proliferation together with signalling transduction. Dietary sources rich in magnesium are whole and unrefined grains, seeds, cocoa, nuts, almonds and green leafy vegetables. Hard water is also considered to be an important source of magnesium beneficial to human health. The daily dietary intake of magnesium is however frequently found to be below that recommended in Western countries. Indeed, it is recognised that magnesium deficiency may lead to many disorders of the human body, where for instance magnesium depletion is believed to play an important role in the aetiology of the following; cardiovascular disease (including thrombosis, atherosclerosis, ishaemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, arrhythmias and congestive heart failure in human), as well as diabetes mellitus, gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease, liver cirrhosis and diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Insufficient dietary intake of magnesium may also significantly affect the development and exacerbation ofADHD (Attention Deficit- Hyperactivity Disorder) symptoms in children. The known links between magnesium and carcinogenesis still remain unclear and complex, with conflicting results being reported from many experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies; further knowledge is thus required. Mg2+ ions are enzyme cofactors involved in DNA repair mechanisms that maintain genomic stability and fidelity. Any magnesium deficiencies could thereby cause a dysfunction of these systems to occur leading to DNA mutations. Magnesium deficiency may also be associated with inflammation and increased levels of free radicals where both inflammatory mediators and free radicals so arising could cause oxidative DNA damage and therefore tumour formation. The presented review article now provides a summary

  12. A newer variant of congenital pouch colon with rectal agenesis: management strategy and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunita; Ahmed, Intezar; Wakhlu, Ashish

    2011-08-31

    A 3-day-old male baby presented with clinico-radiological features of rectal atresia with colo-urinary fistula. There was no radiological evidence of congenital pouch colon (CPC), but per-operatively CPC of unusual anatomy was found. The CPC was intermediate between type I and type II of Narsimha's classification. The pouch had rudimentary appendix and proximal colovesical fistula. The distal end of CPC was free. In the first stage, diverting ileostomy was done. In follow-up, after 1 month because of rectourinary fistula baby developed hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and uremic sepsis. First metabolic correction and control of sepsis were done. Thereafter, abdomino-posterior saggital approach was used for excision of colovesical fistula, appendectomy, coloplasty and colorectal anastmosis. The ileostomy was left undisturbed. The infant at present is waiting for the third stage ileostomy closure.

  13. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo examination of buccal absorption of metoprolol with varying pH in TR146 cell culture, porcine buccal mucosa and Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Meng-Lund, Emil; Andersen, Morten B.;

    2013-01-01

    This work studied the buccal absorption of metoprolol in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo as a function of buffered pH at 7.4, 8.5, 9.0 and 9.5. Permeability studies showed a correlation (r(2)=0.92) between in vitro TR146 cell culture and ex vivo porcine buccal mucosa in a modified Ussing chamber...

  14. Further assessment of Monkeypox Virus infection in Gambian pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) using in vivo bioluminescent imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falendysz, Elizabeth; Lopera, Juan G.; Faye Lorenzsonn,; Salzer, Johanna S.; Hutson, Christina L.; Doty, Jeffrey; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Carroll, Darin S.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonosis clinically similar to smallpox in humans. Recent evidence has shown a potential risk of increased incidence in central Africa. Despite attempts to isolate the virus from wild rodents and other small mammals, no reservoir host has been identified. In 2003,Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was accidentally introduced into the U.S. via the pet trade and was associated with the Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus). Therefore, we investigated the potential reservoir competence of the Gambian pouched rat for MPXV by utilizing a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods. We inoculated three animals by the intradermal route and three animals by the intranasal route, with one mock-infected control for each route. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) was used to track replicating virus in infected animals and virological assays (e.g. real time PCR, cell culture) were used to determine viral load in blood, urine, ocular, nasal, oral, and rectal swabs. Intradermal inoculation resulted in clinical signs of monkeypox infection in two of three animals. One severely ill animal was euthanized and the other affected animal recovered. In contrast, intranasal inoculation resulted in subclinical infection in all three animals. All animals, regardless of apparent or inapparent infection, shed virus in oral and nasal secretions. Additionally, BLI identified viral replication in the skin without grossly visible lesions. These results suggest that Gambian pouched rats may play an important role in transmission of the virus to humans, as they are hunted for consumption and it is possible for MPXV-infected pouched rats to shed infectious virus without displaying overt clinical signs.

  15. Electrochemical properties of large-sized pouch-type lithium ion batteries with bio-inspired organic cathode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jae-Seong; Yoo, Eun-Ji; Ha, Sang-Hyeon; Cheong, Dong-Ik; Cho, Sung-Baek

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the feasibility of scaling up bio-inspired organic materials as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries, large-sized pouch cells are successfully prepared via tape casting using lumichrome with an alloxazine structure and aqueous styrene butadiene rubber-carboxymethyl cellulose (SBR-CMC) binders. A battery module with a two-in-series, six-in-parallel (2S6P) configuration is also successfully fabricated and is able to power blue LEDs (850 mW). Lumichrome shows no structural changes during the fabrication processes used to produce the positive electrode. The large-sized pouch cells show two sets of cathodic and anodic peaks with average potentials of 2.58 V and 2.26 V vs. Li/Li+, respectively. The initial discharge capacities are 142 mAh g-1 and 148 mAh g-1 for ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate (EC-DMC) and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) electrolytes, respectively, similar to that of a coin cell (149 mAh g-1). The EC-DMC-injected pouch cells exhibit higher rate performance and cyclability than the TEGDME-injected ones. The TEGDME electrolyte is not suitable for lithium metal anodes because of electrolyte decomposition and subsequent cell swelling.

  16. Histological evaluation of the lesion induced by inoculation of Leishmania mexicana in the cheek pouch of the hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruda Maria Sueli Parreira de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the role of the immune response in the morphology of the leishmaniotic granuloma induced in the cheek pouch of hamsters, an immunologically privileged site, after inoculation of 3 x 10(5 Leishmania mexicana. Animals were histologically and immunologically evaluated until 120 days after inoculation. Independent of the time of sacrifice, the animals were always non-reactors to the footpad test (FPT. At histology, the introduction of L. mexicana in the cheek pouch leads to an abscess that evolves to a granulomatous reaction rich in amastigote forms, and later it leads to resolution, even in the absence of immune response detectable by FPT. Our results demonstrate that the development of immune response is not preponderant for the control of infection induced by L. mexicana inoculated subcutaneously in the cheek pouch of the hamster. It also suggests that the macrophages present in the leishmaniotic granuloma are capable of eliminating this parasite, even in the absence of immune response evaluated by FPT.

  17. Towards Sensor-Actuator Coupling in an Automated Order Picking System by Detecting Sealed Seams on Pouch Packed Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Weichert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel concept of coupling the actuators of an automated order picking system for pouch packed goods with an embedded CCD camera sensor by means of image processing and machine learning is presented. The picking system mechanically combines the conveyance and singularization of a still-connected chain of pouch packed goods in a single machinery. The proposed algorithms perform a per-frame processing of the captured images in real-time to detect the sealed seams of the ongoing pouches. The detections are used to deduce cutting decisions in order to control the system’s actuators, namely the drive pulley for conveyance and the cutting device for the separation. Within this context, two controlling strategies are presented as well which specify the interaction of the sensor and the actuators. The detection is carried out by two different marker detection strategies: enhanced Template Matching as a heuristic and Support Vector Machines as a supervised classification based concept. Depending on the employed marker, detection rates of almost 100% with a calculation time of less than 40 ms are possible. From a logistic point of view, sealed seam widths of 20 mm prove feasible.

  18. The role of tobacco as an etiological agent for oral cancer: Cytomorphometrical analysis of the buccal mucosa in tobacco users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results confirmed that tobacco chewing and smoking influenced the cytomorphology of normal appearing buccal mucosa and the degree of these changes were found to be greater in chewers as compared to smokers.

  19. Effect of zinc deficiency on keratins in buccal epithelium of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, D J; Daniel, J C; Gerson, S J

    1991-01-01

    Weanling rats fed a zinc-deficient diet (less than 1 part/10(6)) for 4 weeks develop parakeratotic and hyperplastic buccal epithelium with increased mitotic activity. Normal buccal epithelium contains major keratin polypeptides of 56, 46 and 43 kDa. Four-week zinc-deficient rats lacked the 43 kDa keratin. It appears that the 46 and 43 kDa keratins are related, differing as a result of some post-translation modification. A proteolytic cleavage of the 46 kDa keratin to the 43 kDa species is the most likely mechanism. The findings point to a decrease of keratinolytic enzyme activity in the zinc-deficient rats.

  20. Three-dimensional canine loop for management of buccally erupted canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Mehrotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canines are known as the cornerstones of mouth. They are considered to be important for esthetics and for functional occlusion. Any disturbance in the eruption process leading to an aberrant position will hamper esthetics as well as function. Orthodontic tooth movement of total buccally blocked-out canine is usually difficult as it is related with the problems of severe crowding, midline deviation, involvement of long root movement and risk of gingival recession. Such conditions can be treated orthodontically in various ways, but this clinical innovation helps to correct the buccally placed canines into the arch with a precise control of the canine in all the Three-dimensions (3D of space as well as providing maximum comfort to the patient by placing the canine loop on the palatal surface of the tooth, reducing soreness on the labial mucosa. It can be easily fabricated and activated at chairside for either simultaneous or sequential control in 3D.

  1. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Amjad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB and lidocaine HCl (LID was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9 were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC and sodium alginate (SA. The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release, which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach.

  2. Rare carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal minor salivary gland causing a therapeutic dilemma

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    Yogesh Kini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA, as a group, constitutes 12% of malignant salivary gland tumors. We present a case of CXPA of the buccal mucosa in a 17-year-old patient. The buccal mass was of a size of 3.0 cm located in the right cheek. Pleomorphic adenoma was the provisional diagnosis. The tumor was excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological evaluation revealed a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma. However, on magnification, certain areas showed islands of dysplastic epithelial cells′ invading the fibrous capsule and CXPA was diagnosed. The patient was recalled and secondary surgery of the site performed. No tumor tissue could be detected in the secondary resection specimen. There is no sign of recurrence since 2 years.

  3. A buccal cell model comet assay: Development and evaluation for human biomonitoring and nutritional studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Y.T. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of Health Sciences, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao (China); Benzie, I.F.F. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: iris.benzie@inet.polyu.edu.hk; Collins, A.R. [Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Choi, S.W. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, C.Y. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yow, C.M.N. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tse, M.M.Y. [School of Nursing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-10-15

    The comet assay is a widely used biomonitoring tool for DNA damage. The most commonly used cells in human studies are lymphocytes. There is an urgent need to find an alternative target human cell that can be collected from normal subjects with minimal invasion. There are some reports of buccal cells, collected easily from the inside of the mouth, being used in studies of DNA damage and repair, and these were of interest. However, our preliminary studies following the published protocol showed that buccal cells sustained massive damage and disintegrated at the high pH [O. Ostling, K.J. Johanson. Microelectrophoretic study of radiation-induced DNA damages in individual mammalian cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123 (1984) 291-298] used, but that at lower pH were extremely resistant to lysis, an essential step in the comet assay. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a protocol than enabled buccal cell lysis and DNA damage testing in the comet assay, and to use the model to evaluate the potential use of the buccal cell model in human biomonitoring and nutritional study. Specifically, we aimed to investigate intra- and inter-individual differences in buccal cell DNA damage (as strand breaks), the effect of in vitro exposure to both a standard oxidant challenge and antioxidant treatment, as well as in situ exposure to an antioxidant-rich beverage and supplementation-related effects using a carotenoid-rich food. Successful lysis was achieved using 0.25% trypsin for 30 min followed by proteinase K (1 mg/ml) treatment for 60 min. When this procedure was performed on cells pre-embedded in agarose on a microscope slide, followed by electrophoresis (in 0.01 M NaOH, 1 mM EDTA, pH 9.1, 18 min at 12 V), a satisfactory comet image was obtained, though inter-individual variation was quite wide. Pre-lysis exposure of cells to a standard oxidant challenge (induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) increased DNA strand breaks in a dose related manner, and incubation of cells in

  4. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amjad; Syed, Muhammad Ali; Abbas, Nasir; Hanif, Sana; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Hussain, Khalid; Akhlaq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2016-06-01

    A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB) and lidocaine HCl (LID) was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9) were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate (SA). The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release), which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach.

  5. Transmucosal delivery of oxytocin to rabbits using a mucoadhesive buccal patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Bhatt, P P; Johnston, T P

    1997-08-01

    A biocompatible, mucoadhesive buccal patch was evaluated in rabbits for transmucosal delivery of peptides. Oxytocin (OT) was incorporated into custom coformulations of Carbopol 974P and silicone polymer and the resulting plasma OT concentration versus time profiles determined following patch application. For comparative purposes, the mean values determined for the elimination half-life (t1/2), volume of distribution (Vd), and the total body clearance (CL) following intravenous injection of OT were 2.9 +/- 0.2 min, 85.3 +/- 6.7 ml, and 20.4 +/- 2.03 ml/min, respectively. Following application of oxytocin-loaded mucoadhesive patches, plasma OT concentrations remained 20- to 28-fold greater from 0.5 to 3.0 hr than control animals administered placebo patches. The steady-state plasma OT concentration (Css) following application of the buccal patches was 80.6 +/- 15.9 pg/ml. The lag-time associated with attainment of the Css was 0.45 +/- 0.18 hr. Steady-state flux (Jss) of oxytocin in vivo was 139 +/- 36.8 ng/hr/cm2. Based on the amount of OT remaining in the patches following removal, the average dose of OT released in vivo was 0.27 +/- 0.024 mg with a bioavailability of 0.1%. No significant alterations in mucosal histology were observed when underlying mucosa to which OT patches had been applied were compared to either control (no patch) mucosa or mucosa underneath placebo patches. The mucoadhesive buccal patches were easy to apply and remove, nonirritating to tissue, and able to continuously deliver a nonapeptide over 3 hr. Based on these preliminary studies, the mucoadhesive buccal patches evaluated may represent an improved transmucosal drug delivery system for peptides and conventional drug substances.

  6. BUCCAL ADVANCEMENT FLAP DAN ANTROSTOMI: UNTUK TERAPI ORO ANTRAL FISTULA (Laporan Kasus

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    Rizal Rivandi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Buccal advancement flap is one of the many ways of treating oro antral fistula. This technique is frequently used by dentists because it is easier to do and has several advantages compared to other techniques. This paper reports a case of oro antral fistula caused by complication of a tooth extraction, with discussions about definition, ethics and other therapies of oro antral fistula.

  7. In vitro Fluoride Release and Tensile Bond Strength of a Polymeric Intra-Buccal Bioadhesive

    OpenAIRE

    Vinicius PEDRAZZI; LARA, Elza Helena Guimaraes; PANZERI, Heitor; John H Collett; ISSA, Joao Paulo Mardegan

    2009-01-01

    The intra-buccal polymeric bioadhesive systems that can stay adhered to the oral soft tissues for drug programmed release, with the preventive and/or therapeutic purpose has been employed for large clinical situations. A system based on hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose/Carbopol 934`/magnesium stearate (HPMC/Cp/StMg) was developed having the sodium fluoride as active principle. This kind of system was evaluated according to its resistance to the removal by means of physical test of tensile stren...

  8. Procedures for risk-stratification of lung cancer using buccal nanocytology

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, H; P. Viswanathan; Cherkezyan, L.; Iyengar, R; Rozhok, S.; Verleye, M.; Derbas, J.; Czarnecki, J.; Roy, H K; Backman, V

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. with survival dramatically depending on stage at diagnosis. We had earlier reported that nanocytology of buccal cells can accurately risk-stratify smokers for the presence of early and late-stage lung cancer. To translate the technique into clinical practice, standardization of operating procedures is necessary to consistently yield precise and repeatable results. Here, we develop and validate simple, robust, and easily implementab...

  9. Development and in vitro evaluation of a buccal drug delivery system based on preactivated thiolated pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptstein, Sabine; Hintzen, Fabian; Müller, Christiane; Ohm, Moritz; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of preactivated thiolated pectin (Pec-Cys-MNA) for buccal drug delivery. Therefore, a gel formulation containing this novel polymer and the model drug lidocaine was prepared and investigated in vitro in terms of rheology, mucoadhesion, swelling behavior and drug release in comparison to formulations based on pectin (Pec) and thiolated pectin (Pec-Cys). Both pectin derivatives showed gel formation without addition of any other excipient due to self-crosslinking thiol groups. Under same conditions, pectin did not show gel formation. Viscosity of Pec-Cys-based formulation increased 92-fold and viscosity of Pec-Cys-MNA-based formulations by 4958-fold compared to pectin-based formulation. Gels did not dissolve in aqueous environment during several hours and were able to take up water. Mucoadhesion of pectin on buccal tissue could be improved significantly, value of total work of adhesion increased in the following rank order: Pec-Cys-MNA > Pec-Cys > Pec. The retention time of a model drug incorporated in gel formulations on buccal mucosa under continuous rinsing with phosphate-buffered saline was prolonged, after 1.5 h 3-fold higher amount of a model drug was to be found on tissue after application of Pec-Cys-MNA-based formulation compared to pectin-based and 2-fold compared to Pec-Cys-based formulation. The Pec-Cys-MNA-based gel showed a more sustained release of lidocaine than Pec-Cys-based gel, whereas pectin solution revealed an immediate release. According to these results, the self-crosslinking pectin-derivative is a promising tool for buccal application.

  10. Direct PCR amplification of the HVSI region in mitochondrial DNA from buccal cell swabs

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    Kovačević-Grujičić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been widely used in population genetics, human evolutionary and molecular anthropology studies. mtDNA hypervariable segments I and II (HVSI and HVSII were shown to be a suitable tool in genetic analyses due to the unique properties of mtDNA, such as the lack of recombination, maternal mode of inheritance, rapid evolutionary rate and high population-specific polymorphisms. Here we present a rapid and low-cost method for direct PCR amplification of a 330 bp fragment of HVSI from buccal cell samples. Avoiding the DNA isolation step makes this method appropriate for the analysis of a large number of samples in a short period of time. Since the transportation of samples and fieldwork conditions can affect the quality of samples and subsequent DNA analysis, we tested the effects of long-term storage of buccal cell swabs on the suitability of such samples for direct PCR amplification. We efficiently amplified a 330 bp fragment of HVSI even after the long-term storage of buccal cells at room temperature, +4°C or at -20°C, for up to eight months. All examined PCR products were successfully sequenced, regardless of sample storage time and conditions. Our results suggest that the direct PCR amplification of the HVSI region from buccal cells is a method well suited for large-scale mtDNA population studies.[Acknowledgments. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (Grant no. III 47025.

  11. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

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    Takuji Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy.

  12. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shaikh Ershadul; Sheela, Angappan

    2015-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met), an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7). The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:26491321

  13. Prediction of outcome in buccal cancers treated with radical radiotherapy based on the early tumor response

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    G V Giri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: Aim was to assess the clinical significance of the rate of tumor regression in carcinoma buccal mucosa undergoing radical radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty six patients were enrolled in the study with proven buccal cancers requiring radical radiotherapy, from 1990 to 1996. Radiotherapy was delivered using a combination of external beam and brachytherapy with preloaded cesium 137 needles. The response to the radiation was assessed at the completion of external beam radiation and 6 weeks after brachytherapy. An analysis correlating various parameters influencing the long term disease free survival and overall survival was done. Results: Response assessed at the end of external beam radiation correlated strongly with the overall survival and the disease free interval (P=0.000. No other factor influenced the survival. Conclusion: The rate of the tumor regression can predict the overall outcome in patients with buccal cancers treated with radiation. Completion of the planned course of radiation in patients who do not show a substantial reduction in size by 4.5 weeks of conventional radiation does not improve the results.

  14. Development and in vitro evaluation of insulin-loaded buccal Pluronic F-127 gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nilanjana; Madan, Parshotam; Lin, Senshang

    2010-01-01

    Insulin-loaded buccal Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) gel formulations were fabricated to study the effect of PF-127 concentration, insulin concentration, presence of salt, addition of polymer, and permeation enhancer on their gelation time, mucoadhesion force, release and permeation characteristics of insulin from the gels. Thereafter, the principle of statistical optimization to prepare a gel formulation having the potential for buccal delivery of basal insulin in diabetic patients was employed. The gelation time decreased as the concentration of PF-127 increased. Presence of salts as well as addition of polymer, such as methyl cellulose (MC) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) decreased the gelation time. An increase in PF-127 concentration and addition of MC and HPMC increased the mucoadhesion force of the gel formulations. Release and permeation of insulin from the gel formulations decreased with increased concentration of PF-127, presence of salts, and addition of MC and HPMC. Permeation of insulin from the optimized gel formulation was 93.17 (+/- 0.058, n = 3) microg/cm(2) which was not only found in close agreement with predicted results from the model equations used for the formulation optimization but also considered comparable to clinical setting. Therefore, the development of optimized buccal insulin-loaded Pluronic F-127 gels using a statistical experimental design is feasible.

  15. Micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal cells from hairdresser who expose to hair products

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    Koh Hui Yee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hairdresser is one of the fastest growing occupations in today’s society. Hairdresser help styling, cutting, colouring, perming, curling, straightening hair and various treatment to customer. Somehow, hairdresser are constantly exposed to chemical substances such as aromatic amines, hydrogen peroxide, thioglycolic acid, formaldehyde in hair products which can cause damage to human’s genome. Micronucleus is one of the effective biomarker for processes associated with the induction of DNA damage. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the micronucleus frequencies in buccal mucosa epithelial cells of hairdresser who were exposed to chemical of hair products. Method: This study was conducted on twenty female subjects, who were divided into 2 groups: exposed and non-exposed (control group. All subjects recruited were working in the same beauty salon. Buccal cells were obtained from each individual by using cytobrush. The cells were stained with modified Feulgen-Ronssenback method and counting of micronucleus per 1000 cell was done under light microscope. The data were analyzed using independent t-test and one-way Anova (p<0.05. Result: The result showed a significant difference in micronucleus frequency between 2 groups. There were a significantly increase of micronucleus frequency in hairdressers and increase of  micronucleus frequency with the longer duration of exposure. Conclusion: It concluded that the chemical substances of hair products had affected the micronucleus frequency ofthe epithelial cells in buccal mucosa of hairdressers.

  16. Buccal mucosal ulcer healing effect of rhEGF/Eudispert hv hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Sook; Yoon, Joon Il; Li, Hong; Moon, Dong Cheul; Han, Kun

    2003-08-01

    We have studied the effect of rhEGF on the buccal mucosal ulcer healing. rhEGF was rapidly degraded upon incubation with the hamster buccal mucosal homogenates; The degradation of rhEGF was significantly inhibited by sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Eudispert hv hydrogel and Polycarbophil 974P hydrogel were prepared for rhEGF delivery and their mucoadhesiveness was measured by the Instron method. The mucoadhesive force of Eudispert hv was significantly greater than that of Polycarbophil 974P. Moreover, rhEGF in Eudispert hv hydrogel remained stable for about 2 months. To evaluate the ulcer healing effect of rhEGF, the buccal mucosal ulcer was induced in golden hamsters using acetic acid. At 24 h after administration of rhEGF/Eudispert hv hydrogel, the ulcerous area was decreased compared with rhEGF solution and, as a result, the curative ratio was 36.8 +/- 5.68%. By the addition of SLS (0.5%) to Eudispert hv hydrogel, the curative ratio increased 1.5 times. The mechanism of the action was probably due to a combination of protection of the drug against proteases present in mucosa and prolongation of the release of rhEGF from the formulation at the site of action.

  17. The Use of Buccal Fat Pad in the Treatment of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Newer Method

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    K. Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. This study was to evaluate the use of buccal fat pad as an interpositioning material in surgical management of oral sub mucous fibrosis. Materials and methods. A series of 8 cases with proven oral sub mucous fibrosis, with mouth opening less than 20 mm, involving the buccal mucosa were treated surgically in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University, Chennai. Pedicled buccal fat pad was used as an interpositioning material to cover the raw areas in the oral cavity after incision and release of fibrous bands. Results. In 8 patients, the range of pre operative mouth opening was 3–18 mm (mean 14 mm. As the result of the successful surgical procedure, the size of the intra operative mouth opening was ranged from 25–38 mm (mean 33.25 mm. The patients were discharged 5–7 days after the operation. The range of the mouth opening at this time was 25–36 mm (mean 30.63 mm. The results were evaluated using student’s t test and found to be statistically significant. The pedicled grafts took up uneventfull.

  18. Preparation of fluconazole buccal tablet and influence of formulation expedients on its properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOHAMED Saifulla P; MUZZAMMIL Shariff; PRAMOD Kumar TM

    2011-01-01

    The aim of present study was to prepare buccal tablets of fluconazole for oral candidiasis.The dosage forms were designed to release the drug above the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration and to overcome the side effects of systemic treatment.The buccal tablets were prepared by using Carbopol 71G and Noveon AA-1 by direct compression method.Microcrystalline cellulose was used as the filler and its effect was also studied.The prepared dosage forms were evaluated for physicochemical properties,in vitro release studies and mueoadhesive properties using sheep buccal mucosa as a model tissue.Tablets containing 50% of polymers(Carbopol & Noveon)were found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force,residence time and in vitro drug release.The in vitro drug release studies revealed that drug released for 8 h,which in turn may reduce dosing frequency and improved patient compliance in oral candidiasis patients.

  19. Buccal mucosa carcinoma: surgical margin less than 3 mm, not 5 mm, predicts locoregional recurrence

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    Chiou Wen-Yen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most treatment failure of buccal mucosal cancer post surgery is locoregional recurrence. We tried to figure out how close the surgical margin being unsafe and needed further adjuvant treatment. Methods Between August 2000 and June 2008, a total of 110 patients with buccal mucosa carcinoma (25 with stage I, 31 with stage II, 11 with stage III, and 43 with Stage IV classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer 6th edition were treated with surgery alone (n = 32, surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy (n = 38 or surgery plus adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (n = 40. Main outcome measures: The primary endpoint was locoregional disease control. Results The median follow-up time at analysis was 25 months (range, 4-104 months. The 3-year locoregional control rates were significantly different when a 3-mm surgical margin (≤3 versus >3 mm, 71% versus 95%, p = 0.04 but not a 5-mm margin (75% versus 92%, p = 0.22 was used as the cut-off level. We also found a quantitative correlation between surgical margin and locoregional failure (hazard ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.14 - 4.11; p = 0.019. Multivariate analysis identified pN classification and surgical margin as independent factors affecting disease-free survival and locoregional control. Conclusions Narrow surgical margin ≤3 mm, but not 5 mm, is associated with high risk for locoregional recurrence of buccal mucosa carcinoma. More aggressive treatment after surgery is suggested.

  20. Particle size reduction to the nanometer range: a promising approach to improve buccal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs

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    Rao S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Shasha Rao, Yunmei Song, Frank Peddie, Allan M EvansSansom Institute for Health Research, Division of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Poorly water-soluble drugs, such as phenylephrine, offer challenging problems for buccal drug delivery. In order to overcome these problems, particle size reduction (to the nanometer range and cyclodextrin complexation were investigated for permeability enhancement. The apparent solubility in water and the buccal permeation of the original phenylephrine coarse powder, a phenylephrine–cyclodextrin complex and phenylephrine nanosuspensions were ­characterized. The particle size and particle surface properties of phenylephrine nanosuspensions were used to optimize the size reduction process. The optimized phenylephrine nanosuspension was then freeze dried and incorporated into a multi-layered buccal patch, consisting of a small tablet adhered to a mucoadhesive film, yielding a phenylephrine buccal product with good dosage accuracy and improved mucosal permeability. The design of the buccal patch allows for drug incorporation without the need to change the mucoadhesive component, and is potentially suited to a range of poorly water-soluble compounds.Keywords: buccal drug delivery, nanosuspension, solubility, permeation enhancement, mucoadhesion

  1. The Antarctic holothurian genus Echinopsolus Gutt, 1990 (Dendrochirotida, Cucumariidae): brood pouches, spermatozoa, spermatozeugmata and taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Jens Michael; Heß, Martin

    2014-07-29

    An examination of seven Antarctic brooding cucumariid and psolid holothurian species revealed a variety of characters all of them have in common: (1) All are gonochoric. (2) A genital papilla is present on the oral disc (permanent and digitiform in males). (3) Females brood their offspring in five anterior interradial brood pouches that are situated at the transition of body to introvert. (4) Multiple spermatozoa are always bundled to bunch-like spermato-zeugmata. (5) The spermatozoa have a fusiform head and a hollow cylinder-like mid-piece encircling the anterior end of the flagellum. This combination of characters so far is unique, and indicates a close relationship based on common origin. As a consequence, we unite all species sharing this set of synapomorphies in the genus Echinopsolus Gutt, 1990. The herewith included species are: E. acanthocola Gutt, 1990, E. acutus (Massin, 1992) comb. nov., E. charcoti (Vaney, 1906) comb. nov., E. koehleri (Vaney, 1914) comb. nov., E. mollis (Ludwig & Heding, 1935) comb. nov., E. parvipes Massin, 1992 and E. splendidus (Gutt, 1990) comb. nov.. Because the current assignment of Echinopsolus to the family Psolidae can not be retained, the genus is tranferred to the family Cucumariidae, as relationships to taxa within this family are obvious. The peculiar spermatozoa and spermato-zeugmata of all Echinopsolus species are described using light- and electron-microscopical techniques and the results are evaluated and discussed concerning their taxonomy and phylogeny. 

  2. Distribution and ecology of lesser pouched rat, Beamys hindei, in Tanzanian coastal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuni, Christopher A; Sluydts, Vincent; Mulungu, Loth S; Maganga, Samwel L S; Makundi, Rhodes H; Leirs, Herwig

    2015-11-01

    The lesser pouched rat, Beamys hindei, is a small rodent that is patchily distributed in the Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forests in East Africa. The ecology of this species and its current distribution in coastal forests is not well known. Therefore, we conducted a study in selected coastal forests to assess the current distribution of the species and to investigate the population ecology in terms of abundance fluctuations and demographic patterns. Assessments of the species distribution were conducted in 5 forests through trapping with Sherman live traps. Data on ecology were obtained from monthly capture-mark-recapture studies conducted for 5 consecutive nights per month in two 1 ha grids set in Zaraninge Forest over a 2-year period. The results indicate the presence of B. hindei in 3 forests where it was not previously recorded. The population abundance estimates ranged from 1 to 40 animals per month, with high numbers recorded during rainy seasons. Reproduction patterns and sex ratios did not differ between months. Survival estimates were not influenced by season, and recruitment was low, with growth rate estimates of 1 animal per month. These estimates suggest a stable population of B. hindei in Zaraninge Forest. Further studies are recommended to establish the home range, diet and burrowing behavior of the species in coastal forests in East Africa.

  3. A light, transmission and scanning electron microscope study of snuff-treated hamster cheek pouch epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, S H; Das, A; Worowongvasu, R; Mehdinejad, B; Waterhouse, J P

    1992-03-01

    The effects of smokeless tobacco (snuff) on hamster cheek mucosa were studied by light microscopy, transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two grams of commercially available smokeless tobacco were placed into the blind end of the right cheek pouch of each experimental animal, once a day and five days a week for 24 months. The control animals did not receive smokeless tobacco. After 24 months treatment with smokeless tobacco, hamster cheek mucosal epithelium lost its translucency and had become whitish in color. By light microscopy hyperorthokeratosis, prominent granular cell layers with increased keratohyalin granules and hyperplasia were seen. At the ultrastructural level, wider intercellular spaces filled with microvilli, numerous shorter desmosomes, many thin tonofilament bundles, increased number of mitochondria, membrane coating granules and keratohyalin granules were seen in snuff-treated epithelium. The changes in the surface of the epithelium as seen by SEM were the development of an irregular arrangement of the microridges and the disappearance of the normal honeycomb pattern. The microridges were irregular, widened and surrounded the irregular elongated pits. Some smooth areas without microridges and pits were also seen. The long-term histological, TEM and SEM changes induced by smokeless tobacco treatment of the epithelium are well correlated with each other and were similar to those reported in human leukoplakia without dyskeratosis. They imply changes of pathological response resulting from topically applied snuff.

  4. A quantitative ultrastructural analysis of changes in hamster cheek-pouch epithelium treated with vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M W; Harris, R R; Carron, C P

    1982-01-01

    The ultrastructural changes induced by the topical application of retinol acetate on hamster cheek pouch epithelium were evaluated using stereological analysis. Electron micrographs were prepared of the basal and superficial regions of the nucleated cell layer of the epithelium obtained from 3 treated and 3 control animals and examined at two levels of magnification. A total of 528 micrographs were analyzed using a coherent double lattice test system. Although the mean thickness of the nucleated cell layer did not change significantly after 10 days of treatment with retinol acetate the formation of keratinized squames was completely inhibited. This was paralleled by significant changes in the volume density of a number of organelles in both the basal and superficial strata. Rough endoplasmic reticulum increased significantly whereas filaments, which maintained a constant diameter of approximately 9 nm, keratohyalin granules and membrane-coating granules decreased in both strata. Desmosomes also showed a significant decrease in numerical area density in the treated tissues. In contrast, no changes were observed in the volume density of the Golgi apparatus, free ribosomes or mitochondria in the treated epithelium. It is concluded that this treatment provides an epithelium lacking all features of keratinization and may be a useful model for examining metabolic activities specifically associated with keratinization.

  5. Failure statistics for commercial lithium ion batteries: A study of 24 pouch cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stephen J.; Harris, David J.; Li, Chen

    2017-02-01

    There are relatively few publications that assess capacity decline in enough commercial cells to quantify cell-to-cell variation, but those that do show a surprisingly wide variability. Capacity curves cross each other often, a challenge for efforts to measure the state of health and predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of individual cells. We analyze capacity fade statistics for 24 commercial pouch cells, providing an estimate for the time to 5% failure. Our data indicate that RUL predictions based on remaining capacity or internal resistance are accurate only once the cells have already sorted themselves into ;better; and ;worse; ones. Analysis of our failure data, using maximum likelihood techniques, provide uniformly good fits for a variety of definitions of failure with normal and with 2- and 3-parameter Weibull probability density functions, but we argue against using a 3-parameter Weibull function for our data. pdf fitting parameters appear to converge after about 15 failures, although business objectives should ultimately determine whether data from a given number of batteries provides sufficient confidence to end lifecycle testing. Increased efforts to make batteries with more consistent lifetimes should lead to improvements in battery cost and safety.

  6. The Dual Role of Inflammation in Colon Carcinogenesis

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    Carmine Stolfi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation characterizing patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD represents a major risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer. Mechanisms underlying this neoplastic transformation are not fully understood though studies in experimental models of colon carcinogenesis suggest that inflammatory cell-derived cytokines either directly or indirectly stimulate the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells. Nevertheless, under specific inflammatory conditions, immune cells can boost an anti-tumor immune response with the down-stream effect of eliminating dysplastic and cancerous cells. This review outlines the beneficial and detrimental role of inflammation in colon carcinogenesis.

  7. Biomolecular and epidemiological aspects of human papillomavirus induced cervical carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Christine Frederike Wilhelmine

    2007-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains one of the leading causes of death from cancer among women worldwide. Organised screening programmes aim to trace precursor lesions in order to reduce cervical cancer incidence. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause for cervical carcinogenesis. Most HPV infections a

  8. Carcinogenesis explained within the context of a theory of organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2016-10-01

    For a century, the somatic mutation theory (SMT) has been the prevalent theory to explain carcinogenesis. According to the SMT, cancer is a cellular problem, and thus, the level of organization where it should be studied is the cellular level. Additionally, the SMT proposes that cancer is a problem of the control of cell proliferation and assumes that proliferative quiescence is the default state of cells in metazoa. In 1999, a competing theory, the tissue organization field theory (TOFT), was proposed. In contraposition to the SMT, the TOFT posits that cancer is a tissue-based disease whereby carcinogens (directly) and mutations in the germ-line (indirectly) alter the normal interactions between the diverse components of an organ, such as the stroma and its adjacent epithelium. The TOFT explicitly acknowledges that the default state of all cells is proliferation with variation and motility. When taking into consideration the principle of organization, we posit that carcinogenesis can be explained as a relational problem whereby release of the constraints created by cell interactions and the physical forces generated by cellular agency lead cells within a tissue to regain their default state of proliferation with variation and motility. Within this perspective, what matters both in morphogenesis and carcinogenesis is not only molecules, but also biophysical forces generated by cells and tissues. Herein, we describe how the principles for a theory of organisms apply to the TOFT and thus to the study of carcinogenesis.

  9. Hypoxia and cell cycle deregulation in endometrial carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrée, N.

    2007-01-01

    Because uterine endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract and 1 of every 5 patients dies of this disease, understanding the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and progression of endometrial carcinoma is important. In general, this thesis can be summarized as a study o

  10. Carcinogenesis related to intense pulsed light and UV exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, L; Lerche, C; Wulf, H C;

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment has a carcinogenic potential itself or may influence ultraviolet (UV)-induced carcinogenesis. Secondly, it evaluates whether UV exposure may influence IPL-induced side effects. Hairless, lightly pigmented mice (n=144) received three...

  11. Death receptors and ligands in cervical carcinogenesis : an immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Hougardy, B M T; van den Heuvel, F A J; Ten Hoor, K A; Hollema, H; Boezen, H M; de Vries, E G E; de Jong, S; van der Zee, A G J

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increasing imbalance between proliferation and apoptosis is important in cervical carcinogenesis. The death ligands FasL and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induce apoptosis by binding to their cognate cell-surface death receptors Fas or death receptor (DR)

  12. Role of colonic microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis: a systematic review

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    Marta Borges-Canha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The human colonic mucosa is populated by a wide range of microorganisms, usually in a symbiotic relation with the host. Sometimes this balance is lost and a state of dysbiosis arises, exposing the colon to different metabolic and inflammatory stimuli (according to the microbiota's changing profile. Recent findings lead to hypothesize that this unbalance may create a subclinical pro-inflammatory state that increases DNA mutations and, therefore, colorectal carcinogenesis. In this article we aim to systematically review the scientific evidence regarding colonic microbiota and its role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods: Systematic review of PubMed searching results for original articles studying microbiota and colorectal cancer until November 2014. Results: Thirty-one original articles studied the role of colon microbiota in colorectal carcinoma including both human and animal studies. Different and heterogeneous methods were used and different bacteria were considered. Nevertheless, some bacteria are consistently augmented (such as Fusobacteria, Alistipes, Porphyromonadaceae, Coriobacteridae, Staphylococcaceae, Akkermansia spp. and Methanobacteriales, while other are constantly diminished in colorectal cancer (such as Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, Faecalibacterium spp., Roseburia, and Treponema. Moreover, bacteria metabolites amino acids are increased and butyrate is decreased throughout colonic carcinogenesis. Conclusion: Conclusive evidence shows that colorectal carcinogenesis is associated with microbial dysbiosis. This information may be used to create new prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for colorectal cancer.

  13. The glutathione biotransformation system and colon carcinogenesis in human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M.J.A.L.; Nagengast, F.M.; Katan, M.B.; Peters, W.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Evidence for a protective role of the glutathione biotransformation system in carcinogenesis is growing. However, most data on this system in relation to colorectal cancer originate from animal studies. Here we review the human data. In humans, a significant association was found between glutathione

  14. Vimentin and laminin are altered on cheek pouch microvessels of streptozotocin-induced diabetic hamsters

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    Jemima Fuentes R Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Normal endothelial cells respond to shear stress by elongating and aligning in the direction of fluid flow. Hyperglycemia impairs this response and contributes to microvascular complications, which result in deleterious effects to the endothelium. This work aimed to evaluate cheek pouch microvessel morphological characteristics, reactivity, permeability, and expression of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix components in hamsters after the induction of diabetes with streptozotocin. METHODS: Syrian golden hamsters (90-130 g were injected with streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle either 6 (the diabetes mellitus 6 group or 15 (the diabetes mellitus 15 group days before the experiment. Vascular dimensions and density per area of vessels were determined by morphometric and stereological measurements. Changes in blood flow were measured in response to acetylcholine, and plasma extravasation was measured by the number of leakage sites. Actin, talin, α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, type IV collagen, and laminin were detected by immunohistochemistry and assessed through a semiquantitative scoring system. RESULTS: There were no major alterations in the lumen, wall diameters, or densities of the examined vessels. Likewise, vascular reactivity and permeability were not altered by diabetes. The arterioles demonstrated increased immunoreactivity to vimentin and laminin in the diabetes mellitus 6 and diabetes mellitus 15 groups. DISCUSSION: Antibodies against laminin and vimentin inhibit branching morphogenesis in vitro. Therefore, laminin and vimentin participating in the structure of the focal adhesion may play a role in angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated the existence of changes related to cell-matrix interactions, which may contribute to the pathological remodeling that was already underway one week after induction of experimental diabetes.

  15. Impact of electrolyte solvent and additive choices on high voltage Li-ion pouch cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jian; Nelson, K. J.; Lu, Zhonghua; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    The effects that various electrolyte solvents and electrolyte additives had on both LaPO4-coated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 and uncoated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite pouch cells were studied using automated storage, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, gas production and long-term cycling experiments. Storage experiments showed that the voltage drop during storage at 4.3 or 4.4 V for both coated and uncoated cells was very similar for the same electrolyte choice. At 4.5 V or above, the LaPO4-coated cells had a significantly smaller voltage drop than the uncoated cells except when fluorinated electrolytes were used. Automated charge discharge cycling/impedance spectroscopy testing of cells held at 4.5 V for 24 h every cycle showed that all cells containing ethylene carbonate:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte or sulfolane:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte exhibited severe capacity fade. By contrast, cells containing fluorinated electrolytes had the best capacity retention and smallest impedance growth during these aggressive cycling/hold tests. Long-term cycling experiments to 4.5 V confirmed that cells containing fluorinated electrolyte had the best cycling performance in the uncoated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite cells while cells containing sulfolane:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte had the best cycling performance in coated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite cells.

  16. Gastric pouches and the mucociliary sole: setting the stage for nervous system evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Detlev; Benito-Gutierrez, Elia; Brunet, Thibaut; Marlow, Heather

    2015-12-19

    Prerequisite for tracing nervous system evolution is understanding of the body plan, feeding behaviour and locomotion of the first animals in which neurons evolved. Here, a comprehensive scenario is presented for the diversification of cell types in early metazoans, which enhanced feeding efficiency and led to the emergence of larger animals that were able to move. Starting from cup-shaped, gastraea-like animals with outer and inner choanoflagellate-like cells, two major innovations are discussed that set the stage for nervous system evolution. First, the invention of a mucociliary sole entailed a switch from intra- to extracellular digestion and increased the concentration of nutrients flowing into the gastric cavity. In these animals, an initial nerve net may have evolved via division of labour from mechanosensory-contractile cells in the lateral body wall, enabling coordinated movement of the growing body that involved both mucociliary creeping and changes of body shape. Second, the inner surface of the animals folded into metameric series of gastric pouches, which optimized nutrient resorption and allowed larger body sizes. The concomitant acquisition of bilateral symmetry may have allowed more directed locomotion and, with more demanding coordinative tasks, triggered the evolution of specialized nervous subsystems. Animals of this organizational state would have resembled Ediacarian fossils such as Dickinsonia and may have been close to the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor. In the bilaterian lineage, the mucociliary sole was used mostly for creeping, or frequently lost. One possible remnant is the enigmatic Reissner's fibre in the ventral neural tube of cephalochordates and vertebrates.

  17. INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH HELICOBACTER PYLORI IN THE ROUX-EN-Y BYPASS GASTRIC POUCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAVES, Luiz Claudio Lopes; BORGES, Isabela Klautau Leite Chaves; de SOUZA, Maíra Danielle Gomes; SILVA, Ian Passos; SILVA, Lyz Bezerra; MAGALHÃES, Marcelo Alexandre Prado; FONSECA, Allan Herbert Feliz; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in obese candidates for bariatric surgery and its role in the emergence of inflammatory lesions after surgery has not been well established. Aim: To identify the incidence of inflammatory lesions in the stomach after bariatric surgery and to correlate it with H. pylori infection. Methods: This is a prospective study with 216 patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. These patients underwent histopathological endoscopy to detect H. pylori prior to surgery. Positive cases were treated with antibiotics and a proton inhibitor pump followed by endoscopic follow-up in the 6th and 12th month after surgery. Results: Most patients were female (68.1%), with grade III obesity (92.4%). Preoperative endoscopy revealed gastritis in 96.8%, with H. pylori infection in 40.7% (88/216). A biopsy was carried out in 151 patients, revealing H. pylori in 60/151, related to signs of inflammation in 90% (54/60). In the 6th and 12th month after surgery, the endoscopy and the histopathological exam showed a normal gastric pouch in 84% of patients and the incidence of H. pylori was 11% and 16%, respectively. The presence of inflammation was related to H. pylori infection (p<0,001). Conclusion: H. pylori has a similar prevalence in both obese patients scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery and the general population. There is a low incidence of it in the 6th and 12th months after surgery, probably owing to its eradication when detected prior to surgery. When inflammatory disease is present in the new gastric reservoir it is directly related to H. pylori infection. PMID:27683772

  18. Oxidative stress and inflammation in liver carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Olaya

    2007-02-01

    series of transcription factors. Moreover, in addition to direct production of ROS by these pathogens, liver infiltration by activated phagocytic cells provides an additional source of ROS production that promotes oxidative stress via interleukin or NO production that can damage proteins, lipids and DNA.

    Nuclear MSI was demonstrated first in familial hereditary colorectal cancer (HNPCC and then in sporadic cancers, primarily digestive tract cancers such as colorectal, gastric and pancreatic cancers.In HCC, although nuclear MSI has been shown in some studies (15,18, there is as yet no direct evidence of alteration of the MMR genes and the biological and the clinicopathological significance of the lowlevel MSI seen in HCC is unclear. MSI has also been shown to occur in inflammatory tissues such as chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis as well as in ulcerative colitis, chronic pancreatitis and in non digestive inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

    Recently, the role of mitochondria in carcinogenesis has been under numerous investigation, in part because their prominent role in apoptosis, ROS production and other aspects of tumour biology. The mitochondrial genome is particularly susceptible to mutations because of the high level of ROS generation in this organelle, coupled with a relatively low level of DNA repair. Somatic mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have been shown in HCC as was also observed MSI. These findings suggest a potential role for mitochondrial genome instability in the early steps of tumorigenesis.

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury can occur in several situations and is a major cause of cell damage during surgery. Cells and tissues subjected to hypoxia by prolonged ischemia become acidic

  19. Alveolar ridge augmentation by connective tissue grafting using a pouch method and modified connective tissue technique: A prospective study

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    Ashish Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Localized alveolar ridge defect may create physiological and pathological problems. Developments in surgical techniques have made it simpler to change the configuration of a ridge to create a more aesthetic and more easily cleansable shape. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of alveolar ridge augmentation using a subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch and modified connective tissue graft technique. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, double blind, parallel and prospective study, 40 non-smoker individuals with 40 class III alveolar ridge defects in maxillary anterior were randomly divided in two groups. Group I received modified connective tissue graft, while group II were treated with subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch technique. The defect size was measured in its horizontal and vertical dimension by utilizing a periodontal probe in a stone cast at base line, after 3 months, and 6 months post surgically. Analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. A two-tailed P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Mean values in horizontal width after 6 months were 4.70 ± 0.87 mm, and 4.05 ± 0.89 mm for group I and II, respectively. Regarding vertical heights, obtained mean values were 4.75 ± 0.97 mm and 3.70 ± 0.92 mm for group I and group II, respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, connective tissue graft proposed significantly more improvement as compare to connective tissue graft in pouch.

  20. The LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment into rat air pouches is mediated by TNFα: likely macrophage origin

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    C-D. Arreto

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of resident cells during the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment into rat air pouches was investigated. In this model, LPS (Escherichia coli, O55: B5 strain; 2–2000 ng induced a dose– and time-dependent neutrophil recruitment accompanied by the generation of a tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα-like activity. Dexamethasone (0.05–5 mug and cycloheximide (6 ng, injected 2 h before LPS into the pouches, inhibited the neutrophil recruitment and the generation of the TNFα-like activity, while the H1-receptor antagonist mepyramine (1 and 4 mg/kg, i.p., 0.5 h before LPS and the PAF-receptor antagonist WEB 2170 (0.05 and 1 mg/kg, i.p., 0.5 h before LPS had no effect. Purified alveolar macrophages (AM were used to replenish the pouches of cycloheximide-treated recipient rats. AM provided by PBS-treated animals led to the recovery of the LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment and of the TNFα-like formation contrasting with those from cycloheximide-treated animals (1 mg/kg, i.p.. When delivered in situ, liposome-encapsulated clodronate, a macrophage depletor, significantly impaired both the LPSinduced neutrophil recruitment and the TNFα-like activity. An anti-murine TNFα polyclonal antibody (0.5 h before LPS was also effective. These results emphasize the pivotal role of macrophages for LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment via the formation of TNFα.

  1. Efficacy of buccal midazolam compared to intravenous diazepam in controlling convulsions in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Bibek; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop

    2009-11-01

    A study was done to examine the efficacy of buccal midazolam in controlling convulsion in children by comparing it with intravenous diazepam, a standard mode of treating convulsions. One hundred and twenty cases presenting with convulsions to emergency were treated randomly with either buccal midazolam (in a dose of 0.2mg/kg) or intravenous diazepam (in a dose of 0.3mg/kg). Partial seizures, generalized tonic, clonic and tonic-clonic convulsions were included irrespective of duration or cause. One episode per child only was included. The frequency of overall control of convulsive episodes within 5 min were 85% and 93.3% in buccal midazolam and intravenous diazepam groups, respectively; the difference was, however, not statistically significant (p=0.142). The mean time needed for controlling the convulsive episodes after administration of the drugs was significantly less with intravenous diazepam (p=diazepam (p=0.004) that is likely to be due to longer time needed for initiating treatment with intravenous diazepam in preparing the injection and establishing an IV line. There was no significant side effect in both the groups. The findings suggest that buccal midazolam can be used as an alternative to intravenous diazepam especially when getting an IV line becomes difficult. In situations where establishing an IV line is a problem, buccal midazolam may be the first choice.

  2. Clinical utility of chromosomal microarray analysis of DNA from buccal cells: detection of mosaicism in three patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sdano, Mallory R; Vanzo, Rena J; Martin, Megan M; Baldwin, Erin E; South, Sarah T; Rope, Alan F; Allen, William P; Kearney, Hutton

    2014-12-01

    Mosaic chromosomal abnormalities are relatively common. However, mosaicism may be missed due to multiple factors including failure to recognize clinical indications and order appropriate testing, technical limitations of diagnostic assays, or sampling tissue (s) in which mosaicism is either not present, or present at very low levels. Blood leukocytes have long been the "gold standard" sample for cytogenetic analysis; however, the culturing process for routine chromosome analysis can complicate detection of mosaicism since the normal cell line may have a growth advantage in culture, or may not be present in the cells that produce metaphases (the lymphocytes). Buccal cells are becoming increasingly utilized for clinical analyses and are proving to have many advantages. Buccal swabs allow for simple and noninvasive DNA collection. When coupled with a chromosomal microarray that contains single nucleotide polymorphic probes, analysis of buccal cells can maximize a clinician's opportunity to detect cytogenetic mosaicism. We present three cases of improved diagnosis of mosaic aberrations using buccal specimens for chromosomal microarray analysis. In each case, the aberration was either undetectable in blood or present at such a low level it likely could have gone undetected. These cases highlight the limitations of certain laboratory methodologies for identifying mosaicism. We also present practice implications for genetic counselors, including clinic workflow changes and counseling approaches based on increasing use of buccal samples.

  3. Morphologic and cytomorphometric analysis of exfoliated buccal mucosal cells in diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : It is now known that the disease process of diabetes has effects on various tissues of the body. The following study was done to analyze the effects of diabetes on oral tissues. Aims : To study the morphology and cytomorphometry of the cells obtained in cytologic smears from the buccal mucosa of diabetic patients. Materials and Methods : Smears were obtained from clinically normal buccal mucosa of 50 randomly selected diabetic patients attending the diabetic clinic and the out-patient department and of five healthy subjects as control. Smears were stained using Papanicolaou method, and using a micrometer mean values of nuclear diameter (ND, cell diameter (CD, cytoplasmic diameter (CyD and nucleus: cytoplasm ratio (N: C ratio were obtained for each patient. Diabetic patients were divided into four groups based on the glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb values for comparison. Statistical analysis used : Student′s T-test and Fisher′s F-test. Results : Statistically significant increase in ND (P=0.0367 was found in diabetic patients compared to controls. Degree of glycemic control significantly affected ND (P=0.0042 and N: C ratio (P=0.0055. In general, as the severity of diabetes increases, ND and N: C ratio rise gradually. Conclusions : Diabetes produces definite morphologic and cytomorphometric changes in the buccal mucosa of patients. However, further research in this direction is indicated, to analyze the significance of these findings as a tool for diabetes detection, as well as to obtain deeper insights into its effects on various tissues.

  4. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabale, V; Patel, V; Paranjape, A

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated.

  5. Clinical application of micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells: A systematic review and metanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Bonassi, Stefano; Knasmueller, Siegfried; Fenech, Michael; Bruzzone, Marco; Lando, Cecilia; Ceppi, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The micronucleus assay in uncultured exfoliated buccal mucosa cells, involving minimally invasive sampling, was successfully applied to evaluate inhalation and local exposure to genotoxic agents, impact of nutrition and lifestyle factors. The potential use of the assay in clinics to monitor the development of local oral lesions and as an early biomarker for tumors and different chronic disorders was also investigated. A systematic review of the literature was carried out focusing on the clinical application of the assay. The literature search updated to January 2015 allowed to retrieve 42 eligible articles. Fifty three percent of investigations are related to oral, head and neck cancer, and premalignant oral diseases. Our analysis evidences a potential usefulness of the MN assay applied in buccal exfoliated cells in the prescreening and in the follow up of precancerous oral lesions. A significant excess of MN, in patients compared with matched controls was observed for subgroups of oral and neck cancer (meta-MR of 2.40, 95% CI: 2.02-2.85) and leukoplakia (meta-MR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.51-2.35). The meta-analysis of studies available on other tumors (meta-MR 2.00; 95% CI:1.66-2.41) indicates that the MN frequency in buccal cells could reflect the chromosomal instability of other organs. Increased MN frequency was also observed in small size studies on patients with chronic diseases, with Alzheimer's disease and with Down syndrome. The application of the cytome approach providing information of genotoxic, cytotoxic and cytostatic effects is suggestive of the possibility of an improvement in the predictive value of the assay and this deserves further investigations.

  6. Formulation and evaluation of bioadhesive buccal drug delivery of repaglinide tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasharath M Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to formulate and evaluate bioadhesive buccal tablets of repaglinide using HPMC K15M as a sustained release polymer, chitosan as a bioadhesive polymer and ethyl cellulose as an impermeable backing layer. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, surface pH, mucoadhesive strength, swelling index, in vitro drug release, ex vivo mucoadhesion time and ex vivo drug permeation. A 3 2 full factorial design was used in present study for optimization. Tablets containing HPMC K15M and chitosan in the ratio of 1:1 and lactose as a filler (F2 had the maximum percentage of in vitro drug release. The swelling index, friability and in vitro drug release was affected by type of filler as dicalcium phosphate (DCP had good binding ability compared to lactose. The surface pH of all tablets was found to be satisfactory (between 6.26 and 7.01, close to neutral pH; hence buccal cavity irritation should not occur with these tablets. F2 batch was considered optimum based on good bioadhesive strength (17.83±0.51 gm and maximum similarity factor (64.43. The drug release from optimum batch followed zero order kinetics with non-Fickian diffusion. Drug-excipients compatibility study showed no interaction between drug and excipients. Stability study of optimized formulation showed that tablets were stable at accelerated environment condition. Thus, buccal adhesive tablet of repaglinide could be an alternative route to bypass hepatic first pass metabolism and to improve bioavailability of repaglinide.

  7. Blister pouches for effective reagent storage and release for low cost point-of-care diagnostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Suzanne; Sewart, Rene; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter; Gärtner, Claudia; Becker, Holger

    2016-03-01

    Lab-on-a-chip devices are often applied to point-of-care diagnostic solutions as they are low-cost, compact, disposable, and require only small sample volumes. For such devices, various reagents are required for sample preparation and analysis and, for an integrated solution to be realized, on-chip reagent storage and automated introduction are required. This work describes the implementation and characterization of effective liquid reagent storage and release mechanisms utilizing blister pouches applied to various point-of-care diagnostic device applications. The manufacturing aspects as well as performance parameters are evaluated.

  8. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: combined administration of BSH and BPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabalino, Marcela A; Heber, Elisa M; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Molinari, Ana J; Nigg, David W; Bauer, William; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70-85ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  9. Ectopic compound odontoma in the buccal mucosa: report of a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venigalla, Aparna; Guttikonda, Leela Krishna; Nelakurthi, Hasini; Babburi, Suresh; Pinisetti, Soujanya; Kotti, Ajay Banerji; Kalapala, Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Eruption of tooth into extraosseous locations is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a six-year-old girl child with tooth-like structure erupting from the right buccal mucosa. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic examination suggested the diagnosis of compound odontoma. Very few cases have been reported so far, where tooth has been located completely in the soft tissue and a variety of names have been used for that condition. A brief review of the literature and the ambiguity in naming the situation is discussed.

  10. Clark's rule vis à vis the buccal object rule: its evolution & application in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, James L; Endo, Cert

    2011-01-01

    Originally, Clark's rule was used to identify the position of unerupted or supernumerary teeth (a concept known as oral localization) prior to orthodontic tooth movement or surgical removal. However, the versatility of this rule's principles and concepts are also highly applicable to endodontic diagnosis and treatment. While contemporarily known by many different names, such as the "buccal object rule" and the "cone beam-shift technique," the importance of this rule in endodontics was not recognized in the literature until late in the 20th century, despite historical evidence demonstrating its incorporation into root canal procedures almost 100 years ago.

  11. Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa Underlying a Giant Cutaneous Horn: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous horn is a conical, dense, and hyperkeratotic protrusion that often appears similar to the horn of an animal. Giant cutaneous horns are rare; no incidence or prevalence has been reported. The significance of cutaneous horns is that they occur in association with, or as a response to, a wide variety of underlying benign, premalignant, and malignant cutaneous diseases. A case of giant cutaneous horn of left oral commissure along with carcinoma left buccal mucosa is reported here as an extremely rare oral/perioral pathology.

  12. Design and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems containing metoprolol tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramana M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive buccal tablets of metoprolol tartarate were fabricated with objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and prolonging duration of action. The mucoadhesive polymers used in formulation were Carbopol-934, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose. The formulations were characterized for physiochemical parameters, in vitro release studies and in vivo placebo studies. The best mucoadhesive performance and in vitro drug release profile were exhibited by the tablets containing hydroxyethylcellulose and Carbopol-934 in ratio 1:2. This product was more comfortable to the user due to absence of erosion, faster hydration rate and less viscosity of surrounding environment. In vivo placebo studies did not show any side effects.

  13. Ectopic Compound Odontoma in the Buccal Mucosa: Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Venigalla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eruption of tooth into extraosseous locations is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a six-year-old girl child with tooth-like structure erupting from the right buccal mucosa. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic examination suggested the diagnosis of compound odontoma. Very few cases have been reported so far, where tooth has been located completely in the soft tissue and a variety of names have been used for that condition. A brief review of the literature and the ambiguity in naming the situation is discussed.

  14. Pathology of advanced buccal mucosa cancer involving masticator space (T4b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buccal mucosa cancer involving masticator space is classified as very advanced local disease (T4b. The local recurrence rate is very high due to poor understanding of the extent of tumor spread in masticator space and technically difficult surgical clearance. The objective of this study is to understand the extent of tumor spread in masticator space to form basis for appropriate surgical resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive patients with T4b-buccal cancer underwent compartment resection, with complete anatomical removal of involved soft-tissue structures. Specimens were systematically studied to understand the extent of invasion of various structures. The findings of clinical history, imaging and pathologic evaluation were compared and the results were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 45 patients with advanced buccal cancer (T4b were included in this study. The skin, mandible and lymph nodes were involved in 30, 24 and 17 cases respectively. The pterygoid muscles were involved in 34 cases (medial-pterygoid in 12 and both pterygoids in 22 cases and masseter-muscle in 32 cases. Average distance for soft-tissue margins after compartment surgery was 2 cm and the margins were positive in 3 cases. The group with involvement of medial pterygoid muscle had safest margin with compartment surgery while it was also possible to achieve negative margins for group involving lateral pterygoid muscle and plates.The involvement of pterygomaxillary fissure was area of concern and margin was positive in 2 cases with one patient developing local recurrence with intracranial extension. At 21 months median follow-up (13-35 months, 38 patients were alive without disease while two developed local recurrence at the skull base.CONCLUSIONS: T4b buccal cancers have significant soft-tissue involvement in the masticator space. En bloc removal of all soft-tissues in masticator space is advocated to remove tumor contained within space. The compartment

  15. Procedures for risk-stratification of lung cancer using buccal nanocytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, H; Viswanathan, P; Cherkezyan, L; Iyengar, R; Rozhok, S; Verleye, M; Derbas, J; Czarnecki, J; Roy, H K; Backman, V

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. with survival dramatically depending on stage at diagnosis. We had earlier reported that nanocytology of buccal cells can accurately risk-stratify smokers for the presence of early and late-stage lung cancer. To translate the technique into clinical practice, standardization of operating procedures is necessary to consistently yield precise and repeatable results. Here, we develop and validate simple, robust, and easily implementable procedures for specimen collection, processing, etc. in addition to a commercially-viable instrument prototype. Results of this work enable translation of the technology from academic lab to physicians' office.

  16. L'écosystème buccal chez le patient âgé

    OpenAIRE

    Lacoste-Ferré, Marie-Hélène; Hermabessière, Sophie; Jézéquel, Fabienne; Rolland, Yves

    2013-01-01

    International audience; La bouche est une cavité naturelle complexe qui forme le segment initial du tube digestif. Elle est un acteur essentiel des fonctions vitales que sont la nutrition, le langage et la communication. L'ensemble de la bouche (dents, parodonte, muqueuses, langue) est constamment hydraté et lubrifié par la salive. À tout âge, un équilibre s'établit entre la prolifération bactérienne, le flux salivaire et la réponse tissulaire : c'est l'écosystème buccal. La régulation de cet...

  17. Procedures for risk-stratification of lung cancer using buccal nanocytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, H.; Viswanathan, P.; Cherkezyan, L.; Iyengar, R.; Rozhok, S.; Verleye, M.; Derbas, J.; Czarnecki, J.; Roy, H. K.; Backman, V.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. with survival dramatically depending on stage at diagnosis. We had earlier reported that nanocytology of buccal cells can accurately risk-stratify smokers for the presence of early and late-stage lung cancer. To translate the technique into clinical practice, standardization of operating procedures is necessary to consistently yield precise and repeatable results. Here, we develop and validate simple, robust, and easily implementable procedures for specimen collection, processing, etc. in addition to a commercially-viable instrument prototype. Results of this work enable translation of the technology from academic lab to physicians’ office. PMID:27699138

  18. Radiographic monitoring of healing process of buccal bifurcation cysts after marsupialization: two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    This report is to show healing process of two cases of buccal bifurcation cyst (BBC) developed from the mandibular deciduous second molars. Extracting the involved deciduous teeth led to marsupialization of the cysts and promoted eruption of the associated successors without orthodontic force. The cyst-associated premolars in the two cases erupted faster than the premolars on the contralateral noncyst side. The cysts were completely filled with normal bone. The monitoring radiographs showed bone healing, root formation, and path of eruption of the associated teeth after marsupialization of BBC.

  19. Verruciform xanthoma of buccal mucosa: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Bhalerao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Verruciformxanthoma (VX is an uncommon benign mucocutaneous lesion of unknown etiology. It appears as a papule or single plaque with verrucous or papillomatous surface and variable color from reddish pink to gray. It occurs primarily in the masticatory mucosa. Histologically, VX is characterized by the presence of parakeratinized epithelium with thin rete ridges and connective tissue papillae extending up to the surface. The papillae characteristically consist of foam cells, also called xanthoma cells. We report a case of VX in the buccal mucosa and discuss their clinical and histopathological findings.

  20. Effects of Electron-Beam Irradiation on Buccal-Cell DNA

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Buccal cells were collected from 29 participants, by use of mouthwash rinses, and were split into equal aliquots, with one aliquot irradiated by electron-beam (E-beam) irradiation equivalent to the sterilizing dosage used by the U.S. Postal Service and the other left untreated. Aliquots were extracted and tested for DNA yields (e.g., TaqMan assay for quantifying human genomic DNA), genomic integrity, and amplification-based analysis of genetic variants (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms [...

  1. Development and Evaluation of Epichlorohydrin Cross-linked Mucoadhesive Patches of Tamarind Seed Polysaccharide for Buccal Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougata Jana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, buccal patches of metronidazole were formulated by solvent casting method using tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP. The patches were crosslinked with epichlorohydrin and different batches were prepared following 23 factorial design. The patches were evaluated with respect to their ex-vivo drug permeation characteristics, mucoadhesive strength, folding endurance, and buccal residence time. At lower level of cross linker and plasticizer, the drug permeation was the highest (72.72%. The drug release from the patches was dominated by a dissolution-controlled mechanism rather than diffusion. The folding endurance did not vary widely (201-254, however the mucoadhesive strength (6.1-36.5 g and the residence time (~2-6 h deviated widely depending upon the formulation variables. The FT-IR spectroscopy revealed no interaction between drug and polymer. Thus the TSP could be a promising vehicle for the fabrication of buccal patches.

  2. Combined Regenerative and Mucogingival Treatment of Deep Intrabony Defects Associated with Buccal Gingival Recession: Two Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Giacomo; Zucchelli, Giovanni; Gherlone, Enrico

    The case reports presented in this article describe a surgical approach for improving root coverage and regenerative parameters in deep intrabony defects associated with buccal gingival recession. A mandibular canine and a maxillary premolar were treated. The surgical technique consisted of a connective tissue graft (CTG) that was placed and sutured at the inner surface of a coronally advanced envelope flap (CAF), thickening the buccal soft tissue wall of the most coronal extension of the intrabony defect and treated with biomaterials as scaffold. No palatal/lingual flap was elevated. Two years after the surgery, clinically significant root coverage, increased buccal keratinized tissue height and thickness, some minor improvement in the position of the interdental papilla, and clinical attachment level gain were achieved. The radiographs showed bone fill of the intrabony components of the defects. This report encourages a novel application of CAF + CTG + biomaterials to improve both esthetic and regenerative parameters in deep intrabony defects associated with gingival recessions.

  3. Clinical outcome of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Gang; Han Hongqiu; Liu Tong; Fu Qiang; Lyu Yongcheng

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of chronic ulcerative colitis (CUC) in China is remarkably increasing,while little information on surgical treatment has been reported.This study aimed to completely describe and analyze the clinical outcome of restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for CUC in China.Methods Ninety-five consecutive patients,who suffered CUC and had surgical indications,were carefully selected.All patients underwent IPAA.Data on patient characteristics,surgical indications,surgical details,postoperative complications,functional outcome,and quality of life were collected.Results The mean patient age at the time of the operation was 32 years.Twenty-nine (31%) patients underwent an emergency operation,and 66 (69%) underwent elective procedures.Four patients with severe dysplasia underwent operations,but no carcinoma was histologically confirmed.A two-stage operation was performed in 87 (92%) patients,and a hand-sewn technique was applied in 88 (93%) patients.Sixteen patients (17.0%) experienced early complications,and there was a significant difference between the emergency surgery group and the elective group (31.0% vs.10.6%,respectively; P <0.01).Five (5.3%) patients developed pouchitis as a late complication.The mean stool frequency after the operation was 4.6 (2-11) during the first 24 hours and 1.5 (0-4) overnight.According to the Kirwan grading scale,87 (91.8%) patients showed satisfactory anal continence function.The quality of life improved significantly from a preoperative mean value of 0.28-0.61 before ileostomy closure to 0.78 after ileostomy closure (P <0.01) according to the Cleveland Global Quality of Life index.Conclusions IPAA is an effective and safe surgical procedure for patients with CUC in China.However,some characteristics,such as the low incidence of pouchitis,require further study.

  4. Testosterone Buccal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and dependence of testosterone and other AAS.The Anabolic Steroids Control Act of 1990 placed AAS, including testosterone, ... insulin (Apridra, Humalog, Humulin, Lantus, Novolin, others), oral steroids ... doctor if you have breast cancer or have or may have prostate cancer. Your ...

  5. Gedunin abrogates aldose reductase, PI3K/Akt/mToR, and NF-κB signaling pathways to inhibit angiogenesis in a hamster model of oral carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore T, Kranthi Kiran; Ganugula, Raghu; Gade, Deepak Reddy; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2016-02-01

    Aberrant activation of oncogenic signaling pathways plays a central role in tumor development and progression. The aim of this present study was to investigate the chemopreventive effects of the neem limonoid gedunin in the hamster model of oral cancer based on its ability to modulate aldose reductase (AR), phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways to block angiogenesis. Administration of gedunin suppressed the development of HBP carcinomas by inhibiting PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways through the inactivation of Akt and inhibitory kappa B kinase (IKK), respectively. Immunoblot and molecular docking interactions revealed that inhibition of these signaling pathways may be mediated via inactivation of AR by gedunin. Gedunin blocked angiogenesis by downregulating the expression of miR-21 and the pro-angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). In conclusion, the results of the present study provide compelling evidence that gedunin prevents progression of hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinomas via inhibition of the kinases Akt, IKK, and AR, and the oncogenic transcription factors NF-κB and HIF-1α to block angiogenesis.

  6. Epigenetic targets of arsenic: emphasis on epigenetic modifications during carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ram Vinod; Son, Young-Ok; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Lei; Hitron, John Andrew; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; D, Rakesh; Kim, Donghern; Yin, Yuanqin; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation and histone modification promote opening and closure of chromatin structure, which affects gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. Epigenetic markers regulate the dynamic nature of chromatin structure at different levels: DNA, histone, noncoding RNAs, as well as the higher-order chromatin structure. Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that arsenic-induced carcinogenesis involves frequent changes in the epigenetic marker. However, progress in identifying arsenic-induced epigenetic changes has already been made using genome-wide approaches; the biological significance of these epigenetic changes remains unknown. Moreover, arsenic-induced changes in the chromatin state alter gene expression through the epigenetic mechanism. The current review provides a summary of recent literature regarding epigenetic changes caused by arsenic in carcinogenesis. We highlight the transgenerational studies needed to explicate the biological significance and toxicity of arsenic over a broad spectrum.

  7. Plastics and carcinogenesis: The example of vinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wesley Brandt-Rauf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture, use and disposal of various plastics can pose numerous health risks, including the risk of cancer. A model example of carcinogenic risk from plastics is provided by polyvinyl chloride, since it is composed of the known human carcinogen vinyl chloride (VC. In recent years, much has been learned about the molecular biological pathways of VC carcinogenesis. This has led to molecular epidemiologic studies of VC carcinogenesis in exposed human populations which have identified useful biomarkers of exposure, effect and susceptibility for VC. These studies have in turn provided the basis for new molecular approaches for the prevention and treatment of VC cancers. This model could have much wider applicability for many other carcinogenic exposures and many other human cancers.

  8. Mathematical Modeling of Carcinogenesis Based on Chromosome Aberration Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-bo Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The progression of human cancer is characterized by the accumulation of genetic instability. An increasing number of experimental genetic molecular techniques have been used to detect chromosome aberrations. Previous studies on chromosome abnormalities often focused on identifying the frequent loci of chromosome alterations, but rarely addressed the issue of interrelationship of chromosomal abnormalities. In the last few years, several mathematical models have been employed to construct models of carcinogenesis, in an attempt to identify the time order and cause-and-effect relationship of chromosome aberrations. The principles and applications of these models are reviewed and compared in this paper. Mathematical modeling of carcinogenesis can contribute to our understanding of the molecular genetics of tumor development, and identification of cancer related genes, thus leading to improved clinical practice of cancer.

  9. Cervical Carcinogenesis and Immune Response Gene Polymorphisms: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Merel

    2017-01-01

    The local immune response is considered a key determinant in cervical carcinogenesis after persistent infection with oncogenic, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Genetic variation in various immune response genes has been shown to influence risk of developing cervical cancer, as well as progression and survival among cervical cancer patients. We reviewed the literature on associations of immunogenetic single nucleotide polymorphism, allele, genotype, and haplotype distributions with risk and progression of cervical cancer. Studies on HLA and KIR gene polymorphisms were excluded due to the abundance on literature on that subject. We show that multiple genes and loci are associated with variation in risk of cervical cancer. Rather than one single gene being responsible for cervical carcinogenesis, we postulate that variations in the different immune response genes lead to subtle differences in the effectiveness of the antiviral and antitumour immune responses, ultimately leading to differences in risk of developing cervical cancer and progressive disease after HPV infection. PMID:28280748

  10. Cervical Carcinogenesis and Immune Response Gene Polymorphisms: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash M. Mehta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The local immune response is considered a key determinant in cervical carcinogenesis after persistent infection with oncogenic, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV infections. Genetic variation in various immune response genes has been shown to influence risk of developing cervical cancer, as well as progression and survival among cervical cancer patients. We reviewed the literature on associations of immunogenetic single nucleotide polymorphism, allele, genotype, and haplotype distributions with risk and progression of cervical cancer. Studies on HLA and KIR gene polymorphisms were excluded due to the abundance on literature on that subject. We show that multiple genes and loci are associated with variation in risk of cervical cancer. Rather than one single gene being responsible for cervical carcinogenesis, we postulate that variations in the different immune response genes lead to subtle differences in the effectiveness of the antiviral and antitumour immune responses, ultimately leading to differences in risk of developing cervical cancer and progressive disease after HPV infection.

  11. The Thymus in Experimental Mammary Carcinogenesis and Polychemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, O V; Kabakov, A V; Ishchenko, I Yu; Poveshchenko, A F; Raiter, T V; Strunkin, D N; Michurina, S V; Konenkov, V I

    2017-02-01

    Histological study of structural transformations in the thymus of Wistar females in induced carcinogenesis (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea injection in the right 2-nd mamma) and polychemotherapy (6 months after tumor growth initiation; cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracyl) was carried out. The area of the cortical matter in the thymus decreased 6 months after carcinogenesis induction, the percentage of connective tissue elements and glandular tissue and the counts of immunoblasts and cells with pyknotic nuclei increased, this indicating the development of accidental involution of the thymus. Animals of the experimental tumor+chemotherapy group exhibited morphological signs of lymphocyte migration from the thymus and suppressed activities of the lymphoid and epithelial components (lesser area of connective tissue elements and glandular tissue, lesser density of parenchymatous cell elements, lesser counts of immunoblasts and small lymphocytes, and larger area of the medulla) in comparison with animals without chemotherapy.

  12. The Role of Ubiquitine Proteasome Pathway in Carcinogenesis

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    N.Ceren Sumer Turanligil

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin works as a marker protein which targets misfolded or injured proteins to cellular degradation. It brings the abnormal proteins to a subcellular organelle named proteasome and it maintains the degradation of proteins in limited lenghts of peptides by leaving the process withuout being changed. Mistakes in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis in various steps of carcinogenesis is known. In this review, we dealed with the effects of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP on carcinogenesis via intercellular signaling molecules like Ras, transcription factors like NF-kB, cytokines like TNF-alfa Tumor necrosis factor, protooncogenes like p53 and MDM2(murine double minute 2, components of cell cycle and DNA repair proteins like BRCA1. We also focused on the relationship of UPP on antigen presentation which is active in immune response and its place in the aetiology of colon cancer to provide a specific example. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(1.000: 36-55

  13. Inhibitory effects of acetylsalicylic acid on exocrine pancreatic carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, H; Oztas, H; Yıldız, D; Koc, A; Kalipci, E

    2013-05-01

    We investigated short (6 months) and long (12 months) term inhibitory effects of low (200 ppm) and high (400 ppm) dosages of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) on exocrine pancreatic carcinogenesis. It is known that exocrine pancreatic carcinogenesis can be detected by the presence of atypical acinar cell foci (AACF) in pancreas. We investigated possible inhibitory effects of acetylsalicylic acid in an azaserine-treated rat model. AACF were produced in rats by injection with azaserine according to previous studies. Our findings showed that the number, volume and diameter of pancreatic AACF were reduced after acetylsalicylic acid application. These observations suggest that acetylsalicylic acid may exert a protective effect against neoplastic development of pancreatic acinar cells in azaserine injected rats. Our findings corroborate reports in the literature concerning the effects of aspirin in reducing neoplastic development.

  14. Thermal characterization of large size lithium-ion pouch cell based on 1d electro-thermal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertiz, G.; Oyarbide, M.; Macicior, H.; Miguel, O.; Cantero, I.; Fernandez de Arroiabe, P.; Ulacia, I.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management is one of the key factors to keep lithium-ion cells in optimum electrical performance, under safe working conditions and into a reasonably low ageing process. This issue is becoming particularly relevant due to the heterogeneous heat generation along the cell. Cell working temperature is determined by ambient temperature, heat generation and evacuation capacity. Therefore, thermal management is established by: i) the intrinsic thermal properties (heat capacity & thermal conductivity) and ii) the heat generation electro-thermal parameters (internal resistance, open circuit voltage & entropic factor). In this research, different methods - calculated and experimental - are used to characterize the main heat properties of a 14Ah -LiFePO4/graphite-commercial large sizes pouch cell. In order to evaluate the accuracy of methods, two comparisons were performed. First, Newman heat generation estimations were compared with experimental heat measurements. Secondly, empirical thermal cell behaviour was match with 1D electro-thermal model response. Finally, considering the results, the most adequate methodology to evaluate the key thermal parameters of a large size Lithium-ion pouch cell are proposed to be: i) pulse method for internal resistance, ii)heat loss method for entropic factor; and iii)experimental measurement (ARC calorimeter and C-177-97 standard method) for heat capacity and thermal conductivity.

  15. Hydrotalcite composites for an effective fluoride buccal administration: a new technological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perioli, Luana; Nocchetti, Morena; Giannelli, Paola; Pagano, Cinzia; Bastianini, Maria

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this work was to develop new mucoadhesive buccal patches containing an inorganic fluorinated compound, MgAl-F, intended for decay prevention. Firstly MgAl-F was synthesized and characterized, then the patches were prepared starting from a physical blend of mucoadhesive polymers (NaCMC and polycarbophil) in which MgAl-F was dispersed in different amounts in order to obtain the films. The prepared mucoadhesive patches were characterized in terms of swelling capacity, mucoadhesion force and time, surface morphology and in vitro release studies. Moreover, the organoleptic properties and acceptability have been evaluated by in vivo application. The performed studies demonstrated that the proposed formulations are practical, manageable, flexible and adaptable to the biological substrate showing, at the same time, good organoleptic properties. Moreover, the presence of the MgAl-F is able to decrease the strong adhesion of the employed polymers, reducing pain and irritations resulting in a high patient acceptability. Data obtained from release studies revealed that the application of small patch portions is enough able to release, for a prolonged time, an amount of fluoride ions able to reach the efficacious dose. These observations suggest the applicability of such formulations for buccal administration of different active ingredients.

  16. Development of buccal adhesive tablet with prolonged antifungal activity: Optimization and ex vivo deposition studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madgulkar A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to prepare buccal adhesive tablets of miconazole nitrate. The simplex centroid experimental design was used to arrive at optimum ratio of carbopol 934P, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M and polyvinylpyrollidone, which will provide desired drug release and mucoadhesion. Swelling index, mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release of the prepared tablet was determined. The drug release and bioadhesion was dependent on type and relative amounts of the polymers. The optimized combination was subjected to in vitro antifungal activity, transmucosal permeation, drug deposition in mucosa, residence time and bioadhesion studies. IR spectroscopy was used to investigate any interaction between drug and excipients. Dissolution of miconazole from tablets was sustained for 6 h. based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the prepared slow release buccoadhesive tablets of miconazole would markedly prolong the duration of antifungal activity. Comparison of in vitro antifungal activity of tablet with marketed gel showed that drug concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration were achieved immediately from both formulations but release from tablet was sustained up to 6 h, while the gel showed initially fast drug release, which did not sustain later. Drug permeation across buccal mucosa was minimum from the tablet as well as marketed gel; the deposition of drug in mucosa was higher in case of tablet. In vitro residence time and bioadhesive strength of tablet was higher than gel. Thus the buccoadhesive tablet of miconazole nitrate may offer better control of antifungal activity as compared to the gel formulation.

  17. Buccal and lingual activity during mastication and swallowing in typical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, M J; Kenny, D J; Macmillan, R E

    2003-01-01

    A non-invasive protocol was developed to assess tongue and cheek movements during mastication and to evaluate the temporal relationship between mastication and the initiation of pharyngeal swallowing. Typical adults (three males and three females) were monitored during chewing. Miniature pressure transducers were bonded unilaterally to the buccal and lingual surfaces of the first mandibular molar and the buccal surface of the first maxillary molar on each subject's preferred chewing side. Surface electromyography of the ipsilateral masseter muscle was recorded as an indicator of jaw-closing activity. Pressure and electromyography (EMG) recordings were time-linked to simultaneous B-mode ultrasound imaging of the oral cavity using a submental, coronal view aligned with the first mandibular molar. The intervals between peak pressure recorded at each pressure transducer and peak jaw-closing activity for each masticatory cycle were not statistically different [analysis of variance (anova), P=0.9856] and displayed large statistical variation. These intervals were not different at the beginning of the trials (hard biscuit) than they were at the completion of mastication when the cookie had been broken down to a paste/puree consistency bolus. The interval between the last chewing stroke and the initiation of swallowing was 0.92 +/- 0.34 s). No significant difference existed among subjects for this time interval (anova, P=0.382).

  18. Mucoadhesive buccal patches based on interpolymer complexes of chitosan–pectin for delivery of carvedilol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to develop bioadhesive patches of carvedilol hydrochloride using chitosan (CH) and pectin (PE) interpolymer complexes and to systematically evaluate their in vitro and in vivo performances. Mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared using solvent casting method. The physicochemical interaction between CH and PE was investigated by FTIR and DSC studies. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like mass variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, ex vivo mucoadhesion strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, surface pH, in vitro drug release, in situ release study, and in vivo bioavailability study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the PE concentration. The surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between 6.2 and 7.2. The optimized bioadhesive patch (C1, CH:PE 20:80) showed bioadhesive strength of 22.10 ± 0.20 g, in vitro release of 98.73% and ex vivo mucoadhesion time of 451 min with in a period of 8 h. The optimized patch demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo results. The buccal delivery of carvedilol in rabbits showed a significant improvement in bioavailability of carvedilol from patches when compared to oral route. PMID:23960773

  19. Epigenetic Variation in Monozygotic Twins: A Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Buccal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny van Dongen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks in humans. Yet, it is largely unknown what causes variation in DNA methylation between individuals. The comparison of DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic (MZ twins offers a unique experimental design to examine the extent to which such variation is related to individual-specific environmental influences and stochastic events or to familial factors (DNA sequence and shared environment. We measured genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal samples from ten MZ pairs (age 8–19 using the Illumina 450k array and examined twin correlations for methylation level at 420,921 CpGs after QC. After selecting CpGs showing the most variation in the methylation level between subjects, the mean genome-wide correlation (rho was 0.54. The correlation was higher, on average, for CpGs within CpG islands (CGIs, compared to CGI shores, shelves and non-CGI regions, particularly at hypomethylated CpGs. This finding suggests that individual-specific environmental and stochastic influences account for more variation in DNA methylation in CpG-poor regions. Our findings also indicate that it is worthwhile to examine heritable and shared environmental influences on buccal DNA methylation in larger studies that also include dizygotic twins.

  20. Rapid detection of chromosome 18 copy number in buccal smears using DNA probes and FISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C.; Nunez, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, WI (United States); Giraldez, R. [ONCOR, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Rapid diagnosis of trisomy 18 in newborns is often critical to clinical management decisions that must be made in a minimum of time. DNA probes combined with FISH can be used to accurately to determine the copy number of chromosome 18 in interphase cells. We have used the D18Z1 alpha satellite DNA probe to determine signal frequency in normal, previously karyotyped subjects, 12 females and 6 males. We also present one clinical case of trisomy 18, confirmed by karyotype, for comparison to the results obtained from normal subjects. Buccal smears, unlike cytogenetic preparations from peripheral blood, are quite resistant to penetration of probes and detection reagents resulting in higher levels of false monosomy. We have studied 19 individuals and have obtained consistent FISH results, ranging from 64 to 90% disomy. False monosomy rates ranged from 10 to 36%, while false trisomy or tetrasomy was less than 1% in all samples. High rates of false monosomy make this test questionable for detection of low order mosaicism for monosomy, but the extremely low false hyperploidy rate suggests that this is a dependable procedure for detection of trisomy 18, enabling the use of buccal epithelium which can be collected easily from even premature and tiny infants.

  1. Benzydamine hydrochloride buccal bioadhesive gels designed for oral ulcers: preparation, rheological, textural, mucoadhesive and release properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; Güneri, Pelin; Ertan, Gökhan

    2009-01-01

    This study developed and examined the characterization of Benzidamine hydrochloride (BNZ) bioadhesive gels as platforms for oral ulcer treatments. Bioadhesive gels were prepared with four different hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) types (E5, E15, E50 and K100M) with different ratios. Each formulation was characterized in terms of drug release, rheological, mechanical properties and adhesion to a buccal bovine mucosa. Drug release was significantly decreased as the concentration and individual viscosity of each polymeric component increased due to improved viscosity of the gel formulations. The amount of drug released for the formulations ranged from 0.76 +/- 0.07 and 1.14 +/- 0.01 (mg/cm2 +/- SD). Formulations exhibited pseudoplastic flow and all formulations, increasing the concentration of HPMC content significantly raised storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), dynamic viscosity (eta') at 37 degrees C. Increasing concentration of each polymeric component also significantly improved the hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and mucoadhesion but decreased the elasticity of the gel formulations. All formulations showed non-Fickian diffusion due to the relaxation and swelling of the polymers with water. In conclusion, the formulations studied showed a wide range of mechanical and drug diffusion characteristics. On the basis of the obtained data, the bioadhesive gel formulation which was prepared with 2.5% HPMC K 100M was determined as the most appropriate formulation for buccal application in means of possessing suitable mechanical properties, exhibiting high cohesion and bioadhesion.

  2. Dose-response relationship in multistage carcinogenesis: promoters.

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchin, K T; Brown, J. L.; Setzer, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Published dose-response curves of promoters of multistage carcinogenesis were selected that met the combined criteria of long study times, multiple doses, and low doses. In rat liver, 12 dose-response studies of 7 different promoters (phenobarbital, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD], clophen A-50 (a polychlorinated biphenyl), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane [HCH], and chloroform) were selected. These promoters were studied for 7-86 weeks and either altered hepatic foci...

  3. Experimental gastric carcinogenesis in Cebus apella nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana de Fátima Ferreira Borges da Costa

    Full Text Available The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New-World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU. Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9(th day though on the 14(th day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940(th day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immunoreactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immunoreactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the

  4. Experimental Gastric Carcinogenesis in Cebus apella Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tanielly Cristina Raiol; Andrade Junior, Edilson Ferreira; Rezende, Alexandre Pingarilho; Carneiro Muniz, José Augusto Pereira; Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos Cunha; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Demachki, Samia; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New-World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9th day though on the 14th day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940th day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immunoreactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immunoreactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the tolerability and

  5. Role of oxidative stress in cadmium toxicity and carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal, targeting the lung, liver, kidney, and testes following acute intoxication, and causing nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, osteotoxicity and tumors after prolonged exposures. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are often implicated in Cd toxicology. This minireview focused on direct evidence for the generation of free radicals in intact animals following acute Cd overload and discussed the association of ROS in chronic Cd toxicity and carcinogenesis. Cd-generated superox...

  6. Transcriptional regulation of cadherins during development and carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The cadherin superfamily of Ca2+-dependent homophilic adhesion molecules plays a critical role in regulating cell-to-cell interactions. During development, the expression of different cadherins is highly dynamic, since they are associated with the morphogenesis, establishment and/or maintenance of different tissues. Alterations in cadherin expression or function occur frequently during carcinogenesis, such as the loss of the epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) and/or the aberrant expression of o...

  7. Modulation of carcinogenesis in the urinary bladder by retinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, R M; Turton, J A; Chowaniec, J; Tomlinson, C N; Gwynne, J; Nandra, K; Chrysostomou, E; Pedrick, M

    1985-01-01

    Bladder cancer has a 70% recurrence rate within five years and a high associated mortality. It commonly occurs in one or both of two predominant growth/behaviour patterns: either well-differentiated, relatively benign exophytic papillary lesions, or flat, poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma usually arising from carcinoma-in-situ. We have used the F344 rat treated with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) as a model for the papillary disease, and the BBN-treated B6D2F1 mouse for flat, invasive bladder carcinoma. In the rat, carcinogenesis is a multistage process and several retinoids will delay or even halt the development of bladder cancer. Inhibition of carcinogenesis is not complete, but there is a consistent reduction in the time-related incidence of papillomas and carcinomas and a concomitant improvement in the overall differentiation of the urothelium. In the BBN/mouse model, retinoids also have anticarcinogenic activity but interpretation of the results is more complicated. Unlike the F344 rat, the B6D2F1 mouse has a non-uniform response to BBN; not all mice develop bladder cancer even after treatment with very high doses of BBN and in those that do, more than one mechanism of carcinogenesis may be involved. Individual retinoids differ markedly in their ability to modulate bladder carcinogenesis in rodents; the behaviour of one analogue cannot be predicted automatically from data obtained with another. Combined data from rodent trials in this and other laboratories have identified N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (HPR) as the most anticarcinogenic retinoid tested so far for the rodent bladder. It is also less toxic in rodents and better tolerated in humans than either 13-cis-retinoic acid or etretinate, two retinoids currently used in dermatological practice. A prophylactic chemopreventive trial of HPR in bladder cancer patients starting in 1985 will be centered on the Middlesex Hospital, London.

  8. PKA-Dependent Regulation of Synaptic Enhancement between a Buccal Motor Neuron and Its Regulatory Interneuron in Lymnaea stagnalis

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Suguru; Kojima, Satoshi; Urano, Akihisa; Ito, Etsuro

    1999-01-01

    The cerebral giant cell (CGC) is known to play a crucial role in the regulation of feeding response in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. However, the mechanisms of signal transduction from the CGC to the following buccal motor neurons are not clear. In the present study, we examined whether cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) contributes to enhancement of a monosynaptic connection between the presynaptic CGC and the postsynaptic buccal motor neuron 1 (B1 cell). Injection of cAMP...

  9. Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of telomeres in buccal cells identifies mild, moderate, and severe Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Shubha; Glogowska, Aleksandra; McAvoy, Elizabeth; Righolt, Christiaan; Rutherford, Jaclyn; Willing, Cornelia; Banik, Upama; Ruthirakuhan, Myuri; Mai, Sabine; Garcia, Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Using three-dimensional (3D) telomeric analysis of buccal cells of 82 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and cognitively normal age and gender-matched controls, we have for the first time examined changes in the 3D nuclear telomeric architecture of buccal cells among levels of AD severity based on five 3D parameters: i) telomere length, ii) telomere number, iii) telomere aggregation, iv) nuclear volume, and v) a/c ratio, a measure of spatial telomere distribution. Our data indicate that matched controls have significantly different 3D telomere profiles compared to mild, moderate, and severe AD patients (p stages of the disease (p < 0.0001).

  10. Reconstruction of anterior maxillary defect with buccal pad fat after excision of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Rattan, Vidya; Rai, Sachin; Yadav, Shikha; Sahu, Gyana Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights a rare case of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy involving the anterior maxilla in a 3-month-old infant. The tumor was excised completely, and the defect was reconstructed with a bilateral buccal pad of fat. The patient has been followed for 2 years without any evidence of recurrence. We propose that for similar anterior maxillary defects in infants and children, a buccal pad of fat can be utilized as an appropriate pedicled flap for coverage after tumor resection. PMID:26981478

  11. Midkine translocated to nucleoli and involved in carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Cheng Dai

    2009-01-01

    Midkine (MK) is a heparin-binding growth factor with its gene first identified in embryonal carcinoma cells at early stages of retinoic acid-induced differentiation.MK is frequently and highly expressed in a variety of human carcinomas. Furthermore, the blood MK level is frequently elevated with advance of human carcinomas, decreased after surgical removal of the tumors. Thus, it is expected to become a promising marker for evaluating the progress of carcinomas.There is mounting evidence that MK plays a significant role in carcinogenesis-related activities, such as proliferation, migration, anti-apoptosis, mitogenesis,transforming, and angiogenesis. In addition, siRNA and anti-sense oligonucleotides for MK have yielded great effects in anti-tumor activities. Therefore, MK appears to be a potential candidate molecular target of therapy for human carcinomas. In this paper, we review MK targeting at nucleoli in different tumor cells and its role in carcinogenesis to deepen our understanding of the mechanism of MK involved in carcinogenesis.

  12. Shikonin Suppresses Skin Carcinogenesis via Inhibiting Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjuan; Zhang, Chunjing; Ren, Amy; Li, Teena; Jin, Rong; Li, Guohong; Gu, Xin; Shi, Runhua; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been shown to be up-regulated in human skin cancers. To test whether PKM2 may be a target for chemoprevention, shikonin, a natural product from the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and a specific inhibitor of PKM2, was used in a chemically-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis study. The results revealed that shikonin treatment suppressed skin tumor formation. Morphological examinations and immunohistochemical staining of the skin epidermal tissues suggested that shikonin inhibited cell proliferation without inducing apoptosis. Although shikonin alone suppressed PKM2 activity, it did not suppress tumor promoter-induced PKM2 activation in the skin epidermal tissues at the end of the skin carcinogenesis study. To reveal the potential chemopreventive mechanism of shikonin, an antibody microarray analysis was performed, and the results showed that the transcription factor ATF2 and its downstream target Cdk4 were up-regulated by chemical carcinogen treatment; whereas these up-regulations were suppressed by shikonin. In a promotable skin cell model, the nuclear levels of ATF2 were increased during tumor promotion, whereas this increase was inhibited by shikonin. Furthermore, knockdown of ATF2 decreased the expression levels of Cdk4 and Fra-1 (a key subunit of the activator protein 1. In summary, these results suggest that shikonin, rather than inhibiting PKM2 in vivo, suppresses the ATF2 pathway in skin carcinogenesis.

  13. Conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs as an in-vivo model for buccal absorption - pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from bioadhesive tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Morten B;

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The potential of buccal mucosa as a site for systemic absorption has attracted increased attention in recent years creating a need for new predictive in-vivo models. The aim of this study was to evaluate anaesthetised and conscious Göttingen mini-pigs as a model for buccal drug absorption...

  14. Effects of intervention with sulindac and inulin/VSL#3 on mucosal and luminal factors in the pouch of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, P.; Verschuur, J.; Heumen, B.W. van; Schaap-Roelofs, H.M.J.; Berkhout, M.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Oijen, M.G.H. van; Krieken, J.H. van; Peters, W.H.M.; Nagengast, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: In order to define future chemoprevention strategies for adenomas or carcinomas in the pouch of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), a 4-weeks intervention with (1) sulindac, (2) inulin/VSL#3, and (3) sulindac/inulin/VSL#3 was performed on 17 patients with FAP in a sin

  15. A First Look at the Structure of the Wave Pouch during the 2009 PREDICT-GRIP Dry Runs over the Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    tropical storm. Among the 16 storms selected above, Bertha (2008), Ike (2008), Josephine (2008), Nana (2008), Ana (2009), Bill (2009), and Fred (2009) are...Cape Verde storms and formed to the east of 408W. According to the analysis, all of these storms except Nana (2008) possessed a wave pouch extending

  16. Factors affecting the possibility to detect buccal bone condition around dental implants using cone beam computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedke, Gabriela S; Spin-Neto, Rubens; da Silveira, Heloisa E D

    2017-01-01

    in a way to obtain variable buccal bone thicknesses. Three combinations regarding the implant-abutment metal (TiTi, TiZr, or ZrZr) and the number of implants (one, two, or three) were assessed. Two CBCT units (Scanora 3D - Sc and Cranex 3D - Cr) and two voxel resolutions (0.2 and 0.13 mm) were used...

  17. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilkerson, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Meisner, L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A comparitive study of buccal mucosa graft and penile pedical flap for reconstruction of anterior urethral strictures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SA Ying-long; XU Yue-min; QIAN Yong; JIN San-bo; FU Qiang; ZHANG Xin-ru; ZHANG Jiong; GU Baojun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Anterior urethral strictures, where the length is more than 2 cm, are best treated by substitution urethroplasy with either preputial/penile skin flaps or free grafts.~1 The use of dartos pedicled flaps has many advantages in terms of increased survival thanks to its own vascularization. Recently, buccal mucosa has become increasingly popular among urologists for urethral replacement when local penile skin is unavailable.~2 Both penile skin flaps and buccal mucosa grafts have emerged as reliable urethral substitutes with comparable long-term results.~(3,4) These urethral substitutes are traditionally placed on the ventral aspect of the stricture and have a success rate of about 85%.~5 Recently, dorsal placement of the free graft has been described, allowing the skin patch/buccal mucosa to be spread and fixed on the tunica albuginea of the corporal bodies overlying the strictured segment of the urethra.~6 This location offers a better outcome. We reviewed our experience with dorsal and ventral onlay substitution urethroplasty using free buccal mucosa and pedicled penile/preputial flaps to determine the outcome and particular problems associated with each technique.

  19. Buccal, intranasal or intravenous lorazepam for the treatment of acute convulsions in children in Malawi: An open randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Lissauer

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Intravenous lorazepam effectively treats most childhood seizures in this setting. Intranasal and buccal routes are less effective but may be useful in pre-hospital care or when intravenous access cannot be obtained. Further studies comparing intranasal lorazepam to other benzodiazepines, or alternative doses by a non-intravenous route are warranted.

  20. Quality of life after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: an evaluation of diet and other factors using the Cleveland Global Quality of Life instrument.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, J C

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Although functional results after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis are excellent, imperfections of function do occur. In this setting, quality-of-life assessment is an invaluable tool in determining overall therapeutic efficacy. We evaluated the impact of dietary restrictions, preoperative diagnosis (ulcerative colitis vs. familial adenomatous polyposis), and pregnancy (after pouch insertion) on quality of life. METHODS: After ethical approval, 64 patients were reviewed (mean age, 31 (range, 15-54) years). Long-term quality of life in patients after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis was assessed using the Cleveland Global Quality of Life instrument or Fazio score. The Cleveland Global Quality of Life score is a novel quality-of-life instrument specifically designed for patients with ileal pouches. Stool frequency and continence were recorded to establish the functional status of this group. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients (95.3 percent) complained of some form of dietary restriction and adopted a fixed dietary regimen. All such patients felt that a breach of this regimen would impinge significantly on their quality of life. Late eating and alcohol were associated with diarrhea, whereas smoking was not. Constipation was infrequently reported. The mean Cleveland Global Quality of Life score of patients with ulcerative colitis (0.81 +\\/- 0.13) was greater than that of patients with ulcerative colitis and a background of pouchitis (0.78 +\\/- 0.16; P = 0.042). Whereas postoperative stool frequency in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis was always higher than the preoperative level (4 vs. 2 movements per day; P = 0.04), the Cleveland Global Quality of Life score of this group was lower than that of ulcerative colitis patients (0.77 vs. 0.81; P = 0.047). The Cleveland Global Quality of Life score of females who had had pregnancies after pouch formation was 0.70, significantly lower (P = 0.039) than that of ulcerative colitis patients, although pouch function was

  1. Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma Involving the Alveolar Ridge, Buccal & Lingual Vestibule - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Koshti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of oral mucosa is a rare and aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma. They can be differentiated from squamous cell carcinomas by their distinct clinical and histopathological features. Methods: 45 year old female patient presented with extra oral exophytic mass and intra-oral ulcerative lesion on right buccal mucosa and vestibule. The patient was referred for routine blood examination and radiography followed by incisional biopsy. The biopsy specimen was fixed, processed and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin for further microscopic examination. Results: On microscopic examination basaloid cells were seen proliferating along with dysplastic squamous cells in the connective tissue stroma. Conclusion: Based on the histopathological findings a diagnosis of ′Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma′ was made. The patient was referred to department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery for excision of the lesion followed by radiotherapy.

  2. Sequence of changes in rat buccal mucosa induced by zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, D; Meyer, J; Gerson, S; Daniel, J

    1991-10-01

    In weanling rats, after receiving a zinc-deficient diet (less than 1 ppm) for 4 wk, the buccal mucosa appears hyperplastic. This study determines changes at earlier stages of the lesion. After 9 days of deficiency, the keratin layer had partially converted to parakeratosis and thickened, and the size of the capillary bed was increased. After 18 days, the keratin layer was fully parakeratotic and thickened further. The cellular layer was thickened. The mitotic rate was doubled and rete ridges were convoluted. After 27 days, the keratin and cellular layers were further thickened, and the mitotic rate remained elevated. The rete ridges were further convoluted. The number of mast cells was doubled and the size of the vascular bed had increased further. These findings suggest early and late interactions between the epithelium and lamina propria. After four days on a control diet following 27 days of zinc deficiency, the mucosa returned normal.

  3. Evaluation of buccal enamel of deciduous incisors stored in three different solutions with DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martin Teles, Flavia; Pettorossi Imaparatto, Jose C.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.

    2003-06-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different storage solutions on teeth from a tooth bank, using DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence at 3 time periods. The storage solutions used in the study were: refrigerated water, saline, and 10% formol. Eighteen visually intact deciduous incisors were divided into three groups of six samples each. The teeth were previously cleaned, dehydrated and measured using DIAGNOdent at the most prominent buccal region of each tooth. Three subsequent measurements were taken at 1, 7 and 15 days. All measurements were taken by the same examiner and averages were recorded for each time period. Results showed that the three solutions had similar responses to laser. ANOVA was applied to verify the correlation between measurements, time periods, and storage solutions. Statistically significant differences were found only between the time periods. In this in vitro study, all three storage solutions influenced the DIAGNOdent measurement results as time elapsed until the 24 h period.

  4. [Micronucleus test of human oral buccal epithelium: problems, progress and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaev, V N; Artiukhov, V G; Nechaeva, M S

    2014-01-01

    The articles by russian and foreign authors for the period from 2000 to 2012, devoted to the problems of application, analysis and interpretation of the results of micronucleus test in human buccal epithelium has been analyzed in the review. Nuclear abnormality founding in the cells of the oral mucosa has been described. The paper summarizes works devoted to the analysis of the influence of the micronucleus test methods (painting, taking scrapings) to its results. Modern opinions about the factors of different etiology (sex, age, genotype, psycho-physiological characteristics, immune status, diseases of different etiology, man-made pollution, climatic and geographical conditions, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, chemical compounds (drugs, dietary supplements, androgenic steroids, etc.), dental fillings, occupational exposures, alcohol, using tobacco blends) inducing the estimation of nuclear aberration has been summarized as a scheme. The problems and unresolved issues related to the peculiarities of micronucleus test has been noted.

  5. Orthodontic management of buccally erupted ectopic canine with two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avesh Sachan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic canine teeth develop displaced from their normal position. Any permanent tooth can be ectopic, and the cause may be both genetic and environmental. Orthodontic treatment is justified because ectopic canine teeth can migrate in the jaw bone and may damage the adjacent teeth roots and bone. Orthodontic treatment is also justifiable for aesthetic reasons. Diagnosis and treatment of ectopically erupting permanent maxillary canines requires timely management by the orthodontist. Internal or external root resorption of teeth adjacent to the ectopic canine is the most common sequel. Malocclusion with severe crowding is difficult to treat without extraction. Non-extraction treatment of ectopic canines can compromise the patient′s profile. This article represents two cases of extraction treatment approach for buccally displaced or ectopic canine in a patient with severe crowding in the mandibular arch.

  6. Orthodontic management of buccally erupted ectopic canine with two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Avesh; Chaturvedi, T P

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic canine teeth develop displaced from their normal position. Any permanent tooth can be ectopic, and the cause may be both genetic and environmental. Orthodontic treatment is justified because ectopic canine teeth can migrate in the jaw bone and may damage the adjacent teeth roots and bone. Orthodontic treatment is also justifiable for aesthetic reasons. Diagnosis and treatment of ectopically erupting permanent maxillary canines requires timely management by the orthodontist. Internal or external root resorption of teeth adjacent to the ectopic canine is the most common sequel. Malocclusion with severe crowding is difficult to treat without extraction. Non-extraction treatment of ectopic canines can compromise the patient's profile. This article represents two cases of extraction treatment approach for buccally displaced or ectopic canine in a patient with severe crowding in the mandibular arch.

  7. Giant Cell Fibroma of the Buccal Mucosa with Laser Excision: Report of Unusual Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Fatemeh; Rahmani, Somayyeh; Azimi, Somayyeh; Bigom Taheri, Jamileh

    2015-01-01

    Giant Cell Fibroma (GCF) was described as a new entity of fibrous hyperplastic soft tissue. It seems that stimulus from an unexplained origin can have a role in its etiology. Histopathologically GCF is consisted of multinucleated fibroblasts that have oval shape nuclei within the eosinophilic cytoplasm. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and recurrence is very rare. Here we report a case of relatively large GCF in a 54-year-old man. Gingiva is the common location of GCF. As in our case, it may be mistaken as irritation fibroma especially if it is on the buccal mucosa, the most common location for fibroma. Correct diagnosis is based on biopsy and clinical examination to see surface texture roughness. To minimize bleeding because of its large size an excisional biopsy with Diod laser was performed under local anesthesia for this patient. PMID:26351504

  8. Epidemiological study on Buccal Health in the 12 years old population of Health Care Area VIII in Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumaidi Colina Sánchez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 12 years-old children population is worldwide taken as a reference age to compare the buccal health condition of different countries, by means of various indicators that measure the presence of the main buccal diseases. The knowledge of these epidemiological profiles generates information to guide the services planning policies of the Primary Health Care. Objective: To characterize 12 years-old population's buccal health condition. Methods: Cross- sectional descriptive correlative study with a stratified probabilistic sample of 90 children starting from a universe conformed by the 269 adolescents that constitute the total of the 12 years old population of the Health Care Area VIII in Cienfuegos municipality. Pearson’s chi-square and Mantel-Haenszel lineal tendency tests were used with the determination of the relative risk and reliance intervals of 95%. Results: The decay prevalence reached 54, 4%. The COP-D index was 2, 45 being the decayed component the major percentage with 4.6%. The periodontal disease was more frequent in boys than in girls, with 54, 9% and 30, 8% respectively. 80,9% of the segments is healthy. In those affected, the calculation prevailed in 11,7%. It was determined that faulty obturations, inheritance and faulty buccal hygiene were the most affecting risk factors for children with decays, while in the periodontal disease it was faulty buccal hygiene. Malocclusions presented a prevalence rate of 40%. Out of which, 55,6% required secondary level attention. Those with habits present a risk 2 times superior of making sick. The sick epidemiological category was present in 77,8% of the total. Conclusions: We emphasize the prevention need as core issue of the primary medical care in the world today; being the General-Integral Dentist a transforming agent that according to his/her formation is capable to assume the existent health problem and to modify it positively, acting from the earliest ages.

  9. Needle-free buccal anesthesia using iontophoresis and amino amide salts combined in a mucoadhesive formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubayachi, Camila; Couto, Renê Oliveira do; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Freitas, Osvaldo de; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2015-12-01

    Iontophoresis is a strategy to increase the penetration of drugs through biological membranes; however, its use has been underexplored in mucosa. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of iontophoresis in the mucosal penetration of prilocaine hydrochloride (PCL) and lidocaine hydrochloride (LCL), which are largely used in dentistry as local anesthetics, when combined in the same formulation. Semisolid hydrogels containing these drugs either alone or in combination were developed at two different pHs (7.0 and 5.8) and presented adequate mechanical and mucoadhesive properties for buccal administration. The distribution coefficients between the mucosa and the formulations (Dm/f) and the in vitro mucosa permeation and retention rates were evaluated for both PCL and LCL. At pH 7.0, the combination of the drugs decreased the Dm/f of PCL by approximately 3-fold but did not change the Dm/f of LCL; iontophoresis increased the permeation rate of PCL by 12-fold and did not significantly change LCL flux compared with the passive permeation rate of the combined drugs. Combining the drugs also resulted in an increase in both PCL (86-fold) and LCL (12-fold) accumulation in the mucosa after iontophoresis at pH 7.0 compared with iontophoresis of the isolated drugs. Therefore, applying iontophoresis to a semisolid formulation of this drug combination at pH 7.0 can serve as a needle-free strategy to speed the onset and prolong the duration of buccal anesthesia.

  10. [Epithelium and anal glands in rectal pouches and fistula. Histologic studies of swine with congenital anal atresia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, W; Kluth, D; Lierse, W

    1989-02-01

    The epithelial coating of the rectal pouch and fistula was studied morphologically in 33 newborn piglets with high and low forms of anal atresia and was found to be similar to the epithelial coating of the anal canal in normal piglets: the typical epithelium of the rectum changed its character into transitional epithelium at the region of the internal sphincter which surrounded the fistulae in all animals. In the caudal part of the fistula the transitional epithelium was followed by squamous epithelium. Only in male piglets with deformities and recto-urethral fistulae no squamous epithelium was found. In these cases transitional epithelium covered all parts of the fistula and the region of the internal sphincter. Anal glands were found in all animals, with or without anorectal malformations. They always invaded the internal sphincter. According to our morphological studies the fistula in anorectal malformations represents an ectopic anal canal.

  11. Concurrent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and ultra-low anterior resection with colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis for synchronous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Giv, M; Ho, Y H

    2007-03-01

    An extensive large bowel resection with a single anastomosis is the accustomed management option for widely spaced synchronous colorectal neoplasms. We report a successful case of concurrent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and ultra-low anterior resection with colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis in an 85-year-old man with synchronous cancers of the hepatic flexure and lowrectum. This surgical technique is advantageous for elderly patients as it provides the benefits of multiple segmental resection and laparoscopic surgery while potentially reducing mortality, time of procedure, postoperative pain, ileus, length of hospitalization and direct cost of care, and improving independence at discharge. The technique for efficient multiple extractions of specimens and effective reconstitution of pneumoperitoneum for a multistaged procedure is discussed.

  12. EXPRESSION OF GST-π GENE IN HUMAN ESOPHAGEAL CARCINOGENESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Baojin; ZHANG Yunhan; WANG Yaohe; GAO Dongling; FU Shuli; WEN Xiaogang; ZHANG Sanshen; WANG Jiang

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible role of GSTπ in esophageal carcinogenesis. Methods: GST-πexpression at mRNA level was studied by in situ hybridization (ISH) and at protein level by immunohistochemistry (IHC). GST-π expression in normal epithelial cells (NC) of the esophagus,hyperplastic cells (HC), dysplastic cells (DC) from grade Ⅰ to Ⅲ, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and all the cells in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) were examined in the same esophageal cancer specimens (n=48) which provided a model reflecting the process of esophageal carcinogenesis. Results: The positive rate of IHC staining was 87. 5% for NC, 95.3% for HC, 55.9% for DC (grade Ⅰ: 73.9%, grade Ⅱ: 47.4%, grade Ⅲ: 41.2%),36.4% for CIS and 45.8% for SCC. The positive rate of GST-π mRNA expression was 81.2% for NC, 94.4% for HC, 61.9% for DC (grade Ⅰ: 76.5%, grade Ⅱ: 61.5%,grade Ⅲ: 41.7%), 44.4% for CIS and 83.3% for grade ⅠSCC, 30.0% for grade Ⅱ SCC and 0% for grade ⅢSCC. There was no statistically significant difference in GST-π expression at the mRNA and the protein level.Conclusion: There is a decreasing tendency of GST-πexpression from dysplasia to CIS and SCC. The decrease in GST-π expression is an early event in esophageal carcinogenesis.

  13. Osteoinductivity Assessment of BMP-2 Loaded Composite Chitosan-Nano-Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds in a Rat Muscle Pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren O. Haggard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the osteoinductivity of composite chitosan-nano-hydroxyapatite scaffolds in a rat muscle pouch model. Previous in vitro characterization demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to promote bone regeneration and as a carrier for local delivery of BMP-2. Composite microspheres were prepared using a co-precipitation method, and scaffolds were fabricated using an acid wash to adhere beads together. To determine the in vivo osteoinductivity of the scaffolds, the following groups (n = 6 were implanted into muscle pouches created in the latissimus dorsi of Sprague Dawley rats: (A lyophilized scaffolds without rhBMP-2, (B lyophilized scaffolds with rhBMP-2, (C non-lyophilized scaffolds with rhBMP-2, and (D absorbable collagen sponge with rhBMP-2 (control. Groups B, C, and D were loaded with 4 mL of a 9.0 μg/mL solution of rhBMP-2 for 48 h. The rats were sacrificed after one month and samples were analyzed for amount of residual implant material, new bone, and osteoid. Although the experimental groups displayed minimal degradation after one month, all of the scaffolds contained small amounts of woven bone and considerable amounts of osteoid. Approximately thirty percent of the open space available for tissue ingrowth in the scaffolds contained new bone or osteoid in the process of mineralization. The ability of the composite scaffolds (with and without BMP-2 to promote ectopic bone growth in vivo was demonstrated.

  14. Iron:An emerging factor in colorectal carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anita; CG; Chua; Borut; Klopcic; Ian; C; Lawrance; John; K; Olynyk; Debbie; Trinder

    2010-01-01

    The carcinogenic potential of iron in colorectal cancer(CRC) is not fully understood.Iron is able to undergo reduction and oxidation,making it important in many physiological processes.This inherent redox property of iron,however,also renders it toxic when it is present in excess.Iron-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species via the Fenton reaction,if uncontrolled,may lead to cell damage as a result of lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA and protein damage.This may promote carcinogenesis through incr...

  15. Carcinogenesis related to intense pulsed light and UV exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, L; Lerche, C; Wulf, H C;

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment has a carcinogenic potential itself or may influence ultraviolet (UV)-induced carcinogenesis. Secondly, it evaluates whether UV exposure may influence IPL-induced side effects. Hairless, lightly pigmented mice (n=144) received three...... observation period. Side effects were evaluated clinically. No tumors appeared in untreated control mice or in just IPL-treated mice. Skin tumors developed in UV-exposed mice independently of IPL treatments. The time it took for 50% of the mice to first develop skin tumor ranged from 47 to 49 weeks...

  16. Contribution of bone marrow derived cells to pancreatic carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Scarlett

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a complex, aggressive and heterogeneous malignancy driven by the multifaceted interactions within the tumor microenvironment. While it is known that the tumor microenvironment accommodates many cell types, each playing a key role in tumorigenesis, the major source of these stromal cells is not well understood. This review examines the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC to pancreatic carcinogenesis, with respect to their role in constituting the tumor microenvironment. In particular, their role in supporting fibrosis, immunosuppression and neovascularisation will be discussed.

  17. Thrombospondin-1 in a Murine Model of Colorectal Carcinogenesis.

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    Zenaida P Lopez-Dee

    Full Text Available Colorectal Cancer (CRC is one of the late complications observed in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Carcinogenesis is promoted by persistent chronic inflammation occurring in IBD. Understanding the mechanisms involved is essential in order to ameliorate inflammation and prevent CRC. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1 is a multidomain glycoprotein with important roles in angiogenesis. The effects of TSP-1 in colonic tumor formation and growth were analyzed in a model of inflammation-induced carcinogenesis. WT and TSP-1 deficient mice (TSP-1-/- of the C57BL/6 strain received a single injection of azoxymethane (AOM and multiple cycles of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS to induce chronic inflammation-related cancers. Proliferation and angiogenesis were histologically analyzed in tumors. The intestinal transcriptome was also analyzed using a gene microarray approach. When the area containing tumors was compared with the entire colonic area of each mouse, the tumor burden was decreased in AOM/DSS-treated TSP-1-/- versus wild type (WT mice. However, these lesions displayed more angiogenesis and proliferation rates when compared with the WT tumors. AOM-DSS treatment of TSP-1-/- mice resulted in significant deregulation of genes involved in transcription, canonical Wnt signaling, transport, defense response, regulation of epithelial cell proliferation and metabolism. Microarray analyses of these tumors showed down-regulation of 18 microRNAs in TSP-1-/- tumors. These results contribute new insights on the controversial role of TSP-1 in cancer and offer a better understanding of the genetics and pathogenesis of CRC.

  18. Viral Carcinogenesis: Factors Inducing DNA Damage and Virus Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the causative agents of 10%–15% of human cancers worldwide. The most common outcome for virus-induced reprogramming is genomic instability, including accumulation of mutations, aberrations and DNA damage. Although each virus has its own specific mechanism for promoting carcinogenesis, the majority of DNA oncogenic viruses encode oncogenes that transform infected cells, frequently by targeting p53 and pRB. In addition, integration of viral DNA into the human genome can also play an important role in promoting tumor development for several viruses, including HBV and HPV. Because viral integration requires the breakage of both the viral and the host DNA, the integration rate is believed to be linked to the levels of DNA damage. DNA damage can be caused by both endogenous and exogenous factors, including inflammation induced by either the virus itself or by co-infections with other agents, environmental agents and other factors. Typically, cancer develops years to decades following the initial infection. A better understanding of virus-mediated carcinogenesis, the networking of pathways involved in transformation and the relevant risk factors, particularly in those cases where tumorigenesis proceeds by way of virus integration, will help to suggest prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to reduce the risk of virus-mediated cancer.

  19. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management.

  20. [THE ROLE OF ESTROGENS IN THE CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer.

  1. A review of molecular events of cadmium-induced carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano, Joe; Damodaran, Chendil

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic, heavy industrial metal that poses serious environmental health hazards to both humans and wildlife. Recently, Cd and Cd-containing compounds have been classified as known human carcinogens, and epidemiological data show causal associations with prostate, breast, and lung cancer. The molecular mechanisms involved in Cd-induced carcinogenesis are poorly understood and are only now beginning to be elucidated. The effects of chronic exposure to Cd have recently attracted great interest due to the development of malignancies in Cd-induced tumorigenesis in animals models. Briefly, various in vitro studies demonstrate that Cd can act as a mitogen, can stimulate cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis and DNA repair, and can induce carcinogenesis in several mammalian tissues and organs. Thus, the various mechanisms involved in chronic Cd exposure and malignant transformations warrant further investigation. In this review, we focus on recent evidence of various leading general and tissue-specific molecular mechanisms that follow chronic exposure to Cd in prostate-, breast-, and lung-transformed malignancies. In addition, in this review, we consider less defined mechanisms such as epigenetic modification and autophagy, which are thought to play a role in the development of Cd-induced malignant transformation.

  2. Langerhans Cells Facilitate UVB-induced Epidermal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Julia M.; Bürgler, Christina D.; Freudzon, Marianna; Golubets, Kseniya; Gibson, Juliet F.; Filler, Renata B.; Girardi, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) light is considered the major environmental inducer of human keratinocyte DNA mutations, including within the tumor-suppressor gene p53, and chronic exposure is associated with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) formation. Langerhans cells (LC) comprise a dendritic network within the suprabasilar epidermis, yet the role of LC in UVB-induced carcinogenesis is largely unknown. Herein, we show that LC-intact epidermis develops UVB-induced tumors more readily than LC-deficient epidermis. While levels of epidermal cyclopyrimidine dimers (CPD) following acute UVB exposure are equivalent in the presence or absence of LC, chronic UVB-induced p53 mutant clonal islands expand more readily in association with LC which remain largely intact and are preferentially found in proximity to the expanding mutant keratinocyte populations. The observed LC facilitation of mutant p53 clonal expansion is completely αβ and γδ T-cell independent, and is associated with increased intraepidermal expression of interleukin (IL)-22 and the presence of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3). These data demonstrate that LC play a key role in UVB-induced cutaneous carcinogenesis, and suggest that LC locally stimulate keratinocyte proliferation and innate immune cells that provoke tumor outgrowth. PMID:26053049

  3. Transcriptional regulation of cadherins during development and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Héctor; Portillo, Francisco; Cano, Amparo

    2004-01-01

    The cadherin superfamily of Ca(2+)-dependent homophilic adhesion molecules plays a critical role in regulating cell-to-cell interactions. During development, the expression of different cadherins is highly dynamic, since they are associated with the morphogenesis, establishment and/or maintenance of different tissues. Alterations in cadherin expression or function occur frequently during carcinogenesis, such as the loss of the epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) and/or the aberrant expression of other cadherins. Indeed, the aberrant expression of cadherins has been detected during carcinoma invasion, a process which is reminiscent of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) so important in many critical developmental processes. The functional regulation of cadherins can occur at many different levels, from transcriptional regulation to the control of the strength of the cadherin-mediated cell-cell interaction. In this review, we will focus on the transcriptional control of cadherin expression, both in development and carcinogenesis, paying particular attention to the regulation of E-cadherin given its proposed role as a suppressor of invasion. We will discuss the main genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in down-regulating E-cadherin expression, and we will analyse the mechanisms involved in regulating EMT, in an attempt to elucidate which elements are common to this process in both physiological and pathological situations.

  4. Effect of luteolin on glycoproteins metabolism in 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine induced experimental colon carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Vaiyapuri

    2008-12-01

    carcinogenesis. Thus, the present study indicates that luteolin has protected the cell surface and maintained the structural integrity of the cell membranes during DMH induced colon carcinogenesis. Keywords: Colon cancer, 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine, luteolin, glycoproteins Received: 23 January 2009 / Received in revised form: 17 February 2009, Accepted: 28 February 2009, Published online: 3 March 2009

  5. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal patch of acyclovir utilizing inclusion phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Saxena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive buccal patch releasing drug in the oral cavity at a predetermined rate may present distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms, such as tablets, gels and solutions. A buccal patch for systemic administration of acyclovir in the oral cavity was developed using polymers hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (K4M, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (K15M, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose and poly vinyl pyrolidone (K30, plasticizer poly ethylene glycol (400 and a backing membrane of Eudragit (RL100. The films were evaluated in terms of swelling, residence time, mucoadhesion, release, and organoleptic properties. The optimized films showed lower release as compared to controlled drug delivery systems. Hence, an inclusion complex of acyclovir was prepared with hydrophilic polymer hydroxylpropyl beta-cyclodextrin in the molar ratio of 1:1. The inclusion complex was characterized by optical microscopy, FAB mass spectroscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. Patches formulated with the acyclovir inclusion complex were evaluated along the same lines as those containing acyclovir alone. The in vitro release data revealed a substantial increase from 64.35% to 88.15% in the case of PS I and PS II batches, respectively, confirming the successful use of inclusion complexes for the formulation of buccal patch of acyclovir.Mucoadesivos bucais liberadores de fármacos para a cavidade oral com taxa de liberação pré-determinada podem apresentar distintas vantagens em relação às formas farmacêuticas convencionais como comprimidos, géis e soluções. Neste trabalho, um adesivo bucal para administração sistêmica de aciclovir através da cavidade oral foi desenvolvido empregando-se os polímeros hidroxipropilmetil celulose (K4M, hidroxipropilmetil celulose (K15M, carboximetil celulose sódica e polivinil pirrolidona (K30, polietilenoglicol plastificado (400 e uma membrana suporte de Eudragit (RL100. Os filmes obtidos foram avaliados em termos de

  6. 金黄地鼠颊囊白斑癌变过程中血管异常生成的观察研究%Observations on Angiogenesis During the Evolution of Golden Hamster Cheek Pouch Carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华丽; 周曾同; 钟文静; 张水龙

    2000-01-01

    目的对动物颊囊癌变过程中的血管生成规律进行形态学的动态研究.方法采用DMBA诱导的金黄地鼠颊囊癌变动物模型、树脂血管灌注及墨汁血管灌注检测癌变时的血管生成情况.结果癌前病变及癌变期内均存在血管生成现象,并存在着随病变恶性程度增加,血管异常生成明显增加的规律.结论血管异常生成及其严重程度与白斑癌变有关.

  7. Alteration in buccal mucosal cells due to the effect of tobacco and alcohol by assessing the silver-stained nucleolar organiser regions and micronuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Jindal

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Tobacco and alcohol consumption produce alteration in apparently normal buccal mucosal cells, which may cumulatively lead to carcinomatous changes. Result of these changes may be used as educational tool in cessation of habits.

  8. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  9. Increase in DNA damage in lymphocytes and micronucleus frequency in buccal cells in silica-exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajanta Halder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay was applied to study the genotoxic properties of silica in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL. The study was designed to evaluate the DNA damage of lymphocytes and the end points like micronuclei from buccal smears in a group of 45 workers, occupationally exposed to silica, from small mines and stone quarries. The results were compared to 20 sex and age matched normal individuals. There was a statistically significant difference in the damage levels between the exposed group and the control groups. The types of damages (type I -type 1V were used to measure the DNA damage. The numbers of micronuclei were higher in the silica-exposed population. The present study suggests that the silica exposure can induce lymphocyte DNA damage and produces significant variation of micronuclei in buccal smear.

  10. Reconstruction of an amputated glans penis with a buccal mucosal graft: case report of a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutaleb, Hamdy

    2014-12-01

    Penile amputation is a rare catastrophe and a serious complication of circumcision. Reconstruction of the glans penis may be indicated following amputation. Our report discusses a novel technique for reconfiguration of an amputated glans penis 1 year after a complicated circumcision. A 2-year-old male infant presented to us with glans penis amputation that had occurred during circumcision 1 year previously. The parents complained of severe meatal stenosis with disfigurement of the penis. Penis length was 3 cm. Complete penile degloving was performed. The distal part of the remaining penis was prepared by removing fibrous tissue. A buccal mucosal graft was applied to the distal part of the penis associated with meatotomy. The use of a buccal mucosal graft is a successful and simple procedure with acceptable cosmetic and functional results for late reconfiguration of the glans penis after amputation when penile size is suitable.

  11. Evaluation of the Perception of the Children and Knowledge of the Educators on Buccal Health, Diet and Hygiene

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    Leonardo dos Santos ANTUNES

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose was to evaluate the level of perception and knowledge on buccal health, diet and hygiene in children and educators of a public school of Niterói-Rio de Janeiro. Method: The sample constituted by 60 children (4 7 years subdivided in two groups of analysis (G1- 4 to 5 years and G2- 6 to 7 years and 25 teachers. For collection of the data two forms had been used (F1- children and F2- educators; F1 contain figures of the food and hygiene resources, while F2 presented questions regarding buccal health, diet and hygiene. The data had been tabulated and analyzed (SPSS 11.0. Results: It was identified that only 24% of the educators presented knowledge necessary on hygienic cleaning to guide parents and children. Although 76% know the importance of foods for teeth, 47.36% didn´t know what kind of food were more healthful (p < 0.05. About the children, 83.3% of G1 and 93.3% of G2 had perceived the importance of the hygiene for teeth, and only 13.3% of G1 and 16.7% of G2 had even so recognized the diet as a representative factor for the buccal health. Conclusion: The authors concluded that even so the majority of the children perceives the importance of the buccal hygiene, these do not recognize the paper of the diet for the maintenance of the health, what it comes to the meeting of the lack of preparation of the educators to guide them, having the necessity of bigger integration school-dentist through lectures and instructions.

  12. Buccal mucosal delivery of a potent peptide leads to therapeutically-relevant plasma concentrations for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liang; Boyd, Ben J; White, Paul J; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2015-02-10

    Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin (ShK) is an immunomodulatory peptide currently under development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis by parenteral administration. To overcome the low patient compliance of conventional self-injections, we have investigated the potential of the buccal mucosa as an alternative delivery route for ShK both in vitro and in vivo. After application of fluorescent 5-Fam-ShK to untreated porcine buccal mucosa, there was no detectable peptide in the receptor chamber using an in vitro Ussing chamber model. However, the addition of the surfactants sodium taurodeoxycholate hydrate or cetrimide, and formulation of ShK in a chitosan mucoadhesive gel, led to 0.05-0.13% and 1.1% of the applied dose, respectively, appearing in the receptor chamber over 5h. Moreover, confocal microscopic studies demonstrated significantly enhanced buccal mucosal retention of the peptide (measured by mucosal fluorescence associated with 5-Fam-ShK) when enhancement strategies were employed. Administration of 5-Fam-ShK to mice (10mg/kg in a mucoadhesive chitosan-based gel (3%, w/v) with or without cetrimide (5%, w/w)) resulted in average plasma concentrations of 2.6-16.2nM between 2 and 6h, which were substantially higher than the pM concentrations required for therapeutic activity. This study demonstrated that the buccal mucosa is a promising administration route for the systemic delivery of ShK for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  13. COMBINED EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, DNA-INTERCALATORS, C60-FULLERENE AND CAFFEINE ON HUMAN BUCCAL EPITHELIUM CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    G. B. Skamrova; Prylutskyy, Yu I.; M. P. Evstigneev

    2014-01-01

    Now the number of physical and chemical biologically active damage factors dramatically increased. The ways to neutralize such effects have not been studied enough. In this work the techniques of visual assessment of chromatin granulation and of electronegativity of human buccal epithelium cell nuclei were used in order to study the combined effects of the exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation of the millimeter range electromagnetic radiation and to the DNA-binding compounds, su...

  14. Detection of IL28B SNP DNA from buccal epithelial cells, small amounts of serum, and dried blood spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Halfon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Point mutations in the coding region of the interleukin 28 gene (rs12979860 have recently been identified for predicting the outcome of treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. This polymorphism detection was based on whole blood DNA extraction. Alternatively, DNA for genetic diagnosis has been derived from buccal epithelial cells (BEC, dried blood spots (DBS, and genomic DNA from serum. The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability and accuracy of alternative routes of testing for single nucleotide polymorphism allele rs12979860CC. METHODS: Blood, plasma, and sera samples from 200 patients were extracted (400 µL. Buccal smears were tested using an FTA card. To simulate postal delay, we tested the influence of storage at ambient temperature on the different sources of DNA at five time points (baseline, 48 h, 6 days, 9 days, and 12 days. RESULTS: There was 100% concordance between blood, plasma, sera, and BEC, validating the use of DNA extracted from BEC collected on cytology brushes for genetic testing. Genetic variations in HPTR1 gene were detected using smear technique in blood smear (3620 copies as well as in buccal smears (5870 copies. These results are similar to those for whole blood diluted at 1/10. A minimum of 0.04 µL, 4 µL, and 40 µL was necessary to obtain exploitable results respectively for whole blood, sera, and plasma. No significant variation between each time point was observed for the different sources of DNA. IL28B SNPs analysis at these different time points showed the same results using the four sources of DNA. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that genomic DNA extraction from buccal cells, small amounts of serum, and dried blood spots is an alternative to DNA extracted from peripheral blood cells and is helpful in retrospective and prospective studies for multiple genetic markers, specifically in hard-to-reach individuals.

  15. Vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture: A novel modification of surgical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Johan; Chee, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To present a novel modification of surgical technique to treat female urethral stricture (FUS) by a vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal urethroplasty. Recurrent FUS represents an uncommon, though difficult clinical scenario to manage definitively. A variety of surgical techniques have been described to date, yet a lack of consensus on the optimal procedure persists. Materials and Methods We present a 51-year-old female with urethral stricture involving the entire urethra. Suspected etiology was iatrogenic from cystoscopy 17 years prior. Since then, the patient had undergone at least 25 formal urethral dilations and periods of self-dilation. In lithotomy position, the urethra was dilated to accommodate forceps, and ventral urethrotomy carried out sharply, exposing a bed of periurethral tissue. Buccal mucosa was harvested, and a ventral inlay technique facilitated by a nasal speculum, was used to place the graft from the proximal urethra/bladder neck to urethral meatus without a vaginal incision. Graft was sutured into place, and urethral Foley catheter inserted. Results The vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty was deemed successful as of last follow-up. Flexible cystoscopy demonstrated patency of the repair at 6 months. At 10 months of follow-up, the patient was voiding well, with no urinary incontinence. No further interventions have been required. Conclusions This case describes a novel modification of surgical technique for performing buccal mucosal urethroplasty for FUS. By avoiding incision of the vaginal mucosa, benefits may include reduced: morbidity, urinary incontinence, and wound complications including urethro-vaginal fistula. PMID:27437540

  16. Development and characterization of chitosan-polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex-based 5-fluorouracil formulations for buccal, vaginal and rectal application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pendekal Mohamed S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background of the study The present investigation was designed with the intention to formulate versatile 5-fluorouracil (5-FU matrix tablet that fulfills the therapeutic needs that are lacking in current cancer treatment and aimed at minimizing toxic effect, enhancing efficacy and increasing patient compliance. The manuscript presents the critical issues of 5-FU associate with cancer and surpasses issues by engineering novel 5-FU matrix tablets utilizing chitosan- polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC. Methods Precipitation method is employed for preparation of chitosan and polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC followed by characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Differential Scanning calorimeter (DSC and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. 5-FU tablets were prepared by direct compression using IPEC. Six formulations were prepared with IPEC alone and in combination with chitosan, polycarbophil and Sodium deoxycholate. The formulations were tested for drug content, hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, swelling studies, in vitro drug release (buccal, vaginal and rectal pH, ex vivo permeation studies, mucoadhesive strength and in vivo studies. Results FT-IR studies represent the change in spectra for the IPEC than single polymers.DSC study represents the different thermo gram for chitosan, polycarbophil and IPEC whereas in X-ray diffraction, crystal size alteration was observed. Formulations containing IPEC showed pH independent controlled 5-FU without an initial burst release effect in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH. Furthermore, F4 formulations showed controlled release 5-FU with highest bioadhesive property and satisfactory residence in both buccal and vaginal cavity of rabbit. 3% of SDC in formulation F6 exhibited maximum permeation of 5-FU. Conclusion The suitable combination of IPEC, chitosan and polycarbophil demonstrated potential candidate for controlled release of 5-FU in buccal

  17. Development and Characterization of Chitosan-Polycarbophil Interpolyelectrolyte Complex-Based 5-Flurouracil Formulations for Buccal, Vaginal and Rectal Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Pendekal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background of the study:The present investigation was designed with the intention to formulate versatile 5-flurouracil(5-FU matrix tablet that fulfills the therapeutic needs that are lacking in current cancer treatment and aimed at minimizing toxic effect, enhancing efficacy and increasing patient compliance. The manuscript presents the critical issues of 5-FU associate with cancer andsurpasses issues by engineering novel 5-FU matrix tablets utilizing chitosan- polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPECMethods:Precipitation method is employed for preparation of chitosan and polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC followed by characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Differential Scanning calorimeter (DSC and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. 5-FU tablets were prepared by direct compression using IPEC. Six formulations were prepared with IPEC alone and in combination with chitosan, polycarbophil and Sodium deoxycholate. The formulations were tested for drug content, hardness, friability,weight variation, thickness, swelling studies, in vitro drug release (buccal, vaginal and rectal pH, ex vivo permeation studies, mucoadhesive strength and in vivo studies.Results:FT-IR studies represent the change in spectra for the IPEC than single polymers.DSC study represents the different thermo gram for chitosan, polycarbophil and IPEC whereas in X-ray diffraction, crystal size alteration was observed. Formulations containing IPEC showed pH independent controlled 5-FU without an initial burst release effect in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH. Furthermore, F4 formulations showed controlled release 5-FU with highest bioadhesive property and satisfactory residence in both buccal and vaginal cavity of rabbit.3% of SDC in formulation F6 exhibited maximum permeation of 5-FU.Conclusion:The suitable combination of IPEC, chitosan and polycarbophil demonstrated potential candidate for controlled release of 5-FU in buccal, vaginal and

  18. Treatment of urethral strictures in balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) using circular buccal mucosal meatoplasy: Experience of 15 cases

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) related strictures involving the external urethral meatus. We reviewed our result with the use of circular mucosal graft in the reconstruction of strictures. Methods: Between March 1997 and January 2012, 15 patients underwent circular buccal mucosal urethroplasy for BXO related anterior urethral strictures. Urethral catheter was removed within 2 weeks. Follow-up included patient symptoms assessment, cosmetic outcome and uroflowmetry. Results: Me...

  19. Inhibitory activity of the isoflavone biochanin A on intracellular bacteria of genus Chlamydia and initial development of a buccal formulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hanski

    Full Text Available Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump inhibitors, but their therapeutic use is limited by poor water-solubility and intense first-pass metabolism. Here, we report on effects of isoflavones against C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis and describe buccal permeability and initial formulation development for biochanin A. Biochanin A was the most potent Chlamydia growth inhibitor among the studied isoflavones, with an IC50 = 12 µM on C. pneumoniae inclusion counts and 6.5 µM on infectious progeny production, both determined by immunofluorescent staining of infected epithelial cell cultures. Encouraged by the permeation of biochanin A across porcine buccal mucosa without detectable metabolism, oromucosal film formulations were designed and prepared by a solvent casting method. The film formulations showed improved dissolution rate of biochanin A compared to powder or a physical mixture, presumably due to the solubilizing effect of hydrophilic additives and presence of biochanin A in amorphous state. In summary, biochanin A is a potent inhibitor of Chlamydia spp., and the in vitro dissolution results support the use of a buccal formulation to potentially improve its bioavailability in antichlamydial or other pharmaceutical applications.

  20. Tissue engineered pre-vascularized buccal mucosa equivalents utilizing a primary triculture of epithelial cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, M; Frerick-Ochs, E V; Bauer, H-K; Schiegnitz, E; Flesch, D; Brieger, J; Stein, R; Al-Nawas, B; Brochhausen, C; Thüroff, J W; Unger, R E; Brenner, W

    2016-01-01

    Artificial generated buccal mucosa equivalents are a promising approach for the reconstruction of urethral defects. Limiting in this approach is a poor blood vessel supply after transplantation, resulting in increased morbidity and necrosis. We generated a pre-vascularized buccal mucosa equivalent in a tri-culture of primary buccal epithelial cells, fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells, using a native collagen membrane as a scaffold. A successful pre-vascularization and dense formation of capillary-like structures at superficial areas was demonstrated. The lumen size of pre-formed blood vessels corresponded to the capillary size in vivo (10-30 μm). Comparing native with a highly cross-linked collagen membrane we found a distinct higher formation of capillary-like structures on the native membrane, apparently caused by higher secretion of angiogenic factors such as PDGF, IL-8 and angiopoietin by the cells. These capillary-like structures became functional blood vessels through anastomosis with the host vasculature after implantation in nude mice. This in vitro method should result in an accelerated blood supply to the biomaterial with cells after transplantation and increase the succes rates of the implant material.

  1. [Congenital penile curvature (chordee without hypospadias): surgical treatment for correction of penile curvature and/or buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    Presented are the cases of 19 boys with ventral penile curvature without hypospadias. The cases were categorised into three groups according to the severity of the anomaly. In group I were 7 boys with ventral penile curvature affecting the shortening of the frenulum with skin tethering. The anomaly was corrected by fraenulotomy and, in 4 boys, by ventral "V" and "Y" penile skinplasty with excellent cosmetic results. In group II were 10 boys with an evident chordee. In 4 boys, the chordee was of type III according to Devin-Horton. A chordectomy was done with a "V" and "Y" skinplasty with very good result. The remaining 6 cases were chordee type II according to D-H. The same treatment was undertaken here, but with an additional Nesbit's dorsal tunica albuginea plication in 4 boys and a 50% success (3 of 6). In group III were 5 boys, 3 previously failed chordectomy from group II and 2 with "skin urethra" type chordee I according to D-H. All boys in this group were treated for urethroplasty with autologous buccal mucosal graft. Good results were obtained in 3 of 5 (60%). Successful outcome was achieved in both cases with "skin urethra" not previously treated. The results of our urethroplasty with buccal mucosa agree with those in literature. In the treatment of chordee without hypospadias, where it was necessary to reconstruct the urethra there was a constant problem of the shortage of local tissue, so we believe that buccal mucosa is a good choice.

  2. The Development of Seabuckthorn Cough-relieving Buccal Tablet%沙棘止咳含片的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山永凯

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the traditional folk cough-relieving prescription, taking Qinghai seabuck- thorn as the main material, complementary with winter fruit pear juice, bulbus fritillariae cirrhosae as auxiliary material, makes seabuckthorn cough-relieving buccal tablet, discusses the production process, blend the best taste with the orthogonal experiment method; Therefore, we have tested the influence of seabuckthorn cough-relieving buccal tablet in stopping cough of mice caused by aqueous ammonia and eliminating phlegm. The results shows that seabuckthorn cough-relieving buccal tablet has obvious cough-relieving and eliminating phlegm effect.%在民间传统止咳偏方的基础上,以沙棘汁为主原料,辅以冬果梨汁、川贝母、薏苡仁浸提液,制作出沙棘止咳含片,探讨了生产工艺,用正交试验法调配出最佳口味;并且试验了沙棘止咳含片对小鼠氨水所致咳嗽的镇咳作用和小鼠祛痰作用测试,结果表明:沙棘止咳含片具有明显的止咳和祛痰作用。

  3. [Use of new solcoseryl-containing Diplan-denta C film in the treatment of injuries of the buccal mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakarova, D S

    2004-01-01

    Clinical efficiency of bilayer adhesive dental film Diplan-denta C with solcoseryl in the treatment of postoperative wounds of the buccal mucosa and the effects of this film on the course of wound process were evaluated. The course of wound process in 39 patients with postoperative injuries of the buccal mucosa treated with Diplan-denta XD and Diplan-denta C films and traditional local therapy (0.05% chlorohexidine bigluconate solution and solcoseryl dental adhesive paste) was compared. In the study group Diplan-denta XD film with chlorohexidine was used for local therapy during the first 1-3 days after the injury and Diplan-denta C film with solcoseryl was used in subsequent days until epithelialization; in controls irrigations of the oral cavity with chlorohexidine bigluconate solution (0.05%) were carried out during the first 1-3 days and applications of solcoseryl dental adhesive paste were made during subsequent days until epithelialization. The results indicate that the use of Diplan-denta C film optimized the treatment of the buccal mucosa wounds.

  4. MicroRNAs Expression in the Ileal Pouch of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis Is Robustly Up-Regulated and Correlates with Disease Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman Horev, Hadas; Elad, Hofit; Baram, Liran; Issakov, Ofer; Tulchinsky, Hagit; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Shomron, Noam; Dotan, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Background Gene expression alterations are associated with disease behavior in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). microRNAs (miRNAs) are dominant in the regulation of gene expression, and may affect IBD phenotype. Our aim was to assess mucosal miRNA expression in IBD and the correlation with intestinal inflammation. Methods We performed a large-scale analysis of ileal mucosal miRNA. Biopsies were retrieved from patients with ileal Crohn’s disease (CD), unoperated ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, UC patients after pouch surgery, and normal controls (NC). Pouch UC patients were classified as having a normal pouch (NP), chronic pouchitis (CP), and Crohn’s-like disease of the pouch (CLDP). miRNA expression was analyzed by parallel massive (next-generation) sequencing (NGS). Bioinformatics tools were applied for clustering and the detection of potential targets. Results Sixty-one subjects were recruited. The ileum of unoperated UC patients was comparable with NC. There were significant miRNA expression alterations (fold change ≥2, corrected P ≤.05) in NP (n = 6), CP (n = 40) and CLDP (n = 139), but only two expression alterations were noted in CD. More than 90% of the altered miRNAs were up-regulated, and many were predicted to be associated with significantly decreased transcripts. miRNAs alterations were generally clustered with disease phenotypes. Conclusions Ileal inflammation causes increased miRNA expression. miRNA alterations correlate with IBD phenotype, apparently by controlling the down-regulation of specific mRNAs. PMID:27536783

  5. An unexpected resident in the ileum detected during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystoprostatectomy and intracorporeal Studer pouch formation: Taenia saginata parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Asil, Erem; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2011-02-01

    A case of moving ileal Taenia saginata parasites is presented with demonstrative images. We came across the parasites surprisingly while performing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystoprostatectomy with intracorporeal Studer pouch urinary diversion. We recommend stool sample evaluation in the preoperative period for possible presence of intestinal parasitic diseases, particularly in patients with bladder cancer who are admitted from areas with an increased incidence of intestinal parasitic diseases, before opening the bowel segments during surgery to perform radical cystectomy and urinary diversion.

  6. Comparative Study of Surface Temperature Behavior of Commercial Li-Ion Pouch Cells of Different Chemistries and Capacities by Infrared Thermography

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The non-uniform surface temperature distribution of a battery cell results from complex reactions inside the cell and makes efficient thermal management a challenging task. This experimental work attempts to determine the evolution of surface temperature distribution of three pouch type commercial cells: Nickel Manganese Cobalt oxide (NMC)-based 20 Ah cell, Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) 14 Ah, and Lithium Titanate Oxide (LTO) 5 Ah battery cell by using contact thermistor and infrared (IR) the...

  7. Comparative Study of Surface Temperature Behavior of Commercial Li-Ion Pouch Cells of Different Chemistries and Capacities by Infrared Thermography

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The non-uniform surface temperature distribution of a battery cell results from complex reactions inside the cell and makes efficient thermal management a challenging task. This experimental work attempts to determine the evolution of surface temperature distribution of three pouch type commercial cells: Nickel Manganese Cobalt oxide (NMC)-based 20 Ah cell, Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) 14 Ah, and Lithium Titanate Oxide (LTO) 5 Ah battery cell by using contact thermistor and infrared (IR) ther...

  8. Growth-related alterations during liver carcinogenesis: Effect of promoters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seglen, P.O.; Gerlyng, P. (Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway))

    1990-08-01

    Bromodeoxyuridine labeling of DNA, binuclearity counting, and flow cytometric analysis of isolated hepatocytes and hepatocyte nuclei has been used to assess heptocellular growth patterns related to liver carcinogenesis. Three growth patterns can be distinguished. Mononucleating growth is observed during liver regeneration and after treatment with the tumor promoter 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and its analogue 4-AAF. In this growth mode binucleation does not occur, resulting in a decrease in the fraction of binucleated cells. Binucleating growth is observed during normal liver development and after treatment with compounds such as phenobarbital, characterized by progressive polyploidization and maintenance of a binucleated cell fraction. Diploid growth is the growth pattern of neoplastic liver hepatocytes. Most of the cells in neoplastic lesions (foci, nodules, and carcinomas) are diploid, in contrast to the normal liver. Diploid tumor cells have a much higher proliferative activity than tetraploid tumor cells, suggesting that the latter may posses a limited growth potential that makes abrogation of binucleation proliferatively advantageous.

  9. Recent advances in the study of HPV-associated carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liyan; Jin; Zhi-Xiang; Xu

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses(HPVs) cause virtually all cervical cancers, the second leading cause of death by cancer among women, as well as other anogenital cancers and a subset of head and neck cancers. Approximately half of women, who develop cervical cancer die from it. Despite the optimism that has accompanied the introduction of prophylactic vaccines to prevent some HPV infections, the relatively modest uptake of the vaccine, especially in the developing world, and the very high fraction of men and women who are already infected, means that HPV-associated disease will remain as a significant public health problem for decades. In this review, we summarize some recent findings on HPV-associated carcinogenesis, such as mi RNAs in HPV-associated cancers, implication of stem cells in the biology and therapy of HPV-positive cancers, HPV vaccines, targeted therapy of cervical cancer, and drug treatment for HPV-induced intraepithelial neoplasias.

  10. Pathogenesis and biomarkers of carcinogenesis in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Gudjonsson, Thorkell; Nielsen, Ole Haagen;

    2011-01-01

    One of the most serious complications of ulcerative colitis is the development of colorectal cancer. Screening patients with ulcerative colitis by standard histological examination of random intestinal biopsy samples might be inefficient as a method of cancer surveillance. This Review focuses......-driven mechanisms of DNA damage, including the generation and effects of reactive oxygen species, microsatellite instability, telomere shortening and chromosomal instability, are reviewed, as are the molecular responses to genomic stress. We also discuss how these mechanisms can be translated into usable biomarkers....... Although progress has been made in the understanding of inflammation-driven carcinogenesis, markers based on these findings possess insufficient sensitivity or specificity to be usable as reliable biomarkers for risk of colorectal cancer development in patients with ulcerative colitis. However, screening...

  11. [The role of sonic hedgehog pathway in skin carcinogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Aleksandra; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Narbutt, Joanna

    2010-08-01

    Non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) involving basal (BCC)--and squamosus cell carcinomas (SCC) and are the most frequent skin cancers in Caucasians. Ultraviolet radiation is the main environmental risk factor for NMSC development. The aim of this paper is to review the latest opinions concerning the role of sonic hedgehog pathway in non-melanoma skin cancers development. Experimental data indicate that sonic hedgehog pathway might be involved in skin carcinogenesis. Under physiological conditions sonic hedgehog pathway is responsible for normal embryogenesis, regeneration of damaged tissues and for regulation of cell proliferation. It was revealed that UVR caused inactivated mutation in PATCHED gene encoding Ptch1 protein. These events lead to deregulation of sonic hedgehog pathway trough activation of Smo protein and Gli transcriptional factors what stimulates cell proliferation and in consequence NMSC development. Literature data indicate that understanding of molecular background of skin cancers might be a reason for introduction of new therapeutic approaches including sonic hedgehog pathway inhibitors.

  12. Translesion Synthesis Polymerases in the Prevention and Promotion of Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jay Stallons

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical step in the transformation of cells to the malignant state of cancer is the induction of mutations in the DNA of cells damaged by genotoxic agents. Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS is the process by which cells copy DNA containing unrepaired damage that blocks progression of the replication fork. The DNA polymerases that catalyze TLS in mammals have been the topic of intense investigation over the last decade. DNA polymerase η (Pol η is best understood and is active in error-free bypass of UV-induced DNA damage. The other TLS polymerases (Pol ι, Pol κ, REV1, and Pol ζ have been studied extensively in vitro, but their in vivo role is only now being investigated using knockout mouse models of carcinogenesis. This paper will focus on the studies of mice and humans with altered expression of TLS polymerases and the effects on cancer induced by environmental agents.

  13. Thymus in experimental carcinogenesis of the prostate gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Yu I; Lomshakov, A A; Astashov, V V; Kazakov, O V; Mayorov, A P; Larionov, P M

    2014-10-01

    We studied structural changes in the prostate gland, thymus, and lymph nodes in CBA mice after transplantation of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells into the prostate gland. On experimental day 5, the number of blood and lymph vessels decreased in the gland; the percentage of connective tissue elements and glandular tissue and the number of immunoblasts in the thymus increased. On day 18, the number of blood vessels in the tumor decreased; the width of the cortex and glandular tissue increased in the thymus, while the number of immunoblasts was reduced. On day 28, tumor infiltration and increased number of lymphatic vessels in its stroma were observed; parenchyma was reduced, and the area of the connective tissue increased in the thymus. These structural changes indicated the development of accidental involution of the thymus during carcinogenesis of the prostate.

  14. Multi-step pancreatic carcinogenesis and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakorafas, G H; Tsiotou, A G

    1999-12-01

    The poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer relates mainly to its delayed diagnosis. It has been repeatedly shown that earlier diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is associated with a better outcome. Molecular diagnostic methods (mainly detection of K-ras mutations in pure pancreatic or duodenal juice, on specimens obtained by percutaneous fine-needle aspirations or in stool specimens) can achieve earlier diagnosis in selected subgroups of patients, such as patients with chronic pancreatitis (especially hereditary), adults with recent onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and patients with some inherited disorders that predispose to the development of pancreatic cancer. There is increasing evidence that pancreatic carcinogenesis is a multi-step phenomenon. Screening procedures for precursor lesions in these selected subgroups of patients may reduce the incidence and mortality from pancreatic cancer.

  15. Pathogenesis and biomarkers of carcinogenesis in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Gudjonsson, Thorkell; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2011-01-01

    One of the most serious complications of ulcerative colitis is the development of colorectal cancer. Screening patients with ulcerative colitis by standard histological examination of random intestinal biopsy samples might be inefficient as a method of cancer surveillance. This Review focuses...... on the current understanding of the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer and how this knowledge can be transferred into patient management to assist clinicians and pathologists in identifying patients with ulcerative colitis who have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Inflammation....... Although progress has been made in the understanding of inflammation-driven carcinogenesis, markers based on these findings possess insufficient sensitivity or specificity to be usable as reliable biomarkers for risk of colorectal cancer development in patients with ulcerative colitis. However, screening...

  16. Increased numbers of mast cells in the hyperplastic buccal mucosa of the zinc-deficient rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreavich, M E; Meyer, J; Waterhouse, J P

    1981-02-01

    Six weanling male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 0.4 ppm Zn and seven were fed an identical diet except for 40 ppm Zn. After 4 weeks, specimens of buccal mucosa in the region facing the molar teeth were removed. Paraffin sections, cut at 6 micron, were stained with toluidine blue, and tracings made of five sections per animal, spaced no less than 60 micron apart. Counts of mast cells of five sections length of section were made in a superficial zone of the lamina propria of 50 micron width and a deeper zone of 250 micron width. The average number of mast cells, per mm in the subepithelial zone of the experimental animals was 15.4, the range 9.2-33.1. The control average was 4.0; the range was 2.9-5.3. No increase was found in the deeper zone. The epithelium was parakeratotic and its thickness was increased two-fold. In the peripheral portion of the section, cellular and keratin layers were evenly increased in thickness, but in the central portion a disproportionate, nearly four-fold increase occurred in the keratin layer and a lesser increase in the cellular layer.

  17. Disposable on-chip microfluidic system for buccal cell lysis, DNA purification, and polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woong; Maeng, Joon-Ho; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports the development of a disposable, integrated biochip for DNA sample preparation and PCR. The hybrid biochip (25 × 45 mm) is composed of a disposable PDMS layer with a microchannel chamber and reusable glass substrate integrated with a microheater and thermal microsensor. Lysis, purification, and PCR can be performed sequentially on this microfluidic device. Cell lysis is achieved by heat and purification is performed by mechanical filtration. Passive check valves are integrated to enable sample preparation and PCR in a fixed sequence. Reactor temperature is needed to lysis and PCR reaction is controlled within ±1°C by PID controller of LabVIEW software. Buccal epithelial cell lysis, DNA purification, and SY158 gene PCR amplification were successfully performed on this novel chip. Our experiments confirm that the entire process, except the off-chip gel electrophoresis, requires only approximately 1 h for completion. This disposable microfluidic chip for sample preparation and PCR can be easily united with other technologies to realize a fully integrated DNA chip.

  18. Effects of zinc deficiency on the distribution of membrane-coating granules in rat buccal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, S H; Meyer, J; Squier, C A

    1980-06-01

    Nutritional zinc deficiency causes consistent excessive cell proliferation in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa. The number per cell and the intracellular location of membrane-coating granules in this epithelium were investigated in male rats placed at weanling age for a 4-week period on a diet containing 1.2 ppm of Zn and in their pair fed controls. Membrane-coating granules were identified on electron micrographs following their demonstration in thin sections by the use of an alkaline bismuth technique. Counts of membrane-coating granules in the first 4 rows of spinous cells and the last 4 rows of granular cells showed that in the zinc-deficient group (1) the total number of granules per cell was increased; (2) the proportion of granules displaced to the cell periphery was decreased in favor of a higher proportion persisting in the center and (3) there was a marked reduction in number and proportion of granules positioned near the superficial cell membrane. The greater uniformity in the distribution of the granules in the hyperplastic-hypertrophic epithelium of the zinc deficient group suggests weakening of the surface-oriented polarity characteristic of the control tissue.

  19. Tensile bond strength of a polymeric intra-buccal bioadhesive: the mucin role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzi, V; Lara, E H; Dal Ciampo, J O; Panzeri, H

    2001-01-01

    The intra-bucal polymeric bioadhesive systems that can stay adhered to the oral soft tissues for drug programmed release, with the preventive and/or therapeutic purpose have been employed for large clinical situations. A system based on hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose/Carbopol 934TM/magnesium stearate (HPMC/Cp/StMg), was developed with the sodium fluoride as an active principle. This kind of system was evaluated according to its resistance to the removal by means of physical test of tensile strength. Swine buccal mucosa extracted immediately after animals' sacrifice was employed as a substrate for the physical trials to obtain 16 test bodies. Artificial saliva with or without mucin was used to involve the substrate/bioadhesive system sets during the trials. Artificial salivas viscosity were determined by means of Brookfield viscometer, and they showed 10.0 cP artificial saliva with mucin, and 7.5 cP artificial saliva without mucin. The tensile strength assays showed the following averages: 12.89 Pa for the group "artificial saliva with mucin", and 12.35 Pa for the group "without mucin". Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the assays for both artificial salivas, and we can conclude that the variable mucin did not interfere with the bioadhesion process for the polymeric devices.

  20. Formulation and In-Vitro Evaluation of Chitosan Based Omeprazole Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit E. Birari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing proton pump inhibitors drug, Omeprazole to circumvent the first pass effect and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency and dose related side effects. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Nine formulations were prepared with Chitosan as primary polymer and Carbopol 934, Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC K4M and Xanthan gum as a secondary polymer. All formulations were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, surface pH, drug Content uniformity, swelling index, and bioadhesive strength and in-vitro drug dissolution study. Physical compatibility studies showed no evidence on interactions between drug, polymers, and excipients. The in vitro release of Omeprazole was performed under sink conditions (Phosphate buffer PH 6.8, 37±0.5ºC, rpm 50 using USP dissolution apparatus type II. The best in-vitro drug release profile was achieved with the formulation F8 which contains the Chitosan combine with Xanthan gum. The surface pH and swelling index of formulation F8 was found to be 6.8, and 60 %, respectively.

  1. Novel neutrophil inhibitory factor homologue in the buccal gland secretion of Lampetra japonica.

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    Xue, Zhuang; Bai, Jie; Sun, Jing; Wu, Yu; Yu, Shui Yan; Guo, Ren Yong; Liu, Xin; Li, Qing Wei

    2011-07-01

    Abstract To identify the functional gene fragment, a neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) like protein was found in the buccal gland of Lampetra japonica, suggesting that this related lamprey protein represents a novel class of integrin receptor antagonists. The recombinant Lampetra japonica-NIF like (rLj-NIF) was identified by SDS-PAGE and purified by using His·Bind affinity chromatography. Effect of rLj-NIF on neutrophil migration suggested that rLj-NIF can act as a neutrophil inhibitory factor. Besides that, oxidative burst activity of neutriphil was tested by flow cytometry using dihydrorhodamine (DHR123) as a fluorogenic substrate, and the data suggested that the mean fluorescence intensity significantly decreased compared with positive controls (pNIF could also prevent the binding of β2 integrins to the surface of PMN and its FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies (pNIF like protein is secreted by the stage of the parasite at the site of attachment. rLj-NIF plays an essential role in physiological reaction of neutrophil by a novel class of β2 integrin receptor antagonists. The activity of immunosuppressant of L. japonica-NIF could have potential medicinal value in anti-inflammation and therapy of autoimmune diseases.

  2. Buccal Cavity Protozoa in Patients Referred to the Faculty of Dentistry in Tehran, Iran

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    MR Jahani

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Buccal cavity as a compound ecosystem has always been ignored in parasitic infection studies; however it seems that studying on mouth and tooth prevalent parasitic infections is of great importance. In this study, from 120 patients of both sexes referred to Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, (2001-2002 240 samples were taken from the plaques and calculus of depth of tooth and gum pockets. Wet-mount technique is regarded as the best and quickest diagnostic method for Trichomonas. tenax while Entamoeba. gingivalis is best diagnosed by Trichrome vitelli staining method using Bovin fixative. 41.7% and 9.2% of the cases were infected by Entamoeba. gingivalis and T.tenax, respectively, while 3.3% were infected by both parasitic protozoa. Infection to mouth amoeba was more prevalent in males at the age of 21-30 yr old while no relation was found between age/sex as to infection with Trichomonas. tenax. Accordingly, a direct relation was found between the frequency of the parasites and some factors such as periodontal tissue condition, degree of gum bleeding and inflammation, gum color and tooth decay.

  3. Nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of petrol station attendants in Udaipur, Rajasthan

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    Rashmi Metgud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The petroleum derivatives consist of a complex mixture of chemical compounds one among which is benzene. Petrol station workers who pump fuel to vehicles absorb the products of fuel fumes and the products of combustion. Materials and Methods: To study the occupational exposure to petroleum derivatives such as benzene, exfoliated buccal cells from 40 petrol station attendants and 40 age-matched control subjects were examined for micronuclei, binucleation, karyorrhexis and karyolysis frequency by using feulgen and Giemsa stains. Statistical evaluation was performed with ANOVA test. Results: In the present study, inter-comparison of mean values for micronuclei, binucleation, karyorrhexis and karyolysis using Fuelgen stain between smokers of study and control group, as well as between smokers and non-smokers of study and control group revealed statistically highly significant results with P value 0.00002 and 0.0001 respectively. Whereas inter comparison between non-smokers of study and control group using Feulgen stain and inter comparison between smokers of study and control group, using Giemsa stain revealed statistically significant results with P value 0.0034 and 0.0004, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that the studied individuals belong to a risk group and should periodically undergo biological monitoring and proper care.

  4. A Case of Buccal Abscess from an Impacted Wisdom Tooth in an Elderly Person with Malnutrition

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    Yuki Kojima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of buccal abscess caused by an impacted wisdom tooth in an extremely elderly person with malnutrition. The patient was a 94-year-old man, who complained that he had found it hard to open his mouth and that his cheek had been swollen for the previous 2 weeks. He had a shallow oral wound caused by an improperly fitting denture; however, the wound became infected. We performed incisional drainage of the abscess under local anesthesia. The swelling disappeared and he was able to open his mouth 55 mm. The elderly have a high risk of healing failure of injuries and it has been reported that infection in a host in a compromised state is severely intractable. This elderly patient was in a compromised state because of malnutrition. Cases such as this one will increase as the elderly population increases. Dentists need to consider the quality of life of patients with a longer life expectancy and should offer patients several treatment options before their general condition deteriorates.

  5. Metastatic Uterine Leiomyosarcoma in the Upper Buccal Gingiva Misdiagnosed as an Epulis

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    Andrea Cassoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS is a rare tumor constituting 1% of all uterine malignancies. This sarcoma demonstrates an aggressive growth pattern with an high rate of recurrence with hematologic dissemination; the most common sites are lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity, head and neck district being rarely interested. Only other four cases of metastasis in the oral cavity have been previously described. The treatment of choice is surgery and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation has limited impact on clinical outcome. In case of metastases, surgical excision can be performed considering extent of disease, number and type of distant lesions, disease free interval from the initial diagnosis to the time of metastases, and expected life span. We illustrate a case of uterine LMS metastasis in the upper buccal gingiva that occurred during chemotherapy in a 63-year-old woman that underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for a diagnosis of LMS staged as pT2bN0 and that developed lung metastases eight months after primary treatment. Surgical excision of the oral mass (previously misdiagnosed as epulis at a dental center and contemporary reconstruction with pedicled temporalis muscle flap was performed in order to improve quality of life. Even if resection was achieved in free margins, “local” relapse was observed 5 months after surgery.

  6. Constriction of the buccal branch of the facial nerve produces unilateral craniofacial allodynia.

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    Lewis, Susannah S; Grace, Peter M; Hutchinson, Mark R; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2016-12-18

    Despite pain being a sensory experience, studies of spinal cord ventral root damage have demonstrated that motor neuron injury can induce neuropathic pain. Whether injury of cranial motor nerves can also produce nociceptive hypersensitivity has not been addressed. Herein, we demonstrate that chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the buccal branch of the facial nerve results in long-lasting, unilateral allodynia in the rat. An anterograde and retrograde tracer (3000MW tetramethylrhodamine-conjugated dextran) was not transported to the trigeminal ganglion when applied to the injury site, but was transported to the facial nucleus, indicating that this nerve branch is not composed of trigeminal sensory neurons. Finally, intracisterna magna injection of interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist reversed allodynia, implicating the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1 in the maintenance of neuropathic pain induced by facial nerve CCI. These data extend the prior evidence that selective injury to motor axons can enhance pain to supraspinal circuits by demonstrating that injury of a facial nerve with predominantly motor axons is sufficient for neuropathic pain, and that the resultant pain has a neuroimmune component.

  7. Application of hydrogel polymers for development of thyrotropin releasing hormone-loaded adhesive buccal patches.

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    Chinwala, Maimoona G; Lin, Senshang

    2010-06-01

    To utilize hydrogels for fabricating thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) adhesive buccal patches, type of hydrogels such as polyacrylic acids (Polycarbophil AA1, Carbopols 934P, 974P and 971P), celluloses (HPMC K4M, K4MCR and K15M), polysaccharide (sodium alginate) and polyacrylic acid combinations with either cellulose or polysaccharide were evaluated for adhesion force, water uptake and swelling capacity. Upon the characterization of hydrogel polymers, TRH-loading of patches fabricated from these hydrogels was evaluated at various polymer concentrations, combinations and ratios and then in vitro release kinetics of TRH from these patches were studied. Results indicated that maximum adhesion force was shown by polyacrylic acids. Adhesive force of polymer combination mainly resulted from combination of adhesive force, according to ratio proportion used, of each polymer without any superimposed effect of polymer combination. Polycarbophil AA1 showed highest water uptake and swelling capacity. Maximum TRH-loading was obtained with sodium alginate and Polycarbophil AA1 and sodium alginate combination. TRH release profiles revealed that release was sustained from Polycarbophil AA1 and its combination with celluloses or polysaccharide at 2:1 level of polymer ratio. Based on adhesion, loading and release characteristics, patches of Polycarbophil AA1 with K4M, K4MCR and sodium alginate were concluded to be suitable for further development.

  8. Could formaldehyde induce mutagenic and cytotoxic effects in buccal epithelial cells during anatomy classes?

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    Pinheiro, Leon-Penido; Nascimento, Haniel-Serpa; Menegardo, Cristiani-Sartorio; Silva, Ronara-Gerhardt; Bautz, Willian-Grassi; Henriques, José-Fernando; Almeida-Coburn, Karla-Loureiro; da Gama-de-Souza, Letícia-Nogueira

    2017-01-01

    Background Due to increased formaldehyde exposure, carcinogenic to humans, several researches have been studying the potential toxicity and the safe levels for human beings. The aim of this study was to investigate mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in buccal epithelial exfoliated cells (BEC) of students subjected to formaldehyde (FA) during anatomy classes. Material and Methods BEC were collected periodically from 17 volunteers of undergraduate programs, who had participated in practical anatomy classes, before and after FA exposure. Cells were stained according to Feulgen method and then micronucleus test was applied. A total of 1,500 cells were assessed per individual in this study for the micronucleus frequency and other parameters of cytotoxicity. Results There was statistically significant increase in number of micronucleated BEC after FA exposure (after 1 month p=.034 and after 3.5 months p=.017). However, FA exposure caused no significant increase in other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity (p≥.05). Conclusions FA induced mutagenicity during anatomy classes. Cell death increased, but it was not statistically significant. Efforts have to be made to improve air quality and reduce exposures during anatomy classes. Key words:Carcinogens, formaldehyde, micronucleus tests, mutagenicity tests. PMID:27918743

  9. Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum prevents colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice.

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    Daniel Sliva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that mushroom intake is inversely correlated with gastric, gastrointestinal and breast cancers. We have recently demonstrated anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity of triterpene extract isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GLT. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether GLT prevents colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Colon carcinogenesis was induced by the food-borne carcinogen (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol[4,5-b]pyridine [PhIP] and inflammation (dextran sodium sulfate [DSS] in mice. Mice were treated with 0, 100, 300 and 500 mg GLT/kg of body weight 3 times per week for 4 months. Cell proliferation, expression of cyclin D1 and COX-2 and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of GLT on XRE/AhR, PXR and rPXR was evaluated by the reporter gene assays. Expression of metabolizing enzymes CYP1A2, CYP3A1 and CYP3A4 in colon tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. GLT treatment significantly suppressed focal hyperplasia, aberrant crypt foci (ACF formation and tumor formation in mice exposed to PhIP/DSS. The anti-proliferative effects of GLT were further confirmed by the decreased staining with Ki-67 in colon tissues. PhIP/DSS-induced colon inflammation was demonstrated by the significant shortening of the large intestine and macrophage infiltrations, whereas GLT treatment prevented the shortening of colon lengths, and reduced infiltration of macrophages in colon tissue. GLT treatment also significantly down-regulated PhIP/DSS-dependent expression of cyclin D1, COX-2, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in colon tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that GLT could be considered as an alternative dietary approach for the prevention of colitis-associated cancer.

  10. The molecular mechanisms of hazardous metals for carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJK; LeiYX

    2002-01-01

    The available experimental and epidemiological data have shown that nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Dd) and their compounds are carcinogenic to experimental animals and human.These two metals have been classified as human carcinogens bythe International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).However,Their underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown.The objective of this research was to investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for Ni and Cd carcinogenesis through epidemiological study in human exposure,transformation expreiments in human epithelial cells (16HBE) and BALB/c-3T3 cell lines in vitro,DNA damage detections (comet,DNA-protein crosslinks) as well as telomerase activity and apoptosis assay,and analysis of oncogens,tumor suppressor genes and their mutation (including genomic instability,k-ras,p15,p16,p53,FHIT) in transformed cell lines or tumor cells/tissue.Furthermore,we also detected and analyses the methylation,related novel genes and encoded protein in Cd transformed cells.The results and conclusion are as follows:(1)There is significant relationship between some hazardous metals and lung cancer (OR=8.76),especially for nickel(OR=11.25).(2)Ni and Cd and their compounds could induce malignant transformation in mammalian cell lines and human epithelial cells,and induce tumorigenesis in nude mice.(3)There is obvious DNA damage during cell transformation and tumorigenesis induced by Ni.(4) Significant genomic instability has been shown during cell transformation and tumorigenesis induced by Ni.(5)Detection of k-ras,p15,p16 genes in point mutation have demonstrated no changes during cell transformation and tumorigenesis induced by hazardous medals,suggesting that gene mutation is not the main way to metal carcinogenesis.(6)There are some aberrant DNA methylation in Cdtransformed cell lines.(7)We found two novel Cd-responsive proto-oncogenes and their encoded proteins in Cd-transformed cell lines.

  11. Differential network analysis reveals dysfunctional regulatory networks in gastric carcinogenesis.

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    Cao, Mu-Shui; Liu, Bing-Ya; Dai, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Wei-Xin; Li, Yi-Xue; Li, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Gastric Carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in the world. A large number of differentially expressed genes have been identified as being associated with gastric cancer progression, however, little is known about the underlying regulatory mechanisms. To address this problem, we developed a differential networking approach that is characterized by including a nascent methodology, differential coexpression analysis (DCEA), and two novel quantitative methods for differential regulation analysis. We first applied DCEA to a gene expression dataset of gastric normal mucosa, adenoma and carcinoma samples to identify gene interconnection changes during cancer progression, based on which we inferred normal, adenoma, and carcinoma-specific gene regulation networks by using linear regression model. It was observed that cancer genes and drug targets were enriched in each network. To investigate the dynamic changes of gene regulation during carcinogenesis, we then designed two quantitative methods to prioritize differentially regulated genes (DRGs) and gene pairs or links (DRLs) between adjacent stages. It was found that known cancer genes and drug targets are significantly higher ranked. The top 4% normal vs. adenoma DRGs (36 genes) and top 6% adenoma vs. carcinoma DRGs (56 genes) proved to be worthy of further investigation to explore their association with gastric cancer. Out of the 16 DRGs involved in two top-10 DRG lists of normal vs. adenoma and adenoma vs. carcinoma comparisons, 15 have been reported to be gastric cancer or cancer related. Based on our inferred differential networking information and known signaling pathways, we generated testable hypotheses on the roles of GATA6, ESRRG and their signaling pathways in gastric carcinogenesis. Compared with established approaches which build genome-scale GRNs, or sub-networks around differentially expressed genes, the present one proved to be better at enriching cancer genes and drug targets, and prioritizing

  12. Protein expression analysis of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis

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    Yasui Yumiko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC development. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in protein expression between CRC and the surrounding nontumorous colonic tissues in the mice that received azoxymethane (AOM and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS using a proteomic analysis. Materials and Methods: Male ICR mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight, followed by 2% (w/v DSS in their drinking water for seven days, starting one week after the AOM injection. Colonic adenocarcinoma developed after 20 weeks and a proteomics analysis based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and ultraflex TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was conducted in the cancerous and nontumorous tissue specimens. Results: The proteomic analysis revealed 21 differentially expressed proteins in the cancerous tissues in comparison to the nontumorous tissues. There were five markedly increased proteins (beta-tropomyosin, tropomyosin 1 alpha isoform b, S100 calcium binding protein A9, and an unknown protein and 16 markedly decreased proteins (Car1 proteins, selenium-binding protein 1, HMG-CoA synthase, thioredoxin 1, 1 Cys peroxiredoxin protein 2, Fcgbp protein, Cytochrome c oxidase, subunit Va, ETHE1 protein, and 7 unknown proteins. Conclusions: There were 21 differentially expressed proteins in the cancerous tissues of the mice that received AOM and DSS. Their functions include metabolism, the antioxidant system, oxidative stress, mucin production, and inflammation. These findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis and the establishment of novel therapies and preventative strategies to treat carcinogenesis in the inflamed colon.

  13. Neutrophil oxidative metabolism and killing of P. brasiliensis after air pouch infection of susceptible and resistant mice.

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    Meloni-Bruneri, L H; Campa, A; Abdalla, D S; Calich, V L; Lenzi, H L; Burger, E

    1996-04-01

    The oxidative burst of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and their ability to inhibit Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth was studied in susceptible (B10.A) and resistant (A/J) mice. The cells were obtained after subcutaneous inoculation in air pouches, yielding highly pure PMN preparations; the number of cells was similar for both strains at 24 h and five times higher in the resistant strain at 15 days. The oxidative metabolism of these PMN was evaluated by the luminol and lucigen-enhanced chemiluminescence upon stimulation with PMA or killed P. brasiliensis (Pb). At 24 h of infection PMN from both strains showed similar responses. However, at 15 days a great enhancement of the Pb-stimulated luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence was observed only in PMN from resistant mice. Such increase was markedly inhibited by the addition of catalase. Independent of the mouse strain or time of infection of lucigen-enhanced chemiluminescence showed the same intensity. The lucigen-enhanced chemiluminescence of PMN without stimuli from resistant mice did not change with the time of infection, however, after 15 days of infection a significantly lower chemiluminescence was detected with PMN from susceptible mice. At 15 days of infection the PMN from B10.A were unable to kill P. brasiliensis yeast cells in vitro. Because the lucigenin- and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence detects, respectively, the O2- production and the myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide halide system, the present data show parallels between deficiency in the production of oxygen-reactive species by PMN and lower fungicidal activity.

  14. A new species of pouched octopus, Cistopus Gray, 1849 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) from the southwest coast of India.

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    Sreeja, Vijayamma; Norman, Mark D; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju

    2015-12-16

    Octopuses of the genus Cistopus Gray, 1849 are commercially valuable catches in the cephalopod fisheries of India. The primary and unique diagnostic character of this genus is the possession of eight small mucous pouches embedded in the oral faces of the webs between the bases of each arm. Historically only a single species of Cistopus, C. indicus, had been reported from Indian waters. In reviewing the octopod fauna off the Kerala coast, we have detected three species of Cistopus, of which one is described here as a new species. Cistopus platinoidus sp. nov. is distinct from Cistopus species described to date (C. indicus, C. taiwanicus and C. chinensis) on the basis of sucker counts, the number and position of enlarged suckers in males, and presence/absence of a calamus. Our studies of catch composition of Kerala octopod fisheries indicate a higher diversity of target species than previously suspected, including a number of undescribed species. Taxonomic resolution and collation of biological and distributional data are required for effective monitoring and management of these valuable fisheries.

  15. Articaine and mepivacaine buccal infiltration in securing mandibular first molar pulp anesthesia following mepivacaine inferior alveolar nerve block: A randomized, double-blind crossover study

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    Giath Gazal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: A crossover double-blind, randomized study was designed to explore the efficacy of 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline buccal infiltration and 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline buccal infiltration following 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB for testing pulp anesthesia of mandibular first molar teeth in adult volunteers. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 healthy adult volunteers received two regimens with at least 1-week apart; one with 4% articaine buccal infiltration and 2% mepivacaine IANB (articaine regimen and another with 2% mepivacaine buccal infiltration supplemented to 2% mepivacaine IANB (mepivacaine regimen. Pulp testing of first molar tooth was electronically measured twice at baseline, then at intervals of 2 min for the first 10 min, then every 5 min until 45 min postinjection. Anesthetic success was considered when two consecutive maximal stimulation on pulp testing readings without sensation were obtained within 10 min and continuously sustained for 45 min postinjection. Results: In total, the number of no sensations to maximum pulp testing for first molar teeth were significantly higher after articaine regimen than mepivacaine during 45 min postinjection (267 vs. 250 episodes, respectively, P 0.05. Interestingly, volunteers in the articaine regimen provided faster onset and longer duration (means 2.78 min, 42.22 min, respectively than mepivacaine regimen (means 4.26 min, 40.74 min, respectively for first molar pulp anesthesia (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Supplementary mepivacaine and articaine buccal infiltrations produced similar successful first molar pulp anesthesia following mepivacaine IANB injections in volunteers. Articaine buccal infiltration produced faster onset and longer duration than mepivacaine buccal infiltration following mepivacaine IANB injections.

  16. Induction of nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal cells of coca chewers: results of a field study.

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    Nersesyan, Armen; Kundi, Michael; Krupitza, Georg; Barcelos, Gustavo; Mišík, Miroslav; Wultsch, Georg; Carrion, Juan; Carrion-Carrera, Gladys; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2013-03-01

    The leaves of coca (Erythroxylum coca var. coca), a South American shrub which contains cocaine, other alkaloids and phenolics are widely used by indigenous populations of the Andes. It is currently not known if coca consumption causes genotoxic effects in humans. This information is important to predict potential long-term toxic effects such as cancer induction. Therefore, the buccal cytome assay was used to analyze oral cells from 45 uni- and bilateral chewers and 23 controls living in the Altiplano of the Peruvian Andes. In total, 123,471 cells were evaluated from chewers and 57,916 from controls. Information concerning the consumption levels and habits and also use of lime were collected with questionnaires. Chewing of the leaves did not induce nuclear anomalies reflecting genetic damage such as micronuclei (MNi) and nuclear buds; in the highest exposure group (but not in the overall group) even a significant decrease in the frequencies of cells with MNi (by 64 %) was observed. However, we found significantly elevated levels of other nuclear anomalies (karyorrhexis and karyolysis) which reflect cytotoxic effects in the coca users. The frequencies of these anomalies increased with the daily consumption and when lime was used to improve the release of the alkaloids. In contrast to other chewing habits (betel, tobacco and khat), consumption of coca leaves does not induce genetic instability in cells from the oral cavity and our findings indicate that no adverse health effects take place in chewers which are associated with DNA damage. However, the significant increase in certain anomalies shows that acute toxic effects are caused by coca consumption.

  17. Lyophilized sponges loaded with curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles for buccal delivery: Development and characterization.

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    Hazzah, Heba A; Farid, Ragwa M; Nasra, Maha M A; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2015-08-15

    This study aimed to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive sponges as dosage forms for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles. For this purpose curcumin (Cur) was formulated as solid nanoparticles (SLN) using Gelucire 50/13, and polaxomer 407. The prepared CurSLN dispersion was thickened with different mucoadhesive polymers. Different concentrations of glycerol, and mannitol of range (0.25-20%), and (0-1%), respectively were also examined. The formed gel was poured into oblong molds and freeze dried to form mucoadhesive sponge to be applied to the buccal mucosa. The prepared sponges were evaluated for their, in-vivo residence time, in-vitro and in-vivo drug release, and hydration capacity. Surface morphology for the different sponges were examined using SEM. TEM was also carried out for sponge fragments previously dispersed into water. Infrared spectroscopy was conducted to investigate interaction between used ingredients. The results showed that the CurSLN loaded HPMC, and Polycarbophil sponges showed 4, and 15 h in-vivo residence time, respectively, providing a considerable amount of curcumin into saliva. The incorporation of glycerol and mannitol at concentration of 1% provided elegant and flexible sponges. The SEM showed that the deposition of CurSLN differed according to the type of polymer used. TEM confirmed the integrity of liberated CurSLN from sponges. IR spectra showed an interaction between HPMC and poloxamer 407, which affected its behavior as a gelling agent. The obtained results provide an efficient approach for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles in a solid dosage form keeping the nanoparticle characters and integrity.

  18. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric carcinogenesis in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文新

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and gastric carcinogenesis,and to investigate its mechanism.Methods Totally 333elderly patients with different degrees of gastric mucosal lesions in our hospital were selected.Patients were

  19. Effects of environmental stressors on histone modifications and their relevance to carcinogenesis: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, S.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Godderis, L.

    2012-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is a complex process involving both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The cellular molecular epigenetic machinery, including histone modifications, is associated with changes in gene expression induced by exposure to environmental agents. In this paper, we systematically reviewed pub

  20. Preclinical Cancer Chemoprevention Studies Using Animal Model of Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis

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    Tanaka, Takuji [Cytopatholgy Division, Tohkai Cytopathology Institute, Cancer Research and Prevention (TCI-CaRP), 5-1-2 Minami-uzura, Gifu 500-8285 (Japan); Department of Tumor Pathology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan)

    2012-07-16

    Inflammation is involved in all stages of carcinogenesis. Inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease is a longstanding inflammatory disease of intestine with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Several molecular events involved in chronic inflammatory process are reported to contribute to multi-step carcinogenesis of CRC in the inflamed colon. They include over-production of free radicals, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, up-regulation of inflammatory enzymes in arachidonic acid biosynthesis pathway, up-regulation of certain cytokines, and intestinal immune system dysfunction. In this article, firstly I briefly introduce our experimental animal models where colorectal neoplasms rapidly develop in the inflamed colorectum. Secondary, data on preclinical cancer chemoprevention studies of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis by morin, bezafibrate, and valproic acid, using this novel inflammation-related colorectal carcinogenesis model is described.