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Sample records for buccal pouch carcinogenesis

  1. The Hamster Buccal Pouch Model of Oral Carcinogenesis.

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    Nagini, Siddavaram; Kowshik, Jaganathan

    2016-01-01

    The hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model is one of the most well-characterized animal tumor models used as a prelude to investigate multistage oral carcinogenesis and to assess the efficacy of chemointervention. Hamster buccal pouch carcinomas induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) show extensive similarities to human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The HBP model offers a number of advantages including a simple and predictable tumor induction procedure, easy accessibility for examination and follow-up of lesions, and reproducibility. This model can be used to test both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents.

  2. Raman Spectroscopy of Experimental Oral Carcinogenesis: Study on Sequential Cancer Progression in Hamster Buccal Pouch Model.

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    Kumar, Piyush; Bhattacharjee, Tanmoy; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish; Krishna, C Murali

    2016-10-01

    Oral cancers suffer from poor 5-year survival rates, owing to late detection of the disease. Current diagnostic/screening tools need to be upgraded in view of disadvantages like invasiveness, tedious sample preparation, long output times, and interobserver variances. Raman spectroscopy has been shown to identify many disease conditions, including oral cancers, from healthy conditions. Further studies in exploring sequential changes in oral carcinogenesis are warranted. In this Raman spectroscopy study, sequential progression in experimental oral carcinogenesis in Hamster buccal pouch model was investigated using 3 approaches-ex vivo, in vivo sequential, and in vivo follow-up. In all these studies, spectral changes show lipid dominance in early stages while later stages and tumors showed increased protein to lipid ratio and nucleic acids. On similar lines, early weeks of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-treated and control groups showed higher overlap and low classification. The classification efficiency increased progressively, reached a plateau phase and subsequently increased up to 100% by 14 weeks. The misclassifications between treated and control spectra suggested some changes in controls as well, which was confirmed by a careful reexamination of histopathological slides. These findings suggests Raman spectroscopy may be able to identify microheterogeneity, which may often go unnoticed in conventional biochemistry wherein tissue extracts are employed, as well as in histopathology. In vivo findings, quite comparable to gold-standard supported ex vivo findings, give further proof of Raman spectroscopy being a promising label-free, noninvasive diagnostic adjunct for future clinical applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Chemopreventive efficacy of curcumin and piperine during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

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    Manoharan, S; Balakrishnan, S; Menon, V P; Alias, L M; Reena, A R

    2009-02-01

    Oral carcinoma accounts for 40-50 percent of all cancers in India. Tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol consumption are the major risk factors associated with the high incidence of oral cancer in India. Our aim was to investigate the chemopreventive potential of curcumin and piperine during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was developed in the buccal pouch of Syrian golden hamsters, by painting them with 0.5 percent DMBA in liquid paraffin, three times a week for 14 weeks. The tumour incidence, tumour volume and burden were determined in the buccal pouches. The status of phase II detoxification agents, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were estimated by specific colorimetric methods. We observed 100 percent tumour formation in DMBA-alone painted hamsters. Disturbances in the status of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and phase II detoxification agents were noticed in DMBA-alone painted hamsters. Oral administration of curcumin (80 mg/kg body weight) and piperine (50 mg/kg body weight) to DMBA-painted hamsters on alternate days to DMBA painting for 14 weeks completely prevented the formation of oral carcinoma. Also, curcumin and piperine restored the status of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and detoxifying agents in DMBA-painted hamsters. The chemopreventive efficacy of curcumin and piperine is probably due to their antilipidperoxidative and antioxidant potential as well as their modulating effect on the carcinogen detoxification process.

  4. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

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    Prathiba Duvuru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer.

  5. The Effect of Irradiation on the Expression of PCNA and Apoptosis Induction during the DMBA Induced Carcinogenesis in Hamster Buccal Pouch

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    Jeon, In Seong; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Hang Moon; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of irradiation on the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and apoptosis induction during the carcinogenesis in hamster buccal pouch. Three months old Syrian golden hamsters were divided into control and 2 experimental groups. Hamsters in control group were left untreated on buccal pouchs. Twenty four hamsters were treated with 0.5% DMBA tri-weekly on the right buccal pouch. Forty eight hamsters were treated with 0.5% DMBA tri-weekly and irradiated with the dose of 5 Gy and 10 Gy at 6, 9, 12, 15 weeks after DMBA application. Resected buccal pouches were sectioned and examined for potential expression pattern of PCNA and apoptosis. The PCNA index was increased with the stages of buccal pouch epithelium carcinogenesis except the hyperplasia stage in control group (p<0.05). The irradiation did not effect on the PCNA index in the dysplasia and the carcinoma in situ stage, but in the hyperplasia stage, the PCNA index was increased with 10 Gy radiation and decreased in the carcinoma stage (p<0.05). The apoptotic index was significantly decreased from the carcinoma in situ stage and the lowest in the carcinoma stage. The apoptotic index was significantly decreased in the hyperplasia and dysplasia stage with the 5 Gy irradiation and significantly increased only in the carcinoma stage with the 10 Gy irradiation (p<0.05). The PCNA and apoptotic index were varied according to the irradiation period and dosage in each carcinogenesis stage.

  6. Dietary turmeric modulates DMBA-induced p21ras, MAP kinases and AP-1/NF-kappaB pathway to alter cellular responses during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

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    Garg, Rachana; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish

    2008-11-01

    The chemopreventive efficacy of turmeric has been established in experimental systems. However, its mechanism(s) of action are not fully elucidated in vivo. The present study investigates the mechanism of turmeric-mediated chemoprevention in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 weeks. Dietary turmeric (1%) led to decrease in DMBA-induced tumor burden and multiplicity, and enhanced the latency period in parallel, to its modulatory effects on oncogene products and various cellular responses during HBP tumorigenesis. DMBA-induced expression of ras oncogene product, p21 and downstream target, the mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly decreased by turmeric during HBP carcinogenesis. Turmeric also diminished the DMBA-induced mRNA expression of proto-oncogenes (c-jun, c-fos) and NF-kappaB, leading to decreased protein levels and in further attenuation of DMBA-induced AP-1/NF-kappaB DNA-binding in the buccal pouch nuclear extracts. Besides, buccal pouch of hamsters receiving turmeric diet showed significant alterations in DMBA-induced effects: (a) decrease in cell proliferation (diminished PCNA and Bcl2 expression), (b) enhanced apoptosis (increased expression of Bax, caspase-3 and apoptotic index), (c) decrease in inflammation (levels of Cox-2, the downstream target of AP-1/NF-kappaB, and PGE2) and (d) aberrant expression of differentiation markers, the cytokeratins (1, 5, 8, and 18). Together, the protective effects of dietary turmeric converge on augmenting apoptosis of the initiated cells and decreasing cell proliferation in DMBA-treated animals, which in turn, is reflected in decreased tumor burden, multiplicity and enhanced latency period. Some of these biomarkers are likely to be helpful in monitoring clinical trials and evaluating drug effect measurements.

  7. Chemopreventive effect of Toona sinensis leaf extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch squamous cell carcinogenesis.

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    Wang, Wen-Chen; Chen, Ching-Yi; Hsu, Hseng-Kuang; Lin, Li-Min; Chen, Yuk-Kwan

    2016-10-01

    Toona sinensis leaf extract (TSL) has been shown to have anti-tumor effects on cancer cell lines. This study aimed to investigate the chemopreventive potential and the underlying mechanism of TSL during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. One hundred hamsters were divided into control (n=30), carcinogenic (n=20), preventive (n=42), and therapeutic (n=8) groups. The animals in carcinogenic and preventive groups were administered reverse osmosis water (carcinogenic group) or TSL (1g/kg bw) (preventive group) by gavage daily for 4 weeks, and their bilateral pouches were painted with a 0.5% DMBA solution for 4, 9, and 12 weeks. The animals in the therapeutic group were treated with DMBA for 12 weeks prior to TSL administration for 4 weeks. Expression levels of survivin, X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Apoptotic activity was examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method, cytochrome C, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In the preventive group, the results showed significant decreases not only in the incidences of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (50%) and epithelial dysplasia (62.5%) but also in the tumor number, tumor volume, tumor burden, and the severity of dysplastic lesions. The down-regulation of survivin, XIAP, PCNA, iNOS, and COX-2 proteins and the increased apoptotic activity indicated anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing abilities of TSL on DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis. The results suggested that TSL might be a promising candidate for the prevention of oral cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of inhibitors of apoptosis family protein in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal-pouch squamous-cell carcinogenesis is associated with mutant p53 accumulation and epigenetic changes.

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    Hsue, Shui-Sang; Wang, Wen-Chen; Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Lin, Li-Min

    2008-10-01

    Fifty outbred Syrian golden hamsters were equally divided into three experimental groups and two control groups. The pouches of the experimental groups were painted bilaterally with a 0.5% 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) solution thrice a week for 3, 7 and 14 weeks. One of the control groups was applied with mineral oil while another control group remained untreated throughout the experiment. Neither survivin nor cIAP2 could be detected in any of the control tissues, whereas survivin and cIAP2 were found to be significantly increased in 3-, 7- and 14-week DMBA-treated pouches compared with the control pouches. Expression of XIAP, cIAP1 and NAIP were noted for both the control and 3-, 7- and 14-week DMBA-treated pouches, but levels were found to be significantly elevated in the experimental groups compared with the control pouches. p53 was not detected in any control tissues, but was significantly increased in 3-, 7- and 14-week DMBA-treated pouches. Direct sequencing revealed a point mutation (C-->G) of p53 for pouch tissues treated with DMBA for 3 and 7 weeks, and there was a wide variation in the p53 sequence of the 14-week DMBA-treated pouch tissues, as compared with the control tissues. The control tissues had a survivin- and cIAP2-methylated allele, whereas the DMBA-treated tissues showed no evidence of survivin- and cIAP2-methylation. Neither the control nor DMBA-treated pouches showed evidence of XIAP-, cIAP1- or NAIP-methylation. Our results suggest that the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis family in DMBA-induced hamster buccal-pouch squamous-cell carcinogenesis may be modulated by both genetic (mutant p53) and epigenetic mechanisms.

  9. Localization of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in hamster buccal pouch epithelium treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

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    Solt, D.B.

    1981-07-01

    The utility of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) was explored as a histochemical marker for chemical carcinogenesis in hamster buccal pouch mucosa. One or both buccal pouches of 18 noninbred male Syrian golden hamsters were treated topically with 0.5% 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in mineral oil over 16 weeks to produce numerous epithelial lesions at various stages of neoplastic development. Both buccal pouches of 4 control animals were similarly treated with mineral oil alone. GGT activity was not detectable in untreated pouches or pouches treated with mineral oil alone. With this technique, multiple discrete GGT-stained areas were visible in wholemounts prepared at 1 and 6 weeks after the final application of DMBA. The experimental results were consistent with the hypothesis that the early GGT-stained cell populations are preneoplastic in nature.

  10. Gene expression signature of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas: modulation by chlorophyllin and ellagic acid.

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    Ramamurthi Vidya Priyadarsini

    Full Text Available Chlorophyllin (CHL, a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and ellagic acid (EA, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound in berries, grapes, and nuts have been reported to exert anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines and in animal tumour models. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying chemoprevention and changes in gene expression pattern induced by dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis model by whole genome profiling using pangenomic microarrays. In hamsters painted with DMBA, the expression of 1,700 genes was found to be altered significantly relative to control. Dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid modulated the expression profiles of 104 and 37 genes respectively. Microarray analysis also revealed changes in the expression of TGFβ receptors, NF-κB, cyclin D1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs that may play a crucial role in the transformation of the normal buccal pouch to a malignant phenotype. This gene expression signature was altered on treatment with chlorophyllin and ellagic acid. Our study has also revealed patterns of gene expression signature specific for chlorophyllin and ellagic acid exposure. Thus dietary chlorophyllin and ellagic acid that can reverse gene expression signature associated with carcinogenesis are novel candidates for cancer prevention and therapy.

  11. Gramine inhibits angiogenesis and induces apoptosis via modulation of TGF-β signalling in 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinoma.

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    Ramu, Arunkumar; Kathiresan, Suresh; Ali Ahmed, Bakrudeen

    2017-09-15

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and its receptors are considered as a novel target in cancer chemotherapy. Gramine, an indole alkaloid, possesses various pharmacological properties including antiproliferative and anticancer. However, the anti-angiogenic property remains unexplored. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-angiogenic and apoptosis induction properties of gramine through inhibiting TGF-β on DMBA induced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in the hamster buccal pouch (HBP). The effects of gramine on TGF-β signalling in DMBA induced carcinogenic events such as angiogenesis and apoptosis were analysed by studying the mRNA expression using RT-PCR, protein expression by western blot and histopathological analysis using haematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining. Gramine significantly inhibited phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad2 and Smad4 by blocking activity of the TGFβ-RII, RI and activation of inhibitory Smad7. Gramine inhibited angiogenic markers such as MMP-2, MMP-9, HIF-1α, VEGF, and VEGF-R2 as well as increased TIMP-2 expression. Furthermore, gramine induced apoptosis in DMBA induced tumour bearing animals by up regulating the pro apoptotic proteins Bax, cytochrome C, apaf-1, caspase-9 caspase-3 and PARP. In this study, we clearly demonstrated that gramine treatment diminishes angiogenesis and induces apoptosis in hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis by modulating TGF-β signals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Topical methotrexate pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effect of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy on hamster buccal pouch precancers

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    Deng-Fu Yang

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that topical MTX-pretreatment can increase intracellular PpIX production in hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions and significantly improves the outcomes of the precancerous lesions treated with topical ALA-PDT.

  13. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

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    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Chen, Ying-Ru; Lee, Jeng-Woei

    2010-02-01

    One of the best strategies to prevent the occurrence of oral cancer is to eliminate oral precancers and block their further malignant transformation. Previous studies showed that photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy (photosan-PDT) is very effective for human head and neck cancers. To avoid the systemic photodynamic toxicity of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twelve 10-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were used in this study. DMBA was applied to the left buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks and mineral oil was painted on the right buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks as the normal controls. Six hamsters were euthanized for tissue harvest. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were consistently induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions in the remaining 6 hamsters were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan-gel. We found that PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan-gel. The precancerous lesions in 4 hamsters were treated with topical photosan-PDT using the 635-nm LED light once or twice a week. Complete regression of the precancerous lesions was found after 2-4 PDT treatments by visual and histological examination. Our findings indicate that topical photosan-PDT is a very effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  14. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

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    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  15. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

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    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  16. The neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibit hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis by modulating xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, DNA damage, antioxidants, invasion and angiogenesis.

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    Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi Vidya; Manikandan, Palrasu; Kumar, Gurram Harish; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2009-05-01

    The neem tree has attracted considerable research attention as a rich source of limonoids that have potent antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of the neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide based on in vitro antioxidant assays and in vivo inhibitory effects on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Both azadirachtin and nimbolide exhibited concentration-dependent anti-radical scavenging activity and reductive potential in the order: nimbolide > azadirachtin > ascorbate. Administration of both azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibited the development of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by influencing multiple mechanisms including prevention of procarcinogen activation and oxidative DNA damage, upregulation of antioxidant and carcinogen detoxification enzymes and inhibition of tumour invasion and angiogenesis. On a comparative basis, nimbolide was found to be a more potent antioxidant and chemopreventive agent and offers promise as a candidate agent in multitargeted prevention and treatment of cancer.

  17. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

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    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  18. Multispectral digital microscopy for in vivo monitoring of oral neoplasia in the hamster cheek pouch model of carcinogenesis

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    Park, Sun Young; Collier, Tom; Aaron, Jesse; Markey, Mia K.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Sokolov, Konstantin; MacKinnon, Nick; Macaulay, Calum; Coghlan, Lezlee; Milbourne, Andrea; Follen, Michele

    2005-02-01

    In this study we use a multi-spectral digital microscope (MDM) to measure multi-spectral auto-fluorescence and reflectance images of the hamster cheek pouch model of DMBA (dimethylbenz[α]anthracene)- induced oral carcinogenesis. The multi-spectral images are analyzed both in the RGB (red, green, blue) color space as well as in the YCbCr (luminance, chromatic minus blue, chromatic minus red) color space. Mean image intensity, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis are selected as features to design a classification algorithm to discriminate normal mucosa from neoplastic tissue. The best diagnostic performance is achieved using features extracted from the YCbCr space, indicating the importance of chromatic information for classification. A sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 84% were achieved in separating normal from abnormal cheek pouch lesions. The results of this study suggest that a simple and inexpensive MDM has the potential to provide a cost-effective and accurate alternative to standard white light endoscopy.

  19. Topical methotrexate pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effect of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy on hamster buccal pouch precancers.

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    Yang, Deng-Fu; Lee, Jeng-Woei; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2014-09-01

    Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is effective for treatment of human oral precancerous lesions. This animal study aimed to assess whether topical methotrexate (MTX) pretreatment could enhance the therapeutic effect of topical ALA-PDT on hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twenty hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions were treated with either topical ALA-PDT with topical MTX pretreatment (topical MTX-ALA-PDT group, n = 10) or topical ALA-PDT alone (topical ALA-PDT group, n = 10). The intracellular protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) level in another 12 precancerous lesions (n = 6 for either the topical MTX-ALA or topical ALA group) was monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. The intracellular PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions 6.5 hours and 2.5 hours after topical ALA application for the topical MTX-ALA group (5.63-fold higher in the lesion than in the normal mucosa) and topical ALA group (2.42-fold higher in the lesion than in the normal mucosa), respectively. The complete response rate of precancerous lesions was 80% for the topical MTX-ALA-PDT group and 70% for the topical ALA-PDT group. In addition, the topical MTX-ALA-PDT group required a significantly lower mean treatment number (2.1 ± 0.6) to achieve complete response than the topical ALA-PDT group (4.4 ± 1.3, p hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions and significantly improves the outcomes of the precancerous lesions treated with topical ALA-PDT. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Dietary turmeric post-treatment decreases DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch tumor growth by altering cell proliferation and apoptosis-related markers.

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    Kumar, Gaurav; Tajpara, Pooja; Maru, Girish

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, post-treatment effects of dietary turmeric on markers related to apoptosis, cell proliferation, and inflammation in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) tumors were investigated. Tumors were induced by applying 0.5% DMBA topically to the HBP three times per week for 12 weeks. After tumor development, half of the animals continued on the control diet and the other half were shifted to a 1% turmeric diet for 4 weeks. To rule out DMBA discontinuation as a cause of inhibition in tumor growth, DMBA treatment was continued during dietary exposure of turmeric in another set of animals until the end of the experiment. The turmeric diet inhibited tumor growth in animals with or without DMBA carcinogen treatment compared to the animals on the control diet. When compared to hamsters bearing tumors that remained on the control diet, the buccal pouches of hamsters bearing tumors receiving turmeric showed the following results: (1) decreased cell proliferation (diminished PCNA, cyclin D1, and Bcl-2) and PCNA labelling index, (2) enhanced apoptosis (increased Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cytochrome c, and decreased survivin) and apoptotic index, (3) decreased inflammation (decreased Cox-2), and (4) decreased MAPK activation (p-ERK and p-p38). These data indicate that tumor growth decreased due to the modulation of cellular pathways associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis.

  1. Daily rhythm variations of the clock gene PER1 and cancer-related genes during various stages of carcinogenesis in a golden hamster model of buccal mucosa carcinoma.

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    Ye, Hua; Yang, Kai; Tan, Xue-Mei; Fu, Xiao-Juan; Li, Han-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the clock gene PER1 regulates various tumor-related genes. Abnormal expressions and circadian rhythm alterations of PER1 are closely related to carcinogenesis. However, the dynamic circadian variations of PER1 and tumor-related genes at different stages of carcinogenesis remain unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the daily rhythm variation of PER1 and expression of tumor-related genes VEGF, KI67, C-MYC, and P53 in different stages of carcinogenesis. Dimethylbenzanthracene was used to establish a golden hamster model of buccal mucosa carcinogenesis. Hamsters with normal buccal mucosa, precancerous lesion, and cancerous lesion were sacrificed at six different time points during a 24-hour period of a day. Pathological examination was conducted using routine hematoxylin and eosin staining. PER1, VEGF, KI67, C-MYC, and P53 mRNAs were detected by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and a cosinor analysis was applied to analyze the daily rhythm. PER1, VEGF, C-MYC, and P53 mRNA exhibited daily rhythmic expression in three carcinogenesis stages, and KI67 mRNA exhibited daily rhythmic expression in the normal and precancerous stages. The daily rhythmic expression of KI67 was not observed in cancerous stages. The mesor and amplitude of PER1 and P53 mRNA expression decreased upon the development of cancer (Pclock gene PER1 and tumor-related genes VEGF, KI67, C-MYC, and P53 correlate with the development of cancer. Additional studies might provide new insights and methods to explore carcinogenic mechanisms and cancer treatment.

  2. Daily rhythm variations of the clock gene PER1 and cancer-related genes during various stages of carcinogenesis in a golden hamster model of buccal mucosa carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hua Ye, Kai Yang, Xue-Mei Tan, Xiao-Juan Fu, Han-Xue LiDepartment of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Recent studies have demonstrated that the clock gene PER1 regulates various tumor-related genes. Abnormal expressions and circadian rhythm alterations of PER1 are closely related to carcinogenesis. However, the dynamic circadian variations of PER1 and tumor-related genes at different stages of carcinogenesis remain unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the daily rhythm variation of PER1 and expression of tumor-related genes VEGF, KI67, C-MYC, and P53 in different stages of carcinogenesis.Materials and methods: Dimethylbenzanthracene was used to establish a golden hamster model of buccal mucosa carcinogenesis. Hamsters with normal buccal mucosa, precancerous lesion, and cancerous lesion were sacrificed at six different time points during a 24-hour period of a day. Pathological examination was conducted using routine hematoxylin and eosin staining. PER1, VEGF, KI67, C-MYC, and P53 mRNAs were detected by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and a cosinor analysis was applied to analyze the daily rhythm.Results: PER1, VEGF, C-MYC, and P53 mRNA exhibited daily rhythmic expression in three carcinogenesis stages, and KI67 mRNA exhibited daily rhythmic expression in the normal and precancerous stages. The daily rhythmic expression of KI67 was not observed in cancerous stages. The mesor and amplitude of PER1 and P53 mRNA expression decreased upon the development of cancer (P<0.05, whereas the mesor and amplitude of VEGF, KI67, and C-MYC mRNA increased upon the development of cancer (P<0.05. Compared with the normal tissues, the acrophases of PER1, VEGF, and C-MYC mRNA occurred earlier, whereas the acrophases of P53 and KI67 mRNA lagged remarkably in the precancerous lesions. In the cancer stage, the acrophases

  3. Evaluation of the chemopreventive response of naringenin-loaded nanoparticles in experimental oral carcinogenesis using laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfikkarali, N. K.; Krishnakumar, N.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the chemopreventive effects of prepared naringenin-loaded nanoparticles (NARNPs) relative to the efficacy of free naringenin (NAR) in modifying the carcinogenic process and to study the changes in the endogenous fluorophores during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis by laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) spectroscopy. LIAF emission spectra from the hamster buccal mucosa of the control and experimental groups of animals were recorded in the 350-700 nm spectral range on a miniature fiber optic spectrometer from different anatomical sites of each group, with excitation at 404 nm from a diode laser. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. DMBA-painted animals revealed morphological changes, hyperplasia, dysplasia and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. LIAF emission spectra showed significant difference between the control and tumor tissues. The tumor tissues are characterized by an increase in the emission of porphyrins and a decrease in the emission of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogenase (NADH) and flavin adenine nucleotide (FAD) when compared to the control tissues. Furthermore, oral administration of NAR and its nanoparticulates restored the status of endogenous fluorophores in the buccal mucosa of DMBA-painted animals. On a comparative basis, the treatment of nanoparticulate naringenin was found to be more effective than free naringenin in completely preventing the formation of squamous cell carcinoma and in improving the status of endogenous porphyrins to a normal range in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. The result of the present study further suggests that LIAF spectroscopy may be a very valuable tool for rapid and sensitive detection of endogenous fluorophore changes in response to chemopreventive agents.

  4. EMODIN DOWNREGULATES CELL PROLIFERATION MARKERS DURING DMBA INDUCED ORAL CARCINOGENESIS IN GOLDEN SYRIAN HAMSTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, Asokan; Buddhan, Rajamanickam; Manoharan, Shanmugam

    2017-01-01

    Cell-cycle disruption is the major characteristic features of neoplastic transformation and the status of cell-cycle regulators can thus be utilized to assess the prognostic significance in patients with cancer. The PCNA, cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6 and survivin expression in the buccal mucosa was utilized to evaluate the Emodin efficacy on abnormal cell proliferation during 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced oral carcinogenesis in golden Syrian hamsters. Topical application of DMBA, three times a week for 14 weeks, on the hamsters' buccal pouches developed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Cyclin D1 and PCNA over-expression and up-regulation of CDK4, CDK6 and survivin were noticed in the buccal mucosa of hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Emodin administration (50mg/kg b.w) orally to hamsters treated with DMBA down-regulated the expression of cell proliferation markers in the buccal mucosa. The anti-cell proliferative role of Emodin is owing to its modulating efficacy on cell-cycle markers towards the tumor suppression during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.

  5. Changing your ostomy pouch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostomy - pouch change; Colostomy - pouch change ... of surgery you had. You may need your ostomy for just a short time. Or, you may ... it for the rest of your life. The ostomy pouch attaches to your belly, away from your ...

  6. Effects of aqueous cinnamon extract on chemically-induced carcinoma of hamster cheek pouch mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah K. Ezzat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE on 7, 12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch (HCP mucosa. Sixty male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into six equal groups. The hamsters of groups I, II and III received no treatment, DMBA and ACE respectively, for 16 weeks. Groups IV and V were handled as group II and concomitantly treated with ACE for the same period and additionally group V received ACE for other 16 weeks after the stoppage of DMBA application. Group VI hamsters were handled as group III and additionally received DMBA for other 16 weeks after the stoppage of ACE supplementation. Hamsters of each group were euthanized according to the experimental schedule. The buccal pouches were and prepared for H&E stain, PAS reagent, CD3 and PDGF immunohistochemical reactivity. All groups showed dysplastic changes with varying degrees except groups I and III. Deep invasive carcinomas were recorded in 90% of the samples of group II, 60% of group IV, 50% of group V and 40% of group VI. From the previous results, it can be concluded that ACE has the potentiality preventing oral cancer initiation better than inhibiting oral cancer progression.

  7. Chlorophyllin abrogates canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling and angiogenesis to inhibit the development of DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagini, Siddavaram; Siddavaram, Nagini; Vidya Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi; Ramamurthi, Vidya Priyadarsini; Veeravarmal, Veeran; Veeran, Veeravarmal; Mishra, Rajakishore

    2012-10-01

    Chlorophyllin, a water soluble semi-synthetic food-grade derivative is reported to exhibit a wide range of beneficial health effects. We investigated the effect of chlorophyllin supplementation on Wnt/β-catenin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model. Hamsters were divided into 4 groups. The right buccal pouches of group 1 and 2 hamsters were painted with 0.5 % DMBA for 14 weeks. Group 2 animals received in addition chlorophyllin (4 mg/kg bw) in the diet. Group 3 animals received chlorophyllin alone and group 4 animals served as control. mRNA and protein expression of components of Wnt, VEGF, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Dietary chlorophyllin administration suppressed the development of HBP carcinomas by altering the expression of several components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. This was associated with inhibition of angiogenesis as evidenced by decreased expression of the proangiogenic factors HIF-1α, VEGF, and VEGFR2. Chlorophyllin administration also downregulated the expression of histone deacetylases involved in epigenetic regulation of tumor angiogenesis. Dietary chlorophyllin that abrogates Wnt/β-catenin and VEGF signaling by targeting a multitude of key signaling molecules is an attractive candidate for preventing tumor progression.

  8. Decreased levels of mucosal detoxification enzymes in the pouch of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, P.; Berkhout, M.; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Goor, H. van; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Peters, W.H.M.; Nagengast, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adenomas can develop in the pouch after colectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) have a protective role in carcinogenesis. GST activity is much higher in the ileum than in the colon. The

  9. Targeting Slit-Roundabout signaling inhibits tumor angiogenesis in chemical-induced squamous cell carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Jing; Zhao, Yuan; Han, Bing; Ma, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Ding-Ming; Mao, Jian-Wen; Tang, Fu-Tian; Li, Wei-Dong; Yang, Yang; Wang, Rui; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2008-03-01

    Slit is a secreted protein known to function through the Roundabout (Robo) receptor as a repellent for axon guidance and neuronal migration, and as an inhibitor in leukocyte chemotaxis. We have previously shown that Slit2 is also secreted by a variety of human cancer cells whereby it acts as a chemoattractant to vascular endothelial cells for tumor angiogenesis. We used a blocking antibody to investigate the role of Slit-Robo signaling in tumor angiogenesis during oral carcinogenesis. In this report we undertook a multistage model of 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-induced squamous cell carcinoma in the hamster buccal pouch. R5, a monoclonal antibody against the first immunoglobulin domain of Robo1, was used to study whether R5 blocks the Slit-Robo interaction and furthermore inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth in our model. In addition, the expression of Slit2, von Willebrand factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor were examined using human tissue of oral cheek mucosa with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our data showed that Slit2 was expressed minimally in normal and hyperplastic mucosa, moderately in dysplastic mucosa, and highly in neoplastic mucosa obtained from hamster buccal pouch. We also found that increased Slit2 expression was associated with higher tumor angiogenesis, as reflected by increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression and microvessel density. A similar Slit2 expression profile was found in human tissue. Importantly, interruption of the Slit2-Robo interaction using R5 inhibited tumor angiogenesis and growth in our in vivo model, which indicates that Slit2-mediated tumor angiogenesis is a critical process underlying the carcinogenesis of chemical-induced squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, targeting Slit-Robo signaling may offer a novel antiangiogenesis approach for oral cancer therapy.

  10. Liquid Silicon Pouch Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Docket No. 300139 1 of 13 LIQUID SILICON POUCH ANODE STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured... silicon -based anodes during cycling, lithium insertion and deinsertion. Mitigation of this problem has long been sought and will result in improved...with other potential lithium alloy materials such as gallium and tin. Silicon -based solid state anodes are typically composed of small particles of

  11. Chemical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paula A; Colaço, Aura; Chaves, Raquel; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; De-La-Cruz P, Luis F; Lopes, Carlos

    2007-12-01

    The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair--i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.

  12. Raman spectroscopic investigation of the chemopreventive response of naringenin and its nanoparticles in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, N.; Sulfikkarali, N. K.; Manoharan, S.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2013-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique that can be used to optically probe the biomolecular changes associated with tumor progression. The aim of the present study is to investigate the biomolecular changes in chemopreventive response of prepared naringenin-loaded nanoparticles (NARNPs) relative to efficacy of free naringenin (NAR) during 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis by Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. Raman spectra differed significantly between the control and tumor tissues, with tumors showing higher percentage signals for nucleic acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan and a lower in the percentage of phospholipids. Moreover, oral administration of free NAR and NARNPs significantly increased phospholipids and decreased the levels of tryptophan, phenylalanine and nucleic acid contents. On a comparative basis, NARNPs was found to have a more potent antitumor effect than free NAR in completely preventing the formation of squamous cell carcinoma and in improving the biochemical status to a normal range in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis. The present study further suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be a valuable tool for rapid and sensitive detection of specific biomolecular changes in response to chemopreventive agents.

  13. Fibrolipoma of buccal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Khubchandani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipoma is a very common benign tumor of adipose tissue, but its presence in the oral and oropharyngeal region is relatively uncommon. Fibrolipoma, a histological variant of lipoma, mostly affect the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic disabilities. Hence, accurate histopathological examination of lipomas is important for a correct treatment plan. This article describes a case of 10 year old girl with fibrolipoma of the buccal mucosa with a relevant review of tumors.

  14. Chemical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair - i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.A sociedade obtém numerosos benefícios da utilização de compostos químicos. A aplicação dos pesticidas, por exemplo, permitiu obter alimento em quantidade suficiente para satisfazer as necessidades alimentares de milhões de pessoas, condição relacionada com o aumento da esperança de vida. Os benefícios estão, por

  15. Poor Outcomes of Complicated Pouch-Related Fistulas after Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, M D; Kjeldsen, J; Qvist, N

    2016-01-01

    . Overall pouch failure, defined as pouch excision or a diverting stoma, was seen in 34 (71%) patients, while pouch excision was seen in 23 (48%) of the patients. Patients who developed Crohn's disease had a significantly higher risk of pouch excision, as did patients with an early onset of the fistula...

  16. Buccal delivery of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Jacobsen, Jette

    2013-01-01

    The oral cavity is considered an attractive site of drug administration. Metformin is currently, used in oral diabetes treatment. The aim of the current study was to study the feasibility of metformin, to permeate the buccal epithelium applying a bioadhesive and permeation enhancing drug delivery...... system. The in vitro TR146 cell culture model was used to study the effect of drug concentration (5-100mM) and the impact of a bioadhesive chitosan formulation (discs) and chitosan in solution (0-20mg/mL) acting as a permeation enhancer. The permeation of metformin occurred by passive diffusion via......, suggest that in vivo absorption of therapeutic doses of metformin needs to take place as a combination of buccal and intestinal absorption as metformin therapy requires the use of high doses....

  17. Mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing silymarin Eudragit-loaded nanoparticles: formulation, characterisation and ex vivo permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahas, Amira E; Allam, Ahmed N; El-Kamel, Amal H

    2017-08-01

    Eudragit-loaded silymarin nanoparticles (SNPs) and their formulation into buccal mucoadhesive tablets were investigated to improve the low bioavailability of silymarin through buccal delivery. Characterisation of SNPs and silymarin buccal tablets (SBTs) containing the optimised NPs were performed. Ex vivo permeability of nominated SBTs were assessed using chicken pouch mucosa compared to SNPs and drug suspension followed by histopathological examination. Selected SNPs had a small size (77%) with drug release of about 90% after 6 h. For STBs, all physicochemical parameters were satisfactory for different polymers used. DSC and FT-IR studies suggested the presence of silymarin in an amorphous state. Ex vivo permeation significantly emphasised the great enhancement of silymarin permeation after NPs formation and much more increase after formulating into BTs relative to the corresponding drug dispersion with confirmed membrane integrity. Incorporation of SNPs into BTs could be an efficient vehicle for delivery of silymarin.

  18. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies about patients who have undergone ostomy surgery commonly address the issues of the surgery, complications, preoperative counseling, quality of life, and psychosocial changes following surgery. Only a limited number of studies deal with how technical improvements...... in stoma care would affect patients and, to the author's knowledge, the present study is the first to elicit preferences for potential improvements in ostomy pouches in the form of monetary values. Objective: This article examines and measures Swedish patients' preferences for potential improvements...... in ostomy pouch attributes. The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each...

  19. Sequential expression and cooperative interaction of c-Ha-ras and c-erbB genes in in vivo chemical carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, Z.; Fei, Y.; Roy, S.; Biswas, D.K. (Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA (USA)); Solt, D.B.; Polverini, P.J. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1989-02-01

    The level of expression of several cellular protooncogenes is examined at different stages of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced tumor development in hamster buccal pouch epithelium (HBPE). Results presented demonstrate overexpression of c-Ha-ras gene at a very early stage of tumor development, and this elevated level of expression of the gene persists throughout the tumorigenesis process. The expression of the cellular protooncogene c-erbB, on the other hand, can be detected only after 8-10 weeks of DMBA treatment of the tissue and increases with the progression of the disease. The overexpression of c-erbB gene can be correlated with the stage of extensive proliferation and subsequent invasion of the HBPE cells into the underlying connective tissue. This sequential pattern of stage-specific expression of the two cellular protooncogenes can be observed in (i) treated tissues, (ii) stage-representative cultured cells, and (iii) NIH 3T3 transformants derived with DNA from HBPE cells. The sequential overexpression of c-Ha-ras and c-erbB genes in a stage-specific manner and their cooperative interaction in the DMBA-induced in vivo oral carcinogenesis have been demonstrated.

  20. Nimbolide upregulates RECK by targeting miR-21 and HIF-1α in cell lines and in a hamster oral carcinogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowshik, Jaganathan; Mishra, Rajakishore; Sophia, Josephraj; Rautray, Satabdi; Anbarasu, Kumaraswamy; Reddy, G Deepak; Dixit, Madhulika; Mahalingam, Sundarasamy; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2017-05-17

    Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is a common negative target of oncogenic signals and a potential therapeutic target for novel drug development. Here, we show that sequential RECKlessness stimulates angiogenesis and Notch signalling in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model, a paradigm for oral oncogenesis and chemointervention. We also report the chemotherapeutic effect of nimbolide, a limonoid from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) based on the upregulation of RECK as well as modulation of the expression of key molecules involved in invasion and angiogenesis. We demonstrate that nimbolide upregulates RECK by targeting miR-21, and HIF-1α resulting in reduced MMP activity and blockade of VEGF and Notch signalling. Nimbolide reduced microvascular density, confirming its anti-angiogenic potential. Molecular docking analysis revealed interaction of nimbolide with HIF-1α. Additionally, we demonstrate that nimbolide upregulates RECK expression via downregulation of HIF-1α and miR-21 by overexpression and knockdown experiments in SCC4 and EAhy926 cell lines. Taken together, these findings provide compelling evidence that targeting RECK, a keystone protein that regulates mediators of invasion and angiogenesis with phytochemicals such as nimbolide may be a robust therapeutic approach to prevent oral cancer progression.

  1. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  2. Ketobemidone prodrugs for buccal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Bundgaard, H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of studies aiming at developing a ketobemidone prodrug suitable for buccal or sublingual administration, the potential impact of saliva enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of various ester prodrugs was assessed. The hydrolysis of three ketobemidone esters in human whole saliva, obtained under...... at pharmacologically relevant prodrug concentrations, degradation of the esters by saliva enzymes was predicted to occur to only a minor extent (1-6%) under conditions similar to those prevailing in vivo after administration of buccal or sublingual tablets of the esters. The mode of administration of tablets for use...... in the mouth and their rate of disintegration were shown to have some influence on the rate of saliva secretion and hence on saliva esterase activity but not to an extent compromising the efficient buccal or sublingual delivery of the ketobemidone prodrugs....

  3. Total proctocolectomy and ileal - anal pouch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activities, and most types of work. Alternative Names Restorative proctocolectomy; Ileal-anal resection; Ileal-anal pouch; J- ... by: Debra G. Wechter, MD, FACS, general surgery practice specializing in breast cancer, Virginia Mason Medical Center, ...

  4. Pouch Failures Following Ileal Pouch-anal Anastomosis for Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark-Christensen, Anders; Erichsen, Rune; Brandsborg, Søren

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a procedure offered to patients with ulcerative colitis who opt for restoration of bowel continuity. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of pouch failure and ascertain risk factors associated with failure. METHOD: 1,991 patients with ulc......BACKGROUND: The ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a procedure offered to patients with ulcerative colitis who opt for restoration of bowel continuity. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of pouch failure and ascertain risk factors associated with failure. METHOD: 1,991 patients...... with ulcerative colitis operated with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in Denmark in the period 1980-2013 were included. Pouch failure was defined as excision of the pouch or presence of a stoma un-reversed within one year after its creation. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to explore the association....... high-volume 2.30, 95% CI: 1.26-4.20) were also associated with a higher risk of failure. The risk of failure was not associated with calendar year, primary sclerosing cholangitis, synchronous colectomy, or laparoscopy. CONCLUSION: In a cohort of patients with ulcerative colitis and ileal pouch...

  5. Congenital pouch colon in female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of 5-year (May 2000 to April 2005 29 patients of congenital pouch colon (CPC were managed by single pediatric surgeon in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of a tertiary hospital. Of these, 11 were girls (M: F: 1.6:1. Detailed anatomy could be studied in nine patients, were included in this study. Age of presentation in female subjects ranged 1 day to 8 years. On examination, eight of the nine patients had single perineal opening suggesting a very high incidence of association of cloaca in female subjects with CPC. Four had short urogenital sinus with colonic pouch opening in the posterior wall of urinary bladder. In other two patients, CPC terminated in short cloaca. Anomalies of mullerian structures such as uterus didelphus and septate vagina ware commonly encountered. Proximal diversion with or without pouch excision was done as the initial preliminary treatment for all those patients who presented in early life. Of the nine girls, two died after the preliminary surgery. Only five patients have undergone definitive surgery. Definitive surgery included abdomino-perineal pull-through of proximal normal colon ( n =2, tubularization of pouch with abdomino- posterior sagittal- pull through ( n =2 and abdomino-posterior sagittal urethra-vaginoanorectoplasty with pull through of tapered pouch colon in one patient. Two of these patients had concomitant bowel vaginoplasty. Three patients with tubularized pouches had constipation and spurious diarrhea. However, good pseudo-continence of bowel was achieved on regular bowel washes. The cosmetic appearance of perineum in all these three patients was acceptable. The patients in whom pouch excision was done had diarrhea and severe perineal excoriation resistant to conservative management.

  6. Crohn's disease in the ileal pouch after total colectomy for ulcerative colitis: findings on pouch enemas in six patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Bartak, Nicolaus A; Levine, Marc S; Rubesin, Stephen E; Laufer, Igor; Rombeau, John L; Lichtenstein, Gary R

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe our experience with six patients who developed Crohn's disease in the ileal pouch or distal ileum after a total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. Pouch enemas showed characteristic findings of Crohn's disease, including nodularity, thickened folds, ulceration, cobblestoning, strictures, sinus tracks, and fistulas to the perianal region and vagina. It is important for radiologists to be aware of the findings of Crohn's disease in the ileal pouch and distal ileum on radiographic studies of the pouch after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis because of the implications for patient management.

  7. Training pouched rats to find people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Londe, Kate B; Mahoney, Amanda; Edwards, Timothy L; Cox, Christophe; Weetjens, Bart; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats equipped with video cameras may be a tenable option for locating living humans trapped under debris from collapsed structures. In the present study, 5 pouched rats were trained to contact human targets in a simulated collapsed building and to return to the release point after hearing a signal to do so. During test sessions, each rat located human targets more often than it located similar-sized inanimate targets on which it had not previously been trained and spent more time within 1 m of the human target than within 1 m of the other targets. Overall, the rats found humans, plastic bags containing clothes, and plastic bags without clothes on 83%, 37%, and 11% of trials, respectively. These findings suggest that using pouched rats to search for survivors in collapsed structures merits further attention. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Congenital pouch colon: Increasing association with low anorectal anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavai Arunachalam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of type IV congenital pouch colon associated with low anorectal anomaly are reported here. Pouch colon may be a cause of intractable constipation in children operated for low anorectal anomaly. Excellent results can be obtained by exicision of the pouch. The radiological and pathological features of this condition are discussed.

  9. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ostomy pouch and accessories. 876.5900 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An ostomy pouch and accessories is a device that consists of a bag that is...

  10. LYMPHANGIOMA OF THE BUCCAL MUCOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashidevi HARANAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangiomas are uncommon congenital hamarto‑ mas of the lymphatic system, usually diagnosed in infancy and early childhood. Most lymphangiomas are present at birth (60% and, by the age of 2 years, 80% to 90% are present. Tongue, palate, gingiva, lip, alveolar ridge and buccal mucosa are the most commonly affected sites in the oral cavity. Various methods have been tried for the treat‑ ment of lymphangioma, including surgery, radiation, laser therapy, sclerotherapy and radiofrequency ablation. This paper reports a case of lymphangioma in a 28 year-old female patient.

  11. Experimental studies on small intestinal pouch motility and evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, S; Riesener, K P; Anurow, M; Titkova, S; Ottinger, A; Arlt, G; Schumpelick, V

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate pouch motility and evacuation under standardised conditions with a minimum of external influence. Ileal J-pouches had been constructed 30 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve in 10 dogs (6 pelvic/4 gastric configuration). After 8 weeks the following examinations were performed: (1) measurement of pouch compliance by balloon distension, (2) measurement of pouch contractions by strain gauge transducers, (3) radiological imaging of pouch contractions and evacuation, (4) evacuation scintigraphy and (5) radiological determination of small intestinal transit time. Compliance (2.3 +/- 1.1 mmHg/ml) and small intestinal transit time (31.6 +/- 7.5 h) were significantly higher in the pouch group than in controls (0.5 +/- 0.2 mmHg/ml, 8.0 +/- 2.8 h; p evacuation (t(1/2) = 109 +/- 52 min). Strain gauge measurements revealed irregular pouch contractions without detectable propagation. Contraction amplitudes (40.4 +/- 22.9 g) and frequencies (10.4 +/- 1.0/min) were equal all over the pouch. There were no functional differences between gastric and pelvic pouch configuration. Small intestinal pouches act as reservoirs. Uncoordinated motility patterns contribute to this function. Other factors than pouch motility are responsible for evacuation.

  12. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  13. [OBESITY AND ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOGENESIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, P; Parahuleva, P

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is one of the main cancers occurring in industrialized countries. According to the National Cancer Registry in Bulgaria, cancer of the uterine body occupies 8.6% from all cancers in women and ranks second in frequency. It is found that over weight and obesity are a major risk factor for the development of endometrial cancer and the mortality associated with it. Adipose tissue is seen as endocrine organ, synthesizing so called adipocytokine - leptin, adiponectin, vistafin, that play a key role in the carcinogenesis of endometrial cancer and can be used as new markers for establishing the potential risk of this disease. The link between obesity, insulin resistance and endometrial cancer that has been proven, determines it as a socially significant disease. All this makes it necessary to clarify and specify the role of obesity in endometrial carcinogenesis and the development of strategies for the prevention and early diagnosis.

  14. BUCCAL MUCOSA URETHROPLASTY FOR BULBAR URETHRAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tients (90%) had no evidence of recurrent stric- ture. Randomized studies comparing the dorsal and ventral approaches for buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty have not been published so far. Andrich et al.9 treated 71 patients with bul- bar urethral strictures with buccal mucosa patch urethroplasty. The approach was dorsal.

  15. Serum antioxidant vitamins and the risk of oral cancer in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-05

    Jun 5, 2011 ... antioxidant vitamins may inhibit cancer formation and progression. Suda et al.[9] showed that topically applied beta‑carotene inhibited experimental oral carcinogenesis in hamster pouch. Odukoya et al.[10] also showed that topically applied vitamin E inhibited carcinogenesis in hamster buccal pouch.

  16. Label-free vascular imaging in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model for pre-cancer detection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fangyao; Morhard, Robert; Liu, Heather; Murphy, Helen; Farsiu, Sina; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2016-03-01

    Inducing angiogenesis is one hallmark of cancer. Tumor induced neovasculature is often characterized as leaky, tortuous and chaotic, unlike a highly organized normal vasculature. Additionally, in the course of carcinogenesis, angiogenesis precedes a visible lesion. Tumor cannot grow beyond 1-2 mm in diameter without inducing angiogenesis. Therefore, capturing the event of angiogenesis may aid early detection of pre-cancer -important for better treatment prognoses in regions that lack the resources to manage invasive cancer. In this study, we imaged the neovascularization in vivo in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model using a, non-invasive, label-free, high resolution, reflected-light spectral darkfield microscope. Hamsters' cheek pouches were painted with 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to induce pre-cancerous to cancerous changes, or mineral oil as control. High resolution spectral darkfield images were obtained over the course of pre-cancer development and in control cheek pouches. The vasculature was segmented with a multi-scale Gabor filter with an 85% accuracy compared with manually traced masks. Highly tortuous vasculature was observed only in the DMBA treated cheek pouches as early as 6 weeks of treatment. In addition, the highly tortuous vessels could be identified before a visible lesion occurred later during the treatment. The vessel patterns as determined by the tortuosity index were significantly different from that of the control cheek pouch. This preliminary study suggests that high-resolution darkfield microscopy is promising tool for pre-cancer and early cancer detection in low resource settings.

  17. Thermal In-Pouch Microwave Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    starch , vegetable entree item. 5. Tasks 8,9 (Shelf life Modeling): A license has been signed for use of the "M-Rule Container Performance Model for...Lethality The chicken - dumpling pouch we developed is filled with four components: cut chicken breast pieces, dumplings, sauce, and vegetables . The...breast, 80 g sauce, 16 g dumplings, and 7 g vegetables . Ellab sensors were used to measure the temperatures profiles (Figs. 1.1 & 1.2). Two sizes of

  18. Buccal Mucosa Elasticity Influences Surgical Margin Determination in Buccal Carcinoma Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pai-Tai; Shieh, Yi-Shing; Wu, Chi-Tsung; Lee, Shiao-Pieng; Chen, Yuan-Wu

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about whether buccal mucosa elasticity influences the determination of surgical margins for buccal carcinomas. This study investigated whether there is a difference in elasticity of the buccal mucosa in patients with buccal carcinoma compared with controls without the disease. A case-and-control study comprised of patients with buccal carcinoma and controls without the disease was conducted. In each patient, 2 gutta-percha points were attached to the buccal mucosa horizontally and examined twice by lateral cephalometry, once with the mouth closed and once during maximal mouth opening (MMO). Changes in distance between the gutta-percha points were used as a measurement of buccal elasticity. Information on age, alcohol consumption, betel nut chewing, smoking habits, oral submucosa fibrosis (OSF), temporomandibular joint (TMJ) subluxation, and interincisal distance at MMO (IDMMO) was collected. The results were analyzed using independent-sample and paired-sample t tests. Ten patients with buccal carcinoma and another 11 patients without buccal carcinoma were enrolled in this study. There was a significant increase in magnification percentage in patients with carcinoma (32.35%; P elasticity; magnification was 29.20% (P = .013). Magnification was significantly higher in patients with TMJ subluxation (54.50%; P = .041) than in the controls. Age, alcohol consumption, smoking, OSF, and IDMMO did not affect buccal mucosa elasticity. Buccal mucosa elasticity increased considerably at MMO in patients with buccal carcinoma. This elasticity should be taken into account when calculating adequate surgical margins for transoral resection of buccal carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Protective effect of Withaferin-A on micronucleus frequency and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effect of Withaferin-A on micronucleus frequency and detoxication agents during experimental oral carcinogenesis. ... maintained the status of buccal mucosa detoxication agents during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Key words: Withaferin-A, DMBA, Oral cancer, Micronucleus, Detoxication ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Anti-Inflammatory And Antiangiogenic Potential Of Carnosic Acid During 7,12 Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene-Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  1. [Urethral reconstruction using buccal mucosa transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, O; Ahyai, S; Rink, M; Eichelberg, C; Dahlem, R; Fisch, M

    2013-05-01

    Buccal mucosa is the ideal material for urethral reconstruction because it is easy to harvest, is accustomed to permanent moisture and can be used at any location in the urethra. Stricture length and local conditions of the urethra have to be considered to decide which technique is required to reconstruct the urethra. Open urethroplasty with buccal mucosa has a success rate over 85% and should be used after unsuccessful internal urethrotomy and primarily in longer strictures.

  2. Sulphomucin expression in ileal pouches: emerging differences between ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis pouches.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bambury, Niamh

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: We characterized the expression of sialomucin and sulphomucin in pouches fashioned for familial adenomatous polyposis and ulcerative colitis. We correlated sulphomucin expression with bacterial colonization and mucosal inflammation. METHODS: Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained. Mucosal biopsies from 9 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and 12 with ulcerative colitis were obtained. Sulphomucin levels were assessed by using the high iron-diamine stain. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with villous height, crypt depth, and total mucosal thickness. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. Colonization by a panel of seven bacterial species (including sulphate reducing bacteria) was established and correlated with sulphomucin levels. RESULTS: High-iron-diamine positivity (i.e., sulphomucin expression) was greater in ulcerative colitis pouch mucous gel (2.083 +\\/- 0.5 vs. 0.556 +\\/- 0.4, P = 0.003). Sulphomucin expression correlated with reduced crypt depth, villous height, and total mucosal thickness. In the ulcerative colitis group, chronic inflammatory infiltrate scores were significantly greater for high-iron-diamine-positive patients. Colonization by sulphate reducing bacteria was increased in high-iron-diamine-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Sulphomucin expression is increased in the mucous gel layer of the ulcerative colitis pouch compared with that of the familial adenomatous polyposis pouch. Sulphomucin expression is associated with colonization by sulphate-reducing bacteria and increased chronic inflammation.

  3. Cell proliferation in carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S.M.; Ellwein, L.B. (Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (USA))

    1990-08-31

    Chemicals that induce cancer at high doses in animal bioassays often fail to fit the traditional characterization of genotoxins. Many of these nongenotoxic compounds (such as sodium saccharin) have in common the property that they increase cell proliferation in the target organ. A biologically based, computerized description of carcinogenesis was used to show that the increase in cell proliferation can account for the carcinogenicity of nongenotoxic compounds. The carcinogenic dose-response relationship for genotoxic chemicals (such as 2-acetylaminofluorene) was also due in part to increased cell proliferation. Mechanistic information is required for determination of the existence of a threshold for the proliferative (and carcinogenic) response of nongenotoxic chemicals and the estimation of risk for human exposure.

  4. Prune belly syndrome with pouch colon and absent dermatome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prune belly syndrome with pouch colon and absent dermatome. AA Baba, SA Hussain, AH Shera, R Patnaik. Abstract. Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital constellation of defects in pediatric surgical practice. Although anorectal anomalies have been reported in association with PBS, only few case of pouch ...

  5. Pouch emptying of solid foods after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1985-01-01

    To obtain information on possible determinants of weight loss after horizontal gastroplasty, pouch emptying was prospectively investigated in 27 morbidly obese patients. A scintigraphic method was used. Examinations were carried out every 6 months until 2 years after surgery. Pouch emptying...

  6. Recent advances in metal carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    Recent advances in metal carcinogenesis are comprehensively reviewed, including (a) epidemiological and clinical aspects, (b) carcinogenesis bioassays, (c) bacterial mutagenesis, (d) mammalian cell mutagenesis, (e) chromosomal damage, (f) mammalian cell transformation, (g) microsomal metabolism, (h) DNA strandbreaks and crosslinks, (i) DNA polymerase infidelity, (j) RNA strand initiation, and (k) helical transition of B-DNA to Z-DNA. Based upon these observations, several hypotheses are proposed for the molecular pathogenesis of carcinogenesis by metal compounds. These hypotheses are amenable to experimental test by existing techniques of molecular biology.

  7. Effects of Spirulina platensis extract on Syrian hamster cheek pouch mucosa painted with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawish, Mohammed E

    2008-10-01

    Research into cancer prevention seeks to identify the preventable causes of cancer, and to reduce cancer incidence by effective implementation of preventative strategies in target populations. In this study, 30 male golden Syrian hamsters were divided into three equal groups; the right buccal pouches of the hamster rats in group one were painted with 0.5% solution of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), three times a week, until sacrificed. The same pouches of group two were also painted with DMBA, but received an additional 10mg/daily Spirulina platensis extract, which was added to the soft diet supplements during the same period. The hamster rats in group three received neither DMBA nor S. platensis extract. They were painted with saline and served as control animals. Half the hamsters from each of the three groups were sacrificed by ether inhalation after 7 weeks, and the remaining half were sacrificed after 14 weeks. The required buccal pouches were surgically excised and prepared for regular H&E and argyrophilic proteins of the nuclear organizer regions (AgNOR) silver staining. AgNORs counting and statistical analysis were carried out. We observed moderate dysplastic changes extending into the midspinous layer in group one 7 weeks after DMBA painting, which reached to half the thickness of the hyperplastic epithelium after 14 weeks. However, in group two, mild dysplastic changes were observed after 7 weeks, which were restricted to the basilar and parabasilar layers of the epithelium after 14 weeks of treatment. AgNOR staining in group one produced AgNOR counts ranging from one to seven dots per nucleus, whereas the counts were one or two dots per nucleus in group two. The AgNOR mean number in groups one, two and three was (3.1+/-0.006, 1.3+/-0.003 and 1.2+/-0.003, respectively). Moreover, with one sample t-test, a significant difference was found in AgNOR mean number between groups one and two, groups one and three and between groups two and three (Phamster

  8. Microbial Contamination of Orthodontic Buccal Tubes from Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test the sterility of new unused orthodontic buccal tubes received from manufacturers. Four different types of buccal tubes were used straight from the manufactures package without any additional sterilizing step. Of these buccal tubes tested, three genera of bacteria, implicated as opportunistic pathogens, namely Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were recovered from these buccal tubes. Our data showing microbial contamination on buccal tubes highlights the need of sterilization before clinical use. We also suggest that manufacturers should list the sterility state of orthodontic buccal tubes on their packaging or instructions stating the need for sterilization.

  9. Cerrobend shielding stents for buccal carcinoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Yangchen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common oral malignant neoplasms, especially in the South Asian region. Radiotherapy, which plays a significant role in the treatment of this carcinoma, has severe adverse effects. Different types of prosthesis may be constructed to protect healthy tissues from the adverse effects of treatment and concentrate radiation in the region of the tumor mass. However, the technique for fabrication of shielding stent with Lipowitz's alloy (cerrobend/Wood's alloy has not been well documented. This article describes detailed technique for fabrication of such a stent for unilateral buccal carcinoma patients to spare the unaffected oral cavity from potential harmful effects associated with radiotherapy.

  10. Treatment of Bilateral Buccal Nonocclusion and Distalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Sadhasivam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment aims to improve esthetics, function and structural balance. In some rare circumstances, the clinician may not be able to achieve the ideal treatment goals because of complex multiple orthodontic problems, which may include significant mutilation of the dentition. Brodie bite, a complete buccal posterior crossbite is a problem, which confronts clinicians with often complex variable etiology. The following case report demonstrates treatment of bilateral buccal nonocclusion that is mainly due to a maxillary dental arch issue rather than mandibular retrognathism.

  11. How to harvest buccal mucosa from the cheek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G. Barbagli

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Buccal mucosa;. Cheek;. Surgical technique;. Urethroplasty;. Complications. Abstract. The paper provides the reader with the step by step of our current technique of harvesting ... suggested a new technique for harvesting buccal mucosa from the ..... The use of buccal mucosa patch graft in the management.

  12. Using giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis in human sputum samples: 2010 findings. AM Mahoney, BJ Weetjens, C Cox, N Beyene, G Mgode, M Jubitana, D Kuipers, R Kazwala, GS Mfinanga, A Durgin, A Poling ...

  13. Breath hydrogen analysis in patients with ileoanal pouch anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, E; Meyer, J N; Rumessen, J J

    1995-01-01

    The possible influence on functional outcomes of hydrogen production in the ileoanal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy was investigated by means of lactulose H2 breath tests. Eight of 15 patients had significant increases in breath hydrogen after 10 g lactulose. One patient declined...... to participate in further investigations, the remaining seven responders had no evidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth after glucose H2 breath tests. The ability to produce hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation of lactulose in the pouch was unrelated to the age of the patients or of the pouch. Seven of eight...... responders had successive breath tests after ingestion of lactulose 20 g and wheat starch 100 g. Five of seven had significant increases after lactulose but none after wheat starch. The overall function of the pouch continence, spontaneity of defecation, and 24 hour stool frequency was significantly better...

  14. An unusual reason for Kock pouch urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannek, Jürgen; Holz, Alexander; Pastor, Jobst

    2007-07-01

    We report the case of Kock pouch incontinence resulting from perforation of the efferent nipple valve by an unsuccessful catheterization attempt in a patient with a spinal cord injury. Continence was reestablished by surgical revision.

  15. Anatomic and functional characteristics of the rat ileal pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiung-Nien; McVay, Laila D; Batlivala, Zubin S; Hendren, Samantha K; Swain, Gary P; Salzman, Nita; Williams, Noel N; Rombeau, John L

    2002-04-01

    The definitive operation for chronic ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis is total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). Mild inflammation (pouchitis) is omnipresent in pouches and becomes severe in 50% of UC patients with IPAA. The etiology of pouchitis is likely due to combined genetic, microbial, and immunologic factors. Epithelial cell exposure to surgical trauma and/or to changes in intestinal bacterial composition may account for the inflammatory infiltrate. Progress in understanding pouchitis is restricted by the lack of suitable animal models. An ileal pouch-rectal anastomosis [IPRA] in rats was developed to reproduce a model of human IPAA and clinical, gross and histologic criteria were determined. Many shared features with human ileal pouch were observed. IPRA is an important in vivo model to study mechanisms of repair, defense and immunity that may contribute to pouchitis.

  16. Molecular biology of nickel carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, M. [Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine and the Kaplan Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York University Medical Center, NY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis are discussed and reviewed with emphasis on work done in my laboratory. The most important determinant of nickel carcinogenesis is the ability of the nickel ion to reach relevant targets for carcinogenesis, which involves chromatin and depends on the ability of the nickel compound to enter cells. The mechanisms that regulate the phagocytosis and intracellular dissolution of the highly carcinogenic particulate nickel compounds are discussed, as is the ability of these nickel compounds to enhance the DNA methylation pattern and turn off the expression of critical tumor suppressor genes. These findings show these nickel compounds to be a somewhat unique class of carcinogens. (orig.) (orig.) With 3 figs., 4 tabs., 31 refs.

  17. Evolving Concepts in Lung Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomperts, Brigitte N.; Spira, Avrum; Massion, Pierre P.; Walser, Tonya C.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Minna, John D.; Dubinett, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Lung carcinogenesis is a complex, stepwise process that involves the acquisition of genetic mutations and epigenetic changes that alter cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, invasion, and metastasis. Here, we review some of the latest concepts in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and highlight the roles of inflammation, the “field of cancerization,” and lung cancer stem cells in the initiation of the disease. Furthermore, we review how high throughput genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, and proteomics are advancing the study of lung carcinogenesis. Finally, we reflect on the potential of current in vitro and in vivo models of lung carcinogenesis to advance the field and on the areas of investigation where major breakthroughs will lead to the identification of novel chemoprevention strategies and therapies for lung cancer. PMID:21500122

  18. Study of Hartmann’s Pouch of the Gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Farzana Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gall bladder is a hollow pear shaped sac lying within a fossa on the visceral surface of the right lobe of the liver. In the junction of neck of the gallbladder and the cystic duct, there is a pouch present called Hartman’s pouch or infundibulum of the gallbladder which is a frequent but inconstant feature of the normal gallbladder. It is the common site of lodged gallstones. Objective: To determine the proportion of presence of Hartman’s pouch in our population so that the concerned personnel might have a thought in mind that common pathologies of gall bladder may also involve this pouch. Materials and method: This cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, from July 2010 to June 2011. The number of sample was 62 postmortem human gallbladders which were collected from unclaimed dead bodies. Results: Hartmann’s pouch of the gallbladder was found in 45 (72.58%. Conclusion: Hartman’s pouch is present in a good proportion of our population.

  19. Loratadine bioavailability via buccal transferosomal gel: formulation, statistical optimization, in vitro/in vivo characterization, and pharmacokinetics in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkomy, Mohammed H; El Menshawe, Shahira F; Abou-Taleb, Heba A; Elkarmalawy, Marwa H

    2017-11-01

    Loratadine (LTD) is an antihistaminic drug that suffers limited solubility, poor oral bioavailability (owing to extensive first-pass metabolism), and highly variable oral absorption. This study was undertaken to develop and statistically optimize transfersomal gel for transbuccal delivery of LTD. Transfersomes bearing LTD were prepared by conventional thin film hydration method and optimized using sequential Quality-by-Design approach that involved Placket-Burman design for screening followed by constrained simplex-centroid design for optimization of a Tween-80/Span-60/Span-80 mixture. The transferosomes were characterized for entrapment efficiency, particle size, and shape. Optimized transferosomes were incorporated in a mucoadhesive gel. The gel was characterized for rheology, ex vivo permeation across chicken pouch buccal mucosa, in vitro release, and mucoadhesion. Pharmacokinetic behavior of LTD formulations was investigated in healthy volunteers following administration of a single 10-mg dose. Optimal transferosomes characterized by submicron size (380 nm), spherical shape and adequate loading capacity (60%) were obtained by using quasi-equal ratio surfactant mixture. In terms of amount permeated, percentage released, and mucoadhesion time, the transferosomal gel proved superior to control, transferosome-free gel. Bioavailability of the transferosomal gel was comparable to Claritin® oral tablets. However, inter-individual variability in Cmax and AUC was reduced by 76 and 90%, respectively, when the buccal gel was used. Linear Correlation of in vitro release with in vivo buccal absorption fractions was established with excellent correlation coefficient (R2>0.97). In summary, a novel buccal delivery system for LTD was developed. However, further clinical investigation is warranted to evaluate its therapeutic effectiveness and utility.

  20. Conservative Socket Regeneration with Buccal Wall Defect Using Guided Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim

    2016-01-01

    Progressive alveolar bone resorption after tooth extraction may lead to surgical and prosthetic-driven difficulties, especially when deciding to use a dental implant to replace the extracted tooth. This case report discusses an irreparable lower left second premolar tooth with a periodontal lesion on the buccal side. A preservative tooth extraction was performed. Then, the socket was grafted with bovine bone, a collagen membrane was placed between the buccal bone and the attached gingiva, covering the bone dehiscence buccally, and the socket without a flap was raised. After a 6-month healing period, there was minimal socket width resorption and a shallow buccal vestibule. The implant was placed with high primary stability and sufficient buccal plate thickness. In conclusion, this guided tissue regeneration technique can minimize alveolar bone resorption in a socket with buccal dehiscence, but technical difficulties and shallowing of the buccal vestibule still exist.

  1. Radiation carcinogenesis: radioprotectors and photosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper outlines 1) some of the salient features of radiation carcinogenesis that are pertinent to the questions of how the carcinogenic effects might be influenced, 2) the effects of radioprotectors on ionizing radiation-induced cancer, and 3) the effect of photosensitizers on UVR-induced skin cancer.

  2. An Emergence Framework of Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigston, Elizabeth A W; Williams, Bryan R G

    2017-01-01

    Experimental paradigms provide the framework for the understanding of cancer, and drive research and treatment, but are rarely considered by clinicians. The somatic mutation theory (SMT), in which cancer is considered a genetic disease, has been the predominant traditional model of cancer for over 50 years. More recently, alternative theories have been proposed, such as tissue organization field theory (TOFT), evolutionary models, and inflammatory models. Key concepts within the various models have led to them being difficult to reconcile. Progressively, it has been recognized that biological systems cannot be fully explained by the physicochemical properties of their constituent parts. There is an increasing call for a 'systems' approach. Incorporating the concepts of 'emergence', 'systems', 'thermodynamics', and 'chaos', a single integrated framework for carcinogenesis has been developed, enabling existing theories to become compatible as alternative mechanisms, facilitating the integration of bioinformatics and providing a structure in which translational research can flow from both 'benchtop to bedside' and 'bedside to benchtop'. In this review, a basic understanding of the key concepts of 'emergence', 'systems', 'system levels', 'complexity', 'thermodynamics', 'entropy', 'chaos', and 'fractals' is provided. Non-linear mathematical equations are included where possible to demonstrate compatibility with bioinformatics. Twelve principles that define the 'emergence framework of carcinogenesis' are developed, with principles 1-10 encapsulating the key concepts upon which the framework is built and their application to carcinogenesis. Principle 11 relates the framework to cancer progression. Principle 12 relates to the application of the framework to translational research. The 'emergence framework of carcinogenesis' collates current paradigms, concepts, and evidence around carcinogenesis into a single framework that incorporates previously incompatible viewpoints

  3. [The extended free lateral arm flap for buccal soft tissue reconstruction after buccal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Yang, Xu-Dong; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiu-Juan; Hu, Qin-Gang

    2013-01-01

    To summary the application of the extended free lateral arm flaps for buccal soft tissue reconstruction after buccal cancer. From January to August 2011, three patients underwent the operation of buccal defect reconstruction using the extended free lateral arm flap in one-stage. PRCA was identification with the Doppler probe. According to the mark of PRCA, size and shape of defects, the flaps were designed and extended to the lateral epicondyle of humerus. The flap size ranged from 9 cm x 5 cm to 10 cm x 6 cm with a pedicle of 10 cm in length. The wounds at donor sites were closed directly. Vascular crisis happened in one case due to local negative pressure, which resolved after emergency management. All the flaps survived completely. The patients were followed up for 6 to 10 months with no recurrence. Both the esthetic and functional results were satisfactory. Two cases suffered from numb feeling in donor sites which alleviated six months later. The extended free lateral arm flap has reliable blood supply with appropriate thickness. It is an optional method for reconstruction of buccal defects after ablation of buccal cancer.

  4. Numerical analysis of pouch filling and emptying after laparoscopic gastric banding surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Feng; Liao, Donghua; Zhao, Jingbo

    2008-01-01

    ACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that pouch volume and stoma size are two important factors related to weight loss after laparoscopic gastric banding in morbid obese patients. We hypothesized that there was association among the wall stress, pouch volume, and stoma size in a model...... for the filling and emptying phases of the pouch. METHODS: A numerical pouch model with variable pouch volume and stoma size was generated. Uniaxial tensile testing was performed on fundus strips from fresh pig stomach and the mass flow of filling and emptying of the pouch was simulated numerically. RESULTS......Pa in the pouch wall at the same degree of filling. Decreasing the stoma diameter from 27 to 10 mm caused an increase of the maximum circumferential stress from 11.46 to 12.78 kPa and a decrease of the maximum longitudinal stress from 10.34 to 8.69 kPa. CONCLUSION: Both the pouch volume and stoma size...

  5. Elicitation of preferences for improvements in ostomy pouches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    This paper attempts to examine and measure ostomates’ preferences for improvements in ostomy pouches. Described are the study design, elicitation procedure and resulting preference structure of the Swedish ostomate sample. The method used to elicit the preferences is a Discrete Choice Experiment...... (DCE), where respondents are asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets. Each alternative is comprised of a number of attributes relating to the adhesive, filter and flexibility of ostomy pouches. The choice between alternatives made by the respondent implies an implicit trade-off between...... the attributes and allows for the estimation of individuals’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) for the attributes of ostomy pouches when cost is included as an attribute. The data consists of 254 ostomates responding to the survey. The respondents have positive WTP for all improvement attributes presented to them...

  6. Epigenetic mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salnikow, K; Costa, M

    2000-01-01

    This article considers the mechanism of nickel carcinogenesis, focusing primarily on the epigenetic changes associated with exposure of cells to carcinogenic nickel compounds. We discuss the delivery of nickel in the cell and contrast the genetic and epigenetic changes that have occurred. Within the epigenetic effects, alteration in the levels of transcription factors, such as ATF-1, p53, HIF-1, HIF-1alpha, and NFkappaB, are considered. The relationship between nickel and calcium metabolism and the role it plays in nickel carcinogenesis is also considered, as are reactive oxygen species and the interactions of nickel with proteins. We discuss these epigenetic discussions in light of the effects that nickel has on inducing DNA methylation in cells. It is of interest that nickel induces both a variety of signaling pathways as well as genes that seem to be important for the survival of cancer cells. It is also interesting that the same genes induced or repressed by nickel are similarly overexpressed or not expressed in nickel-transformed cells. It is suggested that this may represent a selection process crucial to the nickel carcinogenesis process.

  7. Sulfate-reducing bacteria colonize pouches formed for ulcerative colitis but not for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis remains the "gold standard" in surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Pouchitis occurs mainly in patients with a background of ulcerative colitis, although the reasons for this are unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize differences in pouch bacterial populations between ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous pouches. METHODS: After ethical approval was obtained, fresh stool samples were collected from patients with ulcerative colitis pouches (n = 10), familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 7) pouches, and ulcerative colitis ileostomies (n = 8). Quantitative measurements of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were performed. RESULTS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from 80 percent (n = 8) of ulcerative colitis pouches. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were absent from familial adenomatous polyposis pouches and also from ulcerative colitis ileostomy effluent. Pouch Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, and Clostridium perfringens counts were increased relative to ileostomy counts in patients with ulcerative colitis. Total pouch enterococci and coliform counts were also increased relative to ileostomy levels. There were no significant quantitative or qualitative differences between pouch types when these bacteria were evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria are exclusive to patients with a background of ulcerative colitis. Not all ulcerative colitis pouches harbor sulfate-reducing bacteria because two ulcerative colitis pouches in this study were free of the latter. They are not present in familial adenomatous polyposis pouches or in ileostomy effluent collected from patients with ulcerative colitis. Total bacterial counts increase in ulcerative colitis pouches after stoma closure. Levels of Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, Clostridium perfringens, enterococci, and coliforms were similar in both pouch groups. Because sulfate-reducing bacteria are

  8. Microemulsion containing triamcinolone acetonide for buccal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, C; Telò, I; Di Ianni, A; Pescina, S; Nicoli, S; Santi, P

    2018-03-30

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the potential of microemulsions for the buccal administration of triamcinolone acetonide. Microemulsions were developed by the construction of pseudoternary phase diagrams, using the aqueous titration method. Among all microemulsions prepared and tested for stability, three were selected and submitted to characterization and in vitro permeation/retention experiments, using pig esophageal epithelium, an accepted model of the buccal mucosa. Furthermore, one microemulsion was added of excipients (stearylamine, CTAB and chitosan) able to alter the charge of droplets. The results obtained show that the permeation of triamcinolone acetonide across pig esophageal epithelium was not influenced by the droplet size nor by the composition, but only by the presence of chitosan, polysaccharide able to increase the transport across mono and stratified epithelia. The determination of the permeation parameters allowed us to show that chitosan acts on the diffusion parameter across the tissue and not on the partitioning parameter; for the same reason the tissue retention of triamcinolone acetonide was not modified. Triamcinolone flux (2.6 μg cm -2  h -1 ) was too low to make systemic administration feasible (dose required 2.5 to 60 mg/day). The amount of triamcinolone acetonide recovered in the mucosa after only 10 min. of microemulsion application was much higher than after overnight application of the commercial paste Omicilon® A. This suggests that triamcinolone acetonide microemulsions can be an interesting alternative to the commercial formulation to treat diseases of the buccal mucosa. Owing to the fast uptake by the tissue, the formulation can be used as a mouthwash. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. KYSTE DERMOÏDE DU PLANCHER BUCCAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    18 juin 2007 ... INTRODUCTION. Le kyste dermoïde du plancher buccal représente 1,6% des kystes dermoïdes cervico-faciaux. Il s'agit le plus sou- vent d'un kyste congénital mais découvert généralement entre la 2ème et la 3ème décennie de la vie. Nous rappor- tons l'observation d'un nourrisson, chez qui nous avons.

  10. Nicotine permeability across the buccal TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rassing, Margrethe Rømer

    2002-01-01

    comparable for bi-directional and uni-directional transport in the presence of a transmembrane pH gradient. Nicotine concentrations between 10(-5) and 10(-2) M were applied to the apical side of the TR146 cell culture model or the mucosal side of porcine buccal mucosa. Buffers with pH values of 5.5, 7...

  11. Transposition of the rectus abdominis muscle for complicated pouch and rectal fistulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, KTC; Kuijpers, HC; van Nieuwenhoven, EJ; van Goor, Harry; Spauwen, PH

    PURPOSE: Operative repair for complicated pouch and rectal fistulas is often difficult. We present our experience with ten consecutive patients operated on for complicated pouch and rectal fistulas by transposition of the rectus abdominis muscle. METHODS: Ten patients with high and complex pouch and

  12. Apparatus and methods for packaging and storing moisture sensitive products in resealable pouches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    at least one segment that extend along the pouch length. By configuring the product in this way, it can be efficiently packaged, stored, and dispensed. Other embodiments of the invention include closure systems that permit sealing the pouch opening when product is not being dispensed and substantially...... sealing the pouch around the product during dispensing....

  13. Food intake in relation to pouch volume, stoma diameter, and pouch emptying after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated possible determinants of food intake change after gastroplastry. Preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively, 27 morbidly obese patients were prospectively examined with 7-day food registration and radiologic measurement of pouch volume and stoma diameter. Pouch...... emptying was determined as the mean transit time by a scintigraphic method. None of the measured variables was found to influence the change in food intake taking place during the first 6 months, when most of the weight loss was observed. Between 6 and 12 months, the change of stoma diameter was positively...... associated with the change of solid foods consumed (by weight, p = 0.01; by energy content, p = 0.02). The change of pouch volume was negatively associated with the change of energy from beverages (p = 0.005). In conclusion, it seems impossible to tailor the reduction of food intake through adjustments...

  14. Effect of buccal dwell time on the pharmacokinetic profile of fentanyl buccal tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, M; Kirby, M; Jiang, J G

    2007-09-01

    The time fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) takes to completely dissolve after placement on the buccal mucosa (i.e., 'dwell time') could exceed the time to onset of analgesia. To examine the relationship between FBT dwell time and fentanyl pharmacokinetic parameters. This was a post hoc exploratory analysis of data from two randomized, open-label, crossover, pharmaco-kinetic studies that were designed to assess dose proportionality within the anticipated therapeutic dose range. Healthy adults received single FBT doses of 200-1080 microg in Study 1 (n = 28) and 270-1300 microg in Study 2 (n = 42). Assessments included buccal dwell time, defined as the duration of FBT presence in the oral cavity, and the following pharmacokinetic measures: maximum serum concentration (C(max)), time to C(max) (T(max)) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC; exposure) from 0 minutes to median T(max) adjusted for the dose (T(max')) (AUC(0 T(max'))). Spontaneously reported adverse events were recorded. Mean buccal dwell time for FBT across the dose range varied from 14 to 25 minutes (range 3 - 62 minutes). There was no evidence of an association between FBT dwell time and values for T(max) (medians 45 - 60 minutes), dose-normalized C(max) (means 0.42-0.66 pg/ml/200 microg) or dose-normalized AUC(0 T(max')) (means 0.24-0.38 pg x h/ml/200 microg) over the range of FBT doses delivered. All adverse events reported were mild to moderate; none were unexpected or serious. The pharmacokinetic parameters of FBT did not appear to be related to its buccal dwell time.

  15. In vivo human buccal permeability of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Charlotte L; Olin, Helle B D; Dalhoff, Kim

    2006-01-01

    -smokers using a buccal perfusion cell. The disappearance of nicotine from perfusion solutions with pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.1 was studied for 3h. The apparent permeability of nicotine (P(app)) was determined at each pH value. Parotid saliva was collected in an attempt to assess systemic levels of nicotine......(app) values and non-ionised nicotine, which indicates that the nicotine transfer occurred by means of passive diffusion. P(app) values of 0.60 x 10(-4) and 6.18 x 10(-4)cms(-1) were obtained for the mono-protonated and non-ionised species of nicotine, respectively. The analysis of the parotid saliva samples...... indicated that these samples might be useful in the assessment of systemic absorption of nicotine. Previous buccal in vitro models underestimated the in vivo human permeability of nicotine. However, the in vitro models were capable of predicting the effect of pH on the nicotine permeability....

  16. Pouch Salvage Surgery for Treatment of Colitis and Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: Report of Five Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derakhshani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The restorative proctocolectomy (RPC with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA is currently the preferred surgical method for most patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis and sometimes, functional bowel diseases. Infection around the pouch, remaining rectal stump, stricture at anastomosis site, pouch dysfunction and refractory pouchitis can lead to pouch failure. Pouch salvage surgery could prevent pouch failure in some cases. Case Presentation In this report, five patients were introduced, who underwent pouch salvage surgery after RPC/IPAA surgery failure. Two of the patients were male and three were female and the relevant age range was 16 to 41. Initially, RPC/IPAA surgery was performed on these five patients. Four of the patients underwent RPC/IPAA surgery as a result of ulcerative colitis and, one of the patients as a result of familial adenomatous polyposis. However, due to pouch failure from the RPC/IPAA surgery, pouch-salvage surgery was performed on each of these five patients. Two of the patients underwent pouch-salvage surgery due to infection and pouch fistula, and the other three underwent this surgery due to the remaining rectal stump, anastomosis stenosis and pouch dysfunction. The average time for when pouch-salvage surgery was performed was 3.5 years (three months to five years after the initial operation and the patients were under follow-up care for two to seven years. Conclusions After performing pouch salvage operation, pouch function was acceptable in all patients and we could close ileostomies of all of them.

  17. Disease course and management strategy of pouch neoplasia in patients with underlying inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian-Rui; Remzi, Feza H; Liu, Xiu-Li; Lian, Lei; Stocchi, Luca; Ashburn, Jean; Shen, Bo

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the disease course and management strategy for pouch neoplasia. Patients undergoing ileal pouch surgery for underlying ulcerative colitis who developed low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia, or adenocarcinoma in the pouch were identified. All eligible 44 patients were evaluated. Of the 22 patients with initial diagnosis of pouch LGD, 6 (27.3%) had persistence or progression after a median follow-up of 9.5 (4.1-17.6) years. Family history of colorectal cancer was shown to be a risk factor associated with persistence or progression of LGD (P = 0.03). Of the 12 patients with pouch high-grade dysplasia, 5 (41.7%) had a history of (n = 2, 16.7%) or synchronous (n = 4, 33.3%) pouch LGD. Pouch high-grade dysplasia either persisted or progressed in 3 patients (25.0%) after the initial management, during a median time interval of 5.4 (2.2-9.2) years. Of the 14 patients with pouch adenocarcinoma, 12 (85.7%) had a history of (n = 2, 14.3%) or synchronous dysplasia (n = 12, 85.7%). After a median follow-up of 2.1 (0.6-5.2) years, 6 patients with pouch cancer (42.9%) died. Comparison of patients with a final diagnosis of pouch adenocarcinoma (14, 32.6%), and those with dysplasia (29, 67.4%) showed that patients with adenocarcinoma were older (P = 0.04) and had a longer duration from IBD diagnosis or pouch construction to the detection of pouch neoplasia (P = 0.007 and P = 0.0013). The risk for progression of pouch dysplasia can be stratified. The presence of family history of colorectal cancer seemed to increase the risk for persistence or progression for patients with pouch LGD. The prognosis for pouch adenocarcinoma was poor.

  18. Construction of a Jejunal Pouch After Total Gastrectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appears to be the best technique for reconstruction concerning the postoperative quality of life. However, this safe reconstructive surgery is not still recognized as a gold standard. Key words: Jejunal pouch, quality of life, surgical technique, total gastrectomy. Department of Digestive Surgical Oncology, University Hospital.

  19. Charleston Pouch with In-Situ Appendix and Concealed Umbilical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer recurrence was recorded in 3 patients at 12, 27 and 32 months. Conclusions: The Charleston pouch with in-situ appendix is an efficient versatile technique for the creation of a catheterizable continent cutaneous urinary reservoir. The umbilical stoma with triangular skin flap provides excellent cosmetic results.

  20. Early outcome of Mainz Pouch2 urinary diversion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the high rectal pressure caused incontinence and reflus of faecal material ... abolished if the rectum is detubularized (sigma- rectum pouch). .... Peritonitis. Urinary fistula. Death. One patient had deterioration of the renal function. None of the patients developed new upper tract datation or worsening of the previous dilation.

  1. Scintigrapfic evaluation of pouch function in patients with ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mie Dilling; Hvidsten, Svend; Simonsen, Jane Angel

    with QoL and pouch function. Method It is a cross-sectional study including 20 patients with ulcerative colitis and an IPAA. Scintigraphic transit time was determined after oral administration of a Tc-99m-labelled omelette. Defecography was performed with instillation of a radioactive labelled paste...

  2. Scintigraphic evaluation of pouch function in patients with ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend

    scintigraphic intestinal transit time, scintigraphic defecography and any association with QoL, and pouch function. Method A cross-sectional study including 20 patients with ulcerative colitis and an IPAA. Scintigraphic transit time was determined after oral administration of a Tc-99m-labelled omelette...

  3. Bone regeneration using the pouch-and-tunnel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzi, Robert; Etienne, Daniel; Takei, Henry; Carranza, Fermin

    2009-10-01

    Several surgical techniques, such as the papilla preservation flap, the modified papilla preservation flap, and the sulcular incision flap, have attempted to achieve clot stabilization and graft coverage in an attempt to regenerate lost tissue due to periodontal disease. This case report focuses on soft tissue root coverage and bone regeneration in a one-wall osseous defect using the pouch-and-tunnel surgical procedure. The pouch-and-tunnel surgical technique is a minimally invasive periodontal plastic surgical procedure that uses subepithelial connective tissue as a free graft in a pouch beneath the gingival margin, created by sulcular incisions around the involved teeth. The autogenous bone graft placed in this one-wall osseous defect through a sulcular incision after root planing is protected in a stable pouch-like recipient site with an abundant blood supply. The free connective tissue graft also prevents epithelial migration into the recipient site. The use of Emdogain may help with cementogenesis around the planed root surface. This technique warrants further evaluation of cases with similar defects using this surgical procedure. (Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2009;29:515-521.).

  4. Organisation og tidlige operationsresultater efter ileo-pouch-anal-anastomose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungmann, Ken; Bendixen, Anette; Laurberg, Søren

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the operation of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis. However, the procedure is complex with a long learning curve, and carries a risk of both early and late complications...

  5. Microbiological shelf life of pasteurized milk in bottle and pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrus, R R; Loiola, C G; Oliveira, C A F

    2010-01-01

    Shelf life of pasteurized milk in Brazil ranges from 3 to 8 d, mainly due to poor cold chain conditions that prevail throughout the country and subject the product to repeated and/or severe temperature abuse. This study evaluated the influence of storage temperature on the microbiological stability of homogenized whole pasteurized milk (75 degrees C/15 s) packaged in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottle and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) pouch, both monolayer materials pigmented with titanium dioxide (TiO(2)). The storage temperatures investigated were 2, 4, 9, 14, and 16 degrees C. Microbiological evaluation was based on mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts with 7 log CFU/mL and 6 log CFU/mL, respectively, set as upper limits of acceptability for maintaining the quality of milk. The microbiological stability for pasteurized milk packaged in HDPE bottle and stored at 2, 4, 9, 14, and 16 degrees C was estimated at 43, 36, 8, 5, and 3 d, respectively. For milk samples packaged in LDPE pouch, shelf life was estimated at 37, 35, 7, 3, and 2 d, respectively. The determination of Q(10) and z values demonstrated that storage temperature has a greater influence on microbiological shelf life of pasteurized milk packaged in LDPE pouch compared to HDPE bottle. Based on the results of this study, HDPE bottle was better for storing pasteurized milk as compared to LDPE pouch.

  6. CHARLESTON POUCH WITH lN-SITU APPENDIX AND CONCEALED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    come of the Charleston pouch procedure as a continent catheterizable urinary reservoir using an unaltered in~situ appendix with a triangular skin flap at its umbilical stoma with few modifications to the original tech- nique. Patients and Methods: Between February. 1999 and October 2002, 34 patients (31 males and 3 ...

  7. Surgical sterilization of the African giant pouched rats | Werema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study three surgical procedures were performed to African Giant Pouched Rats; 6 females were ovariectomized, 6 females were ovariohysterectomized, and 6 males were Orchidectomized. All eighteen (18) animals in the study recovered well and have returned to APOPO to continue with the training on smelling and ...

  8. Combined oesophageal atresia with upper pouch fistula and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper pouch tracheoesophageal fistula occurs is less than 1% of all oesophageal atresia variants. Meconium peritonitis is a rare neonatal condition with an incidence of 1:30 000 live births. In this case report, we describe the presentation, clinical findings and management of a patient diagnosed with an oesophageal ...

  9. Using giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant African pouched rats previously have detected tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples in which the presence of TB was not initially detected by smear microscopy. Operant conditioning principles were used to train these rats to indicate TB-positive samples. In 2010, rats trained in this way evaluated 26,665 ...

  10. [Intestinal pouches for slowing transit after extensive enterectomy. Experimental study in the rat (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliere, T

    1980-01-01

    The experimental study of three types of intestinal pouch for slowing transit was carried out in the rat after resection of 75% of the small intestine. The consequences of these pouches are analysed compared with control animals have undergone the same resection alone. The slowing of the transit confirmed to opaque radiography of the small intestine was particularly marked in all three types of pouch. Statistical analysis of weight curves showed the existence of a favourable statistical difference for certain types of pouch from the fifth postoperative day onwards. Construction of pouches is in the rat one of the most effective procedures for slowing transit.

  11. Buccal Transmucosal Delivery System of Enalapril for Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transmucosal buccal delivery has been investigated for various drugs including protein and peptides [14-17]. Various TMDDS like tablets, films, patches, disks, strips, ointments and gels have been investigated [14-21]. Out of these transmucosal buccal films have been reported to be more flexible, comfortable with relatively ...

  12. Preparation of Mucoadhesive Patches for Buccal Administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop mucoadhesive patches for buccal administration of metoprolol succinate and to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo bioadhesion. Methods: The mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared by solvent casting technique using two different mucoadhesive polymers. The formulations were tested for in vitro ...

  13. An Emergence Framework of Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. W. Sigston

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental paradigms provide the framework for the understanding of cancer, and drive research and treatment, but are rarely considered by clinicians. The somatic mutation theory (SMT, in which cancer is considered a genetic disease, has been the predominant traditional model of cancer for over 50 years. More recently, alternative theories have been proposed, such as tissue organization field theory (TOFT, evolutionary models, and inflammatory models. Key concepts within the various models have led to them being difficult to reconcile. Progressively, it has been recognized that biological systems cannot be fully explained by the physicochemical properties of their constituent parts. There is an increasing call for a ‘systems’ approach. Incorporating the concepts of ‘emergence’, ‘systems’, ‘thermodynamics’, and ‘chaos’, a single integrated framework for carcinogenesis has been developed, enabling existing theories to become compatible as alternative mechanisms, facilitating the integration of bioinformatics and providing a structure in which translational research can flow from both ‘benchtop to bedside’ and ‘bedside to benchtop’. In this review, a basic understanding of the key concepts of ‘emergence’, ‘systems’, ‘system levels’, ‘complexity’, ‘thermodynamics’, ‘entropy’, ‘chaos’, and ‘fractals’ is provided. Non-linear mathematical equations are included where possible to demonstrate compatibility with bioinformatics. Twelve principles that define the ‘emergence framework of carcinogenesis’ are developed, with principles 1–10 encapsulating the key concepts upon which the framework is built and their application to carcinogenesis. Principle 11 relates the framework to cancer progression. Principle 12 relates to the application of the framework to translational research. The ‘emergence framework of carcinogenesis’ collates current paradigms, concepts, and evidence around

  14. Sacrificing the buccal branch of the facial nerve during parotidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiwakar, Muthuswamy; Khan, Zubair A

    2016-12-01

    The need for and consequence of sacrificing the buccal branch of the facial nerve during parotidectomy is unknown. We sought to determine the indication, frequency, and functional outcome of buccal branch sacrifice. We conducted a prospective study of all cases of parotidectomy at a tertiary referral center. Of 100 consecutive cases of parotidectomy, the buccal branch was sacrificed in 23 cases. This subgroup was more likely to have anterior or deep lesions (p < .001), retrograde facial nerve dissection (p = .037), and immediate postoperative upper and lower facial weakness (p = .051 and .002, respectively). However, if the temporozygomatic and cervicomandibular branches were anatomically preserved, full facial (including buccal) function was restored. Deep or anterior lesions may warrant sacrifice of the buccal branch for adequate access and excision. However, this does not result in long-term impairment of facial function. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1821-1825, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The suction pouch for management of simple or complex enterocutaneous fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Containing effluent from an enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) requires expertise, critical thinking skills, and creativity. Using a combination of products readily available to WOC nurses practicing in the United States, I have designed a suction pouch that reliably contains fistula output. A standard ostomy pouch can be converted into a suction pouch by adding a large, single-lumen catheter into the pouch, sealing it, and connecting the assembly to low continuous suction. The resulting pouch can be used by itself to drain effluent from an ECF or it can be used in combination with wound dressings, or a negative pressure wound therapy system. Application of a suction pouch extends the integrity of the appliance and diverts succus away from the wound bed or the newly applied skin graft with increased reliability. This article describes the technique used to create a suction pouch, followed by 4 brief case descriptions that demonstrate feasibility of its use for the management of ECFs.

  16. Liver Development, Regeneration, and Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet W. C. Kung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of putative liver stem cells has brought closer the previously separate fields of liver development, regeneration, and carcinogenesis. Significant overlaps in the regulation of these processes are now being described. For example, studies in embryonic liver development have already provided the basis for directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells. As a result, the understanding of the cell biology of proliferation and differentiation in the liver has been improved. This knowledge can be used to improve the function of hepatocyte-like cells for drug testing, bioartificial livers, and transplantation. In parallel, the mechanisms regulating cancer cell biology are now clearer, providing fertile soil for novel therapeutic approaches. Recognition of the relationships between development, regeneration, and carcinogenesis, and the increasing evidence for the role of stem cells in all of these areas, has sparked fresh enthusiasm in understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and has led to new targeted therapies for liver cirrhosis and primary liver cancers.

  17. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  18. A disguised tuberculosis in oral buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her oral and systemic conditions improved rapidly. Although oral manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of oral ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.

  19. Crohn's Disease of the Pouch: A True Diagnosis or an Oversubscribed Diagnosis of Exclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightner, Amy L; Fletcher, Joel G; Pemberton, John H; Mathis, Kellie L; Raffals, Laura E; Smyrk, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    After IPAA, 8% of patients with ulcerative colitis are later diagnosed with Crohn's disease of the pouch, associated with an increased rate of pouch failure. No study has reported on how often the clinical diagnosis is correlated with histologic findings of Crohn's disease in the excised pouch. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the clinical diagnosis is consistent with pathologic confirmation at pouch excision. The study was conducted at a tertiary IBD referral center. Patients with chronic ulcerative colitis who underwent pouch excision for presumed Crohn's disease of the pouch were included. Preoperative evaluation and pathologic variables at the time of pouch excision were measured. A total of 35 patients underwent pouch excision for Crohn's disease of the pouch based on a combination of clinical, radiographic, and endoscopic findings. Seven (20%) had surgical pathology consistent with Crohn's disease at pouch excision. There were no differences in those 7 patients and the remaining 28 in terms of diagnosis at colectomy, primary pouch symptoms, prepouch inflammation, ulceration, or granulomas at endoscopy. In the nonpathology-confirmed Crohn's disease, 40% (n = 11) had an anastomotic leak at time of IPAA versus 0% in the Crohn's disease group, and 86% (n = 24) had symptoms of pouch dysfunction within 5 months of ileostomy reversal versus 13 months in the Crohn's disease group. Of 28 without pathology-confirmed Crohn's disease, 100% (n = 28) were treated with antibiotics, 68% (n = 19) with steroids, 59% (n = 16) with immunomodulators, and 57% (n = 15) with biologic therapy for Crohn's disease of the pouch. The study was limited by its single-center scope and lack of an established definition for Crohn's disease of the pouch. Pathologic confirmation of Crohn's disease was given to only one fifth of patients who underwent pouch excision for Crohn's disease of the pouch. Given the histologic variability in Crohn's disease, it may be unreasonable to

  20. Risk of ileal pouch neoplasms in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajika, Masahiro; Niwa, Yasumasa; Bhatia, Vikram; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Makoto; Yamao, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy is the most common surgical option for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, adenomas may develop in the ileal pouch mucosa over time, and even carcinoma in the pouch has been reported. We therefore reviewed the prevalence, nature, and treatment of adenomas and carcinoma that develop after proctocolectomy in the ileal pouch mucosa in patients with FAP. In 25 reports that were reviewed, the incidence of adenomas in the ileal pouch varied from 6.7% to 73.9%. Several potential factors that favor the development of pouch polyposis have been investigated, but many remain controversial. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the age of the pouch is important. The risk appears to be 7% to 16% after 5 years, 35% to 42% after 10 years, and 75% after 15 years. On the other hand, only 21 cases of ileal pouch carcinoma have been recorded in the literature to date. The diagnosis of pouch carcinoma was made between 3 to 20 years (median, 10 years) after pouch construction. Although the risk of malignant transformation in ileal pouches is probably low, it is not negligible, and the long-term risk cannot presently be well quantified. Regular endoscopic surveillance, especially using chromoendoscopy, is recommended. PMID:24187452

  1. Selenium in human mammary carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overvad, Kim; Grøn, P.; Langhoff, Otto

    1991-01-01

    In a case-referent study on the possible role of selenium in human mammary carcinogenesis, serum selenium was found to be 79 +/- 12 micrograms/l in 66 cases and 81 +/- 12 micrograms/l in 93 referents. An internal trend in serum selenium was observed among cases (TNM stage I 81 +/- 11 micrograms....../l and TNM stage II 76 +/- 13 micrograms selenium/l), indicating disease-mediated changes. The evaluation of selenium as a risk indicator in human breast cancer was therefore restricted to TNM stage I patients (n = 36). Multiple logistic regression analyses including variables associated with selenium levels...... revealed no association between selenium levels and breast cancer risk....

  2. Genetic factors for breast carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Enrique Miguel-Soca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a multifactorial genenetic disease in which oncogenes derived from normal cellular genes intervene, which constitute positive signals of cellular proliferation and tumour suppressor genes and represent negative signals of cells multiplication and differentiation. Although these alterations which affect germinal cells produce inherited cancers, in most of the cases somatic cell genes are affected. To the susceptibility of cancer due to genes as BRCA1 and BCRA2, the effect of factors associated to environment, life style and toxic habits are added, these determine a complex interrelation genes-environment which imply an activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumour suppressors. The objective of this review in to offer an updated view about the main genes implied in breast carcinogenesis. The topic is controversial y currently deeply investigated.

  3. Early dumping syndrome and reflux esophagitis prevention with pouch reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikic, Srdjan; Randjelovic, Tomislav; Dragojevic, Svetlana; Bilanovic, Dragoljub; Granic, Miroslav; Gacic, Dragan; Zdravkovic, Darko; Stefanovic, Branislav; Djokovic, Aleksandra; Pazin, Vladimir

    2012-06-01

    Total gastrectomy causes numerous disorders, such as reflux esophagitis, dumping syndrome, malabsorption, and malnutrition. To minimize the consequences, different variants of reconstruction are performed. The aim of our study is the comparison of two reconstructive methods: the standard Roux-en-Y and a new modality of pouch interposition, preduodenal-pouch interposition. This study aims to investigate the advantage of bile reflux prevention and to reduce symptoms of dumping syndrome after 3- and 6-mo follow-up. A total of 60 patients were divided in two groups: (A) 30 patients with Roux-en-Y reconstruction, and (B) 30 patients with the preduodenal-pouch (PDP) type of reconstruction. Endoscopic examination and endoluminal jejunal limb pressure measurements were performed. Scintigraphic measurements of half-emptying time were performed to evaluate meal elimination in the context of reflux esophagitis and early dumping syndrome. The Japan Society of Gastrointestinal Surgery has provided guidelines with which to classify the symptoms of early dumping syndrome. Patients were followed up for periods of 3 and 6 mo after the surgery. Our study groups did not differ with regard to the level of reflux esophagitis (P = 0.688). Average values of pressure at 10 and 15 cm below the esophago-jejunal junction were significantly lower in the PDP group (P dumping syndrome symptoms revealed a significant reduction among PDP patients after 3 and 6 mo. Our study showed significant superiority of the new pouch reconstruction over the standard Roux-en-Y approach in the treatment of early dumping syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lack of Effects of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein2 on Angiogenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Induced in the Syrian hamster Cheek Pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Khaled Waleed; Nhar, Bander Mossa; Ghadeer Alanazi, Salman Mohammed; Murad, Rashad; Domani, Ahmad; Alhafi, Awadh Jamman

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein2 (rhBMP2 ), a member of the TGF? family, has been used widely in recent years to regenerate defects of the maxillary and mandible bones. Such defects are sometimes caused by resection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) yet the biologic effects of rhBMP2 on these carcinomas are not fully clear. The objective of this study was to determine histologically whether rhBMP2 produces adverse effects on angiogenesis during induction of OSCC, a biologic process critical for tumor formation in an experimental model in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters. Buccal cavities were exposed to painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks, then biopsies were taken. Division was into 2 groups: a study group of 10 hamsters receiving 0.25?g/ml of rhBMP2 in the 3rd and 6th weeks; and a control group of 10 hamsters which did not receive any additional treatment. VEGF expression and microvessel density were measured but no differences were noted between the two groups. According to this study, rhBMP2 does not stimulate angiogenesis during induction of OCSSs.

  5. Speech and swallowing outcomes in buccal mucosa carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunila John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms among all oral cancers in India. Understanding the role of speech language pathologists (SLPs in the domains of evaluation and management strategies of this condition is limited, especially in the Indian context. This is a case report of a young adult with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with no deleterious habits usually associated with buccal mucosa carcinoma. Following composite resection, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction, he developed severe oral dysphagia and demonstrated unintelligible speech. This case report focuses on the issues of swallowing and speech deficits in buccal mucosa carcinoma that need to be addressed by SLPs, and the outcomes of speech and swallowing rehabilitation and prognostic issues.

  6. Variation in buccal surface morphology of deciduous first molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Simratvir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The buccal bulge of the deciduous first molars has always been a restorative challenge to the pediatric dentist. Morphologically it may vary from a slight prominence to a well-developed cusp-like structure. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the variable buccal surface morphology of deciduous first molar and its clinical relevance. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted whereby 2016 patients visiting the outpatient clinic of dental hospital over 1 year were evaluated. Any variation in buccal surface morphology of the deciduous first molars was recorded photographically or by replicating in dental stone. Results: Varied morphological patterns on buccal surface were observed for which a new classification scheme has been proposed. Conclusion: The surface morphology of deciduous teeth crowns must be studied carefully as it may be indicative of pulpal extensions and accessory roots, requiring consideration during restorative treatment planning.

  7. Preparation of Mucoadhesive Patches for Buccal Administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: The mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared by solvent casting technique using two different mucoadhesive polymers. The formulations ... and nucleic acids possessing superior pharmacological efficacy, site specificity and ... Metoprolol succinate was obtained as a gift from Aarti Pharmaceuticals, India while.

  8. How I do it: the stapled ileal J pouch at restorative proctocolectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, S T

    2011-12-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) following proctocolectomy is the preferred option for patients with medically refractory ulcerative colitis, indeterminate colitis, and familial adenomatous polyposis. However, it remains a procedure associated with morbidity and mortality. Pelvic sepsis, pouch fistulae, and anastomotic dehiscence predispose to pouch failure. We report our experience with an adaptation for the formation of the stapled ileal J pouch using the GIA™ 100 stapling device (Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts, USA). When creating the J pouch, we remove the bevelled plastic protector from the thin fork of the stapling device, allowing the staple line to be completed to the tip of the stapled efferent limb of the pouch, thereby minimizing potential blind ending in the efferent limb and injury to the transverse staple line.

  9. Entrainment control in the Aplysia buccal ganglion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, John D.; Milton, John G.

    2000-03-01

    Many dynamical systems, such as neural networks, can be pushed into or out of an entrained state by varying a system parameter. However, implementing this control strategy in a real biological system remains a difficult problem since many biological effectors have multiple effects. An example is an inhibitory interneuron that generates a postsynaptic current with a constant component, which alters the firing rate of its target, and a time-varying component, which can have a variety of effects. Here we explore the effects of an inhibitory interneuron on the ability of a regularly spiking Aplysia buccal motoneuron to synchronize to an external periodic input. After measuring the Arnold tongue structure of the motoneuron's response to sinusoidal input, we drive the motoneuron to and from an entrained state (onto and off of a tongue) by using the interneuron as a rate controller. These observations indicate that rate control of synchronization is robust even in the case when effectors have multiple actions. Moreover, these results provide direct evidence that inhibitory interneurons can serve as a sensitive mechanism to control the synchronization of neural populations by producing only slight changes in neural firing rate.

  10. Retort pouch processing of Chettinad style goat meat curry — a heritage meat product

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, V; Dushyanthan, K.; Das, Arun K.

    2010-01-01

    Chettinad style goat meat curry, a heritage meat product, was thermal processed in retort pouches having 4 layer configurations. Physical properties of retort pouches indicated that they are suitable for processing. Pouches filled with 150 g of goat meat and 100 g of curry medium were retorted to a FO value of 12.1 min. Retort cooked products were tested for sterility and quality characteristics. Retorting decreased the product pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and shear force value...

  11. Fentanyl Buccal Soluble Film: A Review in Breakthrough Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2016-05-01

    Fentanyl buccal soluble film (Onsolis(®), Breakyl(®), Painkyl™) comprises two layers: a mucoadhesive layer containing the active drug, and an inactive layer with the aim of preventing the diffusion of fentanyl into the oral cavity. It is approved in several countries worldwide, including the USA and those of the EU, for the management of breakthrough cancer pain in opioid-tolerant, adult patients with cancer. This article reviews the pharmacological properties of fentanyl buccal soluble film and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in these patients. Fentanyl buccal soluble film provides an additional option for transmucosal delivery of fentanyl, with approximately half of the dose undergoing an initial, rapid absorption via the buccal mucosa (accounting for its high bioavailability). In clinical trials, fentanyl buccal soluble film was associated with significant improvements in pain intensity scores versus placebo and was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse events were typical opioid-associated adverse events, such as nausea and vomiting. Fentanyl buccal soluble film is a useful option for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain in opioid-tolerant patients.

  12. Autologous buccal mucosa graft augmentation for foreshortened vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsby, Gwen M; Bradshaw, Karen; Baker, Linda A

    2014-05-01

    Vaginal foreshortening after pelvic surgery or radiotherapy may lead to dyspareunia and decreased quality of life. Unfortunately, little literature exists regarding treatment options for this debilitating problem. Autologous buccal mucosal grafting has been previously reported for creation of a total neovagina and the repair of postvaginoplasty vaginal stenosis. Autologous buccal mucosa offers several advantages as a replacement material for vaginal reconstruction. Vaginal and oral buccal mucosa are both hairless, moist, nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelia. Buccal mucosa has a dense layer of elastic fibers, imparting both elasticity and strength, and acquires a robust neovascularity with excellent graft take. The graft material is readily available and donor site scars are hidden in the mouth. A 60-year-old woman had vaginal foreshortening to 4.5 cm 15 years after radical hysterectomy and brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. She was unable to have intercourse despite attempted vaginal dilation. Her foreshortened vagina was successfully augmented with autologous buccal mucosa grafting at the apex, increasing her vaginal length to 8 cm and permitting pain-free intercourse. Even in the face of an altered surgical field after radical hysterectomy and radiation, autologous buccal mucosa is an option for vaginal reconstruction for vaginal foreshortening.

  13. Scintigraphic small intestinal transit time and defaecography in patients with J-pouch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend

    2015-01-01

    analysis. However, we found a high body mass index (BMI) and a low bowel movement frequency to be associated with a longer transit time by multivariate analysis. Scintigraphic determination of transit time and defaecography are feasible methods in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis...... function, mucosal condition and a questionnaire on quality of life (QoL). This cross-sectional study included 21 patients. Scintigraphic transit time and defaecography was determined with the use of Tc-99m. Pouch function was assessed by number of bowel movements, pouch volume, and continence. Pouch...

  14. Recent progress in nickel carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Positive bacterial mutagenesis tests have been obtained with Ni(II) in Corynybacterium, but not in E. coli, S. typhimurium, or B. subtilis. Transformation assays of several soluble and crystalline Ni compounds have been positive in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Ni(II) binds to DNA, RNA, and nucleoproteins, and becomes localized in nucleoli. Genotoxic effects of Ni include: (a) chromosomal aberrations, including sister-chromatid exchanges, (b) DNA strandbreaks and DNA-protein crosslinks, (c) inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis, (d) infidelity of DNA transcription, and (e) mutations at the HGPRTase locus in Chinese hamster cells and the TK locus in mouse lymphoma cells. These findings are consistent with somatic mutation as the mechanism for initiation of nickel carcinogenesis. Ni compounds cause reversible transition of double-stranded poly(dG-dC) DNA from the right-handed B-helix to the left-handed Z-helix, suggesting a mechanism whereby nickel might modulate oncogene expression. 99 references, 4 tables.

  15. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas KR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  16. The hamster cheek pouch model for field cancerization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti-Hughes, Andrea; Aromando, Romina F; Pérez, Miguel A; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, Maria E

    2015-02-01

    External carcinogens, such as tobacco and alcohol, induce molecular changes in large areas of oral mucosa, which increase the risk of malignant transformation. This condition, known as 'field cancerization', can be detected in biopsy specimens using histochemical techniques, even before histological alterations are identified. The efficacy of these histochemical techniques as biomarkers of early cancerization must be demonstrated in appropriate models. The hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, universally employed in biological studies and in studies for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer, is also an excellent model of field cancerization. The carcinogen is applied in solution to the surface of the mucosa and induces alterations that recapitulate the stages of cancerization in human oral mucosa. We have demonstrated that the following can be used for the early detection of cancerized tissue: silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions; the Feulgen reaction to stain DNA followed by ploidy analysis; immunohistochemical analysis of fibroblast growth factor-2, immunohistochemical labeling of proliferating cells to demonstrate an increase of epithelial cell proliferation in the absence of inflammation; and changes in markers of angiogenesis (i.e. those indicating vascular endothelial growth factor activity, endothelial cell proliferation and vascular density). The hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer was also proposed and validated by our group for boron neutron capture therapy studies for the treatment of oral cancer. Clinical trials of this novel treatment modality have been performed and are underway for certain tumor types and localizations. Having demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy to control tumors in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, we adapted the model for the long-term study of field cancerized tissue. We demonstrated the inhibitory effect of boron neutron capture therapy on tumor development in field

  17. Tunguska, 1908: the gas pouch and soil fluidization hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Siberian taiga explosion of 30 June 1908 remains one of the great mysteries of the 20th century: millions of trees put down over an area of 2200 km2 without trace of a crater or meteorite fragments. Hundred years of failed searches have followed, resulting in as many flawed hypothesis which could not offer satisfactory explanations: meteorite, comet, UFO, etc. In the author's opinion, the cause is that the energy the explorers looked for was simply not there! The author's hypothesis is that a meteoroid encountered a gas pouch in the atmosphere, producing a devastating explosion, its effects being amplified by soil fluidization.

  18. Extreme dilatation of the interposed jejunal pouch after proximal gastrectomy associated with portal venous gas: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michinaga Takahashi

    2017-01-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Long-term operative outcome following pouch operation for gastric cancer still remains controversial. Surgical intervention should be considered when we encounter patients who have refractory pouch dilatation after surgery for gastric cancer.

  19. Formulation and in vivo evaluation of omeprazole buccal adhesive tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Jung, J; Yong, C S; Rhee, C; Lee, M; Han, J; Park, K; Kim, C

    2000-09-03

    For the development of omeprazole buccal adhesive tablets, we studied the release and bioavailability of omeprazole delivered by buccal adhesive tablets composed of sodium alginate, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), magnesium oxide and croscarmellose sodium. Croscarmellose sodium enhanced the release of omeprazole from the tablets. The analysis of the release mechanism showed that croscarmellose sodium changed the release profile of omeprazole from first- to zero-order release kinetics by forming porous channels in the tablet matrix. However, it decreased the bioadhesive forces and stability of omeprazole tablets in human saliva. The tablet is composed of omeprazole-sodium alginate-HPMC-magnesium oxide-croscarmellose sodium (20:24:6:50:10 mg). It may be attached to the human cheek without collapse and it enhanced the stability of omeprazole in human saliva for at least 4 h, giving a fast release of omeprazole. The plasma concentration of omeprazole in hamsters increased to reach a maximum of 370 ng/ml at 45 min after buccal administration and remained at the high level of 146-366 ng/ml for 6 h. The buccal bioavailability of omeprazole in hamsters was 13.7+/-3.2%. These results demonstrate that the omeprazole buccal adhesive tablet would be useful to deliver omeprazole which degrades very rapidly in acidic aqueous medium and undergoes hepatic first-pass metabolism after oral administration.

  20. Scintigraphic Small Intestinal Transit Time and Defaecography in Patients with J-Pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Dilling Kjaer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective methods for examination of pouch function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and treatment of dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of scintigraphic intestinal transit time and defaecography compared to the results of pouch function, mucosal condition and a questionnaire on quality of life (QoL. This cross-sectional study included 21 patients. Scintigraphic transit time and defaecography was determined with the use of Tc-99m. Pouch function was assessed by number of bowel movements, pouch volume, and continence. Pouch mucosal condition was evaluated by endoscopy and histology. Median transit time was 189 min (105–365. Median ejection fraction at defaecography (EF was 49% (3–77 and 62% (17–98 after first and second defecation. Median pouch volume was 223 mL (100–360. A median daily stool frequency of nine (4–25 was reported and three (14% patients suffered from daytime incontinence. No patients had symptomatic or endoscopic pouchitis; however, the histology showed unspecific inflammation in 19 (90% patients. There was no correlation between transit time, evacuation fraction (EF and pouch function in univariate analysis. However, we found a high body mass index (BMI and a low bowel movement frequency to be associated with a longer transit time by multivariate analysis. Scintigraphic determination of transit time and defaecography are feasible methods in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, but the clinical relevance is yet doubtful.

  1. Reflux of a staple after kock pouch urinary diversion: a nidus for renal stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronau, Eckart; Pannek, Juergen

    2004-06-01

    A patient with cystectomy and urinary diversion after spinal cord injury had multiple pouch concretements and a kidney stone formed around a staple that apparently had refluxed from the nipple of the pouch. In such cases, the stone and staple should be removed at the same time, either percutaneously or by ureterorenoscopy.

  2. Alkaline and non-aqueous proton-conducting pouch-cell batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Kwo-hsiung; Nei, Jean; Meng, Tiejun

    2018-01-02

    Provided are sealed pouch-cell batteries that are alkaline batteries or non-aqueous proton-conducing batteries. A pouch cell includes a flexible housing such as is used for pouch cell construction where the housing is in the form of a pouch, a cathode comprising a cathode active material suitable for use in an alkaline battery, an anode comprising an anode active material suitable for use in an alkaline battery, an electrolyte that is optionally an alkaline or proton-conducting electrolyte, and wherein the pouch does not include or require a safety vent or other gas absorbing or releasing system as the anode active material and the cathode active material do not increase the internal atmospheric pressure any more than 2 psig during cycling. The batteries provided function contrary to the art recognized belief that such battery systems were impossible due to unacceptable gas production during cycling.

  3. Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic “Salvage” Rectopexy for Recurrent Ileoanal J-Pouch Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Ragupathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Total restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (RP/IPAA has become the standard of care for the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis. Despite its correlation with an excellent quality of life and favorable long-term outcomes, RP/IPAA has been associated with several complications. Prolapse of the ileoanal pouch is a rare and debilitating complication that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pouch failure. Limited data exist regarding the prevalence and treatment of pouch prolapse. We present the case of a recurrent J-pouch prolapse treated with a novel minimally invasive “salvage” approach involving a robotic-assisted laparoscopic rectopexy with mesh.

  4. Role of bacteria in oral carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rajeev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in Indian men and is the leading cause of cancer deaths. It is considered as a multistep and multifactorial disease. Besides accumulation of genetic mutations, numerous other carcinogens are involved. In this category, viral and chemical carcinogens are well studied and documented. However, in the oral cavity, the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites, and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies, but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways, and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. This review presents possible carcinogenesis pathway involved in bacterial carcinogenesis, commonly implicated bacteria in oral carcinogenesis, and their role in cancer therapeutics as well.

  5. Buccal Dosage Forms: General Considerations for Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Padilla, Soledad; Velaga, Sitaram; Morales, Javier O

    2017-02-01

    The development of an appropriate dosage form for pediatric patients needs to take into account several aspects, since adult drug biodistribution differs from that of pediatrics. In recent years, buccal administration has become an attractive route, having different dosage forms under development including tablets, lozenges, films, and solutions among others. Furthermore, the buccal epithelium can allow quick access to systemic circulation, which could be used for a rapid onset of action. For pediatric patients, dosage forms to be placed in the oral cavity have higher requirements for palatability to increase acceptance and therapy compliance. Therefore, an understanding of the excipients required and their functions and properties needs to be particularly addressed. This review is focused on the differences and requirements relevant to buccal administration for pediatric patients (compared to adults) and how novel dosage forms can be less invasive and more acceptable alternatives.

  6. Downregulation of keratin 76 expression during oral carcinogenesis of human, hamster and mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikant Ambatipudi

    Full Text Available Keratins are structural marker proteins with tissue specific expression; however, recent reports indicate their involvement in cancer progression. Previous study from our lab revealed deregulation of many genes related to structural molecular integrity including KRT76. Here we evaluate the role of KRT76 downregulation in oral precancer and cancer development.We evaluated KRT76 expression by qRT-PCR in normal and tumor tissues of the oral cavity. We also analyzed K76 expression by immunohistochemistry in normal, oral precancerous lesion (OPL, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and in hamster model of oral carcinogenesis. Further, functional implication of KRT76 loss was confirmed using KRT76-knockout (KO mice.We observed a strong association of reduced K76 expression with increased risk of OPL and OSCC development. The buccal epithelium of DMBA treated hamsters showed a similar trend. Oral cavity of KRT76-KO mice showed preneoplastic changes in the gingivobuccal epithelium while no pathological changes were observed in KRT76 negative tissues such as tongue.The present study demonstrates loss of KRT76 in oral carcinogenesis. The KRT76-KO mice data underlines the potential of KRT76 being an early event although this loss is not sufficient to drive the development of oral cancers. Thus, future studies to investigate the contributing role of KRT76 in light of other tumor driving events are warranted.

  7. Bacterionomics and vironomics in carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiwi Sudarmono

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Virus and bacteria are microbes which are very common cause human infection. Most of the bacterial infection can be eradicated by antibiotics and infection symptoms disappear. But for virus infection, once infected, the virus will persistently stay in the host, even undergo not only a lytic cycle but also integrated into host genome. Nowadays, at least 6 virus type are consistently related to human cancer, such as EBV,HPV,HTLV,HBV,HCV,HKSV, and the new one Merkel Virus (MCV. Although not every infected people will get cancer, but around 20% of the whole cancer in human are caused by viral oncogene. Class one oncogenic bacterial is Helicobacter pylori. Infection with this bacteria can cause persistent gastro duodenal inflammation which cause some alteration in gastric cell growth into transformation. Expression of Cag gene and Vac gene and some expression of OMP protein usually link to gastric cancer. Molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis for every virus which cause infection  is a very complex , which include several processes caused by cell transformation. Besides, other host and environmental factors are also play a significant role in cancer development. Some scientist put a Hallmark analysis as a model to quickly summarize what pathobiology process will happen and what gene or protein caused the process. The Hallmark analysis comprise of several process which may happen simultaneously because some of the Hallmark is caused by the same protein. The Hallmark consists of various virus strategies in oncogenesis such as promoting angiogenesis, avoiding immune destruction, genome instability and mutation, deregulating cellular energetic, resisting cell death, sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, enabling cellular immortality, promoting inflammation and activation metastasis. For example, infection by HPV, will cause low grade dysplasia which can continue to invasive cervical cancer. After host cell transformation, in

  8. Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T D

    1999-01-24

    multiple causes of carcinogenesis and shifts the risk-assessment logic to considerations of "what dose does?" in contrast to the current process of the substance-specific question of "what dose is?" Whether reactive oxygen is the proximate or contributing cause of disease or simply a better estimate of biologically effective dose, it has enormous advantages for improved risk- and policy-based decisions. Various estimates of immune system modulation will be given based on radiobiology.

  9. Ultrasonographic evaluation of inflammatory swellings of buccal space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The main objective of the study was a to differentiate cellulitis and abscess in buccal space region, b to study the ultrasonographic anatomy of cheek region and c to investigate the use of ultrasound in the diagnosis of inflammatory swellings of cheek region. Patients and Methods : The study consisted of 25 patients with unilateral buccal space inflammatory swellings of odontogenic origin. The contra lateral side was used as control. Toshiba ultrasonographic device with a linear array transducer (5-8 MHz was used. The areas of interest were scanned under both transverse and longitudinal sections and were interpreted by a single observer. The clinical diagnosis of cellulitis or abscess was confirmed by the absence or presence of pus respectively both sonographically and by aspiration. Also various anatomical structures present in buccal space were studied. Results : Clinically 23(92% were diagnosed as buccal space abscess and 2 (8% were cellulitis. Ultrasonographically and therapeutically 24 (96% were buccal space abscess and 1 (4% was cellulits. The sensitivity of clinical criteria over ultrasonographic diagnosis was 96% with a specificity of 100%. Also the cheek thickness in males and females varied from 8.2 to 17.1mm with a mean of 11.6mm±2.1 (SD and 8.2 mm to 14.2 mm with a mean of 11±1.8 (SD. The subcutaneous tissue appeared moderately echogenic, buccinator - highly echogenic, deep adipose tissue - less echogenic and parotid duct was appreciated as a thin hyperechogenic band crossing the buccinator muscle. Buccal space, masticator space and parotid space were appreciated. Conclusion : This study supports the ultrasonographic method of imaging of orofacial inflammatory swellings with high sensitivity and specificity. This imaging modality can also help in aspiration of pus in different spaces. We have described the ultrasonographic anatomy of the above mentioned spaces which can help a beginner in this field.

  10. HGF is released from buccal fibroblasts after smokeless tobacco stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, S; Christensen, S; Gron, B

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of smokeless tobacco (ST) on (1) HGF, KGF and GM-CSF expression by buccal fibroblasts and (2) on keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation. Buccal fibroblasts were stimulated with different concentrations of ST extracts in a double dilution from 0.50% w/v to 0.03% w/v. S....... Keratinocytes and fibroblasts showed no increase in proliferation after stimulation with increased concentrations of ST. The results suggest that HGF and KGF may play an important role as a paracrine growth factor in epithelial hyperplasia in ST lesions....

  11. A mechanistic based approach for enhancing buccal mucoadhesion of chitosan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Muff-Westergaard, Christian; Sander, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    the mucoadhesiveness of buccal formulations. The interaction between chitosan of different chain lengths and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was studied using a complex coacervation model (CCM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a tensile detachment model (TDM). The effect of pH was assessed in all three models...... and the approach to add a buffer to chitosan based drug delivery systems is a means to optimize and enhance buccal drug absorption. The CCM demonstrated optimal interactions between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2. The ITC experiments showed a significantly increase in affinity between chitosan and PGM at pH 5...

  12. Buccal-sided mandibular angle exostosis - A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Basha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal exostoses are benign, broad-based surface masses of the outer or facial aspect of the maxilla and less commonly, the mandible. They begin to develop in early adulthood and may very slowly enlarge over the years. They are painless and self-limiting, but occasionally may become several centimeters across and then contribute to periodontal disease of the adjacent teeth by forcing food during chewing in toward the teeth instead of away from them, as is normally the case. The following paper presents a very rare case of buccal-sided mandibular angle exoxtosis and its management with surgical exploration.

  13. Anticancer Effect of Lycopene in Gastric Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2015-06-01

    Gastric cancer ranks as the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Risk factors of gastric carcinogenesis include oxidative stress, DNA damage, Helicobacter pylori infection, bad eating habits, and smoking. Since oxidative stress is related to DNA damage, smoking, and H. pylori infection, scavenging of reactive oxygen species may be beneficial for prevention of gastric carcinogenesis. Lycopene, one of the naturally occurring carotenoids, has unique structural and chemical features that contributes to a potent antioxidant activity. It shows a potential anticancer activity and reduces gastric cancer incidence. This review will summarize anticancer effect and mechanism of lycopene on gastric carcinogenesis based on the recent experimental and clinical studies.

  14. Understanding Carcinogenesis for Fighting Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. Oral cancer development is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are able to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will give us important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, assessing cancer risk, and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from research using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as interventions with molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy.

  15. Anthropometric analysis of maxillary anterior buccal bone of Korean adults using cone-beam CT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Seung-Lok; Kim, Hee-Jung; Son, Mee-Kyoung; Chung, Chae-Heon

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the thickness of buccal and palatal alveolar bone and buccal bony curvature below root apex in maxillary anterior teeth of Korean adults using Cone-beam CT images...

  16. Carcinogenesis of the Oral Cavity: Environmental Causes and Potential Prevention by Black Raspberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bayoumy, Karam; Chen, Kun-Ming; Zhang, Shang-Min; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Amin, Shantu; Stoner, Gary; Guttenplan, Joseph B

    2017-01-17

    Worldwide, cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx comprise the sixth most common malignancies. Histologically, more than 90% of oral cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Epidemiologic data strongly support the role of exogenous factors such as tobacco, alcohol, and human papilloma virus infection as major causative agents. Avoidance of risk factors has only been partially successful, and survival rates have not improved despite advances in therapeutic approaches. Therefore, new or improved approaches to prevention and/or early detection are critical. Better understanding of the mechanisms of oral carcinogenesis can assist in the development of novel biomarkers for early detection and strategies for disease prevention. Toward this goal, several animal models for carcinogenesis in the oral cavity have been developed. Among these are xenograft, and transgenic animal models, and others employing the synthetic carcinogens such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in hamster cheek pouch and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide in rats and mice. Additional animal models employing environmental carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene and N'-nitrosonornicotine have been reported. Each model has certain advantages and disadvantages. Models that (1) utilize environmental carcinogens, (2) reflect tumor heterogeneity, and (3) accurately represent the cellular and molecular changes involved in the initiation and progression of oral cancer in humans could provide a realistic platform. To achieve this goal, we introduced a novel nonsurgical mouse model to study oral carcinogenesis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), an environmental pollutant and tobacco smoke constituent, and its diol epoxide metabolite (±)-anti-11,12-dihydroxy-13,14-epoxy-11,12,13,14-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene [(±)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE]. On the basis of a detailed comparison of oral cancer induced by DB[a,l]P with that induced by the other above-mentioned oral carcinogens with respect to dose, duration, species and

  17. Oral Mucoadhesive Buccal Film of Ciprofloxacin for Periodontitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This method records the time required for complete erosion or dislodgement of the film from the mucosal surface (segments of porcine buccal mucosa glued on a .... Sitzman C. Evaluation of a hydrophilic gingival dental sealant in beagle dogs. J Vet Dent. 2013; 30(3):150155. 6. Agarwal S, Venkatesh M, Udupa N. Controlled ...

  18. Buccal Mucosal Graft for Crippled Hypospadias (Experience in 11 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypospadias is defined as the incomplete virilization of the genital tubercle causing an incomplete development of the tissues forming the ventral urethra. Objective: Free buccal mucosal graft is an excellent option if the genital tissue is fibrous or deficient. We would like to present our small experience with ...

  19. Management of anterior urethral strictures with buccal mucosa: Our ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdelwahab Elkassaby

    2016-03-02

    Mar 2, 2016 ... steroids, topical or systemic, can control the disease and prevent progression. Surgical ... flexible cystoscopy [14] and ultrasonography [15]. The depth and ... In pursuit for the best graft material, bladder mucosa and buccal mucosal grafts .... and manual handling, resistance to infection, compatibility with a.

  20. Buccal Transmucosal Delivery System of Enalapril for Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buccal Transmucosal Delivery System of Enalapril for Improved Cardiac Drug Delivery: Preparation and Characterization. Wen-Shuai He, Hao-Wei Xiong, Dan Xi, Tian-Tian Luo, Hao Lu, Meng-Hao Li, Ji-Cheng Liu, Zhi-Gang Guo ...

  1. Buccal versus intranasal midazolam sedation for pediatric dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunbul, Nada; Delvi, Mohamed Bilal; Zahrani, Tariq Al; Salama, Fouad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized, controlled, crossover clinical trial was to evaluate and compare the behavioral differences resulting from the sedative effects of atomized buccal (transmucosal) and atomized intranasal (parenteral) midazolam (0.3 mg/kg) as a method for sedation of pediatric dental patients. Twenty-five 36- to 72-month-old patients were randomly selected and divided into two groups that were sedated with either atomized buccal in the first visit or intranasal midazolam in the second visit (0.3 mg/kg). Patient be- havior was rated, and drug acceptance by method of administration was determined. There were no statistically significant differences between both groups in maximum working time. There were significant differences between both groups in drug acceptance (P=.008) and onset time (P=.00). The statistical differences between the two groups were not significant in all behavior rating scales, except for the crying rating scale, since the buccal group showed more crying. Atomized buccal and intranasal midazolam are both effective for sedation of pediatric dental patients and have the same maximum working time. However, atomized intranasal is more acceptable by children, has faster onset time, and children demonstrate less crying.

  2. Review: How to harvest buccal mucosa from the cheek | Barbagli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper provides the reader with the step by step of our current technique of harvesting buccal mucosa from the cheek. We describe how to prepare the patients, the use of the Kilner-Doughty mouth retractor, the Stensen duct identification, the size and the shape of the graft. We discuss how to repair the donor site and ...

  3. Management of anterior urethral strictures with buccal mucosa: Our ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdelwahab Elkassaby

    2016-03-02

    Mar 2, 2016 ... Association. skin [2]. Again the results were unsatisfactory till 1995, when Duck- ett et al. successfully used buccal mucosa for urethral reconstruction ... subdivided into three categories (based on function and histology);. Masticatory, Lining and ... anatomy should be accurately determined. The location and ...

  4. Dorsal onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can be used for penile urethral stricture repair and different types of dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty for bulbar urethral stricture repair. The current paper describes, step by step, Barbagli technique of dorsal onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa. The preoperative patient evaluation and postoperative course ...

  5. Initial experience of buccal mucosa urethroplasty in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To present the experience with the use of buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective review of 53 consecutive patients who presented with urethral strictures seen by the author from January 2002 to December 2003 and were managed with different forms of urethral ...

  6. Ventral onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the ongoing role of ventral onlay oral mucosa free graft in the treatment of bulbar urethral stricture. Methods: Detailed review of technical consideration and outcomes from the author's institution along with review of other peer reviewed literature. Results: Of 62 patients undergoing ventral onlay buccal ...

  7. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Transitional Zone after Ileal Pouch Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis: Systematic Review and Treatment Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Pellino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few cases of pouch-related cancers have been reported in ulcerative colitis (UC, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is very rare. Method: A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify all unequivocal cases of pouch-related SCC in UC patients. Results: Eight cases of SCC developing after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA have been observed since 1978. Two arose from the pouch mucosa and 6 from below. The pooled cumulative incidence of SCC is below 0.06% after IPAA. Many patients had neoplasia on the preoperative specimen, but squamous metaplasia of the pouch or anorectal mucosa may have an important role in SCC. These patients are rarely offered chemoradiation therapy and the outcome is poor. Selected patients with SCC located close to the pouch outlet can be treated with chemoradiation prior to consideration of surgery and salvage their pouch. A chemoradiation regimen is suggested to avoid pouch excision in these patients. Conclusions: SCC is rare after pouch surgery but associated with extremely poor survival. Very low SCC can be managed with chemoradiation treatment, preserving the pouch and avoiding surgery, even in older patients. The role of pouch metaplasia, surveillance frequency, and treatment modalities after IPAA need further studying.

  8. Outcome after restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederen, K; Sahami, S S; Tabbers, M M; Benninga, M A; Kindermann, A; Tanis, P J; Oomen, M W; de Jong, J R; Bemelman, W A

    2017-11-01

    Studies comparing the outcome of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in children and adults are scarce. This complicates decision-making in young patients. The aim of this study was to compare adverse events and pouch function between children and adults who underwent IPAA. This cross-sectional cohort study included all consecutive children (aged less than 18 years) and adults with a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease or familial adenomatous polyposis who underwent IPAA in a tertiary referral centre between 2000 and 2015. Adverse events were assessed by chart review, and pouch function by interview using a pouch function score (PFS). In total, 445 patients underwent IPAA: 41 children (median age 15 years) and 404 adults (median age 39 years), with a median follow-up of 22 (i.q.r. 8-68) months. Being overweight (P = 0·001), previous abdominal surgery (P = 0·018), open procedures (P children than adult patients. The occurrence of anastomotic leakage, surgical fistulas, chronic pouchitis and Crohn's of the pouch was not associated with paediatric age at surgery, nor was pouch failure. The development of anastomotic strictures was associated with having IPAA surgery during childhood (odds ratio 4·22, 95 per cent c.i. 1·13 to 15·77; P = 0·032). Pouch function at last follow-up was similar in the children and adult groups (median PFS 5·0 versus 6·0 respectively; P = 0·194). Long-term pouch failure rates and pouch function were similar in children and adults. There is no need for a more cautious attitude to use of IPAA in children based on concerns about poor outcome. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Mifepristone With Buccal Misoprostol for Medical Abortion: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Melissa J; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2015-07-01

    To summarize clinical outcomes and adverse effects of medical abortion regimens consisting of mifepristone followed by buccal misoprostol in pregnancies through 70 days of gestation. We used PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists from published reports to identify relevant studies published between November 2005 and January 2015 using the search terms "mifepristone and medical abortion" and "buccal and misoprostol." Studies were included if they presented clinical outcomes of medical abortion using mifepristone and buccal misoprostol through 70 days of gestation. Studies with duplicate data were excluded. We included 20 studies with a total of 33,846 women through 70 days of gestation. We abstracted efficacy and ongoing pregnancy rates as an overall rate and by gestational age in days in reference to completed weeks (eg, 49 days or less, 50-56 days, 57-63 days, 64-70 days) and adverse effects when reported. The overall efficacy of mifepristone followed by buccal misoprostol is 96.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 96.5-96.8%) and the continuing pregnancy rate is 0.8% (95% CI 0.7-0.9%) in approximately 33,000 pregnancies through 63 days of gestation. Only 332 women with pregnancies between 64 and 70 days of gestation are reported in the literature with an overall efficacy of 93.1% (95% CI 89.6-95.5%) and a continuing pregnancy rate of 2.9% (95% CI 1.4-5.7%). Currently available data suggest that regimens with a 24-hour time interval between mifepristone and buccal misoprostol administration are slightly less effective than those with a 24- to 48-hour interval. Rates of surgical evacuation for reasons other than ongoing pregnancy range from 1.8% to 4.2%. Severe adverse events like blood transfusion (0.03-0.6%) and hospitalization (0.04-0.9%) are uncommon. Outpatient medical abortion regimens with mifepristone followed in 24-48 hours by buccal misoprostol are highly effective for pregnancy termination through 63 days of gestation. More data are needed to

  10. [Urinary diversion and colon: transverse conduit and transverse pouch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahyai, S A; Sayedahmed, K; Engel, O; Chun, F; Dahlem, R; Fisch, M

    2012-07-01

    In the vast majority of cases the terminal ileum is used for incontinent or continent bladder substitution. However, in irradiated patients the use of ileum segments or the ileocecal reservoir is associated with an increased risk of early and late complications. For this reason these patients should be treated with a transverse conduit or pouch as the method of choice if urinary diversion is indicated. The superior outcome of this high urinary diversion is due to the use of non-irradiated segments of the colon and ureter. The lack of experience in large bowel surgery by today's urologists should be compensated by training or referral of these high risk patients to a specialized center.

  11. Microbiology of the pericoronal pouch in mandibular third molar pericoronitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, W K; Theilade, E; Comfort, M B; Lim, P L

    1993-10-01

    The microorganisms associated with mandibular third molar pericoronitis were investigated using direct microscopy and anaerobic culture method. The pericoronal pouch was sampled with paper points in A) 8 patients without mandibular third molar pericoronitis and B) 6 patients with mandibular third molar pericoronitis. Under the microscope, the microflora was found to be a complex mixture comprising gram-positive and gram-negative cocci, rods and filaments (including fusiform and curved rods), motile rods and spirochetes. Significantly higher proportions of motile, gram-negative rods were found in group B than in group A. The predominant cultivable microflora of 9 samples: A (4) and B (5) comprised several species of facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria, namely Peptostreptococcus, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Eubacterium, Propionibacterium, Veillonella, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Bacteriodes, Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus, Stomatococcus, Lactobacillus, Neisseria, Capnocytophaga, Haemophilus, Selenomonas and Centipeda species. The microflora in pericoronitis appeared similar to that of diseased periodontal pockets.

  12. Restorative proctocolectomy with an ileoanal pouch. Postoperative course and long-term functional results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, L.R.; Bulow, S.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Over the last 25 years restorative proctocolectomy with an ileoanal pouch has been the gold standard in the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis and in selected patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. We present a study of the course, complications and long-term functional...... course and long-term follow-up were managed by few specialists in ileoanal pouch surgery. In our opinion restorative proctocolectomy with an ileoanal pouch is still the gold standard for patients with ulcerative colitis and for selected patients with familial adenomatous polyposis Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5/12...

  13. Differences in Ostomy Pouch Seal Leakage Occurrences Between North American and European Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Jane; Forest Lalande, Louise; Martins, Lina; Steen, Anne; Størling, Zenia M

    The purpose of this study was to compare experiences and concerns about pouch seal leakage between persons with ostomies residing in North America (Canada and the United States) and Europe (United Kingdom, Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Belgium, France, and Italy). Differences in reported pouch wear time and accessories used between the 2 groups were also examined. Secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional study (Ostomy Life Study). Responses from persons residing in European countries (n = 1939) were compared with responses of 1387 individuals residing in North American countries. Persons with an ostomy completed a questionnaire that focused on 4 topics related to the daily use of an ostomy pouching system (pouch seal leakage, ballooning, appearance of pouching system such as color and size of the pouch and whether it is discrete under clothing, and coupling failure of 2-piece pouching systems). Pouch seal leakage was defined as stomal effluent seeping between the skin and the wafer of the ostomy pouching system. Statistical analysis was performed using a proportional odds model including various variable effects. Special attention was given to frequency of pouch seal leakage occurrences. All tests were 2-sided; P values ≤.05 were deemed statistically significant. Participants living in the North American countries indicated they were more likely to experience leakage from the ostomy (odds ratio = 2.610, 95% CI 2.187-3.115; P < .0001). Findings also indicated they were more likely to worry about pouch seal leakage than those in the European countries' data set (odds ratio = 2.722, 95% CI 2.283-3.246; P < .0001). Participants residing in the North American countries had significantly longer wear times than those participants in the European countries (P < .0001, χ test). The use of accessories was associated with a longer pouching system wear time. Study results suggest that participants from the North American countries indicated significantly more

  14. Dysplasia-Associated Polypoid Mucosal Lesion in a Pelvic Pouch after Restorative Proctocolectomy for Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Freeman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man with ulcerative colitis had a colectomy for toxic colitis. Later, a rectal mucosectomy was performed along with the creation of a pelvic pouch. In 1998, approximately 10 years after this staged restorative proctocolectomy was completed, endoscopic examination of the pelvic pouch detected a small mucosal polypoid mass lesion. Although the lesion had the macroscopic appearance of an inflammatory polyp, microscopic sections of the resected lesion revealed dysplastic changes. Endoscopic polypectomy was performed to remove the lesion, and further histological surveillance examinations of the pelvic pouch have not detected additional dysplastic mucosal changes.

  15. Endoscopic gastric pouch plication – a novel endoluminal incision free approach to revisional bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virk CS

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 10-40% of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB patients regain significant weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery due to dilation of the pouch and/or the gastrojejunal (GJ anastomosis. Traditional revision surgery is associated with significant morbidity (e.g. post-anastomotic GJ leak where less invasive endoluminal procedures may represent safer alternatives. The present article reports a case of the safe and successful use of endoluminal gastric pouch plication (EGPP using the StomaphyX™ device to correct both a dilated gastric pouch and a dilated gastrojejunostomy in a post-RYGB patient who regained significant weight.

  16. Carcinoma of buccal mucosa: A site specific clinical audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, V; Jayade, B V; Anehosur, V; Gopalkrishnan, K; Kumar, N

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma of buccal mucosa is the most common cancer of the oral cavity in India. Treatment of oral cancer poses unique reconstructive challenges, owing to the dynamic architecture of the oral cavity. Despite current progress in various treatment modalities, over the past 50 years survival rates have not improved drastically. Although, philosophy on treatment of buccal mucosa carcinoma remains well-established, due to the relative paucity of reported data, retrospective reviews of institutional experiences are of prime importance. This study provides a detailed insight on this site specific cancer of the oral cavity in the Indian population. The aim of this study is to analyze our experience with the management of carcinoma of buccal mucosa; associated clinical presentation, outcomes and prognostic factors. A retrospective chart review was performed of all cases of primary buccal mucosa carcinoma treated surgically between years 2008 and 2012 in SDM Craniofacial Unit, Karnataka, India. All cases were analyzed based on patient characteristics, clinical presentation, surgical and adjuvant therapy rendered and treatment outcomes. A retrospective chart review was carried out using the hospital's data base for the same. Kaplan-Meier methods were used for analyzing disease free survival (DFS). Univariate analysis of prognostic factors was performed with log rank test. The significant variables in univariate analysis were: Overall stage, T-stage (T1/T2 vs. T3/T4) and nodal status (N0 vs. N+). We found that staging, tumor size and nodal status were significant prognostic factors for DFS. The strong influence of overall disease stage, tumor size, nodal status, final histopathological report and habits of tobacco/betel quid chewing, on prognosis; emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and prevention of carcinoma of buccal mucosa in the Indian population.

  17. Mismatch repair defects in human carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, J R; Markowitz, S D

    1996-01-01

    Mismatch repair defects are carcinogenic. This conclusion comes some 80 years after the original description of a type of familial colorectal cancer in which mismatch repair defects are involved, and from decades of dedicated basic science research into fundamental mechanisms cells use to repair their DNA. Mismatch repair (MMR) was described first in bacteria, later in yeast and finally in higher eukaryotes. In bacteria, one of its roles is the rapid repair of replicative errors thereby providing the genome with a 100-1000-fold level of protection against mutation. It also guards the genome by preventing recombination between non-homologous regions of DNA. The information gained from bacteria suddenly became relevant to human neoplasia in 1993 when the RER phenotype of microsatellite instability was discovered in human cancers and was rapidly shown to be due to defects in mismatch repair. Evidence supporting the role of MMR defects in carcinogenesis comes from a variety of independent sources including: (i) theoretical considerations of the requirement for a mutator phenotype as a step in multistage carcinogenesis; (ii) discovering that MMR defects cause a 'mutator phenotype' destabilizing endogenous expressed genes including those integral to carcinogenesis; (iii) finding MMR defects in the germline of HNPCC kindred members; (iv) finding that such defects behave as classic tumor suppressor genes in both familial and sporadic colorectal cancers; (v) discovering that MMR 'knockout' mice have an increased incidence of tumors; and (vi) discovering that genetic complementation of MMR defective cells stabilizes the MMR deficiency-associated microsatellite instability. Models of carcinogenesis now must integrate the concepts of a MMR defect induced mutator phenotype (Loeb) with the concepts of multistep colon carcinogenesis (Fearon and Vogelstein) and clonal heterogeneity/selection (Nowell).

  18. Histology of the Terminal End of the Distal Rectal Pouch and Fistula Region in Anorectal Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Gangopadhyay

    2008-10-01

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that the terminal end of the distal rectal pouch and proximal fistula region possess distorted anal features with aganglionosis, and contradicts the recommendation that this region should be reconstructed in patients with malformations.

  19. Open versus laparoscopic (assisted) ileo pouch anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Usama Ahmed; Keus, Frederik; Heikens, Joost T.; Bemelman, Willem A.; Berdah, Stephane V.; Gooszen, H. G.; van Laarhoven, Cees J. H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Restorative proctocolectomy with ileo pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the main surgical treatment for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). With the advancements of minimal-invasive surgery this demanding operation is increasingly being performed

  20. Clostridium difficile infection after restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Ugarte, M L; Lightner, A L; Colibaseanu, D; Khanna, S; Pardi, D S; Dozois, E J; Mathis, K L

    2016-05-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) of the ileal pouch following restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) is becoming increasingly recognized. We aimed to understand better (i) the associated risk factors, (ii) treatment practices and (iii) the pouch diversion and failure rate in patients who developed CDI of the pouch after RPC for ulcerative colitis (UC). Patients who tested positive for C. difficile of the pouch between 2007 and 2010 were included in the analysis. Data collected included patient demographics, time from RPC to documented CDI, the treatment of CDI and rate of excision of the pouch. Of 2785 patients recorded in the hospital CDI database, 15 had had an RPC with ileal pouch anal anastomosis. The median age was 44 years and the median interval from RPC to first documented episode of CDI was 3 years. Thirteen (81%) patients had had multiple episodes of pouchitis before and after CDI infection, and all were symptomatic at the time of testing for CDI. Within 30 days of the diagnosis of CDI, six (40%) patients were taking immunosuppressive medication, seven (47%) were taking a proton pump inhibitor and 12 (80%) had received antibiotics. Five patients required hospitalization for CDI and four had severe infections characterized by a serum creatinine more than 1.5 times baseline (n = 3) and a white cell count above 15 000 (n = 1). Six patients who underwent endoscopy had severe inflammation of the pouch including the presence of a pseudomembrane in one case. Ten patients were treated with metronidazole alone and five with vancomycin. Two patients had recurrent CDI of the pouch during a median follow-up period of 2.9 years and one had CDI refractory to medical management. This patient required diversion of the pouch with an ileostomy for refractory CDI but no patient required excision of the pouch. All 15 patients developing CDI of the pouch were successfully treated with antibiotics and only one required surgery in the form of an ileostomy. Colorectal

  1. Defecation mechanisms after anterior resection with J-pouch-anal and side-to-end anastomosis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, S; Hölzl, F; Wein, B; Tittel, A; Schumpelick, V

    2007-02-01

    Colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis or colonic side-to-end anastomosis is the reconstruction of choice after low anterior resection. However, the mechanisms of defecation after both reconstruction forms are still speculative. Low anterior rectal resections were performed in 12 dogs with six colonic J-pouch-anal (pouch) and six coloanal side-to-end (SE) reconstructions. Four months postoperative stool frequency, intestinal transit time, and neorectal compliance were determined by radiography and barostat. Defecation mechanisms were evaluated radiographically during expulsion of artificial stool. One dog with pouch reconstruction could not be evaluated due to an anastomotic leak, while the others had uncomplicated course. Spontaneous stool frequency was significantly increased with both reconstruction methods (control 2.0+/-0.9, pouch 2.7+/-1.2, SE 3.3+/-0.9 day; ptime was significantly higher with pouch reconstruction due to storage of stool in the pouch and the descending colon compared to SE (control 760+/-82, pouch 592+/-97, SE 550+/-87 min; pevacuation is passive and independent from pouch motility. The functional principle of the colonic J-pouch is not its reservoir function but a delay of colonic motility.

  2. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study on a Lithium Sulfur Pouch Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stanciu, Tiberiu; Schaltz, Erik; Teodorescu, Remus

    2016-01-01

    The impedance behavior of a 3.4 Ah pouch Lithium-Sulfur cell was extensively characterized using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. EIS measurements were performed at various temperatures and over the entire state-of-charge (SOC) interval without applying a superimposed DC current. The obtained results have revealed a high dependency of the pouch cell’s impedance spectrum on the operating conditions. An equivalent electrical circuit was proposed to further analyze the...

  3. Early Transcriptomic Changes in the Ileal Pouch Provide Insight into the Molecular Pathogenesis of Pouchitis and Ulcerative Colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yong; Dalal, Sushila; Antonopoulos, Dionysios; Hubert, Nathaniel; Raffals, Laura H.; Dolan, Kyle; Weber, Christopher; Messer, Jeannette S.; Jabri, Bana; Bendelac, Albert; Eren, A. Murat; Rubin, David T.; Sogin, Mitch; Chang, Eugene B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) only involves the colonic mucosa. Yet, nearly 50% of patients with UC who undergo total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis develop UC-like inflammation of the ileal pouch (pouchitis). By contrast, patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) with ileal pouch anal anastomosis develop pouchitis far less frequently. We hypothesized that pathogenic events associated with the development of UC are recapitulated by colonic-metaplastic transcriptomic reprogramming of the UC pouch. Methods: We prospectively sampled pouch and prepouch ileum mucosal biopsies in patients with UC with ileal pouch anal anastomosis 4, 8, and 12 months after their pouch was in continuity. Mucosal samples were also obtained from patients with FAP. Transcriptional profiles of the UC and FAP pouch and prepouch ileum were investigated via RNA sequencing and compared with data from a previously published microarray study. Results: Unlike patients with FAP, subjects with UC exhibited a large set of differentially expressed genes between the pouch and prepouch ileum as early as 4 months after pouch functionalization. Functional pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes in the UC pouch revealed an enhanced state of immune/inflammatory response and extracellular matrix remodeling. Moreover, >70% of differentially expressed genes mapped to published inflammatory bowel diseases microarray data sets displayed directional changes consistent with active UC but not with Crohn's disease. Conclusions: The UC pouch, well before histologic inflammation, already displays a systems-level gain of colon-associated genes and loss of ileum-associated genes. Patients with UC exhibit a unique transcriptomic response to ileal pouch creation that can be observed well before disease and may in part explain their susceptibility to the development of pouchitis.

  4. DNA damage in buccal mucosa cells of pre-school children exposed to high levels of urban air pollutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Ceretti

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been recognized as a human carcinogen. Children living in urban areas are a high-risk group, because genetic damage occurring early in life is considered able to increase the risk of carcinogenesis in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate micronuclei (MN frequency, as a biomarker of DNA damage, in exfoliated buccal cells of pre-school children living in a town with high levels of air pollution. A sample of healthy 3-6-year-old children living in Brescia, Northern Italy, was investigated. A sample of the children's buccal mucosa cells was collected during the winter months in 2012 and 2013. DNA damage was investigated using the MN test. Children's exposure to urban air pollution was evaluated by means of a questionnaire filled in by their parents that included items on various possible sources of indoor and outdoor pollution, and the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 in the 1-3 weeks preceding biological sample collection. 181 children (mean age ± SD: 4.3 ± 0.9 years were investigated. The mean ± SD MN frequency was 0.29 ± 0.13%. A weak, though statistically significant, association of MN with concentration of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 was found, whereas no association was apparent between MN frequency and the indoor and outdoor exposure variables investigated via the questionnaire. This study showed a high MN frequency in children living in a town with heavy air pollution in winter, higher than usually found among children living in areas with low or medium-high levels of air pollution.

  5. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of X-ray on buccal epithelial cells following panoramic radiography: A pediatric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ionizing radiation is a potent mutagenic agent capable of inducing both mutation and chromosomal aberrations. Non-lethal doses of ionizing radiation may induce genomic instability favoring carcinogenesis. In spite of their mutagenic potential, this kind of radiation is an important tool for diagnosis of the disease and is used in medical and dental practice. It has been believed that the number of micronucleus and increased frequency of other nuclear alterations, including karyorrhexis, condensed chromatin and pyknosis, are related to the increasing effects of carcinogens. Many approaches and techniques have been developed for the monitoring of human populations exposed to various mutagens, but the analysis of micronuclei (MN has become a standard approach for the assessment of chromosomal damage in human populations. Aim: To assess the effects of radiation exposure from panoramic radiography on the buccal epithelial cells (BECs of pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: The study included 20 pediatric patients who had to undergo panoramic radiography for further dental treatment. Exfoliated BECs were obtained and examined immediately before and 10 days after radiation exposure. The cells were stained using rapid Papanicolaou (PAP kit. Evaluation for MN and nuclear alterations was carried out by an oral pathologist and data were statistically analyzed using the "t" test. Results: The mean number of MN in the BECs before exposure of pediatric patients to panoramic radiography was 4.25 and after exposure was 4.40. This difference was not found to be statistically significant (P < 0.0001. However, the mean nuclear alterations of 8.70 and 15.75 before and after exposure were statistically significant (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Panoramic radiographs can induce cytotoxicity but not genotoxic effects in buccal mucosal cells. Hence, dental radiographs should be prescribed only when deemed indispensable.

  6. Experimental dermatophytosis in hamsters inoculated with Trichophyton mentagrophytes in the cheek pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARRUDA Maria Sueli Parreira de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of T. mentagrophytes inoculation in the cheek pouch of the hamster, an immunologically privileged site. Forty two animals were used: 21 inoculated with 10(6 fungi in the cheek pouch (group 1 and 21 inoculated initially with 10(6 fungi in the foot pad and 15 days later in the cheek pouch, with the same amount of fungi (group 2. Animals were sacrificed at 20 hours, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 120 days; samples from inoculated cheek pouch, and foot pads submitted to the foot pad test (FPT, were collected. Independent of group and time of evolution of infection, animals did not develop delayed hypersensitivity evaluated through the FPT. The pre-inoculation of fungi in the foot pad did not change the morphology of lesions induced in the cheek pouch. Therefore, in animals of group 1 and 2, the introduction of the fungus in the cheek pouch resulted in focal lesion composed of a sterile acute inflammatory infiltrate, with abscess formation that evolved to a macrophagic reaction, and later to resolution even in the absence of immune response detectable by FPT. Our results indicate that in spite of the important role of the immune response in the spontaneous regression of dermatophytosis, other factors are also an integral part in the defense against this fungal infection.

  7. Seahorse Brood Pouch Transcriptome Reveals Common Genes Associated with Vertebrate Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Camilla M; Griffith, Oliver W; Qi, Weihong; Thompson, Michael B; Wilson, Anthony B

    2015-12-01

    Viviparity (live birth) has evolved more than 150 times in vertebrates, and represents an excellent model system for studying the evolution of complex traits. There are at least 23 independent origins of viviparity in fishes, with syngnathid fishes (seahorses and pipefish) unique in exhibiting male pregnancy. Male seahorses and pipefish have evolved specialized brooding pouches that provide protection, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and limited nutrient provisioning to developing embryos. Pouch structures differ widely across the Syngnathidae, offering an ideal opportunity to study the evolution of reproductive complexity. However, the physiological and genetic changes facilitating male pregnancy are largely unknown. We used transcriptome profiling to examine pouch gene expression at successive gestational stages in a syngnathid with the most complex brood pouch morphology, the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Using a unique time-calibrated RNA-seq data set including brood pouch at key stages of embryonic development, we identified transcriptional changes associated with brood pouch remodeling, nutrient and waste transport, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and immunological protection of developing embryos at conception, development and parturition. Key seahorse transcripts share homology with genes of reproductive function in pregnant mammals, reptiles, and other live-bearing fish, suggesting a common toolkit of genes regulating pregnancy in divergent evolutionary lineages. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Recurrent Volvulus of an Ileal Pouch Requiring Repeat Pouchopexy: A Lesson Learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Myrelid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Restorative surgery for ulcerative colitis with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA is frequently accompanied by complications. Volvulus of the ileal pouch is one of the most rarely reported late complications and to our knowledge no report exists on reoperative surgery for this condition. Case Report. A 58-year-old woman who previously had undergone restorative proctocolectomy due to ulcerative colitis with an IPAA presented with volvulus of the pouch. She was operated with a single row pouchopexy to the presacral fascia. Two months later she returned with a recurrent volvulus. At reoperation, the pouch was found to have become completely detached from the fascia. A new pexy was made by firmly anchoring the pouch with two rows of sutures to the presacral fascia as well as with sutures to the lateral pelvic walls. At follow-up after five months she was free of symptoms. Conclusion. This first report ever on reoperative surgery for volvulus of a pelvic pouch indicates that a single row pouchopexy might be insufficient for preventing retwisting. Several rows seem to be needed.

  9. Concepts of threshold in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch-Volders, M; Aardema, M; Elhajouji, A

    2000-01-03

    Although the existence of a threshold in the dose effect relationship is well documented for many, if not most, types of toxicological effects the existence of a threshold for the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation and of certain chemicals has been questioned since the middle of the century and only recently the question of thresholds for radiation and chemical carcinogenesis has been addressed. The essential facts for the interpretation of threshold dose-response curves are common to all type of effects and are: (i) the number and the identity of the target; (ii) the type and sensitivity of the endpoint used to quantify the effect. We therefore will first try to model the type of interactions which may be expected between a mutagen and its target and define from this whether a threshold dose-effect can be expected; in a second step the concept will be extended to heritable mutations and carcinogenesis.

  10. [Adhesion of clinical Candida albicans isolate to buccal epithelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, A

    1999-01-01

    Mucosal adherence and germ tube formation are considered to be important virulence factors of C. albicans. Adherence is a precondition for colonisation and invasion. We investigated 11 clinical isolates (among them 5 cases recovered from oesophageal thrush) for quantification of the two characteristics and correlated the results with clinical data. Adherence was measured on buccal epithelial cells and the continuous flow culture was used for quantification of germ tube formation. Adherence of strains recovered from clinically, culturally and serologically confirmed oesophageal thrush adhered stronger to buccal epithelial cells than isolates from patients with heavy colonisation without signs of candidosis. Strains with stronger adherence showed a significantly faster and an increased germ tube formation in the continuous flow culture. Strains from oesophageal thrush therefore show a more marked expression of the investigated virulence factors. Therefore a good adherence is a necessity for infection of the oesophagus by C. albicans. The preferential isolation of C. albicans from oesophageal thrush (> 90%) supports this assumption.

  11. An adult juvenile xanthogranuloma in the buccal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yi Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile xanthogranulomas (JXGs are a type of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis that commonly affects infants and children. Adult oral JXGs are very rare. A 32-year-old Taiwanese male presented with the chief complaint of a solitary, firm, painless, non-tender swelling over the right buccal mucosa for about 2 weeks. An excisional biopsy of the lesion revealed a mixture of histiocytes, inflammatory cells, and Touton giant cells, and immunohistochemical positivity for CD68 and negativity for S-100 and CD1a confirmed the diagnosis of a JXG. Therefore, the current case report documents, to our knowledge, the first occurrence of an adult oral JXG in the buccal mucosa. It is also the first case of an adult oral JXG to be reported from Taiwan. The clinical characteristics of adult oral JXGs are also briefly reviewed.

  12. Improvement of buccal delivery of morphine using the prodrug approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Jørgensen, A.; Christensen, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    The feasibility of achieving buccal delivery of morphine using the prodrug approach was assessed by studies of bioactivation, in vitro permeation and in vivo absorption. The bioactivation of various morphine-3-esters was studied in human plasma and saliva. The in vitro permeation of morphine...... of 0.2. This discrepancy could however be explained by the enzymatic stability of the two esters in saliva, since it was found that morphine-3-propionate was more rapidly hydrolysed in saliva than was morphine-3-acetate. The study demonstrates that the buccal delivery of morphine can be markedly...... Improved by using ester prodrugs with higher lipophilicity than morphine itself. However, the enzymatic stability of the prodrugs in saliva also play an important role for the overall improvement in absorption properties....

  13. [Buccal bony exostoses induced by free gingival grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H; Slutzkey, S

    2011-01-01

    Buccal Bony Exostoses (BBE) is a local benign osseous overgrowth continuous with the facial aspect of the jaw. Post operative BBE may be the result of dermal grafts used to restore the buccal vestibulum, of connective tissue graft placement, and of Free Gingival Grafts (FGG) procedures. In 46 patients in whom 72 FGG procedures were performed by the senior author (HT) over the past 12 years, BBE was clinically and radiographically diagnosed. In one case the tumor was surgically removed. The etiology, pathogenesis and frequency of BBE following FGG procedures was reviewed and discussed. We suggest that the BBE may develop owing to periosteal surgical trauma during FGG procedures, and suggest that this phenomenon receives further attention.

  14. Study of chemical and radiation induced carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmura, A.

    1995-11-01

    The study of chemical and radiation induced carcinogenesis has up to now based many of its results on the detection of genetic aberrations using the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. FISH is time consuming and this tends to hinder its use for looking at large numbers of samples. We are currently developing new technological advances which will increase the speed, clarity and functionality of the FISH technique. These advances include multi-labeled probes, amplification techniques, and separation techniques.

  15. Formulation and Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal Bilayered Tablets of Salbutamol

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. N.G Raghavendra Rao; Gururaj S. Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Salbutamol is a short-acting 2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The salbutamol buccal mucoadhesive tablets were fabricated with objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and prolonging duration of action. Salbutamol mucoadhesive bilayered tablets were prepared by direct compression method using the bioadhesive polymers such as xanthan gum, sodium alginate and carbopol 937P along with ethyl...

  16. [Oxidative stress in prostate hypertrophy and carcinogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyszewski, Waldemar M; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna

    2009-07-20

    Aging, significant impairment of the oxidation/reduction balance, infection, and inflammation are recognized risk factors of benign hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Chronic symptomatic and asymptomatic prostate inflammatory processes generate significantly elevated levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and halogenated compounds. Prostate cancer patients showed significantly higher lipid peroxidation and lower antioxidant levels in peripheral blood than healthy controls, whereas patients with prostate hyperplasia did not show such symptoms. Oxidative/nitrosative/halogenative stress causes DNA modifications leading to genome instability that may initiate carcinogenesis; however, it was shown that oxidative damage alone is not sufficient to initiate this process. Peroxidation products induced by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species seem to take part in epigenetic mechanisms regulating genome activity. One of the most common changes occurring in more than 90% of all analyzed prostate cancers is the silencing of GSTP1 gene activity. The gene encodes glutathione transferase, an enzyme participating in detoxification processes. Prostate hyperplasia is often accompanied by chronic inflammation and such a relationship was not observed in prostate cancer. The participation of infection and inflammation in the development of hyperplasia is unquestionable and these factors probably also take part in initiating the early stages of prostate carcinogenesis. Thus it seems that therapeutic strategies that prevent genome oxidative damage in situations involving oxidative/nitrosative/halogenative stress, i.e. use of antioxidants, plant steroids, antibiotics, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, could help prevent carcinogenesis.

  17. Oxidative stress in prostate hypertrophy and carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar M. Przybyszewski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging, significant impairment of the oxidation/reduction balance, infection, and inflammation are recognized risk factors of benign hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Chronic symptomatic and asymptomatic prostate inflammatory processes generate significantly elevated levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and halogenated compounds. Prostate cancer patients showed significantly higher lipid peroxidation and lower antioxidant levels in peripheral blood than healthy controls, whereas patients with prostate hyperplasia did not show such symptoms. Oxidative/nitrosative/halogenative stress causes DNA modifications leading to genome instability that may initiate carcinogenesis; however, it was shown that oxidative damage alone is not sufficient to initiate this process. Peroxidation products induced by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species seem to take part in epigenetic mechanisms regulating genome activity. One of the most common changes occurring in more than 90�0of all analyzed prostate cancers is the silencing of GSTP1 gene activity. The gene encodes glutathione transferase, an enzyme participating in detoxification processes. Prostate hyperplasia is often accompanied by chronic inflammation and such a relationship was not observed in prostate cancer. The participation of infection and inflammation in the development of hyperplasia is unquestionable and these factors probably also take part in initiating the early stages of prostate carcinogenesis. Thus it seems that therapeutic strategies that prevent genome oxidative damage in situations involving oxidative/nitrosative/halogenative stress, i.e. use of antioxidants, plant steroids, antibiotics, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, could help prevent carcinogenesis.

  18. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by retinoids. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nettesheim, P.

    1979-01-01

    Progress made in recent years in the search for retinoids with anticarcinogenic activity is reviewed. There are many studies to be found in the literature which show no substantial effect of retinoids on carcinogenesis or tumor growth. Some of these negative findings may be related to the carcinogen dose used, the type of retinoid used, the dose, dose schedule or mode of administration of the retinoid. Others may indicate that the particular type of tumor or tumor system is, indeed, refractory to retinoids in general or to those retinoids that were tested. A great gap still exists in our knowledge concerning the pharmake-kinetics of most retinoids their availability to various normal and cancerous tissues, and the role and existence of transport and binding proteins. There are studies which indicate that under certain conditions, particularly conditions of topical application, some retinoids may even enhance carcinogenesis. It seems, however, indisputable by now that some retinoids are effective inhibitors of carcinogenesis in some organ systems and can even inhibit the growth of some established tumors. While the mechanisms of these inhibitory effects are presently not understood, it does seem clear that they are not mediated via the cytotoxic mechanisms typical of chemotherapeutic agents. The hope that retinoids might become an effective tool to halt the progression of some neoplastic diseases, seems to be justified.

  19. Preparation and evaluation of buccal bioadhesive tablets containing clotrimazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Jain, S; Muthu, M S; Tilak, R

    2008-04-01

    Buccal bioadhesive tablets of clotrimazole (CTZ) and clotrimazole: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CTZ-HPbetaCD) complex were prepared by using polymer xanthan gum in combination with carbopol 974P. The prepared buccal bioadhesive tablet formulations were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics (weight, hardness, friability, diameter, and drug content), swelling index, microenvironment pH, in-vitro drug release, bioadhesion strength, residence time and duration of antifungal activity (in-vitro). The dissolution of CTZ from the prepared tablets into phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) was controlled up to 8 h. All the prepared tablets gave reasonable in-vitro residence time (7.13 - 9.34 h). X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of the CTZ-HPbetaCD complex, made by kneading and freeze-dried method, showed no CTZ crystal signals, demonstrating the inclusion of CTZ in the hydrophobic cavity of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) and formation of amorphous inclusion complex. Duration of the antifungal activity was measured by the inhibition zone of Candida albicans by agar diffusion assay. It is evident from the results obtained, the prepared buccal bioadhesive tablets of CTZ would markedly prolong the duration of the antifungal activity and may prove to be a viable alternative to the conventional local oral medication.

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kavitha, K. Vol 5, No 2 (2008) - Articles Clerodendron inerme Protects Cellular Integrity During 7,12- Dimethylbenz[A]-Anthracene Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baskaran, N. Vol 10, No 1 (2013) - Articles Proapoptotic, Anti-Cell Proliferative, Anti-Inflammatory And Antiangiogenic Potential Of Carnosic Acid During 7,12 Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene-Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  2. Prior colorectal neoplasia is associated with increased risk of ileoanal pouch neoplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derikx, Lauranne A A P; Kievit, Wietske; Drenth, Joost P H; de Jong, Dirk J; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y; Oldenburg, Bas; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Dijkstra, Gerard; Grubben, Marina J A L; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J H M; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Hoentjen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Although restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) substantially reduces the risk of colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), subsequent pouch neoplasia can develop. There are few data on the incidence of and risk factors for neoplasia, so there is no consensus on the need for pouch surveillance. We aimed to determine the cumulative incidence of pouch neoplasia in patients with IBD and identify risk factors for developing pouch neoplasia. We searched the Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA) to identify all patients with IBD and IPAA in The Netherlands from January 1991 to May 2012. We calculated the cumulative incidence of pouch neoplasia and performed a case-control study to identify risk factors. Demographic and clinical variables were analyzed with univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses. We identified 1200 patients with IBD and IPAA; 25 (1.83%) developed pouch neoplasia, including 16 adenocarcinomas. Respective cumulative incidences at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years were 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.7%, and 6.9% for pouch neoplasia and 0.6%, 1.4%, 2.1%, and 3.3% for pouch carcinoma. A history of colorectal neoplasia was the only risk factor associated with pouch neoplasia. Hazard ratios were 3.76 (95% confidence interval, 1.39-10.19) for prior dysplasia and 24.69 (95% confidence interval, 9.61-63.42) for prior carcinoma. The incidence of pouch neoplasia in patients with IBD without a history of colorectal neoplasia is relatively low. Prior dysplasia or colon cancer is associated with an approximate 4- and 25-fold increase in risk, respectively, of developing pouch neoplasia. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Contaminated fistula following J-pouch ileoanal reservoir. Treatment with a collagen sponge containing gentamicin and metronidazole. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R; Bülow, Steffen; Moesgaard, F

    1991-01-01

    In a 55-year-old woman, a 1 x 5 cm fistula developed in the ileoanal anastomosis after restorative proctocolectomy with J-pouch ileoanal reservoir and temporary ileostomy for intractable ulcerative colitis. The fistula extended between the pouch and the sacral bone. Lasting closure was achieved b...... by intrafistular placement of a collagen sponge containing gentamicin and soaked in metronidazole solution and pouch drainage through a transanal Foley catheter....

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric carcinogenesis in rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Toyoda, Takeshi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tatematsu, Masae

    2013-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is an important factor for gastric carcinogenesis in human. In carcinogen-treated Mongolian gerbils, H. pylori infection enhances stomach carcinogenesis, while infection alone induced severe hyperplasia called heterotopic proliferative glands. A high-salt diet or early acquisition of the bacteria exacerbates inflammation and carcinogenesis. Oxygen radical scavengers or anti-inflammatory chemicals as well as eradication of H. pylori are effective to prevent carcinogenesis. H. pylori-associated inflammation induces intestinal metaplasia and intestinalization of stomach cancers independently. It is necessary to control cancer development not only in H. pylori-positive cases but also in H. pylori-negative metaplastic gastritis.

  5. Modified connective tissue punch technique to increase the vestibular/buccal keratinized tissue on flapless implant surgery: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasi Bassi, M; Andrisani, C; Lopez, M A; Gaudio, R M; Lombardo, L; Lauritano, D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show a simple and predictable technique to enhance both the vestibular/buccal (V/B) gingival thickness (GT) and keratinized tissue width (KTW) improving the soft-tissue profile after flapless implant placement. The technique proposed was named Modified Connective Tissue Punch (MCTP). Fourteen patients (6 men and 8 women) aged between 35 and 69 years (mean value 48.07±13.023 years) were enrolled in this case series. Seventeen implant sites were submitted to flapless procedure. The connective punch (CP) was harvested with a motor-driven circular tissue punch and then a full-split dissection was executed, in order to create a deep pouch, beyond the mucogingival junction, on the V/B side. In this recipient site the CP was placed. The normal flapless surgical protocol was used; implants were inserted and covered with transgingival healing cap screws. GT and KTW were measured: both immediately before and after surgery; at the time of the prosthetic finalization (3-4months, respectively, for mandible and maxilla); 1 year post surgery follow-up. GT was measured at 1 mm, 2 mm and 5 mm on the V/B side, from the outline of the punch. Both KTW and GT at 1 and 2 mm can be effectively increased, while no significant effects for GT at 5 mm can be expected from this technique. Furthermore, the mean values of KTW and GT at 1 mm and 2 mm show significant increases at 3-4 months post-operative, while no further significant increments are shown at 1 year post-operative follow-up. The Authors recommend the use of the MCTP technique to reduce the number of aesthetic complications and soft tissue defects in flapless implant surgery. Longer follow-ups are needed to evaluate the stability of peri-implant tissues over time.

  6. Buccal mucosa urethroplasty in a reoperative and reconstructive challenge hypospadias: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal mucosa graft is usually used in a second operation. A buccal mucosa graft from the lower lip was used for large fistula reconstruction in one patients. The patient previously had been operated on several times at another center. The use of the buccal mucosa graft for urethral reconstruction in complex urethroplasties is a successful method with a low incidence of complications.

  7. Enhanced delivery of ketobemidone through porcine buccal mucosa in vitro via more lipophilic ester prodrugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Bundgaard, H.

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro penetration of ketobemidone and various ester prodrugs through porcine buccal mucosa in a modified Ussing chamber was investigated in order to support the selection of a prodrug derivative with optimal buccal absorption. The nine esters studied included carboxylic acid and carbonate...... a plateau or a slight decrease occurred. No toxic effects of ketobemidone or the prodrugs on the buccal membrane were observed as judged from monitoring of the electrical properties of the membrane....

  8. Mechanisms of carcinogenesis prevention by flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Belitsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of anticancerogenic effects of flavanoids and isocyanates from the plants widely consumed in the midland belt of Russia were reviewed. Data of studies both in vitro and in vivo were analyzed. Special attention was paid to inhibition of targets responsible for carcinogen metabolic activation, carcinogenesis promotion and tumor progression as well as neoangiogenesis. Besides that the antioxidant properties of flavonoids and their effects on cell cycle regulation, apoptosis initiation and cell mobility were considered.

  9. Rathke's pouch remnant and its regression process in the prenatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang Ho; Chang, Hyuk; Yamamoto, Masahito; Abe, Hiroshi; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Katori, Yukio

    2013-05-01

    During ontogeny, part of Rathke's pouch, a physiologically superior pouching of the stomodeal ectoderm, may remain, forming the usual anomaly known as Rathke's cleft cyst. More rarely, however, the entire pouch (i.e., the craniopharyngeal canal) remains, resulting in transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele. This study is aimed to provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis. We histologically evaluated the inferior protrusion of the putative hypophysial fossa in 35 embryonic and fetal heads, respectively (15 at 5-8 weeks and 20 at 12-16 weeks of gestation). In 3 of the 35 specimens, we observed a complete cleft originating from the adenohypophysis, passing through the sphenoid and connecting with the pharyngeal epithelium or pharyngobasilar fascia. In another 18 specimens, we observed a duct-like structure protruding from the fossa and ending in the sphenoid. The sellar protrusion contained vein-like structures and debris of red blood cells. The protrusion was located on the anterior or anterosuperior side of the notochord. No ossification center was observed around the sellar region of the embryos. Although ossification occurred in 12 of the 20 fetuses, nine of the latter showed no evidence of cleft or protrusion, indicating that the incidence of Rathke's pouch remnant was lower in the fetuses (11/20) than in the embryos (11/15). Rathke's pouch may be closed by ossification of the sphenoid, but increased cell proliferation and/or large amounts of degenerated veins may provide a structure resistant to the mechanical pressure caused by ossification.

  10. Bmp signaling mediates endoderm pouch morphogenesis by regulating Fgf signaling in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, C Ben; Swartz, Mary E; McCarthy, Neil; Norrie, Jacqueline L; Eberhart, Johann K

    2016-06-01

    The endodermal pouches are a series of reiterated structures that segment the pharyngeal arches and help pattern the vertebrate face. Multiple pathways regulate the complex process of endodermal development, including the Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) pathway. However, the role of Bmp signaling in pouch morphogenesis is poorly understood. Using genetic and chemical inhibitor approaches, we show that pouch morphogenesis requires Bmp signaling from 10-18 h post-fertilization, immediately following gastrulation. Blocking Bmp signaling during this window results in morphological defects to the pouches and craniofacial skeleton. Using genetic chimeras we show that Bmp signals directly to the endoderm for proper morphogenesis. Time-lapse imaging and analysis of reporter transgenics show that Bmp signaling is necessary for pouch outpocketing via the Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) pathway. Double loss-of-function analyses demonstrate that Bmp and Fgf signaling interact synergistically in craniofacial development. Collectively, our analyses shed light on the tissue and signaling interactions that regulate development of the vertebrate face. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. An integrin-dependent role of pouch endoderm in hyoid cartilage development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Gage Crump

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharyngeal endoderm is essential for and can reprogram development of the head skeleton. Here we investigate the roles of specific endodermal structures in regulating craniofacial development. We have isolated an integrinalpha5 mutant in zebrafish that has region-specific losses of facial cartilages derived from hyoid neural crest cells. In addition, the cranial muscles that normally attach to the affected cartilage region and their associated nerve are secondarily reduced in integrinalpha5- animals. Earlier in development, integrinalpha5 mutants also have specific defects in the formation of the first pouch, an outpocketing of the pharyngeal endoderm. By fate mapping, we show that the cartilage regions that are lost in integrinalpha5 mutants develop from neural crest cells directly adjacent to the first pouch in wild-type animals. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Integrinalpha5 functions in the endoderm to control pouch formation and cartilage development. Time-lapse recordings suggest that the first pouch promotes region-specific cartilage development by regulating the local compaction and survival of skeletogenic neural crest cells. Thus, our results reveal a hierarchy of tissue interactions, at the top of which is the first endodermal pouch, which locally coordinates the development of multiple tissues in a specific region of the vertebrate face. Lastly, we discuss the implications of a mosaic assembly of the facial skeleton for the evolution of ray-finned fish.

  12. Does buccal cancer have worse prognosis than other oral cavity cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilon, P Ryan; Stokes, William A; Fuller, Colin W; Nguyen, Shaun A; Lentsch, Eric J

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether buccal squamous cell carcinoma has worse overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) than cancers in the rest of the oral cavity. Retrospective analysis of a large population database. We began with a Kaplan-Meier analysis of OS and DSS for buccal versus nonbuccal tumors with unmatched data, followed by an analysis of cases matched for race, age at diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, and treatment modality. This was supported by a univariate Cox regression comparing buccal cancer to nonbuccal cancer, followed by a multivariate Cox regression that included all significant variables studied. With unmatched data, buccal cancer had significantly lesser OS and DSS values than cancers in the rest of the oral cavity (P cancer versus nonbuccal oral cancer were no longer significant. Univariate Cox regression models with respect to OS and DSS showed a significant difference between buccal cancer and nonbuccal cancer. However, with multivariate analysis, buccal hazard ratios for OS and DSS were not significant. With the largest series of buccal carcinoma to date, our study concludes that the OS and DSS of buccal cancer are similar to those of cancers in other oral cavity sites once age at diagnosis, tumor stage, treatment, and race are taken into consideration. The previously perceived poor prognosis of buccal carcinoma may be due to variations in tumor presentation, such as later stage and older patient age. 2b. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Identification of Streptococcus parasanguinis DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfuz, Istiak; Cheng, Wei; White, Stefan J

    2013-11-22

    The use of buccal swabs in clinical and scientific studies is a very popular method of collecting DNA, due to its non-invasive nature of collection. However, contamination of the DNA sample may interfere with analysis. Here we report the finding of Streptococcus parasanguinis bacterial DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples, which led to preferential amplification of bacterial sequence with PCR primers designed against human sequence. Contamination of buccal-derived DNA with bacterial DNA can be significant, and may influence downstream genetic analysis. One needs to be aware of possible bacterial contamination when interpreting abnormal findings following PCR amplification of buccal swab DNA samples.

  14. A mechanistic based approach for enhancing buccal mucoadhesion of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Muff-Westergaard, Christian; Sander, Camilla; Madelung, Peter; Jacobsen, Jette

    2014-01-30

    Mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems can enhance rapid drug absorption by providing an increased retention time at the site of absorption and a steep concentration gradient. An understanding of the mechanisms behind mucoadhesion of polymers, e.g. chitosan, is necessary for improving the mucoadhesiveness of buccal formulations. The interaction between chitosan of different chain lengths and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was studied using a complex coacervation model (CCM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a tensile detachment model (TDM). The effect of pH was assessed in all three models and the approach to add a buffer to chitosan based drug delivery systems is a means to optimize and enhance buccal drug absorption. The CCM demonstrated optimal interactions between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2. The ITC experiments showed a significantly increase in affinity between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2 compared to pH 6.3 and that the interactions were entropy driven. The TDM showed a significantly increase in strength of adhesion between chitosan discs and an artificial mucosal surface at pH 5.2 compared to pH 6.8, addition of PGM increased the total work of adhesion by a factor of 10 as compared to the wetted surface without PGM. These findings suggest that chitosan and PGM are able to interact by electrostatic interactions and by improving the conditions for electrostatic interactions, the adhesion between chitosan and PGM becomes stronger. Also, the three complementary methods were utilized to conclude the pH dependency on mucoadhesiveness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TERBUTALINE SULPHATE MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL TABLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Gururaj S.Kulkarni; N.G RaghavendraRao; D.Narasimhareddy

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of developing any new dosage form is reduce the side effects and increase the therapeutic effect of drug in existing dose of dosage form. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system is oral dosage form, where the tablet, gel or patch is attached to the buccal region for direct absorption of drug into blood circulation. This route can prevent the metabolism of drug in G.I tract or liver and side effects of metabolites avoided. In this study, the attempt was made to prepare mucoadhesiv...

  16. Transgenerational teratogenesis and carcinogenesis by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Taisei [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2000-07-01

    This paper thoroughly reviews studies on transgenerational teratogenesis and carcinogenesis induced by radiation and summarizes currently available data from animal studies. The discussions focus on the incidence of tumors, malformations, and mutations in the offspring after parental exposure to radiation, as well as estimated relative risks of congenital malformations and stillbirths in the offspring after parental X-ray exposure. The data suggest that different types of tumors are induced in offspring, because of strain differences in the experimental animals. The results of epidemiological studies in human populations, such as the children of atomic bomb survivors, conflict with the findings in animal studies. The author points to the following reasons for the differences between the results in animals and humans: differences in radiation doses, timing of exposure, and genetic predisposition, etc. While pointing out issues that need to be investigated further, the author indicates that clear strain differences exist in types of tumors induced and in tumor incidences in the offspring of animals that were irradiated before the offspring were conceived, and that genetic predisposition is therefore important in transgenerational carcinogenesis. (K.H.)

  17. Modifying factors in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Nobuyuki; Fukushima, Shoji; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Nakanishi, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Ryohei; Imaida, Katsumi

    1983-01-01

    N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) is a potent carcinogen in the urinary bladder of animals. The BBN model of bladder cancer is an excellent model of human urinary bladder cancer and has already led to a greater knowledge of its pathogenesis. In our studies, histogenesis and morphological characteristics of BBN urinary bladder cancer were analyzed in different animal species such as rats, mice, hamsters and guinea pigs and also in different rat strains. Papillary or nodular hyperplasia (PN hyperplasia) is found to be a preneoplastic lesion of the rat urinary bladder. Therefore, the promoting and inhibitory effects of various chemicals in two-stage urinary bladder carcinogenesis were judged by measuring PN hyperplasia in rats. Dose-dependent and organ-specific effects of the urinary bladder promoter, saccharin, in the induction of PN hyperplasia were shown in rats after initiation by BBN. The promoting effect of saccharin was seen more clearly in the urinary bladder of rats after potent initiation. A strain difference in susceptibility of the urinary bladder to the promoter was also shown. These results suggest that the above various factors may also have modifying activities on urinary bladder carcinogenesis in man. PMID:6832095

  18. Exacerbation of colon carcinogenesis by Blastocystis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide and the number is increasing every year. Despite advances in screening programs, CRC remains as the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer (CRC) and has been shown to be associated with Blastocystis sp., a common intestinal microorganism. In the present study, we aimed to identify a role for Blastocystis sp. in exacerbating carcinogenesis using in vivo rat model. Methylene blue staining was used to identify colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and adenomas formation in infected rats whilst elevation of oxidative stress biomarker levels in the urine and serum samples were evaluated using biochemical assays. Histological changes of the intestinal mucosa were observed and a significant number of ACF was found in Blastocystis sp. infected AOM-rats compared to the AOM-controls. High levels of urinary oxidative indices including advanced oxidative protein products (AOPP) and hydrogen peroxide were observed in Blastocystis sp. infected AOM-rats compared to the uninfected AOM-rats. Our study provides evidence that Blastocystis sp. has a significant role in enhancing AOM-induced carcinogenesis by resulting damage to the intestinal epithelium and promoting oxidative damage in Blastocystis sp. infected rats. PMID:28859095

  19. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  20. Endoscopic stapling of pharyngeal pouch: a 10-year review of single versus multiple staple rows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jason A; Sigston, Elizabeth; Vallance, Neil

    2009-02-01

    To compare the outcomes obtained in patients undergoing endoscopic stapling of pharyngeal pouches with single versus multiple rows of staples. A retrospective, 10-year review. Review of medical records in 38 patients who underwent endoscopic pharyngeal pouch repair. Patients who underwent stapling with multiple rows had a higher postoperative leak rate than patients who were stapled with a single row (36% vs 0%, P multiple rows also had a more prolonged length of stay and a slower return to both clear fluids and solid diet (P row of staples may be necessary to divide the common wall. However, in our series this is associated with a significantly increased risk of esophageal or pouch perforation. Care should be taken during the placement of multiple rows of staples.

  1. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy in Men with Proctocolectomy and Restorative Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Leapman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective chart review of robotic prostatectomies done by a single surgeon between 2003 and 2012. During that time period, we identified two patients within the year 2012, with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPPA who also underwent robotic prostatectomies. The demographics and postoperative characteristics of the two patients were assessed. In both patients, prostatectomy, bilateral nerve sparing, and pelvic lymphadenectomy were successfully performed and the integrity of ileal pouch was maintained. There was a mean surgical time of 144.5 minutes, and an average estimated blood loss was 125 mL. Both patients were discharged on the second day postoperatively. In both patients there was a Gleason upgrade to 3 + 4, with negative margins, and preservation of fecal and urinary continence by their six-month followup. Owing to surgical modifications, these two surgeries represent the first successful robotic prostatectomies in patients with a J-pouch.

  2. Robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy in men with proctocolectomy and restorative ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leapman, Michael; Kwon, Young Suk; Collingwood, Shemille A; Chin, Edward; Katsigeorgis, Maria; Hobbs, Adele R; Samadi, David B

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective chart review of robotic prostatectomies done by a single surgeon between 2003 and 2012. During that time period, we identified two patients within the year 2012, with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPPA) who also underwent robotic prostatectomies. The demographics and postoperative characteristics of the two patients were assessed. In both patients, prostatectomy, bilateral nerve sparing, and pelvic lymphadenectomy were successfully performed and the integrity of ileal pouch was maintained. There was a mean surgical time of 144.5 minutes, and an average estimated blood loss was 125 mL. Both patients were discharged on the second day postoperatively. In both patients there was a Gleason upgrade to 3 + 4, with negative margins, and preservation of fecal and urinary continence by their six-month followup. Owing to surgical modifications, these two surgeries represent the first successful robotic prostatectomies in patients with a J-pouch.

  3. Development and evaluation of a reflective solar disinfection pouch for treatment of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D Carey; Len, Soo-Voon; Sheehan, Brita

    2004-04-01

    A second-generation solar disinfection (SODIS) system (pouch) was constructed from food-grade, commercially available packaging materials selected to fully transmit and amplify the antimicrobial properties of sunlight. Depending upon the season, water source, and challenge organism, culturable bacteria were reduced between 3.5 and 5.5 log cycles. The system was also capable of reducing the background presumptive coliform population in nonsterile river water below the level of detection. Similar experiments conducted with a model virus, the F-specific RNA bacteriophage MS2, indicated that the pouch was slightly less efficient, reducing viable plaques by 3.5 log units in comparison to a 5.0 log reduction of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O18:H11 within the same time period. These results suggest that water of poor microbiological quality can be improved by using a freely available resource (sunlight) and a specifically designed plastic pouch constructed of food-grade packaging materials.

  4. Laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy ileal pouch anal anastomosis: How I do it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madnani, Manish A; Mistry, Jitendra H; Soni, Harshad N; Shah, Atul J; Patel, Kantilal S; Haribhakti, Sanjiv P

    2015-01-01

    Surgery for ulcerative colitis is a major and complex colorectal surgery. Laparoscopy benefits these patients with better outcomes in context of cosmesis, pain and early recovery, especially in young patients. For surgeons, it is a better tool for improving vision and magnification in deep cavities. This is not the simple extension of the laparoscopy training. Starting from preoperative preparation to post operative care there are wide variations as compared to open surgery. There are also many variations in steps of laparoscopic surgery. It involves left colon, right colon and rectal mobilisation, low division of rectum, pouch creation and anastomosis of pouch to rectum. Over many years after standardisation of this technique, it takes same operative time as open surgery at our centre. So we present our standardized technique of laparoscopic assisted restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA). PMID:26195886

  5. Prior Colorectal Neoplasia Is Associated With Increased Risk of Ileoanal Pouch Neoplasia in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, Lauranne A. A. P.; Kievit, Wietske; Drenth, Joost P. H.; de Jong, Dirk J.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Oldenburg, Bas; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E.; Dijkstra, Gerard; Grubben, Marina J. A. L.; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J. H. M.; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Hoentjen, Frank

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) substantially reduces the risk of colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), subsequent pouch neoplasia can develop. There are few data on the incidence of and risk factors for

  6. Single stage management of a unique variant of congenital pouch colon with triplet fistula and normal anus

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Vaibhav; Gangopadhyay, Ajay Narayan; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Sharma, Shiv Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Congenital pouch colon (CPC) in the female patient presents with highly variable and anomalous anatomy. We herein report the first case of CPC with uterus didelphys having normal anal opening, H-type vestibular fistula, two other fistulous communications between pouch colon and two vagina managed in a single stage with excellent postoperative outcome.

  7. Formulation and Evaluation of Rifampicin Liposomes for Buccal Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankalapalli, Srinivas; Tenneti, V S Vinai Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Drug delivery through liposomes offers several advantages, but still challenging to the researchers for the use of liposomes as carriers in drug delivery due to their poor physical stability, unpredictable drug encapsulation and systemic availability of the loaded drug. The present investigation was planned with an objective to prepare Rifampicin loaded liposomes by using response surface methodology of statistical 32 factorial design and further to formulate them into pastilles for deliver through buccal route thereby to enhance systemic absorption. Rifampicin liposomes were prepared by using different ratios of soya lecithin and cholesterol by solvent Injection method. These liposomes were characterized by using optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and evaluated for particle size, entrapment efficiency (EE), in vitro and ex vivo drug release. Main effects and interaction terms of the formulation variables were evaluated quantitatively using a mathematical statistical model approach showing that both independent variables have significant (P value membrane (P value: 0.0047) and percentage drug release through porcine buccal membrane (P value: 0.0019). The statistical factorial design of liposomal formulations fulfilled all the requirements of the target set and exhibited suitable values for the selected test parameters. Pastilles were prepared for liposomes using glycerol gelatin base and were found to be soft, smooth with uniform drug content and drug release.

  8. Tobacco smoking-response genes in blood and buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Minju; Chang, Seong-Sil; Kim, Soo-Young; Park, Jong Y; Chung, Myeon Woo; Yang, Mihi

    2015-01-22

    Tobacco smoking is a well-known cause of various diseases, however, its toxic mechanisms for diseases are not completely understood, yet. Therefore, we performed biological monitoring to find tobacco smoking-responsive mechanisms including oxidative stress in Korean men (N=36). Whole genome microarray analyses were performed with peripheral blood from smokers and age-matched nonsmokers. We also performed qRT-PCR to confirm the microarray results and compared the gene expression of blood to those of buccal cells. To assess the effects of tobacco smoking on oxidative stress, we analyzed urinary levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, and performed PCR-based arrays on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes. As results, 34 genes were differently expressed in blood between smokers and nonsmokers (ps1.5-fold change). Particularly, the genes involved in immune responsive pathways, e.g., the Fcγ-receptor mediated phagocytosis and the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways, were differentially expressed between smokers and nonsmokers. Among the above genes, the ACTG1, involved in the maintenance of actin cytoskeleton, cell migration and cancer metastasis, was highly expressed by smoking in both blood and buccal cells. Concerning oxidative stress, smokers showed high levels of urinary MDA and down-regulation of expressions of antioxidant related genes including TPO, MPO, GPX2, PTGR1, and NUDT1 as compared to nonsmokers (pssmoking-responsive biomarker. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear anomalies in the buccal cells of calcite factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diler, Songül Budak; Ergene, Serap

    2010-04-01

    The micronucleus (MN) assay on exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. To determine the genotoxic effects of calcite dust that forms during processing, MN assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal cells of 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) calcite factory workers and 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) age- and sex-matched control subjects. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and 'broken eggs', were also evaluated. Micronuclei and the other aforementioned anomalies were analysed by two way analysis of covariance. The linear correlations between the types of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities were determined by Spearman's Rho. There was a positive correlation between micronuclei and other types of nuclear abnormalities in accordance with the Spearman's Rho test. Results showed statistically significant difference between calcite fabric workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in calcite fabric workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that calcite fabric workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage.

  10. Nuclear anomalies in the buccal cells of calcite factory workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songül Budak Diler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The micronucleus (MN assay on exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. To determine the genotoxic effects of calcite dust that forms during processing, MN assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal cells of 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers calcite factory workers and 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers age- and sex-matched control subjects. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and 'broken eggs', were also evaluated. Micronuclei and the other aforementioned anomalies were analysed by two way analysis of covariance. The linear correlations between the types of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities were determined by Spearman's Rho. There was a positive correlation between micronuclei and other types of nuclear abnormalities in accordance with the Spearman's Rho test. Results showed statistically significant difference between calcite fabric workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in calcite fabric workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05. The results of this study indicate that calcite fabric workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage.

  11. Primary bilateral guttural pouch empyema in a two-month-old foal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Penteado Martins Dias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes a 2-month-old foal which signs of respiratory infectious disease, bilateral retropharyngeal swelling and nasal mucopurulent discharge, suggesting guttural pouch empyema. The owners reported that the foal lived in a herd that experienced an outbreak of strangles. Foals younger than 3 months are usually protected against infectious diseases, however in this case, the foal was exposed to an environment heavily populated by Streptococcus equi equi during the outbreak of strangles. Although uncommon in such young animals, the foal was infected and developed a primary bilateral guttural pouch empyema, without signs of lymph nodes alteration

  12. Influence of buccal corridor dimension on smile esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cunha Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of buccal corridor width on smile esthetics of male and female, Caucasian and Afro-descendant subjects by means of digitally manipulated photographs, as well as compare assessments of full-face view (FFV and close-up view of the mouth (CUVM images. METHODS: Facial photographs were taken of four adults' smile, two Caucasians and two Afro-descendants of both genders. The resulting images were digitally manipulated with the aim of rendering - from each original smile - three other smiles simulating three different buccal corridor widths, namely, narrow, medium width and wide. The rendered images, 12 of which portraying FFVs and 12 providing CUVMs, were assessed by 60 examiners who rated the attractiveness of each smile by means of a visual analog scale (VAS. The data were treated with ANOVA and Tukey's post test to compare the different buccal corridors, and Student's t test to compare the two image views (FFV and CUVM. RESULTS: Medium width buccal corridors were considered the most attractive in the four individuals investigated, both in the assessment of FFVs and CUVMs (p 0.05. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was found between the analyses of FFVs and CUVMs (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: The buccal corridor exercised a remarkable influence on smile esthetics, with the medium width group being rated as the most attractive. No influence was exerted by the individuals' face, ethnicity or gender.OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência do corredor bucal na estética de sorrisos femininos e masculinos, de leucodermas e melanodermas, por meio de fotografias manipuladas, bem como comparar essa avaliação numa vista facial completa e numa vista aproximada da boca. MÉTODOS: foram realizadas fotografias faciais do sorriso de quatro indivíduos adultos, sendo dois leucodermas e dois melanodermas, de ambos os sexos. As imagens geradas foram manipuladas a fim de produzir, a partir de cada sorriso original, três outros

  13. Puborectal sling interposition combined with seton drainage for pouch-vaginal fistula after rectal cancer surgery with colonic J pouch-anal reconstruction: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Aya; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Okigami, Masato; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Hiro, Junichiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Koji; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2014-01-01

    The management of postoperative rectovaginal fistula (RVF) after rectal cancer surgery is difficult and requires reconstruction of the anastomotic site and fistula. Though various surgical procedures have been reported for the repair of RVFs, the results of surgical repair are often unsatisfactory, and failure of the initial repair leads to difficulty in the later operations. Furthermore, it has been reported that cases associated with local infection result in low success rates. We report a case of an 80-year-old woman with a recurrent colonic J pouch-vaginal fistula after anoabdominal rectal resection with partial internal sphincteric resection, who achieved a good outcome following a repair using a puborectal sling interposition combined with seton drainage. It may be a useful option for RVF management in repair of such pouch-vaginal fistula after coloanal anastomosis with intersphincteric resection.

  14. One-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper provides the reader with the detailed description of current techniques of one-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty. The paper provides the reader with the preoperative patient evaluation paying attention to the use of diagnostic tools. The one-stage penile urethroplasty using buccal mucosa ...

  15. Fentanyl Buccal Tablet for the Treatment of Breakthrough Pain: Pharmacokinetics of Buccal Mucosa Delivery and Clinical Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Darwish

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of breakthrough pain (BTP, a transitory exacerbation of pain that occurs on a background of otherwise-controlled, persistent pain, requires an opioid formulation and/or method of administration that can provide rapid and extensive systemic exposure. Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT; FENTORA®, Cephalon, Inc. employs OraVescent® drug delivery technology, which enhances the rate and extent of fentanyl absorption. OraVescent technology enhances the oral dissolution and buccal absorption of fentanyl, which facilitates rapid uptake of fentanyl into the bloodstream, reducing gastrointestinal absorption and minimizing extensive first-pass metabolism. The resulting pharmacokinetic profile of FBT is characterized by greater bioavailability and a higher early systemic exposure compared with the earlier oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate formulation. In clinical studies of opioid-tolerant patients with cancer-related and noncancer- related BTP, FBT has provided consistent and clinically relevant improvements in pain intensity and pain relief relative to placebo, with a safety and tolerability profile that is generally typical of that observed with other potent opioids. The pharmacokinetic properties of FBT allow for meaningful clinical efficacy, with an onset of action that closely matches the onset of BTP.

  16. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the buccal mucosa: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Ajila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinomas are deceptive malignancies that show slow growth and local invasion with recurrences seen many years after diagnosis. Upto 50% of these tumors occur in the intraoral minor salivary glands usually in the hard palate. Buccal mucosal tumors are relatively rare. We determined the incidence of buccal mucosal adenoid cystic carcinoma by reviewing the number of reported cases in the literature. This is the first article to analyze the occurrence of adenoid cystic carcinomas in the buccal mucosa through a review of 41 articles. Our review revealed 178 buccal mucosal adenoid cystic carcinomas among a total of 2,280 reported cases. We present a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma occurring in the left buccal mucosa of a 45-year-old female.

  17. Perceptions of laypersons and orthodontists regarding the buccal corridor in long- and short-face individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zange, Sabrina Elisa; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Cuoghi, Osmar Aparecido; de Mendonça, Marcos Rogério; Suguino, Rosely

    2011-01-01

    To determine the perception of orthodontists and laypersons regarding the size of the dark spaces in the buccal corridors and how that affects smile esthetics in individuals with long and short faces. Images of eight smiling individuals were modified to create five sizes of dark spaces in the buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22%, and 28%) and were submitted to a group of laypersons and a group of orthodontists. Laypersons were more critical in their evaluation than orthodontists. Laypersons could not distinguish the gradation of dark spaces in the buccal corridor unless it was very plain. Orthodontists perceived this gradation beginning at 15%. Female evaluators were more critical than male evaluators in both groups. The presence or absence of dark spaces in the buccal corridors has little influence over smile esthetics. While this aspect must be considered in the orthodontic diagnosis, there is no justification for expanding the buccal corridor to eliminate dark spaces unless they are very evident.

  18. Alcohol metabolism: role in toxicity and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J; Seitz, Helmut K; Albano, Emanuele; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Lieber, Charles S

    2003-02-01

    This article contains the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA Meeting in San Francisco, organized and co-chaired by Thomas M. Badger, Paul Shih-Jiun Yin, and Helmut Seitz. The presentations were (1) First-pass metabolism of ethanol: Basic and clinical aspects, by Charles Lieber; (2) Intracellular CYP2E1 transport, oxidative stress, cytokine release, and ALD, by Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg; (3) Pulsatile ethanol metabolism in intragastric infusion models: Potential role in toxic outcomes, by Thomas M. Badger and Martin J.J. Ronis; (4) Free radicals, adducts, and autoantibodies resulting from ethanol metabolism: Role in ethanol-associated toxicity, by Emanuele Albano; and (5) Gastrointestinal metabolism of ethanol and its possible role in carcinogenesis, by Helmut Seitz.

  19. Role of retinoic receptors in lung carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyi-Vamos Ferenc

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several in vitro and in vivo studies have examined the positive and negative effects of retinoids (vitamin A analogs in premalignant and malignant lesions. Retinoids have been used as chemopreventive and anticancer agents because of their pleiotropic regulator function in cell differentiation, growth, proliferation and apoptosis through interaction with two types of nuclear receptors: retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors. Recent investigations have gradually elucidated the function of retinoids and their signaling pathways and may explain the failure of earlier chemopreventive studies. In this review we have compiled basic and recent knowledge regarding the role of retinoid receptors in lung carcinogenesis. Sensitive and appropriate biological tools are necessary for screening the risk population and monitoring the efficacy of chemoprevention. Investigation of retinoid receptors is important and may contribute to the establishment of new strategies in chemoprevention for high-risk patients and in the treatment of lung cancer.

  20. (Radiation carcinogenesis in the whole body system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1990-12-14

    The objectives of the trip were: to take part in and to give the summary of a Symposium on Radiation Carcinogenesis at Tokyo, and to give a talk at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences at Chiba. The breadth of the aspects considered at the conference was about as broad as is possible, from effects at the molecular level to human epidemiology, from the effects of tritium to cancer induction by heavy ions. The events induced by cancer that lead to cancer and the events that are secondary are beginning to come into better focus but much is still not known. Interest in suppressor genes is increasing rapidly in the studies of human tumors and many would predict that the three or four suppressor genes associated with cancer are only the first sighting of a much larger number.

  1. Spatial Measures of Genetic Heterogeneity During Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, K; Ryser, M D; Leder, K; Foo, J

    2017-02-01

    In this work we explore the temporal dynamics of spatial heterogeneity during the process of tumorigenesis from healthy tissue. We utilize a spatial stochastic model of mutation accumulation and clonal expansion in a structured tissue to describe this process. Under a two-step tumorigenesis model, we first derive estimates of a non-spatial measure of diversity: Simpson's Index, which is the probability that two individuals sampled at random from the population are identical, in the premalignant population. We next analyze two new measures of spatial population heterogeneity. In particular we study the typical length scale of genetic heterogeneity during the carcinogenesis process and estimate the extent of a surrounding premalignant clone given a clinical observation of a premalignant point biopsy. This evolutionary framework contributes to a growing literature focused on developing a better understanding of the spatial population dynamics of cancer initiation and progression.

  2. Ileoanal pouches: Comparison of CT, scintigraphy, and contrast enemas for diagnosing postsurgical complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoeni, R.F.; Fell, S.C.; Engelstad, B.; Schrock, T.B. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The value of CT of the pelvis, 111In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy, and contrast enema (pouchography) for detecting postsurgical complications was assessed in 44 patients with total colectomy, rectal mucosectomy, and ileoanal pouches. Ileoanal pouches were created as reservoirs from an ileal loop that was anastomosed to the dentate line of the anus and stayed connected to the remainder of the ileum. This pouch preserves the normal defecatory pathway and eliminates disease-producing mucosa. A total of 57 sets of examinations revealed 22 cases of normal postoperative findings, 22 of pouchitis, 13 of abscess, and three of fistula. Overall sensitivity for detecting complications with pouchography was 60% (18 of 30 findings); with CT, 78% (28 of 36 findings); and with scintigraphy, 79% (23 of 29 findings). Pouchitis was best diagnosed by scintigraphy (sensitivity, 80%), followed by CT (sensitivity, 71%) and pouchography (sensitivity, 53%). Only CT correctly diagnosed all cases of abscess. Fistulas were frequently missed by all three methods. If tests were combined, the overall sensitivity rose to 93% for the combination CT/scintigraphy and to 86% for CT/pouchography, but did not improve for pouchography/scintigraphy (78%). For evaluation of complications in patients with ileoanal pouches, CT should be the initial test. If an abscess is found, no further tests are needed. If CT findings are negative, a scintigram should be obtained. Our data did not establish a clear role for pouchography.

  3. Histology of the terminal end of the distal rectal pouch and fistula region in anorectal malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, A N; Upadhyaya, Vijai D; Gupta, D K; Agarwal, D K; Sharma, S P; Arya, N C

    2008-10-01

    Until recently, surgeons have been posed with a dilemma---whether or not they should preserve the terminal end of the distal rectal pouch and the fistula region in anorectal malformations (ARMs). A detailed histological study of this region was conducted to establish a consensus for preserving or excising this region for reconstruction of ARMs. Histopathological examination using haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of the terminal portion of the distal rectal pouch and proximal portion of the rectourogenital or rectoperineal connection was performed in 60 cases of high, intermediate and low ARMs. Distorted internal sphincter was present in 93.3% of high, 90% of intermediate and 100% of low ARMs. The proximal fistula region was lined by transitional epithelium in 50% of cases, and anal glands were present in 83.3% and anal crypts in 68.3% of cases. The rectal pouch in the region of the internal sphincter and fistula was aganglionic in all cases. This study shows that the terminal end of the distal rectal pouch and proximal fistula region possess distorted anal features with aganglionosis, and contradicts the recommendation that this region should be reconstructed in patients with malformations.

  4. The Macro-anatomy of the Stomach of Wild African Giant Pouched ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The segments of the vertebrate digestive system demonstrate a wide range of structural and functional variations which is adapted to suit the dietary requirements of the particular species. African giant pouched rat (AGPR) is an omnivorous rodent. The animals were anaesthetized using gaseous chloroform and the stomach ...

  5. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study on a Lithium Sulfur Pouch Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The impedance behavior of a 3.4 Ah pouch Lithium-Sulfur cell was extensively characterized using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. EIS measurements were performed at various temperatures and over the entire state-of-charge (SOC) interval without applying a superimposed DC...

  6. Two-staged management for all types of congenital pouch colon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most important fact that the defi nitive procedure is being done without protective stoma and therefore, it avoids stoma closure, stoma-related complications, related cost of stoma closure and hospital stay. Key words: Anorectal malformation, congenital pouch colon, congenital short colon, staged procedures ...

  7. Appendix duplication in association with persistent cloaca and type 2 pouch colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boleken ME

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Duplication of the vermiform appendix is extremely rare, and it may be associated with gastrointestinal and genito-urinary anomalies in childhood. Presented herein is a case of association of appendix duplication, pouch colon, and persistent cloaca. Pathogenesis of this association is discussed.

  8. Lethality of Rendang packaged in multilayer retortable pouch with sterilization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharasti, A. S.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Frediansyah, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Khasanah, Y.; Suprapedi

    2017-01-01

    Retort Pouch had become a choice to preserve foods nowadays, besides the used of the can. Both had their own advantages, and Retort Pouch became more popular for the reason of cheaper and easier to recycle. General Method usually used to estimate the lethality of commercial heat sterilization process. Lethality value wa s used for evaluating the efficacy of the thermal process. This study aimed to find whether different layers of pouch materials affect the lethality value and to find differences lethality in two types of multilayer retort pouch, PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP and PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP. The result showed that the different layer arrangement was resulted different Sterilization Value (SV). PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had better heat penetration, implied by the higher value of lethality. PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had the lethality value of 6,24 minutes, whereas the lethality value of PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP was 3,54 minutes.

  9. Sources and severity of self-reported food intolerance after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhagen, E.; Roos, de N.M.; Bouwman, C.A.; Laarhoven, van C.J.H.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Data on food intolerance after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis are scarce. The aim of this study was to identify foods causing intolerance and to determine the nature and severity of reported symptoms. Patients from the Dutch Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis Association were mailed a survey on food

  10. Morbidity Following Coloanal Anastomosis: A Comparison of Colonic J-Pouch vs Straight Anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shaun; Margolin, David A; Altom, Laura K; Green, Heather; Beck, David E; Kann, Brian R; Whitlow, Charles B; Vargas, Herschel David

    2018-02-01

    Low rectal tumors are often treated with sphincter-preserving resection followed by coloanal anastomosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the short-term complications following straight coloanal anastomosis vs colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis. Patients were identified who underwent proctectomy for rectal neoplasia followed by coloanal anastomosis in the 2008 to 2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Demographic characteristics and 30-day postoperative complications were compared between groups. A national sample was extracted from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database. Inpatients following proctectomy and coloanal anastomosis for rectal cancer were selected. Demographic characteristics and 30-day postoperative complications were compared between the 2 groups. One thousand three hundred seventy patients were included, 624 in the straight anastomosis group and 746 in the colonic J-pouch group. Preoperative characteristics were similar between groups, with the exception of preoperative radiation therapy (straight anastomosis 35% vs colonic J-pouch 48%, p = 0.0004). Univariate analysis demonstrated that deep surgical site infection (3.7% vs 1.4%, p = 0.01), septic shock (2.25% vs 0.8%, p = 0.04), and return to the operating room (8.8% vs 5.0%, p = 0.0006) were more frequent in the straight anastomosis group vs the colonic J-pouch group. Major complications were also higher (23% vs 14%, p = 0.0001) and length of stay was longer in the straight anastomosis group vs the colonic J-pouch group (8.9 days vs 8.1 days, p = 0.02). After adjusting for covariates, major complications were less following colonic J-pouch vs straight anastomosis (OR, 0.57; CI, 0.38-0.84; p = 0.005). Subgroup analysis of patients who received preoperative radiation therapy demonstrated no difference in major complications between groups. This study had those limitations inherent to a

  11. Myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa: A rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Lata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of salivary glands that account for < 1% of all salivary gland tumors. The most common sites of involvement are major salivary glands mainly parotid gland. Intraorally, it can arise from minor salivary glands; palate is the most common site of occurrence. It also occurs in nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity and larynx in head and neck region. Myoepithelial tumors were first described in 1943. Their malignant variant, myoepithelial carcinoma, was first reported by Stromeyer et al., in 1975, characterized by distinct morphologic heterogeneity and an infiltrative growth pattern into adjacent tissues. Here, we report a rare case of a 55-year-old female with myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa. It was also rare because of unusual location of tumor. Our patient was treated with wide local resection and remained free of disease for 15 months.

  12. A novel dosage form for buccal administration of bupropion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsa Maria Galvão Almeida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bupropion is an antidepressant used in the treatment of smoking. The purpose of this study was to prepare controlled-release hydrogel films for buccal administration of bupropion and investigate its physicochemical and cytotoxic properties. The films were prepared from ultrapure sodium carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M, and medium-viscosity chitosan. Evaluation of film physicochemical characteristics was based on scanning electron microscopy, bupropion content, mechanical strength (burst strength, relaxation, resilience, and traction, and cytotoxicity. Bupropion content in bilayer films was 121 mg per 9 cm2. The presence of bupropion modified film mechanical strength, but did not compromise the use of this pharmaceutical form. As shown by the cytotoxicity results, films containing bupropion did not cause cellular damage. Bupropion administration in the form of hydrogel films is a potentially useful alternative in the treatment of smoking.

  13. Use of Pedicled Buccal Fat Pad for Cranial Base Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadre, Pushkar; Ghadge, Murarji Tanaji; Singh, Divya; Gadre, Kiran

    2017-03-01

    Craniofacial reconstruction for closure of skull base defects after removal of anterior cranial base lesions is challenging. Persistent skull base defect produces extremely high risk of cerebrospinal fluid leaks and consecutive infectious complications. The authors' article focuses on the use of pedicled buccal fat pad for the reconstruction of anterior cranial base defects using combined endoscope-assisted approach and Lefort I access osteotomy. High effectiveness and minimal invasiveness are principal advantages of the technique. Other benefits include proximity of donor site to defect, simplicity of surgical technique, minimal postoperative discomfort, and very low risk of benign complications. Local pedicled grafts are the preferred material for plasty, adding aesthetic results in an ablative surgery using intraoral incision and access osteotomy. Thus, the technique solves the problem of relying on complex alloplastic reconstruction of anterior craniobasal defects.

  14. Fecal microbiota transplantation for Clostridium difficile infection in patients with ileal pouches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Nan; Ashburn, Jean; Shen, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Background:Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has been increasingly recognized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with pouch and CDI. Methods: All consecutive patients that underwent FMT for CDI from 2012 to 2016 were extracted from our IRB-approved, prospectively maintained Registry of Pouch Disorders. The primary outcome was negative stool tests for Clostridium difficile after FMT and the secondary outcomes were symptomatic and endoscopic responses. Results: A total of 13 patients were included in this study, with 10 being Caucasian males (76.9%). All patients had underlying ulcerative colitis for J pouch surgery. After a mean of 2.8±0.8 courses of antibiotic treatments was given and failed, 22 sessions of FMT were administered with an average of 1.7±1.1 sessions each. Within the 22 sessions, 16 were given via pouchoscopy, 4 via esophagogastroduodenoscopy and 2 via enemas. All patients tested negative on C. difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after the initial FMT with a total of 7/12 (58.3%) documented patients showed symptomatic improvements and 3/11 (27.3%) patients showed endoscopic improvement according to the modified Pouchitis Disease Activity Index. During the follow-up of 1.2±1.1 years, there were a total of five patients (38.5%) that had recurrence after the successful initial treatment and four of them were successfully treated again with FMT. Conclusions: FMT appeared to be effective in eradication of CDI in patients with ileal pouches. However, FMT had a modest impact on endoscopic inflammation and recurrence after FMT and recurrence was common.

  15. Overview and Future Potential of Buccal Mucoadhesive Films as Drug Delivery Systems for Biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Nicolini, Miguel; Morales, Javier O

    2017-01-01

    The main route of administration for drug products is the oral route, yet biologics are initially developed as injectables due to their limited stability through the gastrointestinal tract and solubility issues. In order to avoid injections, a myriad of investigations on alternative administration routes that can bypass enzymatic degradation and the first-pass effect are found in the literature. As an alternative site for biologics absorption, the buccal route presents with a number of advantages. The buccal mucosa is a barrier, providing protection to underlying tissue, but is more permeable than other alternative routes such as the skin. Buccal films are polymeric matrices designed to be mucoadhesive properties and usually formulated with permeability enhancers to improve bioavailability. Conventionally, buccal films for biologics are manufactured by solvent casting, yet recent developments have shown the potential of hot melt extrusion, and most recently ink jet printing as promising strategies. This review aims at depicting the field of biologics-loaded mucoadhesive films as buccal drug delivery systems. In light of the literature available, the buccal epithelium is a promising route for biologics administration, which is reflected in clinical trials currently in progress, looking forward to register and commercialize the first biologic product formulated as a buccal film.

  16. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of fentanyl buccal tablet in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mona; Kirby, Mary; Robertson, Philmore; Hellriegel, Edward; Jiang, John G

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg in healthy adult volunteers. After receiving naltrexone 50 mg to block opioid receptor-mediated effects of fentanyl, subjects received fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 1, then every 6 hours from day 4 to day 9 (21 doses). Naltrexone 50 mg was administered every 12 hours throughout the study. Plasma fentanyl concentrations were determined for 72 hours after administration of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 1 and the last dose of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 9. Following single- and multiple-dose administration of fentanyl buccal tablet, the median time to maximum concentration (tmax) was 52.2 and 49.8 minutes, respectively. Peak plasma concentration of fentanyl (Cmax) was 0.88 ng/mL for the single-dose regimen and 1.77 ng/mL for the multiple-dose regimen. Steady state was reached within 5 days, consistent with the observed median half-life of approximately 22 hours following multiple doses. Observed accumulation of fentanyl after multiple doses of fentanyl buccal tablet was slightly greater than would be expected based on the single-dose data. This was attributed to the redistribution of fentanyl from a deep tissue compartment into the plasma. This study indicates that fentanyl buccal tablet has predictable pharmacokinetics following multiple-dose administration.

  17. [A case of tricuspid pouch associated with ventricular septal defect and functional left ventricular-right atrial communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, H; Maeda, K; Minowa, T; Shimasaki, T; Shimanuki, T; Kasuya, S; Sakashita, I; Takano, S; Kato, K

    1992-03-01

    We reported a 60-year-old woman with tricuspid pouch associated with ventricular septal defect and subsequent left ventricular-right atrial communication. Preoperative angiographic findings suggested the presence of membranous septal aneurysm, ventricular and atrial septal defects, and tricuspid insufficiency. However, at operation, besides perimembranous inlet type ventricular septal defect, a pouch, 1.5 cm in diameter was found in the adjacent part to the septal leaflet within the anterior one of the tricuspid valve. The ventricular septal defect was closed with a patch. From these findings, it is speculated that the tricuspid pouch was formed by the effect of jet stream through the ventricular septal defect.

  18. Effect of Dendrobium officinale Extraction on Gastric Carcinogenesis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendrobium officinale (Tie Pi Shi Hu in Chinese has been widely used to treat different diseases in China. Anticancer effect is one of the important effects of Dendrobium officinale. However, the molecular mechanism of its anticancer effect remains unclear. In the present study, gastric carcinogenesis in rats was used to evaluate the effect of Dendrobium officinale on cancer, and its pharmacological mechanism was explored. Dendrobium officinale extracts (4.8 and 2.4 g/kg were orally administered to the rats of the gastric carcinogenesis model. Compared with the cancer model group, the high dose of Dendrobium officinale extracts significantly inhibited the rate of carcinogenesis. Further analysis revealed that Dendrobium officinale extracts could regulate the DNA damage, oxidative stress, and cytokines related with carcinogenesis and induce cell apoptosis in order to prevent gastric cancer.

  19. Effect of Dendrobium officinale Extraction on Gastric Carcinogenesis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Lan, Xi-Ming; Xu, Guo-Liang; Sun, You-Zhi; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale (Tie Pi Shi Hu in Chinese) has been widely used to treat different diseases in China. Anticancer effect is one of the important effects of Dendrobium officinale. However, the molecular mechanism of its anticancer effect remains unclear. In the present study, gastric carcinogenesis in rats was used to evaluate the effect of Dendrobium officinale on cancer, and its pharmacological mechanism was explored. Dendrobium officinale extracts (4.8 and 2.4 g/kg) were orally administered to the rats of the gastric carcinogenesis model. Compared with the cancer model group, the high dose of Dendrobium officinale extracts significantly inhibited the rate of carcinogenesis. Further analysis revealed that Dendrobium officinale extracts could regulate the DNA damage, oxidative stress, and cytokines related with carcinogenesis and induce cell apoptosis in order to prevent gastric cancer. PMID:28119756

  20. One-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Barbagli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the reader with the detailed description of current techniques of one-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty. The paper provides the reader with the preoperative patient evaluation paying attention to the use of diagnostic tools. The one-stage penile urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft with the application of glue is preliminary showed and discussed. Two-stage penile urethroplasty is then reported. A detailed description of first-stage urethroplasty according Johanson technique is reported. A second-stage urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft and glue is presented. Finally postoperative course and follow-up are addressed.

  1. Comfrey (Symphytum officinale. L. and Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: A Short-Term Carcinogenesis Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Pereira Lavieri Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Comfrey or Symphytum officinale (L. (Boraginaceae is a very popular plant used for therapeutic purposes. Since the 1980s, its effects have been studied in long-term carcinogenesis studies, in which Comfrey extract is administered at high doses during several months and the neoplastic hepatic lesions are evaluated. However, the literature on this topic is very poor considering the studies performed under short-term carcinogenesis protocols, such as the ‘resistant hepatocyte model’ (RHM. In these studies, it is possible to observe easily the phenomena related to the early phases of tumor development, since pre-neoplastic lesions (PNLs rise in about 1–2 months of chemical induction. Herein, the effects of chronic oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey ethanolic extract were evaluated in a RHM. Wistar rats were sequentially treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (ip and 2-acetilaminofluorene (po, and submitted to hepatectomy to induce carcinogenesis promotion. Macroscopic/microscopic quantitative analysis of PNL was performed. Non-parametric statistical tests (Mann–Whitney and χ2 were used, and the level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Comfrey treatment reduced the number of pre-neoplastic macroscopic lesions up to 1 mm (P ≤ 0.05, the percentage of oval cells (P = 0.0001 and mitotic figures (P = 0.007, as well as the number of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA positive cells (P = 0.0001 and acidophilic pre-neoplastic nodules (P = 0.05. On the other hand, the percentage of cells presenting megalocytosis (P = 0.0001 and vacuolar degeneration (P = 0.0001 was increased. Scores of fibrosis, glycogen stores and the number of nucleolus organizing regions were not altered. The study indicated that oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey alcoholic extract reduced cell proliferation in this model.

  2. Exocrine pancreatic carcinogenesis and autotaxin expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kadekar

    Full Text Available Exocrine pancreatic cancer is an aggressive disease with an exceptionally high mortality rate. Genetic analysis suggests a causative role for environmental factors, but consistent epidemiological support is scarce and no biomarkers for monitoring the effects of chemical pancreatic carcinogens are available. With the objective to identify common traits for chemicals inducing pancreatic tumors we studied the National Toxicology Program (NTP bioassay database. We found that male rats were affected more often than female rats and identified eight chemicals that induced exocrine pancreatic tumors in males only. For a hypothesis generating process we used a text mining tool to analyse published literature for suggested mode of actions (MOA. The resulting MOA analysis suggested inflammatory responses as common feature. In cell studies we found that all the chemicals increased protein levels of the inflammatory protein autotaxin (ATX in Panc-1, MIA PaCa-2 or Capan-2 cells. Induction of MMP-9 and increased invasive migration were also frequent effects, consistent with ATX activation. Testosterone has previously been implicated in pancreatic carcinogenesis and we found that it increased ATX levels. Our data show that ATX is a target for chemicals inducing pancreatic tumors in rats. Several lines of evidence implicate ATX and its product lysophosphatidic acid in human pancreatic cancer. Mechanisms of action may include stimulated invasive growth and metastasis. ATX may interact with hormones or onco- or suppressor-genes often deregulated in exocrine pancreatic cancer. Our data suggest that ATX is a target for chemicals promoting pancreatic tumor development.

  3. Somatic Host Cell Alterations in HPV Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara R. Litwin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV infections cause cancers in different organ sites, most commonly cervical and head and neck cancers. While carcinogenesis is initiated by two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, increasing evidence shows the importance of specific somatic events in host cells for malignant transformation. HPV-driven cancers share characteristic somatic changes, including apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC-driven mutations and genomic instability leading to copy number variations and large chromosomal rearrangements. HPV-associated cancers have recurrent somatic mutations in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN, human leukocyte antigen A and B (HLA-A and HLA-B-A/B, and the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ pathway, and rarely have mutations in the tumor protein p53 (TP53 and RB transcriptional corepressor 1 (RB1 tumor suppressor genes. There are some variations by tumor site, such as NOTCH1 mutations which are primarily found in head and neck cancers. Understanding the somatic events following HPV infection and persistence can aid the development of early detection biomarkers, particularly when mutations in precancers are characterized. Somatic mutations may also influence prognosis and treatment decisions.

  4. Somatic Host Cell Alterations in HPV Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Tamara R; Clarke, Megan A; Dean, Michael; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2017-08-03

    High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infections cause cancers in different organ sites, most commonly cervical and head and neck cancers. While carcinogenesis is initiated by two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, increasing evidence shows the importance of specific somatic events in host cells for malignant transformation. HPV-driven cancers share characteristic somatic changes, including apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC)-driven mutations and genomic instability leading to copy number variations and large chromosomal rearrangements. HPV-associated cancers have recurrent somatic mutations in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha ( PIK3CA ) and phosphatase and tensin homolog ( PTEN ), human leukocyte antigen A and B ( HLA-A and HLA-B ) -A/B , and the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) pathway, and rarely have mutations in the tumor protein p53 ( TP53 ) and RB transcriptional corepressor 1 ( RB1 ) tumor suppressor genes. There are some variations by tumor site, such as NOTCH1 mutations which are primarily found in head and neck cancers. Understanding the somatic events following HPV infection and persistence can aid the development of early detection biomarkers, particularly when mutations in precancers are characterized. Somatic mutations may also influence prognosis and treatment decisions.

  5. Carcinogenesis induced by low-dose radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowski Igor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the effects of high dose radiation on human cells and tissues are relatively well defined, there is no consensus regarding the effects of low and very low radiation doses on the organism. Ionizing radiation has been shown to induce gene mutations and chromosome aberrations which are known to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. The induction of secondary cancers is a challenging long-term side effect in oncologic patients treated with radiation. Medical sources of radiation like intensity modulated radiotherapy used in cancer treatment and computed tomography used in diagnostics, deliver very low doses of radiation to large volumes of healthy tissue, which might contribute to increased cancer rates in long surviving patients and in the general population. Research shows that because of the phenomena characteristic for low dose radiation the risk of cancer induction from exposure of healthy tissues to low dose radiation can be greater than the risk calculated from linear no-threshold model. Epidemiological data collected from radiation workers and atomic bomb survivors confirms that exposure to low dose radiation can contribute to increased cancer risk and also that the risk might correlate with the age at exposure.

  6. DNA repair, damage signaling and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Christophe; Salles, Bernard; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2008-04-02

    The First joint meeting of the German DGDR (German Society for Research on DNA Repair) and the French SFTG (French Society of Genotoxicology) on DNA Repair was held in Toulouse, France, from September 15 to 19, 2007. It was organized by Lisa Wiesmüller and Bernard Salles together with the scientific committee consisting of Gilbert de Murcia, Jean-Marc Egly, Frank Grosse, Karl-Peter Hopfner, Georges Iliakis, Bernd Kaina, Markus Löbrich, Bernard Lopez, Daniel Marzin and Alain Sarasin. This report summarizes information presented by the speakers (invited lectures and oral communications) during the seven plenary sessions, which include (1) excision repair, (2) DNA repair and carcinogenesis, (3) double-strand break repair, (4) replication in repair and lesion bypass, (5) cellular responses to genotoxic stress, (6) DNA repair machinery within the chromatin context and (7) genotoxicology and testing. A total of 23 plenary lectures, 32 oral communications and 66 posters were presented in this rather intense 4 days meeting, which stimulated extensive discussions and highly interdisciplinary scientific exchanges among the approximately 250 participants.

  7. Theories of endometrial carcinogenesis: a multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, M E

    2000-03-01

    Historical observations have suggested that endometrial carcinomas vary in histopathologic appearance and clinical features. More recent, systematic studies have provided epidemiologic, clinicopathologic, and molecular support for these observations. Specifically, studies suggest that the most common type of endometrial carcinoma, endometrioid adenocarcinoma, develops from endometrial hyperplasia in the setting of excess estrogen exposure and usually pursues an indolent clinical course. In contrast, a minority of endometrial carcinomas, best represented by serous carcinoma, do not seem to be related to estrogenic risk factors or elevated serum hormone levels, and these tumors seem to develop from atrophic rather than hyperplastic epithelium. We have proposed that serous carcinomas develop from "endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma," a lesion representing malignant transformation of the endometrial surface epithelium. Whereas endometrioid carcinoma and endometrial hyperplasia are associated with microsatellite instability and ras and PTEN mutations, serous carcinoma and endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma are associated with p53 mutations and abnormal accumulation of p53 protein. Based on these data regarding the pathogenesis of endometrioid and serous carcinoma, we have proposed a dualistic model of endometrial carcinogenesis incorporating a "classic" estrogen-driven pathway and an "alternative" pathway seemingly unrelated to hormones. It is hoped that further studies may permit the extension and modification of this model and that these advances will lead to improved diagnosis, management, and prevention.

  8. Loss of HLTF function promotes intestinal carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhu Sumit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HLTF (Helicase-like Transcription Factor is a DNA helicase protein homologous to the SWI/SNF family involved in the maintenance of genomic stability and the regulation of gene expression. HLTF has also been found to be frequently inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in human colon cancers. Whether this epigenetic event is required for intestinal carcinogenesis is unknown. Results To address the role of loss of HLTF function in the development of intestinal cancer, we generated Hltf deficient mice. These mutant mice showed normal development, and did not develop intestinal tumors, indicating that loss of Hltf function by itself is insufficient to induce the formation of intestinal cancer. On the Apcmin/+ mutant background, Hltf- deficiency was found to significantly increase the formation of intestinal adenocarcinoma and colon cancers. Cytogenetic analysis of colon tumor cells from Hltf -/-/Apcmin/+ mice revealed a high incidence of gross chromosomal instabilities, including Robertsonian fusions, chromosomal fragments and aneuploidy. None of these genetic alterations were observed in the colon tumor cells derived from Apcmin/+ mice. Increased tumor growth and genomic instability was also demonstrated in HCT116 human colon cancer cells in which HLTF expression was significantly decreased. Conclusion Taken together, our results demonstrate that loss of HLTF function promotes the malignant transformation of intestinal or colonic adenomas to carcinomas by inducing genomic instability. Our findings highly suggest that epigenetic inactivation of HLTF, as found in most human colon cancers, could play an important role in the progression of colon tumors to malignant cancer.

  9. Multistage chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaga, T.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Weeks, C.E.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Skin tumors in mice can be induced by the sequential application of a subthreshold dose of a carcinogen (initiation phase) followed by repetitive treatment with a noncarcinogenic tumor promoter. The initiation phase requires only a single application of either a direct acting carcinogen or a procarcinogen which has to be metabolized before being active and is essentially an irreversible step which probably involves a somatic cell mutation. There is a good correlation between the skin tumor initiating activites of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their ability to bind covalently to epidermal DNA. Laboratory results suggest that bay region diol-epoxides are the ultimate carcinogenic form of PAH carcinogens. Potent inhibitors and stimulators of PAH tumor initiation appear to affect the level of the PAH diol-epoxide reacting with specific DNA bases. Reecent data suggests that the tumor promotion stage involves at least three important steps: (1) the induction of embryonic looking cells (dark cells) in adult epidermis; (2) an increased production of epidermal prostaglandins and polyamines; (3) sustained proliferation of dark cells. Retinoic acid specifically inhibits step two whereas the anti-inflammatory steriod fluocinolone acetonide is a potent inhibitor of steps one and three. The mechanism and the importance of a specific sequence for each step in chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin are detailed.

  10. Hypoxia and Angiogenesis in Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Horrée

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α plays an essential role in the adaptive response of cells to hypoxia, triggering biologic events associated with aggressive tumor behavior. Methods: Expression of HIF-1α and proteins in the HIF-1α pathway (Glut-1, CAIX, VEGF in paraffin-embedded specimens of normal (n = 17, premalignant (n = 17 and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (n = 39 was explored by immunohistochemistry, in relation to microvessel density (MVD. Results: HIF-1α overexpression was absent in inactive endometrium but present in hyperplasia (61% and carcinoma (87%, with increasing expression in a perinecrotic fashion pointing to underlying hypoxia. No membranous expression of Glut-1 and CAIX was noticed in inactive endometrium, in contrast with expression in hyperplasia (Glut-1 0%, CAIX 61%, only focal and diffuse and carcinoma (Glut-1 94.6%, CAIX 92%, both mostly perinecrotically. Diffuse HIF-1α was accompanied by activation of downstream targets. VEGF was significantly higher expressed in hyperplasias and carcinomas compared to inactive endometrium. MVD was higher in hyperplasias and carcinomas than in normal endometrium (p < 0.001. Conclusion: HIF-1α and its downstream genes are increasingly expressed from normal through premalignant to endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium, paralleled by activation of its downstream genes and increased angiogenesis. This underlines the potential importance of hypoxia and its key regulator HIF-1α in endometrial carcinogenesis.

  11. Carcinogenesis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: precursor lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoni, Antonio; Licchetta, Antonella; Scarpa, Aldo; Azzariti, Amalia; Brunetti, Anna Elisabetta; Simone, Gianni; Nardulli, Patrizia; Santini, Daniele; Aieta, Michele; Delcuratolo, Sabina; Silvestris, Nicola

    2013-09-30

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma displays a variety of molecular changes that evolve exponentially with time and lead cancer cells not only to survive, but also to invade the surrounding tissues and metastasise to distant sites. These changes include: genetic alterations in oncogenes and cancer suppressor genes; changes in the cell cycle and pathways leading to apoptosis; and also changes in epithelial to mesenchymal transition. The most common alterations involve the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, the HER2 gene, and the K-ras gene. In particular, the loss of function of tumor-suppressor genes has been documented in this tumor, especially in CDKN2a, p53, DPC4 and BRCA2 genes. However, other molecular events involved in pancreatic adenocarcinoma pathogenesis contribute to its development and maintenance, specifically epigenetic events. In fact, key tumor suppressors that are well established to play a role in pancreatic adenocarcinoma may be altered through hypermethylation, and oncogenes can be upregulated secondary to permissive histone modifications. Indeed, factors involved in tumor invasiveness can be aberrantly expressed through dysregulated microRNAs. This review summarizes current knowledge of pancreatic carcinogenesis from its initiation within a normal cell until the time that it has disseminated to distant organs. In this scenario, highlighting these molecular alterations could provide new clinical tools for early diagnosis and new effective therapies for this malignancy.

  12. Carcinogenesis of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Precursor Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Delcuratolo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic adenocarcinoma displays a variety of molecular changes that evolve exponentially with time and lead cancer cells not only to survive, but also to invade the surrounding tissues and metastasise to distant sites. These changes include: genetic alterations in oncogenes and cancer suppressor genes; changes in the cell cycle and pathways leading to apoptosis; and also changes in epithelial to mesenchymal transition. The most common alterations involve the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene, the HER2 gene, and the K-ras gene. In particular, the loss of function of tumor-suppressor genes has been documented in this tumor, especially in CDKN2a, p53, DPC4 and BRCA2 genes. However, other molecular events involved in pancreatic adenocarcinoma pathogenesis contribute to its development and maintenance, specifically epigenetic events. In fact, key tumor suppressors that are well established to play a role in pancreatic adenocarcinoma may be altered through hypermethylation, and oncogenes can be upregulated secondary to permissive histone modifications. Indeed, factors involved in tumor invasiveness can be aberrantly expressed through dysregulated microRNAs. This review summarizes current knowledge of pancreatic carcinogenesis from its initiation within a normal cell until the time that it has disseminated to distant organs. In this scenario, highlighting these molecular alterations could provide new clinical tools for early diagnosis and new effective therapies for this malignancy.

  13. Interposition of Ileal J-Pouch for Rectum Reconstruction in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ghahramani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gold standard of the management of rectal cancer in the middle and lower parts is low anterior resection with coloanal anastomosis. About 50% of the patients undergoing this procedure might experience some complications because of the low capacity of the neorectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate ileal J-pouch interposition as a neorectum between the anal canal and the remaining colon in comparison to coloanal anastomosis and transverse coloplasty. Methods: Twelve dogs, weighing 23-27 kg, were divided into three groups. After laparotomy, the volume of the primary rectum was measured so that it could be compared with that of the neorectum at the end of the study. After rectal resection in Group A, the colon was directly anastomosed to the anus. In Group B, a 5-cm longitudinal incision was made 2 cm proximal to the anastomosis and was sutured transversely (coloplasty. In Group C, a 5-cm ileal J-pouch was interposed between the colon and anus. After 8 weeks, the neorectum was evaluated for volume, radiology, and pathology. Results: All the samples were alive until the end of the study. The healing of the anastomotic lines was acceptable (pathologically in all. The mean volume expansion was 20.9% in Group A, 21.7% in Group B, and 118.2% in Group C, with the latter being significantly higher than that of the other groups (P=0.03. Colon J-pouch and coloplasty after proctectomy in some situations have not been performable. This study evaluated the performance of ileal J-pouch interposition. Conclusion: This study showed that ileal J-pouch interposition might produce an acceptable reservoir function and that it seems feasible and safe in selected cases. Please cite this article as: Ghahramani L, Yazdani S, Derakhshani S, Rezaianzadeh A, Jalli R, Geramizadeh B, Safarpour AR, Rahimikazerooni S, Hosseini SV. Interposition of Ileal J-Pouch for Rectum Reconstruction in Dog. Iran J Med Sci. 2014;39(2:117-122.

  14. The potential of chitosan in enhancing peptide and protein absorption across the TR146 cell culture model-an in vitro model of the buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portero, Ana; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the potential of chitosan (CS) to enhance buccal peptide and protein absorption, the TR146 cell culture model, a model of the buccal epithelium, was used.......To investigate the potential of chitosan (CS) to enhance buccal peptide and protein absorption, the TR146 cell culture model, a model of the buccal epithelium, was used....

  15. Genital and Subjective Sexual Response in Women After Restorative Proctocolectomy with Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis-A Prospective Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlug, Malaika S.; Laan, Ellen T.; van Lunsen, Rik H. W.; van Koperen, Paul J.; Polle, Sebastiaan W.; Bemelman, Willem A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Sexual dysfunction after ileo pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is common. The most systematic physical reaction to sexual stimulation is an increase in vaginal vasocongestion. Genital response can be assessed by vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) using vaginal photoplethysmography. Aim. To

  16. Adenocarcinoma in the jejunal pouch after proximal gastrectomy for early stage upper gastric cancer: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Takanori; Kanai, Motoshi; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Motohara, Toshiji

    2012-06-01

    An 84-year-old male was admitted to a local clinic suffering from general fatigue with associated anemia, and therefore was referred to our hospital. His medical history included a proximal gastrectomy with the formation of a jejunal pouch as a reconstructive treatment for early upper gastric cancer at 78 years of age (6 years prior). A type 2 tumor located in the jejunal pouch almost completely surrounded by small intestinal mucosa was demonstrated by gastrointestinal endoscopy. The biopsy specimens showed a moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. Computed tomography showed no lymphadenopathy or hepatic metastases. A resection of the residual stomach and jejunal pouch was performed. Based on the histological findings from the resected specimen, the tumor was considered to be primary adenocarcinoma in the jejunal pouch. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient has shown no evidence of any recurrence during the 6-year period after the most recent surgery.

  17. The benefits of a laparoscopic approach in ileal pouch anal anastomosis formation: a single institutional retrospective case-matched experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J

    2010-06-01

    A laparoscopic approach to ileoanal pouch formation is novel. By using prospectively gathered data, laparoscopic and open restorative proctocolectomy procedures in mucosal ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients were compared using a case-matched design.

  18. Buccal vs. nasogastric tube administration of tacrolimus after pediatric liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorhuis, JF; Scheenstra, R; Peeters, PMJG; Albers, MJIJ

    Tacrolimus is an important drug for immunosuppression after liver transplantation. Bioavailability of enterally administered tacrolimus is poor, and further reduced by gastric residuals or by enteral nutrition. Buccal administration might be an alternative route especially in children. Tacrolimus

  19. Evaluation of resorbable membrane in treatment of human gingival isolated buccal recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Narang

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Resorbable membrane is a versatile treatment modality for coverage of isolated buccal gingival recession. Although membrane exposure occurred in four patients, it did not interfere with post operative healing.

  20. Buccal absorption of ketobemidone and various ester prodrugs in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Jorgensen, A.; Rasmussen, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    The buccal absorption of ketobemidone, a strong narcotic analgesic, and various carboxylate and carbonate ester prodrugs was studied in rats. The compounds were administered in the form of aqueous solutions of pH 7.4. The absolute bioavailability of ketobemidone following buccal dosing was 26......% whereas the bioavailability of ketobemidone following buccal administration of the prodrugs ranged from 37 to 98%. The highest bioavailability was obtained with the ethyl carbonate ester. An apparent parabolic correlation between bioavailability and lipophilicity of the compounds was seen. All esters were...... rapidly hydrolyzed to ketobemidone after both buccal and intravenous administration. The acute toxicity of the esters after i.v. administration to mice and rats was similar to that of the parent drug. It is concluded that esterification of the phenolic hydroxyl group in ketobemidone to give a more...

  1. Long buccal nerve block injection pain in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pain associated with needle insertion (with or without topical anesthetic) and solution deposition for the long buccal nerve block injection in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Initial pain and any differences by age and gender were also studied. One hundred twelve emergency patients with irreversible pulpitis received long buccal nerve block injections using 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The patients recorded pain of needle insertion and solution deposition on a Heft-Parker visual analog scale (VAS). Moderate-to-severe pain occurred from 41% to 46% of the time with the long buccal nerve block. The use of topical anesthetic did not statistically decrease the pain of needle insertion. In conclusion, 41% to 46% of patients presenting with irreversible pulpitis have the potential for moderate-to-severe pain with the long buccal nerve block. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Buccal midazolam spray as an alternative to intranasal route for conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Radhika; Mittal, Meenu; Bansal, Kalpana; Chaudhuri, Payal

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the acceptance of midazolam spray through buccal route as compared to intranasal route and compare the efficacy of the drug through both the routes. 30 patients aged 2-8 years with Grade I or II Frankl's Behaviour Rating Scale were selected who required similar treatment under local anesthesia on two teeth. Midazolam spray was administered randomly through buccal or intranasal routes for the two appointments. Scoring was done for the acceptance of drug and Houpt's score was recorded for the behaviour of patients during the treatment. Acceptance of drug through buccal route was significantly better than the intranasal route (p 0.05). Midazolam spray can be effectively used through the buccal mucosa in children who give poor compliance with the intranasal administration.

  3. Reconstruction of the bulbar urethra using dorsal onlay buccal mucosal grafts: New concepts and surgical tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Barbagli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal mucosa onlay graft urethroplasty represents one of the most widespread methods for the repair of strictures in the bulbar urethra, because of its thick and highly vascular spongiosum tissue. Recently the location of the patch has become a contentious issue, since we described our original techniques of dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty. The design rationale for this approach was based on the concept that the corporeal body remains a healthy host for receiving a free transplanted tissues. Moreover, graft fixation onto a defined surface may decrease graft shrinkage and sacculation. The success rate using buccal mucosa grafts for the repair of bulbar urethral strictures has generally been high with dorsal or ventral onlay grafts or using an augmented roof-strip anastomotic urethroplasty. We describe here the fundamental concepts of the bulbar urethra reconstruction using buccal mucosal grafts, presenting a new surgical technique of dorsal onlay buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty using fibrin glue.

  4. Comparison of the zygoma anchorage system with cervical headgear in buccal segment distalization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaya, Burçak; Arman, Ayça; Uçkan, Sina; Yaz c, Ay e Canan

    2009-01-01

    ...) in buccal segment distalization in comparison with cervical headgear (CH). Thirty patients with Class II dental malocclusions were included in the study and were divided into two equal groups: the first group...

  5. Human buccal epithelium acquires microbial hyporesponsiveness at birth, a role for secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menckeberg, Celia L; Hol, Jeroen; Simons-Oosterhuis, Ytje; Raatgeep, H Rolien C; de Ruiter, Lilian F; Lindenbergh-Kortleve, Dicky J; Korteland-van Male, Anita M; El Aidy, Sahar; van Lierop, Pieter P E; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Groeneweg, Michael; Kraal, Georg; Elink-Schuurman, Beatrix E; de Jongste, Johan C; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Samsom, Janneke N

    OBJECTIVE: Repetitive interaction with microbial stimuli renders epithelial cells (ECs) hyporesponsive to microbial stimulation. Previously, we have reported that buccal ECs from a subset of paediatric patients with Crohn's disease are not hyporesponsive and spontaneously released chemokines. We now

  6. Human buccal epithelium acquires microbial hyporesponsiveness at birth, a role for secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menckeberg, C.L.; Hol, J.; Simons-Oosterhuis, Y.; Raatgeep, H.R.; Ruiter, de L.F.; Lindenbergh-Kortleve, D.J.; Korteland-van Male, A.M.; Aidy, El S.F.; Lierop, van P.P.E.; Kleerebezem, M.; Groeneweg, M.; Kraal, G.; Elink-Schuurman, B.E.; Jongste, de J.C.; Nieuwenhuis, E.E.S.; Samsom, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Repetitive interaction with microbial stimuli renders epithelial cells (ECs) hyporesponsive to microbial stimulation. Previously, we have reported that buccal ECs from a subset of paediatric patients with Crohn's disease are not hyporesponsive and spontaneously released chemokines. We now

  7. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rassing, M R

    1999-01-01

    (app)) of the hydrophilic marker mannitol due to exposure to solutions with pH values or osmolality values different from the physiological values was studied. As in studies with solutions of either taurocholate (TC), glycocholate (GC) or glycodeoxycholate (GDC) the results were compared to the increase in P......(app) of mannitol obtained in analog studies using porcine buccal mucosa in an Ussing chamber. The effect of the exposure on the electrical resistance of the TR146 cell culture model and the porcine buccal mucosa was measured, and the degree of protein leakage due to GC exposure was investigated in the TR146 cell...... culture model. The porcine buccal mucosa was approximately ten times less permeable to mannitol than the TR146 cell culture model. The P(app)TC. Increased P(app) values correlated with a decrease in the electrical resistance of the TR146 cell culture model and the porcine buccal mucosa. GC was shown...

  8. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck Nielsen, H; Rømer Rassing, M; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal mucosa with respect to the enzyme activity in the tissues. For this purpose, the contents of aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase and esterase in homogenate supernatants of the TR146...... cell culture model, and human and porcine buccal epithelium were compared. The esterase activity in the intact cell culture model and in the porcine buccal mucosa was compared. Further, the TR146 cell culture model was used to study the permeability rate and metabolism of leu-enkephalin. The activity...... of the three enzymes in the TR146 homogenate supernatants was in the same range as the activity in homogenate supernatants of human buccal epithelium. In the TR146 cell culture model, the activity of aminopeptidase (13.70+/-2.10 nmol/min per mg protein) was approx. four times the activity of carboxypeptidase...

  9. Large bowel mucosal neoplasia in the original specimen may increase the risk of ileal pouch neoplasia in patients following restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkiewicz, Adam; Krokowicz, Lukasz; Paszkowski, Jacek; Studniarek, Adam; Szmyt, Krzysztof; Majewski, Jan; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Majewski, Przemyslaw; Drews, Michal; Banasiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy is a current gold standard procedure for patients who require a colectomy for ulcerative colitis. The incidence of ileal pouch neoplasia is low. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of neoplasia in ileal pouch and investigate the risk factors for ileal pouch neoplasia. A total of 276 patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis between 1984 and 2009 were analyzed. Results of histological examinations of both original specimen and biopsies from the J-pouch taken during routine pouch endoscopy were evaluated. Patients' records were analyzed for ulcerative colitis duration, the time from pouch creation to pouch neoplasia, presence of pouchitis, as well as the concurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis. Analyzing the original specimen of large bowel, fifty-six lesions of low-grade dysplasia, twenty-five high-grade dysplasia, and five adenocarcinoma were revealed. All patients with dysplasia (n = 8) or adenocarcinoma (n = 1) of the J-pouch were positive for dysplasia in the original specimen. Duration of ulcerative colitis before surgery and duration time following restorative proctocolectomy were found as risk factors for J-pouch neoplasia with a significant difference (p = 0.01 and p = 0.0003, respectively). Patients with pouch neoplasia developed significantly more severe pouchitis (p = 0.00001). Neoplasia of the J-pouch is rare. Patients with neoplasia in the original specimen are more susceptible to develop neoplasia in the J-pouch. Precise follow-up in patients with neoplasia lesions in the original specimen should be recommended. Moreover, in patients with risk factors, the exact surveillance pouch endoscopy should be recommended.

  10. Changes in Morphology of Alveolar Buccal Walls Following Atraumatic Internal Root Fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Engelke, Wilfried; Beltrán, Víctor; Decco, Oscar; Valdivia-Gandur, Iván; Navarro, Pablo; Fuentes, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The buccal alveolar wall represents the most important structure to provide shape and volume of the alveolous following tooth extraction. The aim of the study was the evaluation of buccal alveolar bone structures following minimally invasive surgery. In 15 patients (3 male, 12 female), aged 20–67 years, 3 central incisors, 5 lateral incisors, and 7 bicuspids were removed using flapless enucleation. The enucleation comprised endoscopically assisted mesiodistal root sectioning with inw...

  11. Perceptions of laypersons and orthodontists regarding the buccal corridor in long- and short-face individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Zange, Sabrina Elisa; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Cuoghi, Osmar Aparecido [UNESP; Mendonça, Marcos Rogério de; Suguino, Rosely

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the perception of orthodontists and laypersons regarding the size of the dark spaces in the buccal corridors and how that affects smile esthetics in individuals with long and short faces.Materials and Methods: Images of eight smiling individuals were modified to create five sizes of dark spaces in the buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22%, and 28%) and were submitted to a group of laypersons and a group of orthodontists.Results: Laypersons were more critical in their eva...

  12. Genotoxicity assessment data for exfoliated buccal cells exposed to mobile phone radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthy mobile phone users aged 18–30 y.o. provided exfoliated buccal cells samples from the right and left inner cheeks. A total of 2000 cells per subject were screened for the presence of micronuclei as a sign of genotoxic damage, according to the mobile phone use profile of each user. Keywords: Electromagnetic fields, Mobile phones, Genotoxicity, Micronuclei, Exfoliated buccal cells, Feulgen stain

  13. Identification of Streptococcus parasanguinis DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfuz, Istiak; Cheng, Wei; White, Stefan J

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of buccal swabs in clinical and scientific studies is a very popular method of collecting DNA, due to its non-invasive nature of collection. However, contamination of the DNA sample may interfere with analysis. Findings Here we report the finding of Streptococcus parasanguinis bacterial DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples, which led to preferential amplification of bacterial sequence with PCR primers designed against human sequence. Conclusion Contamination of buc...

  14. Fibrolipoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayasu Iwase

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms derived from mature adipose tissue. However, they rarely arise in the oral cavity. Fibrolipoma is a histological variant of lipoma that mainly affects the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic issues. This article describes the case of a 71-year-old male with a fibrolipoma of the left buccal mucosa and a review of previous articles about fibrolipoma.

  15. Indiana pouch continent urinary reservoir in patients with previous pelvic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannel, R.S.; Braly, P.S.; Buller, R.E. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Little information exists on the use of continent urinary reservoirs in patients with previous pelvic irradiation. We report the use of the Indiana pouch urinary reservoir in ten women with a history of pelvic irradiation for cervical cancer, of whom eight underwent a total pelvic exenteration for recurrent pelvic tumor and two had diversion for radiation-induced vesicovaginal fistula. All ten women achieved daytime continence, with a median time between catheterizations of 4.5 hours and a median pouch capacity of 500 mL. There was no evidence of leakage from the reservoir or significant ureteral reflux or obstruction on postoperative radiographic evaluation. No patient has required reoperation or had significant postoperative complications with the technique described.

  16. [Necrosis of the pouch due to nontraumatic rupture of the pile during permanent endocardial electrostimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circo, A; Mangiameli, S; Vanaria, D; Lombardo, D; Evola, R

    1977-09-30

    Necrosis of the pouch containing the generator, due to non-traumatic breakage of the batteries, was observed in a patient with a permanent pacemaker, followed by rapid ingravescence. The cause of this complication is discussed. Chemical inflammation was noted soon after the pacemaker ceased to function. Initially this was similar to the not uncommon bacterial inflammation noted in such patients. Here, of course, the pacemaker usually continues to work, and its replacement is optional, whereas in the reported case is an emergency matter. In situations where tissue distress in the pouch is accompanied by inflammation, therefore, thought should be given to the possibility that, even if the batteries are still working, the cause may be chemical or electrochemical rather than septic, and than sudden breakdown of the generator may be expected.

  17. Studies on promoting action in skin carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saffiotti, U.; Shubik, P.

    1963-01-01

    A number of substances were tested for carcinogenic promoting activity in Swiss mice by applying them twice weekly to the clipped dorsal skin, beginning 1 wk after a single application of 9,10-dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA; 1 to 1.5% in mineral oil). Tests with silver nitrate (10% aqueous), iodoacetic acid (0.9% in acetone, fumaric acid (1% in acetone), ethylphenylpropiolate (5% in acetone), trihydroxymethylanthraquinone. (Emodin; 0.5% in acetone), oleic alcohol, monostearin (5% in acetone) and sorbitan monolaurate were essentially negative; when a single application of croton oil (5% in mineral oil) was interspersed between the carcinogen and silver nitrate, 6/20 mice developed 14 benign tumors and 1 carcinoma. N-Dodecane showed moderate promoting activity (26 tumors, with 2 carcinomas, in 12/30 mice). Tests of several petroleum fractions showed high initial promoting activity (404 tumors, with 31 carcinomas, in 36/50 mice), but the activity disappeared on storage; while there was no carcinogenic activity in mice, in New Zealand albino rabbits the petroleum fractions alone produced considerable numbers of tumors. One application of DMBA, however, did increase tumor incidence and shorten the latent period. The hexane-eluted fraction of a methanolic extract of croton seeds (which had little vesicant activity), had all the promoting activity of the original croton oil; this could be demonstrated with uethan (20 mg/day ip for 5 days) as the initiator as well as with DMBA. In conclusion, the authors distinguish sharply between the promoting activity of compounds such as croton oil, which lead mostly to benign tumors (many of which regress spontaneously), and the additive effects of carcinogenic substances which may have a stimulatory effect on the second stage of carcinogenesis; for this additive carcinogenic effect, they suggest the term developing action. Other studies on croton oil are also reviewed.

  18. Allele-specific gene expression in carcinogenesis

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    O. M. Krivtsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale genomic studies established the occurrence of multiple DNA sequence variants in genomes of healthy individuals that differ from the reference sequence. Among these variants mostly represented by germline single nucleotide polymorphisms disease-related alleles are detected including alleles which are associated with monogenic disorders, and putative deleterious genetic variants. Apart from functional significance of a particular variant and of a gene harboring it, the penetrance of these allelic variants depends on their expression level and can be determined by preferential expression of a particular allele, or allele-specific expression. It is estimated that 20–30 % of genes present in the human genome display allelic bias in a tissue-specific manner. Allele-specific expression is defined by a range of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms including cis-regulatory polymorphisms, allele-specific binding of transcription factors, allele-specific DNA methylation and regulation through non-coding RNA.Although the data on the issue are scarce, allele-specific expression has been reported to be implicated in several hereditary disorders including benign and malignant tumors of the large intestine. Recent studies that estimate allele-specific expression incidence in tumors and identify wide range of genes displaying allelic imbalance indicate that allele-specific expression might play a significant role in carcinogenesis. Eventually, estimation of transcriptional rate of allelic variants which cause dysfunction of oncogenes and tumor suppressors may prove to be essential for rational choice of antitumor therapeutic strategy. In this review, we outline the main concepts and mechanisms of allele-specific expression and the data on allelic imbalance in tumors.

  19. Implications of tyrosine phosphoproteomics in cervical carcinogenesis

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    DeFord James

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide cervical cancer remains a leading cause of mortality from gynecologic malignancies. The link between cervical cancer and persistent infection with HPV has been established. At a molecular level little is known about the transition from the precancerous state to invasive cancer. To elucidate this process, cervical biopsies from human specimens were obtained from precancerous state to stage III disease. Methods Cervical biopsies were obtained from patients with a diagnosis of cervical cancer undergoing definitive surgery or staging operation. Biopsies were obtained from patients with precancerous lesions at the time of their excisional procedure. Control samples were obtained from patients undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions such as fibroids. Samples were subjected to proteomic profiling using two dimensional gel electrophoresis with subsequent trypsin digestion followed by MALDI-TOF protein identification. Candidate proteins were then further studied using western blotting, immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry. Results Annexin A1 and DNA-PKcs were found to be differentially expressed. Phosphorylated annexin A1 was up regulated in diseased states in comparison to control and its level was strongly detected in the serum of cervical cancer patients compared to controls. DNA-PKcs was noted to be hyperphosphorylated and fragmented in cancer when compared to controls. By immunohistochemistry annexin A1 was noted in the vascular environment in cancer and certain precancerous samples. Conclusion This study suggests a probable role for protein tyrosine phosphorylation in cervical carcinogenesis. Annexin A1 and DNA-PK cs may have synergistic effects with HPV infection. Precancerous lesions that may progress to cervical cancer may be differentiated from lesions that will not base on similar immunohistochemical profile to invasive squamous cell carcinoma.

  20. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

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    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  1. Filariasis of the buccal mucosa: A diagnostic dilemma

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    Seema Kurup

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis is an endemic disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Filarial nematodes can infect humans through vectors, commonly mosquitoes. Human infection can manifest as lymphatic filariasis, subcutaneous or pulmonary nodules and with eye involvement. Intra-oral presentation is very rare and often poses a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist. We report a case of intra-oral Dirofilaria repens infection in a 54-year-old female patient, involving the buccal mucosa. History was unremarkable and on clinical examination, a diffuse swelling with no significant signs and symptoms was seen. Laboratory investigations and radiographs were non-contributory to diagnosis. Ultrasound findings revealed a hypo-echoic lesion in the muscular layer of the left cheek. Differential diagnoses considered were minor salivary gland tumor, parotid sialolith, and cysticercosis among others. The presence of a Dirofilaria worm in the excised nodule confirmed the diagnosis. Medical awareness of the risk of intra-oral nematode infection is essential. A detailed travel history, awareness of endemic status of certain diseases, proper diagnosis and management helps in better prognosis for the patient.

  2. Onset of buccal pumping in catshark embryos: how breathing develops in the egg capsule.

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    Taketeru Tomita

    Full Text Available Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the "internal gills." The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1 regression of the external gill filaments, (2 development of blood vessels within the "internal gills," (3 completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4 development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening.

  3. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

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    Rashmi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 were females in the age group of 20-30 years were selected as per inclusion criteria and were grouped as Group I having Class I malocclusion and as Group II having Class II malocclusions based on angle ANB. 12 linear and 2 angular cephalometric measurements and 4 study cast measurements were used to correlate with the buccal corridor linear ratio (BCLR, calculated on smile photograph using the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California, USA. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Buccal corridor space is larger in individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion when compared with individuals with Class I malocclusions. There exists a significant difference in buccal corridor space between males and females. Conclusion: The present study helps in establishing the correlation between certain factors and the amount of buccal corridor space in individuals having skeletal Class II pattern.

  4. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans adhesion to buccal epithelial cells by an aqueous extract of Thymus vulgaris.

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    Hammad, M; Sallal, A-K; Darmani, H

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an extract of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) on the growth of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and the adhesion of this bacterium to human buccal epithelial cells. Different concentrations of an aqueous extract of thyme were prepared and the effects investigated on growth of S. mutans. Furthermore, the effect of these extracts on adhesion of S. mutans to buccal epithelial cells was also investigated and compared with the effects of chlorhexidine digluconate. The data revealed that exposure of S. mutans to thyme extract showed a time and concentration-dependent decrease in bacterial viability. The greatest effect was observed when S. mutans had been exposed to 20% thyme extract for a period of 48 h which resulted in 96% inhibition of bacterial growth. Furthermore, the adhesion of S. mutans to buccal epithelial cells was also reduced when either buccal epithelial cells or S. mutans had been pre-incubated with different concentrations of aqueous thyme extracts (83-98% and 75-89% inhibition respectively). There was also greater reduction in the adherence of bacterial cells to buccal epithelial cells after mouth rinsing with 20% aqueous thyme extract compared to rinsing with chlorhexidine digluconate (45% and 89% inhibition of bacterial adhesion respectively). The diminished adherence of S. mutans to buccal epithelial cells after exposure to various concentrations of aqueous thyme extract as well as the antimicrobial properties of this plant may have clinical relevance.

  5. Effect of novel mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol on isoprenaline-induced tachycardia

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    Navneet Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was designed to develop bioadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol (CR and evaluate for isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared by using chitosan (CH, sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA as mucoadhesive polymers. The solvent evaporation method was used for the preparation of buccal patches. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like patch thickness, weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, residence time, in vitro drug release, and in vivo pharmacodynamic study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the polymer concentration, whereas surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between neutral ranges. In-vitro release study shows that 94.75% drug was release in 8 hours from the patch, which containing 2% w/v chitosan. The folding endurance result shows good elasticity in all the patches.Application of buccal patches on buccal mucosa of rabbit shows a significant result in % inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Prepared buccal patches of chitosan, NaCMC, and PVA containing Carvedilol meet the ideal requirement for the delivery of cardiovascular drugs and inhibit the isoprenaline tachycardia.

  6. Immediate implant placement: the fate of the buccal crest. A retrospective cone beam computed tomography study.

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    Groenendijk, E; Staas, T A; Graauwmans, F E J; Bronkhorst, E; Verhamme, L; Maal, T; Meijer, G J

    2017-12-01

    This retrospective study aimed to analyse the fate of the buccal crest after immediate implant placement (IIP) through the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). In 16 consecutive patients, an implant was placed in a more palatal position after extraction, thereby creating a gap of at least 2mm between the implant and the buccal crest. Subsequently, this gap was filled with a bone substitute. Preoperatively, immediate postoperatively, and late postoperatively, a CBCT was made to measure the thickness of the buccal crest. After application of the bone substitute, the buccal crest increased in thickness from 0.9mm to 2.4mm (mean). At a mean of 103 weeks after IIP, late postoperative CBCT scans showed that the thickness of the buccal crest was compacted to 1.8mm. In the same period, the height of the buccal crest increased by 1.6mm (mean) to, on average, 1.2mm above the implant shoulder. The aesthetic outcome was analysed using the White and Pink Esthetic Score (WES and PES). Both scored high: 8.4 and 11.8, respectively. Within the limitations of this study, the results of this IIP protocol are promising. Long-term prospective research on this topic on a large number of patients is necessary. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Two-staged management for all types of congenital pouch colon

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    Rajendra K Ghritlaharey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to review our experience with two-staged management for all types of congenital pouch colon (CPC. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study included CPC cases that were managed with two-staged procedures in the Department of Paediatric Surgery, over a period of 12 years from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2011. Results: CPC comprised of 13.71% (97 of 707 of all anorectal malformations (ARM and 28.19% (97 of 344 of high ARM. Eleven CPC cases (all males were managed with two-staged procedures. Distribution of cases (Narsimha Rao et al.′s classification into types I, II, III, and IV were 1, 2, 6, and 2, respectively. Initial operative procedures performed were window colostomy (n = 6, colostomy proximal to pouch (n = 4, and ligation of colovesical fistula and end colostomy (n = 1. As definitive procedures, pouch excision with abdomino-perineal pull through (APPT of colon in eight, and pouch excision with APPT of ileum in three were performed. The mean age at the time of definitive procedures was 15.6 months (ranges from 3 to 53 months and the mean weight was 7.5 kg (ranges from 4 to 11 kg. Good fecal continence was observed in six and fair in two cases in follow-up periods, while three of our cases lost to follow up. There was no mortality following definitive procedures amongst above 11 cases. Conclusions: Two-staged procedures for all types of CPC can also be performed safely with good results. The most important fact that the definitive procedure is being done without protective stoma and therefore, it avoids stoma closure, stoma-related complications, related cost of stoma closure and hospital stay.

  8. Effects of chlorhexidine on the structure and permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa

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    Harvey, B.V.; Squier, C.A.; Hall, B.K.

    1984-10-01

    This study examined the effects of chlorhexidine (CHD) on the clinical appearance, morphology, and in vitro permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa. The cheek pouches were treated daily for 3 weeks with topical applications of saline, 0.2% CHD, or 2.0% CHD. Treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in the formation of discrete white lesions in every animal in the group, whereas no changes were identified in any animal treated with 0.2% CHD or saline. Upon microscopic examination it was determined that treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in a statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness, when compared to the other groups, and the lesions were found to consist of hyperplastic areas of epithelium with associated inflammatory cell accumulations. Daily treatments with 2.0% CHD, 0.2% CHD or saline had no effect on the very low permeability of cheek pouch mucosa to /sup 14/C-CHD. However, treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in decreased permeability to /sup 3/H/sub 2/O when compared to the other groups. Treatment with 2.0% CHD also resulted in a thickened permeability barrier, as determined using a tracer, horseradish peroxidase. It is concluded that topical applications of 0.2% T CHD have no detectable effect on cheek-pouch mucosa while applications of 2.0% CHD result in hyperplasia and a decrease in mucosal permeability. Results suggest that CHD should be used with caution clinically and at a concentration of 0.2% or less.

  9. Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Equine Nasopharyngeal and Guttural Pouch Wash Samples.

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    Boyle, A G; Rankin, S C; Duffee, L A; Morris, D

    2017-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is recognized as a cause of nosocomial infections in both human and veterinary medicine. Studies that examine the nasopharynx and guttural pouches of the horse as carriage sites for MRSA have not been reported. MRSA colonizes the nasopharynx and guttural pouch of horses. To determine the prevalence of MRSA in equine nasopharyngeal wash (NPW) and guttural pouch lavage (GPL) samples in a field population of horses. One hundred seventy-eight samples (123 NPW and 55 GPL) from 108 horses. Prospective study. Samples were collected from a convenience population of clinically ill horses with suspected Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (S. equi) infection, horses convalescing from a known S. equi infection, and asymptomatic horses undergoing S. equi screening. Samples were submitted for S. aureus aerobic bacterial culture with mannitol salt broth and two selective agars (cefoxitin CHROMagar as the PBP2a inducer and mannitol salt agar with oxacillin). Biochemical identification of Staphylococcus species and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), to determine clonal relationships between isolates, were performed. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) was isolated from the nasopharynx of 7/108 (4%) horses. Three horses had MRSA (2.7%), and 4 had MR-Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). MRSA was isolated from horses on the same farm. PFGE revealed the 3 MRSA as USA 500 strains. Sampling the nasopharynx and guttural pouch of community-based horses revealed a similarly low prevalence rate of MRSA as other studies sampling the nares of community-based horses. More study is required to determine the need for sampling multiple anatomic sites when screening horses for MRSA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Modeling Lithium Ion Battery Safety: Venting of Pouch Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

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    Santhanagopalan, Shriram.; Yang, Chuanbo.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the successful completion of the NREL July milestone entitled “Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Safety - Complete Case-Studies on Pouch Cell Venting,” as part of the 2013 Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This work aims to bridge the gap between materials modeling, usually carried out at the sub-continuum scale, and the

  11. Clinical significance of thrombosis in an intracardiac blind pouch after a Fontan operation.

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    Lee, Sang Yun; Baek, Jae Suk; Kim, Gi Beom; Kwon, Bo Sang; Bae, Eun Jung; Noh, Chung Il; Choi, Jung Yun; Lim, Hong Kuk; Kim, Woong Han; Lee, Jeong Ryul; Kim, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    The univentricular heart after the Fontan operation may have a blind pouch formed by the pulmonary stump or rudimentary ventricle according to the anatomy before surgery. Thrombosis in an intracardiac blind pouch of patients with a univentricular heart is a hazardous complication. Because only a few reports have described this complication, the authors evaluated the clinical significance of thrombosis in an intracardiac blind pouch of a univentricular heart. They performed a retrospective review of medical records from August 1986 to December 2007. Four patients were confirmed as having thrombosis in a pulmonary artery stump and one patient as having thrombosis in a rudimentary ventricle shown by cardiac computed tomography (CT). This represents 1.85% (5/271) of patients with ongoing regular follow-up evaluation after the Fontan operation. The median age at diagnosis was 14.2 years. Two of the five patients were taking aspirin and one patient was taking warfarin when they were identified for the development of thrombosis. None of the patients demonstrated thrombosis in the Fontan tract or venous side of the circulation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that three patients had cerebral infarction and one patient had suggestive old ischemia. Three patients with thrombus in the pulmonary stump underwent pulmonary artery stump thrombectomy and pulmonary valve obliteration. One patient with thrombus in the rudimentary ventricle underwent ventricular septal defect (VSD) closure with thrombectomy. Thrombus in a blind pouch could cause systemic thromboembolism despite little blood communication. Therefore, surgical modification of the pulmonary stump and VSD closure of the rudimentary ventricle are required to reduce the risk of later thrombus formation. Clinicians should not overlook the possibility of thrombus in a ligated pulmonary artery stump or a rudimentary ventricle after the Fontan operation, which may increase the risk of embolic stroke for patients

  12. Internal hernia through the pouch of douglas after hysterectomy: A case report

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    Yang, Dong Jin; Cho, Seung Hyun; Shin, Hyun Woong; Kim, Tae Eun; Kim, Byung Young; Kim, Hee Jin [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Internal hernia is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. Among the different types of internal hernias, the pelvic hernia is extremely rare. We report the radiographic findings of a patient with a Douglas pouch hernia presenting with closed loop obstruction at the anterior aspect of the distal rectum. The patient was a 60 year old female, who had undergone a hysterectomy 20 years prior, for treatment of a uterine myoma.

  13. Comparative rice seed toxicity tests using filter paper, growth pouch-tm, and seed tray methods

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    Wang, W.

    1993-01-01

    Paper substrate, especially circular filter paper placed inside a Petri dish, has long been used for the plant seed toxicity test (PSTT). Although this method is simple and inexpensive, recent evidence indicates that it gives results that are significantly different from those obtained using a method that does not involve paper, especially when testing metal cations. The study compared PSTT using three methods: filter paper, Growth Pouch-TM, and seed tray. The Growth Pouch-TM is a commercially available device. The seed tray is a newly designed plastic receptacle placed inside a Petri dish. The results of the Growth Pouch-TM method showed no toxic effects on rice for Ag up to 40 mg L-1 and Cd up to 20 mg L-1. Using the seed tray method, IC50 (50% inhibitory effect concentration) values were 0.55 and 1.4 mg L-1 for Ag and Cd, respectively. Although results of filter paper and seed tray methods were nearly identical for NaF, Cr(VI), and phenol, the toxicities of cations Ag and Cd were reduced by using the filter paper method; IC50 values were 22 and 18 mg L-1, respectively. The results clearly indicate that paper substrate is not advisable for PSTT.

  14. Functional morphology of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840

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    Chikera S. Ibe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A gross morphological study of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840 was undertaken in order to document its normal features and assess the structure-function paradigm. The study was conducted by direct observation of 29 adult African giant pouched rats’ brains. In the telencephalon, the cerebral cortex was devoid of prominent gyri and sulci, but the large olfactory bulb and tract relaying impulses to the olfactory cortex were very prominent. The large size of the olfactory bulb correlated with the established sharp olfactory acuity of the rodent. In the mesencephalic tectum, the caudal colliculi were bigger than the rostral colliculi, indicating a more acute sense of hearing than sight. In the metencephalon, the cerebellar vermis, the flocculus and the paraflocculus were highly coiled and, thus, well developed. The myelencephalon revealed a better organised ventral surface than dorsal surface; the cuneate fascicle, the intermediate sulcus and the lateral sulcus were not evident on the dorsal surface, but there were clearly visible pyramids and olivary prominence on the ventral surface. In conclusion, the highly coiled cerebellar vermis, flocculus and paraflocculus, as well as the conspicuous pyramids and olivary prominence are indicative of a good motor coordination and balance in the African giant pouched rat.

  15. Clinical outcome of jejunal pouch double-tract reconstruction after total gastrectomy.

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    Kondoh, Yasumasa; Okamoto, Yuichi; Morita, Mari; Nakamura, Kenji; Soeda, Jinichi; Matsui, Hideo; Ogoshi, Kyoji; Makcuuchi, Hiroyasu

    2008-01-01

    The importance of the duodenal passage and the need for pouch reconstruction after total gastrectomy are matters of controversy. Twenty consecutive patients with early gastric cancer were studied 20who underwent jejunal pouch double-tract (JPD) reconstruction after total gastrectomy. Nutritional variables were examined for > or =10 years postoperatively. The mean operation time was 204 minutes. There was no anastomotic leakage and no hospital mortality. Anastomotic stenosis between the esophagus and a jejunal pouch developed in 2 patients (10%), and reflux esophagitis was observed in 4 (20%). Symptoms were controlled by conserva tive treatment within 3 years after surgery. Body mass indices in all patients were significantly decreased from 1 month (p or =60 years and <60 years, respectively. The body weight decreases from 3 (p<0.05) to 6 (p<0.01), and at 9 years (p<0.01) were significantly lower before 60 years of age than after. JPD reconstruction facilitates long-term recovery of body weight after total gastrectomy and should be considered before the aged of 60.

  16. Pouched Rats’ Detection of Tuberculosis in Human Sputum: Comparison to Culturing and Polymerase Chain Reaction

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    Amanda Mahoney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting. Tanzania. Objective. To compare microscopy as conducted in direct observation of treatment, short course centers to pouched rats as detectors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Design. Ten pouched rats were trained to detect tuberculosis in sputum using operant conditioning techniques. The rats evaluated 910 samples previously evaluated by smear microscopy. All samples were also evaluated through culturing and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed on culture growths to classify the bacteria. Results. The patientwise sensitivity of microscopy was 58.0%, and the patient-wise specificity was 97.3%. Used as a group of 10 with a cutoff (defined as the number of rat indications to classify a sample as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis of 1, the rats increased new case detection by 46.8% relative to microscopy alone. The average samplewise sensitivity of the individual rats was 68.4% (range 61.1–73.8%, and the mean specificity was 87.3% (range 84.7–90.3%. Conclusion. These results suggest that pouched rats are a valuable adjunct to, and may be a viable substitute for, sputum smear microscopy as a tuberculosis diagnostic in resource-poor countries.

  17. Li-Ion Pouch Cells for Vehicle Applications — Studies of Water Transmission and Packing Materials

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    Göran Flodberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study includes analysis of encapsulation materials from lithium-ion pouch cells and water vapour transmission rate (WVTR measurements. WVTR measurements are performed on both fresh and environmentally stressed lithium-ion pouch cells. Capacity measurements are performed on both the fresh and the environmentally stressed battery cells to identify possible influences on electrochemical performance. Preparation of the battery cells prior to WVTR measurements includes opening of battery cells and extraction of electrode material, followed by resealing the encapsulations and adhesively mounting of gas couplings. A model describing the water diffusion through the thermal welds of the encapsulation are set up based on material analysis of the encapsulation material. Two WVTR equipments with different type of detectors are evaluated in this study. The results from the WVTR measurements show how important it is to perform this type of studies in dry environment and apply a rigorous precondition sequence before testing. Results from modelling confirm that the WVTR method has potential to be used for measurements of water diffusion into lithium-ion pouch cells. Consequently, WVTR measurements should be possible to use as a complement or alternative method to for example Karl Fisher titration.

  18. Clinical and Radiographic comparative evaluation of buccal and palatal corticotomy with buccal corticotomy in periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics with surgical bur

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    Pavankumar Addanki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics is a clinical procedure that combines selective corticotomy, particulate grafting, and application of orthodontics. It reduces treatment time, increases stability of teeth, and prevents relapse of orthodontic tooth moment. The present study was aimed to explore the clinical and radiographic comparison of bone density changes, retraction time differences in buccal and palatal corticotomy with buccal corticotomy which was done by surgical bur. Materials and Methods: A split-mouth was designed in 16 patients and divided into right (buccal and palatal corticotomy (Group I, left (buccal corticotomy (Group II sides. In both groups, decortication was done with surgical bur. Clinical parameters such as gingival bleeding index and probing pocket depth were recorded at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Bone density changes were measured by computed tomography at baseline and after 6 months after surgery and also used for evaluating differences in bone density changes between two groups. Retraction time differences were also measured in both groups. Results: In both groups, there was significant difference between bone density changes at baseline and 6 months after surgery. However, the difference between two groups was not significant. The difference in clinical parameters between two groups was not significant. The difference in retraction time differences was not significant. Conclusion: Within limits of the study, it may be concluded that there was difference between bone density changes before and 6 months after surgery. Difference in total treatment time found to be no significant between two groups.

  19. Shear bond strength of orthodontic buccal tubes to porcelain

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    Purmal, Kathiravan; Alam, Mohammad K.; Sukumaran, Prema

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bonding of molar tubes is becoming more popular in orthodontics. Occasionally, these bonding are done on posterior porcelain crowns or bridges. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of buccal tubes on feldspathic porcelain crowns with two different methods. Materials and Methods: Forty porcelain right molar crowns were fabricated for this study. The crowns were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the crowns were etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). In group 2, the crowns were etched with phosphoric acid 37%, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT. All the crowns were stored for 24 hours at 37°C and thermo-cycled before the shear bond test. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether significant difference were present between the groups. Results: The results of the analysis of variance (F = 0.23) indicated the shear bond strength of group 1 (3.57 ± 0.87 MPa) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from group 2 (3.46 ± 0.65 Mpa). Fisher's exact test for the adhesive remnant index (ARI) revealed significant difference between both groups (P porcelain/resin interface. Conclusion: Etching with phosphoric acid with the use of silane coupling agent would be safer and should make it easier for clinicians to clean the adhesive on the porcelain surface after debonding. PMID:23878568

  20. Colorectal Carcinogenesis: Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Francesco; Mazzola, Margherita; Rappa, Francesca; Jurjus, Abdo; Geagea, Alice Gerges; Al Kattar, Sahar; Bou-Assi, Tarek; Jurjus, Rosalyn; Damiani, Provvidenza; Leone, Angelo; Tomasello, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    One of the contributory causes of colon cancer is the negative effect of reactive oxygen species on DNA repair mechanisms. Currently, there is a growing support for the concept that oxidative stress may be an important etiological factor for carcinogenesis. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the role of oxidative stress in promoting colorectal carcinogenesis and to highlight the potential protective role of antioxidants. Several studies have documented the importance of antioxidants in countering oxidative stress and preventing colorectal carcinogenesis. However, there are conflicting data in the literature concerning its proper use in humans, since these studies did not yield definitive results and were performed mostly in vitro on cell populations, or in vivo in experimental animal models. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy.

  2. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  3. Buccally Administered Intranasal Desmopressin Acetate for the Treatment of Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smego, Allison R; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2016-05-01

    The treatment of neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) in infancy is challenging and complicated by fluid overload and dehydration. Therapy with subcutaneous (SC), intranasal (IN), or oral tablet desmopressin acetate (1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin [DDAVP]) remains difficult to titrate in infants. Assess the efficacy and safety of buccally administered IN DDAVP for the management of infants with neurogenic DI. Retrospective review of clinical and laboratory data of 15 infants (mean age, 4.5 mo) with neurogenic DI treated at a tertiary care center. Treatment was with diluted IN DDAVP formulation (10 mcg/mL) administered buccally via a tuberculin syringe to the buccal mucosa. After initial DDAVP titration of 2-3 days, IN DDAVP doses ranged from 1 to 5 mcg twice daily given buccally. Mean serum sodium concentration at DI diagnosis was 159 ± 6.6 mmol/L (range, 151-178) and improved to 142 ± 3.5 mmol/L (range, 137-147) with the buccally administered IN DDAVP. Normal sodium concentrations were established without major fluctuations. Serum sodium was then maintained in the outpatient setting at a mean of 145.7 ± 4.8 mmol/L (mean duration of follow-up, 11 mo). Buccally administered IN formulation of DDAVP provides a practical and safe treatment alternative for neurogenic DI in infancy. Our approach avoided severe hypo- and hypernatremia during DDAVP titration and ongoing outpatient management of DI. The possibility for smaller dosage increments and ease of administration make IN DDAVP administered buccally preferable over other DDAVP treatment options in infants.

  4. The Dual Role of Inflammation in Colon Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Stolfi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation characterizing patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD represents a major risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer. Mechanisms underlying this neoplastic transformation are not fully understood though studies in experimental models of colon carcinogenesis suggest that inflammatory cell-derived cytokines either directly or indirectly stimulate the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells. Nevertheless, under specific inflammatory conditions, immune cells can boost an anti-tumor immune response with the down-stream effect of eliminating dysplastic and cancerous cells. This review outlines the beneficial and detrimental role of inflammation in colon carcinogenesis.

  5. Contamination and sample mix-up can best explain some patterns of mtDNA instabilities in buccal cells and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Antonio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of somatic DNA instabilities constitutes a debatable topic because different causes can lead to seeming DNA alteration patterns between different cells or tissues from the same individual. Carcinogenesis or the action of a particular toxic could generate such patterns, and this is in fact the leitmotif of a number of studies on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA instability. Patterns of seeming instabilities could also arise from technical errors at any stage of the analysis (DNA extraction, amplification, mutation screening/sequencing, and documentation. Specifically, inadvertent DNA contamination or sample mixing would yield mosaic variation that could be erroneously interpreted as real mutation differences (instabilities between tissues from the same individual. From the very beginning, mtDNA studies comparing cancerous to non-cancerous tissues have suffered from such mosaic results. We demonstrate here that the phylogenetic linkage of whole arrays of mtDNA mutations provides strong evidence of artificial recombination in previous studies on buccal cells and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands on the buccal mucosa: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereci, Omür; Cimen, Emre

    2014-01-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands is a hyperplastic oral lesion which may be seen on minor salivary gland bearing areas on all oral mucosa, especially on soft and hard palate. This study reports a rare case of buccal adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands and discusses the clinical significance. 48 year old male patient presented with a complaint of a swelling on his left cheek. Clinical examination revealed a bluish mass on the buccal mucosa. A provisional diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasm was made and the lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The histological diagnosis was adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands. Buccal localization of the adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands is quite uncommon in the literature. There are two cases in the English literature for our knowledge. In the clinical examination, the nodular and protuberated appearance of the lesion resembles buccal minor salivary gland tumors and vascular lesions. Histological analysis is fundamental to achieve correct diagnosis. The differential diagnosis of buccal nodular, exophytic and colored mucosal lesions should include adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Use of the buccal fat [corrected] pad for vocal cord augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Etsuyo; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Nishimura, Masaki

    2008-02-01

    We performed therapeutically successful intracordal injection of autologous fat harvested from the buccal fat pad. Autologous fat has been used increasingly for intracordal injection as vocal rehabilitation in patients with deficient glottal closure. Adipose tissues used have been harvested mostly from the lower abdomen. However, patients differ considerably in the amount of fat available from the lower abdomen, and it is often difficult to obtain sufficient fat in patients with a low body mass index (BMI). Moreover, the scar visible after harvesting can be cosmetically undesirable. As an alternative, we evaluated harvesting of the buccal fat pad, as in plastic surgery. From January to December 2005, intracordal buccal fat injection was performed for 10 patients, who were subsequently followed up for over 6 months. Buccal mucosa was incised under general anesthesia to expose and harvest the buccal fat pad. This fat was cut into small pieces and injected into the vocal cord. Maximum phonation time and glottal aerodynamics were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. Glottal closure and mucosal vibration were examined stroboscopically. Except in one patient, no postoperative complications such as swelling or infection followed either harvesting or injection. After injection, phonation showed notable improvement that was maintained throughout follow-up.

  9. Influence of anatomic reference on the buccal contour of prosthetic crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Sabrina Queirós Vasconcelos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During clinical practice, when performing prosthetic rehabilitation with single crowns, improper reproduction of the dental contour by the dental laboratory is a common occurrence. Therefore, the present study evaluated the fidelity of the reproduction of the buccal contour in an upper left canine performed by three Dental Prosthesis Technicians (DPT using the indirect laminate veneer technique. First, the DPTs confected the veneers based on a model obtained from the upper arch of a dental dummy, containing a replica of an upper left canine with a prosthetic preparation for a laminate veneer. Then, the same DPTs received other identical models, now with the replica of the upper left canine with no preparation, to be used as an anatomical reference for confecting the laminate veneers. The laminate veneers were then bonded to the plaster models and had their buccal contour individually measured. Measurements were also made of the buccal contour of the reference canine. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and the t-test (p = 0.05. Results showed 100% of buccal overcontour when the laminate veneers were compared to the reference canine, regardless of which DPT confected the veneer and regardless of using or not the anatomical reference. The DPTs who participated in the present study were unable to acomplish a faithful anatomical reproduction of the buccal contour, creating an overcontour in all samples. This situation may be responsible for increasing the probability of periodontal and esthetic harm in clinical practice.

  10. Buccal space lesions: a new classification based on CT and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Cheol; Han, Moon Hee; Moon, Min Hoan [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2004-02-01

    To present a new classification based on the CT and MR imaging findings of buccal space lesions, and to propose guidelines for their radiologic differentiation. Sixty-two histopathologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed buccal space lesions were classified on the basis of their morphologic appearance and extension to adjacent space as either (1) a mass with a distinct margin, confined to the buccal space; (2) a mass with surrounding infiltration, confined to the buccal space; or (3) a multi-space occupying mass. Type 1 included pleomorphic adenoma, ex-pleomorphic adenoma, carcinoma, B-cell lymphoma, acinic cell carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, glomus tumor and ameloblastoma, and differentiation between malignant and benign neoplasms was not possible. Type 2 included adenoid cystic carcinoma, abscess, complicated dermoid cyst, and Kimura disease. T-cell lymphoma, neurofibroma, vascular malformation, inflammation, and foreign body granuloma pertained to type 3, and each type-3 entity showed different imaging characteristics. This new classification based on CT and MR imaging characteristics may provide useful guide-lines for predicting the differential diagnosis of buccal space lesions.

  11. DNA from buccal swabs suitable for high-throughput SNP multiplex analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Gai L; Gibson, Catherine S; O'Callaghan, Michael E; Goldwater, Paul N; Dekker, Gustaaf A; Haan, Eric A; MacLennan, Alastair H

    2009-12-01

    We sought a convenient and reliable method for collection of genetic material that is inexpensive and noninvasive and suitable for self-collection and mailing and a compatible, commercial DNA extraction protocol to meet quantitative and qualitative requirements for high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) multiplex analysis on an automated platform. Buccal swabs were collected from 34 individuals as part of a pilot study to test commercially available buccal swabs and DNA extraction kits. DNA was quantified on a spectrofluorometer with Picogreen dsDNA prior to testing the DNA integrity with predesigned SNP multiplex assays. Based on the pilot study results, the Catch-All swabs and Isohelix buccal DNA isolation kit were selected for our high-throughput application and extended to a further 1140 samples as part of a large cohort study. The average DNA yield in the pilot study (n=34) was 1.94 microg +/- 0.54 with a 94% genotyping pass rate. For the high-throughput application (n=1140), the average DNA yield was 2.44 microg +/- 1.74 with a >or=93% genotyping pass rate. The Catch-All buccal swabs are a convenient and cost-effective alternative to blood sampling. Combined with the Isohelix buccal DNA isolation kit, they provided DNA of sufficient quantity and quality for high-throughput SNP multiplex analysis.

  12. Localised inhibition of FGF signalling in the third pharyngeal pouch is required for normal thymus and parathyroid organogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Jennifer R.; Jackson, Abigail L.; Gordon, Julie; Lickert, Heiko; Manley, Nancy R.; Basson, M. Albert

    2012-01-01

    The thymus and parathyroid glands are derived from the third pharyngeal pouch endoderm. The mechanisms that establish distinct molecular domains in the third pouch and control the subsequent separation of these organ primordia from the pharynx are poorly understood. Here, we report that mouse embryos that lack two FGF feedback antagonists, Spry1 and Spry2, display parathyroid and thymus hypoplasia and a failure of these organ primordia to completely separate from the pharynx. We show that FGF ligands and downstream reporter genes are expressed in highly regionalised patterns in the third pouch and that sprouty gene deletion results in upregulated FGF signalling throughout the pouch endoderm. As a consequence, the initiation of markers of parathyroid and thymus fate is altered. In addition, a normal apoptotic programme that is associated with the separation of the primordia from the pharynx is disrupted, resulting in the maintenance of a thymus-pharynx attachment and a subsequent inability of the thymus to migrate to its appropriate position above the heart. We demonstrate that the sprouty genes function in the pharyngeal endoderm itself to control these processes and that the defects in sprouty-deficient mutants are, at least in part, due to hyper-responsiveness to Fgf8. Finally, we provide evidence to suggest that parathyroid hypoplasia in these mutants is due to early gene expression defects in the third pouch, whereas thymus hypoplasia is caused by reduced proliferation of thymic epithelial cells in the thymus primordium. PMID:22912418

  13. Role of colonic microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Borges-Canha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The human colonic mucosa is populated by a wide range of microorganisms, usually in a symbiotic relation with the host. Sometimes this balance is lost and a state of dysbiosis arises, exposing the colon to different metabolic and inflammatory stimuli (according to the microbiota's changing profile. Recent findings lead to hypothesize that this unbalance may create a subclinical pro-inflammatory state that increases DNA mutations and, therefore, colorectal carcinogenesis. In this article we aim to systematically review the scientific evidence regarding colonic microbiota and its role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods: Systematic review of PubMed searching results for original articles studying microbiota and colorectal cancer until November 2014. Results: Thirty-one original articles studied the role of colon microbiota in colorectal carcinoma including both human and animal studies. Different and heterogeneous methods were used and different bacteria were considered. Nevertheless, some bacteria are consistently augmented (such as Fusobacteria, Alistipes, Porphyromonadaceae, Coriobacteridae, Staphylococcaceae, Akkermansia spp. and Methanobacteriales, while other are constantly diminished in colorectal cancer (such as Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, Faecalibacterium spp., Roseburia, and Treponema. Moreover, bacteria metabolites amino acids are increased and butyrate is decreased throughout colonic carcinogenesis. Conclusion: Conclusive evidence shows that colorectal carcinogenesis is associated with microbial dysbiosis. This information may be used to create new prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for colorectal cancer.

  14. Biomolecular and epidemiological aspects of human papillomavirus induced cervical carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Christine Frederike Wilhelmine

    2007-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains one of the leading causes of death from cancer among women worldwide. Organised screening programmes aim to trace precursor lesions in order to reduce cervical cancer incidence. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause for cervical carcinogenesis. Most HPV infections

  15. Secondary bile acid-induced dysbiosis promotes intestinal carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hailong; Xu, Mengque; Dong, Wenxiao; Deng, Baoru; Wang, Sinan; Zhang, Yujie; Wang, Shan; Luo, Shenhui; Wang, Weiqiang; Qi, Yanrong; Gao, Jianxin; Cao, Xiaocang; Yan, Fang; Wang, Bangmao

    2017-06-01

    The gut microbiota plays an important role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Dysbiosis is associated with intestinal tumorigenesis. Deoxycholic acid (DCA), a secondary bile acid increased by a western diet, correlates with intestinal carcinogenesis. However, evidence relating bile acids, intestinal microbiota and tumorigenesis are limited. In our study, we investigated the effect of DCA on induction of intestinal dysbiosis and its roles in intestinal carcinogenesis. Alteration of the composition of the intestinal microbiota was induced in DCA-treated APCmin/+ mice, which was accompanied by impaired intestinal barrier, gut low grade inflammation and tumor progression. The transfer of fecal microbiota from DCA-treated mice to another group of Apcmin/+ mice increased tumor multiplicity, induced inflammation and recruited M2 phenotype tumor-associated macrophages. Importantly, the fecal microbiota transplantation activated the tumor-associated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Moreover, microbiota depletion by a cocktail of antibiotics was sufficient to block DCA-induced intestinal carcinogenesis, further suggesting the role of dysbiosis in tumor development. Our study demonstrated that alteration of the microbial community induced by DCA promoted intestinal carcinogenesis. © 2017 UICC.

  16. Hypoxia and cell cycle deregulation in endometrial carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrée, N.

    2007-01-01

    Because uterine endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract and 1 of every 5 patients dies of this disease, understanding the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and progression of endometrial carcinoma is important. In general, this thesis can be summarized as a study

  17. Carcinogenesis explained within the context of a theory of organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2016-10-01

    For a century, the somatic mutation theory (SMT) has been the prevalent theory to explain carcinogenesis. According to the SMT, cancer is a cellular problem, and thus, the level of organization where it should be studied is the cellular level. Additionally, the SMT proposes that cancer is a problem of the control of cell proliferation and assumes that proliferative quiescence is the default state of cells in metazoa. In 1999, a competing theory, the tissue organization field theory (TOFT), was proposed. In contraposition to the SMT, the TOFT posits that cancer is a tissue-based disease whereby carcinogens (directly) and mutations in the germ-line (indirectly) alter the normal interactions between the diverse components of an organ, such as the stroma and its adjacent epithelium. The TOFT explicitly acknowledges that the default state of all cells is proliferation with variation and motility. When taking into consideration the principle of organization, we posit that carcinogenesis can be explained as a relational problem whereby release of the constraints created by cell interactions and the physical forces generated by cellular agency lead cells within a tissue to regain their default state of proliferation with variation and motility. Within this perspective, what matters both in morphogenesis and carcinogenesis is not only molecules, but also biophysical forces generated by cells and tissues. Herein, we describe how the principles for a theory of organisms apply to the TOFT and thus to the study of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High-flow venous pouch aneurysm in the rabbit carotid artery: A model for large aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krähenbühl, Anna K; Gralla, Jan; Abu-Isa, Janine; Mordasini, Pasquale; Widmer, Hans R; Raabe, Andreas; Reinert, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Currently one of the most widely used models for the development of endovascular techniques and coiling devices for treatment of aneurysm is the elastase-induced aneurysm model in the rabbit carotid artery. Microsurgical techniques for creating an aneurysm with a venous pouch have also been established, although both techniques usually result in aneurysms less than 1 cm in diameter. We investigated whether an increase in blood flow toward the neck would produce larger aneurysms in a microsurgical venous pouch model. Microsurgical operations were performed on 11 New Zealand white rabbits. Both carotid arteries and the right jugular vein were dissected, and the right carotid artery was temporarily clipped followed by an arteriotomy. The left carotid artery was also clipped proximally, ligated distally, and sutured onto the proximal half of the arteriotomy in the right carotid artery. The venous graft was sutured onto the distal half of the arteriotomy. Digital subtraction angiography was also performed. Angiography showed patent anastomosed vessels and aneurysms in the seven surviving rabbits. Mean aneurysm measurements among surviving rabbits with patent vessels were: 13.9 mm length, 9.3 mm width, and neck diameter 4.7 mm. The resulting mean aspect ratio was 3.35 and the mean bottleneck ratio was 3.05. A large venous graft and increased blood flow toward the base of the aneurysm seem to be key factors in the creation of large venous pouch aneurysms. These large aneurysms allow testing of endovascular devices designed for large and giant aneurysms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Infliximab to Treat Refractory Inflammation After Pelvic Pouch Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Orlaith B; Rosenberg, Morgan; Tyler, Andrea D; Stempak, Joanne M; Steinhart, A Hillary; Cohen, Zane; Greenberg, Gordon R; Silverberg, Mark S

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory pouch complications refractory to first-line therapies remain problematic following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC). We evaluated infliximab efficacy and associations with therapeutic response. Data from individuals who underwent colectomy and IPAA for UC (2000-2014) were reviewed. Patients with chronic refractory pouchitis (CP) and Crohn's disease (CD)-like outcomes treated with infliximab were included. Pre-treatment parameters and response at median 8 (initial) and 48 weeks (sustained) were measured. Complete response was defined as symptomatic and endoscopic resolution with modified Pouchitis Disease Activity Index (mPDAI) 2. Serum was analysed for Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), anti-OmpC, anti-CBir1 and perinuclear Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (pANCA). One hundred and fifty-two patients with CP or a CD-like phenotype were identified. Forty-two were treated with infliximab (33% male; age 32.6±2.6 years, 28.5% CD-like). Post-induction response was achieved in 74% (48% complete) and sustained response in 62.6% (29.6% complete). Mean mPDAI and C-reactive protein declined from 8.5±0.3 to 2±3.4 (p infliximab use (p Infliximab can effectively treat inflammatory pouch complications. Pre-treatment mPDAI <10 and early endoscopy may identify responders. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Ex Vivo Correlation of the Permeability of Metoprolol Across Human and Porcine Buccal Mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Marxen, Eva; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2014-01-01

    The pH partition theory proposes a correlation between fraction of unionized drug substance and permeability. The aim of this study was to compare the permeability of metoprolol and mannitol in ex vivo human and porcine buccal mucosa models at varying pH to validate whether the porcine permeability...... model is predictive for human buccal absorption. Human (n = 9-10) and porcine (n = 6-7) buccal mucosa were mounted in a modified Ussing chamber, and the kinetics of metoprolol and mannitol transport was assessed for a period of 5.5 h with the pH values of donor medium set at 7.4, 8.5, and 9...

  1. Effect of Withania somnifera on glycosaminoglycan synthesis in carrageenin-induced air pouch granuloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, V.H.; Sadique, J.

    1987-12-01

    The effect of W. somnifera on glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the granulation tissue of carrageenin-induced air pouch granuloma was studied. W. somnifera was shown to exert significant inhibitory effect on incorporation of /sup 35/S into the granulation tissue. The uncoupling effect on oxidative phosphorylation (ADP/O ratio reduction) was also observed in the mitochondria of granulation tissue. Further, Mg/sup 2 +/ dependent ATPase activity was found to be influenced by W. somnifera. W. somnifera also reduced the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in the mitochondria of granulation tissue.

  2. J-pouch ileoanal anastomosis in children and adolescents with ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Vibeke; Hesselfeldt, Peter; Qvist, Niels

    2005-01-01

    with preserved J-pouch answered the questionnaire. The median follow-up was 3.7 years (range, 0.3-9.2 years). Surgical complications included eight of 30 patients (27%) with small bowel obstruction, one of 30 (4%) with intra-abdominal abscess and two of 30 (7%) with perforation of the small intestine. The median...... for pouchitis was given in 13 patients (48%). Seventeen patients (63%) were completely satisfied with the operation, nine patients (33%) found the result fairly good and one patient (4%) was not satisfied. Twenty-six patients (96%) reported their health as completely or fairly good. CONCLUSIONS: The majority...

  3. Oxidative stress and inflammation in liver carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Olaya

    2007-02-01

    series of transcription factors. Moreover, in addition to direct production of ROS by these pathogens, liver infiltration by activated phagocytic cells provides an additional source of ROS production that promotes oxidative stress via interleukin or NO production that can damage proteins, lipids and DNA.

    Nuclear MSI was demonstrated first in familial hereditary colorectal cancer (HNPCC and then in sporadic cancers, primarily digestive tract cancers such as colorectal, gastric and pancreatic cancers.In HCC, although nuclear MSI has been shown in some studies (15,18, there is as yet no direct evidence of alteration of the MMR genes and the biological and the clinicopathological significance of the lowlevel MSI seen in HCC is unclear. MSI has also been shown to occur in inflammatory tissues such as chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis as well as in ulcerative colitis, chronic pancreatitis and in non digestive inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

    Recently, the role of mitochondria in carcinogenesis has been under numerous investigation, in part because their prominent role in apoptosis, ROS production and other aspects of tumour biology. The mitochondrial genome is particularly susceptible to mutations because of the high level of ROS generation in this organelle, coupled with a relatively low level of DNA repair. Somatic mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have been shown in HCC as was also observed MSI. These findings suggest a potential role for mitochondrial genome instability in the early steps of tumorigenesis.

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury can occur in several situations and is a major cause of cell damage during surgery. Cells and tissues subjected to hypoxia by prolonged ischemia become acidic

  4. Behaviour of the buccal crestal bone levels after immediate placement of implants subjected to immediate loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, H deP; Sartori, I A deM; Cardoso, L C; Ponzoni, D

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure changes in buccal alveolar crestal bone levels after immediate placement and loading of dental implants with Morse taper prosthetic abutments after tooth extraction. This study followed the STROBE guidelines regarding prospective cohort studies. The sample comprised 12 patients with a mean age of 45 years, in whom a central or upper lateral incisor was indicated for extraction. Prior to extraction, computed tomography (CT) analysis was carried out to assess the presence of the buccal bone crest. CT scans were performed at 24 h and at 6 months after immediate implant placement and immediate loading. The distance from the most apical point of the implant platform to the buccal bone crest was assessed at the two time points. The buccal bone crest height was evaluated at three points in the mesio-distal direction: (1) the centre point of the alveolus, (2) 1mm mesial to the centre point, and (3) 1 mm distal to the centre point. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis, comparing the distances from the bone crest to the implant platform for the two time points. After 6 months there was a statistically significant, non-uniform reduction in height at the level of the crest of the buccal bone in the cervical direction. It is concluded that the buccal bone crest of the immediate implants that replaced the maxillary incisors underwent apical resorption when subjected to immediate loading. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bilayered buccal films as child-appropriate dosage form for systemic administration of propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzo, Angela; Nicoletta, Fiore Pasquale; Dalena, Francesco; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara; Bigucci, Federica

    2017-10-05

    Buccal mucosa has emerged as an attractive site for systemic administration of drug in paediatric patients. This route is simple and non-invasive, even if the saliva wash-out effect and the relative permeability of the mucosa can reduce drug absorption. Mucoadhesive polymers represent a common employed strategy to increase the contact time of the formulation at the application site and to improve drug absorption. Among the different mucoadhesive dosage forms, buccal films are particularly addressed for paediatric population since they are thin, adaptable to the mucosal surface and able to offer an exact and flexible dose. The objective of the present study was to develop bilayered buccal films for the release of propranolol hydrochloride. A primary polymeric layer was prepared by casting and drying of solutions of film-forming polymers, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or polyvinylalcohol (PVA), added with different weight ratios of gelatin (GEL) or chitosan (CH). In order to achieve unidirectional drug delivery towards buccal mucosa, a secondary ethylcellulose layer was applied onto the primary layer. Bilayered films were characterized for their physico-chemical (morphology, thickness, drug content and solid state) and functional (water uptake, mucoadhesion, drug release and permeation) properties. The inclusion of CH into PVP and PVA primary layer provided the best mucoadhesion ability. Films containing CH provided a lower drug release with respect to films containing GEL and increased the amount of permeated drug through buccal mucosa, thanks to its ability of interfering with the lipid organization. The secondary ethylcellulose layer did not interfere with drug permeation, but it could limit drug release in the buccal cavity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Buccal bone loss after immediate implantation can be reduced by the flapless approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR BELÉM NOVAES JR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the buccal bone remodeling after immediate implantation with flap or flapless approach. Material and Methods: The mandibular bilateral premolars of 3 dogs were extracted and immediately three implants were placed in both hemi-arches of each dog. Randomly, one hemi-arch was treated with the flapless approach, while in the contra lateral hemi-arch tooth extractions and implant placement were done after mucoperiosteal flap elevation. Non-submerged healing of 12 weeks was provided for both groups. Histomorphometric analysis was done to compare buccal and lingual bone height loss, bone density and bone-to-implant contact in the groups. Fluorescence analysis was performed to investigate the dynamic of bone remodeling in the different groups. Results: There was a significant association between the surgical flap and the extent of bone resorption around immediate implants. The loss of buccal bone height was significantly lower in the flapless group when compared to the flap group (0.98 mm x 2.14 mm, respectively, p<0.05. The coronal and apical buccal bone densities of the flap group were significantly higher when compared to the lingual components, showing anatomical differences between the bone plates. Fluorescence analysis showed no major differences in bone healing between the flap and flapless groups, supporting that the higher loss of buccal bone height is linked to the anatomic characteristics of this plate and to the negative influence of the detachment of the periosteum in immediate implant therapy. Conclusion: The flapless approach for immediate post-extraction implants reduces the buccal bone height loss.

  7. A cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of buccal bone thickness following maxillary expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyalcin, Sercan; Englih, Jeryl D.; Stephens, Claude R.; Winkelmann, Sam [Dept. of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (United States); Schaefer, Jeffrey S. [Todd Hughes Orthodontics, Houston (United States)

    2013-06-15

    This study was performed to determine the buccal alveolar bone thickness following rapid maxillary expansion (RME) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Twenty-four individuals (15 females, 9 males; 13.9 years) that underwent RME therapy were included. Each patient had CBCT images available before (T1), after (T2), and 2 to 3 years after (T3) maxillary expansion therapy. Coronal multiplanar reconstruction images were used to measure the linear transverse dimensions, inclinations of teeth, and thickness of the buccal alveolar bone. One-way ANOVA analysis was used to compare the changes between the three times of imaging. Pairwise comparisons were made with the Bonferroni method. The level of significance was established at p<0.05. The mean changes between the points in time yielded significant differences for both molar and premolar transverse measurements between T1 and T2 (p<0.05) and between T1 and T3 (p<0.05). When evaluating the effect of maxillary expansion on the amount of buccal alveolar bone, a decrease between T1 and T2 and an increase between T2 and T3 were found in the buccal bone thickness of both the maxillary first premolars and maxillary first molars. However, these changes were not significant. Similar changes were observed for the angular measurements. RME resulted in non-significant reduction of buccal bone between T1 and T2. These changes were reversible in the long-term with no evident deleterious effects on the alveolar buccal bone.

  8. J-pouch Ileoanal Anastomosis in Children and Adolescents with Ulcerative Colitis: Functional Outcome, Satisfaction and Impact on Social Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, V; Hesselfeldt, Peter; Qvist, N

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate, over a 10-year period, severe surgical complications, functional outcome, patient satisfaction and impact on social life after colectomy and J-pouch ileoanal anastomosis for children and adolescents ... were extracted retrospectively from medical records and obtained by mailed questionnaire. RESULTS: Thirty patients (18 girls) with a median age of 15 years (range, 7-17 years) were identified. Two patients (7%) had the J-pouch removed because of intractable diarrhea. Twenty-seven of 28 patients...... with preserved J-pouch answered the questionnaire. The median follow-up was 3.7 years (range, 0.3-9.2 years). Surgical complications included eight of 30 patients (27%) with small bowel obstruction, one of 30 (4%) with intra-abdominal abscess and two of 30 (7%) with perforation of the small intestine. The median...

  9. Effect of cryoprotectants for maintaining drug permeability barriers in porcine buccal mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marxen, Eva; Axelsen, Mary Carlos; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2016-01-01

    if permeability barriers for small molecules (nicotine and diazepam) were maintained after freezing porcine buccal mucosa with cryoprotectants to -80°C. Combinations of dimethyl sulfoxide, bovine serum albumin, glycerol and sucrose were used as cryoprotectants. The permeability of nicotine and diazepam across...... tissue. Freezing with or without cryoprotectants did not significantly affect the flux of diazepam compared to fresh tissue. Only minor histological changes were seen in frozen/thawed porcine buccal mucosa compared to fresh tissue. In conclusion, permeability barriers for nicotine and diazepam were...

  10. Micronuclei assay of exfoliated oral buccal cells: Means to assess the nuclear abnormalities in different diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Kashyap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The micronuclei assay (MA in exfoliated buccal cells is an innovative genotoxicity technique, which holds promise for the study of epithelial carcinogens. Micronuclei are suitable internal dosimeters for revealing tissue-specific genotoxic damage in individuals exposed to carcinogenic mixtures. This article reviews the MN assay with respect to oral buccal mucosa, which has been used since the 1980s to demonstrate cytogenetic effects of environmental and occupational exposures, lifestyle factors, dietary deficiencies, and different diseases along with the characteristics of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities.

  11. High-throughput sequencing of forensic genetic samples using punches of FTA cards with buccal swabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Buchard, Anders; Børsting, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that punches from buccal swab samples preserved on FTA cards can be used for high-throughput DNA sequencing, also known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS). We typed 44 reference samples with the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel using washed 1.2 mm punches from FTA cards...... with buccal swabs and compared the results with those obtained with DNA extracted using the EZ1 DNA Investigator Kit. Concordant profiles were obtained for all samples. Our protocol includes simple punch, wash, and PCR steps, reducing cost and hands-on time in the laboratory. Furthermore, it facilitates...... automation of DNA sequencing....

  12. J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after gastrectomy: functional assessment and quality of life (randomized trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonča, Pavel; Malý, Tomáš; Ihnát, Peter; Peteja, Matus; Kraft, Otakar; Kuca, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and functional emptying of J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after total gastrectomy for malignancy. This study was designed as a prospective, nonblinded, randomized, parallel clinical trial (Trial Number: MN Ostrava, 200604). With informed consent, patients undergoing gastrectomy for malignancy were randomized to J-pouch or Roux-en-Y reconstruction. The time taken for a test semisolid meal labeled with 99mTc-sulfur colloid to exit the reconstructed parts was measured by dynamic scintigraphy 1 year after resection. Quality of life was measured using the Eypasch questionnaire at the same time as functional emptying assessment. This trial was investigator-initiated. In all, 72 patients were included into the study. The time taken for the test meal to exit the postgastrectomy reconstruction was 16.5±10.0 minutes (mean ± standard deviation) in the Roux-en-Y group and 89.4±37.8 minutes in the "J-pouch" group; the difference was statistically significant (PJ-pouch appeared to be a linear decreasing function compared to the exponential pattern seen in the Roux-en-Y group. The quality of life measurement showed scores of 106±18.8 points (mean ± standard deviation) in the Roux-en-Y group compared to 122±22.5 points in the J-pouch group; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.0016). There were no important adverse events. After total gastrectomy, a J-pouch reconstruction empties more slowly and is associated with higher quality of life compared to Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Whether these two observations have a direct causative link remains unanswered.

  13. Evaluation of scheduled J-pouch irrigations on decreasing stool frequency after ileoanal pull-through and ileostomy closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D S; Beck, S L; Dayton, M T; Kirchhoff, K T

    1996-09-01

    This study was intended to determine whether J-pouch irrigations through the efferent limb of the protective ileostomy stoma after ileoanal pull-through are effective in decreasing high stool frequency after ileostomy closure. Patients undergoing ileoanal pull-through may have high stool frequency after ileostomy closure. J-pouch irrigations through the efferent ileostomy stoma may decrease stool frequency by increasing J-pouch volume, improving storage capacity. The study used a randomized, prospective design in a university hospital outpatient setting. Participants (N = 58) were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. Effectiveness of irrigation was determined by stool frequency. Both groups were taught Kegel exercises (anal muscle strengthening exercises). The experimental group was taught how and when to irrigate the J-pouch daily; the control group was not. Forty-seven subjects, 25 men and 22 women ranging in age from 15 to 65 years, completed the study. Results of MANOVA indicated no significant between-group difference in the average number of times that subjects performed Kegel exercises; however, there was a significant decrease during the 4-week study period (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between groups in stool frequency, which decreased with time. There also was no significant effect on nocturnal leakage or satisfaction with surgical outcome. Additional clinical variables that were measured but had no significant effect included eating late, pouch size, and intake of sugar, fiber, bulk-forming products, and antidiarrheal agents. The study did not support the effectiveness of J-pouch irrigation in decreasing stool frequency after ileostomy closure. The cost, time commitment, and burden of performing daily irrigations are not warranted in this patient group.

  14. Azone® decreases the buccal mucosal permeation of Diazepam in a concentration-dependent manner via a reservoir effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Jin, Liang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine concentration-dependent effects of Azone® (AZ) on the buccal absorption of diazepam (DIAZ). Porcine buccal mucosa was placed in modified Ussing chambers and pretreated with 10 μL of 0%, 5%, 20%, and 50% (w/v) AZ in ethanol. DIAZ was administered to the donor...

  15. Preliminary study of tissue concentrations of penicillin after local administration into the guttural pouches in four healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, A; Mayhew, I G; Petrovski, K

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of subclinical carriers of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi with a gelatine-penicillin formulation deposited in the guttural pouch has been empirically proposed, but data on local tissue penicillin concentrations after treatment are lacking. We analysed tissue levels of penicillin after administration into the guttural pouches of four healthy horses. Two horses received local treatment with gelatine-penicillin and two horses received local treatment with an intramammary formulation of penicillin. Tissues were harvested for analysis either 12 or 24 h later. Results indicate that local treatment may be effective, but more research on optimal drug formulations in a larger sample size is warranted. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. alpha1-Acid glycoprotein production in rat dorsal air pouch in response to inflammatory stimuli, dexamethasone and honey bee venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiadou, K; Pantazidis, G; Papadopoulou, K; Ligoudistianou, C; Kourelis, A; Petrakis, S; Masmanidou, E; Testa, T; Kourounakis, A P; Hadjipetrou, L; Papaconstantinou, J; Yiangou, M

    2010-08-01

    This study shows the rapid and differential production of the 40-43 kDa and the 70-90 kDa alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) fucosylated glycoforms after treatment of the dorsal air pouch with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), HgCl(2) or Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). The 40-43 kDa and the 70-90 kDa AGP production is peaked 1-3 h post-LPS treatment. We observed that the responses to LPS and FCA are similar in that both AGP isoforms are induced whereas they differ in that the FCA exhibits a 6 h lag period. The response to HgCl(2,) however, exhibits the specific biphasic induction only of the 40-43 kDa AGP. The serum 40-43 kDa AGP glycoform gradually increases in response to all of the above stimulants and peaks by 24 h post- treatment. The increase of the 70-90 kDa AGP levels in the air pouch occurs in association with the accumulation of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells while dexamethasone (DEX) increases only the 40-43 kDa AGP production in the absence of PMN accumulation. Macrophage-monocyte lineage cells forming the air pouch lining tissue may potentially be the cells that secrete the 40-43 kDa AGP while polymorphonuclear cells that infiltrate the air pouch secrete the 70-90 kDa AGP. The 40-43 kDa and 70-90 kDa AGP production induced by LPS in the air pouch precedes that of interleukin-1 (IL-1) or interleukin-6 (IL-6) while the 40-43 kDa AGP glycoform potentially increases IL-6 production by air pouch PMN exudate cells. These significant differences suggest a local pro-inflammatory role of AGP. Honeybee venom suppressed arthritis development and exhibited differential local or systemic regulation of AGP in serum vs. air pouch exudate or synovial fluid. This study with the air pouch model of facsimile synovium tissue suggests that local alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) production may contribute to pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities during the local acute phase response or during chronic inflammatory stress as in arthritis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc

  17. Poloxamer bioadhesive hydrogel for buccal drug delivery: Cytotoxicity and trans-epithelial permeability evaluations using TR146 human buccal epithelial cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ni; Mignet, Nathalie; Dumortier, Gilles; Olivier, Elodie; Seguin, Johanne; Maury, Marc; Scherman, Daniel; Rat, Patrice; Boudy, Vincent

    2015-11-30

    A salbutamol sulfate (SS)-Poloxamer bioadhesive hydrogel specially developed for buccal administration was investigated by studying interactions with TR146 human buccal epithelium cells (i.e. cellular toxicity (i) and trans-epithelial SS diffusion (ii)). The assessment of cell viability (MTT, Alamar Blue), membrane integrity (Neutral Red), and apoptosis assay (Hoechst 33342), were performed and associated to Digital Holographic Microscopy analysis. After the treatment of 2h, SS solution induced drastic cellular alterations that were prevented by hydrogels in relation with the concentrations of poloxamer and xanthan gum. The formulation containing P407 19%/P188 1%/Satiaxane 0.1% showed the best tolerance after single and multiple administrations and significantly reduced the trans-epithelial permeability from 5.00±0.29 (×10(3)) (SS solution) to 1.83±0.22 cm/h. Digital Holographic Microscopy images in good agreement with the viability data confirmed the great interest of this direct technique. In conclusion, the proposed hydrogels represent a safe and efficient buccal drug delivery platform. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effectiveness of Articaine and Lidocaine Single Buccal Infiltration versus Conventional Buccal and Palatal Injection Using Lidocaine during Primary Maxillary Molar Extraction: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolli, Naveen Kumar Reddy; Nirmala, S V S G; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2017-01-01

    Despite the advent of modern injection techniques, palatal injection continues to be a painful experience for children. To compare the pain experienced during extraction of maxillary primary molars with conventional lignocaine anesthesia versus lignocaine and articaine buccal infiltration in children aged 6-14 years. A prospective randomized triple blinded study was conducted with ninety children (n = 90), randomly allocated to receive lignocaine conventional anesthesia (Group I [control group]), and buccal infiltration using articaine (Group II [articaine group]) or lignocaine (Group III [lignocaine group]). A composite score of self-report (faces pain scale-revised), behavioral measure (face legs activity cry consolability scale), and a physiological response (pulse rate) was measured following maxillary primary molar extraction. To test the mean difference between two groups, Students' t-test was used and among the three groups, one-way ANOVA with post hoc test was used. Articaine group had significantly lower pain scores for self-report (P 0.05) between articaine and control groups during primary maxillary molar extraction. Maxillary primary molar extraction procedure can be successfully accomplished by bypassing the palatal injection. Articaine buccal infiltration can be considered as an alternative to conventional local anesthesia for the extraction of maxillary primary molars.

  19. Effect of Flapless Immediate Implantation and Filling the Buccal Gap with Xenograft Material on the Buccal Bone Level: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Paknejad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Following tooth extraction, soft and hard tissue alterations occur; Different factors can affect this process. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of gap filling on buccal alveolar crestal bone level after immediate implant placement after 4- to 6-month observation period.Materials and Methods: This   randomized clinical trial was performed on 20 patients (mean age of 38.8 years requiring tooth extraction in a total of 27 areas in the anterior maxilla. The treatment strategy was as follows: atraumatic flapless tooth extraction, implant placement, insertion of a graft (test group or no material (control group between the implant and the socket wall, connection healing abutment placement and suturing the area. Clinical and cone beam computed tomographic examinations were performed before implant placement (baseline, 24 hours after surgery and 4-6 months (T2 after implant placement, to assess the buccal plate height (BH and implant complications.Results: After 4 months of healing, a reduction in different bone measurements was noticed in the two groups. No statistically significant differences were assessed in bone height measurements between the test and control groups at different time points. The study demonstrated that immediate implantation resulted in 1.30 and 1.66 mm reduction in buccal bone plate in the test and control groups, respectively.Conclusions: The study demonstrated that immediate implantation in the extraction socket together with xenograft failed to prevent bone resorption.

  20. Reduced angiotensin II levels cause generalized vascular dysfunction via oxidant stress in hamster cheek pouch arterioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Jessica R C; Buelow, Matthew W; McEwen, Scott T; Weinberg, Brian D; Delaney, Melanie; Balus, Sarah F; Hoeppner, Carlyn; Dondlinger, Lynn; Lombard, Julian H

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effect of suppressing plasma angiotensin II (ANG II) levels on arteriolar relaxation in the hamster cheek pouch. Arteriolar diameters were measured via television microscopy during short-term (3-6days) high salt (HS; 4% NaCl) diet and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition with captopril (100mg/kg/day). ACE inhibition and/or HS diet eliminated endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation to acetylcholine, endothelium-independent dilation to the NO donor sodium nitroprusside, the prostacyclin analogs carbacyclin and iloprost, and the KATP channel opener cromakalim; and eliminated arteriolar constriction during KATP channel blockade with glibenclamide. Scavenging of superoxide radicals and low dose ANG II infusion (25ng/kg/min, subcutaneous) reduced oxidant stress and restored arteriolar dilation in arterioles of HS-fed hamsters. Vasoconstriction to topically-applied ANG II was unaffected by HS diet while arteriolar responses to elevation of superfusion solution PO2 were unaffected (5% O2, 10% O2) or reduced (21% O2) by HS diet. These findings indicate that sustained exposure to low levels of circulating ANG II leads to widespread dysfunction in endothelium-dependent and independent vascular relaxation mechanisms in cheek pouch arterioles by increasing vascular oxidant stress, but does not potentiate O2- or ANG II-induced constriction of arterioles in the distal microcirculation of normotensive hamsters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanical damage in a lithium-ion pouch cell under indentation loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hailing; Xia, Yong; Zhou, Qing

    2017-07-01

    The short circuit of lithium-ion batteries induced by mechanical abuse is a great concern in electric vehicle design. It remains a challenge to fully understand the nature of the mechanical damage process with the aim of improving battery crash safety. The present paper investigates the evolution of the damage process for a lithium-ion pouch cell under indentation by loading the cell to various force levels. A significant inflection point on the force-indentation curve is observed before the force peak. Post-mortem examinations indicate that the characteristic change in the local slope of the curve is related to the change occurring at the local interfaces, including three phenomena - formation of tight adhesion on the anode-separator interfaces, delamination in the separators and decoating of graphite particles from the anodes. Analysis of the fracture sequence at the onset of short circuit clearly shows that the number of short-circuited electrode pairs is equal to the number of anode layers adhered with delaminated separator material before fracture occurs. The experimental study in the present paper implies that the inflection point on the force-indentation curve may be an indicator of damage initiation inside pouch cells under indentation.

  2. Attractiveness of variations in the smile arc and buccal corridor space as judged by orthodontists and laymen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Sanjay Manhar; Fields, Henry W; Beck, Michael; Rosenstiel, Stephen

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate changes in attractiveness on the basis of computerized variations of smile arcs and buccal corridors for male and female smiles judged by orthodontists and laypersons. Using a visual analog scale in a Web-based survey, orthodontists and laypersons rated the attractiveness of nine digitally altered smile arc and buccal corridor variations of male and female smiles. The variations were accomplished in a clinically relevant manner and based on standards set by experienced orthodontists in a pilot web-based survey. The results indicate that both laypersons and orthodontists prefer smiles in which the smile arc parallels the lower lip and buccal corridors are minimal. Significantly lower attractiveness ratings were found for smiles with flat smile arcs and excessive buccal corridors. Flattening of the smile arc overwhelms the deleterious effects of excessive buccal corridors on attractiveness ratings. On the basis of the results of this study, care should be taken not to produce an excessively flat smile arc during orthodontic treatment.

  3. Conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs as an in-vivo model for buccal absorption - pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from bioadhesive tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Morten B

    2014-01-01

    significantly different to the buccal anaesthetised groups (120 ± 0 and 165 ± 15 min) for buccal tablet pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, respectively. Also, the absolute bioavailability from the anaesthetised buccal tablet pH 8.9 (20.7 ± 4.0%) had a significant increase compared to all other buccal tablet groups...

  4. Influence of masseter muscle thickness on buccal corridor space and craniofacial morphology: A correlative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harneet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of masseter muscle thickness on buccal corridor space and underlying craniofacial morphology. Materials and Methods: Forty-six young adults (23 males and 23 females in the age group of 18–23 years having intact dentitions and Class I molar relationship were included in the study. Masseter muscle thickness was measured using ultrasonography in relaxed, smiling, and contracted states. Posed smile photographs were taken to measure the buccal corridor space. Standardized frontal and lateral cephalograms were taken to determine craniofacial morphology in all three dimensions. Results: The mean masseter muscle thickness was 10.54 (±1.92 mm, 12.00 (±2.06 mm, and 14.04 (±1.99 mm in relaxed, smiling, and contracted states, respectively. Statistically significant correlation also was noted between masseter muscle thickness, during contracted state and buccal corridor width ratio. There was a strong association of masseter muscle thickness on both vertical as well as transverse craniofacial morphologies. Conclusions: Masseter muscle thickness is positively correlated with the buccal corridor width and influences both vertical as well as transverse facial dimensions.

  5. [Effects of cetylpyridinium chloride buccal tablets on halitosis induced by oral conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Liu, Chang-Hong; Zhang, Jincai; Cai, Dehong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Li, Shiyi; Zhong, Huilan

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of cetylpyridinium chloride buccal tablets on halitosis induced by oral conditions. With Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium nucleatum as the testing bacteria, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cetylpyridinium chloride buccal tablets was determined using minute amount serial dilution test. The production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) was measured using sulfide detector halimeter in the anaerobic bacteria culture at 4 and 8 h after addition of the tablets. The effect of the tablets in suppressing odor production by mouth-borne halitosis bacteria was assessed using cysteine challenge test in healthy volunteers, and the effectiveness was evaluated by measuring the reduction in VSCs production and the duration of the effect. Cetylpyridinium chloride buccal tablets inhibited the growth of all the 3 bacteria. The tablets obviously inhibited VSCs production by the 3 bacteria with a effect similar to chlorhexidine. Compared with distilled water gargle, the buccal tablets significantly reduced cysteine-induced VSCs production level in the healthy volunteers (Phalitosis and produce good effects in the treatment of halitosis induced by oral conditions.

  6. Hypoxic regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in human buccal mucosa fibroblasts stimulated with arecoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Hung; Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2015-10-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is regarded as a pre-cancerous condition with fibrosis in oral subepithelial connective tissue. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α regulates a wide variety of profibrogenic genes, which are closely associated with tissue fibrosis. The aim of this study was to compare HIF-1α expression in normal buccal mucosa tissues and OSF specimens and further explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to the induction of HIF-1α expression. Twenty-five OSF specimens and six normal buccal mucosa were examined by immunohistochemistry. The expression of HIF-1α from fibroblasts cultured from OSF and normal buccal mucosa was measured by Western blot. Arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, was challenged to normal buccal mucosa fibroblasts (BMFs) to elucidate whether HIF-1α expression could affect by arecoline. In addition, the effects of arecoline on plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 expression were evaluated in environmental hypoxia. HIF-1α expression was significantly higher in OSF specimens and expressed mainly by fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and inflammatory cells. Fibroblasts derived from OSF were found to exhibit higher HIF-1α protein expression than BMFs (P oral submucosa leading to fibrosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Periodontal Biotype: Gingival Thickness as It Relates to Probe Visibility and Buccal Plate Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Natalie A; Mealey, Brian L; Jones, Archie A; Huynh-Ba, Guy

    2015-10-01

    Probe visibility is the clinical gold standard to discriminate thick from thin biotype but is prone to subjective interpretation. The primary objective of this study is to determine at what objective gingival thickness the probe becomes invisible through the tissue. A secondary objective is to compare mean buccal plate thickness between thick and thin biotypes as determined by probe visibility. Maxillary anterior teeth (n = 306) were studied in 56 human patients. Biotype was determined by probe visibility through the tissue. Gingival thickness was measured via transgingival sounding. Buccal plate thickness was measured (n = 66 teeth) by cone beam computed tomography. For the primary objective, the gingival thickness that best corresponded with probe invisibility was selected using the receiver operating characteristic and area under the curve (AUC) with the highest combination of sensitivity and specificity. For the secondary objective, mean buccal plate thickness was compared between sites in which the probe was visible and when it was not (Student t test, α= 0.05). The gingival thickness that most closely corresponded with probe invisibility was >0.8 mm (0.666 AUC, 67.7% sensitivity, 65.4% specificity). When the probe was visible, mean gingival thickness was 0.17 mm less (P biotype) and those in which it was not (i.e., thick biotype). Probe visibility was associated with thinner measurements of gingival thickness and showed a tendency to be associated with a thinner buccal plate.

  8. Histopathological evaluation of urethroplasty with dorsal buccal mucosa: an experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanne F. Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Buccal mucosa is a widely accepted tissue for urethroplasty. The exact healing and tissue integration process, mainly the histological characteristics of dorsal buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty when used dorsally to reconstruct the urethral plate has not previously been assessed, and thus we developed an experimental model to address this question. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 New Zealand rabbits (weight 2.5 kg we surgically created a dorsal penile urethral defect. A buccal mucosa graft was sutured to the corpora and tunica albuginea, and the ventral urethra anastomosed to this new urethral plate. The animals were divided in three groups and sacrificed 1, 3 and 6 weeks after surgery (groups 1, 2 and 3. A retrograde urethrogram was obtained at autopsy in the last group and the penis analyzed histologically with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's staining. RESULTS: The urethrograms showed no evidence of fistula or stricture. In group 1 the histopathological analysis showed submucosal lymph-mononuclear inflammatory edema, numerous eosinophils and squamous epithelium integrated into the adjacent urothelium. In group 2 there was no evidence of an inflammatory response but rather complete subepithelial hyaline healing, which was more marked in group 3. CONCLUSION: Healing of buccal mucosa grafts to reconstruct the urethral plate can be achieved by total integration of the squamous epithelium with the urothelium, maintaining the original histological properties of the graft with no fibrosis or retraction.

  9. Periodontal responses to augmented corticotomy with collagen membrane application during orthodontic buccal tipping in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeol; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface.

  10. Heterotopic neuroglial tissue: two cases involving the tongue and the buccal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanaes, Kasper; Hasselby, Jane Preuss; Bilde, Anders

    2008-01-01

    for these heterotopias. The first lesion was located in the buccal area in an 8-year-old boy and the second lesion in the tongue of a 2-year-old boy. They had relatively small lesions with few clinical symptoms. Complete excision was made and the follow-up was unremarkable. Heterotopic neuroglial tissue is considered...

  11. Effects of Tobacco Smoking on the Dorsum of the Tongue and Buccal Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shammari, Abdullah Faraj; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Khalil AL; Alaauldeen, Amjad Ibrahim; Merza, Randa Fouad; Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of tobacco smoking on the dorsum of the tongue and buccal epithelium. Methodology: This case control cross-sectional study was conducted with 174 smoking and non-smoking volunteers living in the city of Hail, Northern KSA. Cytological Materials were obtained from buccal mucosa and dorsum of the tongue, and assessed using cytopathological methods. Results: In buccal smears, cytological atypia was observed in 17 out of 101 (16.8%) smoker cases but only 3/73(4.1%) of the controls. For cytological atypia in buccal and tongue smears, the adjusted odd ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were found to be 4.7 (1.3-16.8), P cytological atypia, which might subsequently develop into oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. Oral exfoliative cytology is an easy and cheap non-invasive procedure which appears highly suitable for screening populations at risk of developing oral cancer. PMID:27893201

  12. Characterization of chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate nanocomposite films for buccal delivery of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Khunawattanakul, Wanwisa; Strachan, Clare J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare and characterize chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate (CS-MAS) nanocomposite films as a buccal delivery system for nicotine (NCT). The effects of the CS-MAS ratio on the physicochemical properties, release and permeation, as well as on the mucoadhesive...

  13. Formulation and evaluation of anti-asthmatic drug montelukast in mucoadhesive buccal patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Ibrahim Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To formulate and evaluate anti-asthmatic drug montelukast in mucoadhesive buccal patches. Methods: Buccal patches were formulated by using different hydrophilic polymers by solvent casting technique. Buccal patches were evaluated by seven physical appearances, in addition to in vitro drug release study. Results: All patches were uniform and translucent, and had smooth surface. In vitro release studies were conducted for montelukast buccal patches proved that release in the range of 75.26%-92.30% in 8 h. Emission of montelukast from all patches simulated zero order and diffusion mechanism. Finally it can be concluded that F3, F15 and F16 are the best formulation. Conclusions: The investigation concluded that patch of 5 mg of montelukast sodium were formulated by using sodium alginate with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K100M with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, and hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K100M with sodium alginate (F3, F15 and F16 formulations were the best formulations.

  14. Formulation and evaluation of a bioadhesive patch for buccal delivery of tizanidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Pendekal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tizanidine hydrochloride (THCl is an antispasmodic agent which undergoes extensive first pass metabolism making it a possible candidate for buccal delivery. The aim of this study was to prepare a monolayered buccal patch containing THCl using the emulsification solvent evaporation method. Fourteen formulations were prepared using the polymers Eudragit® RS 100 or Eudragit® RL 100 and chitosan. Polymer solutions in acetone were combined with a THCl aqueous solution (in some cases containing chitosan by homogenization at 9000 rpm for 2 min in the presence of triethyl citrate as plasticizer and cast in novel Teflon molds. Physicochemical properties such as film thickness, in vitro drug release and in vitro mucoadhesion were evaluated after which permeation across sheep buccal mucosa was examined in terms of flux and lag time. Formulations prepared using a Eudragit® polymer alone exhibited satisfactory physicomechanical properties but lacked a gradual in vitro drug release pattern. Incorporation of chitosan into formulations resulted in the formation of a porous structure which did exhibit gradual release of drug. In conclusion, THCl can be delivered by a buccal patch formulated as a blend of Eudragit® and chitosan, the latter being necessary to achieve gradual drug release.

  15. Human vaginal mucosa as a model of buccal mucosa for in vitro permeability studies: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bijl, Pieter; van Eyk, Armorel D

    2004-04-01

    The buccal cavity is attractive for noninvasive, controlled transmucosal delivery of both local and systemic therapeutically active compounds. Administering drugs via this route is advantageous due to the rich vasculature of the oral mucosa, and the absence of gastrointestinal and "first-pass" hepatic degradation. Moreover, the barrier properties of the oral mucosa against noxious substances and its role in disease require further investigation. However, the scarcity of sizeable specimens of human oral mucosa for in vitro experimental studies has hampered research on this tissue. For this reason we developed a model in which human vaginal mucosa is used as a substitute for buccal mucosa. In this article the quality and predictive value of the human vaginal/buccal in vitro model with respect to a number of drugs and other chemical compounds differing widely in molecular size and lipophilicity, including water, arecoline, arecaidine, benzo[a]pyrene, 17beta-estradiol, sumatriptan, vasopressin and dextrans, are reviewed. In addition some applications of the model for investigating the effect of areca nut extract on epithelial barrier properties, temperature effects on water and 17beta-estradiol flux rates, and cyclosporin diffusion through mucosal membranes are described. The permeability characteristics of vaginal mucosa, as a model of buccal mucosa, are compared with those of other human tissue, including mucosae from the small intestine and colon.

  16. Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface. PMID:25276824

  17. Characterization of the contribution of buccal absorption to internal exposure to bisphenol A through the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Davy; Gauderat, Glenn; Gayrard, Véronique; Lacroix, Marlène Z; Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Puel, Sylvie; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Viguié, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    The gavage route is often used for the toxicological evaluation of food contaminants. This route does not take into account absorption of the toxicants through the buccal mucosa, as evidenced in dogs for bisphenol A (BPA). Our goal was to determine the functional significance of buccal BPA absorption during dietary exposure. Four ewes received BPA by nasogastric gavage (100 mg/kg) and through food pellets (10 mg/kg), 13 days apart. The time course of serum concentrations of BPA and its main metabolite BPA-G was submitted to non-compartmental analysis. The dietary route led to 3-fold higher bioavailability as compared to gavage. The ratio of BPA-G to BPA concentrations varied greatly over time after the food administration, but not after gavage, suggesting a delayed metabolism of BPA after dietary exposure. The maximum entrance rate of BPA in the systemic circulation, determined by deconvolution analysis, was much higher after dietary administration than after gavage and a biphasic pattern of BPA entry was observed in 3 of the 4 ewes. Our results evidenced a dual mechanism of BPA absorption (buccal and digestive) after dietary exposure and highlight the necessity to take buccal absorption into account when evaluating food contaminants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pedicled buccal fat pad flap for intraoral malignant defects: A series of 29 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Jayanta; Tekriwal, Rohit; Ganguli, Arun; Ghosh, Saradindu; Mishra, Pranay K

    2009-01-01

    A buccal fat pad (BFP) as a flap for reconstruction of defects in the oral cavity has been described for a variety of benign conditions. We describe the indications, advantages, and complications of the BFP flap and report our clinical experience with the flap for intraoral reconstruction after tumor removal. From 2005 to 2008, we analyzed 29 patients in the age range of 32 to 82 years old who underwent a pedicled BFP flap reconstruction for oral defects after intraoral tumor removal. Postoperative wound healing and complications including any recurrence was followed-up prospectively. Most of the patients had an uneventful immediate postoperative period with signs of buccal fat pad epithelialization by the end of the first week and complete epithelialization at the end of the first month. On continued follow-up, a linear band of fibrous tissue under the epithelialized mucosa replaced the once reconstructed buccal fat pad. Three patients had varying degrees of hemorrhage: one of them had hematoma that healed with severe fibrosis and of the remaining two, one had a partial flap loss and one had a complete flap loss. Judicious use of buccal fat pad reconstruction offers a simple, convenient, and reliable way to reconstruct small to medium defects of the oral cavity with low morbidity, even in older patients who would not be able to tolerate time-consuming flap reconstruction procedures.

  19. PREPARATION AND IN VITRO ASSESSMENT OF VARIOUS MUCOSA-ADHESIVE FILMS FOR BUCCAL DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED-AL1REZA MORTAZAVI REZA ABOOFAZELI

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine various polymers considered to have mucosa-adhesive properties for the preparation of buccal-adhesive films and their in vitro evaluation. A number of materials, such as cellulose derivatives, carbopols and natural polymers, were employed for the preparation of buccal-adhesive films. Aqueous solutions containing the mucosa-adhesive polymer and a plasticizer were prepared and used to prepare films by the "solvent cast" method. Prepared films were then evaluated in terms of their physical appearance and film forming ability, in vitro mucosa-adhesive strength and duration of mucosa-adhesion. Results showed that among the various materials examined, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC formed very flexible films with the greatest mucosa-adhesive strength. Further studies showed that the combination of carbopols and CMC, along with glycerin as the plasticizer, resulted in the formation of films with desirable appearance and a relatively stronger mucosa-adhesive strength than films containing CMC alone. In vitro studies showed that films containing carbopol 934P, CMC and glycerin gave the greatest mucosa-adhesive strength and longer mucosa-adhesion. In conclusion, this formulation is proposed as a good base for the preparation of buccal-adhesive films and patches. Furthermore, it is suggested that in the development of buccal-adhesive drug delivery systems, and in particular films and patches, duration of mucosa-adhesion determined by in vitro experiments is a critical factor in the selection of the ultimate formulation.

  20. Closure of oro-antral fistula with pedicled buccal fat pad. A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article demonstrates the use of BFP in the repair of chronic oro-antral fistula. Methods: A case of a chronic oro-antral fistula of 5- year duration in a 56- year old man successfully repaired with pedicled buccal fat pad after unsuccessful several attempts with other local flaps is presented. A review of relevant literature ...

  1. The Effect Of Salinity Stress On Buccal Ventilatory Rate In The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect Of Salinity Stress On Buccal Ventilatory Rate In The African Lungfish, Protopterus annectens Owen. AI Okafor, LO Chukwu, LO Chukwu. Abstract. No Abstract. Animal Research International Vol. 2 (1) 2005 pp. 252-254. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  2. A simplified field protocol for genetic sampling of birds using buccal swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilstrup, Julia T.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Miller, Mark P.; McDearman, Will; Walters, Jeffrey R.; Haig, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    DNA sampling is an essential prerequisite for conducting population genetic studies. For many years, blood sampling has been the preferred method for obtaining DNA in birds because of their nucleated red blood cells. Nonetheless, use of buccal swabs has been gaining favor because they are less invasive yet still yield adequate amounts of DNA for amplifying mitochondrial and nuclear markers; however, buccal swab protocols often include steps (e.g., extended air-drying and storage under frozen conditions) not easily adapted to field settings. Furthermore, commercial extraction kits and swabs for buccal sampling can be expensive for large population studies. We therefore developed an efficient, cost-effective, and field-friendly protocol for sampling wild birds after comparing DNA yield among 3 inexpensive buccal swab types (2 with foam tips and 1 with a cotton tip). Extraction and amplification success was high (100% and 97.2% respectively) using inexpensive generic swabs. We found foam-tipped swabs provided higher DNA yields than cotton-tipped swabs. We further determined that omitting a drying step and storing swabs in Longmire buffer increased efficiency in the field while still yielding sufficient amounts of DNA for detailed population genetic studies using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. This new field protocol allows time- and cost-effective DNA sampling of juveniles or small-bodied birds for which drawing blood may cause excessive stress to birds and technicians alike.

  3. Chemokine production by buccal epithelium as a distinctive feature of pediatric Crohn disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, GM; Hol, J; de Ruiter, L.; Bouquet, J; Sinaasappel, M; van der Woude, J; Laman, JD; Hop, WCJ; Buller, HA; Escher, JC; Nieuwenhuis, EES

    Objectives: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) represent an aberrant immune response by the mucosal immune system to luminal bacteria. Because the oral mucosa harbors the first epithelial cells that interact with microorganisms, we assessed the immunologic activity of buccal epithelium in children

  4. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Verhoef, J C; Ponec, M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium with respect to the permeability of test substances with different molecular weights (M(w)). For this purpose, the apparent permeability (P(app)) values for mannitol...

  5. Buccal Fat Pad: An Effective Option for Facial Reconstruction and Aesthetic Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Tae; Sasidaran, Ramesh

    2017-12-01

    Autogenous grafting with lipoaspirate and dermo-fat grafting are popular techniques employed by plastic surgeons for correcting small volume facial defects and contour deformities. These techniques however present certain disadvantages. In this article, we present the use of the buccal fat pad graft as an alternative method of correcting such facial deformities. Free buccal fat pad grafting was carried out in 15 patients in our institution. All were harvested using an intraoral approach. The buccal fat pad graft was used to correct periorbital contour depressions, nasal tip deformities, as a camouflage graft over exposed silicon nasal implants and as a filler in the depression deformity after mass excision. All 15 patients demonstrated good contour deformity correction without a significant graft resorption up to 3 years of follow-up. There were no donor site complications. The amount used ranged from 1 to 5 cc in volume as a spacer or barrier for the moderate-sized volume defect or depression, even though more than 5 cc of fat graft could be harvested if required. In conclusion, the buccal fat pad graft represents an easy, expedient and exceptional tool for the correction of contour deformities, volume replacement or for aesthetic augmentation. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  6. Epigenetics in metal carcinogenesis: nickel, arsenic, chromium and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Adriana; Costa, Max

    2009-01-01

    Although carcinogenic metals have been known to disrupt a wide range of cellular processes the precise mechanism by which these exert their carcinogenic effects is not known. Over the last decade or two, studies in the field of metal carcinogenesis suggest that epigenetic mechanisms may play a role in metal-induced carcinogenesis. In this review we summarize the evidence demonstrating that exposure to carcinogenic metals such as nickel, arsenic, chromium, and cadmium can perturb DNA methylation levels as well as global and gene specific histone tail posttranslational modification marks. We also wish to emphasize the importance in understanding that gene expression can be regulated by both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms and both these must be considered when studying the mechanism underlying the toxicity and cell-transforming ability of carcinogenic metals and other toxicants, and aberrant changes in gene expression that occur during disease states such as cancer.

  7. Cervical Carcinogenesis and Immune Response Gene Polymorphisms: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash M. Mehta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The local immune response is considered a key determinant in cervical carcinogenesis after persistent infection with oncogenic, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV infections. Genetic variation in various immune response genes has been shown to influence risk of developing cervical cancer, as well as progression and survival among cervical cancer patients. We reviewed the literature on associations of immunogenetic single nucleotide polymorphism, allele, genotype, and haplotype distributions with risk and progression of cervical cancer. Studies on HLA and KIR gene polymorphisms were excluded due to the abundance on literature on that subject. We show that multiple genes and loci are associated with variation in risk of cervical cancer. Rather than one single gene being responsible for cervical carcinogenesis, we postulate that variations in the different immune response genes lead to subtle differences in the effectiveness of the antiviral and antitumour immune responses, ultimately leading to differences in risk of developing cervical cancer and progressive disease after HPV infection.

  8. Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: Oxidative Stress and Natural Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velid Unsal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in the world, and it is influenced by agents such as DEN, 2-AAF, phenobarbital, alcohol, aflatoxin B1 metabolite or hepatitis viruses (B and C. Oxidative stress is becoming recognized as a key factor in the progression of hepatocarcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species can play a leading role in initiation and promotion of hepatic carcinogenesis. The metabolites of DEN Diethylnitrosamine (DEN mediate the binding of tumour promoters by covalently binding to the DNA with one or two oxidation-providing electrons. 2-AAF is the inducer of DEN, and it is involved in tumour formation in the bladder and liver. Reactive Oxygen species (ROS; carbohydrates, lipids, DNA and enzymes, such as affect all important structures. Additionally, an excessive amount of ROS is highly toxic to cells. Antioxidants are protects against ROS, toxic substances, carcinogens. This review focuses on the literature on studies of Hepatic Carcinogenesis, oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy.

  9. The Role of Ubiquitine Proteasome Pathway in Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Ceren Sumer Turanligil

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin works as a marker protein which targets misfolded or injured proteins to cellular degradation. It brings the abnormal proteins to a subcellular organelle named proteasome and it maintains the degradation of proteins in limited lenghts of peptides by leaving the process withuout being changed. Mistakes in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis in various steps of carcinogenesis is known. In this review, we dealed with the effects of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP on carcinogenesis via intercellular signaling molecules like Ras, transcription factors like NF-kB, cytokines like TNF-alfa Tumor necrosis factor, protooncogenes like p53 and MDM2(murine double minute 2, components of cell cycle and DNA repair proteins like BRCA1. We also focused on the relationship of UPP on antigen presentation which is active in immune response and its place in the aetiology of colon cancer to provide a specific example. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(1.000: 36-55

  10. Synergistic chemopreventive effects of nobiletin and atorvastatin on colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian; Song, Mingyue; Qiu, Peiju; Rakariyatham, Kanyasiri; Li, Fang; Gao, Zili; Cai, Xiaokun; Wang, Minqi; Xu, Fei; Zheng, Jinkai; Xiao, Hang

    2017-04-01

    Different cancer chemopreventive agents may act synergistically and their combination may produce enhanced protective effects against carcinogenesis than each individual agent alone. Herein, we investigated the chemopreventive effects of nobiletin (NBT, a citrus polymethoxyflavone) and atorvastatin (ATST, a lipid-lowering drug) in colon cancer cells/macrophages and an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis rat model. The results demonstrated that co-treatments of NBT/ATST produced enhanced growth inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effects on the colon cancer cells and macrophages, respectively. Isobologram analysis confirmed that these interactions between NBT and ATST were synergistic. NBT/ATST co-treatment also synergistically induced extensive cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Oral administration of NBT (0.1%, w/w in diet) or ATST (0.04%, w/w in diet) significantly decreased colonic tumor incidence and multiplicity in AOM-treated rats. Most importantly, co-treatment of NBT/ATST at their half doses (0.05% NBT + 0.02% ATST, w/w in diet) resulted in even stronger inhibitory effects on colonic tumor incidence and multiplicity than did NBT or ATST alone at higher doses. Statistical analysis confirmed that the enhanced chemopreventive activities against colon carcinogenesis in rats by the NBT/ATST combination were highly synergistic. Our results further demonstrated that NBT/ATST co-treatment profoundly modulated key cellular signaling regulators associated with inflammation, cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis in the colon of AOM-treated rats. In conclusion, for the first time, our results demonstrated a strong synergy in inhibiting colon carcinogenesis produced by the co-treatment of NBT and ATST, which provided a scientific basis for using NBT in combination with ATST for colon cancer chemoprevention in humans. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  11. Effect of Dendrobium officinale Extraction on Gastric Carcinogenesis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Zhao; Yan Liu; Xi-Ming Lan; Guo-Liang Xu; You-Zhi Sun; Fei Li; Hong-Ning Liu

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale (Tie Pi Shi Hu in Chinese) has been widely used to treat different diseases in China. Anticancer effect is one of the important effects of Dendrobium officinale. However, the molecular mechanism of its anticancer effect remains unclear. In the present study, gastric carcinogenesis in rats was used to evaluate the effect of Dendrobium officinale on cancer, and its pharmacological mechanism was explored. Dendrobium officinale extracts (4.8 and 2.4 g/kg) were orally adminis...

  12. Experimental Gastric Carcinogenesis in Cebus apella Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tanielly Cristina Raiol; Andrade Junior, Edilson Ferreira; Rezende, Alexandre Pingarilho; Carneiro Muniz, José Augusto Pereira; Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos Cunha; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Demachki, Samia; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New-World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9th day though on the 14th day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940th day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immunoreactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immunoreactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the tolerability and

  13. Experimental gastric carcinogenesis in Cebus apella nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana de Fátima Ferreira Borges da Costa

    Full Text Available The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New-World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU. Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9(th day though on the 14(th day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940(th day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immunoreactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immunoreactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the

  14. Ghrelin administration suppresses inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Makiko; Kanemaru, Ai; Fukushima, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Koji; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Haruyama, Yukihiro; Itoh, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Kataoka, Hiroaki

    2015-09-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide that stimulates the release of pituitary growth hormone. Because of its orexigenic effects, ghrelin is being developed as a therapeutic option for postoperative support and treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome of cancer patients. However, ghrelin has a multiplicity of physiological functions, and it also affects cell proliferation. Therefore, the effects of ghrelin administration on carcinogenesis and cancer progression in patients susceptible to cancer should be clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of ghrelin on cancer promotion in vivo using murine intestinal carcinogenesis models. Intestinal tumorigenesis was examined to determine the effects of either exogenous ghrelin administration or ghrelin deficiency following deletion of the Ghrl gene. Two murine intestinal tumorigenesis models were used. The first was the azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis model and the second was the Apc(Min/+) genetic cancer susceptibility model. In AOM/DSS-treated mice, administration of ghrelin significantly suppressed tumor formation in the colon. In contrast, ghrelin administration did not affect the number of intestinal tumors formed in Apc(Min/+) mice. The absence of endogenous ghrelin did not affect the incidence of intestinal tumors in either AOM/DSS-treated mice or Apc(Min/+) mice, though tumor size tended to be larger in Ghrl(-/-) colons in the AOM/DSS model. No tumor-promoting effect was observed by ghrelin administration in either tumorigenesis model. In summary, this study provides in vivo experimental evidence for the usefulness of ghrelin administration in the chemoprevention of inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis and may suggest its safety in patients under colitis-associated cancer susceptibility conditions. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. Ghrelin administration suppresses inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaguchi, Makiko; Kanemaru, Ai; FUKUSHIMA, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Koji; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Haruyama, Yukihiro; Itoh, Hiroshi; MATSUMOTO, Nobuhiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Kataoka, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide that stimulates the release of pituitary growth hormone. Because of its orexigenic effects, ghrelin is being developed as a therapeutic option for postoperative support and treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome of cancer patients. However, ghrelin has a multiplicity of physiological functions, and it also affects cell proliferation. Therefore, the effects of ghrelin administration on carcinogenesis and cancer progression in patients susceptible to cancer s...

  16. Genotoxic Effects of Tobacco on Buccal Epithelium: Cell Nuclear Anomalies as Biomarker

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    Sohini Das Biswas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use has toxic effects on different organs. This study was carried out to assess the effect of indigenous tobacco both in smoking (bidi and smokeless (gutkha, zarda and khaini forms on buccal cells at chromosomal level, through assessment of different nuclear anomalies as biomarker. Methods:This study was done on people living in Durgapur and its adjacent areas, West Bengal, India during January to July 2011. The samples were collected from 50 smokers (case group, 50 smokeless tobacco consumers or chewers (case group and 50 non-tobacco consumers (control group. Micronucleus assay was used to assess buccal cell nuclear changes. Buccal smears collected from study subjects were prepared on a grease free slide. Prepared slides were observed under light microscope and 2 to 5 fields were observed randomly for counting the different anomalies. In each field, the frequency of each anomaly was assessed in 100 cells and reported with percentage. Results:Chewers had significantly the highest frequency of all nuclear anomalies compared to smokers and healthy controls (HCs. Smokers also had significantly more anomalies compared to HCs. Condensed chromatin (CC, karyolysis (KL and bi-nucleation (BN in chewers and CC, pyknosis and BN in smokers were the most frequent anomalies. KL was significantly more frequent in chewers compared to smokers (59.8 ± 6.4 vs. 24.2 ± 12.4%, P < 0.001, however, the frequency of other nuclear anomalies were not significantly different in these two study groups. Presence of each nuclear anomaly was significantly greater in older ages in all study groups. Conclusion:Tobacco can cause and increase the rate of nuclear anomalies in both smoking and smokeless forms compared to HCs. The genotoxic effects of tobacco on buccal cells are partly age-related. Cell nuclear anomalies in buccal tissue can be used as biomarker indicating the detrimental effects of tobacco.

  17. Genotoxicity of waterpipe smoke in buccal cells and peripheral blood leukocytes as determined by comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amrah, Hadba Jar-Allah; Aboznada, Osama Abdullah; Alam, Mohammad Zubair; ElAssouli, M-Zaki Mustafa; Mujallid, Mohammad Ibrahim; ElAssouli, Sufian Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Waterpipe smoke causes DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes and in buccal cells of smokers. To determine the exposure effect of waterpipe smoke on buccal cells and peripheral blood leukocytes in regard to DNA damage using comet assay. The waterpipe smoke condensates were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study was performed on 20 waterpipe smokers. To perform comet assay on bucaal cells of smokers, 10 µl of cell suspension was mixed with 85 µl of pre-warmed 1% low melting agarose, applied to comet slide and electrophoresed. To analyze the effect of smoke condensate in vitro, 1 ml of peripheral blood was mixed with 10 µl of smoke condensate and subjected for comet assay. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4on, nicotine, hydroxymethyl furancarboxaldehyde and 3-ethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde in the smoke condensates. Waterpipe smoking caused DNA damage in vivo in buccal cells of smokers. The tail moment and tail length in buccal cells of smokers were 186 ± 26 and 456 ± 71, respectively, which are higher than control. The jurak and moassel smoke condensates were found to cause DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes. The moassel smoke condensate was more damaging. There is wide misconception that waterpipe smoking is not as harmful as cigarette smoking. This study demonstrated that waterpipe smoke induced DNA damage in exposed cells. Waterpipe smokes cause DNA damage in buccal cells. The smoke condensate of both jurak and moassel caused comet formation suggesting DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes.

  18. A randomized clinical trial comparing oral, aerosolized intranasal, and aerosolized buccal midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eileen J; Brown, Julie C; Kobayashi, Ana; Osincup, Daniel; Seidel, Kristy

    2011-10-01

    We determine whether aerosolized intranasal or buccal midazolam reduces the distress of pediatric laceration repair compared with oral midazolam. Children aged 0.5 to 7 years and needing nonparenteral sedation for laceration repair were randomized to receive oral, aerosolized intranasal, or aerosolized buccal midazolam. Patient distress was rated by blinded review of videotapes, using the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Score. Secondary outcomes included activity scores, sedation adequacy, sedation onset, satisfaction, and adverse events. For the 169 subjects (median age 3.1 years) evaluated for the primary outcome, we found significantly less distress in the buccal midazolam group compared with the oral route group (P=.04; difference -2; 95% confidence interval -4 to 0) and a corresponding nonsignificant trend for the intranasal route (P=.08; difference -1; 95% confidence interval -3 to 1). Secondary outcomes (177 subjects) favored the intranasal group, including a greater proportion of patients with an optimal activity score (74%), a greater proportion of parents wanting this sedation in the future, and faster sedation onset. Intranasal was the route least tolerated at administration. Adverse events were similar between groups. When comparing the administration of midazolam by 3 routes to facilitate pediatric laceration repair, we observed slightly less distress in the aerosolized buccal group. The intranasal route demonstrated a greater proportion of patients with optimal activity scores, greater proportions of parents wanting similar sedation in the future, and faster onset but was also the most poorly tolerated at administration. Aerosolized buccal or intranasal midazolam represents an effective and useful alternative to oral midazolam for sedation for laceration repair. Copyright © 2011 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Single-flap approach with buccal access in periodontal reconstructive procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombelli, Leonardo; Farina, Roberto; Franceschetti, Giovanni; Calura, Giorgio

    2009-02-01

    New surgical techniques have been developed to optimize primary closure as well as to minimize the surgical trauma in the reconstructive procedures of periodontal intraosseous defects. Recently, we proposed a minimally invasive procedure, the single-flap approach (SFA), specifically indicated when the defect extension is prevalent on the buccal or oral side. The basic principle of the SFA is the elevation of a flap to access the defect only on one side (buccal or oral), leaving the opposite side intact. The present case series reports preliminary data on the clinical effectiveness of SFA with buccal access in conjunction with a collagen membrane and a hydroxyapatite (HA)-based biomaterial in the reconstructive treatment of deep periodontal intraosseous defects. Ten intraosseous defects in 10 patients were accessed with a buccal SFA and treated with a collagen membrane and an HA-based graft biomaterial. The follow-up period following the regenerative procedure ranged from 6 to 14 months (mean: 10.0 +/- 3.0 months). Clinical attachment level (CAL) decreased from 11.2 +/- 2.6 mm presurgery to 6.4 +/- 1.9 mm post-surgery. Probing depth was 9.0 +/- 2.8 mm before surgery and 3.8 +/- 1.5 mm post-surgery. Gingival recession increased from 2.2 +/- 1.9 mm presurgery to 2.6 +/- 1.3 mm post-surgery. Challenging intraosseous defects, surgically accessed with a buccal SFA and treated with a combined graft/guided tissue regeneration technique, may heal with a substantial CAL gain. Limited postsurgical recession indicates that SFA may represent a suitable option to surgically treat defects in areas with high esthetic demands.

  20. The fate of buccal bone around dental implants. A 12-month postloading follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merheb, Joe; Vercruyssen, Marjolein; Coucke, Wim; Beckers, Ludovic; Teughels, Wim; Quirynen, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Buccal bone thickness is considered to be an important factor during implant surgery. Its resorption might have an effect on the soft tissue stability and eventually on implant survival. This study aimed to investigate the resorption of the buccal bone over the first 12 months after implant loading. Twenty-four subjects (47 implants) were included. The buccal bone thickness was measured during implant surgery at several distances from the implant shoulder using a specifically designed device which allows buccal bone thickness measurements without the elevation of a muco-periostal flap. These measurements were repeated after 12 months of loading. Sixteen implants were placed flapless and 31 with the elevation of a flap. Of the latter, 19 were placed following a one-stage protocol and 12 following a two-stage protocol. The mean reduction in buccal bone thickness, when all groups pooled, was 0.26, 0.36, 0.35 and 0.27 mm at the shoulder and 2, 4 and 6 mm apically. Implants with initial bone thickness flapless procedure leads to less bone resorption compared to an open-flap procedure (P = 0.03). However, the number of surgeries (one stage vs. two stages) did not influence the rate of bone resorption (P = 0.23). Within the limitations of this study, one might question the necessity of having a thick bone plate at the vestibular site of the implant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Micronucleus Investigation in Buccal Mucosal Cells of Young Waterpipe Tobacco Smokers in Tehran

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    Sepideh Arbabi Bidgoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke(WTS is an unhealthy life style that may increase the risk of genotoxic responses and chronic diseases such as cancer. Micronucleus test is a successful and reliable method which is used for screening of genetotoxic responses of whole body and also for screening those people who had already exposed to genotoxic compounds. In this study, specific questionnaires were designed and used for studying the role of shisha smoking on the extent of genotoxic responses and cases were looked for MNs with this biomonitoring method. The study population was 20 young adults (12men and 8 women who born and lived in Tehran and had continuously smoked shisha more than 2 times weekly for more than 2 years . The associations between all recorded background, environmental and nutritional factors and increased incidence of Micronucleus in buccal cells of all cases were considered by statistical methods. In order to count Micronucleus levels, buccal cells were collected from buccal mucosa of these people with small-headed toothbrush and was placed the head of tooth brush into buccal cell buffer, slides were prepared and cells were stained with Schiff’s reagent and light green .Finally 1000 differentiated cells were recorded by optical microscope in each slide and the mean level of MN was determined for each volunteer . All steps were performed according to the buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt assay protocol. Increased incidence of Micronucleus was associated with the extent of shisha smoking per week (p=0.021, alcohol consumption ( p=0.021 and BMI ( p=0.027. The other effective factor in the occurrence of Micronucleus was gender/sex ( p=0.011 but nutritional factors didn’t change the level of Micronucleus in our cases. The relationship between other background and environmental factors were not significant too. It seems that long term consumption of shisha in both genders could increase the risk of genetic toxicity and occurrence of

  2. Updated anatomy of the buccal space and its implications for plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Thilo L; Koban, Konstantin C; Schlattau, Alexander; Frank, Konstantin; Sclafani, Anthony P; Giunta, Riccardo E; Roth, Malcolm Z; Gaggl, Alexander; Gotkin, Robert H; Cotofana, Sebastian

    2018-02-01

    The buccal space is an integral deep facial space which is involved in a variety of intra- and extra-oral pathologies and provides a good location for the harvest of the facial artery. The age-related anatomy of this space was investigated and compared to previous reports. We conducted anatomic dissections in 102 fresh frozen human cephalic specimens (45 males, 57 females; age range 50-100 years) and performed additional computed tomographic, magnetic resonance and 3-D surface volumetric imaging studies to visualize the boundaries and the contents of the buccal space after injection of contrast enhancing material. The mean vertical extent of contrast agent injected into the buccal space was 25.2 ± 4.3 mm and did not significantly differ between individuals of different age (p = 0.77) or gender (p = 0.13). The maximal injected volume was 10.02 cc [range: 3.09-10.02] without significant influence of age (p = 0.13) or gender (p = 0.81). The change in surface volume was 3.64 ± 1.04 cc resulting in a mean surface-volume-coefficient of 0.87 ± 0.12 without being statistically significant influenced by age (p = 0.53) or gender (p = 0.78). The facial artery was constantly identified within the buccal space whereas the facial vein was found to course within its posterior boundary. The buccal space did not undergo age-related changes in volume or size which highlights this space is a reliable and predictable landmark for various plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic procedures. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ureteric duplication is not a contraindication for robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystoprostatectomy and intracorporeal Studer pouch formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Dogan, Bayram; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Akbulut, Ziya; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2011-01-01

    Ureteric duplication is a rarely seen malformation of the urinary tract more commonly seen in females. We report 2 cases of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystoprostatectomy (RALRCP) with bilateral extended pelvic lymph node dissection and intracorporeal Studer pouch formation in patients with duplicated right ureters. Two male patients (53 and 68 years old) underwent transurethral resection of a bladder tumor that revealed high-grade muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma, with no metastases. We performed RALRCP and intracorporeal Studer pouch formation. A duplicated right ureter was observed during the procedures in both patients. Left ureter distal segment was spatulated 2cm long and anastomosed using running 4/0 Vicryl to the right ureter at its bifurcation where it forms a single lumen without spatulation. All 3 ureters were catheterized individually. A Wallace type uretero-ileal anastomosis was performed between the ureters and the proximal part of the Studer pouch chimney. Although ureteric frozen section analysis suggested ureteric carcinoma in situ in patient 1, postoperative pathologic evaluation was normal. Frozen section and final postoperative pathologic evaluations were normal in patient 2. Duplicated ureters might be underdiagnosed on CT. The presence of a duplicated ureter is not a contraindication to RALRCP and intracorporeal Studer pouch formation. The da Vinci-S surgical robot is very safe for performing this complicated procedure. Frozen section analysis of ureters during radical cystectomy for bladder cancer might not reliably diagnose the pathologic condition and might overestimate the disease in the ureters.

  4. Severe Dumping Syndrome in a 6-year-old Girl with Congenital Microgastria Treated by Hunt-Lawrence Pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filisetti, Claudia; Maestri, Luciano; Meroni, Milena; Marinoni, Federica; Riccipetitoni, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    Microgastria is a rare congenital condition often associated with other anomalies. In the present report we describe the case of a 6-year-old girl with isolated CM who presented with dumping syndrome successfully treated by a Hunt-Lawrence pouch.

  5. Ileo-anale pouch bij patiënten met colitis ulcerosa; operatie bij voorkeur laparoscopisch en in een expertisecentrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelman, Willem A.; Tanis, Pieter J.; Buskens, Christianne J.

    2013-01-01

    If the colon and rectum need to be removed in patients with ulcerative colitis, it is preferable to create an ileo-anal pouch to restore continuity of the intestinal tract. The surgical approach and the centre at which the patient can best have his surgery are still under debate. Laparoscopy seems

  6. Pouchitis-Associated Iritis (Uveitis Following Total Proctocolectomy and Ileal Pouch-to-Anal Anastomosis in Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis treated with a proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-to-anal anastomosis developed an erosive and ulcerative pouchitis. Although no ophthalmological manifestations were present before the staged surgical procedures, iritis developed after appearance of the pouchitis. Both conditions subsequently resolved with oral corticosteroids and metronidazole.

  7. Transcriptional changes between uninflamed ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis pouch mucosa can be attributed to an altered immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paziewska, Agnieszka; Horbacka, Karolina; Goryca, Krzysztof; Mikula, Michal; Jarosz, Dorota; Dabrowska, Michalina; Krokowicz, Piotr; Karon, Jacek; Ostrowski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    A total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is considered the surgery of choice for definitive management of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and some patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). However, this surgical treatment is often associated with pouchitis, a long-term complication that occurs mostly in UC patients. The purpose of this study was to better define the molecular background of pouchitis. A microarray-based survey was performed using pouch mucosal samples collected from 28 and 8 patients undergoing surgery for UC and FAP, respectively. There were 4,770 genes that significantly differentiated uninflamed from inflamed mucosal samples, and their functional features were represented mostly by metabolic and cell proliferation pathways. In contrast, functional analyses of aberrantly expressed genes between UC and FAP samples, irrespective of mucosal inflammation status, revealed multiple pathways and terms that were linked to changes in immune response. Interestingly, the comparison of uninflamed UC and FAP samples identified a set of 29 altered probe sets, including an inflammation-related transcript encoding a Charcot-Leyden crystal (CLC) protein. The most distinct changes in gene expression profiles differentiating uninflamed UC and FAP pouch mucosal samples were attributed to the Gene Ontology category innate immune response. Our study confirmed that alterations in immune responses can be found between patients who underwent surgery for UC and FAP, independent of the pouch inflammation status. This observation may be important when managing IPAA patients.

  8. Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis from vaginal specimens by wet mount microscopy, in pouch TV culture system, and PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumati J Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, trichomoniasis has emerged as the most common sexually transmitted disease and limited data are available on the effective screening technique for the diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis. Aim : The aim was to compare and evaluate different diagnostic methods like wet mount microscopy, In Pouch TV culture, and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR to establish which method or combination of methods was most effective for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swab specimens. Settings and Design : This is a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods : A total of 200 patients complaining of vaginal discharge were included in the study. Three vaginal swabs were screened for trichomoniasis by wet mount microscopy, In Pouch TV culture system and PCR, using TVK3 and TVK7 specific primers. Results : Of the 200 cases studied, 36 (18% were positive by wet mount microscopy, 44 (22% by In Pouch TV culture system and 60(30% by PCR. Sensitivity and specificity of wet mount were 60% and 100%, respectively, whereas sensitivity and specificity of the In Pouch TV culture system were 73.33% and 100%, respectively when compared to PCR. Conclusion : Comparison of different methods showed that at least two techniques, such as wet mount microscopy and culture have a better chance of detection of T. vaginalis infection. Diagnosis of trichomoniasis by PCR was found to be highly specific and sensitive, but its availability and cost effectiveness limit its use in routine diagnostic laboratories.

  9. Carcinogenesis and diabetic wound healing: evidences of parallelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanhaiya; Singh, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    There is a close association of chronic tissue damage, inflammation and cancer. A chronic injury may contribute to sustained healing response leading to fibrosis, organ failure and carcinogenesis. Wounds created due to mechanical or patho-physiological insults, generally follow a sophisticated series of mutually coherent steps leading to the re-establishment of the affected tissue or organ. The process of wound healing resembles fundamental processes like embryogenesis and tissue regeneration. All the stages in the wound healing process are tightly regulated and any sort of imbalance may lead to either non healing chronic ulcers or excessively healed hypertrophic scars. Diabetic wounds are also very tough to heal and in many cases they do not heal, ultimately resulting in the amputation of that body part. The non-healing property of diabetic wounds may be due to combined effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this review, we aimed to explore the steps involved in diabetic wound healing and compare it with the process of carcinogenesis. This review demonstrates that both carcinogenesis and the diabetic wound healing follow a similar path of latent healing in an abnormal exaggerated manner.

  10. Roles of stem cells in tissue turnover and radiation carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Ohtsura

    2010-12-01

    Radiation research has its foundation on the target and hit theories, which assume that the initial stochastic deposition of energy on a sensitive target in a cell determines the final biological outcome. This assumption is rather static in nature but forms the foundation of the linear no-threshold (LNT) model of radiation carcinogenesis. The stochastic treatment of radiation carcinogenesis by the LNT model enables easy calculation of radiation risk, and this has made the LNT model an indispensable tool for radiation protection. However, the LNT model sometimes fails to explain some of the biological and epidemiological data, and this suggests the need for insight into the mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. Recent studies have identified unique characteristics of the tissue stem cells and their roles in tissue turnover. In the present report, some important issues of radiation protection such as the risk of low-dose-rate exposures and in utero exposures are discussed in light of the recent advances of stem cell biology.

  11. Alterations of Histone H1 Phosphorylation During Bladder Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telu, Kelly H.; Abbaoui, Besma; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M.; Zynger, Debra L.; Clinton, Steven K.

    2013-01-01

    There is a crucial need for development of prognostic and predictive biomarkers in human bladder carcinogenesis in order to personalize preventive and therapeutic strategies and improve outcomes. Epigenetic alterations, such as histone modifications, are implicated in the genetic dysregulation that is fundamental to carcinogenesis. Here we focus on profiling the histone modifications during the progression of bladder cancer. Histones were extracted from normal human bladder epithelial cells, an immortalized human bladder epithelial cell line (hTERT), and four human bladder cancer cell lines (RT4, J82, T24, and UMUC3) ranging from superficial low-grade to invasive high-grade cancers. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling revealed a statistically significant increase in phosphorylation of H1 linker histones from normal human bladder epithelial cells to low-grade superficial to high-grade invasive bladder cancer cells. This finding was further validated by immunohistochemical staining of the normal epithelium and transitional cell cancer from human bladders. Cell cycle analysis of histone H1 phosphorylation by western blotting showed an increase of phosphorylation from G0/G1 phase to M phase, again supporting this as a proliferative marker. Changes in histone H1 phosphorylation status may further clarify epigenetic changes during bladder carcinogenesis and provide diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers or targets for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:23675690

  12. Perceptions of brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types

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    Matheus Melo PITHON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the esthetic perception and attractiveness of the smile with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types by brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals. Material and Methods: The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial type of face was changed to create three different facial types with five different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22% and 28%. To achieve this effect, a photo editing software was used (Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems Inc, San Francisco, CA, EUA. The images were submitted to evaluators with brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces, who evaluated the degree of esthetic perception and attractiveness by means of a visual analog scale measuring 70 mm. The differences between evaluators were verified by the Mann-Whitney test. All statistics were performed with a confidence level of 95%. Results: Brachyfacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Mesofacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2%, 10% and 15% as more attractive. Dolichofacial individuals perceived the mesofacial type of face with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Evaluators of the female sex generally attributed higher scores than the male evaluators. Conclusion: To achieve an enhanced esthetic smile it is necessary to observe the patient’s facial type. The preference for narrow buccal corridors is an esthetic characteristic preferred by men and women, and wide buccal corridors are less attractive.

  13. Carvedilol alleviates adjuvant-induced arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema: Modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arab, Hany H., E-mail: hany_h_arab@yahoo.com [Biochemistry Division, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Sawalhi, Maha M. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-04-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease with cardiovascular complications as the leading cause of morbidity. Carvedilol is an adrenergic antagonist which has been safely used in treatment of several cardiovascular disorders. Given that carvedilol has powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to investigate its protective potential against arthritis that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness especially in RA patients with concomitant cardiovascular disorders. Two models were studied in the same rat; adjuvant arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 21 days) effectively suppressed inflammation in both models with comparable efficacy to the standard anti-inflammatory diclofenac (5 mg/kg/day p.o.). Notably, carvedilol inhibited paw edema and abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates. The latter observation was confirmed by the histopathological assessment of the pouch lining that revealed mitigation of immuno-inflammatory cell influx. Carvedilol reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and protein thiols) and lowered the release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), and eicosanoids (PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4}) in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. Interestingly, carvedilol, per se, didn't present any effect on assessed biochemical parameters in normal rats. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-arthritic effects of carvedilol that could be mediated through attenuation of leukocyte migration, alleviation of oxidative stress and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids. - Highlights: ► Carvedilol possesses promising anti-arthritic properties. ► It markedly suppressed inflammation in adjuvant arthritis and air pouch edema. ► It abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates and linings. ► It reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers in sera and exudates of

  14. Early effect of boron neutron capture therapy mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) on mast cells in premalignant tissue and tumors of the hamster cheek pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromando, Romina F; Trivillin, Verónica A; Heber, Elisa M; Pozzi, Emiliano; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, María E

    2010-05-01

    Mast cell (MC) activation in the hamster cheek pouch cancerization model is associated with the increase in tumor cell proliferation, mediated in turn by tryptase, a protease released from mast cell granules after activation. Tryptase induces tumor cell proliferation through the activation of PAR-2 (protease activated receptor-2) on the plasma membrane of carcinoma cells. The therapeutic success of boron neutron capture therapy mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) in tumor control in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model has been previously reported by our laboratory. Early effects of BPA-BNCT on tumors of the hamster cheek pouch include a reduction in DNA-synthesis with the concomitant decrease in the proliferation of malignant cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the early histological changes in mast cells after BPA-BNCT in tumors and premalignant tissue of the hamster cheek pouch. Tumor-bearing pouches were treated with BPA-BNCT or beam only (neutron irradiation without prior administration of the boron compound) and sacrificed 1day after treatment. The samples were fixed in Carnoy fixative and stained with alcian blue-safranin to identify all the populations of mast cells. Total, active and inactive mast cells (MC) were counted in the connective tissue and the adventitious tissue underlying the pouch wall and at the base of the tumors in pouches treated with BPA-BNCT, in keeping with a previously described technique. BPA-BNCT induced a marked reduction in the total number of mast cells in the pouch (pBNCT and beam only elicited a qualitative change in the secretion modality of the granule content. Although further studies are needed to evaluate the subcellular effect of BNCT on mast cell granule secretion, the reduction in cell proliferation induced by BPA-BNCT would be partially due to the decrease in total mast cells in the hamster check pouch. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fructose diet and VEGF-induced plasma extravasation in hamster cheek pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félétou, Michel; Boulanger, Michelle; Staczek, Joanna; Broux, Olivier; Duhault, Jacques

    2003-03-01

    To determine in the hamster cheek pouch whether or not the changes in plasma extravasation induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could be affected by fructose diet. Hamsters were subjected to control drinking water or to water containing fructose (10 %) for 18 weeks. The fructose diet induced a small but significant increase in glycemia (0.80+/-0.11 and 1.09+/-0.15, n=8 and 9 for control and fructose- treated animals, respectively, Pdiet while the effects of VEGF were markedly increased (maximal number of leakage sites: 76+/-20 and 126+/-55, n = 8 and 9 for control and fructose-treated animals, respectively, P<0.01). Even moderate changes in glycemic levels can produce profound alteration in the VEGF response.

  16. Mucinous secretion from canine Heidenhain pouch after stimulation with food, pentagastrin and histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, K; Pachkowski, T; Secord, D C

    1976-01-01

    Principal glycoproteins and amino acids were determined in gastric juice obtained from Heidenhain pouches of Labrador pure-bred dogs. Secretions were stimulated by food, pentagastrin or histamine. Non-stimulated fasting secretions served as controls. All samples showed the presence of galactose, glucosamine, galactosamine, fucose, glucose, mannose and sulfate. Galactose and glucosamine were found in equimolar amount and the galactose to galactosamine ratio was 2:1. Concentrations of most carbohydrate components studied were higher in fasting than in stimulated secretions. Outputs of some of these components were lower in fasting than in stimulated secretions. Modes of stimulation used did not significantly affect the outputs of principal glycoproteins studied. Compared with human gastric secretions studied by others, using similar methods, certain differences were found particularly in the relationship between some carbohydrate components and between amino acids.

  17. [Food protective property of new liquid food container PID (Pouch in Dispenser) for microbes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominari, Keita; Tanaka, Asato; Shinoda, Yuma; Futase, Katsunori; Nei, Daisuke; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    We examined the content protection characteristics of the PID (Pouch in Dispenser) when it was used in the usual manner and when it was polluted artificially. When the PID was used in the usual manner, the nozzle was opened, and experiments were carried out with and without air-blowing. The invasion of bacteria into the PID was not detected. Also, no bacteria were detected in the material poured from the nozzle of the PID. When 3 strains of bacteria suspensions were intentionally smeared on the nozzle of the PID, invasion of bacteria was observed. When the PID was wiped with a dirty cloth, no invasion of bacteria into the PID was detected. It may be necessary to label the PID with the instruction that the nozzle should not be touched. The effected of changes in the water activity and pH, and the preservatives used, may also need to be considered, depending on the contents in the PID.

  18. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of Blake's pouch cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vicente Brusius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blake's pouch cyst (BPC is a midline cystic malformation of the posterior fossa, within Dandy-Walker's complex (DWC, often associated with hydrocephalus. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV has been an alternative to conventional methods for BPC treatment. This study aimed at reporting our experience with ETV in a series of patients with BPC. METHODS: Of 33 patients diagnosed with midline posterior fossa cyst, 26 met the protocol criteria for DWC, and eight subjects with BPC were selected (aged one month to two years old. All cases were treated with ETV. RESULTS: Five patients were male; and three were prenatally diagnosed. They had hydrocephalus and motor deficiencies. Motor assessment at a five-year follow-up yielded normal findings. All patients improved, and only one had residual cognitive dysfunction, despite overall neurological improvement. There were no complications. CONCLUSIONS: ETV was a safe and effective procedure, reducing risks and morbidity associated with open surgery and shunt-related problems.

  19. The reproducibility of closed-pouch sweat collection and thermoregulatory responses to exercise-heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Gavin; Milne, Helen C; Patterson, Mark J; Nimmo, Myra A

    2004-05-01

    Seven active male subjects cycled for 60 min at 29.5 (0.8)% peak work rate on three separate occasions in a hot environmental condition [36.0 (0.1) degrees C, 60 (1)% relative humidity] in order to determine the reproducibility of a closed-pouch sweat collection technique for sweat composition at the scapula, forearm and thigh. To confirm that sweat composition was not influenced by between-trial variations in sudomotor drive, local sweat rate, whole-body sweat rate, heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (T(re)) and mean skin temperature (T(sk)) responses were also measured, consequently reproducibility was also established for these variables. Sweat composition did not differ among trials, with the mean coefficients of variation (CVs) for sweat [Na(+)], [K(+)] and pH being 10.4 (7.4)%, 8.1 (6.5)% and 1.3 (1.1)%, respectively. Local sweat rates did not differ among the three trials (P>0.05) although whole-body sweat rate was reduced in the third trial (Psweat rates, respectively. Between-trial differences were not evident for T(re), T(sk) or HR with mean CVs of 0.3 (0.2)%, 0.7 (0.6)% and 3.9 (1.7)%, respectively, although HR tended to be greater in the first trial ( P=0.08). It is proposed that moderate variations in sweat composition were influenced by variations in the local sweat rate, which were induced by application of the pouch.

  20. The left atrial septal pouch as a risk factor for stroke: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachinaru, Mihai; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose; Verbeet, Thierry; Gazagnes, Marie-Dominique

    2017-04-01

    The left atrial septal pouch (LASP) is formed by incomplete fusion of the septum primum and septum secundum, leaving a cavity open towards the left atrium, but without interatrial shunting. There is no recommendation concerning strategy in the presence of a LASP, especially in the setting of stroke. The aim of this review was to determine whether the LASP could be incriminated as the aetiology of a stroke. We included all pertinent publications on the subject, and calculated hazard ratios for ischaemic stroke and cryptogenic stroke. There were only five case-control studies concerning the LASP, involving 516 stroke patients and 779 controls. Overall LASP prevalence was 21%, with a slightly higher prevalence in the cryptogenic stroke group (26%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.27). In a random-effects meta-analysis, there was no difference between controls and patients with ischaemic stroke (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 0.96-1.53; P=0.14). Cryptogenic stroke appeared more frequently in patients with LASP (hazard ratio 1.53, 95% confidence interval 1.07-2.24; P=0.02), but this was driven by only one severely underpowered study. The published case reports demonstrated that thrombus formation inside the pouch can occur in the presence of major predisposing factors. The LASP can be a site for thrombus formation, leading to embolic events, but its presence does not correlate with an increased incidence of stroke. Associated factors should be taken into consideration in the setting of stroke. Further studies are necessary to validate a possible relationship with cryptogenic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. A characterization of anaerobic colonization and associated mucosal adaptations in the undiseased ileal pouch.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, F M

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: The resolution of pouchitis with metronidazole points to an anaerobic aetiology. Pouchitis is mainly seen in patients with ulcerative colitis pouches (UCP). We have recently found that sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), a species of strict anaerobe, colonize UCP exclusively. Herein, we aimed to correlate levels of different bacterial species (including SRB) with mucosal inflammation and morphology. METHODS: Following ethical approval, fresh faecal samples and mucosal biopsies were taken from 9 patients with UCP and 5 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis pouches (FAPP). For the purposes of comparison, faecal samples and mucosal biopsies were also taken from the stomas of 7 of the 9 patients with UC (UCS). Colonization by four types of strict anaerobes (SRB, Clostridium perfringens, Bifidobacteria and Bacteroides) as well as by three types of facultative anaerobes (Enterococci, Coliforms and Lactobacilli) was evaluated. Inflammatory scores and mucosal morphology were assessed histologically in a blinded fashion by a pathologist. RESULTS: In general, strict anaerobes predominated over facultative in the UCP (P = 0.041). SRB were present in UCP exclusively. Even after exclusion of SRB from total bacterial counts, strict anaerobes still predominated. In the UCS, facultative anaerobes predominated. Strict and facultative anaerobes were present at similar levels in the FAPP. Enterococci were present at significantly reduced levels in the UCP when compared with the UCS (P = 0.031). When levels of SRB and other anaerobic species were individually correlated with mucosal inflammation and morphology, no trends were observed. CONCLUSION: We have previously identified that SRB exclusively colonize UCP. In addition we have now identified a novel increase in the strict\\/facultative anaerobic ratio within the UCP compared to UCS. These stark differences in bacterial colonization, however, appear to have limited impact on mucosal inflammation or morphology.

  2. Thermoregulation in juvenile red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) after pouch exit: higher metabolism and evaporative water requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, A J; Dawson, T J

    2001-01-01

    The population dynamics of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) in the Australian arid zone is tightly linked with environmental factors, which partly operate via the survival of juvenile animals. A crucial stage is the young-at-foot (YAF) stage when kangaroos permanently exit the pouch. We have examined the thermal biology of YAF red kangaroos during ages from permanent pouch exit until weaning. Over a wide range of environmental temperatures (ambient temperature [T(a)] -5 degrees to 45 degrees C), YAF red kangaroos had a mass-specific metabolism that was generally twice that of adults, considerably higher than would be expected for an adult marsupial of their body size. The total energy requirements of YAF red kangaroos were 60%-70% of those of adult females, which were three times their size. Over the same range in T(a), YAF red kangaroos also had total evaporative water losses equal to those of adult females. At the highest T(a) (45 degrees C), differences were noted in patterns of dry heat loss (dry conductance) between YAF red kangaroos and adult females, which may partially explain the relatively high levels of evaporative cooling by YAF. By weaning age, young kangaroos showed little change in their basal energy and water requirements (at T(a) 25 degrees C) but did show reduced mass-specific costs in terms of energy and water use at extremes of T(a) (-5 degrees and 45 degrees C, respectively). In their arid environment, typified by unpredictable rainfall and extremes of T(a), young red kangaroos may need to remain close to water points, which, in turn, may restrict their ability to find the high-quality forage needed to meet their high energy demands.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following intravenous and buccal administration in cats, and effects on thermal threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, A R; Pypendop, B H; Shilo-Benjamini, Y; Stanley, S D; Ilkiw, J E

    2014-06-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine, following i.v. and buccal administration, and the relationship between buprenorphine concentration and its effect on thermal threshold. Buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) was administered intravenously or buccally to six cats. Thermal threshold was determined, and arterial blood sampled prior to, and at various times up to 24 h following drug administration. Plasma buprenorphine concentration was determined using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Compartment models were fitted to the time-concentration data. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models were fitted to the concentration-thermal threshold data. Thermal threshold was significantly higher than baseline 44 min after buccal administration, and 7, 24, and 104 min after i.v. administration. A two- and three-compartment model best fitted the data following buccal and i.v. administration, respectively. Following i.v. administration, mean ± SD volume of distribution at steady-state (L/kg), clearance (mL·min/kg), and terminal half-life (h) were 11.6 ± 8.5, 23.8 ± 3.5, and 9.8 ± 3.5. Following buccal administration, absorption half-life was 23.7 ± 9.1 min, and terminal half-life was 8.9 ± 4.9 h. An effect-compartment model with a simple effect maximum model best predicted the time-course of the effect of buprenorphine on thermal threshold. Median (range) ke0 and EC50 were 0.003 (0.002-0.018)/min and 0.599 (0.073-1.628) ng/mL (i.v.), and 0.017 (0.002-0.023)/min and 0.429 (0.144-0.556) ng/mL (buccal). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo examination of buccal absorption of metoprolol with varying pH in TR146 cell culture, porcine buccal mucosa and Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Meng-Lund, Emil; Andersen, Morten B.

    2013-01-01

    This work studied the buccal absorption of metoprolol in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo as a function of buffered pH at 7.4, 8.5, 9.0 and 9.5. Permeability studies showed a correlation (r(2)=0.92) between in vitro TR146 cell culture and ex vivo porcine buccal mucosa in a modified Ussing chamber...

  5. The cytological status of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Bazeliuk; B.M. Salimbaeva

    2006-11-15

    Sixty-four persons were examined. The examination was undertaken to study the cytomophological parameters of the cells of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners. Group 1 consisted of 18 donors without contact with industrial dust; Group 2 comprised 24 apparently healthy miners; Group 3 included 22 workers (drift miners) with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis, grade 1 respiratory failure. The patients with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis had noticeably worse morphofunctional characteristics of the epithelium that displayed extensive fields with pronounced structural changes, such as destruction and desquamation of the integumentary epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Nasal mucosal atrophic changes were observed in 50% of the examined miners. Examination of the buccal epithelium in apparently healthy miners (code 0) and in workers with Stage I anthracosilicosis revealed the increased proportion of microfloral (Streptococcus) contamination by 79% and 3.7 times, respectively.

  6. A buccal cell model comet assay: Development and evaluation for human biomonitoring and nutritional studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Y.T. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of Health Sciences, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao (China); Benzie, I.F.F. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: iris.benzie@inet.polyu.edu.hk; Collins, A.R. [Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Choi, S.W. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, C.Y. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yow, C.M.N. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tse, M.M.Y. [School of Nursing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-10-15

    The comet assay is a widely used biomonitoring tool for DNA damage. The most commonly used cells in human studies are lymphocytes. There is an urgent need to find an alternative target human cell that can be collected from normal subjects with minimal invasion. There are some reports of buccal cells, collected easily from the inside of the mouth, being used in studies of DNA damage and repair, and these were of interest. However, our preliminary studies following the published protocol showed that buccal cells sustained massive damage and disintegrated at the high pH [O. Ostling, K.J. Johanson. Microelectrophoretic study of radiation-induced DNA damages in individual mammalian cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123 (1984) 291-298] used, but that at lower pH were extremely resistant to lysis, an essential step in the comet assay. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a protocol than enabled buccal cell lysis and DNA damage testing in the comet assay, and to use the model to evaluate the potential use of the buccal cell model in human biomonitoring and nutritional study. Specifically, we aimed to investigate intra- and inter-individual differences in buccal cell DNA damage (as strand breaks), the effect of in vitro exposure to both a standard oxidant challenge and antioxidant treatment, as well as in situ exposure to an antioxidant-rich beverage and supplementation-related effects using a carotenoid-rich food. Successful lysis was achieved using 0.25% trypsin for 30 min followed by proteinase K (1 mg/ml) treatment for 60 min. When this procedure was performed on cells pre-embedded in agarose on a microscope slide, followed by electrophoresis (in 0.01 M NaOH, 1 mM EDTA, pH 9.1, 18 min at 12 V), a satisfactory comet image was obtained, though inter-individual variation was quite wide. Pre-lysis exposure of cells to a standard oxidant challenge (induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) increased DNA strand breaks in a dose related manner, and incubation of cells in

  7. Three-dimensional canine loop for management of buccally erupted canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Mehrotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canines are known as the cornerstones of mouth. They are considered to be important for esthetics and for functional occlusion. Any disturbance in the eruption process leading to an aberrant position will hamper esthetics as well as function. Orthodontic tooth movement of total buccally blocked-out canine is usually difficult as it is related with the problems of severe crowding, midline deviation, involvement of long root movement and risk of gingival recession. Such conditions can be treated orthodontically in various ways, but this clinical innovation helps to correct the buccally placed canines into the arch with a precise control of the canine in all the Three-dimensions (3D of space as well as providing maximum comfort to the patient by placing the canine loop on the palatal surface of the tooth, reducing soreness on the labial mucosa. It can be easily fabricated and activated at chairside for either simultaneous or sequential control in 3D.

  8. Rare carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal minor salivary gland causing a therapeutic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Kini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA, as a group, constitutes 12% of malignant salivary gland tumors. We present a case of CXPA of the buccal mucosa in a 17-year-old patient. The buccal mass was of a size of 3.0 cm located in the right cheek. Pleomorphic adenoma was the provisional diagnosis. The tumor was excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological evaluation revealed a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma. However, on magnification, certain areas showed islands of dysplastic epithelial cells′ invading the fibrous capsule and CXPA was diagnosed. The patient was recalled and secondary surgery of the site performed. No tumor tissue could be detected in the secondary resection specimen. There is no sign of recurrence since 2 years.

  9. A Foreign Body Granuloma of the Buccal Mucosa Induced by Honeybee Sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Yamamoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A foreign body granuloma of the buccal mucosa induced by honeybee sting was reported. The patient was an 82-year-old female who presented with a submucous mass at the right buccal mucosa. The mass was 20 mm in diameter, elastically firm, partly mobile without pain or tenderness, and covered with almost normal mucosa. MR image did not delineate the lesion clearly. Under clinical diagnosis of a benign tumor, the lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The excised lesion was 14×11×9 mm in size and solid and yellowish in cut surface. Histologically, the lesion consisted of granulomatous tissue with a few narrow, curved, eosinophilic structures compatible with decomposed fragments of a honeybee sting and was diagnosed as a foreign body granuloma, although the patient did not recall being stung.

  10. Buccal Epithelium, Cigarette Smoking, and Lung Cancer: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Raya; Halytskyy, Oleksandr; Saleem, Nasir; Oliff, Ira A

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among men and women in the United States, and optimal screening methods are still lacking. The field effect is a well-supported phenomenon wherein a noxious stimulus triggers genetic, epigenetic and molecular changes that are widespread throughout the entire exposed organ system. The buccal epithelium is an easily accessible part of the respiratory tree that has good potential of yielding a surrogate marker for the field effect in cigarette smokers, and thus, a noninvasive, reliable lung cancer screening method. Herein, we review the literature on the relationship between the buccal epithelium, cigarette smoking, and lung cancer. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H M; Rassing, M R; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium. For this purpose, the permeability of water, mannitol and testosterone across the TR146 cell culture model was compared to the permeability across human, monkey...... (logD(oct; 7.4)) and capacity factor (k') and to their polar water accessible surface area (PWASA). For water, mannitol, testosterone and some of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, the permeability enhancement across the TR146 cell culture model in the presence of sodium glycocholate (GC......) was determined. The mannitol and testosterone permeability across the TR146 cell culture model could be related to the permeability across porcine and human buccal mucosa. The permeability of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists across the TR146 cell culture model varied between 2.2 x 10(-6) cm/s (atenolol) and 165...

  12. A prospective, randomized, single-blind comparative evaluation of anesthetic efficacy of posterior superior alveolar nerve blocks, buccal infiltrations, and buccal plus palatal infiltrations in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Miglani, Sanjay; Ansari, Irfan; Kohli, Sarita

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the anesthetic efficacy of posterior superior alveolar (PSA) nerve blocks, buccal infiltrations, and buccal plus palatal infiltrations with 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine in maxillary first molars with irreversible pulpitis. Ninety-four adult patients participated in this prospective, randomized, single-blinded study. The patients were divided into 3 treatment groups on a random basis. Twenty-eight patients received a PSA nerve block, 33 patients received buccal infiltrations, and 33 patients received buccal plus palatal infiltrations with 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine. Endodontic access preparation was initiated 15 minutes after injection. Pain during treatment was recorded using a Heft-Parker visual analog scale. Success was recorded as "none" or "mild" pain. Statistical analysis using nonparametric chi-square tests revealed that there was no statistical difference between the anesthetic success of PSA nerve blocks (64%), buccal infiltrations (54%), and buccal plus palatal infiltrations (70%). None of the tested methods gave 100% anesthetic success rates in maxillary first molars with irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of tobacco as an etiological agent for oral cancer: Cytomorphometrical analysis of the buccal mucosa in tobacco users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results confirmed that tobacco chewing and smoking influenced the cytomorphology of normal appearing buccal mucosa and the degree of these changes were found to be greater in chewers as compared to smokers.

  14. An Unreported Cause of Buccal Mucosal Hematoma: A Rare Complication After Heparin Therapy in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yıldız

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving anti-coagulants such as heparin can suffer from significant complications of these medications. Herein, we report a buccal mucosal hematoma in a heparinized patient with chronic renal failure.

  15. Gene-expression profiling of buccal epithelium among non-smoking women exposed to household air pollution from smoky coal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Teresa W; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Hu, Wei; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Xiaohui; Alekseyev, Yuriy; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Steiling, Katrina; Downward, George S; Silverman, Debra T; Wei, Fusheng; Wu, Guoping; Li, Jihua; Lenburg, Marc E; Rothman, Nathaniel; Spira, Avrum; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    .... To understand the physiologic effects of smoky coal exposure, we analyzed the genome-wide gene-expression profiles in buccal epithelial cells collected from healthy, non-smoking female residents...

  16. Factors affecting the possibility to detect buccal bone condition around dental implants using cone beam computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedke, Gabriela S; Spin-Neto, Rubens; da Silveira, Heloisa E D

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors with impact on the conspicuity (possibility to detect) of the buccal bone condition around dental implants in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Titanium (Ti) or zirconia (Zr) implants and abutments were inserted into 40 bone blocks...... in a way to obtain variable buccal bone thicknesses. Three combinations regarding the implant-abutment metal (TiTi, TiZr, or ZrZr) and the number of implants (one, two, or three) were assessed. Two CBCT units (Scanora 3D - Sc and Cranex 3D - Cr) and two voxel resolutions (0.2 and 0.13 mm) were used....... Reconstructed sagittal images (2.0 and 5.0 mm thickness) were evaluated by three examiners, using a dichotomous scale when assessing the condition of the buccal bone around the implants. A multivariate logistic regression was performed using examiners' detection of the buccal bone condition as the dependent...

  17. The primary enamel knot determines the position of the first buccal cusp in developing mice molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Won; Lee, Hyun-A; Cai, Jinglei; Lee, Min-Jung; Kim, Jae-Young; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2007-06-01

    The enamel knot (EK), which is located in the center of bud and cap stage tooth germs, is a transitory cluster of non-dividing epithelial cells. The EK acts as a signaling center that provides positional information for tooth morphogenesis and regulates the growth of tooth cusps by inducing secondary EKs. The morphological, cellular, and molecular events leading to the relationship between the primary and secondary EKs have not been described clearly. This study investigated the relationship between the primary and secondary EKs in the maxillary and mandibular first molars of mice. The location of the primary EK and secondary EKs was investigated by chasing Fgf4 expression patterns in tooth germ at some intervals of in vitro culture, and the relationship between the primary EK and secondary EK was examined by tracing the primary EK cells in the E13.5 tooth germs which were frontally half sliced to expose the primary EK. After 48 hr, the primary EK cells in the sliced tooth germs were located on the buccal secondary EKs, which correspond to the future paracone in maxilla and protoconid in mandible. The Bmp4 expression in buccal part of the dental mesenchyme might be related with the lower growth in buccal epithelium than in lingual epithelium, and the Msx2 expressing area in epithelium was overlapped with the enamel cord (or septum) and cell dense area. The enamel cord might connect the primary EK with enamel navel to fix the location of the primary EK in the buccal side during the cap to bell stages. Overall, these results suggest that primary EK cells strictly contribute to form the paracone or protoconid, which are the main cusps of the tooth in the maxilla or mandible.

  18. Analysis of the Genotoxic Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation using Buccal Micronucleus Assay: A Comparative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sumita; Singh, Narendra Nath; Sreedhar, Gadiputi; Mukherjee, Saikat

    2016-03-01

    Micronucleus (MN) is considered to be a reliable marker for genotoxic damage and it determines the presence and the extent of the chromosomal damage. The MN is formed due to DNA damage or chromosomal disarrangements. The MN has a close association with cancer incidences. In the new era, mobile phones are constantly gaining popularity specifically in the young generation, but this device uses radiofrequency radiation that may have a possible carcinogenic effect. The available reports related to the carcinogenic effect of mobile radiation on oral mucosa are contradictory. To explore the effects of mobile phone radiation on the MN frequency in oral mucosal cells. The subjects were divided into two major groups: low mobile phone users and high mobile phone users. Subjects who used their mobile phone since less than five years and less than three hours a week comprised of the first group and those who used their mobile since more than five years and more than 10 hours a week comprised of the second group. Net surfing and text messaging was not considered in this study. Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were collected from both the groups and the cells were stained with DNA-specific stain acridine orange. Thousand exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were screened and the cells which were positive for micronuclei were counted. The micronucleus frequency was represented as mean±SD, and unpaired Student t-test was used for intergroup comparisons. The number of micronucleated cells/ 1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells was found to be significantly increased in high mobile phone users group than the low mobile phone users group. The use of mobile phone with the associated complaint of warmth around the ear showed a maximum increase in the number of micronucleated cells /1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells. Mobile phone radiation even in the permissible range when used for longer duration causes significant genotoxicity. The genotoxicity can be avoided to some extent by the

  19. Buccal mucosal graft onlay repair for a ureteric ischemic injury following a pyeloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Agrawal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old female presented with long stricture in the left upper ureter following a pyeloplasty causing persistent flank pain. A left PCNL with an antegrade endopyelotomy was attempted in view of a concomitant left renal 1.5 cm calculus in the lower calyx but it failed. Subsequently, a buccal mucosal onlay graft was applied on the strictured ureter. Follow-up at 3 months showed good uptake of the graft with patent passage for urine drainage.

  20. Lateral Oropharyngeal Wall Coverage with Buccinator Myomucosal and Buccal Fat Pad Flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bok Ki Jung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReconstruction of oropharyngeal defects after resection of oropharyngeal cancer is a significant challenge. The purpose of this study is to introduce reconstruction using a combination of a buccinator myomucosal flap and a buccal fat pad flap after cancer excision and to discuss the associated anatomy, surgical procedure, and clinical applications.MethodsIn our study, a combination of a buccinator myomucosal flap with a buccal fat pad flap was utilized for reconstruction after resection of oropharyngeal cancer, performed between 2013 and 2015. After oropharyngectomy, the defect with exposed vital structures was noted. A buccinator myomucosal flap was designed and elevated after an assessment of the flap pedicle. Without requiring an additional procedure, a buccal fat pad flap was easily harvested in the same field and gently pulled to obtain sufficient volume. The flaps were rotated and covered the defect. In addition, using cadaver dissections, we investigated the feasibility of transposing the flaps into the lateral oropharyngeal defect.ResultsThe reconstruction was performed in patients with squamous cell carcinoma. The largest tumor size was 5 cm×2 cm (length×width. All donor sites were closed primarily. The flaps were completely epithelialized after four weeks, and the patients were followed up for at least six months. There were no flap failures or postoperative wound complications. All patients were without dietary restrictions, and no patient had problems related to mouth opening, swallowing, or speech.ConclusionsA buccinator myomucosal flap with a buccal fat pad flap is a reliable and valuable option in the reconstruction of oropharyngeal defects after cancer resection for maintaining functionality.

  1. Drug delivery from the oral cavity: a focus on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkar, Dattatraya Manohar; Dhake, Avinash Sridhar; Setty, Chitral Mallikarjuna

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1980s the concept of mucoadhesion has gained considerable interest in pharmaceutical technology. The various advantages associated with these systems made buccal drug delivery as a novel route of drug administration. It prolongs the residence time of the dosage form at the site of application. These systems remain in close contact with the absorption tissue, the mucous membrane, and thus contribute to improved and/or better therapeutic performance of the drug and of both local and systemic effects. This review highlights the anatomy and structure of oral mucosa, mechanism and theories of mucoadhesion, factors affecting mucoadhesion, characteristics and properties of desired mucoadhesive polymers, various types of dosage forms, and general considerations in design of mucoadhesive buccal dosage forms, permeation enhancers, and evaluation methods. Over the past few decades the mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery system has received a great deal of attention to develop mucoadhesive dosage forms to enable the prolonged retention at the site of action, providing a controlled release of drug for improved therapeutic outcome. Mucoadhesive drug delivery gives facility to include a permeation enhancer/enzyme inhibitor or pHmodifier in the formulation and versatility in designing as multidirectional or unidirectional release systems for local and systemic action. Local delivery to tissues of the oral cavity has a number of applications, including treatment of local conditions such as periodontal disease, bacterial and fungal infections, and aphthous stomatitis and vesiculo bullous diseases. For the treatment of chronic diseases, the mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery system allows easily accessibility and is generally well-accepted for administeringdrugs by systemic action.

  2. Direct PCR amplification of the HVSI region in mitochondrial DNA from buccal cell swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Grujičić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been widely used in population genetics, human evolutionary and molecular anthropology studies. mtDNA hypervariable segments I and II (HVSI and HVSII were shown to be a suitable tool in genetic analyses due to the unique properties of mtDNA, such as the lack of recombination, maternal mode of inheritance, rapid evolutionary rate and high population-specific polymorphisms. Here we present a rapid and low-cost method for direct PCR amplification of a 330 bp fragment of HVSI from buccal cell samples. Avoiding the DNA isolation step makes this method appropriate for the analysis of a large number of samples in a short period of time. Since the transportation of samples and fieldwork conditions can affect the quality of samples and subsequent DNA analysis, we tested the effects of long-term storage of buccal cell swabs on the suitability of such samples for direct PCR amplification. We efficiently amplified a 330 bp fragment of HVSI even after the long-term storage of buccal cells at room temperature, +4°C or at -20°C, for up to eight months. All examined PCR products were successfully sequenced, regardless of sample storage time and conditions. Our results suggest that the direct PCR amplification of the HVSI region from buccal cells is a method well suited for large-scale mtDNA population studies.[Acknowledgments. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (Grant no. III 47025.

  3. Alternative of pedicle buccal fat pad for reconstruction defect in cleft palate patient

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Hidayat; Muhammad Ruslin

    2016-01-01

    Various surgical techniques have been employed for closure of the defect in the oral cavity. The type and size of defects in the oral cavity determine the techniques to use. Pedicle Buccal Fat Pad (BFP) is one alternative tissue graft for defect reconstruction in oral cavity. The objective of this paper is to determine an alternative defect reconstruction in cleft palate using pedicle BFP. In conclusion, the use of BFP for the defect reconstruction in cleft palate patients shows satisfactory ...

  4. Aloin delivery on buccal mucosa: ex vivo studies and design of a new locoregional dosing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Viviana; Scaturro, Anna Lisa; Di Prima, Giulia; Avellone, Giuseppe; Sutera, Flavia Maria; Di Fede, Olga; Campisi, Giuseppina; Giannola, Libero Italo

    2015-01-01

    Chemoprevention of potential malignant disorders or cancerous lesions that affect oral mucosae requires extended duration of treatment. Locoregional delivery of natural products could represent a promising strategy for this purpose. To investigate the aptitude of aloin to permeate through, or accumulate in, the buccal mucosa and to develop a new prolonged oro-mucosal drug delivery system. Permeation/accumulation of aloin from Curacao Aloe (containing 50% barbaloin) was evaluated ex vivo, using porcine buccal mucosa as the most useful model to simulate human epithelium. Oro-mucosal matrix tablets were prepared by dispersing aloin (10% w/w) in Eudragit® RS 100 as, biocompatible, low permeable, pH-independent, and non-swelling polymer. The prepared tablets were evaluated for drug-polymer compatibility, weight variation, drug uniformity content, diameter, thickness, hardness, friability, swelling, mucoadhesive strength, and drug release. Aloin has low tendency to cross buccal mucosa, permeation is marginal, and high drug amounts remain entrapped into the epithelium. Matrix tablets characteristics were in agreement with pharmacopoeial requirements. Drug release showed highly reproducible Higuchian profile. Delivery through matrix tablets promoted drug accumulation in the mucosal tissue. Following application of matrix tablets on porcine buccal mucosa, the amount of discharged drug recovered in the tissue should be sufficient to produce the desired effects, providing therapeutic drug levels directly at the site of action. Aloin-loaded tablets are valid candidates for prevention/treatment of potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer and could potentially lead to clinically relevant drug delivery system as coadjuvant of conventional chemotherapy/radiation therapy.

  5. Le lymphangiome kystique du plancher buccal étendu a la région ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous rapportons le cas clinique d'un lymphangiome kystique du plancher buccal ayant survenu chez un adulte de 28 ans et qui s'est étendu progressivement vers la région sous mandibulaire gauche .la tumeur suspecté cliniquement a été bien exploré à la tomodensitométrie. Le traitement a consisté en une exérèse ...

  6. Kyste Dermoïde Du Plancher Buccal | Ghorbel | Journal Tunisien d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le kyste dermoïde du plancher buccal est une entité rare. Il touche essentiellement le sujet jeune. Nous rapportons l\\'observation d\\'un nourrisson âgé de 9 mois qui a été amené par ses parents pour fistule sous mentale sans aucune gêne fonctionnelle associée. L\\'examen clinique a révélé une voussure du plancher ...

  7. COMPARISON OF MICRONUCLEATED CELL IN BUCCAL SMEARS AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Dayanand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The health complexities caused due to tobacco smoking has not been restricted to any geographic region and has spread worldwide. As the oral mucosal cells, which line the oral cavity are the first barrier, they represent the preferred target site for the early genotoxic events. Tobacco use is one of the most important aetiological factors in initiation of oral cancer as it increases the risk of cancer by exposing the buccal mucosal to the carcinogenic chemicals either through inhalation or by ingestion. Micronuclei are round to oval cytoplasmic chromatin mass, which occurs as a result of segregation defects due to chromosomal instability causing chromatin to be excluded from the reformed nucleus. Micronuclei assay in exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and less invasive method for monitoring genetic damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 male subjects (50 smokers, 50 non-smokers were examined. Buccal smears were wet fixed and stained with pap stain. 100 cells per slide were counted and assessed for micronuclei count. T-test and Pearson correlation was used as a statistical tool for analysis. RESULTS Significantly, smokers had higher percentage of micronucleated cells (T-5.865; P (0.000, total number of micronuclei (T- 6.713; P (0.000 and mean micronuclei count (T-5.865; P (0.000 than non-smokers. Pack years correlated significantly and positively with mean micronuclei count. However, pack year did not have significant relation with percentage of micronucleated cells and total number of micronuclei. CONCLUSION The genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke cause chromosomal damage in the epithelial cells of buccal mucosa and are reflected in the increased micronuclei in smokers. Micronuclei assay can be used as a simple and reliable marker for genotoxic evaluation.

  8. The nerve supply of zygomaticus major: Variability and distinguishing zygomatic from buccal facial nerve branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrer, A; Engelmann, S; Bauer, R; Taeger, C; Grechenig, S; Kehrer, M; Prantl, L; Tamm, E R; Bleys, R L A W; Mandlik, V

    2018-01-11

    The zygomaticus major (ZM) is important for the human smile. There are conflicting data about whether the zygomatic or buccal branches of the facial nerve are responsible for its motor innervation. The literature provides no precise distinction of the transition zone between these two branch systems. In this study, a definition to distinguish the facial nerve branches at the level of the body of the zygoma is proposed. In the light of this definition, we conducted an anatomical study to determine how the source of innervation of the ZM was distributed. A total of 96 fresh-frozen cadaveric facial halves were dissected under loupe magnification. A hemiparotidectomy was followed by antegrade microsurgical dissection. Any branch topographically lying superficial to the zygoma or touching it was classed as zygomatic, and any neighboring inferior branch was considered buccal. The arborization of the facial nerve was diffuse in all cases. In 64 out of 96 specimens (67%, 95% CI: 56% to 76%), zygomatic branches innervated the ZM. Buccal branches innervated ZM in the other 32 facial halves (33%, 95% CI: 24% to 44%). There were no differences in respect of sex or facial side. All facial halves displayed additional branches, which crossed the muscle on its inner surface without supplying it. In 31 specimens, a nerve branch ran superficial to ZM in its cranial third. According to our classification, the zygomaticus major is innervated by zygomatic branches in 67% of cases and by buccal branches in 33%. Clin. Anat. 00:000-000, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Pathogenesis and biomarkers of carcinogenesis in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Gudjonsson, Thorkell; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2011-01-01

    -driven mechanisms of DNA damage, including the generation and effects of reactive oxygen species, microsatellite instability, telomere shortening and chromosomal instability, are reviewed, as are the molecular responses to genomic stress. We also discuss how these mechanisms can be translated into usable biomarkers....... Although progress has been made in the understanding of inflammation-driven carcinogenesis, markers based on these findings possess insufficient sensitivity or specificity to be usable as reliable biomarkers for risk of colorectal cancer development in patients with ulcerative colitis. However, screening...

  10. Telomerase abrogation dramatically accelerates TRF2-induced epithelial carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Raquel; Muñoz, Purificación; Flores, Juana M.; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A.

    2007-01-01

    TRF2 is a telomere-binding protein with roles in telomere protection and telomere-length regulation. The fact that TRF2 is up-regulated in some human tumors suggests a role of TRF2 in cancer. Mice that overexpress TRF2 in the skin, K5TRF2 mice, show critically short telomeres and are susceptible to UV-induced carcinogenesis as a result of deregulated XPF/ERCC1 activity, a nuclease involved in UV damage repair. Here we demonstrate that, when in combination with telomerase deficiency, TRF2 acts...

  11. Bacterial infection increases risk of carcinogenesis by targeting mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A.B.; Desler, Claus; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2017-01-01

    pathways, and compares the impact of the bacterial alteration of mitochondrial function to that of cancer. Bacterial virulence factors have been demonstrated to induce mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and to modulate DNA repair pathways of the mitochondria. Furthermore, virulence factors can induce...... or impair the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The effect of bacterial targeting of mitochondria is analogous to behavior of mitochondria in a wide array of tumours, and this strongly suggests that mitochondrial targeting of bacteria is a risk factor for carcinogenesis....

  12. Super-resolution structure of DNA significantly differs in buccal cells of controls and Alzheimer's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Angeles; Huang, David; Righolt, Amanda; Righolt, Christiaan; Kalaw, Maria Carmela; Mathur, Shubha; McAvoy, Elizabeth; Anderson, James; Luedke, Angela; Itorralba, Justine; Mai, Sabine

    2017-09-01

    The advent of super-resolution microscopy allowed for new insights into cellular and physiological processes of normal and diseased cells. In this study, we report for the first time on the super-resolved DNA structure of buccal cells from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus age- and gender-matched healthy, non-caregiver controls. In this super-resolution study cohort of 74 participants, buccal cells were collected and their spatial DNA organization in the nucleus examined by 3D Structured Illumination Microscopy (3D-SIM). Quantitation of the super-resolution DNA structure revealed that the nuclear super-resolution DNA structure of individuals with AD significantly differs from that of their controls (p structure of AD significantly differs in mild, moderate, and severe disease with respect to the DNA-containing and DNA-free/poor spaces. We conclude that whole genome remodeling is a feature of buccal cells in AD. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Comparison of the zygoma anchorage system with cervical headgear in buccal segment distalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Burçak; Arman, Ayça; Uçkan, Sina; Yazici, Ayşe Canan

    2009-08-01

    This prospective study aimed to evaluate the effects of the zygoma anchorage system (ZAS) in buccal segment distalization in comparison with cervical headgear (CH). Thirty patients with Class II dental malocclusions were included in the study and were divided into two equal groups: the first group (10 females and 5 males, mean age 14.74 years at T1) received buccal segment distalization with ZAS and the second group (8 females and 7 males, mean age 15.26 years at T1) with CH. The skeletal, dental, and soft tissue changes were measured on cephalograms obtained before (T1) and after (T2) distalization, and these changes were statistically evaluated using a repeated measures analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Wilcoxon test. The Class II buccal segment relationship was corrected to a Class I in an average period of 9.03 +/- 0.62 months in the ZAS group and 9.00 +/- 0.76 months in the CH group. Significant distalization was observed for the posterior teeth in both groups (P Class II malocclusions.

  14. Development of mucoadhesive buccal films from rice for pharmaceutical delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonogi, Siriporn; Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat; Jaturasitha, Sanchai

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the suitable rice varieties for developing pharmaceutical buccal films. Two rice varieties with extreme difference in amylose content were used. Rice powders were chemically modified to yield the carboxymethyl rice prior to film preparation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to investigate the solid structure of rice powders. The results indicated that amylose content in the rice grains played the effects on the morphology and crystalline structure of the modified rice powders as well as the film properties. The modified rice powders of low amylose content showed halo pattern XRD whereas some crystalline peaks could be observed from the high amylose content modified rice powders. Adding of glycerin caused the films better properties of more transparency and getting rid of air bubbles. High amylose rice films showed more transparency and higher mucoadhesive property and was considered to be suitable for incorporating the drug. Adding of surfactant caused the increase in tensile strength and decrease in elongation of the rice films. The most suitable surfactant for diclofenac buccal rice film is Tween 20. This study demonstrates that rice grains are the promising natural source for pharmaceutical film forming agent. Suitable pharmaceutical buccal films could be developed from the rice with high amylose content.

  15. Design and evaluation of buccal-adhesive system made of modified xanthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffleur, Flavia; Michalek, Martina; Suchaoin, Wongsakorn; Ijaz, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Introducing the concept of mucoadhesion in the 1980s, application of mucoadhesive polymers for buccal drug delivery has been the subject of pharmaceutical interest. The purpose of this study was to modify well-known xanthan in order to remarkably boost its suitability for buccal adhesiveness. Xanthan (X) was chemically modified by covalent binding of L-cysteine (SH) exhibiting sulfhydryl groups on the polymeric backbone via amide bond formation. Cytotoxicity, stability properties and mucoadhesiveness, respectively, of sulfhydryl-modified xanthan (H-SH) was investigated compared with unmodified xanthan (X). According to cell viability studies X-SH was safe to use. X-SH revealed 1.61-fold higher stability in comparison to unmodified xanthan. Thereafter, mucoadhesion of X-SH augmented 8.35-fold in case of rotating cylinder assay. Tensile study showed 2.65-fold higher total work of adhesion when comparing X-SH with X. In completion, novel sulfhydryl-modified xanthan proved itself being a useful and promising excipient for buccal-adhesive delivery systems.

  16. Nasal and Buccal Treatment of Midazolam in Epileptic Seizures in Pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Ülgey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute seizure and status epilepticus constitute major medical emergencies in children. Four to six percent of children will have at least one seizure in the first 16 years of life. Status epilepticus is a common neurological emergency in childhood and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The early application of antiepileptic treatment is very important. Because early treatment prevents the status epilepticus formation and shortens the duration of seizure activity. For this reason administration of anticonvulsant therapy in the prehospital setting is very important. Seizures generally begin outside the hospital, and thus parents and caregivers need simple, safe and effective treatment options to ensure early intervention. The only special preparation used for this purpose is rectal diazepam but has some disadvantages. Midazolam is a safe, short-acting benzodiazepin. It is suitable to use oral, buccal, nasal, im and iv routes. This provides a wide area for clinical applications. Recently there are many clinical studies about the usage of nasal and buccal midazolam for treatment of pediatric epileptic seizures. The nasal and buccal applications in pediatric seizures are very practical and effective. Parents and caregivers can apply easily outside the hospital.

  17. Manufacture and characterization of chitosan/PLGA nanoparticles nanocomposite buccal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Talitha Caldas Dos; Rescignano, Nicoletta; Boff, Laurita; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira; de Campos, Angela Machado; Mijangos, Carmen Ugarte

    2017-10-01

    Oral bioavailability of C-glycosyl flavonoid enriched fraction of Cecropia glaziovii (EFF-Cg) is limited due to its chemical complexity. The purpose of this study is the prospective evaluation of chitosan buccal films impregnated with EFF-Cg-loaded nanospheres as a drug delivery system for labial herpes treatment or for buccal administration. EFF-Cg-loaded PLGA nanospheres were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Nanoparticles were embedded into buccoadhesive chitosan films in different concentrations in order to obtain nanocomposite films. Films were characterized in term of morphology, mechanical properties and water absorption test. Furthermore a cytotoxicity assay was analyzed to evaluate the biocompatibility of systems. The results obtained from these analyses revealed that nanocomposite films present transparent appearance in all composition and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images show a continuous and compact section structure. Compared to the control film, mechanical responses of nanocomposites presented lower tensile strength values and no significant effect on the elongation at break. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) tests indicated that increasing of NP concentration caused decreased stiffness and an increased of glass transition temperature values. Direct cytotoxicity test shows that nanoparticles and chitosan films not induce cytotoxic effect. Given the promising results, the study concludes that the developed buccal film impregnated with EFF-Cg-loaded nanospheres could be a promising approach for effective delivery of EFF-Cg. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Cytomorphometric Characteristics of Buccal Mucosal Cells in Behçet's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktunc, Erol; Oz, Zehra Safi; Bektas, Sibel; Altinyazar, Cevdet; Koca, Rafet; Bostan, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cytomorphometric characteristics of the buccal cells of Behçet's disease patients with those of healthy controls. This case-control study compared a group of 30 patients with Behçet's disease with an age- and gender-matched control group of 30 healthy individuals. The buccal mucosal smears were stained using the Papanicolaou technique for cytomorphometric analyses. The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas were evaluated using digital image analysis; the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic areas and nuclear roundness are presented. The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas of the BD patients' cells were significantly smaller than those of the healthy controls' cells, while the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and neutrophil infiltration rate did not differ significantly between the groups. However, the nuclear area, cytoplasmic area, nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, and nuclear roundness factor were significantly higher in patients without aphthae. The neutrophil infiltration rate did not differ significantly in patients with or without aphthae. Behçet's disease can produce cytomorphometric changes in buccal cells that are detectable by exfoliative cytology and cytomorphometric analysis techniques.

  19. Cytomorphometric Characteristics of Buccal Mucosal Cells in Behçet’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Aktunc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to compare the cytomorphometric characteristics of the buccal cells of Behçet’s disease patients with those of healthy controls. Methods. This case-control study compared a group of 30 patients with Behçet’s disease with an age- and gender-matched control group of 30 healthy individuals. The buccal mucosal smears were stained using the Papanicolaou technique for cytomorphometric analyses. The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas were evaluated using digital image analysis; the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic areas and nuclear roundness are presented. Results. The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas of the BD patients’ cells were significantly smaller than those of the healthy controls’ cells, while the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and neutrophil infiltration rate did not differ significantly between the groups. However, the nuclear area, cytoplasmic area, nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, and nuclear roundness factor were significantly higher in patients without aphthae. The neutrophil infiltration rate did not differ significantly in patients with or without aphthae. Conclusion. Behçet’s disease can produce cytomorphometric changes in buccal cells that are detectable by exfoliative cytology and cytomorphometric analysis techniques.

  20. Buccal Micronuclei Assay as a Tool For Biomonitoring DNA Damage in Oral Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyalakshmi, S; Nirmal, R Madhavan; Veeravarmal, V; Santhadevy, A; Aravindhan, R; Sumathy

    2016-07-01

    The malignant transformation rate of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is between 0% and 5.8%. Oral lesions of lichen planus clinically presents itself multifocally, simulating the process of field cancerization in high risk malignancies. The Buccal MicroNucleus Cytome Assay (BMN Assay) provides a platform to identify the high risk individuals by evaluating the markers of nuclear damage at an earliest micro invasive phase. To evaluate DNA damage in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells in individuals with oral lichen planus lesions and thereby to delineate the high risk group. Buccal smears from 22 OLP and 10 control samples were stained in modified Feulgen-Rossenback reaction for micronuclei assay. Cytological evaluation of number of MicroNucleated cells (CMN), Total Number of Micronuclei (TMN) in micronucleated cells was done in both groups. Frequency of micronucleated cells (CMN) when compared among the study and control group, a mean value of 4.27 ± 1.80 and 0.90 ± 0.88 were obtained respectively. On comparing the total number of micronuclei in the micronucleated cells (TMN) between the study and control groups, a mean value of 5.38 ± 2.42 and 1.5 ± 0.88 were obtained respectively. There was a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei and the micronucleated cells in the oral lichen planus as compared to normal individuals.

  1. Noninvasive buccal swab antigen sample and molecular testing provides extended antigen typing for patients with hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersad, Angeli; Hampton, Kisha; Duncan, Natalie; Roberson, Chris; Slayten, Jayanna; Davisson, Suzanne; Aronowitz, Jessica; Shapiro, Amy

    2014-11-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of performing a noninvasive, molecular-based red blood cell (RBC) antigen test on infants and very young children with sickle cell disease as part of a statewide newborn screening follow-up program. A prospective pilot project was conducted using a noninvasive buccal swab and test kit to perform DNA-based, extended RBC phenotyping in 92 children participating in a newborn hemoglobinopathy screening follow-up program. Reported data include the extended panel of antigens detected by molecular analysis compared with unaffected population estimates. Molecular-based RBC antigen testing was successful, with extended RBC typing generated for all subjects. Molecular testing detected several rare negative or rare positive phenotypes, demonstrating the utility of obtaining an extended antigen panel. This study demonstrates the feasibility of performing antigen testing on buccal swab specimens from children with sickle cell disease as part of a newborn screening follow-up program with the aim of allowing specific unit matching to prevent alloimmunization with RBC transfusions. The general applicability of testing may be limited by a lack of uniform insurance coverage for buccal swab testing, however. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Buccal mucosa carcinoma: surgical margin less than 3 mm, not 5 mm, predicts locoregional recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou Wen-Yen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most treatment failure of buccal mucosal cancer post surgery is locoregional recurrence. We tried to figure out how close the surgical margin being unsafe and needed further adjuvant treatment. Methods Between August 2000 and June 2008, a total of 110 patients with buccal mucosa carcinoma (25 with stage I, 31 with stage II, 11 with stage III, and 43 with Stage IV classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer 6th edition were treated with surgery alone (n = 32, surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy (n = 38 or surgery plus adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (n = 40. Main outcome measures: The primary endpoint was locoregional disease control. Results The median follow-up time at analysis was 25 months (range, 4-104 months. The 3-year locoregional control rates were significantly different when a 3-mm surgical margin (≤3 versus >3 mm, 71% versus 95%, p = 0.04 but not a 5-mm margin (75% versus 92%, p = 0.22 was used as the cut-off level. We also found a quantitative correlation between surgical margin and locoregional failure (hazard ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.14 - 4.11; p = 0.019. Multivariate analysis identified pN classification and surgical margin as independent factors affecting disease-free survival and locoregional control. Conclusions Narrow surgical margin ≤3 mm, but not 5 mm, is associated with high risk for locoregional recurrence of buccal mucosa carcinoma. More aggressive treatment after surgery is suggested.

  3. Lamprey buccal gland secretory protein-2 (BGSP-2 inhibits human T lymphocyte proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing SUN, Shuiyan YU, Zhuang XUE, Cenjie LIU, Yu WU, Xin LIU, Qingwei LI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lamprey is a representative of the agnathans, the most ancient class of vertebrates. Parasitic lampreys secrete anticoagulant from their buccal glands and prevent blood coagulation of host fishes. We identified a buccal gland secretory protein-2 (BGSP-2 from a buccal gland cDNA library of Lampetra japonica. The full-length BGSP-2 gene was cloned and the recombinant BGSP-2 protein was generated. The role of BGSP-2 on lymphocyte proliferation was studied by examining its effects on human T lymphocytes. We found that lamprey BGSP-2 was able to effectively block the proliferation of T cells in vitro by inducing G1/S cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, it inhibited the proliferation of human T lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA at a minimum concentration of 0.1μg/ml. Our data suggest that lamprey BGSP-2 is able to block the mitosis of human T lymphocytes at the G1/S point, and has the potential of anti-proliferative effect on PHA-activated T lymphocytes [Current Zoology 56 (2: 252–258, 2010].

  4. Early postoperative healing following buccal single flap approach to access intraosseous periodontal defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Roberto; Simonelli, Anna; Rizzi, Alessandro; Pramstraller, Mattia; Cucchi, Alessandro; Trombelli, Leonardo

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the early postoperative healing of papillary incision wounds and its association with (1) patient/site-related factors and technical (surgical) aspects as well as with (2) 6-month clinical outcomes following buccal single flap approach (SFA) in the treatment of intraosseous periodontal defects. Forty-three intraosseous defects in 35 patients were accessed with a buccal SFA alone or in combination with a reconstructive technology (graft, enamel matrix derivative (EMD), graft + EMD, or graft + membrane). Postoperative healing was evaluated at 2 weeks using the Early Wound-Healing Index (EHI). EHI ranged from score 1 (i.e., complete flap closure and optimal healing) to score 4 (i.e., loss of primary closure and partial tissue necrosis). SFA resulted in a complete wound closure at 2 weeks in the great majority of sites. A significantly more frequent presence of interdental contact point and interdental soft tissue crater, and narrower base of the interdental papilla were observed at sites with either EHI > 1 or EHI = 4 compared to sites with EHI = 1. No association between EHI and the 6-month clinical outcomes was observed. At 2 weeks, buccal SFA may result in highly predictable complete flap closure. Site-specific characteristics may influence the early postoperative healing of the papillary incision following SFA procedure. Two-week soft tissue healing, however, was not associated with the 6-month clinical outcomes.

  5. Nasal and Buccal Treatment of Midazolam in Epileptic Seizures in Pediatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülgey, Ayşe; Aksu, Recep; Bicer, Cihangir

    2012-01-01

    Acute seizure and status epilepticus constitute major medical emergencies in children. Four to six percent of children will have at least one seizure in the first 16 years of life. Status epilepticus is a common neurological emergency in childhood and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The early application of antiepileptic treatment is very important. Because early treatment prevents the status epilepticus formation and shortens the duration of seizure activity. For this reason administration of anticonvulsant therapy in the prehospital setting is very important. Seizures generally begin outside the hospital, and thus parents and caregivers need simple, safe and effective treatment options to ensure early intervention. The only special preparation used for this purpose is rectal diazepam but has some disadvantages. Midazolam is a safe, short-acting benzodiazepin. It is suitable to use oral, buccal, nasal, im and iv routes. This provides a wide area for clinical applications. Recently there are many clinical studies about the usage of nasal and buccal midazolam for treatment of pediatric epileptic seizures. The nasal and buccal applications in pediatric seizures are very practical and effective. Parents and caregivers can apply easily outside the hospital. PMID:23641166

  6. The Use of Buccal Fat Pad in the Treatment of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Newer Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. This study was to evaluate the use of buccal fat pad as an interpositioning material in surgical management of oral sub mucous fibrosis. Materials and methods. A series of 8 cases with proven oral sub mucous fibrosis, with mouth opening less than 20 mm, involving the buccal mucosa were treated surgically in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University, Chennai. Pedicled buccal fat pad was used as an interpositioning material to cover the raw areas in the oral cavity after incision and release of fibrous bands. Results. In 8 patients, the range of pre operative mouth opening was 3–18 mm (mean 14 mm. As the result of the successful surgical procedure, the size of the intra operative mouth opening was ranged from 25–38 mm (mean 33.25 mm. The patients were discharged 5–7 days after the operation. The range of the mouth opening at this time was 25–36 mm (mean 30.63 mm. The results were evaluated using student’s t test and found to be statistically significant. The pedicled grafts took up uneventfull.

  7. Chromosomal Damage and Apoptosis in Exfoliated Buccal Cells from Individuals with Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavínia Tércia Magalhães Dórea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate cytological abnormalities indicative of chromosome damage (micronuclei and apoptosis (karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and condensed chromatin in exfoliated cells from the buccal mucosa of patients with oral cancer and control subjects. The sample included twenty individuals with oral cancer and forty individuals with normal buccal mucosa. Material was collected from the cheek epithelium in areas with lesions and areas without abnormalities. A minimum of one thousand cells was analyzed. Micronuclei were found significantly more frequently in cells collected from lesions than in cells from normal areas, independent of the presence/absence of cancer (P<0.0001. They were also significantly more frequent in smokers and in mouthwash users (P<0.0001. Apoptosis occurred significantly less frequently in individuals with oral cancer (P<0.0001. These results show that oral cancer is associated with higher frequency of chromosomal damage and suggest that apoptosis is compromised in the buccal cells of individuals with this kind of neoplasia.

  8. Micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal cells from hairdresser who expose to hair products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Hui Yee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hairdresser is one of the fastest growing occupations in today’s society. Hairdresser help styling, cutting, colouring, perming, curling, straightening hair and various treatment to customer. Somehow, hairdresser are constantly exposed to chemical substances such as aromatic amines, hydrogen peroxide, thioglycolic acid, formaldehyde in hair products which can cause damage to human’s genome. Micronucleus is one of the effective biomarker for processes associated with the induction of DNA damage. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the micronucleus frequencies in buccal mucosa epithelial cells of hairdresser who were exposed to chemical of hair products. Method: This study was conducted on twenty female subjects, who were divided into 2 groups: exposed and non-exposed (control group. All subjects recruited were working in the same beauty salon. Buccal cells were obtained from each individual by using cytobrush. The cells were stained with modified Feulgen-Ronssenback method and counting of micronucleus per 1000 cell was done under light microscope. The data were analyzed using independent t-test and one-way Anova (p<0.05. Result: The result showed a significant difference in micronucleus frequency between 2 groups. There were a significantly increase of micronucleus frequency in hairdressers and increase of  micronucleus frequency with the longer duration of exposure. Conclusion: It concluded that the chemical substances of hair products had affected the micronucleus frequency ofthe epithelial cells in buccal mucosa of hairdressers.

  9. Prediction of outcome in buccal cancers treated with radical radiotherapy based on the early tumor response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Giri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: Aim was to assess the clinical significance of the rate of tumor regression in carcinoma buccal mucosa undergoing radical radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty six patients were enrolled in the study with proven buccal cancers requiring radical radiotherapy, from 1990 to 1996. Radiotherapy was delivered using a combination of external beam and brachytherapy with preloaded cesium 137 needles. The response to the radiation was assessed at the completion of external beam radiation and 6 weeks after brachytherapy. An analysis correlating various parameters influencing the long term disease free survival and overall survival was done. Results: Response assessed at the end of external beam radiation correlated strongly with the overall survival and the disease free interval (P=0.000. No other factor influenced the survival. Conclusion: The rate of the tumor regression can predict the overall outcome in patients with buccal cancers treated with radiation. Completion of the planned course of radiation in patients who do not show a substantial reduction in size by 4.5 weeks of conventional radiation does not improve the results.

  10. Variations in the buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness of impacted mandibular third molar: our classification and treatment perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jing; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Yang, Chi; Qian, Wen-Tao

    2016-01-13

    Selecting either buccal or lingual approach for the mandibular third molar surgical extraction has been an intense debate for years. The aim of this observational retrospective study was to classify the molar based on the proximity to the external cortical bone, and analyze the position of inferior alveolar canal (IAC) of each type. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) data of 110 deeply impacted mandibular third molars from 91 consecutive patients were analyzed. A new classification based on the mean deduction value (MD) of buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness was proposed: MD≥1 mm was classified as buccal position, 1 mm>MD>-1 mm was classified as central position, MD≤-1 mm was classified as lingual position. The study samples were distributed as: buccal position (1.8%) in 2 subjects, central position (10.9%) in 12 and lingual position (87.3%) in 96. Ninety-six molars (87.3%) contacted the IAC. The buccal and inferior IAC course were the most common types in impacted third molar, especially in lingually positioned ones. Our study suggested that amongst deeply impacted mandibular third molars, lingual position occupies the largest proportion, followed by the central, and then the buccal type.

  11. Detection of vesicant-induced upper airway mucosa damage in the hamster cheek pouch model using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer-Wilson, Marie J.; Nguyen, Vi; Jung, Woong-Gyu; Ahn, Yehchen; Chen, Zhongping; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Hamster cheek pouches were exposed to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide [CEES, half-mustard gas (HMG)] at a concentration of 0.4, 2.0, or 5.0 mg/ml for 1 or 5 min. Twenty-four hours post-HMG exposure, tissue damage was assessed by both stereomicrography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Damage that was not visible on gross visual examination was apparent in the OCT images. Tissue changes were found to be dependent on both HMG concentration and exposure time. The submucosal and muscle layers of the cheek pouch tissue showed the greatest amount of structural alteration. Routine light microscope histology was performed to confirm the OCT observations.

  12. [Wearing a pouch shows the difference between "being an "ostomized person" and "being a professional": analysis of a teaching strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V L; Sawaia, B B

    2000-07-01

    This study aimed at analyzing nurses (re)construction process regarding the meanings of ostomy, ostomized patients, nursing care and the professional role after they wore an ostomy appliance. This activity is a teaching strategy applied at the Enterostomal Therapy Nursing Education Program. Two major units were identified after the analysis of students speeches: "being an ostomized person" and "being a professional". When students wore the pouches they felt as ostomized patients experiencing a violation of their identity and quality of life that promotes profound changes in daily life. These symbolic contents cause a crisis regarding the meaning of being a professional as until this experience, nursing care seemed fragmented to them. Recognizing a previous care performed as a technical action mainly directed to the ostomy and the pouch, students were able to visualize a future care, that is holistic and considers the ostomized human being, enabling them to incorporate affective, symbolic and relational dimensions.

  13. Genotoxic assessment of chlorhexidine mouthwash on exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in chronic gingivitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlorhexidine (CHX is the gold standard of all chemical plaque control agents and the most commonly prescribed mouthwash. However, several studies have shown cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of CHX on various eukaryotic cells. In this study, we have used micronuclei as a biomarker of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells of chronic gingivitis patients who were given adjunct 0.2% CHX for plaque control. Materials and Methods: Chronic gingivitis patients who were exclusively on mechanical plaque control methods were taken as control (Group A (n = 101, and chronic gingivitis patients who along with mechanical plaque control measures were taking 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash as adjunct were taken as cases (Group B (n = 255. The Group B was further divided into 5 subgroups (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5 (n = 51 on increasing duration of usage of CHX from ≤1 week to 24 weeks. Buccal epithelial cells were gently scrapped from the buccal mucosa using soft toothbrush. The epithelial cells were collected in buffer solution and centrifuged at 8000 rpm for 5 min. The buccal epithelial cells were air dried, fixed, and stained with 5% Giemsa stain on preheated glass microscopic slides and observed under microscope to screen 2000 nucleated cells per individual for number of micronucleated cells and micronuclei as genotoxic measure. Results: The mean number of micronucleated cells was found to be 0.41 ± 0.71 for Group A as compared values ranging from 1.65 ± 2.09 (Group B1 to 11.7 ± 1.87 (Group B5 in different subgroups of Group B, and similarly, the mean number of micronuclei was found to be 0.48 ± 0.80 for Group A as compared to values ranging from 2.57 ± 1.64 (Group B1 to 14.5 ± 2.49 (Group B5 in different subgroups of Group B using analysis of variance (P < 0.001. Conclusion: We conclude that CHX mouthwash is genotoxic to buccal epithelial cells and there is incremental trend in genotoxicity as the duration of usage is increased.

  14. Small non-coding RNA deregulation in endometrial carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravo, Maria; Cordella, Angela; Rinaldi, Antonio; Bruno, Giuseppina; Alexandrova, Elena; Saggese, Pasquale; Nassa, Giovanni; Giurato, Giorgio; Tarallo, Roberta; Marchese, Giovanna; Rizzo, Francesca; Stellato, Claudia; Biancardi, Rossella; Troisi, Jacopo; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Zullo, Fulvio; Weisz, Alessandro; Guida, Maurizio

    2015-03-10

    Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) represent a heterogeneous group of <200nt-long transcripts comprising microRNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and small-nucleolar-RNAs (snoRNAs) involved in physiological and pathological processes such as carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Aberrant sncRNA expression in cancer has been associated with specific clinical phenotypes, grading, staging, metastases development and resistance to therapy.Aim of the present work is to study the role of sncRNAs in endometrial carcinogenesis. Changes in sncRNA expression were identified by high-throughput genomic analysis of paired normal, hyperplastic and cancerous endometrial tissues obtained by endometrial biopsies (n = 10). Using smallRNA sequencing and microarrays we identified significant differences in sncRNA expression pattern between normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium. This led to the definition of a sncRNA signature (129 microRNAs, 2 of which not previously described, 10 piRNAs and 3 snoRNAs) of neoplastic transformation. Functional bioinformatics analysis identified as downstream targets multiple signaling pathways potentially involved in the hyperplastic and neoplastic tissue responses, including Wnt/β-catenin, and ERK/MAPK and TGF-β-Signaling.Considering the regulatory role of sncRNAs, this newly identified sncRNA signature is likely to reflect the events leading to endometrial cancer, which can be exploited to dissect the carcinogenic process including novel biomarkers for early and non-invasive diagnosis of these tumors.

  15. Glutaminolysis and carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetindis, Marcel; Biegner, Thorsten; Munz, Adelheid; Teriete, Peter; Reinert, Siegmar; Grimm, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Glutaminolysis is a crucial factor for tumor metabolism in the carcinogenesis of several tumors but has not been clarified for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) yet. Expression of glutaminolysis-related solute carrier family 1, member 5 (SLC1A5)/neutral amino acid transporter (ASCT2), glutaminase (GLS), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) was analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n = 5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n = 11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n = 35), and OSCC specimen (n = 42) by immunohistochemistry. SLC1A5/ASCT2 and GLS were significantly overexpressed in the carcinogenesis of OSCC compared with normal tissue, while GLDH was weakly detected. Compared with SIN I-III SLC1A5/ASCT2 and GLS expression were significantly increased in OSCC. GLDH expression did not significantly differ from SIN I-III compared with OSCC. This study shows the first evidence of glutaminolysis-related SLC1A5/ASCT2, GLS, and GLDH expression in OSCC. The very weak GLDH expression indicates that glutamine metabolism is rather related to nucleotide or protein/hexosamine biosynthesis or to the function as an antioxidant (glutathione) than to energy production or generation of lactate through entering the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Overcoming glutaminolysis by targeting c-Myc oncogene (e.g. by natural compounds) and thereby cross-activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 or SLC1A5/ASCT2, GLS inhibitors may be a useful strategy to sensitize cancer cells to common OSCC cancer therapies.

  16. The malignant conversion step of mouse skin carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuspa, S.H.; Hennings, H.; Roop, D.; Strickland, J.; Greenhalgh, D.A. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Multiple benign squamous papillomas commonly precede the development of an occasional squamous cell carcinoma in mouse skin carcinogenesis. The incidence of carcinomas can be enhanced by treating papilloma-bearing mice with mutagens such as urethane, nitroquinoline-N-oxide, or cisplatinum. This observation suggests that a genetic change is required for malignant conversion. The malignant phenotype is characterized by a marked reduction in the transcription of specific epidermal differentiation markers, a pattern which is useful for the early diagnosis of malignant conversion. Cells expressing a benign phenotype can be obtained by introducing the v-ras{sup Ha} oncogene into cultured epidermal cells by a replication-defective retrovirus. Alternatively, benign tumor cells can be cultured from papillomas induced by chemical carcinogens in vivo or from carcinogen-treated mouse epidermis. In all cases, the benign phenotype in vitro is characterized by an altered biological response to changes in extracellular calcium, an important determinant of the differentiation state of cultured normal keratinocytes. Transfection of cloned plasmid DNA into benign tumor cells has revealed that transforming constructs of the fos oncogene induce malignant conversion, whereas myc and adenovirus E1A oncogenes do not. Cultured normal epidermal cells, exposed to the v-ras and the v-fos oncogenes simultaneously, are malignantly transformed. Alone, the fos oncogene does not detectably alter the phenotype of normal keratinocytes. These studies indicate that a limited number of genes is involved in epidermal carcinogenesis.

  17. E-cadherin: Its dysregulation in carcinogenesis and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sonia How Ming; Fang, Chee Mun; Chuah, Lay-Hong; Leong, Chee Onn; Ngai, Siew Ching

    2018-01-01

    E-cadherin is a transmembrane glycoprotein which connects epithelial cells together at adherens junctions. In normal cells, E-cadherin exerts its tumour suppressing role mainly by sequestering β-catenin from its binding to LEF (Lymphoid enhancer factor)/TCF (T cell factor) which serves the function of transcribing genes of the proliferative Wnt signaling pathway. Despite the ongoing debate on whether the loss of E-cadherin is the cause or effect of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), E-cadherin functional loss has frequently been associated with poor prognosis and survival in patients of various cancers. The dysregulation of E-cadherin expression that leads to carcinogenesis happens mostly at the epigenetic level but there are cases of genetic alterations as well. E-cadherin expression has been linked to the cellular functions of invasiveness reduction, growth inhibition, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and differentiation. Studies on various cancers have shown that these different cellular functions are also interdependent. Recent studies have reported a rapid expansion of E-cadherin clinical relevance in various cancers. This review article summarises the multifaceted effect E-cadherin expression has on cellular functions in the context of carcinogenesis as well as its clinical implications in diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Thioredoxin and metallothionein: Homeostasis-related proteins in lip carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Patrícia C; Silva, Laíssa S; Batista, Aline C; Aguiar, Maria Cássia F

    2017-05-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) and metallothionein (MT) are involved in the development of some carcinomas; however, the role of these proteins in labial carcinogenesis has not yet been tested. The aims of the study were to evaluate and to correlate the immunoexpression of Trx and MT in actinic cheilitis, lip squamous cell carcinoma, and normal vermillion lip mucosa. Immunohistochemistry was undertaken for Trx and MT in samples of actinic cheilitis, lip squamous cell carcinoma, and normal lip mucosa. Qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluations were conducted. The proportion of stained cells, intensity of staining, and the cell compartment labeled were evaluated. A quickscore index was also calculated by multiplying the values of extension and intensity of nuclear and cytoplasmic staining, respectively, giving a maximum value of 9. Statistics were performed. A remarkable nuclear Trx staining was seen in normal lip mucosa and cheilitis, not in carcinoma (p0.05). MT was broadly expressed in nuclei and cytoplasm of carcinoma, but not in normal lip mucosa and cheilitis (p<0.05). Quickscores were in accordance with the qualitative results. The current study showed a different immunopattern of Trx and MT between normal lip mucosa, actinic cheilitis and lip squamous cell carcinoma. The cellular compartment-based analyses evidenced differences that can be related to the proteins function. Considering the relevant roles of these proteins in cellular homeostasis, they seem to have an important role in lip carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Viral Carcinogenesis: Factors Inducing DNA Damage and Virus Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the causative agents of 10%–15% of human cancers worldwide. The most common outcome for virus-induced reprogramming is genomic instability, including accumulation of mutations, aberrations and DNA damage. Although each virus has its own specific mechanism for promoting carcinogenesis, the majority of DNA oncogenic viruses encode oncogenes that transform infected cells, frequently by targeting p53 and pRB. In addition, integration of viral DNA into the human genome can also play an important role in promoting tumor development for several viruses, including HBV and HPV. Because viral integration requires the breakage of both the viral and the host DNA, the integration rate is believed to be linked to the levels of DNA damage. DNA damage can be caused by both endogenous and exogenous factors, including inflammation induced by either the virus itself or by co-infections with other agents, environmental agents and other factors. Typically, cancer develops years to decades following the initial infection. A better understanding of virus-mediated carcinogenesis, the networking of pathways involved in transformation and the relevant risk factors, particularly in those cases where tumorigenesis proceeds by way of virus integration, will help to suggest prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to reduce the risk of virus-mediated cancer.

  20. Bisphenol A as epigenetic modulator: setting the stage for carcinogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luciana L; Couto, Renata; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most widely produced chemicals worldwide and is often used in the production of food and beverage containers. As a result of BPA contact with food, drink and toiletries, its ingestion and absorption by humans has been growing. The industrialization and modern lifestyles brought a constant exposure to several health-disturbing compounds and ushered a new era of chronic diseases. The endocrine disruptor potential of BPA is well known, but the research around its epigenotoxic effects raised further concerns whether chronic exposure to BPA can contribute to chronic human illness, including cancer in hormone-sensitive organs. Focusing on computerized databases, we reviewed original and review articles which elucidate and link some of the information already available about BPA and related epigenetic alterations. A number of studies indicate that short-term administration of low or high-doses of BPA may be associated with an increased risk of epigenetic modifications, increasing the risk for carcinogenesis. However, it is clear that more studies considering real daily exposures are essential to define a real tolerable daily intake and to tighten up manufactory regulations. In this review, we highlight some evidences suggesting a relationship between BPA exposure, genotoxic activity and epigenetic modifications, which may prime for carcinogenesis. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  1. Sewage sludge does not induce genotoxicity and carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Paula Regina Pereira; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Through a series of experiments, the genotoxic/mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of sewage sludge was assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1 - negative control; Group 2 - liver carcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 200 mg/kg i.p.); Group 3 and G4-liver carcinogenesis initiated by DEN and fed 10,000 ppm or 50,000 ppm of sewage sludge. The animals were submitted to a 70% partial hepatectomy at the 3rd week. Livers were processed for routine histological analysis and immunohistochemistry, in order to detect glutathione S-transferase positive altered hepatocyte foci (GST-P+ AHF). Peripheral blood samples for the comet assay were obtained from the periorbital plexus immediately prior to sacrificing. Polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) were analyzed in femoral bone-marrow smears, and the frequencies of those micronucleated (MNPCEs) registered. There was no sewage-sludge-induced increase in frequency of either DNA damage in peripheral blood leucocytes, or MNPCEs in the femoral bone marrow. Also, there was no increase in the levels of DNA damage, in the frequency of MNPCEs, and in the development of GST-P AHF when compared with the respective control group. PMID:23055806

  2. Further assessment of Monkeypox Virus infection in Gambian pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) using in vivo bioluminescent imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falendysz, Elizabeth; Lopera, Juan G.; Faye Lorenzsonn,; Salzer, Johanna S.; Hutson, Christina L.; Doty, Jeffrey; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Carroll, Darin S.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonosis clinically similar to smallpox in humans. Recent evidence has shown a potential risk of increased incidence in central Africa. Despite attempts to isolate the virus from wild rodents and other small mammals, no reservoir host has been identified. In 2003,Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was accidentally introduced into the U.S. via the pet trade and was associated with the Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus). Therefore, we investigated the potential reservoir competence of the Gambian pouched rat for MPXV by utilizing a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods. We inoculated three animals by the intradermal route and three animals by the intranasal route, with one mock-infected control for each route. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) was used to track replicating virus in infected animals and virological assays (e.g. real time PCR, cell culture) were used to determine viral load in blood, urine, ocular, nasal, oral, and rectal swabs. Intradermal inoculation resulted in clinical signs of monkeypox infection in two of three animals. One severely ill animal was euthanized and the other affected animal recovered. In contrast, intranasal inoculation resulted in subclinical infection in all three animals. All animals, regardless of apparent or inapparent infection, shed virus in oral and nasal secretions. Additionally, BLI identified viral replication in the skin without grossly visible lesions. These results suggest that Gambian pouched rats may play an important role in transmission of the virus to humans, as they are hunted for consumption and it is possible for MPXV-infected pouched rats to shed infectious virus without displaying overt clinical signs.

  3. Postpartum complications in a patient with a previous proctocolectomy and ileo-pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Spina, Vincenzo; Giovannini, Massimo; Fabiani, Cristina; Vetrano, Giuseppe; Bagolan, Pietro; Colizza, Sergio; Aleandri, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    This case report regards pregnancy and delivery of a patient who had undergone proctocolectomy and ileo-pouch-anal-anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis. The patient delivered through cesarean section and experienced serious complications postpartum. Such complications have been described in association with Chron’s disease and have never been described after proctocolectomy and IPAA for ulcerative colitis. This case report suggests that the limit between these two diseases is not sharp.

  4. Effect of anastomosis level on continence performance and quality of life after colonic J-pouch reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Susanne; Kroesen, Anton J; Hotz, Hubert G; Buhr, Heinz J; Kruschewski, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Total mesorectal excision (TME) has become the recommended method for treatment of cancer in the middle or lower third of the rectum. Thus very low anastomoses are necessary to preserve continence, and pouch reconstruction is favored. It is unclear whether the level of anastomosis is important for continence and quality of life in colonic J-pouch reconstruction. In this investigation all patients were included who underwent curative elective anterior continuity resection with colorectal or coloanal J-pouch reconstruction for primary rectal cancer between January 2001 and December 2004. Exclusion criteria were distant metastases and any signs of recurrence at the time of investigation. Evaluation of continence performance by Wexner and Holschneider questionnaire and quality of life using the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38 (EORTC) questionnaires was done 220 +/- 38 days after closure of the protective Ileostomy, which was performed 106 +/- 48 days after primary intervention. Fifty-two patients (79%) were analyzed. Colopouch rectal anastomosis was performed in eighteen cases and colopouch anal anastomosis in thirty-four cases. Fifty percent of the patients in both groups were continent for solid stool. Patients with a colopouch anal anastomosis had a significantly higher rate of incontinence for liquid stool, however. They took stool-regulating medicine more frequently and complained of fecal soiling and a restricted quality of life. Patients with a colopouch anal anastomosis had a significantly lower score on the most important points of the QLQ-C30 (emotional functioning, social functioning, pain, and quality of life). The same applied to the QLQ-CR38 for body image and problems with defecation. The quality of life of patients with a colopouch anal anastomosis was still considered acceptable compared with reference data for the normal healthy population, however. Both continence and quality of life are substantially affected by the level of the anastomosis after colonic pouch

  5. Carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in the mouse air pouch synovial model. Role of tumour necrosis factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Romano

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the mouse air pouch model of inflammation to study the interaction between cytokines, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and cell migration during the various phases of acute local inflammation induced by carrageenan. In serum, the levels of interleukin 1 (IL-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF, serum amiloid-A (SAA and Fe++ were never different from controls, indicating that no systemic inflammatory changes were induced. Locally the exudate volume and the number of leukocytes recruited into the pouch increased progressively until 7 days after carrageenan. The same was true for PGE2 production. We could not measure IL-1 but the production of IL-6 and TNF reached a maximum after 5-24 h then quickly decreased. Anti-TNF antibodies inhibited cell migration by 50% 24 h after treatment. Pretreatment with interleukin 10 (IL-10 inhibited TNF production almost completely and cell migration by 60%. Carrageenan-induced inflammation was modulated by anti-inflammatory drugs. Pretreatment with dexamethasone (DEX or indomethacin (INDO inhibited cell migration and reduced the concentration of TNF in the exudate. Production of PGE2 or vascular permeability did not correlate with the number of cells in the pouch. Local TNF seems to play an important role in this model, particularly for leukocyte migration in the first phase of the inflammatory process. In conclusion, the air pouch seems to be a good model for studying the regulation of the early events of local inflammation, particularly the role of cytokines and cell migration.

  6. Alveolar ridge augmentation by connective tissue grafting using a pouch method and modified connective tissue technique: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Ashish; Gupta, Narinder Dev

    2015-01-01

    Background: Localized alveolar ridge defect may create physiological and pathological problems. Developments in surgical techniques have made it simpler to change the configuration of a ridge to create a more aesthetic and more easily cleansable shape. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of alveolar ridge augmentation using a subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch and modified connective tissue graft technique. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, double bl...

  7. Utility of contrast enema for detecting anastomotic strictures after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, David; Levine, Marc S; Rubesin, Stephen E; Laufer, Igor; Rombeau, John L

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the utility of contrast enemas for detecting clinically relevant anastomotic strictures after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and to facilitate management by defining a critical anastomotic caliber at or below which obstruction is likely to develop after ileostomy closure. Our radiology database revealed 42 patients with contrast enemas after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis who fulfilled our exclusion criteria. The initial postoperative contrast enemas were reviewed blindly to determine the diameter of the ileoanal anastomosis. The diagnosis of a stricture was made only if the patient had signs of intestinal obstruction after ileostomy closure with confirmation on follow-up contrast enema or sigmoidoscopy and clinical improvement after anastomotic dilatation. The data were then correlated to determine if there was a critical anastomotic caliber at or below which such strictures were likely to develop. Using this threshold value, the sensitivity and specificity of routine contrast enemas for detecting clinically relevant anastomotic strictures were then determined. Six (14%) of the 42 patients who underwent total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis had strictures at the ileoanal anastomosis on contrast enemas. The mean diameter of the anastomosis was 5.8 mm in the six patients with anastomotic strictures versus 15 mm in the 36 patients without strictures (p = 0.0002). If an anastomotic diameter of 8 mm is defined as the critical caliber at or below which clinically relevant strictures are present, the sensitivity of contrast enemas for detecting strictures at the ileoanal anastomosis was 100% (six of six patients) and the specificity was 92% (33 of 36 patients). Routine contrast enema after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a sensitive test for detecting clinically relevant strictures at the ileoanal anastomosis when an anastomotic diameter of

  8. Further Assessment of Monkeypox Virus Infection in Gambian Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus) Using In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falendysz, Elizabeth A; Lopera, Juan G; Lorenzsonn, Faye; Salzer, Johanna S; Hutson, Christina L; Doty, Jeffrey; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Carroll, Darin S; Osorio, Jorge E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonosis clinically similar to smallpox in humans. Recent evidence has shown a potential risk of increased incidence in central Africa. Despite attempts to isolate the virus from wild rodents and other small mammals, no reservoir host has been identified. In 2003, Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was accidentally introduced into the U.S. via the pet trade and was associated with the Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus). Therefore, we investigated the potential reservoir competence of the Gambian pouched rat for MPXV by utilizing a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods. We inoculated three animals by the intradermal route and three animals by the intranasal route, with one mock-infected control for each route. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) was used to track replicating virus in infected animals and virological assays (e.g. real time PCR, cell culture) were used to determine viral load in blood, urine, ocular, nasal, oral, and rectal swabs. Intradermal inoculation resulted in clinical signs of monkeypox infection in two of three animals. One severely ill animal was euthanized and the other affected animal recovered. In contrast, intranasal inoculation resulted in subclinical infection in all three animals. All animals, regardless of apparent or inapparent infection, shed virus in oral and nasal secretions. Additionally, BLI identified viral replication in the skin without grossly visible lesions. These results suggest that Gambian pouched rats may play an important role in transmission of the virus to humans, as they are hunted for consumption and it is possible for MPXV-infected pouched rats to shed infectious virus without displaying overt clinical signs.

  9. Further Assessment of Monkeypox Virus Infection in Gambian Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus Using In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Falendysz

    Full Text Available Monkeypox is a zoonosis clinically similar to smallpox in humans. Recent evidence has shown a potential risk of increased incidence in central Africa. Despite attempts to isolate the virus from wild rodents and other small mammals, no reservoir host has been identified. In 2003, Monkeypox virus (MPXV was accidentally introduced into the U.S. via the pet trade and was associated with the Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus. Therefore, we investigated the potential reservoir competence of the Gambian pouched rat for MPXV by utilizing a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods. We inoculated three animals by the intradermal route and three animals by the intranasal route, with one mock-infected control for each route. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI was used to track replicating virus in infected animals and virological assays (e.g. real time PCR, cell culture were used to determine viral load in blood, urine, ocular, nasal, oral, and rectal swabs. Intradermal inoculation resulted in clinical signs of monkeypox infection in two of three animals. One severely ill animal was euthanized and the other affected animal recovered. In contrast, intranasal inoculation resulted in subclinical infection in all three animals. All animals, regardless of apparent or inapparent infection, shed virus in oral and nasal secretions. Additionally, BLI identified viral replication in the skin without grossly visible lesions. These results suggest that Gambian pouched rats may play an important role in transmission of the virus to humans, as they are hunted for consumption and it is possible for MPXV-infected pouched rats to shed infectious virus without displaying overt clinical signs.

  10. Further Assessment of Monkeypox Virus Infection in Gambian Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus) Using In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; Juan G Lopera; Faye Lorenzsonn; Salzer, Johanna S.; Christina L. Hutson; Jeffrey Doty; Nadia Gallardo-Romero; Carroll, Darin S.; Osorio, Jorge E; Tonie E Rocke

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonosis clinically similar to smallpox in humans. Recent evidence has shown a potential risk of increased incidence in central Africa. Despite attempts to isolate the virus from wild rodents and other small mammals, no reservoir host has been identified. In 2003, Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was accidentally introduced into the U.S. via the pet trade and was associated with the Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus). Therefore, we investigated the potential reservoir competence ...

  11. A study of the effects of external pressure on the electrical performance of a lithium-ion pouch cell

    OpenAIRE

    Barai, Anup; Guo, Yue; McGordon, Andrew; Jennings, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of lithium-ion batteries for vehicle powertrain electrification has increased in recent years. They feature high energy density, high power density, long cycle life, and is also environmentally friendly compared with other types of batteries. A large number of Li-ion cells are usually required to meet the demand in capacity and power for automotive applications. Pouch cells have been favored by many manufacturers because of the high packaging efficiency and, therefore, a high...

  12. Budget impact analysis of the fentanyl buccal tablet for treatment of breakthrough cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Lisette Kaskens,2 Rainel Sánchez-de la Rosa31University of Barcelona, Barcelona, 2BCN Health Economics and Outcomes Research SL, Barcelona, 3Medical and HEOR Department, TEVA Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Madrid, SpainBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the economic impact of the fentanyl buccal tablet for the management of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP in Spain.Methods: A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the period 2012–2015 for patients with BTcP from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System. BTcP products included in this model were rapid-onset opioids containing fentanyl (buccal, sublingual, or nasal transmucosal. Prevalence data on cancer, BTcP, opioid use, and number of BTcP episodes were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resources associated with opioid use and opioid-induced side effects were obtained by consulting experts in oncology from different Spanish hospitals. Resources used included drugs, medical and emergency visits, other nonpharmacologic treatments, and treatment of opioid-induced side effects. Unit costs were obtained from the literature, and a 3% discount rate was applied to costs. Based on the unit costs for drugs and health care resources, the annual BTcP treatment costs per patient associated with each fentanyl product were determined to estimate the overall budget impact based on the total treatment population and the percentage of drug utilization associated with each product. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the model.Results: Patients treated with oral opioids for BTcP were estimated at 23,291 in 2012, with an increase up to 23,413 in 2015. The average annual budget savings, with an increase of fentanyl buccal tablets, fentanyl sublingual tablets, and intranasal fentanyl spray, and a decrease in oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate, was estimated at €2.6 million, which represents a 0.5% decrease in

  13. Histological evaluation of the lesion induced by inoculation of Leishmania mexicana in the cheek pouch of the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira de Arruda, Maria Sueli; Nogueira, Maria Esther Salles; Bordon, Ana Paula

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the role of the immune response in the morphology of the leishmaniotic granuloma induced in the cheek pouch of hamsters, an immunologically privileged site, after inoculation of 3 x 10(5) Leishmania mexicana. Animals were histologically and immunologically evaluated until 120 days after inoculation. Independent of the time of sacrifice, the animals were always non-reactors to the footpad test (FPT). At histology, the introduction of L. mexicana in the cheek pouch leads to an abscess that evolves to a granulomatous reaction rich in amastigote forms, and later it leads to resolution, even in the absence of immune response detectable by FPT. Our results demonstrate that the development of immune response is not preponderant for the control of infection induced by L. mexicana inoculated subcutaneously in the cheek pouch of the hamster. It also suggests that the macrophages present in the leishmaniotic granuloma are capable of eliminating this parasite, even in the absence of immune response evaluated by FPT.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Essential Oil Citral in Experimental Infection with Staphylococcus aureus in a Model Air Pouch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Hellen Braga; Selis, Nathan das Neves; Souza, Clarissa Leal Silva e; Nascimento, Flávia S.; de Carvalho, Suzi Pacheco; Gusmão, Lorena D'Oliveira; Nascimento, Jannine dos Santos; Brito, Anne Karoline Pereira; de Souza, Samira Itana; de Oliveira, Marcio Vasconcelos; Timenetsky, Jorge; Yatsuda, Regiane

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes to implement an alternative and effective strategy for local treatment of disease provoked by S. aureus. For the analysis of possible anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil, after establishing an air pouch model, 48 male mice of Balb/c were treated, infected, and euthanized at 4 and 8 h. Thus, the total and differential white blood cells were counted in the animal's blood, and cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were titrated using ELISA in the air pouch lavage. Moreover, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression was analyzed through an RT-qPCR array, and S. aureus was quantified using qPCR. Our results, p < 0.05, showed that EOC reduced the quantity of microorganisms. The group of mice treated with essential oil citral showed a significant decrease in TNF-α levels in tests demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity. There is no data about the mutual influence of the air pouch model, essential oil citral, and S. aureus. Thus, considering the interaction of these variables and the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil citral, we demonstrated, by alternative local treatment, a new antimicrobial agent that is not an antibiotic. PMID:28316634

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Essential Oil Citral in Experimental Infection with Staphylococcus aureus in a Model Air Pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Braga Martins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to implement an alternative and effective strategy for local treatment of disease provoked by S. aureus. For the analysis of possible anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil, after establishing an air pouch model, 48 male mice of Balb/c were treated, infected, and euthanized at 4 and 8 h. Thus, the total and differential white blood cells were counted in the animal’s blood, and cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were titrated using ELISA in the air pouch lavage. Moreover, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression was analyzed through an RT-qPCR array, and S. aureus was quantified using qPCR. Our results, p<0.05, showed that EOC reduced the quantity of microorganisms. The group of mice treated with essential oil citral showed a significant decrease in TNF-α levels in tests demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity. There is no data about the mutual influence of the air pouch model, essential oil citral, and S. aureus. Thus, considering the interaction of these variables and the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil citral, we demonstrated, by alternative local treatment, a new antimicrobial agent that is not an antibiotic.

  16. Towards Sensor-Actuator Coupling in an Automated Order Picking System by Detecting Sealed Seams on Pouch Packed Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Weichert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel concept of coupling the actuators of an automated order picking system for pouch packed goods with an embedded CCD camera sensor by means of image processing and machine learning is presented. The picking system mechanically combines the conveyance and singularization of a still-connected chain of pouch packed goods in a single machinery. The proposed algorithms perform a per-frame processing of the captured images in real-time to detect the sealed seams of the ongoing pouches. The detections are used to deduce cutting decisions in order to control the system’s actuators, namely the drive pulley for conveyance and the cutting device for the separation. Within this context, two controlling strategies are presented as well which specify the interaction of the sensor and the actuators. The detection is carried out by two different marker detection strategies: enhanced Template Matching as a heuristic and Support Vector Machines as a supervised classification based concept. Depending on the employed marker, detection rates of almost 100% with a calculation time of less than 40 ms are possible. From a logistic point of view, sealed seam widths of 20 mm prove feasible.

  17. Alveolar ridge augmentation by connective tissue grafting using a pouch method and modified connective tissue technique: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashish; Gupta, Narinder Dev

    2015-01-01

    Localized alveolar ridge defect may create physiological and pathological problems. Developments in surgical techniques have made it simpler to change the configuration of a ridge to create a more aesthetic and more easily cleansable shape. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of alveolar ridge augmentation using a subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch and modified connective tissue graft technique. In this randomized, double blind, parallel and prospective study, 40 non-smoker individuals with 40 class III alveolar ridge defects in maxillary anterior were randomly divided in two groups. Group I received modified connective tissue graft, while group II were treated with subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch technique. The defect size was measured in its horizontal and vertical dimension by utilizing a periodontal probe in a stone cast at base line, after 3 months, and 6 months post surgically. Analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. A two-tailed P connective tissue graft proposed significantly more improvement as compare to connective tissue graft in pouch.

  18. Possible mechanisms for the inhibitory effect of Ruscus extract on increased microvascular permeability induced by histamine in hamster cheek pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouskela, E; Cyrino, F Z; Marcelon, G

    1994-08-01

    Extract of Ruscus aculeatus is used in treatment of venous insufficiency. In the present study, we used the hamster cheek pouch preparation and investigated in vivo the effects of an alpha 1 and alpha 2 adrenoceptor antagonists, a calcium blocker, Ruscus extract, and their combination on increased microvascular permeability induced by histamine. Experiments were performed on male hamsters; 30 min after completion of the cheek pouch preparation, fluorescein-labeled dextran (molecular weight 150,000) was given intravenously (i.v.). Histamine, applied topically, increased the number of fluorescent vascular leakage sites from postcapillary venules, evidence of an increase in macromolecular permeability, which was quantified by ultraviolet light microscopy as the number of leaky sites in the prepared area. Prazosin (alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist), diltiazem (calcium blocker), and Ruscus extract applied topically dose-dependently inhibited the macromolecular permeability-increasing effect of histamine. Rauwolscine (alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist), also applied topically, had no effect on histamine-induced permeability increase. Inhibition of the histamine-induced permeability increase evoked by Ruscus extract could be blocked by prazosin and by diltiazem but not by rauwolscine. These results indicate that any variation in the transmembrane flux of calcium impairs formation of microvascular leaky sites by histamine. Our results show that Ruscus extract has a protective effect against the leakage of FITC-dextran in hamster cheek pouch after administration of histamine that is modulated by calcium and selectively by alpha 1-adrenoceptors.

  19. The presence of teleost-type angiotensin components in lamprey buccal gland suggests a role in endocrine mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marty K S; Sower, Stacia A; Takei, Yoshio

    2012-03-01

    Previous characterization of a native lamprey angiotensin II (LpAng II) that possesses a different sequence and function than teleost-type angiotensin II (Ang II) has raised a question as to the role of teleost-type angiotensin peptides in lampreys. In this study, teleost-type angiotensin like-peptides were identified in the buccal gland of lampreys by immunoassays and immunohistochemistry. The possible sources of angiotensin like-peptides were investigated in lampreys by manipulating their choice of host and food. Ang II immunoreactivity (irAng II) was detected in the buccal gland and plasma of feeding phase sea lampreys exposed to Atlantic cod, but was mostly absent in fasting lamprey. Qualitatively, the HPLC profiles of irAng II observed in the plasma, when present, were highly similar to those in buccal gland, implying that the buccal gland could be a source of plasma Ang II. Japanese lampreys force-fed with dogfish blood had significantly elevated concentrations of irAng II in their buccal glands when compared to unfed individuals, suggesting that feeding stimuli may have enhanced buccal gland activity. Teleost-type Ang II-containing proteins, other than angiotensinogen, are present in the buccal gland as trypsinization generated Ang II in vitro, and the HPLC profile of these irAng II was highly comparable to those naturally present in the buccal gland. [Asn(1), Val(5), Thr(9)]-Ang I that was identified in the buccal gland of Japanese lampreys has the same amino acid sequence to those previously isolated from the incubation of plasma and kidney extract, providing an alternative explanation for the previous isolation of teleost-type Ang I in lampreys. irAng I and irAng II were localized in the granule-like structures in the apical region of the secretory epithelia, suggesting that these peptides may be active components of lamphredin. The teleost-type angiotensin peptides in the buccal gland secretion suggested that these host-specific peptides could be part

  20. Dietary tomato and lycopene impact androgen signaling- and carcinogenesis-related gene expression during early TRAMP prostate carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lei; Tan, Hsueh-Li; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M.; Pearl, Dennis K.; Erdman, John W.; Moran, Nancy E.; Clinton, Steven K.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of tomato products containing the carotenoid lycopene is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. To identify gene expression patterns associated with early testosterone-driven prostate carcinogenesis, which are impacted by dietary tomato and lycopene, wild type (WT) and transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice were fed control or tomato- or lycopene-containing diets from 4-10 wk-of-age. Eight-week-old mice underwent sham surgery, castration, or castration followed by testosterone-repletion (2.5 mg/kg/d initiated 1 wk after castration). Ten-wk-old intact TRAMP mice exhibit early multifocal prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Of the 200 prostate cancer-related genes measured by quantitative NanoString®, 189 are detectable, 164 significantly differ by genotype, 179 by testosterone status, and 30 by diet type (Plycopene feeding (Srd5a1) and by tomato-feeding (Srd5a2, Pxn, and Srebf1). Additionally, tomato-feeding significantly reduced expression of genes associated with stem cell features, Aldh1a and Ly6a, while lycopene-feeding significantly reduced expression of neuroendocrine differentiation-related genes, Ngfr and Syp. Collectively, these studies demonstrate a profile of testosterone-regulated genes associated with early stages of prostate carcinogenesis that are potential mechanistic targets of dietary tomato components. Future studies on androgen signaling/metabolism, stem cell features, and neuroendocrine differentiation pathways may elucidate the mechanisms by which dietary tomato and lycopene impact prostate cancer risk. PMID:25315431