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Sample records for bubbles collapse mathematical

  1. Mathematical analysis of recent analytical approximations to the collapse of an empty spherical bubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M

    2013-02-28

    We analyze the Rayleigh equation for the collapse of an empty bubble and provide an explanation for some recent analytical approximations to the model. We derive the form of the singularity at the second boundary point and discuss the convergence of the approximants. We also give a rigorous proof of the asymptotic behavior of the coefficients of the power series that are the basis for the approximate expressions.

  2. Bubble-induced cave collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshika Girihagama

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned "natural" instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m. Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a "collapse". We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section, with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet, and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor.

  3. Collapse dynamics of bubble raft under compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chin-Chang; Kachan, Devin; Levine, Alexander; Dennin, Michael; Department of Physics; Astronomy, University of California, Irvine Collaboration; Department of Physics; Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    We report on the collapse of bubble rafts under compression in a closed rectangular geometry. A bubble raft is a single layer of bubbles at the air-water interface. A collapse event occurs when bubbles submerge beneath the neighboring bubbles under applied compression causing the structure of the bubble raft to go from single-layer to multi-layer. We studied the collapse dynamics as a function of compression velocity. At higher compression velocity we observe a more uniform distribution of collapse events, whereas at lower compression velocities, the collapse events accumulate at the system boundaries. We will present results that compare the distribution of collapse probability in the experiments to simulations based on a one-dimensional Ising model with elastic coupling between spin elements. Both the experimental system and simulations are excellent models for collapse in a number of complex systems. By comparing the two systems, we can tune the simulation to better understand the role of the Ising and elastic couplings in determining the collapse dynamics. We acknowledge DMR-1309402.

  4. Investigation of bubble-bubble interaction effect during the collapse of multi-bubble system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xueming; Zhang, Lingxin; Wang, Wenfeng

    2014-11-01

    Bubble collapse is not only an important subject among bubble dynamics, but also a key consequence of cavitation. It has been demonstrated that the structural damage is associated with the rapid change in flow fields during bubble collapse. How to model and simulate the behavior of the bubble collapse is now of great interest. In the present study, both theoretical analysis and a direct numerical simulation on the basis of VOF are performed to investigate the collapses of single bubble and bubble cluster. The effect of bubble-bubble interaction on the collapse of multi-bubble system is presented. The work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11272284, 11332009).

  5. Sonoluminescence and the probability of isothermal bubble collapse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ThomasVPrevenslik

    1997-01-01

    Computations of air bubble collapse dynamics usually neglect thermal conduction.but recent computations show about a 3-fold reduction in bubble gas temperature if thermal conduction is included.However,an isothermal collapse at ambient temperature is even more likely because the air molecuses collide with and stick to the bubble walls during bubble expansion and are not available for compression heating during collapse.The probability of isothermal collapse is shown to depend on the mean free path of the air molecules moving through the H2O vapor molecules within the bullbe during bubble expansion and is sensitive to the lowering of ambinet temperature to the freezing point.

  6. Condensation-Induced Steam Bubble Collapse in a Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Steam bubbles often occur in pipelines due to the pipeline structure or operational errors. The water hammer force induced by the steam bubble collapse is a hidden safety concern. This paper experimentally and numerically investigates the conditions for steam bubble formation and collapse. A series of video pictures taken in the laboratory show that steam bubbles form and collapse over several cycles. The pressure history of the steam bubbles is measured in conjunction with the pictures. In the experiment, the liquid column cavitated at the low pressures and then the cavities collapsed due to condensation causing high pressure pulses. The process was also simulated numerically. The results suggest that coolant pipeline design and operation must include procedures to avoid steam bubble formation.

  7. The effects of bubble-bubble interactions on pressures and temperatures produced by bubbles collapsing near a rigid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahyari Beig, Shahaboddin; Johnsen, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Cavitation occurs in a wide range of hydraulic applications, and one of its most important consequences is structural damage to neighboring surfaces following repeated bubble collapse. A number of studies have been conducted to predict the pressures produced by the collapse of a single bubble. However, the collapse of multiple bubbles is known to lead to enhanced collapse pressures. In this study, we quantify the effects of bubble-bubble interactions on the bubble dynamics and pressures/temperatures produced by the collapse of a pair of bubbles near a rigid surface. For this purpose, we use an in-house, high-order accurate shock- and interface-capturing method to solve the 3D compressible Navier-Stokes equations for gas/liquid flows. The non-spherical bubble dynamics are investigated and the subsequent pressure and temperature fields are characterized based on the relevant parameters entering the problem: stand-off distance, geometrical configuation, collapse strength. We demonstrate that bubble-bubble interactions amplify/reduce pressures and temperatures produced at the collapse, and increase the non-sphericity of the bubbles and the collapse time, depending on the flow parameters.

  8. Effects of Gas Dynamics on Rapidly Collapsing Bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Bauman, Spenser

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of rapidly collapsing bubbles are of great interest due to the high degree of energy focusing that occurs withing the bubble. Molecular dynamics provides a way to model the interior of the bubble and couple the gas dynamics with the equations governing the bubble wall. While much theoretical work has been done to understand how a bubble will respond to an external force, the internal dynamics of the gas system are usually simplified greatly in such treatments. This paper shows how the gas system dynamics affect bubble collapse and illustrates what effects various modeling assumptions can have on the motion of the bubble wall. In addition, we present a method of adaptively partitioning space to improve the performance of collision intersection calculations when using an energy dependent collision cross section.

  9. Modeling of surface cleaning by cavitation bubble dynamics and collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, Georges L; Kapahi, Anil; Choi, Jin-Keun; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung

    2016-03-01

    Surface cleaning using cavitation bubble dynamics is investigated numerically through modeling of bubble dynamics, dirt particle motion, and fluid material interaction. Three fluid dynamics models; a potential flow model, a viscous model, and a compressible model, are used to describe the flow field generated by the bubble all showing the strong effects bubble explosive growth and collapse have on a dirt particle and on a layer of material to remove. Bubble deformation and reentrant jet formation are seen to be responsible for generating concentrated pressures, shear, and lift forces on the dirt particle and high impulsive loads on a layer of material to remove. Bubble explosive growth is also an important mechanism for removal of dirt particles, since strong suction forces in addition to shear are generated around the explosively growing bubble and can exert strong forces lifting the particles from the surface to clean and sucking them toward the bubble. To model material failure and removal, a finite element structure code is used and enables simulation of full fluid-structure interaction and investigation of the effects of various parameters. High impulsive pressures are generated during bubble collapse due to the impact of the bubble reentrant jet on the material surface and the subsequent collapse of the resulting toroidal bubble. Pits and material removal develop on the material surface when the impulsive pressure is large enough to result in high equivalent stresses exceeding the material yield stress or its ultimate strain. Cleaning depends on parameters such as the relative size between the bubble at its maximum volume and the particle size, the bubble standoff distance from the particle and from the material wall, and the excitation pressure field driving the bubble dynamics. These effects are discussed in this contribution.

  10. The Asymmetric Collapse of Bubbles in Compressible Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Wen-Shan

    2003-01-01

    The analytical solution ora bubble collapse close to a solid boundary in a compressible water is investigatedby means of a perturbation method to first order in the bubble wall Mach number. It is shown, in this paper, that itis the Rayleigh-Plesset equation for incompressible liquid to zero order solution or similar to the Gilmore equation forcompressible water to first order solution when the effect of solid boundary is negligibly small enough, i.e., sufficientlyfar away from the bubble center.

  11. Effect of cavitation bubble collapse on hydraulic oil temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伟; 张健; 孙毅; 张迪嘉; 姜继海

    2016-01-01

    Cavitation bubble collapse has a great influence on the temperature of hydraulic oil. Herein, cone-type throttle valve experiments are carried out to study the thermodynamic processes of cavitation. First, the processes of growth and collapse are analysed, and the relationships between the hydraulic oil temperature and bubble growth and collapse are deduced. The effect of temperature is then considered on the hydraulic oil viscosity and saturated vapour pressure. Additionally, an improved form of the Rayleigh–Plesset equation is developed. The effect of cavitation on the hydraulic oil temperature is experimentally studied and the effects of cavitation bubble collapse in the hydraulic system are summarised. Using the cone-type throttle valve as an example, a method to suppress cavitation is proposed.

  12. Probing luminescence from nonspherical bubble collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2002-01-01

    The luminescence from single laser produced cavitation bubbles for varying degrees of asphericity is investigated temporally, spatially, and spectrally. The degree of asphericity is controlled with an adjustable rigid boundary near the bubble. Temporally, single and multiple light emission events ha

  13. Vapour and air bubble collapse analysis in viscous compressible water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Bazanini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the collapse of bubbles (or cavities are shown, using the finite difference method, taking into account the compressibility of the liquid, expected to occur in the final stages of the collapse process. Results are compared with experimental and theoretical data for incompressible liquids, to see the influence of the compressibility of the water in the bubble collapse. Pressure fields values are calculated in an area of 800 x 800 mm, for the case of one bubble under the hypothesis of spherical symmetry. Results are shown as radius versus time curves for the collapse (to compare collapse times, and pressure curves in the plane, for pressure fields. Such calculations are new because of their general point of view, since the existing works do not take into account the existence of vapour in the bubble, neither show the pressure fields seen here. It is also expected to see the influence of the compressibility of the water in the collapse time, and in the pressure field, when comparing pressure values.

  14. Cavitation bubbles collapse characteristics behind a convex body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑶; 许唯临; 张亚磊; 张敬威; 陈春祺; 阿蓉

    2013-01-01

    Cavitation bubbles behind a convex body were experimentally studied by a high speed camera and a hydrophone synch- ronously. The experiments were conducted in a circulating water tunnel with five various contraction ratios:b=0.497,b=0.6,b=0.697,b=0.751, andb=0.799. The distributions of the cavitation bubble collapse positions behind the five different convex bodies were obtained by combining the images taken by the high speed camera. According to the collapse positions, it was found that no cavitation bubble was collapsed in the region near the wall until the ratio of the water head loss over the convex body height was larger than 20, which can be used to predict if the cavitation damage would occur in the tunnel with orifice energy dissipaters.

  15. Calculation of reactivity changes due to bubble collapse. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, T.J.; Petrie, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations based on Behrens' method indicate that a substantial increase in reactivity may accompany the collapse of a large number of small bubbles in an LMFBR core. More sophisticated transport approaches to this problem have encountered several difficulties: the large number of bubbles requires many mesh points; the desired effect can easily be masked by the movement of fuel to regions of greater (or lesser) importance; the reactivity is desired for a random distribution of spherical bubbles. This paper describes a transport approach to this problem which avoids the above difficulties by using the ''sub-group'' or ''probability table'' method.

  16. Energy partition at the collapse of spherical cavitation bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinguely, M; Obreschkow, D; Kobel, P; Dorsaz, N; de Bosset, A; Farhat, M

    2012-10-01

    Spherically collapsing cavitation bubbles produce a shock wave followed by a rebound bubble. Here we present a systematic investigation of the energy partition between the rebound and the shock. Highly spherical cavitation bubbles are produced in microgravity, which suppresses the buoyant pressure gradient that otherwise deteriorates the sphericity of the bubbles. We measure the radius of the rebound bubble and estimate the shock energy as a function of the initial bubble radius (2-5.6mm) and the liquid pressure (10-80kPa). Those measurements uncover a systematic pressure dependence of the energy partition between rebound and shock. We demonstrate that these observations agree with a physical model relying on a first-order approximation of the liquid compressibility and an adiabatic treatment of the noncondensable gas inside the bubble. Using this model we find that the energy partition between rebound and shock is dictated by a single nondimensional parameter ξ=Δpγ6/[p(g0)1/γ(ρc2)1-1/γ], where Δp=p∞ - pv is the driving pressure, p∞ is the static pressure in the liquid, pv is the vapor pressure, pg0 is the pressure of the noncondensable gas at the maximal bubble radius, γ is the adiabatic index of the noncondensable gas, ρ is the liquid density, and c is the speed of sound in the liquid.

  17. Energy partition at the collapse of spherical cavitation bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinguely, M.; Obreschkow, D.; Kobel, P.; Dorsaz, N.; de Bosset, A.; Farhat, M.

    2012-10-01

    Spherically collapsing cavitation bubbles produce a shock wave followed by a rebound bubble. Here we present a systematic investigation of the energy partition between the rebound and the shock. Highly spherical cavitation bubbles are produced in microgravity, which suppresses the buoyant pressure gradient that otherwise deteriorates the sphericity of the bubbles. We measure the radius of the rebound bubble and estimate the shock energy as a function of the initial bubble radius (2-5.6mm) and the liquid pressure (10-80kPa). Those measurements uncover a systematic pressure dependence of the energy partition between rebound and shock. We demonstrate that these observations agree with a physical model relying on a first-order approximation of the liquid compressibility and an adiabatic treatment of the noncondensable gas inside the bubble. Using this model we find that the energy partition between rebound and shock is dictated by a single nondimensional parameter ξ=Δpγ6/[pg01/γ(ρc2)1-1/γ], where Δp=p∞-pv is the driving pressure, p∞ is the static pressure in the liquid, pv is the vapor pressure, pg0 is the pressure of the noncondensable gas at the maximal bubble radius, γ is the adiabatic index of the noncondensable gas, ρ is the liquid density, and c is the speed of sound in the liquid.

  18. Shock wave emission during the collapse of cavitation bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garen, W.; Hegedűs, F.; Kai, Y.; Koch, S.; Meyerer, B.; Neu, W.; Teubner, U.

    2016-07-01

    Shock wave emission induced by intense laser pulses is investigated experimentally. The present work focuses on the conditions of shock wave emission in glycerine and distilled water during the first bubble collapse. Experimental investigations are carried out in liquids as a function of temperature and viscosity. Comparison is made with the theoretical work of Poritsky (Proc 1st US Natl Congress Appl Mech 813-821, 1952) and Brennen (Cavitation and bubble dynamics, Oxford University Press 1995). To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first experimental verification of those theories.

  19. Collapsing Bubble in Metal for High Energy Density Physics Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, S F; Barnard, J J; Leung, P T; Yu, S S

    2011-04-13

    This paper presents a new idea to produce matter in the high energy density physics (HEDP) regime in the laboratory using an intense ion beam. A gas bubble created inside a solid metal may collapse by driving it with an intense ion beam. The melted metal will compress the gas bubble and supply extra energy to it. Simulations show that the spherical implosion ratio can be about 5 and at the stagnation point, the maximum density, temperature and pressure inside the gas bubble can go up to nearly 2 times solid density, 10 eV and a few megabar (Mbar) respectively. The proposed experiment is the first to permit access into the Mbar regime with existing or near-term ion facilities, and opens up possibilities for new physics gained through careful comparisons of simulations with measurements of quantities like stagnation radius, peak temperature and peak pressure at the metal wall.

  20. Observations of the collapses and rebounds of millimeter-sized lithotripsy bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Wayne; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A

    2011-11-01

    Bubbles excited by lithotripter shock waves undergo a prolonged growth followed by an inertial collapse and rebounds. In addition to the relevance for clinical lithotripsy treatments, such bubbles can be used to study the mechanics of inertial collapses. In particular, both phase change and diffusion among vapor and noncondensable gas molecules inside the bubble are known to alter the collapse dynamics of individual bubbles. Accordingly, the role of heat and mass transport during inertial collapses is explored by experimentally observing the collapses and rebounds of lithotripsy bubbles for water temperatures ranging from 20 to 60 °C and dissolved gas concentrations from 10 to 85% of saturation. Bubble responses were characterized through high-speed photography and acoustic measurements that identified the timing of individual bubble collapses. Maximum bubble diameters before and after collapse were estimated and the corresponding ratio of volumes was used to estimate the fraction of energy retained by the bubble through collapse. The rebounds demonstrated statistically significant dependencies on both dissolved gas concentration and temperature. In many observations, liquid jets indicating asymmetric bubble collapses were visible. Bubble rebounds were sensitive to these asymmetries primarily for water conditions corresponding to the most dissipative collapses.

  1. Identification of collapse patterns of cavitation bubbles close to a solid wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zima P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes different patterns of bubble deformation during the cavitation bubble collapse close to a solid wall for different bubble-wall distances. The bubble is generated by energy discharge in water. The collapse patterns are investigated using high-speed photography. The magnitude of the bubble-wall interaction is measured using the PVDF film. The shock wave pressure in the far field is measured using the PVDF hydrophone.

  2. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SPHERICAL, CYLINDRICAL AND AXIAL BUBBLE CLOUDS COLLAPSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHDI Miralam; EBRAHIMI Reza; SHAMS Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a spherical,cylindrical and axial cloud of cavitation bubbles were numerically simulated in order to learn more about the physical phenomena occurring in the cloud cavitation.The simulations employed the fully nonlinear continuum mixture equations coupled with the Gilmore equation for the dynamics of bubbles by considering the compressibility of liquid.A set of the Navier-Stokes equations was solved for the gas inside a spherical bubble,considering heat transfer through the gas inside the bubble and the liquid layer.The flow field around the cylindrical and axial cloud was obtained by solving the Navier-Stokes equations using a finite volume method and a dynamic layering mesh scheme.The calculated strength of shock wave in the liquid around the cloud was of the order of 1 × 106 Pa and the propagation of this shock wave lasted for 10 μs.The conducted investigations illustrate that the shock wave propagates before the cloud has completely collapsed.A good agreement with experimental data was observed.

  3. Collapse and rebound of a gas-filled spherical bubble immersed in a diagnostic ultrasonic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymé-Bellegarda, E J

    1990-08-01

    This work is concerned with the influence of the finite-amplitude distortion of a driving diagnostic ultrasonic field on the collapse and rebound of a gas-filled spherical microbubble, present in the exposed compressible liquid. Such an analysis is especially important since one of the mechanisms for cavitation damage comes from the very large gas pressures generated at bubble collapse and in the subsequent pressure wave formed by bubble rebound. Gilmore's model [F.R. Gilmore, "The growth or collapse of a spherical bubble in a viscous compressible liquid," Hydrodynamics Lab. Rep. No. 26-4, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (1952)] for bubble dynamics is used to obtain the motion of the bubble interface when subjected to a pulsed diagnostic ultrasonic field of large amplitude. Knowledge of the bubble motion allows one to derive the pressure distribution around the bubble. Numerical results over a range of initial bubble sizes, acoustic pressures, and frequencies relevant to medical use show that the strength of the pressure spikes radiated by the rebounding bubble depends upon (i) the acoustic frequency (f), (ii) the initial bubble size (R0), and (iii) the magnitude of the pressure amplitude of the fundamental (PF) in a Fourier series description of the distorted pulse. As the pressure spikes propagate outward from the bubble wall, their strength is attenuated as the reciprocal of the distance from the center of collapse.

  4. Bubble-raft collapse and the nonequilibrium dynamics of two-state elastica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chin-Chang; Kachan, Devin; Levine, Alex J.; Dennin, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We report on the collapse of bubble rafts under compression in a closed rectangular geometry. A bubble raft is a single layer of bubbles at the air-water interface. A collapse event occurs when bubbles submerge beneath the neighboring bubbles under compression, causing the structure of the bubble raft to go from single-layer to multilayer. We studied the collapse dynamics as a function of compression velocity. At higher compression velocity we observe a more uniform distribution of collapse events, whereas at lower compression velocities the collapse events accumulate at the system boundaries. We propose that this system can be understood in terms of a linear elastic sheet coupled to a local internal (Ising) degree of freedom. The two internal states, which represent one bubble layer versus two, couple to the elasticity of the sheet by locally changing the reference state of the material. By exploring the collapse dynamics of the bubble raft, one may address the basic nonlinear mechanics of a number of complex systems in which elastic stress is coupled to local internal variables.

  5. A mathematical definition of the financial bubbles and crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2007-09-01

    We check the validity of the mathematical method of detecting financial bubbles or crashes, which is based on a data fitting with an exponential function. We show that the period of a bubble can be determined nearly uniquely independent of the precision of data. The method is widely applicable for stock market data such as the Internet bubble.

  6. Pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for cavitation bubble collapse with high density ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ming-Lei; Zhu, Chang-Ping; Yao, Cheng; Yin, Cheng; Jiang, Xiao-Yan

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of the cavitation bubble collapse is a fundamental issue for the bubble collapse application and prevention. In the present work, the modified forcing scheme for the pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model developed by Li Q et al. [Li Q, Luo K H and Li X J 2013 Phys. Rev. E 87 053301] is adopted to develop a cavitation bubble collapse model. In the respects of coexistence curves and Laplace law verification, the improved pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is investigated. It is found that the thermodynamic consistency and surface tension are independent of kinematic viscosity. By homogeneous and heterogeneous cavitation simulation, the ability of the present model to describe the cavitation bubble development as well as the cavitation inception is verified. The bubble collapse between two parallel walls is simulated. The dynamic process of a collapsing bubble is consistent with the results from experiments and simulations by other numerical methods. It is demonstrated that the present pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is applicable and efficient, and the lattice Boltzmann method is an alternative tool for collapsing bubble modeling. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274092 and 1140040119) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. SBK2014043338).

  7. Growth and collapse of a vapor bubble in a narrow tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ory, E.; Yuan, H.; Prosperetti, A.; Popinet, S.; Zaleski, S.

    2000-01-01

    The fluid mechanical aspects of the axisymmetric growth and collapse of a bubble in a narrow tube filled with a viscous liquid are studied numerically. The tube is open at both ends and connects two liquid reservoirs at constant pressure. The bubble is initially a small sphere and growth is triggere

  8. Shock-induced collapse of a bubble inside a deformable vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coralic, Vedran; Colonius, Tim

    2013-07-01

    Shockwave lithotripsy repeatedly focuses shockwaves on kidney stones to induce their fracture, partially through cavitation erosion. A typical side effect of the procedure is hemorrhage, which is potentially the result of the growth and collapse of bubbles inside blood vessels. To identify the mechanisms by which shock-induced collapse could lead to the onset of injury, we study an idealized problem involving a preexisting bubble in a deformable vessel. We utilize a high-order accurate, shock- and interface-capturing, finite-volume scheme and simulate the three-dimensional shock-induced collapse of an air bubble immersed in a cylindrical water column which is embedded in a gelatin/water mixture. The mixture is a soft tissue simulant, 10% gelatin by weight, and is modeled by the stiffened gas equation of state. The bubble dynamics of this model configuration are characterized by the collapse of the bubble and its subsequent jetting in the direction of the propagation of the shockwave. The vessel wall, which is defined by the material interface between the water and gelatin/water mixture, is invaginated by the collapse and distended by the impact of the jet. The present results show that the highest measured pressures and deformations occur when the volumetric confinement of the bubble is strongest, the bubble is nearest the vessel wall and/or the angle of incidence of the shockwave reduces the distance between the jet tip and the nearest vessel surface. For a particular case considered, the 40 MPa shockwave utilized in this study to collapse the bubble generated a vessel wall pressure of almost 450 MPa and produced both an invagination and distention of nearly 50% of the initial vessel radius on a (10) ns timescale. These results are indicative of the significant potential of shock-induced collapse to contribute to the injury of blood vessels in shockwave lithotripsy.

  9. Simulation of the Collapse of an Underwater Explosion Bubble under a Circular Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit-Keung Kan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-fluid, computational fluid dynamics study of the phenomena of bubble collapse under a submersed flat plate has been performed. In order to handle the rapidly changing bubble-water interface accurately, second order upwind differencing is used in calculating the advection term. Good agreement with experimental data is obtained for the pressure distribution on the plate. The computational results provide insight into the phenomenology of the jet impact, the formation of a radial hydraulic jump, and the complex interaction of that hydraulic jump with the collapsing toroidal bubble.

  10. LEVEL SET METHOD FOR NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF A CAVITATION BUBBLE COLLAPSING NEAR A RIGID WALL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jun-tao; ZHANG Hui-sheng

    2005-01-01

    The level set method, TVD scheme of second order upwind procedure coupled with flux limiter, ENO velocity extension procedure inside the bubble, and MAC projection algorithm were incorporated to simulate the whole collapse evolution of a cavitation bubble near a rigid wall with many complicated phenomena, such as topology distortion and shrinking, jet impact, bubble breaking into a toroidal form, and diminishing volume to zero, etc.The bubble shape, evolution and distribution of velocity and pressure fields of the fluid during the bubble collapsing were investigated.It is found that the method is numerically stable and has good convergence property, and the results are in good agreements with those in previous work.

  11. Simulation of the Collapse of an Underwater Explosion Bubble under a Circular Plate

    OpenAIRE

    Kit-Keung Kan; Stuhmiller, James H.; Chan, Philemon C.

    2005-01-01

    A two-fluid, computational fluid dynamics study of the phenomena of bubble collapse under a submersed flat plate has been performed. In order to handle the rapidly changing bubble-water interface accurately, second order upwind differencing is used in calculating the advection term. Good agreement with experimental data is obtained for the pressure distribution on the plate. The computational results provide insight into the phenomenology of the jet impact, the formation of a radial hydraulic...

  12. Numerical investigation of shock induced bubble collapse in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apazidis, N.

    2016-04-01

    A semi-conservative, stable, interphase-capturing numerical scheme for shock propagation in heterogeneous systems is applied to the problem of shock propagation in liquid-gas systems. The scheme is based on the volume-fraction formulation of the equations of motion for liquid and gas phases with separate equations of state. The semi-conservative formulation of the governing equations ensures the absence of spurious pressure oscillations at the material interphases between liquid and gas. Interaction of a planar shock in water with a single spherical bubble as well as twin adjacent bubbles is investigated. Several stages of the interaction process are considered, including focusing of the transmitted shock within the deformed bubble, creation of a water-hammer shock as well as generation of high-speed liquid jet in the later stages of the process.

  13. Numerical simulation of cavitation erosion on a NACA0015 hydrofoil based on bubble collapse strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, V.; Luo, X.; Escaler, X.; Huang, R.; Valencia, E.

    2015-12-01

    The prediction of erosion under unsteady cavitation is crucial to prevent damage in hydraulic machinery. The present investigation deals with the numerical simulation of erosive partial cavitation around a NACA0015 hydrofoil. The study presents the calculation of the bubble collapse strength, Sb, based on the bubble potential energy to identify the surface areas with highest risk of damage. The results are obtained with a numerical scheme assuming homogeneous mixture flow, implicit LES and Zwart cavitation model. The 3D unsteady flow simulation has been solved using OpenFOAM. Python language and OpenFOAM calculator (foamCalcEx) have been used to obtain and represent Sb. The obtained results clearly show the instants of erosive bubble collapse and the affected surface areas.

  14. Study of the reactivity effect of bubble collapse in molten liquid metal cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munno, F.J.; Sheaks, O.J.

    1977-08-01

    The reactivity effect of void collapse on a Core Disruptive Accident in a sodium free fast reactor core was studied. A two-dimensional transport theory computer code was employed to obtain a reactivity model which incorporated random distributions of voids in spatial location and bubble size. This model was implemented into VENUS-II and several excursions were investigated for the purpose of assessing the effect of bubble collapse reactivity on excursion energy. In addition, comparisons were made between the VENUS-II results obtained using the transport reactivity model and those obtained using a reactivity model developed from the Behrens' formulation of the leakage effects due to the presence of bubbles. The results indicate that excursion energy is sensitive to the shape of the reactivity versus void fraction function and that reactivity models based strictly on leakage effects are probably conservative compared to models which include both self-multiplication and leakage.

  15. Variation of the temperature coefficient of collapse field in bismuth-based bubble garnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratello, V. J.; Pierce, R. D.; Brandle, C. D.

    1985-01-01

    An approximation to the collapse-field formula is used to show its dependence on magnetization and wall energy and the effect of additions of Gd, Sm, and Eu on 1-micron Bi:YIG bubble materials. The collapse field, magnetization, and wall energy are fitted to quadratic functions of temperature from -50 to 150 C. It is shown that the addition of the various classes of rare earths reduces the temperature derivative of the collapse field in Bi:YIG. Gd influences the collapse field through the magnetization, Sm affects it through the domain wall energy, and Eu does both. The singular magnetic properties of Eu result in the most nearly constant temperature dependence of the collapse field and the best match to a barium-ferrite bias magnite.

  16. Experimental and numerical study on the growth and collapse of a bubble in a narrow tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Yu Ni; A-Man Zhang; Qian-Xi Wang; Bin Wang

    2012-01-01

    The growth,expansion and collapse of a bubble in a narrow tube are studied using both experiments and numerical simulations.In experiment,the bubble is generatedby an electric spark in a water tank and recorded by a highspeed camera system.In numerical simulation,the evolution of the bubble is solved by adopting axisymmetric boundary integral equation,considering the surface tension effect.The results of experiments and numerical simulations are compared and good agreements are achieved.Both of them show that a counter-jet forms and penetrates the bubble at the end of the collapse stage,before a ring type bubble forms.Under the attraction of the tube wall due to Bjerknes force,a ring jet is generated,pointing towards the tube.On the basis of this,some physical quantities like the pressure on the tube wall and kinetic energy are calculated in a case study.The effects of tube diameters and tube lengths on the bubble's behaviors are also investigated.

  17. Acoustic emission noise from sodium vapour bubble collapsing: detection, interpretation, modelling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentico, G.; Pacilio, V.; Papalia, B.; Taglienti, S.; Tosi, V.

    1982-01-01

    Sodium vapour bubble collapsing is detected by means of piezoelectric accelorometers coupled to the test section via short waveguides. The output analog signal is processed by transforming it into a time series of pulses through the setting of an amplitude threshold and the shaping of a standard pulse (denominated 'event') every time the signal crosses that border. The number of events is counted in adjacent and equal time duration samples and the waiting time distribution between contiguous events is measured. Up to the moment, six kinetic properties have been found for the mentioned time series. They help in setting a stochastic model in which the subministration of energy into a liquid sodium medium induces the formation of vapour bubbles and their consequent collapsing delivers acoustic pulses. Finally, a simulation procedure is carried out: a Polya's urn model is adopted for simulating event sequences with a priori established requisites.

  18. Electron Thermal Capacity in Plasma Generated at Cavitation Bubble Collapse in D-acetone

    CERN Document Server

    Kostenko, B F

    2004-01-01

    The latest experimental data on nuclear reaction product registration at cavitation bubble collapse in deuterated acetone (C$_3$D$_6$O) still argue in favour of existence of a new possibility to realize the thermonuclear synthesis. Theoretical description based on numerical solution of simultaneous conservation equations for gaseous and liquid phases also confirms this possibility, although it requires further more precise definitions. In particular, description of electron degrees of freedom in very dense nonequilibrium plasma generated at the final stage of bubble collapse needs specification. In the present paper, calculations of electron thermal capacity in the deuterated acetone multiple ionization region at electron temperatures $T_e \\simeq 10^4 $ K and above and compression range $\\rho/\\rho_0 \\simeq 1 \\div 100$ have been fulfilled on the basis of direct numerical solution of equation for chemical potential.

  19. Experimental investigation of the impact on nearby solid boundary during laser-generated bubble collapse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiao; Xu Rong-Qing; Shen Zhong-Hua; Lu Jian; Ni Xiao-Wu

    2004-01-01

    Cavitation damage has been considered as being responsible for many effects in hydraulic machinery and biological medicine. In order to better understand the cavity interaction with nearby solid surfaces, the impact loading induced by the high-speed liquid-jet and subsequent jet flow during the final stage of the bubble collapse in a static fluid is investigated by focusing a Q-switched pulsed laser into water. By means of a new method based on a fibre-coupling optical beam deflection technique, a detailed experimental study has been made to clarify the relationship of the impact pressure against a solid boundary as a function of the dimensionless γ that is generally used to describe the bubble dynamics with its definition γ = s-Rmax (Rmax being the maximum bubble radius and s denoting the distance of the cavity inception from the boundary). The experimental results are shown that for γ in the range of about 0.67to 0.95 with a pulsed laser energy 230m J, the transient pressure applied on the solid surface is maximum; while for γ> 1 or γ< 0.67, it is gradually decreased. By combination of our experimental results with the other work that detected the >coustic emission during the bubble collapse at different γ, it is concluded that in this range of 0.67-0.95,the destructive effect due to a liquid-jet and the following jet flow impact actually outweighs the well-known effect of shock wave emission and plays a vital role during the cavitation bubble collapse.

  20. Timescales of bubble coalescence, outgassing, and foam collapse in decompressed rhyolitic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Caroline; Iacono-Marziano, Giada

    2016-04-01

    The timescale of degassing and outgassing in hydrous rhyolitic melts is investigated in a wide range of conditions by means of decompression experiments. The evolution of vesicularity, bubble diameter, and number density is characterized as a function of time either of decompression or spent at final pressure, in order to determine the effect of final pressure, temperature, syn- versus post-decompression degassing, melt composition, and microlites, on the timescale of bubble growth, coalescence, and outgassing. The result suggest that different bubble evolution and degassing-outgassing timescale corresponding to explosive and effusive eruption regimes can be cast in bulk viscosity (melt + bubbles; nbulk) versus decompression time (rather than path) space. The nbulk-time relationships defines three domains of (i) bubble nucleation and growth, restricted to short durations and high nbulk ( 10-13 m2) to extensive (permeability ˜10-11-12 m2), and (iii) outgassing, restricted to long durations and low nbulk(> ˜10 h for nbulk 10-10 m2) that eventually leads to foam collapse. These findings are applied to the case studies of Mt Pelée and Mt Pinatubo to infer the transition from pumice to dense pyroclasts in volcanic eruptions and the possibility of evolving from an explosive Plinian eruption to an effusive dome-growth event by giving the vesicular magma enough time to outgas and collapse (i.e. hundreds to tens of hours for nbulk ˜105 to 104 Pa.s, respectively). We also show the drastic effect of microlites on re-arranging preexistent bubbles and potentially triggering a late nucleation event.

  1. Stationary bubble formation and cavity collapse in wedge-shaped hoppers

    CERN Document Server

    Yagisawa, Yui; Okumura, Ko

    2016-01-01

    The hourglass is one of the apparatuses familiar to everyone, but reveals intriguing behaviors peculiar to granular materials, and many issues are remained to be explored. In this study, we examined the dynamics of falling sand in a special form of hourglass, i.e., a wedge-shaped hopper, when a suspended granular layer is stabilized to a certain degree. As a result, we found remarkably different dynamics, bubbling and cavity regimes. In the bubbling regime, bubbles of nearly equal size are created in the sand at a regular time interval. In the cavity regime, a cavity grows as sand beads fall before a sudden collapse of the cavity. Bubbling found here is quite visible to a level never discussed in the physics literature and the cavity regime is a novel phase, which is neither continuous, intermittent nor completely blocked phase. We elucidate the physical conditions necessary for the bubbling and cavity regimes and develop simple theories for the regimes to successfully explain the observed phenomena by consid...

  2. Formation and collapse of false vacuum bubbles in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Rajarshi E-mail: rajarshi@iopb.res.in; Sanyal, Soma E-mail: sanyal@iopb.res.in; Srivastava, Ajit M. E-mail: ajit@iopb.res.in

    2002-12-30

    It is possible that under certain situations, in a relativistic heavy-ion collision, partons may expand out forming a shell like structure. We analyze the process of hadronization in such a picture for the case when the quark-hadron transition is of first order, and argue that the inside region of such a shell must correspond to a supercooled (to T=0) deconfined vacuum. Hadrons from that region escape out, leaving a bubble of pure deconfined vacuum with large vacuum energy. This bubble undergoes relativistic collapse, with highly Lorentz contracted bubble walls, and may concentrate the entire energy into extremely small regions. Eventually different portions of bubble wall collide, with the energy being released in the form of particle production. Thermalization of this system can lead to very high temperatures. With a reasonably conservative set of parameters, at LHC, the temperature of the hot spot can reach as high as 3 GeV, and well above it with more optimistic parameters. Such a hot spot can leave signals like large P{sub T} partons, dileptons, and enhanced production of heavy quarks. We also briefly discuss a speculative possibility where the electroweak symmetry may get restored in the highly dense region resulting from the decay of the bubble wall via the phenomenon of non-thermal symmetry restoration (which is usually employed in models of pre-heating after inflation). If that could happen then the possibility may arise of observing sphaleron induced baryon number violation in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  3. Simulations of Shock-induced Bubble Collapse near Hard and Soft Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Mauro; Johnsen, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the dynamics of cavitation bubbles and shock waves in and near hard and soft objects is important particularly in various naval and medical applications. Two examples are therapeutic ultrasound procedures, which utilize this phenomenon for breaking kidney stones (lithotripsy) and ablation of pathogenic tissue (histotripsy), and erosion to elastomeric coatings on propellers. Although not fully understood, the damage mechanism combines the effect of the incoming pulses and cavitation produced by the high tension of the pulses. To understand the damage mechanism, it is of key interest to quantifying the influence of the shock waves on the material and the response of the material to the shock waves. A novel Eulerian numerical approach for simulating shock and acoustic wave propagation in viscoelastic media is leveraged to understand this influence. High-fidelity simulations of the bubble collapse dynamics for various experimental configurations (i.e. the viscous or viscoelastic material surrounding the bubble and neighboring object's rigidity are varied) will be conducted. In particular, we will discuss the shock emission from collapse and its propagation in the neighboring object, including stresses thereby produced. This research was supported in part by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0751 under Dr. Ki-Han Kim and by NSF Grant Number CBET 1253157.

  4. Experimental observation of the luminescence flash at the collapse phase of a bubble produced by pulsed discharge in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yifan; Zhang, Liancheng; Zhu, Xinlei; Liu, Zhen, E-mail: zliu@zju.edu.cn; Yan, Keping [Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310007 (China); Chen, Jim [Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310007 (China); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2015-11-02

    This letter presents an experimental observation of luminescence flash at the collapse phase of an oscillating bubble produced by a pulsed discharge in water. According to the high speed records, the flash lasts around tens of microseconds, which is much longer than the lifetime of laser and ultrasound induced luminescence flashes in nanoseconds and picoseconds, respectively. The pulse width of temperature waveform and minimum radius calculated at the collapse phase also show that the thermodynamic and dynamic signatures of the bubbles in this work are much larger than those of ultrasound and laser induced bubbles both in time and space scales. However, the peak temperature at the point of collapse is close to the results of ultrasound and laser induced bubbles. This result provides another possibility for accurate emission spectrum measurement other than amplification of the emitted light, such as increasing laser energy or sound energy or substituting water with sulphuric acid.

  5. CFD simulation of bubbling and collapsing characteristics in a gas-solid fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Pei; Zhang Kai; Lu Erwei; Wen Dongsheng

    2009-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become an alternative method to experiments for understanding the fluid dynamics of multiphase flow. A two-fluid model, which contains additional terms in both the gas- and solid-phase momentum equations, is used to investigate the fluidization quality in a fluidized bed. A case study for quartz sand with a density of 2,660 kg/m3 and a diameter of 500 μm,whose physical property is similar to a new kind of catalyst for producing clean fuels through the residue fluid catalytic cracking process, is simulated in a two-dimensional fluidized bed with 0.57 m width and 1.00 m height. Transient bubbling and collapsing characteristics are numerically investigated in the platform of CFX 4.4 by integrating user-defined Fortran subroutines. The results show that the fluidization and collapse process is in fair agreement with the classical theory of Geldart B classification, but the collapse time is affected by bubbles at the interface between the dense phase and freeboard.

  6. Bubble systems

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeev, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...

  7. The Bubble-like Interior of the Core-Collapse Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    CERN Document Server

    Milisavljevic, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The death of massive stars is believed to involve aspheric explosions initiated by the collapse of an iron core. The specifics of how these catastrophic explosions proceed remain uncertain due, in part, to limited observational constraints on various processes that can introduce asymmetries deep inside the star. Here we present near-infrared observations of the young Milky Way supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, descendant of a type IIb core-collapse explosion, and a three-dimensional map of its interior, unshocked ejecta. The remnant's interior has a bubble-like morphology that smoothly connects to and helps explain the multi-ringed structures seen in the remnant's bright reverse shocked main shell of expanding debris. This internal structure may have originated from turbulent mixing processes that encouraged the development of outwardly expanding plumes of radioactive 56Ni-rich ejecta. If this is true, substantial amounts of its decay product, 56Fe, may still reside in these interior cavities.

  8. Identifying bubble collapse in a hydrothermal system using hiddden Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip B.; Benitez, M.C.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Chouet, Bernard A.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in July 2003 and lasting through September 2003, the Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park exhibited an unusual increase in ground temperature and hydrothermal activity. Using hidden Markov model theory, we identify over five million high-frequency (>15 Hz) seismic events observed at a temporary seismic station deployed in the basin in response to the increase in hydrothermal activity. The source of these seismic events is constrained to within ~100 m of the station, and produced ~3500–5500 events per hour with mean durations of ~0.35–0.45 s. The seismic event rate, air temperature, hydrologic temperatures, and surficial water flow of the geyser basin exhibited a marked diurnal pattern that was closely associated with solar thermal radiance. We interpret the source of the seismicity to be due to the collapse of small steam bubbles in the hydrothermal system, with the rate of collapse being controlled by surficial temperatures and daytime evaporation rates.

  9. Numerical simulaion of dynamics of a gas bubble in liquid near a rigid wall during its growth and collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgamov, M. A.; Kosolapova, L. A.; Malakhov, V. G.

    2016-11-01

    A numerical technique of calculating the dynamics of a cavitation bubble near a plane rigid wall is presented. The bubble at its collapse can become toroidal. The liquid is assumed inviscid and incompressible, its flow being potential. The bubble surface movement is determined by the Euler method, the normal component of the liquid velocity on the bubble surface is found by the boundary element method. The technique also includes an algorithm for calculating the velocity and pressure fields in the liquid. The convergence of the numerical solution with refining the temporal and spatial steps is demonstrated. The results of the present technique are compared with some known numerical and experimental data by other authors, their satisfactory agreement is found. To illustrate the capabilities of the present technique the process of growth and collapse of a bubble in water near a wall is considered. The liquid pressure contours in the stage of the bubble collapse are given and the radial liquid pressure profiles on the wall and at a small distance from the wall where the liquid pressure is maximum are shown.

  10. Periodically Collapsing Bubbles in Stock Prices Cointegrated with Broad Dividends and Macroeconomic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Fu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We study fluctuations in stock prices using a framework derived from the present value model augmented with a macroeconomic factor. The fundamental value is derived as the expected present discounted value of broad dividends that include, in addition to traditional cash dividends, other payouts to shareholders. A stochastic discount factor motivated by the consumption-based asset pricing model is utilized. A single macroeconomic factor, namely the output gap determines the non-fundamental component of stock prices. A resulting trivariate Vector Autoregression (TVAR model of stock prices, broad dividends, and the output gap shows evidence of cointegration in the DJIA and S&P 500 index data. Nonetheless, a sup augmented Dickey-Fuller test reveals existence of periodically collapsing bubbles in S&P 500 data during the late 1990s.

  11. Hydrothermal conversion of graphite to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) induced by bubble collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Liu, Fang

    2016-11-01

    Cu-Fe-CNTs and Ni-Fe-CNTs coatings were deposited on gray cast iron by a hydrothermal approach. It was demonstrated that, the flaky graphite of gray cast iron was exfoliated to graphene nanosheets under hydrothermal reactions, and graphene nanosheets were scrolled to CNTs. After high temperature treatments, the volume losses of Cu-Fe-CNTs and Ni-Fe-CNTs coatings were 52.6 % and 40.0 % of gray cast iron substrate at 60 min wear tests, respectively, obviously increasing the wear properties of gray cast iron. During hydrothermal reactions, water jets and shock waves were produced by bubble collapse. Induced by the water jets and shock waves, exfoliation of flaky graphite was performed, producing exfoliated graphene nanosheets. Attacked by the radially distributed water jets and shock waves, graphene nanosheets were curved, shaped to semicircle morphology and eventually scrolled to tubular CNTs.

  12. Thermally induced local failures in quasi-one-dimensional systems: collapse in carbon nanotubes, neckling in nanowires, bubbles in DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisoli, Cristiano [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lookman, Turab [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saxena, Avadh [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abraham, Douglas [RUDOLF PEIERLS CENTRE

    2009-01-01

    Quasi one dimensional systems can suffer local structural failures-broadly defined-along their length: for instance, carbon nanotubes can collapse, nanowires can show bottlenecks below which conductance drops, bubbles open in DNA. We present a formalism to explore the occurrence of those thermally activated failures in complete generality, to calculate the average length between them as a function of the thermodynamic observables.

  13. Identifying bubble collapse in a hydrothermal system using hidden Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, P.B.; Benitez, M.C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Chouet, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in July 2003 and lasting through September 2003, the Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park exhibited an unusual increase in ground temperature and hydrothermal activity. Using hidden Markov model theory, we identify over five million high-frequency (>15Hz) seismic events observed at a temporary seismic station deployed in the basin in response to the increase in hydrothermal activity. The source of these seismic events is constrained to within ???100 m of the station, and produced ???3500-5500 events per hour with mean durations of ???0.35-0.45s. The seismic event rate, air temperature, hydrologic temperatures, and surficial water flow of the geyser basin exhibited a marked diurnal pattern that was closely associated with solar thermal radiance. We interpret the source of the seismicity to be due to the collapse of small steam bubbles in the hydrothermal system, with the rate of collapse being controlled by surficial temperatures and daytime evaporation rates. copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Level set method for numerical simulation of a cavitation bubble, its growth, collapse and rebound near a rigid wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juntao Huang; Huisheng Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A level set method of non-uniform grids is used to simulate the whole evolution of a cavitation bubble, inclu-ding its growth, collapse and rebound near a rigid wall. Single-phase Navier-Stokes equation in the liquid region is solved by MAC projection algorithm combined with second-order ENO scheme for the advection terms. The moving inter-face is captured by the level set function, and the interface velocity is resolved by "one-side" velocity extension from the liquid region to the bubble region, complementing the second-order weighted least squares method across the inter-face and projection inside bubble. The use of non-uniform grid overcomes the difficulty caused by the large computatio-nal domain and very small bubble size. The computation is very stable without suffering from large flow-field gradients, and the results are in good agreements with other studies. The bubble interface kinematics, dynamics and its effect on the wall are highlighted, which shows that the code can effecti-vely capture the "shock wave"-like pressure and velocity at jet impact, toroidal bubble, and complicated pressure struc-ture with peak, plateau and valley in the later stage of bubble oscillating.

  15. Mechanics-based mathematical studies proving spontaneity of post-impact WTC towers collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Jia-Liang; Bažant, Zdeněk P.

    2017-02-01

    The cause of collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York on 9/11/2001, clarified mathematically by mechanical analysis, has been questioned by some lay critics without any meaningful calculations. They blame the collapse on controlled demolition, implying some sort of conspiracy. The present article summarizes the reasons why the collapse must have been spontaneous and an inevitable result of the aircraft impact damage and the subsequent fire, and how the collapse is explained by mathematical analysis based on mechanics and confirmed by all the available observations.

  16. Nucleosynthesis in the Hot Convective Bubble in Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruet, J; Woosley, S E; Buras, R; Janka, H; Hoffman, R D

    2004-09-02

    As an explosion develops in the collapsed core of a massive star, neutrino emission drives convection in a hot bubble of radiation, nucleons, and pairs just outside a proto-neutron star. Shortly thereafter, neutrinos drive a wind-like outflow from the neutron star. In both the convective bubble and the early wind, weak interactions temporarily cause a proton excess (Y{sub e} {approx}> 0.50) to develop in the ejected matter. This situation lasts for at least the first second, and the approximately 0.05-0.1 M{sub {circle_dot}} that is ejected has an unusual composition that may be important for nucleosynthesis. Using tracer particles to follow the conditions in a two-dimensional model of a successful supernova explosion calculated by Janka, Buras, and Rampp (2003), they determine the composition of this material. most of it is helium and {sup 56}Ni. The rest is relatively rare species produced by the decay of proton-rich isotopes unstable to positron emission. In the absence of pronounced charged-current neutrino capture, nuclear flow will be held up by long-lived waiting point nuclei in the vicinity of {sup 64}Ge. The resulting abundance pattern can be modestly rich in a few interesting rare isotopes like {sup 45}Sc, {sup 49}Ti, and {sup 64}Zn. The present calculations imply yields that, when compared with the production of major species in the rest of the supernova, are about those needed to account for the solar abundance of {sup 45}Sc and {sup 49}Ti. Since the synthesis will be nearly the same in stars of high and low metallicity, the primary production of these species may have discernible signatures in the abundances of low metallicity stars. They also discuss uncertainties in the nuclear physics and early supernova evolution to which abundances of interesting nuclei are sensitive.

  17. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COLLAPSE IN BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiaoguang; Zhang Jian; Wu Yonghong

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors consider the collapse solutions of Cauchy problem for the nonlinear Schrodinger equation iψt +1/2Δψ-1/2ω2|x|2ψ+ |ψ|2+|ψ|2ψ=0, x∈R2, which models the Bose-Einstein condensate with attractive interactions. The authors establish the lower bound of collapse rate as t→T. Furthermore, the L2-concentration property of the radially symmetric collapse solutions is obtained.

  18. The rate of gas-bubble growth in tissue under decompression. Mathematical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislyakov YuYa; Kopyltsov, A V

    1988-03-01

    A mathematical model simulating the formation of gas bubbles in biological tissues under decompression is presented. It is written as a system of partial differential equations solved on a computer. For the nitrogen-oxygen gas mixture, used for respiration in deep-water immersions, the effects of the physico-chemical properties of the gases, the magnitude of pressure differentials and the density of bubble-formation centres on the bubble size and rate of growth were studied. It is shown that in the case of drastic pressure differentials the formation of bubbles capable of producing microcirculatory disturbances is accomplished within a few seconds.

  19. An Erosion Aggressiveness Index (EAI) Based on Pressure Load Estimation Due to Bubble Collapse in Cavitating Flows Within the RANS Solvers

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeles, G.; Koukouvinis, P.; Gavaises, M.; Li, J; Wang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous research efforts, there is no reliable and widely accepted tool for the prediction of erosion prone material surfaces due to collapse of cavitation bubbles. In the present paper an Erosion Aggressiveness Index (EAI) is proposed, based on the pressure loads which develop on the material surface and the material yield stress. EAI depends on parameters of the liquid quality and includes the fourth power of the maximum bubble radius and the bubble size number density distribution...

  20. Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2013-01-01

    A goal of our ongoing research stream is to develop a multidisciplinary metatheory of bubbles. In this viewpoint paper we put forward a typology of bubbles by comparing four types of assets – entertainment, commodities, financial securities (stocks), and housing properties – where bubbles could a...

  1. A simple mathematical model of society collapse applied to Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologna, M.; Flores, J. C.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we consider a mathematical model for the evolution and collapse of the Easter Island society. Based on historical reports, the available primary resources consisted almost exclusively in the trees, then we describe the inhabitants and the resources as an isolated dynamical system. A mathematical, and numerical, analysis about the Easter Island community collapse is performed. In particular, we analyze the critical values of the fundamental parameters and a demographic curve is presented. The technological parameter, quantifying the exploitation of the resources, is calculated and applied to the case of another extinguished civilization (Copán Maya) confirming the consistency of the adopted model.

  2. Growth and collapse of laser-induced bubbles in glycerol-water mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiu-Mei; He Jie; Lu Jian; Ni Xiao-Wu

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive numerical and experimental analyses of the effect of viscosity on cavitation oscillations are performed. This numerical approach is based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The model predictions are compared with experimental results obtained by using a fibre-optic diagnostic technique based on optical beam deflection (OBD). The maximum and minimum bubble radii as well as the oscillation times for each oscillation cycle are determined according to the characteristic signals. It is observed that the increasing of viscosity decreases the maximum bubble radii but increases the minimum bubble radii and the oscillation time. These experimental results are consistent with numerical results.

  3. Development and application of a high speed digital data acquisition technique to study steam bubble collapse using particle image velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidl, W.D.

    1992-08-01

    The use of a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method, which uses digital cameras for data acquisition, for studying high speed fluid flows is usually limited by the digital camera's frame acquisition rate. The velocity of the fluid under study has to be limited to insure that the tracer seeds suspended in the fluid remain in the camera's focal plane for at least two consecutive images. However, the use of digital cameras for data acquisition is desirable to simplify and expedite the data analysis process. A technique was developed which will measure fluid velocities with PIV techniques using two successive digital images and two different framing rates simultaneously. The first part of the method will measure changes which occur to the flow field at the relatively slow framing rate of 53.8 ms. The second part will measure changes to the same flow field at the relatively fast framing rate of 100 to 320 [mu]s. The effectiveness of this technique was tested by studying the collapse of steam bubbles in a subcooled tank of water, a relatively high speed phenomena. The tracer particles were recorded and velocity vectors for the fluid were obtained far from the steam bubble collapse.

  4. Development and application of a high speed digital data acquisition technique to study steam bubble collapse using particle image velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidl, W.D.

    1992-08-01

    The use of a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method, which uses digital cameras for data acquisition, for studying high speed fluid flows is usually limited by the digital camera`s frame acquisition rate. The velocity of the fluid under study has to be limited to insure that the tracer seeds suspended in the fluid remain in the camera`s focal plane for at least two consecutive images. However, the use of digital cameras for data acquisition is desirable to simplify and expedite the data analysis process. A technique was developed which will measure fluid velocities with PIV techniques using two successive digital images and two different framing rates simultaneously. The first part of the method will measure changes which occur to the flow field at the relatively slow framing rate of 53.8 ms. The second part will measure changes to the same flow field at the relatively fast framing rate of 100 to 320 {mu}s. The effectiveness of this technique was tested by studying the collapse of steam bubbles in a subcooled tank of water, a relatively high speed phenomena. The tracer particles were recorded and velocity vectors for the fluid were obtained far from the steam bubble collapse.

  5. Luminescence features from conical bubble collapse in 1,2 propanediol and its perturbation adding sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarrete, M; Godinez, F A [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria No. 3000, Col. Copilco Universidad, Delegacion de Coyoacan, Mexico, D. F. Codigo Postal 04360, Instituto de Ingenieria, Lab. de Fotofisica (Mexico); Sanchez, C [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria No. 3000, Col. Copilco Universidad, Delegacion de Coyoacan, Mexico, D. F. Codigo Postal 04360, Lab. de Fotonica y Microondas (Mexico); Mejia, E V; Villagran, M, E-mail: mnm@pumas.iingen.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria No. 3000, Col. Copilco Universidad, Delegacion de Coyoacan, Mexico, D. F. Codigo Postal 04360 (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    A summary of experimental findings on the luminescence from bubble collapse, CBL, varying the gas inert bubble content, the driving pressure and perturbing the liquid piston with small quantities of sulfuric acid is presented. The temporal, spectral, and spatial characteristics of the luminescence regarding with dynamic features of collapse are also examinees. CBL was reproduced using Argon gas, and 1, 2-propanediol as liquid piston. In general, the pulse shape exhibits a large variety of profiles. The luminescence intensity was increased two-fold and the pulse width decreased almost to half when the liquid was disturbed with sulfuric acid. Spectrally, the Swan, CH and CN lines were observed at low volume of Ar gas and low driving pressure, lines of OH{sup 0}, Na*, K* always appear superimposed on an underlying continuum background. De-excitation of sodium atom at 589 nm and two satellites diffuse bands at {approx}554 nm and {approx}620 nm from alkali-metal-argon exciplexes was observed in both systems under certain conditions. All these findings point towards several sources of light emission that are generated during the compression time line, resulting in temporally and spatially inhomogeneous pulse. A mechanism for explain the bright CBL is broached.

  6. Analysis of the effect of impact of near-wall acoustic bubble collapse micro-jet on Al 1060.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Linzheng; Zhu, Xijing

    2017-05-01

    The bubble collapse near a wall will generate strong micro-jet in a liquid environment under ultrasonic field. To explore the effect of the impact of near-wall acoustic bubble collapse micro-jet on an aluminum 1060 sheet, the cavitation threshold formula and micro-jet velocity formula were first proposed. Then the Johnson-Cook rate correlation material constitutive model was considered, and a three-dimensional fluid-solid coupling model of micro-jet impact on a wall was established and analyzed. Finally, to validate the model, ultrasonic cavitation test and inversion analysis based on the theory of spherical indentation test were conducted. The results show that cavitation occurs significantly in the liquid under ultrasonic field, as the applied ultrasonic pressure amplitude is much larger than liquid cavitation threshold. Micro pits appear on the material surface under the impact of micro-jet. Pit depth is determined by both micro-jet velocity and micro-jet diameter, and increases with their increase. Pit diameter is mainly related to the micro-jet diameter and dp/dj≈0.95-1.2, while pit's diameter-to-depth ratio is mainly negatively correlated with the micro-jet velocity. Wall pressure distribution is mostly symmetric and its maximum appears on the edge of micro-jet impingement. Obviously, the greater the micro-jet velocity is, the greater the wall pressure is. Micro pits formed after the impact of micro-jet on aluminum 1060 surface were assessed by ultrasonic cavitation test. Inversion analysis results indicate that equivalent stress, equivalent strain of the pit and impact strength, and velocity of the micro-jet are closely related with pit's diameter-to-depth ratio. For the pit's diameter-to-depth ratio of 16-68, the corresponding micro-jet velocity calculated is 310-370m/s. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Influence of Shock-Induced Air Bubble Collapse Resulting from Underwater Explosive Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    this process occurs, the sphere migrates towards the water surface due to Archimedes ’ principle . 7 Figure 2 provides a good visualization of the...surface. This vertical movement is known as bubble migration and occurs due to the principles of buoyancy. For each period of expansion and...human eye [15]. The less dense water vapor (your breath) displaces the heavier air molecules and rises due to the principles of buoyancy. While air

  8. Financial Anti-Bubbles Log-Periodicity in Gold and Nikkei Collapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, A.; Sornette, D.

    We propose that the herding behavior of traders leads not only to speculative bubbles with accelerating over-valuations of financial markets possibly followed by crashes, but also to "anti-bubbles" with decelerating market devaluations following all-time highs. For this, we propose a simple market dynamics model in which the demand decreases slowly with barriers that progressively quench in, leading to a power law decay of the market price characterized by decelerating log-periodic oscillations. We document this behavior of the Japanese Nikkei stock index from 1990 to present and of the gold future prices after 1980, both after their all-time highs. We perform simultaneously parametric and nonparametric analyses that are fully consistent with each other. We extend the parametric approach to the next order of perturbation, comparing the log-periodic fits with one, two and three log-frequencies, the latter providing a prediction for the general trend in the coming years. The nonparametric power spectrum analysis shows the existence of log-periodicity with high statistical significance, with a preferred scale ratio of λ≈3.5 for the Nikkei index and λ≈1.9 for the Gold future prices, comparable to the values obtained for speculative bubbles leading to crashes.

  9. Effect of surface tension on a liquid-jet produced by the collapse of a laser-induced bubble against a rigid boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu Mei; He, Jie; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiao Wu

    2009-02-01

    The effect of surface tension on the behavior of a liquid-jet is investigated experimentally by means of a fiber-coupled optical beam deflection (OBD) technique. It is found that a target under water is impacted in turn by a laser-plasma ablation force and by a high-speed liquid-jet impulse induced by bubble collapse in the vicinity of a rigid boundary. The liquid-jet impact is found to be the main damage mechanism in cavitation erosion. Furthermore, the liquid-jet increases monotonously with surface tension, so cavitation erosion rises sharply with increasing surface tension. Surface tension also reduces bubble collapse duration. From the experimental results and the modified Rayleigh theory, the maximum bubble radius is obtained and it is found to reduce with increasing surface tension.

  10. Role of Compaction Ratio in the Mathematical Model of Progressive Collapse

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    We derive a mathematical model of progressive collapse and examine role of compaction. Contrary to a previous result by Ba\\v{z}ant and Verdure, J. Engr. Mech. ASCE 133 (2006) 308, we find that compaction slows down the avalanche by effectively increasing the resistive force. We compare currently available estimates of the resistive force, that of Ba\\v{z}ant and Verdure (2006) corrected for compaction for World Trade Center (WTC) 2, and of Beck, www.arxiv.org:physics/0609105, for WTC 1 and 2. ...

  11. Mathematical modeling of deformation of a porous medium, considering its strengthening due to pore collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadovskii, V. M., E-mail: sadov@icm.krasn.ru; Sadovskaya, O. V., E-mail: o-sadov@icm.krasn.ru [Institute of Computational Modeling, SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50/44, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-28

    Based on the generalized rheological method, the mathematical model describing small deformations of a single-phase porous medium without regard to the effects of a fluid or gas in pores is constructed. The change in resistance of a material to the external mechanical impacts at the moment of pore collapse is taken into account by means of the von Mises–Schleicher strength condition. In order to consider irreversible deformations, alongside with the classical yield conditions by von Mises and Tresca– Saint-Venant, the special condition modeling the plastic loss of stability of a porous skeleton is used. The random nature of the pore size distribution is taken into account. It is shown that the proposed mathematical model satisfies the principles of thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Phenomenological parameters of the model are determined on the basis of the approximate calculation of the problem on quasi-static loading of a cubic periodicity cell with spherical voids. In the framework of the obtained model, the process of propagation of plane longitudinal waves of the compression in a homogenous porous medium, accompanied by the plastic deformation of a skeleton and the collapse of pores, is analyzed.

  12. Role of Compaction Ratio in the Mathematical Model of Progressive Collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Charles M

    2008-01-01

    We derive a mathematical model of progressive collapse and examine role of compaction. Contrary to a previous result by Ba\\v{z}ant and Verdure, J. Engr. Mech. ASCE 133 (2006) 308, we find that compaction slows down the avalanche by effectively increasing the resistive force. We compare currently available estimates of the resistive force, that of Ba\\v{z}ant and Verdure (2006) corrected for compaction for World Trade Center (WTC) 2, and of Beck, www.arxiv.org:physics/0609105, for WTC 1 and 2. We concentrate on a damage wave propagating through the building before the avalanche that figures in both models: an implicit heat wave that reduces the resistive force of the building by 60% in Ba\\v{z}ant and Verdure (2006), or a wave of massive destruction that reduces the resistive force by 75% in Beck (2006). We show that the avalanche cannot supply the energy to the heat wave as this increases the resistive force by two orders of magnitude. We thus reaffirm the conclusion of Beck (2006) that the avalanche is initiat...

  13. 球状泡群内气泡的耦合振动∗%Coupled oscillation of bubbles in a spherical bubble cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成会; 莫润阳; 胡静; 陈时

    2015-01-01

    The pressure wave emitted by a pulsating bubble affects the motions of other bubbles, so in an acoustic field bubbles are in a state of coupled oscillation. In this paper, a cluster with cavitation bubbles inside is considered, and a mathematical model is developed to describe the dynamics of the bubbles of the same radius inside a spherical cluster when the effects of coupled oscillation are included. Based on this new model, the nonlinear acoustic response of cavitation bubbles is analyzed numerically. Comparison of our model with those in the literature, shows that bubbles are suppressed heavily. Because of the coupled oscillations of bubbles, the motions of a bubble are affected by more constraints in the system, which cause the decrease of natural frequency of the bubbles. The nonlinear acoustical response of bubbles is improved by the coupled oscillation in a bubble cluster. With the rise in number density of the cluster, the suppression of bubble oscillation is enhanced. For a cluster of 1 mm radius, when the bubble number is below 500, the change of bubble number may cause a sharp decrease of maximum radial displacement of the bubbles. In cavitation region, there are bubble clusters and large-sized bubble, and the moving large bubble can absorb small bubbles from the surface of bubble cluster, so the bubble numbers inside a cluster varies with time, which may change the acoustic response of coupled oscillating bubbles. The increase of the liquid static pressure can suppress the oscillation of bubbles too, and there is a sensitive region (1–2 atm) that affects remarkably the acoustical response of bubbles. Driving ultrasound can affect the motion of bubble greatly. The range of cavitation bubble size is narrowed when the wave frequency increases. The bubbles whose initial radii are close to 5 µm are easy to be activated by ultrasound under given acoustic conditions, i.e. sizes of bubble cluster, surrounding liquid and inner gas. The cluster oscillation of

  14. Mathematical model of diffusion-limited gas bubble dynamics in unstirred tissue with finite volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R Srini; Gerth, Wayne A; Powell, Michael R

    2002-02-01

    Models of gas bubble dynamics for studying decompression sickness have been developed by considering the bubble to be immersed in an extravascular tissue with diffusion-limited gas exchange between the bubble and the surrounding unstirred tissue. In previous versions of this two-region model, the tissue volume must be theoretically infinite, which renders the model inapplicable to analysis of bubble growth in a finite-sized tissue. We herein present a new two-region model that is applicable to problems involving finite tissue volumes. By introducing radial deviations to gas tension in the diffusion region surrounding the bubble, the concentration gradient can be zero at a finite distance from the bubble, thus limiting the tissue volume that participates in bubble-tissue gas exchange. It is shown that these deviations account for the effects of heterogeneous perfusion on gas bubble dynamics, and are required for the tissue volume to be finite. The bubble growth results from a difference between the bubble gas pressure and an average gas tension in the surrounding diffusion region that explicitly depends on gas uptake and release by the bubble. For any given decompression, the diffusion region volume must stay above a certain minimum in order to sustain bubble growth.

  15. An alternative possibility to equatorial plasma bubble forecasting through mathematical modeling and Digisonde data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousasantos, J.; Kherani, E. A.; Sobral, J. H. A.

    2017-02-01

    Equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs), or large-scale plasma depleted regions, are one of the subjects of great interest in space weather research since such phenomena have been extensively reported to cause strong degrading effects on transionospheric radio propagation at low latitudes, especially over the Brazilian region, where satellite communication interruptions by the EPBs have been, frequently, registered. One of the most difficult tasks for this field of scientific research is the forecasting of such plasma-depleted structures. This forecasting capability would be of significant help for users of positioning/navigation systems operating in the low-latitude/equatorial region all over the world. Recently, some efforts have been made trying to assess and improve the capability of predicting the EPB events. The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative approach to EPB prediction by means of the use of mathematical numerical simulation associated with ionospheric vertical drift, obtained through Digisonde data, focusing on telling beforehand whether ionospheric plasma instability processes will evolve or not into EPB structures. Modulations in the ionospheric vertical motion induced by gravity waves prior to the prereversal enhancement occurrence were used as input in the numerical model. A comparison between the numerical results and the observed EPB phenomena through CCD all-sky image data reveals a considerable coherence and supports the hypothesis of a capability of short-term forecasting.

  16. Mathematical model of diffusion-limited evolution of multiple gas bubbles in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R Srini; Gerth, Wayne A; Powell, Michael R

    2003-04-01

    Models of gas bubble dynamics employed in probabilistic analyses of decompression sickness incidence in man must be theoretically consistent and simple, if they are to yield useful results without requiring excessive computations. They are generally formulated in terms of ordinary differential equations that describe diffusion-limited gas exchange between a gas bubble and the extravascular tissue surrounding it. In our previous model (Ann. Biomed. Eng. 30: 232-246, 2002), we showed that with appropriate representation of sink pressures to account for gas loss or gain due to heterogeneous blood perfusion in the unstirred diffusion region around the bubble, diffusion-limited bubble growth in a tissue of finite volume can be simulated without postulating a boundary layer across which gas flux is discontinuous. However, interactions between two or more bubbles caused by competition for available gas cannot be considered in this model, because the diffusion region has a fixed volume with zero gas flux at its outer boundary. The present work extends the previous model to accommodate interactions among multiple bubbles by allowing the diffusion region volume of each bubble to vary during bubble evolution. For given decompression and tissue volume, bubble growth is sustained only if the bubble number density is below a certain maximum.

  17. Single bubble sonoluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, Michael P.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef

    2002-01-01

    Single-bubble sonoluminescence occurs when an acoustically trapped and periodically driven gas bubble collapses so strongly that the energy focusing at collapse leads to light emission. Detailed experiments have demonstrated the unique properties of this system: the spectrum of the emitted light ten

  18. Single bubble sonoluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, Michael P.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef

    2002-01-01

    Single-bubble sonoluminescence occurs when an acoustically trapped and periodically driven gas bubble collapses so strongly that the energy focusing at collapse leads to light emission. Detailed experiments have demonstrated the unique properties of this system: the spectrum of the emitted light

  19. Influence of ultrasound power on acoustic streaming and micro-bubbles formations in a low frequency sono-reactor: mathematical and 3D computational simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Baharak; Raman, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims at investigating the influence of ultrasound power amplitude on liquid behaviour in a low-frequency (24 kHz) sono-reactor. Three types of analysis were employed: (i) mechanical analysis of micro-bubbles formation and their activities/characteristics using mathematical modelling. (ii) Numerical analysis of acoustic streaming, fluid flow pattern, volume fraction of micro-bubbles and turbulence using 3D CFD simulation. (iii) Practical analysis of fluid flow pattern and acoustic streaming under ultrasound irradiation using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). In mathematical modelling, a lone micro bubble generated under power ultrasound irradiation was mechanistically analysed. Its characteristics were illustrated as a function of bubble radius, internal temperature and pressure (hot spot conditions) and oscillation (pulsation) velocity. The results showed that ultrasound power significantly affected the conditions of hotspots and bubbles oscillation velocity. From the CFD results, it was observed that the total volume of the micro-bubbles increased by about 4.95% with each 100 W-increase in power amplitude. Furthermore, velocity of acoustic streaming increased from 29 to 119 cm/s as power increased, which was in good agreement with the PIV analysis.

  20. A mathematical model and numerical simulation of pressure wave in horizontal gas-liquid bubbly flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Fei; BAI Bofeng; GUO Liejin

    2004-01-01

    By using an ensemble-averaged two-fluid model,with valid closure conditions of interfacial momentum exchange due to virtual mass force,viscous shear stress and drag force,a model for pressure wave propagation in a horizontal gas-liquid bubbly flow is proposed.According to the small perturbation theory and solvable condition of one-order linear uniform equations,a dispersion equation of pressure wave is induced.The pressure wave speed calculated from the model is compared and in good agreement with existing data.According to the dispersion equation,the propagation and attenuation of pressure wave are investigated systemically.The factors affecting pressure wave,such as void fraction,pressure,wall shear stress,perturbation frequency,virtual mass force and drag force,are analyzed.The result shows that the decrease in system pressure,the increase in void fraction and the existence of wall shear stress,will cause a decrease in pressure wave speed and an increase in the attenuation coefficient in the horizontal gas-liquid bubbly flow.The effects of perturbation frequency,virtual mass and drag force on pressure wave in the horizontal gas-liquid bubbly flow at low perturbation frequency are different from that at high perturbation frequency.

  1. Effect of bubble size on nanofiber diameter in bubble electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Zhong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer bubbles are widely used for fabrication of nanofibers. Bubble size affects not only bubble's surface tension, but also fiber's morphology. A mathematical model is established to reveal the effect of bubble size on the spinning process, and the experiment verification shows the theoretical analysis is reliable.

  2. 气泡微细化沸腾过程中气泡冷凝破裂现象%Condensation and collapse of bubbles in region of microbubble emission boiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐继国; 阎昌琪; 孙立成; 朱光昱

    2014-01-01

    To illustrate the bubble dynamics in microbubble emission boiling (MEB), a high-speed video camera (Fastcam SA5) was employed to observe the boiling phenomena on a heating surface with a diameter of 10 mm at the liquid subcooling of 15-60 K. An equivalent radius was induced to analyze the bubble behavior in different boiling regions. It is showed that the bubble behavior of MEB differs from that of nucleate boiling and film boiling obviously. In the regime of MEB, a large irregular bubble commonly forms on the heating surface and collapses immediately, but not departures from the heating surface. The period of bubble ebullition is shorter, with a faster change rate in volume. A dimensionless analysis shows that the inertia control increasingly dominates the process of bubble collapse with the increase of wall superheat and heat flux.%为了研究气泡微细化沸腾(MEB)时的气泡动力学行为,利用高速摄像仪(Fastcam SA5)观察15~60 K过冷度范围内,直径10 mm加热面上的沸腾过程。通过引入等效半径,分析核态沸腾、膜态沸腾和MEB区域的气泡行为特征。结果表明:MEB发生时的气泡行为,既不同于核态沸腾,也与膜态沸腾明显不同。在MEB区域,加热面上通常会形成一个大的、不规则气泡,但并不会脱离加热面,而是迅速破碎凝结;而且气泡生命周期相对较小,体积变化速率更快。量纲1分析发现,在MEB区域,随着壁面过热度和热通量的升高,气泡凝缩破裂过程受惯性控制影响程度逐渐增加。

  3. Mathematical Simulation and Design of Three-Phase Bubble Column Reactor for Direct Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether from Syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianhua Liu; Xing Hua; Dingye Fang

    2007-01-01

    A three-phase reactor mathematical model was set up to simulate and design a three-phase bubble column reactor for direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, considering both the influence of part inert carrier backmixing on transfer and the influence of catalyst grain sedimentation on reaction. On the basis of this model, the influences of the size and reaction conditions of a 100000 t/a DME reactor on capacity were investigated. The optimized size of the 10000 t/a DME synthesis reactor was proposed as follows: diameter 3.2 m, height 20 m, built-in 400 tube heat exchanger (φ 38×2 mm),and inert heat carrier paraffin oil 68 t and catalyst 34.46 t. Reaction temperature and pressure were important factors influencing the reaction conversion for different size reactors. Under the condition of uniform catalyst concentration distribution, higher pressure and temperature were proposed to achieve a higher production capacity of DME. The best ratio of fresh syngas for DME synthesis was 2.04.

  4. Physics of bubble oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauterborn, Werner; Kurz, Thomas [Third Physical Institute, University of Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Bubbles in liquids, soft and squeezy objects made of gas and vapour, yet so strong as to destroy any material and so mysterious as at times turning into tiny light bulbs, are the topic of the present report. Bubbles respond to pressure forces and reveal their full potential when periodically driven by sound waves. The basic equations for nonlinear bubble oscillation in sound fields are given, together with a survey of typical solutions. A bubble in a liquid can be considered as a representative example from nonlinear dynamical systems theory with its resonances, multiple attractors with their basins, bifurcations to chaos and not yet fully describable behaviour due to infinite complexity. Three stability conditions are treated for stable trapping of bubbles in standing sound fields: positional, spherical and diffusional stability. Chemical reactions may become important in that respect, when reacting gases fill the bubble, but the chemistry of bubbles is just touched upon and is beyond the scope of the present report. Bubble collapse, the runaway shrinking of a bubble, is presented in its current state of knowledge. Pressures and temperatures that are reached at this occasion are discussed, as well as the light emission in the form of short flashes. Aspherical bubble collapse, as for instance enforced by boundaries nearby, mitigates most of the phenomena encountered in spherical collapse, but introduces a new effect: jet formation, the self-piercing of a bubble with a high velocity liquid jet. Examples of this phenomenon are given from light induced bubbles. Two oscillating bubbles attract or repel each other, depending on their oscillations and their distance. Upon approaching, attraction may change to repulsion and vice versa. When being close, they also shoot self-piercing jets at each other. Systems of bubbles are treated as they appear after shock wave passage through a liquid and with their branched filaments that they attain in standing sound fields. The N-bubble

  5. The Housing Bubble Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Baker

    2005-01-01

    This paper explains the basic facts about the current housing market. It lays out the evidence that the rise in housing prices constitutes a housing bubble - and explains what can be expected when it inevitably collapses.

  6. Explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den D.M.; Elwenspoek, M.

    2008-01-01

    Explosive evaporation occurs when a liquid is exposed to extremely high heat-fluxes. Within a few microseconds a bubble in the form vapour film is generated, followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse and finally the bubbles collapse. This effect, which already has proven its use in curren

  7. Unraveling the destruction of WTC 7: the descent curve and a mathematical model of the "crush-up" mode of the building's progressive collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Charles M

    2008-01-01

    We use finite differences and the mathematical model of ``crush-up'' mode of progressive collapse proposed by Ba\\v{z}ant and Verdure (2006) to examine anonymously published WTC 7 descent curve. We find that the collapse of the building consisted of two phases: a free-fall phase for the first 16-26 m of descent, followed by a deceleration phase that lasted till the end. The free fall phase directly contradicts the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) hypothesis (2002) regarding the initiation of collapse in WTC 7, by which the load-bearing structure slowly lost its strength due to environmental factors. We estimate the magnitude of the resistive force (the force with which the moving part of the building resisted its destruction) and find that it supports two possibilities: one put forth by Ba\\v{z}ant and Verdure (2006), by which the moving part was intact, and the other put by Beck (2007), by which the strength of the moving part was reduced by $\\sim50$%. The FEMA analysis suggests that the moving part ...

  8. Dynamic behavior of gas bubble in single bubble sonoluminescence - vibrator model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Menglu; CHENG Qian; GE Caoyan

    2002-01-01

    Single bubble sonoluminescence is a process of energy transformation from soundto light. Therefore the motion equations of near spherical vibration of a gas bubble in anincompressible and viscous liquid can be deduced by Lagrangian Equation with dissipationfunction when the bubble is considered as a vibrator surrounded by liquid. The analyticalsolutions in the bubble expanding, collapsing and rebounding stages can be obtained by solvingthese motion equations when some approximations are adopted. And the dynamic behaviorsof the bubble in these three stages are discussed.

  9. Microfluidic "blinking" bubble pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Zhizhong; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports data obtained on a simple micropump, suitable for electrolytes, based on the periodic growth and collapse of a single vapor bubble in a microchannel. With a channel diameter of the order of 100 µm, pumping rates of several tens of µl/min and pressure differences of several kPa are

  10. STUDY ON THE GROWTH AND COLLAPSE OF CAVITATION BUBBLE WITHIN A DROPLET%单液滴内空化气泡的生长及溃灭研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕明; 宁智; 孙春华

    2016-01-01

    Cavitation bubbles always exist in the diesel jet leaving the nozzle and in the diesel droplets breaking up from the jet as a result of supercavitation of the diesel within the injection nozzle, and it can increase the instability of jet and droplets in part due to the two-phase mixture, while the mechanism of this effect is still unclear. Growth and collapse of spherically symmetric bubble within the diesel droplet has been then simulated numerically based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method. The numerical results show that the process of bubble growth is divided into three stages, including surface tension controlled domain, comprehensive competition controlled domain with the surface tension, the inertial force and the viscous force, and inertial force controlled domain. In addition, the bubble collapse within a droplet consists of multiple collapse and rebound stages, similar to the vibration process of a damping spring oscillator. According to the variation of bubble radius with time at the end of each cycle, the process of bubble collapse can be divided into fast, slow and stable stages.%超空化燃油射流使得喷雾中部分燃油分裂液滴内含有空化气泡;空化气泡的生长及溃灭对液滴的分裂与雾化具有重要影响。基于VOF方法首次对超空化条件下燃油液滴内空化气泡的生长及溃灭过程进行了数值模拟。通过研究发现,单液滴内空化气泡的生长过程可以按控制机理划分为表面张力控制阶段、综合竞争阶段和惯性力控制阶段;在第I阶段,空泡的生长主要受表面张力的控制作用,惯性力对空泡生长的促进作用及黏性力对空泡生长的抑制作用可以忽略;在第II阶段,空泡的生长受表面张力、惯性力及黏性力三者的综合作用,空泡的生长速率是促进空泡生长的惯性力和抑制空泡生长的表面张力及黏性力相互竞争、共同作用的结果;在第III阶段,空泡的生长主要受

  11. Do unbounded bubbles ultimately become fenced inside a black hole?

    CERN Document Server

    Guzman, F S; Sarbach, O

    2007-01-01

    We examine the dynamical behavior of recently introduced bubbles in asymptotically flat, five-dimensional spacetimes. Using numerical methods, we find that even bubbles that initially start expanding eventually collapse to a Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole.

  12. Bubble-bubble interaction: A potential source of cavitation noise

    CERN Document Server

    Ida, Masato

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between microbubbles through pressure pulses has been studied to show that it can be a source of cavitation noise. A recent report demonstrated that the acoustic noise generated by a shrimp originates from the collapse of a cavitation bubble produced when the shrimp closes its snapper claw. The recorded acoustic signal contains a broadband noise that consists of positive and negative pulses, but a theoretical model for single bubbles fails to reproduce the negative ones. Using a nonlinear multibubble model we have shown here that the negative pulses can be explained by considering the interaction of microbubbles formed after the cavitation bubble has collapsed and fragmented: Positive pulses produced at the collapse of the microbubbles hit and impulsively compress neighboring microbubbles to generate reflected pulses whose amplitudes are negative. Discussing the details of the noise generation process, we have found that no negative pulses are generated if the internal pressure of the reflecti...

  13. Mechanisms of single bubble cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Fabian; Mettin, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of collapsing bubbles close to a flat solid is investigated with respect to its potential for removal of surface attached particles. Individual bubbles are created by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses focused into water close to glass plates contaminated with melamine resin micro-particles. The bubble dynamics is analysed by means of synchronous high-speed recordings. Due to the close solid boundary, the bubble collapses with the well-known liquid jet phenomenon. Subsequent microscopic inspection of the substrates reveals circular areas clean of particles after a single bubble generation and collapse event. The detailed bubble dynamics, as well as the cleaned area size, is characterised by the non-dimensional bubble stand-off γ=d/Rmax, with d: laser focus distance to the solid boundary, and Rmax: maximum bubble radius before collapse. We observe a maximum of clean area at γ≈0.7, a roughly linear decay of the cleaned circle radius for increasing γ, and no cleaning for γ>3.5. As the main mechanism for particle removal, rapid flows at the boundary are identified. Three different cleaning regimes are discussed in relation to γ: (I) For large stand-off, 1.8substrate and remove particles without significant contact of the gas phase. (II) For small distances, γsubstrate are driven by the jet impact with its subsequent radial spreading, and by the liquid following the motion of the collapsing and rebounding bubble wall. Both flows remove particles. Their relative timing, which depends sensitively on the exact γ, appears to determine the extension of the area with forces large enough to cause particle detachment. (III) At intermediate stand-off, 1.1substrate, but acts with cleaning mechanisms similar to an effective small γ collapse: particles are removed by the jet flow and the flow induced by the bubble wall oscillation. Furthermore, the observations reveal that the extent of direct bubble gas phase contact to the solid is partially smaller than the

  14. Drying Induced Hydrophobic Polymer Collapse

    OpenAIRE

    ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Chandler, David

    2002-01-01

    We have used computer simulation to study the collapse of a hydrophobic chain in water. We find that the mechanism of collapse is much like that of a first-order phase transition. The evaporation of water in the vicinity of the polymer provides the driving force for collapse, and the rate limiting step is the nucleation of a sufficiently large vapor bubble. The study is made possible through the application of transition path sampling and a coarse-grained treatment of liquid water. Relevance ...

  15. Science Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2013-01-01

    Much like the trade and trait sof bubbles in financial markets,similar bubbles appear on the science market. When economic bubbles burst, the drop in prices causes the crash of unsustainable investments leading to an investor confidence crisis possibly followed by a financial panic. But when...... bubbles appear in science, truth and reliability are the first victims. This paper explores how fashions in research funding and research management may turn science into something like a bubble economy....

  16. Experimental study on interaction and coalescence of synchronized multiple bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, P.; Wang, Q. X.; Wang, S. P.; Zhang, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Experiments are carried out on the interaction and coalescence of two, three, and four bubbles with approximately the same sizes, distributed evenly and symmetrically. The bubbles are generated simultaneously by electric discharges, using an in-house designed series circuit, and their interaction is captured using a high-speed camera. Particular attentions are paid to if/when coalescence of bubbles happens and the motion of the joined bubbles. Some new features are observed, which depend mainly on the dimensionless distance γbb = dbb/Rmax, where dbb is the inter-bubble distance and Rmax is the maximum bubble radius. For γbb > 2, a jet forms and penetrates each side bubble, directed to the center of the configuration, resulting in a protrusion. Towards the end of collapse, a large portion of bubble gases is compressed into the protrusion from the main part of the toroidal bubble. For γbb bubbles coalesce during expansion, and the part of the joined bubble's surface distal from the center of the configuration collapses faster than elsewhere. The experiments show that the oscillation period of multi-bubbles does not change appreciably without coalescence but increases significantly with coalescence. For three bubbles initiated at collinear positions with γbb > 2, the jets that form from the side bubbles are towards the middle, and the middle bubble splits into two parts, moving towards the two side bubbles. For γbb bubbles merge with the middle bubble during expansion, forming an ellipsoid bubble; the joined bubble collapses predominantly from two sides, where two inward jets form towards the end of collapse.

  17. Vapor Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the fundamental physics of vapor bubbles in liquids. Work on bubble growth and condensation for stationary and translating bubbles is summarized and the differences with bubbles containing a permanent gas stressed. In particular, it is shown that the natural frequency of a vapor bubble is proportional not to the inverse radius, as for a gas bubble, but to the inverse radius raised to the power 2/3. Permanent gas dissolved in the liquid diffuses into the bubble with strong effects on its dynamics. The effects of the diffusion of heat and mass on the propagation of pressure waves in a vaporous bubbly liquid are discussed. Other topics briefly touched on include thermocapillary flow, plasmonic nanobubbles, and vapor bubbles in an immiscible liquid.

  18. 空化水射流空泡溃灭过程的数值分析%Numerical Analysis on Collapse of Cavitation Bubble in a Water Jet Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨博凯; 卢义玉; 杨晓峰; 冯明涛; 张赛

    2012-01-01

    空化空泡发育与溃灭的计算是研究空化水射流的一个重点和难点.对比分析了空泡运动方程即Rayleigh-Plesset方程的不同数值解法,并针对固定时间步长的缺点,提出了变步长法解RayleighPlesset方程的思路.通过优化系数λ=Ri/Ri-1,得出如下分析结果:在空泡内外压力变化的不同情况下,变步长法均优于固定步长法且没有奇异点.变步长法在节约计算量,保证结果精度等方面都有较好表现,该方法为研究空化水射流提供新的思路和算法.%Calculation on cavitation bubble growth and collapse is key to study the cavitating water jet. After the analysis of different numerical methods to Rayleigh-Plesset equation, a numerical method with variable-steps is developed that can overcome the weak point of constant time step method to solve the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. And it also learned that a constant time step is not appropriate for solving the Rayleigh-Plesset equation when dealing with large pressure variations or under the smaller pressure variation. The variable time step method can get a better result. What more, it is only after the variable time step method can be predicted without singularity. So the variable time step method is batter than the constant time step method in saving computational and keeping accuracy. This paper provides a new idea to solve Rayleigh-Plesset equation.

  19. A note on the dynamics of two aligned bubbles perpendicular to and above a thin membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghdam, A Hajizadeh [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Arak University of Technology, Arak 3818141167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoo, B C, E-mail: Hajizadeh@arakut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260 (Singapore)

    2015-06-15

    The interaction of two perpendicular bubbles of a similar size (upper bubble and lower bubble) and the thin elastic membrane beneath them is studied experimentally. The dynamical behavior of the lower bubble (Bubble1), which is placed between the membrane and upper bubble (Bubble2), is rather complex. Observed phenomena such as the splitting of Bubble1 into the ‘mushroom shape’ and ‘masher shape’, the bubble-collapse induced jetting toward Bubble2 and even the coalescence effect are found and systematically categorized by the stated dimensionless parameters. (paper)

  20. Collapse calderas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Marti, J.

    2007-05-01

    A collapse caldera is a volcanic explosive structure that forms during the collapse of crustal blocks on top of a shallow magma chamber. During this collapse, a large volume of magma is evacuated, first explosively, in the form of pyroclastic fallouts and pyroclastic flows, and then effusively, as lava domes or flows after collapse. The result is a catastrophic explosive volcanic collapse that forms a depression that could end with different shapes, circular, oval, rectangular, or irregular. Three main types of collapse calderas can be defined, 1) summit caldera, 2) classic caldera, and 3) graben caldera. Summit calderas are those formed at the top of large volcanoes and are related to relatively small-volume pyroclastic products that include plinian fallouts and ignimbrites, such as Crater Lake, Las Cañadas, and Somma-Vesuvio. Classic calderas are semi-circular to irregular-shaped large structures, several km in diameter that are related to relatively large-volume pyroclastic products including pumice fallouts and widespread ignimbrites, such as Long-Valley, Campi Flegrei, and Los Humeros. Graben calderas are explosive volcano-tectonic collapse structures from which large-volume, ignimbrite-forming eruptions occurred through several vents along the graben walls and the intra-graben block faults causing the collapse of the graben or of a sector of the graben. The main products of graben calderas are surge-deposits and large-volume widespread ignimbrite sheets. Pumice fallouts are practically absent. Examples include the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico, La Pacana (Andes), Catalan Pyrenees, and perhaps Scafell (United Kingdom). Any of the three caldera types mentioned above could have collapsed in three different ways, 1) piston, when the collapse occurs as a single crustal block; 2) trap-door, when collapse occurs unevenly along one side while the opposite side remains with no collapse; 3) piece-meal, when collapse occurs as broken pieces of the crust on top of

  1. Sonochemistry and the acoustic bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Grieser, Franz; Enomoto, Naoya; Harada, Hisashi; Okitsu, Kenji; Yasui, Kyuichi

    2015-01-01

    Sonochemistry and the Acoustic Bubble provides an introduction to the way ultrasound acts on bubbles in a liquid to cause bubbles to collapse violently, leading to localized 'hot spots' in the liquid with temperatures of 5000° celcius and under pressures of several hundred atmospheres. These extreme conditions produce events such as the emission of light, sonoluminescence, with a lifetime of less than a nanosecond, and free radicals that can initiate a host of varied chemical reactions (sonochemistry) in the liquid, all at room temperature. The physics and chemistry behind the p

  2. Bubble coalescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orvalho, Sandra; Ruzicka, Marek C.; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Marzocchella, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to present new experimental data on the effect of the bubble approach velocity and liquid viscosity on pairwise bubble coalescence. Measurements were performed to investigate the dynamics of bubble coalescence under well-defined laboratory conditions. Air and pure

  3. Luminescence from cavitation bubbles deformed in uniform pressure gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Presented here are observations that demonstrate how the deformation of millimetric cavitation bubbles by a uniform pressure gradient quenches single collapse luminescence. Our innovative measurement system captures a broad luminescence spectrum (wavelength range 300-900 nm) from the individual collapses of laser-induced bubbles in water. By varying the bubble size, driving pressure and the perceived gravity level aboard parabolic flights, we probed the limit from aspherical to highly spheric...

  4. Bubble rupture in bubble electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Rouxi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the distinctive properties and different applications of nanofibers, the demand of nanofibers increased sharply in recently years. Bubble electrospinning is one of the most effective and industrialized methods for nanofiber production. To optimize the set-up of bubble electrospinning and improve its mass production, the dynamic properties of un-charged and charged bubbles are studied experimentally, the growth and rupture process of a bubble are also discussed in this paper.

  5. Dissolution enhancement and mathematical modeling of removal of residual trichloroethene in sands by ozonation during flushing with micro-nano-bubble solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Menghau; Teng, Chun-Hao; Yang, Tsung-Hsien

    2017-07-01

    Soil flushing using micro-nano-sized bubbles (MNB) in water as the flushing solution was tested in laboratory sand columns for the cleanup of residual trichloroethene (TCE) non-aqueous-phase-liquid (NAPL). Experiments considering flushing with MNB as well as ozone MNB (OZMNB) in water to treat soils contaminated with residual TCE liquid were conducted to examine effects of ozone on dissolution enhancement. The degrees of residual TCE saturation in soils, ranging from 0.44% to 7.6%, were tested. During flushings, aqueous TCE concentrations at the column exit were monitored and TCE masses remained in the columns after flushing were determined. Experimental results between runs with MNB and OZMNB in water revealed that dissolution enhancement was dependent on residual saturation conditions, and the maximum enhancement was around 9%. Governing equations consisting of three coupled partial differential equations (PDEs) were developed to model the system, and high-order finite difference (HOFD) method was employed to solve these PDEs. From mathematical modeling of reactive mass transfer under low residual saturation conditions (0.44% and 1.9%), experimental data were simulated and important controlling mechanisms were identified. It was concluded that a specific parameter pertinent to NAPL-water interfacial area in the Sherwood number had to be modified to satisfactorily describe the dissolution of TCE in the presence of MNB in water.

  6. Temperature measurements in cavitation bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutier-Delgosha, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Cavitation is usually a nearly isothermal process in the liquid phase, but in some specific flow conditions like hot water or cryogenic fluids, significant temperature variations are detected. In addition, a large temperature increase happens inside the cavitation bubbles at the very end of their collapse, due to the fast compression of the gas at the bubble core, which is almost adiabatic. This process is of primary interest in various biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, where the mechanisms of bubble collapse plays a major role. To investigate the amplitude and the spatial distribution of these temperature variations inside and outside the cavitation bubbles, a system based on cold wires has been developed. They have been tested in a configuration of a single bubble obtained by submitting a small air bubble to a large amplitude pressure wave. Some promising results have been obtained after the initial validation tests. This work is funded by the Office of Naval Research Global under Grant N62909-16-1-2116, Dr. Salahuddin Ahmed & Ki-Han Kim program managers.

  7. Collapsed Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collapsed lung happens when air enters the pleural space, the area between the lung and the chest wall. If it is a ... is called pneumothorax. If only part of the lung is affected, it is called atelectasis. Causes of ...

  8. Spectroscopic characteristic of conical bubble luminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qi-Dai; Fu Li-Min; Ai Xi-Cheng; Zhang Jian-Ping; Wang Long

    2005-01-01

    The conical bubble sonoluminescence (CBSL) from the collapse of the bubble was observed in an improved Utube apparatus. The emitted light energy of a single CBSL flash was measured to be ~ 1.4mJ. The pulse width was about 100μs. The spectra of luminescence were continuum superimposed with the spectral bands from the excitedstate C2, CN and CH. The CBSL provides a link between the light emission of the single-bubble and the multi-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL and MBSL).

  9. Shock Wave Emissions of a Sonoluminescing Bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Holzfuss, J; Billó, M; Holzfuss, Joachim; Ruggeberg, Matthias; Billo, Andreas

    1998-01-01

    A single bubble in water is excited by a standing ultrasound wave. At high intensity the bubble starts to emit light. Together with the emitted light pulse, a shock wave is generated in the liquid at collapse time. The time-dependent velocity of the outward-travelling shock is measured with an imaging technique. The pressure in the shock and in the bubble is shown to have a lower limit of 5500 bars. Visualization of the shock and the bubble at different phases of the acoustic cycle reveals previously unobserved dynamics during stable and unstable sonoluminescence.

  10. Lithotripter shock wave interaction with a bubble near various biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, S. W.; Klaseboer, E.; Szeri, A. J.; Khoo, B. C.

    2016-10-01

    Following previous work on the dynamics of an oscillating bubble near a bio-material (Ohl et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6313-36) and the interaction of a bubble with a shockwave (Klaseboer et al 2007 J. Fluid Mech. 593 33-56), the present work concerns the interaction of a gas bubble with a traveling shock wave (such as from a lithotripter) in the vicinity of bio-materials such as fat, skin, muscle, cornea, cartilage, and bone. The bubble is situated in water (to represent a water-like biofluid). The bubble collapses are not spherically symmetric, but tend to feature a high speed jet. A few simulations are performed and compared with available experimental observations from Sankin and Zhong (2006 Phys. Rev. E 74 046304). The collapses of cavitation bubbles (created by laser in the experiment) near an elastic membrane when hit by a lithotripter shock wave are correctly captured by the simulation. This is followed by a more systematic study of the effects involved concerning shockwave bubble biomaterial interactions. If a subsequent rarefaction wave hits the collapsed bubble, it will re-expand to a very large size straining the bio-materials nearby before collapsing once again. It is noted that, for hard bio-material like bone, reflection of the shock wave at the bone—water interface can affect the bubble dynamics. Also the initial size of the bubble has a significant effect. Large bubbles (˜1 mm) will split into smaller bubbles, while small bubbles collapse with a high speed jet in the travel direction of the shock wave. The numerical model offers a computationally efficient way of understanding the complex phenomena involving the interplay of a bubble, a shock wave, and a nearby bio-material.

  11. Robust acoustic wave manipulation of bubbly liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumerov, N. A., E-mail: gumerov@umiacs.umd.edu [Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Center for Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450076 (Russian Federation); Akhatov, I. S. [Center for Design, Manufacturing and Materials, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow 143026 (Russian Federation); Ohl, C.-D. [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Center for Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450076 (Russian Federation); Sametov, S. P. [Center for Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450076 (Russian Federation); Khazimullin, M. V. [Center for Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450076 (Russian Federation); Institute of Molecule and Crystal Physics, Ufa Research Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa 450054 (Russian Federation); Gonzalez-Avila, S. R. [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2016-03-28

    Experiments with water–air bubbly liquids when exposed to acoustic fields of frequency ∼100 kHz and intensity below the cavitation threshold demonstrate that bubbles ∼30 μm in diameter can be “pushed” away from acoustic sources by acoustic radiation independently from the direction of gravity. This manifests formation and propagation of acoustically induced transparency waves (waves of the bubble volume fraction). In fact, this is a collective effect of bubbles, which can be described by a mathematical model of bubble self-organization in acoustic fields that matches well with our experiments.

  12. Luminescence from cavitation bubbles deformed in uniform pressure gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    Presented here are observations that demonstrate how the deformation of millimetric cavitation bubbles by a uniform pressure gradient quenches single-collapse luminescence. Our innovative measurement system captures a broad luminescence spectrum (wavelength range, 300-900 nm) from the individual collapses of laser-induced bubbles in water. By varying the bubble size, driving pressure, and perceived gravity level aboard parabolic flights, we probed the limit from aspherical to highly spherical bubble collapses. Luminescence was detected for bubbles of maximum radii within the previously uncovered range, R0=1.5 -6 mm, for laser-induced bubbles. The relative luminescence energy was found to rapidly decrease as a function of the bubble asymmetry quantified by the anisotropy parameter ζ , which is the dimensionless equivalent of the Kelvin impulse. As established previously, ζ also dictates the characteristic parameters of bubble-driven microjets. The threshold of ζ beyond which no luminescence is observed in our experiment closely coincides with the threshold where the microjets visibly pierce the bubble and drive a vapor jet during the rebound. The individual fitted blackbody temperatures range between Tlum=7000 and Tlum=11 500 K but do not show any clear trend as a function of ζ . Time-resolved measurements using a high-speed photodetector disclose multiple luminescence events at each bubble collapse. The averaged full width at half-maximum of the pulse is found to scale with R0 and to range between 10 and 20 ns.

  13. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon, E-mail: junkeun@postech.ac.kr; Kang, Kwan Hyoung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In Seok [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  14. Bubble, Bubble, Toil and Trouble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Bubbles are a fun way to introduce the concepts of surface tension, intermolecular forces, and the use of surfactants. Presents two activities in which students add chemicals to liquid dishwashing detergent with water in order to create longer lasting bubbles. (ASK)

  15. Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Eringen, A Cemal

    2013-01-01

    Continuum Physics: Volume 1 - Mathematics is a collection of papers that discusses certain selected mathematical methods used in the study of continuum physics. Papers in this collection deal with developments in mathematics in continuum physics and its applications such as, group theory functional analysis, theory of invariants, and stochastic processes. Part I explains tensor analysis, including the geometry of subspaces and the geometry of Finsler. Part II discusses group theory, which also covers lattices, morphisms, and crystallographic groups. Part III reviews the theory of invariants th

  16. Collapsing Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

    1994-01-01

    Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

  17. Exploring Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Geary, Melissa A.

    Bubbles provide an enjoyable and festive medium through which to teach many concepts within the science topics of light, color, chemistry, force, air pressure, electricity, buoyancy, floating, density, among many others. In order to determine the nature of children's engagement within a museum setting and the learning opportunities of playing with bubbles, I went to a children's interactive museum located in a metropolitan city in the Northeastern part of the United States.

  18. Antigravitating bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Barnaveli, A T; Barnaveli, Andro; Gogberashvili, Merab

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational behavior of spherical domain walls (bubbles) arising during the phase transitions in the early Universe. In the thin-wall approximation we show the existence of the new solution of Einstein equations with negative gravitational mass of bubbles and the reversed direction of time flow on the shell. This walls exhibit gravitational repulsion just as the planar walls are assumed to do. The equilibrium radius and critical mass of such objects are found for realistic models.

  19. Bubble diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuri, Steven R.; Mammini, Beth M.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is intended as a means of diagnosing the presence of a gas bubble and incorporating the information into a feedback system for opto-acoustic thrombolysis. In opto-acoustic thrombolysis, pulsed laser radiation at ultrasonic frequencies is delivered intraluminally down an optical fiber and directed toward a thrombus or otherwise occluded vessel. Dissolution of the occlusion is therefore mediated through ultrasonic action of propagating pressure or shock waves. A vapor bubble in the fluid surrounding the occlusion may form as a result of laser irradiation. This vapor bubble may be used to directly disrupt the occlusion or as a means of producing a pressure wave. It is desirable to detect the formation and follow the lifetime of the vapor bubble. Knowledge of the bubble formation and lifetime yields critical information as to the maximum size of the bubble, density of the absorbed radiation, and properties of the absorbing material. This information can then be used in a feedback system to alter the irradiation conditions.

  20. Collapsed City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Nacho Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Currently, when the socio-economic circumstances seem to announce another change of cultural paradigm for the 21st century, the interest in the urban fact seems to have been renewed in architecture. However, this is no longer focused on models of growth and efficiency, as happened in the 70s....... Nowadays the situation is quite different. The enthusiasm for the economic growth which had characterized late capitalism and much of the postmodern cultural production has disappeared, and has given place to some global unease on a possible system collapse. Once the economy does not grow, but threatens...... with its imminent breakdown, the architectural interests have shifted to urban environments like Tokyo, Detroit, Lagos or Rio de Janeiro; places that demonstrate, somehow, an urban culture of collapse....

  1. Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Sherman K

    2010-01-01

    Anyone can appreciate the beauty, depth, and vitality of mathematics with the help of this highly readable text, specially developed from a college course designed to appeal to students in a variety of fields. Readers with little mathematical background are exposed to a broad range of subjects chosen from number theory, topology, set theory, geometry, algebra, and analysis. Starting with a survey of questions on weight, the text discusses the primes, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, rationals and irrationals, tiling, tiling and electricity, probability, infinite sets, and many other topi

  2. Effect of supercritical water shell on cavitation bubble dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei-Hang; Chen, Wei-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Based on reported experimental data, a new model for single cavitation bubble dynamics is proposed considering a supercritical water (SCW) shell surrounding the bubble. Theoretical investigations show that the SCW shell apparently slows down the oscillation of the bubble and cools the gas temperature inside the collapsing bubble. Furthermore, the model is simplified to a Rayleigh-Plesset-like equation for a thin SCW shell. The dependence of the bubble dynamics on the thickness and density of the SCW shell is studied. The results show the bubble dynamics depends on the thickness but is insensitive to the density of the SCW shell. The thicker the SCW shell is, the smaller are the wall velocity and the gas temperature in the bubble. In the authors’ opinion, the SCW shell works as a buffering agent. In collapsing, it is compressed to absorb a good deal of the work transformed into the bubble internal energy during bubble collapse so that it weakens the bubble oscillations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174145 and 11334005).

  3. Exploding and Imaging of Electron Bubbles in Liquid Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Neha; Vadakkumbatt, Vaisakh; Maris, Humphrey J.; Ghosh, Ambarish

    2016-11-01

    An electron bubble in liquid helium-4 under the saturated vapor pressure becomes unstable and explodes if the pressure becomes more negative than -1.9 bars. In this paper, we use focused ultrasound to explode electron bubbles. We then image at 30,000 frames per second the growth and subsequent collapse of the bubbles. We find that bubbles can grow to as large as 1 mm in diameter within 2 ms after the cavitation event. We examine the relation between the maximum size of the bubble and the lifetime and find good agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Fundamental of Inclusion Removal from Molten Steel by Rising Bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-tao; ZHANG Qiao-ying; LI Zheng-bang; XUE Zheng-liang

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of inclusion removal by attachment to rising bubble was analyzed, and the movement behavior of inclusion, the mechanism of bubbles/inclusion interaction, collision probability and adhesion probability were discussed. A mathematical model of inclusion removal from molten steel by attachment to fine bubble was developed. The results of theoretical analysis and mathematical model showed that the optimum bubble diameter for inclusion removal is 1 to 2 mm. A new method that argon is injected into the shroud from ladle to tundish during continuous casting has been proposed to produce fine bubble. It provides theoretical guides for production of super clean steel.

  5. An equation of motion for bubble growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesage, F.J. [College d' Enseignement General et Professionnel de L' Outaouais, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Mathematics; Cotton, J.S. [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Robinson, A.J. [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    2009-07-01

    A mathematical model is developed which describes asymmetric bubble growth, either during boiling or bubble injection from submerged orifices. The model is developed using the integral form of the continuity and momentum equations, resulting in a general expression for the acceleration of the bubble's centre of gravity. The proposed model highlights the need to include acceleration due to an asymmetric gain or loss of mass in order to accurately predict bubble motion. Some scenarios are posed by which the growth of bubbles, particularly idealized bubbles that remain a section of a sphere, must include the fact that bubble growth can be asymmetric. In particular, for approximately hemispherical bubble growth the sum of the forces acting on the bubble is negligible compared with the asymmetric term. Further, for bubble injection from a submerged needle this component in the equation of motion is very significant during the initial rapid growth phase as the bubble issues from the nozzle changing from a near hemisphere to truncated sphere geometry. (author)

  6. Bubbles in extended inflation and multi-production of universes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    Developing the thin-wall method of Israel, we present a formalism to investigate bubble dynamics in generalized Einstein theories. We derive the equations of motion for a bubble, finding that the space-time inside a bubble is always inhomogeneous. Applying this formalism to extended inflation, we find the following two results: (1) Any true vacuum bubble expands, contrary to the results of Goldwirth-Zaglauer, who claim that bubbles created initially later collapse. We show that their initial conditions for collapsing bubbles are physically inconsistent. (2) Concerning the global space-time structure of the Universe in extended inflation, we show that worm-holes are produced as in old inflation, resulting in the multi-production of universes.

  7. Will Higher Education Be the Next Bubble to Burst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Joseph Marr; Horton, Howard E.

    2009-01-01

    The public has become all too aware of the term "bubble" to describe an asset that is irrationally and artificially overvalued and cannot be sustained. The dot-com bubble burst by 2000. More recently the overextended housing market collapsed, helping to trigger a credit meltdown. The stock market has declined more than 30 percent in the past year,…

  8. Suppressing dissociation in sonoluminescing bubbles: The effect of excluded volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tögel, R.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef

    2002-01-01

    Recent theoretical work in single-bubble sonoluminescence has suggested that water vapor in the collapsing bubble leads to energy-consuming chemical reactions, restricting the peak temperatures to values for which hardly any light emission could occur. Analyzing the reaction thermodynamics within

  9. Bubbling Threat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The shift of China’s monetary policy stance from "moderately loose" to "prudent" in 2011 indicates curbing inflation and asset bubbles have become the Central Government’s top priority. But is China’s bubble problem short-term or long-term? Is it only monetary or related to economic structure? Is it the cause of China’s economic imbalance or the result? And what kind of deep-rooted problems in the macro economy does it reflect? All these questions call for deep thought,said Zhang Monan,a

  10. Leverage bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wanfeng; Woodard, Ryan; Sornette, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Leverage is strongly related to liquidity in a market and lack of liquidity is considered a cause and/or consequence of the recent financial crisis. A repurchase agreement is a financial instrument where a security is sold simultaneously with an agreement to buy it back at a later date. Repurchase agreement (repo) market size is a very important element in calculating the overall leverage in a financial market. Therefore, studying the behavior of repo market size can help to understand a process that can contribute to the birth of a financial crisis. We hypothesize that herding behavior among large investors led to massive over-leveraging through the use of repos, resulting in a bubble (built up over the previous years) and subsequent crash in this market in early 2008. We use the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of rational expectation bubbles and behavioral finance to study the dynamics of the repo market that led to the crash. The JLS model qualifies a bubble by the presence of characteristic patterns in the price dynamics, called log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior. We show that there was significant LPPL behavior in the market before that crash and that the predicted range of times predicted by the model for the end of the bubble is consistent with the observations.

  11. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantič-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P.-T.; Gallaire, F.

    2015-12-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong expansion and a sudden contraction ending in their collapse and fragmentation into a large amount of small bubbles. Second, the bubble clouds present a large surface area to volume ratio, enhancing the CO2 diffusion from the supersaturated liquid, hence growing rapidly and depleting the CO2. The clouds of bubbles migrate upwards in the form of plumes pulling the surrounding liquid with them and eventually resulting in the foam overflow. The sudden pressure drop that triggers the bubble dynamics with a collapse and oscillations is modelled by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble dynamics from impact to collapse occurs over a time (tb ≃ 800 μs) much larger than the acoustic time scale of the liquid bulk (tac = 2H/c ≃ 80 μs), for the experimental container of height H = 6 cm and a speed of sound around c ≃ 1500 m/s. This scale separation, together with the comparison of numerical and experimental results, suggests that the pressure drop is controlled by two parameters: the acceleration of the container and the distance from the bubble to the free surface.

  12. Critical bubble radius in solvent sublation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The complex compound of dithizone-Co(Ⅱ) was separated and concentrated from the aqueous phase to n-octanol by solvent sublation. From the analysis of the coalescence behavior of bubbles on water-organic interface, the conception of critical bubble radius was proposed, and the value of the critical bubble radius in the water-octanol system was obtained: 1.196 × 10-3 m. The simulation of the mathematical model using CBR and experimental data is completed with perfect results, and the simulation of the mathematical model using CBR is very different with the classic one. The analytical results proved that the critical bubble radius should be adequately considered in mathematical model of solvent sublation.

  13. Ultrasound induced by CW laser cavitation bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, N; Montero, P Rodriguez; Ramos-Garcia, R; Ramirez-San-Juan, J C; Padilla-Martinez, J P, E-mail: korneev@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apt. Postal 51 y 216 CP72000, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    The generation of ultrasound by a collapsing single cavitation bubble in a strongly absorbing liquid illuminated with a moderate power CW laser is described. The ultrasound shock wave is detected with hydrophone and interferometric device. To obtain a stronger pulse it is necessary to adjust a liquid absorption and a beam diameter. Their influence can be qualitatively understood with a simple model.

  14. Bubble Drag Reduction Requires Large Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoof, Ruben A.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.

  15. Bubble drag reduction requires large bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Verschoof, Ruben A; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.

  16. Uniting the family of jets of single cavitation bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Tinguely, Marc; Kobel, Philippe; Dorsaz, Nicolas; Farhat, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Micro-jets are high-speed liquid jets that are produced when a cavitation bubble experiences a non-spherical collapse. Such jets may be driven by any anisotropy in the liquid, such as those induced by near surfaces, gravity, pressure gradients in flows or shock waves. Here we unify this diverse family of micro-jets by describing their dynamics with a single anisotropy parameter ζ >= 0 that represents a dimensionless version of the liquid momentum at the collapse point. We observe, experimentally and numerically, that the dimensionless jet parameters describing the jet speed, jet impact time, bubble displacement, bubble volume at jet impact and vapor-jet volume, all reduce to functions of ζ. Consequently, a measurement of a single parameter, such as the bubble displacement, may be used to estimate any other parameter, such as the jet speed. The jets are phenomenologically categorized into three visually distinct regimes: weak jets that hardly pierce the bubble, intermediate jets that pierce the bubble late during the collapse, and strong jets that pierce the bubble at an early stage of the collapse. In the weak and intermediate jet regimes, that is, when ζ < 0 . 1 , the dimensionless jet parameters scale as simple power laws of ζ independently of the jet driver. Swiss National Science Foundation, University of Western Australia Research Collaboration Award, European Space Agency.

  17. Blowing bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteel, K.

    1999-04-01

    The article, based on a series of interviews with column flotation equipment suppliers, reviews and comments on the progress of bubble generator design. Developments mentioned include the Air/Water sparger from Cominco, the SparJet and SlamJet from CPT, the CISA sparger from Sevala CISA, Microcel flotation columns from Birtley Engineering, Flotaire column flotation cells from LMC International, and the Variable Gap Sparger from MinnovEX. 1 fig., 2 photo.

  18. Single Bubble SonoLuminescence of Particles model

    CERN Document Server

    Maiga, Mahamadou Adama

    2012-01-01

    The Single Bubble SonoLuminescence is a phenomenon where the vapor bubble trapped in a liquid collapse by emitting of a light. It is very known that the temperature inside the bubble depends on the radius, during the collapse, the temperature can reach thousands of Kelvins and that the light would be emitted by radiation of the ionized gas inside the bubble. So, studies show that in certain cases neither an imploding shock nor a plasma has been observed and the temperature is not high enough to explain the spectrum observed. The Single Bubble SonoLuminescence remains a subject of study. For this study we consider the bubble as a box where the free particles (particularly electrons) stemming from the molecules dissociation, are are trapped and confined within the bubble. The confinement allows the particles to acquire some energy during the collapse which they lose in the form of light and also to be considered to bind to the bubble as an electron is bound to the nucleus in an atom. So, with regard to the bubb...

  19. Instability and breakup of cavitation bubbles within diesel drops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Lü; Zhi Ning; Kai Yan; Juan Fu; Chunhua Sun

    2015-01-01

    A modified mathematical model is used to study the effects of various forces on the stability of cavitation bubbles within a diesel droplet. The principal finding of the work is that viscous forces of fluids stabilize the cavitation bubble, while inertial force destabilizes the cavitation bubble. The droplet viscosity plays a dominant role on the stability of cavitation bubbles compared with that of air and bubble. Bubble–droplet radius ratio is a key factor to control the bubble stability, especially in the high radius ratio range. Internal hydrodynamic and surface tension forces are found to stabilize the cavitation bubble, while bubble stability has little relationship with the external hydrodynamic force. Inertia makes bubble breakup easily, however, the breakup time is only slightly changed when bubble growth speed reaches a certain value (50 m·s−1). In contrast, viscous force makes bubble hard to break. With the increasing initial bubble–droplet radius ratio, the bubble growth rate increases, the bubble breakup radius decreases, and the bubble breakup time becomes shorter.

  20. Dependence of the characteristics of bubbles on types of sonochemical reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Kyuichi; Tuziuti, Toru; Iida, Yasuo

    2005-01-01

    Computer simulations of bubble oscillations in liquid water irradiated by an ultrasonic wave have revealed that the characteristic of bubbles depends on types of sonochemical reactors: a horn-type reactor and a standing-wave type reactor. When the acoustic amplitude is large at 20 kHz, the bubble content is mostly water vapor even at the end of the bubble collapse and the temperature inside a bubble at the collapse is relatively low. On the other hand, when the acoustic amplitude is relatively low, the bubble content is mostly noncondensable gas at the end of the bubble collapse and the bubble temperature is relatively high. In a horn-type sonochemical reactor, the former type of bubbles are dominant because many bubbles exist near the horn-tip where the acoustic amplitude is large, while in a standing-wave type reactor the latter type of bubbles are dominant because the Bjerknes force gathers bubbles at a region where acoustic amplitude is relatively low.

  1. Cavitation erosion by single laser-produced bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, A.; Lauterborn, W.

    1998-04-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of cavitation erosion, the dynamics of a single laser-generated cavitation bubble in water and the resulting surface damage on a flat metal specimen are investigated in detail. The characteristic effects of bubble dynamics, in particular the formation of a high-speed liquid jet and the emission of shock waves at the moment of collapse are recorded with high-speed photography with framing rates of up to one million frames/s. Damage is observed when the bubble is generated at a distance less than twice its maximum radius from a solid boundary ([gamma]=2, where [gamma]=s/Rmax, s is the distance between the boundary and the bubble centre at the moment of formation and Rmax is the maximum bubble radius). The impact of the jet contributes to the damage only at small initial distances ([gamma][less-than-or-eq, slant]0.7). In this region, the impact velocity rises to 83 m s[minus sign]1, corresponding to a water hammer pressure of about 0.1 GPa, whereas at [gamma]>1, the impact velocity is smaller than 25 m s[minus sign]1. The largest erosive force is caused by the collapse of a bubble in direct contact with the boundary, where pressures of up to several GPa act on the material surface. Therefore, it is essential for the damaging effect that bubbles are accelerated towards the boundary during the collapse phases due to Bjerknes forces. The bubble touches the boundary at the moment of second collapse when [gamma]jet flow through the bubble centre. Corresponding to the decay of this bubble torus into multiple tiny bubbles each collapsing separately along the circumference of the torus, the observed damage is circular as well. Bubbles in the ranges [gamma][less-than-or-eq, slant]0.3 and [gamma]=1.2 to 1.4 caused the greatest damage. The overall diameter of the damaged area is found to scale with the maximum bubble radius. Owing to the possibility of generating thousands of nearly identical bubbles, the cavitation resistance of even hard

  2. On thermonuclear processes in cavitation bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatulin, R. I.; Lahey, R. T., Jr.; Taleyarkhan, R. P.; West, C. D.; Block, R. C.

    2014-09-01

    The theoretical and experimental foundations of so-called bubble nuclear fusion are reviewed. In the nuclear fusion process, a spherical cavitation cluster ˜ 10-2 m in diameter is produced of spherical bubbles at the center of a cylindrical chamber filled with deuterated acetone using a focused acoustic field having a resonant frequency of about 20 kHz. The acoustically-forced bubbles effectuate volume oscillations with sharp collapses during the compression stage. At the final stages of collapse, the bubble cluster emits 2.5 MeV D-D fusion neutron pulses at a rate of ˜ 2000 per second. The neutron yield is ˜ 10^5 s -1. In parallel, tritium nuclei are produced at the same yield. It is shown numerically that, for bubbles having sufficient molecular mass, spherical shock waves develop in the center of the cluster and that these spherical shock waves (microshocks) produce converging shocks within the interior bubbles, which focus energy on the centers of the bubbles. When these shock waves reflect from the centers of the bubbles, extreme conditions of temperature ( ˜ 10^8 K) and density ( ˜ 10^4 kg m -3) arise in a (nano)spherical region ( ˜ 10-7 m in size) that last for ˜ 10-12 s, during which time about ten D-D fusion neutrons and tritium nuclei are produced in the region. A paradoxical result in our experiments is that it is bubble cluster (not streamer) cavitation and the sufficiently high molecular mass of (and hence the low sound speed in) D-acetone ( C3D6O) vapor (as compared, for example, to deuterated water D2O) which are necessary conditions for the formation of convergent spherical microshock waves in central cluster bubbles. It is these waves that allow the energy to be sufficiently focused in the nanospherical regions near the bubble centers for fusion events to occur. The criticism to which the concept of 'bubble fusion' has been subjected in the literature, in particular, most recently in Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (Physics - Uspekhi) journal, is

  3. Stationary bubbles: information loss paradox?

    CERN Document Server

    Domènech, Guillem

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to build classically stationary bubbles, within the thin-shell formalism, which are unstable under quantum effects; they either collapse into a black hole or expand. Thus, the final state can be thought of a superposition of geometries. We point out that, from a quantum mechanical point of view, there is no issue with a loss of information in such configuration. A classical observer sees a definite geometry and, hence, finds an effective loss of information. Although it does not cover all possible cases, we emphasise the role of semi-classical gravitational effects, mediated by instatons, in alleviating/solving the information loss paradox.

  4. Liquid jet pumped by rising gas bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, N. A.; Siegel, R.

    1975-01-01

    A two-phase mathematical model is proposed for calculating the induced turbulent vertical liquid flow. Bubbles provide a large buoyancy force and the associated drag on the liquid moves the liquid upward. The liquid pumped upward consists of the bubble wakes and the liquid brought into the jet region by turbulent entrainment. The expansion of the gas bubbles as they rise through the liquid is taken into account. The continuity and momentum equations are solved numerically for an axisymmetric air jet submerged in water. Water pumping rates are obtained as a function of air flow rate and depth of submergence. Comparisons are made with limited experimental information in the literature.

  5. Collapsing granular suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Kadau, D.; Andrade Jr, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    A 2D contact dynamics model is proposed as a microscopic description of a collapsing suspension/soil to capture the essential physical processes underlying the dynamics of generation and collapse of the system. Our physical model is compared with real data obtained from in situ measurements performed with a natural collapsing/suspension soil. We show that the shear strength behavior of our collapsing suspension/soil model is very similar to the behavior of this collapsing suspension soil, for...

  6. Formation of bubbles in a multisection flow-focusing junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michinao; Whitesides, George M

    2010-05-01

    The formation of bubbles in a flow-focusing (FF) junction comprising multiple rectangular sections is described. The simplest junctions comprise two sections (throat and orifice). Systematic investigation of the influence on the formation of bubbles of the flow of liquid and the geometry of the junction identifies regimes that generate monodisperse, bidisperse, and tridisperse trains of bubbles. The mechanisms by which these junctions form monodisperse and bidisperse bubbles are inferred from the shapes of the gas thread during breakup: these mechanisms differ primarily by the process in which the gas thread collapses in the throat and/or orifice. The dynamic self-assembly of bidisperse bubbles leads to unexpected groupings of bubbles during their flow along the outlet channel.

  7. Bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Siew-Wan; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2015-10-06

    The study of the interaction of bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound is sometimes termed 'acoustic cavitation'. It is of importance in many biomedical applications where sound waves are applied. The use of shock waves and ultrasound in medical treatments is appealing because of their non-invasiveness. In this review, we present a variety of acoustics-bubble interactions, with a focus on shock wave-bubble interaction and bubble cloud phenomena. The dynamics of a single spherically oscillating bubble is rather well understood. However, when there is a nearby surface, the bubble often collapses non-spherically with a high-speed jet. The direction of the jet depends on the 'resistance' of the boundary: the bubble jets towards a rigid boundary, splits up near an elastic boundary, and jets away from a free surface. The presence of a shock wave complicates the bubble dynamics further. We shall discuss both experimental studies using high-speed photography and numerical simulations involving shock wave-bubble interaction. In biomedical applications, instead of a single bubble, often clouds of bubbles appear (consisting of many individual bubbles). The dynamics of such a bubble cloud is even more complex. We shall show some of the phenomena observed in a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field. The nonlinear nature of the sound field and the complex inter-bubble interaction in a cloud present challenges to a comprehensive understanding of the physics of the bubble cloud in HIFU. We conclude the article with some comments on the challenges ahead.

  8. Fama on Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    2016-01-01

    While Eugene Fama has repeatedly expressed his discontent with the notion of an “irrational bubble,” he has never publicly expressed his opinion on “rational bubbles.” On empirical grounds Fama rejects bubbles by referring to the lack of reliable evidence that price declines are predictable. Howe...... component in stock market valuation ratios, consistent with a rational bubble....

  9. A study on cavity collapse for utilizing green implosion energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunhee; Gojani, Ardian; Han, Tae-Hee; Yoh, Jack

    2009-06-01

    The mechanical energy generated by laser-induced implosion and the dynamics between non-condensable gas and liquid are studied experimentally and numerically. We have designed a micro implosion piston (MIP) to utilize the energy of implosion for inducing a piston motion. The MIP has the shape of a cone and is filled with liquid at room temperature and a high pressure (˜ 6 bars). Focusing of a high power laser pulse inside the MIP leads to creation of several bubbles that expand and collapse with successive rebounds. The bubble-liquid interaction develops a micro- jet that destroys the symmetry of the bubble. This bubble implosion motion, induced by the pressure gradient across the cavity wall produces high pressures wave within a few nanoseconds. These pressure waves are affected by different conditions such as the distance between the bubble and piston head, the dimension of the MIP, and the pressure at which the MIP is driven. The radius of the bubble is measured by double exposure photography, while pressure histories are measured by hydrophones. We investigate the relationship between the radius of the bubble, the overpressure of the secondary shock wave and the motion of the micro piston, and compare it to numerical simulations. The aim is to reach a state inside the MIP that would cause a sustainable and efficient motion of piston through cavity collapse induced high pressure pulses.

  10. Experimental investigation of shock wave - bubble interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Mohsen

    2010-04-09

    expanded beam of a Q-switched laser pulse at wavelength of λ=532 nm and with pulse duration of ∼4 ns is focused at the center of a water tank using an aberration minimized lens design. Single cavitation bubbles are initiated via optical breakdown at this location which coincides with the position of which the shock wave is focused. The energy of the shock wave source has been altered in 8 steps. The pressure pulse amplitude of the impinging shock wave measured at the distance of about 1.8 mm above the focus location range from 24.4 MPa to 108.1 MPa. The lithotripter shock wave impact time is varied in three steps which provides the possibility of investigation of the bubble dynamics in both cases of collapsing and expanding cavities at the moment of the shock wave impingement. After the shock wave impact, the bubble spherical symmetry is broken and a liquid jet develops in the original direction of the shock propagation. The speed of the jet is increasing with the shock wave energy. Due to the energy transfer from the shock wave to the bubble, the forced cavity implosion is more violent in comparison to free oscillation. The pressure pulse amplitude released from the forced bubble collapse is amplified and the collapse time is reduced. These effects are discussed in chapter 5. Generally, when the bubble is collapsing at the time of the shock impact, the forced cavity collapse is more violent with a resultant of more pressure enhancement compared to the expanding bubbles at the moment of the shock arrival. The maximum pressure enhancement and reduction of bubble collapse time occur when the time interval between the moments of the shock impact and bubble collapse approaches the pulse duration of the compression part of the shock wave profile (i.e. ∼1 μs). For each specific shock wave arrival time, increasing the shock intensity leads to the fact that the bubble collapse takes place earlier relative to the moment of the shock impact and having more collapse pressure

  11. Experimental investigation of shock wave - bubble interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Mohsen

    2010-04-09

    expanded beam of a Q-switched laser pulse at wavelength of λ=532 nm and with pulse duration of ∼4 ns is focused at the center of a water tank using an aberration minimized lens design. Single cavitation bubbles are initiated via optical breakdown at this location which coincides with the position of which the shock wave is focused. The energy of the shock wave source has been altered in 8 steps. The pressure pulse amplitude of the impinging shock wave measured at the distance of about 1.8 mm above the focus location range from 24.4 MPa to 108.1 MPa. The lithotripter shock wave impact time is varied in three steps which provides the possibility of investigation of the bubble dynamics in both cases of collapsing and expanding cavities at the moment of the shock wave impingement. After the shock wave impact, the bubble spherical symmetry is broken and a liquid jet develops in the original direction of the shock propagation. The speed of the jet is increasing with the shock wave energy. Due to the energy transfer from the shock wave to the bubble, the forced cavity implosion is more violent in comparison to free oscillation. The pressure pulse amplitude released from the forced bubble collapse is amplified and the collapse time is reduced. These effects are discussed in chapter 5. Generally, when the bubble is collapsing at the time of the shock impact, the forced cavity collapse is more violent with a resultant of more pressure enhancement compared to the expanding bubbles at the moment of the shock arrival. The maximum pressure enhancement and reduction of bubble collapse time occur when the time interval between the moments of the shock impact and bubble collapse approaches the pulse duration of the compression part of the shock wave profile (i.e. ∼1 μs). For each specific shock wave arrival time, increasing the shock intensity leads to the fact that the bubble collapse takes place earlier relative to the moment of the shock impact and having more collapse pressure

  12. Between soap bubbles and vesicles: The dynamics of freely floating smectic bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannarius, Ralf; May, Kathrin; Harth, Kirsten; Trittel, Torsten

    2013-03-01

    The dynamics of droplets and bubbles, particularly on microscopic scales, are of considerable importance in biological, environmental, and technical contexts. We introduce freely floating bubbles of smectic liquid crystals and report their unique dynamic properties. Smectic bubbles can be used as simple models for dynamic studies of fluid membranes. In equilibrium, they form minimal surfaces like soap films. However, shape transformations of closed smectic membranes that change the surface area involve the formation and motion of molecular layer dislocations. These processes are slow compared to the capillary wave dynamics, therefore the effective surface tension is zero like in vesicles. Freely floating smectic bubbles are prepared from collapsing catenoid films and their dynamics is studied with optical high-speed imaging. Experiments are performed under normal gravity and in microgravity during parabolic flights. Supported by DLR within grant OASIS-Co.

  13. Cavitation inception by the backscattering of pressure waves from a bubble interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahira, Hiroyuki; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Mori, Naoto; Tanaka, Moe

    2015-10-01

    The secondary cavitation that occurs by the backscattering of focused ultrasound from a primary cavitation bubble caused by the negative pressure part of the ultrasound (Maxwell, et al., 2011) might be useful for the energy exchange due to bubble oscillations in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). The present study is concerned with the cavitation inception by the backscattering of ultrasound from a bubble. In the present experiment, a laser-induced bubble which is generated by a pulsed focused laser beam with high intensity is utilized as a primary cavitation bubble. After generating the bubble, focused ultrasound is emitted to the bubble. The acoustic field and the bubble motion are observed with a high-speed video camera. It is confirmed that the secondary cavitation bubble clouds are generated by the backscattering from the laser-induced bubble. The growth of cavitation bubble clouds is analyzed with the image processing method. The experimental results show that the height and width of the bubble clouds grow in stepwise during their evolution. The direct numerical simulations are also conducted for the backscattering of incident pressure waves from a bubble in order to evaluate a pressure field near the bubble. It is shown that the ratio of a bubble collapse time t0 to a characteristic time of wave propagation tS, η = t0/ts, is an important determinant for generating negative pressure region by backscattering. The minimum pressure location by the backscattering in simulations is in good agreement with the experiment.

  14. The physics of the oscillating bubble made simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, P

    2002-03-01

    The physics of bubbles and of their oscillations is extremely complex and attempts at its mathematical description are generally inaccessible. Yet some idea, in broad descriptive terms at least, is very helpful in understanding bubble phenomena of clinical interest. A brief attempt to provide such a description is given in this article.

  15. Cavitation Bubble Dynamics inside Liquid Drops in Microgravity

    OpenAIRE

    Obreschkow, D.; Kobel, P.; Dorsaz, N.; De Bosset, A.; Nicollier, C.; Farhat, M.

    2006-01-01

    We studied spark-generated cavitation bubbles inside water drops produced in microgravity. High-speed visualizations disclosed unique effects of the spherical and nearly isolated liquid volume. In particular, (1) toroidally collapsing bubbles generate two liquid jets escaping from the drop, and the "splash jet" discloses a remarkable broadening. (2) Shockwaves induce a strong form of secondary cavitation due to the particular shockwave confinement. This feature offers a novel way to estimate ...

  16. Luminescence of transient single cavitation bubbles in non-aqueous liquids produced by the modified tube-arrest method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xian-Mei; Ying Chong-Fu; Li Chao

    2005-01-01

    Large transient single bubbles of effective diameters in centimetres were generated by the modified tube-arrest method in 7 nonaqueous liquids besides water and in glycerin-water mixtures. During collapse, nearly all these bubbles gave off light emissions of various intensities, which in 6 liquids were correlated with the saturation vapour pressure and viscosity of the respective liquid. Bubbles in ethylene glycol and propylene glycol did not follow this rule, but those in the former liquid showed some unusual regularity in luminescence variation, and the bubbles in both the liquids were particularly bright. The luminous properties of the transient single bubble are compared with those of the usual stable single bubble.

  17. Spatial-temporal dynamics of cavitation bubble clouds in 1.2 MHz focused ultrasound field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaojing; Wan, Mingxi

    2006-09-01

    Cavitation bubbles have been recognized as being essential to many applications of ultrasound. Temporal evolution and spatial distribution of cavitation bubble clouds induced by a focused ultrasound transducer of 1.2 MHz center frequency are investigated by high-speed photography. It is revealed that at a total acoustic power of 72 W the cavitation bubble cloud first emerges in the focal region where cavitation bubbles are observed to generate, grow, merge and collapse during the initial 600 micros. The bubble cloud then grows upward to the post-focal region, and finally becomes visible in the pre-focal region. The structure of the final bubble cloud is characterized by regional distribution of cavitation bubbles in the ultrasound field. The cavitation bubble cloud structure remains stable when the acoustic power is increased from 25 W to 107 W, but it changes to a more violent form when the acoustic power is further increased to 175 W.

  18. Collapsing granular suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadau, D; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2009-11-01

    A 2D contact dynamics model is proposed as a microscopic description of a collapsing suspension/soil to capture the essential physical processes underlying the dynamics of generation and collapse of the system. Our physical model is compared with real data obtained from in situ measurements performed with a natural collapsing/suspension soil. We show that the shear strength behavior of our collapsing suspension/soil model is very similar to the behavior of this collapsing suspension soil, for both the unperturbed and the perturbed phases of the material.

  19. Circulatory bubble dynamics: from physical to biological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Virginie; Tang, Meng-Xing; Balestra, Costantino; Eckersley, Robert J; Karapantsios, Thodoris D

    2014-04-01

    Bubbles can form in the body during or after decompression from pressure exposures such as those undergone by scuba divers, astronauts, caisson and tunnel workers. Bubble growth and detachment physics then becomes significant in predicting and controlling the probability of these bubbles causing mechanical problems by blocking vessels, displacing tissues, or inducing an inflammatory cascade if they persist for too long in the body before being dissolved. By contrast to decompression induced bubbles whose site of initial formation and exact composition are debated, there are other instances of bubbles in the bloodstream which are well-defined. Gas emboli unwillingly introduced during surgical procedures and ultrasound microbubbles injected for use as contrast or drug delivery agents are therefore also discussed. After presenting the different ways that bubbles can end up in the human bloodstream, the general mathematical formalism related to the physics of bubble growth and detachment from decompression is reviewed. Bubble behavior in the bloodstream is then discussed, including bubble dissolution in blood, bubble rheology and biological interactions for the different cases of bubble and blood composition considered.

  20. Correction of bubble size distributions from transmission electron microscopy observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkegaard, P.; Eldrup, M.; Horsewell, A.; Skov Pedersen, J.

    1996-01-01

    Observations by transmission electron microscopy of a high density of gas bubbles in a metal matrix yield a distorted size distribution due to bubble overlap and bubble escape from the surface. A model is described that reconstructs 3-dimensional bubble size distributions from 2-dimensional projections on taking these effects into account. Mathematically, the reconstruction is an ill-posed inverse problem, which is solved by regularization technique. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations support the validity of our model. (au) 1 tab., 32 ills., 32 refs.

  1. Effects of acoustic parameters on bubble cloud dynamics in ultrasound tissue erosion (histotripsy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Hall, Timothy L; Fowlkes, J Brian; Cain, Charles A

    2007-07-01

    High intensity pulsed ultrasound can produce significant mechanical tissue fractionation with sharp boundaries ("histotripsy"). At a tissue-fluid interface, histotripsy produces clearly demarcated tissue erosion and the erosion efficiency depends on pulse parameters. Acoustic cavitation is believed to be the primary mechanism for the histotripsy process. To investigate the physical basis of the dependence of tissue erosion on pulse parameters, an optical method was used to monitor the effects of pulse parameters on the cavitating bubble cloud generated by histotripsy pulses at a tissue-water interface. The pulse parameters studied include pulse duration, peak rarefactional pressure, and pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Results show that the duration of growth and collapse (collapse cycle) of the bubble cloud increased with increasing pulse duration, peak rarefactional pressure, and PRF when the next pulse arrived after the collapse of the previous bubble cloud. When the PRF was too high such that the next pulse arrived before the collapse of the previous bubble cloud, only a portion of histotripsy pulses could effectively create and collapse the bubble cloud. The collapse cycle of the bubble cloud also increased with increasing gas concentration. These results may explain previous in vitro results on effects of pulse parameters on tissue erosion.

  2. Size of the top jet drop produced by bubble bursting

    CERN Document Server

    Ghabache, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    As a bubble bursts at a liquid-air interface, a tiny liquid jet rises and can release the so-called \\textit{jet drops}. In this paper, the size of the top jet drop produced by a bubble bursting is investigated experimentally. We determine, and discuss, the first scaling law enabling the determination of the top jet drop size as a function of the corresponding mother bubble radius and the liquid properties (viscosity, surface tension, density), along with its regime of existence. Furthermore, in the aim of decoupling experimentally the effects of bubble collapse and jet dynamics on the drop detachment, we propose a new scaling providing the top drop size only as a function of the jet velocity and liquid parameters. In particular, this allows us to untangle the intricate roles of viscosity, gravity and surface tension in the \\textit{end-pinching} of the bubble bursting jet.

  3. Characteristics of a bubble jet near a vertical wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG A-man; YAO Xiong-liang; LI Jia

    2008-01-01

    A numerical model of a coupled bubble jet and wall was built on the assumption of potential flow and calculated by the boundary integral method. A three-dimensional computing program was then developed. Starting with the basic phenomenon of the interaction between a bubble and a wall, the dynamics of bubbles near rigid walls were studied systematically with the program. Calculated results agreed well with experimental results. The relationship between the Bjerknes effect of a wall and characteristic parameters was then studied and the calculated results of various cases were compared and discussed with the Blake criterion based on the Kelvin-impulse theory. Our analyses show that the angle of the jet's direction and the pressure on the rigid wall have a close relationship with collapse force and the bubble's characteristic parameters. From this, the application range of Blake criterion can be determined. This paper aims to provide a basis for future research on the dynamics of bubbles near a wall.

  4. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENT OF BUBBLY FLOW INSIDE THROTTLING GROOVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xin; DU Xuewen; ZOU Jun; YANG Huayong; JI Hong

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between pressure distribution and cavitation (noise) inside throttling groove is investigated by numerical simulation and experimental method. A valve pocket with several transducers is performed to detect the pressure distributions inside the valve chamber, and the results fit quite well with the computational fluid dynamics(CFD) analysis. High-speed imaging techniques are employed to investigate the cavitation mechanisms, in particular bubble inception and cluster formation near the throttling groove. A spectrum analyzer is used to measure the sound pressure level of noise generated by the bubble flow. It is found that the pressure distributions inside the groove are sensitive to the valve port configuration and back pressure. The pressure distribution determines the bubble size and number passing through the valve grooves and the sound pressure level of noise induced by collapsing bubbles. The inlet pressure mainly affects the saturation degree of bubbly flow inside the groove and the intensity of sound pressure level accordingly.

  5. Intraluminal bubble dynamics induced by lithotripsy shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Bai, Jiaming; Zhou, Yufeng

    2016-12-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been the first option in the treatment of calculi in the upper urinary tract since its introduction. ESWL-induced renal injury is also found after treatment and is assumed to associate with intraluminal bubble dynamics. To further understand the interaction of bubble expansion and collapse with the vessel wall, the finite element method (FEM) was used to simulate intraluminal bubble dynamics and calculate the distribution of stress in the vessel wall and surrounding soft tissue during cavitation. The effects of peak pressure, vessel size, and stiffness of soft tissue were investigated. Significant dilation on the vessel wall occurs after contacting with rapid and large bubble expansion, and then vessel deformation propagates in the axial direction. During bubble collapse, large shear stress is found to be applied to the vessel wall at a clinical lithotripter setting (i.e. 40 MPa peak pressure), which may be the mechanism of ESWL-induced vessel rupture. The decrease of vessel size and viscosity of soft tissue would enhance vessel deformation and, consequently, increase the generated shear stress and normal stresses. Meanwhile, a significantly asymmetric bubble boundary is also found due to faster axial bubble expansion and shrinkage than in radial direction, and deformation of the vessel wall may result in the formation of microjets in the axial direction. Therefore, this numerical work would illustrate the mechanism of ESWL-induced tissue injury in order to develop appropriate counteractive strategies for reduced adverse effects.

  6. Computational modelling of the interaction of shock waves with multiple gas-filled bubbles in a liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betney, M. R.; Tully, B.; Hawker, N. A.; Ventikos, Y.

    2015-03-01

    This study presents a computational investigation of the interactions of a single shock wave with multiple gas-filled bubbles in a liquid medium. This work illustrates how multiple bubbles may be used in shock-bubble interactions to intensify the process on a local level. A high resolution front-tracking approach is used, which enables explicit tracking of the gas-liquid interface. The collapse of two identical bubbles, one placed behind the other is investigated in detail, demonstrating that peak pressures in a two bubble arrangement can exceed those seen in single bubble collapse. Additionally, a parametric investigation into the effect of bubble separation is presented. It is found that the separation distance has a significant effect on both the shape and velocity of the main transverse jet of the second bubble. Extending this analysis to effects of relative bubble size, we show that if the first bubble is sufficiently small relative to the second, it may become entirely entrained in the second bubble main transverse jet. In contrast, if the first bubble is substantially larger than the second, it may offer it significant protection from the incident shock. This protection is utilised in the study of a triangular array of three bubbles, with the central bubble being significantly smaller than the outer bubbles. It is demonstrated that, through shielding of bubbles until later in the collapse process, pressures over five times higher than the maximum pressure observed in the single bubble case may be achieved. This corresponds to a peak pressure that is approximately 40 times more intense than the incident shock wave. This work has applications in a number of different fields, including cavitation erosion, explosives, targeted drug delivery/intensification, and shock wave lithotripsy.

  7. Bubble cloud dynamics in a high-pressure spherical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Phillip Andrew

    A bubble cloud is a population of bubbles confined to a region within a fluid. Bubble clouds play a large role in a variety of naturally occurring phenomena and man-made applications (e.g., ocean noise, cavitation damage, sonoluminescence, ultrasonic cleaning, drug delivery, lithotripsy). It is important, therefore, to understand the behavior of bubble clouds so that their effects may be enhanced or diminished as desired. This work explores and characterizes the properties of bubble clouds nucleated inside a high-pressure spherical acoustic resonator, in connection with recent interest in acoustic inertial confinement fusion (acoustic ICF). A laser system was developed to repeatably nucleate a cloud of bubbles inside the resonator. The resulting events were then observed, primarily with schlieren imaging methods. Preliminary studies of the bubble cloud dynamics showed the sensitivity of the initial cloud to nucleation parameters including the phase of nucleation, the laser energy, and the acoustic power. After many acoustic cycles, some bubble clouds are observed to evolve into a tight cluster. The formation of these clusters correlates with initial bubble distributions which have a large cloud interaction parameter, β. Cluster dynamics are seen to be largely driven by reconverging shock waves from previous collapses reflected from the resonator's interior surface. Initial expansion of the cluster boundary is on the order of 8 mm/µs and the maximum radius approaches 3 mm. Shock pressures are estimated to be > 10 GPa at a radius of 100 µm using weak shock theory.

  8. Brut: Automatic bubble classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Christopher; Goodman, Alyssa; Williams, Jonathan; Kendrew, Sarah; Simpson, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Brut, written in Python, identifies bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane; it uses a database of known bubbles from the Milky Way Project and Spitzer images to build an automatic bubble classifier. The classifier is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses the WiseRF implementation of this algorithm.

  9. Fama on bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    Eugene Fama has repeatedly expressed his discontent with the notion of an irrational bubble. However, he has never publicly expressed his opinion on rational bubbles. This is peculiar since such bubbles build naturally from the rational efficient markets paradigm that Fama strongly adheres to...

  10. Numerical analysis of the effects of radiation heat transfer and ionization energy loss on the cavitation Bubble's dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdi, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, R. [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shams, M., E-mail: shams@kntu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Pardis St., Molla-Sadra Ave, Vanak. Sq., P.O. Box: 19395-1999, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-13

    A numerical scheme for simulating the acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation was developed. Bubble instantaneous radius was obtained using Gilmore equation which considered the compressibility of the liquid. A uniform temperature was assumed for the inside gas during the collapse. Radiation heat transfer inside the bubble and the heat conduction to the bubble was considered. The numerical code was validated with the experimental data and a good correspondence was observed. The dynamics of hydrofoil cavitation bubble were also investigated. It was concluded that the thermal radiation heat transfer rate strongly depended on the cavitation number, initial bubble radius and hydrofoil angle of attack. -- Highlights: → Heat transfer and ionization energy losses were analyzed in the cavitation bubble. → Radiation of hydrodynamic bubble was approximately equal to the black body. → Radiation heat transfer did not affect the bubble dynamic. → Conduction decreased the bubble pressure and increased the bubble temperature. → Ionization decreased the temperature and increased the pressure in the bubble.

  11. New mathematical framework for spherical gravitational collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Giambo, R; Magli, G; Piccione, P; Giambo', Roberto; Giannoni, Fabio; Magli, Giulio; Piccione, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    A theorem, giving necessary and sufficient condition for naked singularity formation in spherically symmetric non static spacetimes under hypotheses of physical acceptability, is formulated and proved. The theorem relates existence of singular null geodesics to existence of regular curves which are super-solutions of the radial null geodesic equation, and allows us to treat all the known examples of naked singularities from a unified viewpoint. New examples are also found using this approach, and perspectives are discussed.

  12. New mathematical framework for spherical gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giambo, Roberto [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita di Camerino (Italy); Giannoni, Fabio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita di Camerino (Italy); Magli, Giulio [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano (Italy); Piccione, Paolo [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita di Camerino (Italy)

    2003-03-21

    A theorem, giving necessary and sufficient condition for naked singularity formation in spherically symmetric non-static spacetimes under hypotheses of physical acceptability, is formulated and proved. The theorem relates the existence of singular null geodesics to the existence of regular curves which are supersolutions of the radial null geodesic equation, and allows us to treat all the known examples of naked singularities from a unified viewpoint. New examples are also found using this approach, and perspectives are discussed. (letter to the editor)

  13. Stochastic modelling for financial bubbles and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we draw upon the close relationship between statistical physics and mathematical finance to develop a suite of models for financial bubbles and crashes. By modifying previous approaches, we are able to derive novel analytical formulae for evaluation problems and for the expected timing of future change points. In particular, we help to explain why previous approaches have systematically overstated the timing of changes in market regime. The list of potential empirical applications is deep and wide ranging, and includes contemporary housing bubbles, the Eurozone crisis and the Crash of 2008.

  14. Implosion of an underwater spark-generated bubble and acoustic energy evaluation using the Rayleigh model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buogo, Silvano; Cannelli, Giovanni B

    2002-06-01

    The growth, collapse, and rebound of a vapor bubble generated by an underwater spark is studied by means of high-speed cinematography, simultaneously acquiring the emitted acoustic signature. Video recordings show that the growth and collapse phases are nearly symmetrical during the first two or three cycles, the bubble shape being approximately spherical. After 2-3 cycles the bubble behavior changes from a collapsing/rebounding regime with sound-emitting implosions to a pulsating regime with no implosions. The motion of the bubble wall during the first collapses was found to be consistent with the Rayleigh model of a cavity in an incompressible liquid, with the inclusion of a vapor pressure term at constant temperature within each bubble cycle. An estimate of the pressure inside the bubble is obtained measuring the collapse time and maximum radius, and the amount of energy converted into acoustical energy upon each implosion is deduced. The resulting value of acoustic efficiency was found to be in agreement with measurements based on the emitted acoustic pulse.

  15. Interaction of two cavitation bubbles in a tube and its effects on heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Cai, Jun; Tao, Yuequn; Huai, Xiulan

    2017-02-01

    When two cavitation bubbles exist in a confined space, the interaction between the bubbles significantly affects the characteristics of bubble dynamic behaviors. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) model is established to study the growth and collapse of two cavitation bubbles in a heated tube and its effects on heat transfer. The liquid and gas phases throughout the calculation domain are solved by a set of Navier-Stokes equations. It is assumed that the gas inside the bubble is compressible vapor, and the surrounding liquid is incompressible water. The mass transfer between two phases is ignored. The calculated bubble profiles were compared to the available experimental data, and a good agreement has been achieved. Then, the relationship among the bubble motion, flow field and pressure distributions was analyzed. On this basis, the effects of bubble interaction on the heat transfer between the wall surface and sounding liquid were discussed. It is found that heat transfer in the centre wall region is enhanced owing to the vortex flow and micro-jet induced by the bubble contraction and collapse. In contrast, the highest surface temperature appears in the surrounding region, which is mainly attributed to the thermal resistance induced by the bubble. The present study is helpful to understand the heat transfer phenomenon with cavitation in the liquid.

  16. Gravitational Collapse End States

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments on the final state of a gravitationally collapsing massive matter cloud are summarized and reviewed here. After a brief background on the problem, we point out how the black hole and naked singularity end states arise naturally in spherical collapse. We see that it is the geometry of trapped surfaces that governs this phenomena.

  17. Simultaneous High-Speed Recording of Sonoluminescence and Bubble Dynamics in Multibubble Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairós, Carlos; Mettin, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) is the emission of light from imploding cavitation bubbles in dense ensembles or clouds. We demonstrate a technique of high-speed recording that allows imaging of bubble oscillations and motion together with emitted light flashes in a nonstationary multibubble environment. Hereby a definite experimental identification of light emitting individual bubbles, as well as details of their collapse dynamics can be obtained. For the extremely bright MBSL of acoustic cavitation in xenon saturated phosphoric acid, we are able to explore effects of bubble translation, deformation, and interaction on MBSL activity. The recordings with up to 0.5 million frames per second show that few and only the largest bubbles in the fields are flashing brightly, and that emission often occurs repetitively. Bubble collisions can lead to coalescence and the start or intensification of the emission, but also to its termination via instabilities and splitting. Bubbles that develop a liquid jet during collapse can flash intensely, but stronger jetting gradually reduces the emissions. Estimates of MBSL collapse temperature peaks are possible by numerical fits of transient bubble dynamics, in one case yielding 38 000 K.

  18. Hydrodynamic extensional stress during the bubble bursting process for bioreactor system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh Tinh; Lee, Eun Gyo; Lee, In Su; Woo, Nam Sub; Han, Sang Mok; Kim, Young Ju; Hwang, Wook Ryol

    2016-11-01

    Cell damage, one of critical issues in the bioreactor design for animal cell culture, is caused mainly from the bubble bursting at the free surface subjected to strong extensional flows. In this work, extensive computational studies are performed to investigate bubble bursting process in great details. Extensive numerical simulations are performed for a wide range of bubble diameters (from 0.5 to 6 mm) and the surface tension values (from 0.03 to 0.072 N/m), with which effects of the bubble size and surfactant (PF68) concentration on the hydrodynamic stress are investigated. For all the cases, the maximum extensional stress appears at the instance when receding films impact each other at the bottom of the bubble. A model equation based on numerical simulations is presented to predict the maximum extensional stress as a function of the bubble diameter and the surface tension. The bubble diameter has turned out to contribute significantly the maximum hydrodynamic extensional stress. In addition, the bubble collapsed time and the affected volume around a bubble subjected to the critical extensional stress are investigated. The extensional stress estimation is reported as a function of the bubble size and the surface tension. The influence of the bubble size on the maximum stress dominates and extensional stress reaches up to the order of 104 Pa for bubble size of 0.5 mm.

  19. Microfluidic bubble logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Manu; Gershenfeld, Neil

    2007-02-09

    We demonstrate universal computation in an all-fluidic two-phase microfluidic system. Nonlinearity is introduced into an otherwise linear, reversible, low-Reynolds number flow via bubble-to-bubble hydrodynamic interactions. A bubble traveling in a channel represents a bit, providing us with the capability to simultaneously transport materials and perform logical control operations. We demonstrate bubble logic AND/OR/NOT gates, a toggle flip-flop, a ripple counter, timing restoration, a ring oscillator, and an electro-bubble modulator. These show the nonlinearity, gain, bistability, synchronization, cascadability, feedback, and programmability required for scalable universal computation. With increasing complexity in large-scale microfluidic processors, bubble logic provides an on-chip process control mechanism integrating chemistry and computation.

  20. Tribonucleation of bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Wildeman, Sander; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We report on the nucleation of bubbles on solids that are gently rubbed against each other in a liquid. The phenomenon is found to depend strongly on the material and roughness of the solid surfaces. For a given surface, temperature, and gas content, a trail of growing bubbles is observed if the rubbing force and velocity exceed a certain threshold. Direct observation through a transparent solid shows that each bubble in the trail results from the early coalescence of several microscopic bubbles, themselves detaching from microscopic gas pockets forming between the solids. From a detailed study of the wear tracks, with atomic force and scanning electron microscopy imaging, we conclude that these microscopic gas pockets originate from a local fracturing of the surface asperities, possibly enhanced by chemical reactions at the freshly created surfaces. Our findings will be useful either for preventing undesired bubble formation or, on the contrary, for "writing with bubbles," i.e., creating controlled patterns ...

  1. Bubbles and market crashes

    CERN Document Server

    Youssefmir, M; Hogg, T; Youssefmir, Michael; Huberman, Bernardo; Hogg, Tad

    1994-01-01

    We present a dynamical theory of asset price bubbles that exhibits the appearance of bubbles and their subsequent crashes. We show that when speculative trends dominate over fundamental beliefs, bubbles form, leading to the growth of asset prices away from their fundamental value. This growth makes the system increasingly susceptible to any exogenous shock, thus eventually precipitating a crash. We also present computer experiments which in their aggregate behavior confirm the predictions of the theory.

  2. Bubble-sweeping mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Hao; (王; 昊); PENG; Xiaofeng; (彭晓峰); WANG; Buxuan; (王补宣); LEE; Duzhong; (李笃中)

    2003-01-01

    A series of subcooled boiling experiments was conducted on very small platinum wires having diameters of 0.1 and 0.025 mm. Vapor bubbles were visually observed to sweep back and forth along the wires in the experiments. The dynamic characteristics of bubble-sweeping phenomenon are described, and the induced bubble interaction and nonlinear growth are investigated to understand the boiling heat transfer mechanisms. An unsymmetrical temperature model is proposed to explain the physical mechanism.

  3. Bubble dynamics in perfused tissue undergoing decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, S; Nir, A; Kerem, D

    1981-02-01

    A mathematical model describing bubble dynamics in a perfused tissue undergoing decompression is presented, taking into account physical expansion and inward diffusion from surrounding supersaturated tissue as growth promoting factors and tissue gas elimination by perfusion, tissue elasticity, surface tension and inherent unsaturation as resolving driving forces. The expected behavior after a step reduction of pressure of a bubble initially existing in the tissue, displaying both growth and resolution has been demonstrated. A strong perfusion-dependence of bubble resolution time at low perfusion rates is apparent. The model can account for various exposure pressures and saturation fractions of any inert gas-tissue combination for which a set of physical and physiological parameters is available.

  4. Gravitational collapse of generalised Vaidya spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Mkenyeleye, Maombi D; Maharaj, Sunil D

    2014-01-01

    We study the gravitational collapse of a generalised Vaidya spacetime in the context of the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis. We develop a general mathematical framework to study the conditions on the mass function so that future directed non-spacelike geodesics can terminate at the singularity in the past. Thus our result generalises earlier works on gravitational collapse of the combinations of Type-I and Type-II matter fields. Our analysis shows transparently that there exist classes of generalised Vaidya mass functions for which the collapse terminates with a locally naked central singularity. We calculate the strength of the these singularities to show that they are strong curvature singularities and there can be no extension of spacetime through them.

  5. Shell instability of a collapsing dense core

    CERN Document Server

    Ntormousi, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the formation of binary and multiple stellar systems largely comes down to studying the circumstances for the fragmentation of a condensing core during the first stages of the collapse. However, the probability of fragmentation and the number of fragments seem to be determined to a large degree by the initial conditions. In this work we study the fate of the linear perturbations of a homogeneous gas sphere both analytically and numerically. In particular, we investigate the stability of the well-known homologous solution that describes the collapse of a uniform spherical cloud. The difficulty of the mathematical singularity in the perturbation equations is surpassed here by explicitly introducing a weak shock next to the sonic point. In parallel, we perform adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) numerical simulations of the linear stages of the collapse and compared the growth rates obtained by each method. With this combination of analytical and numerical tools, we explore the behavior of both spherica...

  6. Bubble and drop interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Miller

    2011-01-01

    The book aims at describing the most important experimental methods for characterizing liquid interfaces, such as drop profile analysis, bubble pressure and drop volume tensiometry, capillary pressure technique, and oscillating drops and bubbles. Besides the details of experimental set ups, also the underlying theoretical basis is presented in detail. In addition, a number of applications based on drops and bubbles is discussed, such as rising bubbles and the very complex process of flotation. Also wetting, characterized by the dynamics of advancing contact angles is discussed critically. Spec

  7. Interaction of two three-dimensional explosion bubbles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Xiong-liang; ZHANG A-man; LIU Yu-chen

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of two underwater explosion bubbles was mathematically analyzed in this paper. Based on the assumption of potential flow, high-order curved elements were used to discretize the boundary integral equation and solve it. Assuming that gas inside the bubble follows the isentropic rule,the Euler-Lagrange method was used to trace the evolution of the bubble, and when calculating the singular integral, the singularity of the double-layer singular integral was eliminated by reconstructing a principal-value integral of double-layer potential so that a more precise result could be obtained. Elastic mesh technique (EMT) was also used when tracing the evolution of the bubble interface, and numerical smoothing wasn't needed. A comparison of calculations using this three-dimensional model with results of the Reyleigh-Plesset bubble model shows that the three-dimensional model and calculation method in this paper is practical. This three-dimensional model was applied to simulate the interaction of two bubbles under the action of gravity, and the dynamic characteristics of two bubbles near the surface was also analyzed. Bubbles influenced by surface effects and gravity present severe non-linearity. This paper provides a reference for research into the dynamics of multi-bubbles.

  8. Nanoemulsions obtained via bubble bursting at a compound interface

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Jie; Vigolo, Daniele; Arnaudov, Luben N; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Gurkov, Theodor D; Tsutsumanova, Gichka G; Stone, Howard A

    2013-01-01

    The bursting of bubbles at an air/liquid interface is a familiar occurrence important to foam stability, cell cultures in bioreactors and mass transfer between the sea and atmosphere. Here we document the hitherto unreported formation and dispersal into the water column of submicrometre oil droplets following bubble bursting at a compound air/oil/water-with-surfactant interface. We show that dispersal results from the detachment of an oil spray from the bottom of the bubble towards water during bubble collapse. We provide evidence that droplet size is selected by physicochemical interactions between oil molecules and the surfactants rather than by hydrodynamic effects. We illustrate the unrecognized role that this dispersal mechanism may play in the fate of the sea surface micro-layer and of pollutant spills by dispersing petroleum in the water column. Finally, our system provides an energy-efficient route, with potential upscalability and wide applicability, for applications in drug delivery, food production...

  9. Investigating short-time dynamics of spreading bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Matthieu; Menesses, Mark; Bird, James

    2016-11-01

    When a bubble comes into contact with a partially wetting surface, the film between the bubble and solid surface rapidly dewets to minimize the free energy of the system. The dynamics of this dewetting is assumed to be dominated by capillary and viscous effects. Yet, when drops rather than bubbles spread, the short-time dynamics are dominated by a balance of capillarity and inertia. Here we revisit spreading bubbles to investigate whether the short-time dynamics is better captured by a viscous or inertial scaling. Counter-intuitively, neither viscous nor inertial effects alone can account for short-time spreading dynamics. Through an experimental approach, we develop a dimensionless scaling relation - incorporating both viscosity and inertia - that successfully collapses the data. Chaire X-ESPCI-Saint Gobain.

  10. Effect of liquid subcooling on acoustic characteristics during the condensation process of vapor bubbles in a subcooled pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jiguo, E-mail: tangjiguo@sina.cn [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Yan, Changqi, E-mail: Changqi_yan@163.com [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Sun, Licheng, E-mail: leechengsun@sohu.com [State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, College of Water Resource & Hydropower, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Ya; Wang, Kaiyuan [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Deviations of signals increase first and then decrease with increase in subcooling. • Two typical waveforms are observed and correspond to bubble split-up and collapse. • Dominant frequency in low frequency region is found for all condensation regimes. • Peaks in high frequency region were only found in capillary wave regime. • Bubble collapse frequency is close to frequency of first peak in amplitude spectra. - Abstract: Sound characteristics of direct contact condensation of vapor bubbles in a subcooled pool were investigated experimentally with a hydrophone and a high-speed video camera. Three different condensation modes were observed, which were referred to as shape oscillation regime, transition regime and capillary wave regime in the paper. Time domain analysis indicated that the acoustic signals were boosted in their maximum amplitude with increase in subcooling, while their standard and average absolute deviations shifted to decrease after reaching a peak value. In addition, two different waveforms were found, possible sources of which were split-up and collapse of bubbles, respectively. From the amplitude spectra obtained by FFT, the first dominant frequency was found at frequency of 150–300 Hz for all condensation regimes, whereas some peaks in high frequency region were observed only for the capillary wave regime. The first dominant frequency was the result of the periodic variation in the vapor bubble volume, and the peaks in high frequency region were due to the high-frequency oscillation of water in pressure caused by sudden bubble collapse. The frequency of first peak was considered to be resulted from the periodic bubble collapse or split-up and thus was close to the bubble collapse frequency obtained from snapshots of bubble condensation. Moreover, according to results of short-time Fourier transform (STFT), the time intervals in which a certain process of bubble condensing occurred could be well known.

  11. Prospects for bubble fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigmatulin, R.I. [Tyumen Institute of Mechanics of Multiphase Systems (TIMMS), Marx (Russian Federation); Lahey, R.T. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.

  12. Collapse of axion stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Joshua; Leembruggen, Madelyn; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2016-12-01

    Axion stars, gravitationally bound states of low-energy axion particles, have a maximum mass allowed by gravitational stability. Weakly bound states obtaining this maximum mass have sufficiently large radii such that they are dilute, and as a result, they are well described by a leading-order expansion of the axion potential. Heavier states are susceptible to gravitational collapse. Inclusion of higher-order interactions, present in the full potential, can give qualitatively different results in the analysis of collapsing heavy states, as compared to the leading-order expansion. In this work, we find that collapsing axion stars are stabilized by repulsive interactions present in the full potential, providing evidence that such objects do not form black holes. In the last moments of collapse, the binding energy of the axion star grows rapidly, and we provide evidence that a large amount of its energy is lost through rapid emission of relativistic axions.

  13. Collapse of Axion Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Eby, Joshua; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L C R

    2016-01-01

    Axion stars, gravitationally bound states of low-energy axion particles, have a maximum mass allowed by gravitational stability. Weakly bound states obtaining this maximum mass have sufficiently large radii such that they are dilute, and as a result, they are well described by a leading-order expansion of the axion potential. Heavier states are susceptible to gravitational collapse. Inclusion of higher-order interactions, present in the full potential, can give qualitatively different results in the analysis of collapsing heavy states, as compared to the leading-order expansion. In this work, we find that collapsing axion stars are stabilized by repulsive interactions present in the full potential, providing evidence that such objects do not form black holes. These dense configurations, which are the endpoints of collapse, have extremely high binding energy, and as a result, decay through number changing $3\\,a\\rightarrow a$ interactions with an extremely short lifetime.

  14. Cosmogenesis and Collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Pearle, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Some possible benefits of dynamical collapse for a quantum theory of cosmogenesis are discussed. These are a possible long wait before creation begins, creation of energy and space, and choice of a particular universe out of a superposition.

  15. Collapse of axion stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eby, Joshua [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati,2600 Clifton Ave, Cincinnati, OH, 45221 (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL, 60510 (United States); Leembruggen, Madelyn; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L.C.R. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati,2600 Clifton Ave, Cincinnati, OH, 45221 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Axion stars, gravitationally bound states of low-energy axion particles, have a maximum mass allowed by gravitational stability. Weakly bound states obtaining this maximum mass have sufficiently large radii such that they are dilute, and as a result, they are well described by a leading-order expansion of the axion potential. Heavier states are susceptible to gravitational collapse. Inclusion of higher-order interactions, present in the full potential, can give qualitatively different results in the analysis of collapsing heavy states, as compared to the leading-order expansion. In this work, we find that collapsing axion stars are stabilized by repulsive interactions present in the full potential, providing evidence that such objects do not form black holes. In the last moments of collapse, the binding energy of the axion star grows rapidly, and we provide evidence that a large amount of its energy is lost through rapid emission of relativistic axions.

  16. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. This image of the Alba Patera region has both lava tube collapse pits (running generally east/west) and subsidence related collapse within structural grabens. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 26.9, Longitude 256.5 East (103.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  17. Lava Tube Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found in the southern hemisphere of Mars. They are likely lava tube collapse pits related to flows from Hadriaca Patera. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -36.8, Longitude 89.6 East (270.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  18. Asymmetric bursting of Taylor bubble in inclined tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Basanta Kumar; Das, Arup Kumar; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, experiments have been reported to explain the phenomenon of approach and collapse of an asymmetric Taylor bubble at free surface inside an inclined tube. Four different tube inclinations with horizontal (30°, 45°, 60° and 75°) and two different fluids (water and silicon oil) are considered for the experiment. Using high speed imaging, we have investigated the approach, puncture, and subsequent liquid drainage for re-establishment of the free surface. The present study covers all the aspects in the collapse of an asymmetric Taylor bubble through the generation of two films, i.e., a cap film which lies on top of the bubble and an asymmetric annular film along the tube wall. Retraction of the cap film is studied in detail and its velocity has been predicted successfully for different inclinations and fluids. Film drainage formulation considering azimuthal variation is proposed which also describes the experimental observations well. In addition, extrapolation of drainage velocity pattern beyond the experimental observation limit provides insight into the total collapse time of bubbles at different inclinations and fluids.

  19. Turbulence, bubbles and drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der Roeland Cornelis Adriaan

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, several questions related to drop impact and Taylor-Couette turbulence are answered. The deformation of a drop just before impact can cause a bubble to be entrapped. For many applications, such as inkjet printing, it is crucial to control the size of this entrapped bubble. To study t

  20. Bubbles in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Strain-induced deformations in graphene are predicted to give rise to large pseudomagnetic fields. We examine theoretically the case of gas-inflated bubbles to determine whether signatures of such fields are present in the local density of states. Sharp-edged bubbles are found to induce Friedel...

  1. Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…

  2. Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…

  3. Bubble collision with gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Dong-il; Lee, Wonwoo; Yeom, Dong-han

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study vacuum bubble collisions with various potentials including gravitation, assuming spherical, planar, and hyperbolic symmetry. We use numerical calculations from double-null formalism. Spherical symmetry can mimic the formation of a black hole via multiple bubble collisions. Planar and especially hyperbolic symmetry describes two bubble collisions. We study both cases, when two true vacuum regions have the same field value or different field values, by varying tensions. For the latter case, we also test symmetric and asymmetric bubble collisions, and see details of causal structures. If the colliding energy is sufficient, then the vacuum can be destabilized, and it is also demonstrated. This double-null formalism can be a complementary approach in the context of bubble collisions.

  4. Concentration distribution around a growing gas bubble in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadein, S A; Mohamed, K G

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the concentration distribution around a growing nitrogen gas bubble in the blood and other tissues of divers who surface too quickly, when the ambient pressure through the decompression process is variable and constant. This effort is a modification of Sirinivasan et al. model (1999) [9]. The mathematical model is solved analytically to find the growth rate of a gas bubble in a tissue after decompression in the ambient pressure. Moreover, the concentration distribution around the growing bubble is introduced. The growth process is affected by ascent rate alpha (t), tissue diffusivity D(T), initial concentration difference DeltaC(0), surface tension sigma and void fraction varphi(0).

  5. THE COUNTER-JET FORMATION IN AN AIR BUBBLE INDUCED BY THE IMPACT OF SHOCK WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Li-xin; XU Wei-lin; LI Chao; GAO Yan-dong

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of an air bubble (isolated in water or attached to a boundary) with shock waves induced by electric sparks is investigated by high-speed photography.The interaction is closely related to the counter-jet induced by the impact of shock waves.The formation of a counter-jet in an air bubble is related to the liquid jet formed in the same air bubble,but the mechanism is different with that of the counter-jet formation in a collapsing cavitation bubble.The formation of a counter-jet in an air bubble is related to discharge energy,air bubble size and radius of shock wave.With a given energy of the spark discharge,the formation of a counter-jet in an air bubble is related to δ/ε (the ratio of the dimensionless bubble-bubble distance to the dimensionless air bubble radius).The counter-jet will only be produced when δ/ε is in the range of 1.2-2.2.The counter-jet in an air bubble is of an important nuclei-generating mechanism.

  6. Ascraeus Mons Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found on the flank of Ascraeus Mons. The pits and channels are all related to lava tube formation and emptying. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 8, Longitude 253.9 East (106.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal

  7. Sulci Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. This is the Noctis Labyrinthus region of Mars. These collapse pits are forming along structural fractures that are allowing the release of volatiles from the subsurface. This is believed to be the way that chaos terrain forms on Mars. This area represents the early stage of chaos formation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -12.6, Longitude 264 East (96 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project

  8. Tharsis Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found within the extensive lava flows of the Tharsis region. They are related to lava tubes, likely coming from Ascraeus Mons. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 22.8, Longitude 266.8 East (93.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington

  9. Tractus Catena Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found in graben located in Tractus Catena. These features are related to subsidence after magma chamber evacuation of Alba Patera. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 35.8, Longitude 241.7 East (118.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  10. Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in viscoelastic media with relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnez, M. T.; Johnsen, E.

    2015-06-01

    Cavitation occurs in a variety of non-Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials. The large-amplitude volumetric oscillations of cavitation bubbles give rise to high temperatures and pressures at collapse, as well as induce large and rapid deformation of the surroundings. In this work, we develop a comprehensive numerical framework for spherical bubble dynamics in isotropic media obeying a wide range of viscoelastic constitutive relationships. Our numerical approach solves the compressible Keller-Miksis equation with full thermal effects (inside and outside the bubble) when coupled to a highly generalized constitutive relationship (which allows Newtonian, Kelvin-Voigt, Zener, linear Maxwell, upper-convected Maxwell, Jeffreys, Oldroyd-B, Giesekus, and Phan-Thien-Tanner models). For the latter two models, partial differential equations (PDEs) must be solved in the surrounding medium; for the remaining models, we show that the PDEs can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. To solve the general constitutive PDEs, we present a Chebyshev spectral collocation method, which is robust even for violent collapse. Combining this numerical approach with theoretical analysis, we simulate bubble dynamics in various viscoelastic media to determine the impact of relaxation time, a constitutive parameter, on the associated physics. Relaxation time is found to increase bubble growth and permit rebounds driven purely by residual stresses in the surroundings. Different regimes of oscillations occur depending on the relaxation time.

  11. A new source of radiation in single-bubble sonoluminescence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MORTEZA PISHBINI; RASOUL SADIGHI-BONABI

    2017-04-01

    An unsolved challenge of sonoluminescence phenomenon is the mechanism of light emission at the moment of collapse. In this article, by considering single-bubble sonoluminescence and based on the hydrochemical model and thermal bremsstrahlung approach, for the first time two different origins of light havenumerically been studied to describe the Ar bubble radiation in water at the moment of collapse: (a) radiation from the Ar gas inside the bubble and (b) radiation from the thin layer of the surrounding fluid. The results indicatethat, contrary to the previous studies, the radiation from the water shell is dominant, and it is about one order of magnitude stronger than the radiation from the gas inside the bubble. This result can decrease the differencebetween the theoretical results and the previous experimental data. In addition, based on the role of acoustic pressure amplitude on the characteristics of single-bubble sonoluminescence, various parameters such as degree of ionization, gas pressure, temperature and power were calculated. The results are in excellent agreement with the reported experimental measurements.

  12. Direct visualization of microalgae rupture by ultrasound-driven bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommella, Angelo; Harun, Irina; Pouliopoulos, Antonis; Choi, James J.; Hellgardt, Klaus; Garbin, Valeria

    2015-11-01

    Cell rupture induced by ultrasound is central to applications in biotechnology. For instance, cell disruption is required in the production of biofuels from microalgae (unicellular species of algae). Ultrasound-induced cavitation, bubble collapse and jetting are exploited to induce sufficiently large viscous stresses to cause rupture of the cell membranes. It has recently been shown that seeding the flow with bubbles that act as cavitation nuclei significantly reduces the energy cost for cell processing. However, a fundamental understanding of the conditions for rupture of microalgae in the complex flow fields generated by ultrasound-driven bubbles is currently lacking. We perform high-speed video microscopy to visualize the miscroscale details of the interaction of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , microalgae of about 10 μm in size, with ultrasound-driven microbubbles of 2-200 μm in diameter. We investigate the efficiency of cell rupture depending on ultrasound frequency and pressure amplitude (from 10 kPa up to 1 MPa), and the resulting bubble dynamics regimes. In particular we compare the efficiency of membrane rupture in the acoustic microstreaming flow induced by linear oscillations, with the case of violent bubble collapse and jetting. V.G. acknowledges partial support from the European Commission (FP7-PEOPLE-2013-CIG), Grant No. 618333.

  13. Measurement of the impuslive force generated by colapsing bubble close to a solid boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zima Patrik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents experimental results of the acoustical and optical study of cavitation bubble collapse close to a solid boundary in water. The bubble was generated by discharge of low-voltage capacitor into a couple of wires closing a simple circuit. Different distances from the solid wall and different maximum bubble radii were studied. The bubble radius was studied using time-resolved photography and by PVDF film sensor glued on the solid boundary. The illumination was provided by high-power led diode. Synchronization of the system was provided by pulse generator connected to an oscilloscope. The impact power of the bubble to the wall was estimated from the time-resolved photography of the bubble and from the PVDF film sensor signal. The PVDF film sensor calibration was performed by a pendulum test to estimate the impact force.

  14. Multi-focal laser surgery: cutting enhancement by hydrodynamic interactions between cavitation bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Toytman, Ilya; Simanovski, Dmitri; Palanker, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Transparent biological tissues can be precisely dissected with ultrafast lasers using optical breakdown in the tight focal zone. Typically, tissues are cut by sequential application of pulses, each of which produces a single cavitation bubble. We investigate the hydrodynamic interactions between simultaneous cavitation bubbles originating from multiple laser foci. Simultaneous expansion and collapse of cavitation bubbles can enhance the cutting efficiency by increasing the resulting deformations in tissue, and the associated rupture zone. An analytical model of the flow induced by the bubbles is presented and experimentally verified. The threshold strain of the material rupture is measured in a model tissue. Using the computational model and the experimental value of the threshold strain one can compute the shape of the rupture zone in tissue resulting from application of multiple bubbles. With the threshold strain of 0.7 two simultaneous bubbles produce a continuous cut when applied at the distance 1.35 time...

  15. Measurement of Pulse Width from a Bubble Cloud under Multibubble Sonoluminescence Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ilgon; Kwak, Ho-Young

    2010-12-01

    The pulse width from a bubble cloud under multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) conditions was measured for the first time using a time-correlated single photon counting technique (TC/SPC). The measured pulse width from several thousand bubbles in water was approximately 250.9 ps, with scattered pulses occurring 1.5 ns before and after the maximum light pulse intensity. The observed pulse width from a bubble cloud, which appears to be comparable to that of the single bubble sonoluminescence, indicates that the clouds of bubbles collapse simultaneous to emitting a light that is synchronized with the applied ultrasound. Also, pulse widths from clouds of multibubbles in water-surfactant and water-alcohol solutions were measured to investigate the surfactant and alcohol effect on the sonoluminescence intensity and pulse width. Size distribution of the bubble cloud at the multibubble conditions was also measured by phase-Doppler technique.

  16. Cavitation inception by the backscattering of pressure waves from a bubble interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahira, Hiroyuki, E-mail: takahira@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki, E-mail: oga@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Mori, Naoto, E-mail: su101064@edu.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Moe [Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai-shi, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2015-10-28

    The secondary cavitation that occurs by the backscattering of focused ultrasound from a primary cavitation bubble caused by the negative pressure part of the ultrasound (Maxwell, et al., 2011) might be useful for the energy exchange due to bubble oscillations in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). The present study is concerned with the cavitation inception by the backscattering of ultrasound from a bubble. In the present experiment, a laser-induced bubble which is generated by a pulsed focused laser beam with high intensity is utilized as a primary cavitation bubble. After generating the bubble, focused ultrasound is emitted to the bubble. The acoustic field and the bubble motion are observed with a high-speed video camera. It is confirmed that the secondary cavitation bubble clouds are generated by the backscattering from the laser-induced bubble. The growth of cavitation bubble clouds is analyzed with the image processing method. The experimental results show that the height and width of the bubble clouds grow in stepwise during their evolution. The direct numerical simulations are also conducted for the backscattering of incident pressure waves from a bubble in order to evaluate a pressure field near the bubble. It is shown that the ratio of a bubble collapse time t{sub 0} to a characteristic time of wave propagation t{sub S}, η = t{sub 0}/t{sub s}, is an important determinant for generating negative pressure region by backscattering. The minimum pressure location by the backscattering in simulations is in good agreement with the experiment.

  17. Modeling of the shrinking process of a bubble induced by laser metal ablation in water and experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabir-Moghaddam, Navid; Liu, Ze; Wu, Benxin

    2017-01-01

    Laser ablation of a solid target immersed in liquid (such as water) has many important applications such as laser synthesis of nanoparticles, laser micromachining in water, and laser shock peening. Laser ablation of a solid target in water involves complicated physical processes. One important process often involved is the generation and evolution of a bubble in water and attached to the target surface, which may have significant effects on the target and the ambient water, and hence may greatly affect the relevant practical applications. Some experimental studies were reported in the literature on bubble evolutions induced by laser ablation of a solid target in water. However, the reported previous relevant physics-based modeling work is not sufficient. A physics-based model may help improve the process fundamental understanding and generate valuable information to related applications. In this paper, physics-based modeling work has been performed on the shrinking process of a bubble induced by laser metal ablation in water, together with time-resolved shadowgraph imaging experiments to verify the model. The model-predicted bubble evolution agrees reasonably well with the experimental measurement shown in the paper. Under the studied conditions, it has been found that near the bubble collapse moment (i.e., the moment when the bubble shrinks to a minimum size): (1) the bubble shrinks very fast, and the peak fluid velocity magnitude occurs inside the bubble and can exceed ˜550 m/s; (2) the temperature inside the bubble increases very quickly and approaches ˜2000 K; and (3) the pressure inside the bubble becomes very high, and can reach a peak magnitude of ˜380 MPa at the collapse moment at the bubble center. During the shrinking process, a high-pressure region outside and near the bubble wall is generated near the collapse moment, but the temperature of the region outside the bubble mostly remains low.

  18. Growth cone collapse assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Geoffrey M W; Jareonsettasin, Prem; Keynes, Roger J

    2014-01-01

    The growth cone collapse assay has proved invaluable in detecting and purifying axonal repellents. Glycoproteins/proteins present in detergent extracts of biological tissues are incorporated into liposomes, added to growth cones in culture and changes in morphology are then assessed. Alternatively purified or recombinant molecules in aqueous solution may be added directly to the cultures. In both cases after a defined period of time (up to 1 h), the cultures are fixed and then assessed by inverted phase contrast microscopy for the percentage of growth cones showing a collapsed profile with loss of flattened morphology, filopodia, and lamellipodia.

  19. On bore collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Harry H.; Ghazali, A.

    1988-06-01

    Using the laser-induced fluorescent method, the transition process from bore to runup mode, i.e., "bore collapse," is investigated experimentally. The observed process appears to be different from both previous analytical and numerical predictions. The results indicate that momentum exchange takes place between the incident bore and the quiescent water body along the shoreline. Turbulence generated in a bore nearshore is highly three-dimensional and sporadic. Very close to the shore, turbulence is advected with the bore front, and consequently, the bore collapse process involves strong turbulent action onto the dry beach bed.

  20. Chemistry in Soap Bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Albert W. M.; Wong, A.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Zhou, Ning-Huai

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment in which common chemical gases are trapped inside soap bubbles. Examines the physical and chemical properties of the gases such as relative density and combustion. (Author/MM)

  1. Chemistry in Soap Bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Albert W. M.; Wong, A.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Zhou, Ning-Huai

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment in which common chemical gases are trapped inside soap bubbles. Examines the physical and chemical properties of the gases such as relative density and combustion. (Author/MM)

  2. Popping the Bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Government adopts regulations to control real estate prices A mid concerns surrounding the presence of housing bubbles across China,the Chinese Government is taking action to secure and stabilize the real

  3. The influence of fluid properties and pulse amplitude on bubble dynamics in the field of a shock wave lithotripter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M J; Coleman, A J; Saunders, J E

    1993-11-01

    This study concerns the radial dynamics of a bubble driven by pulsed ultrasound of the type generated during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. In particular, a numerical model has been used to examine the sensitivity of the bubble oscillations to changes in both the amplitude of the driving field and the physical conditions of the fluid surrounding the bubble: viscosity, surface tension, temperature and gas content. It is shown that, at high negative pressures (p- = 10 MPa) as in lithotripsy, the timing and amplitude of bubble collapses have a considerably reduced sensitivity to the initial bubble size and all fluid parameters, except gas content, compared with those expected in lower-amplitude fields (p- = 0.2 MPa). This study indicates that, in the lithotripsy fields, the differences in the viscosity, surface tension and temperature of body fluids and the initial bubble size will have little effect on bubble dynamics compared with those expected in water.

  4. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  5. Bubbling Out of Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Jim Chanos,founder of the U.S. hedge fund Kynikos Associates,characterized the prop-erty bubble in China as "Dubai times 1,000-or worse." Many Chinese economists agree. Yi Xianrong,a senior researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,said the property bubble in China was far worse than the Dubai crisis in an interview with the Beijing-based International Herald Leader. Edited excerpts follow:

  6. The jet impact force of laser-induced bubble under the water-film with different thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beibei; Wang, Bingyang; Liu, Xiumei; He, Jie; Lu, Jian

    2015-05-01

    The effect of water-film on the laser-induced bubble was investigated by a piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) sensor. Both of the collapse time and liquid-jet impact force of the bubble under the water-film were obtained, and the experiments were also completed in different laser energy. The collapse time increase with the thickness of the waterfilm, but the liquid-jet impact force decrease. We consider that the collapse time was affected by both of the rigid boundary and surface, and the increasing of the collapse time is the reason the decreasing of the liquid-jet impact force. The velocity of bubble wall is lower with the longer collapse time for the uniform bubbles energy, so the liquid-jet impact force is lower. For the other reasons, more laser energy would be absorbed by the thicker water-film, but the water was also splashed for the thinner water-film. So, for the thinner water-film, the bubble energy is higher, the liquidjet impact force is higher, but the maximal radius is smaller because of the splash process. In the other hand, both of the collapse time and the liquid-jet impact force are increase with the laser energy. These researches are useful for the laser processing under water.

  7. The role of bubbles during air-sea gas exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Steven; Bushinsky, Seth

    2016-06-01

    The potential for using the air-sea exchange rate of oxygen as a tracer for net community biological production in the ocean is greatly enhanced by recent accuracy improvements for in situ measurements of oxygen on unmanned platforms. A limiting factor for determining the exchange process is evaluating the air-sea flux contributed by bubble processes produced by breaking waves, particularly during winter months under high winds. Highly accurate measurements of noble gases (Ne, Ar & Kr) and nitrogen, N2, in seawater are tracers of the importance of bubble process in the surface mixed layer. We use measured distributions of these gases in the ventilated thermocline of the North Pacific and an annual time series of N2 in the surface ocean of the NE Subarctic Pacific to evaluate four different air-water exchange models chosen to represent the range of model interpretation of bubble processes. We find that models must have an explicit bubble mechanism to reproduce concentrations of insoluble atmospheric gases, but there are periods when they all depart from observations. The recent model of Liang et al. (2013) stems from a highly resolved model of bubble plumes and categorizes bubble mechanisms into those that are small enough to collapse and larger ones that exchange gases before they resurface, both of which are necessary to explain the data.

  8. Collapsible Geostrut Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1994-01-01

    Portable truss structure collapsible into smaller volume for storage and transportation. At new site, reerected quickly, without need to reassemble parts. Structure could be tent, dome, tunnel, or platform. Key element in structure joint, called "geostrut joint," includes internal cable. Structure is network of struts attached to geostrut joints. Pulling cables taut in all joints makes structure rigid. Releasing cables relaxes structure.

  9. Scapholunate advanced collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Stephen J; Salazar, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This case study reviews the pathophysiology of scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC), which is the most common etiology of degenerative arthritis in the wrist. The scapholunate ligament serves a critical role in stability of the carpus. Disruption of the scapholunate ligament, its sequela, and the magnetic resonance imaging evaluation are discussed, with review of the defining features of this disease and its progression.

  10. Dancing building prevents collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, R.

    2007-01-01

    In future, anybody caught inside a building during an earthquake need no longer fear the roof collapsing on them. Thanks to the use of composite materials, all the building will do is dance along, riding the waves of the earthquake. At least, according to Professor Ir. Adriaan Beukers of the

  11. Impact Crater Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, H. J.; Ivanov, B. A.

    The detailed morphology of impact craters is now believed to be mainly caused by the collapse of a geometrically simple, bowl-shaped "transient crater." The transient crater forms immediately after the impact. In small craters, those less than approximately 15 km diameter on the Moon, the steepest part of the rim collapses into the crater bowl to produce a lens of broken rock in an otherwise unmodified transient crater. Such craters are called "simple" and have a depth-to-diameter ratio near 1:5. Large craters collapse more spectacularly, giving rise to central peaks, wall terraces, and internal rings in still larger craters. These are called "complex" craters. The transition between simple and complex craters depends on 1/g, suggesting that the collapse occurs when a strength threshold is exceeded. The apparent strength, however, is very low: only a few bars, and with little or no internal friction. This behavior requires a mechanism for temporary strength degradation in the rocks surrounding the impact site. Several models for this process, including acoustic fluidization and shock weakening, have been considered by recent investigations. Acoustic fluidization, in particular, appears to produce results in good agreement with observations, although better understanding is still needed.

  12. Dancing building prevents collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, R.

    2007-01-01

    In future, anybody caught inside a building during an earthquake need no longer fear the roof collapsing on them. Thanks to the use of composite materials, all the building will do is dance along, riding the waves of the earthquake. At least, according to Professor Ir. Adriaan Beukers of the Aerospa

  13. Modeling Core Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Core collapse supernovae, or the death throes of massive stars, are general relativistic, neutrino-magneto-hydrodynamic events. The core collapse supernova mechanism is still not in hand, though key components have been illuminated, and the potential for multiple mechanisms for different progenitors exists. Core collapse supernovae are the single most important source of elements in the Universe, and serve other critical roles in galactic chemical and thermal evolution, the birth of neutron stars, pulsars, and stellar mass black holes, the production of a subclass of gamma-ray bursts, and as potential cosmic laboratories for fundamental nuclear and particle physics. Given this, the so called ``supernova problem'' is one of the most important unsolved problems in astrophysics. It has been fifty years since the first numerical simulations of core collapse supernovae were performed. Progress in the past decade, and especially within the past five years, has been exponential, yet much work remains. Spherically symmetric simulations over nearly four decades laid the foundation for this progress. Two-dimensional modeling that assumes axial symmetry is maturing. And three-dimensional modeling, while in its infancy, has begun in earnest. I will present some of the recent work from the ``Oak Ridge'' group, and will discuss this work in the context of the broader work by other researchers in the field. I will then point to future requirements and challenges. Connections with other experimental, observational, and theoretical efforts will be discussed, as well.

  14. Road Collapse in Magnum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, A.N.; van Zwol, Roelof; Flokstra, Jan; Brasa, Niek; Quak, Wilko

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a triangulation based collapse algorithm in the general-purpose object oriented DBMS Magnum. The contribution of the paper is twofold. First, we show that true integration of complex spatial functionality in a DBMS can be achieved. Second, we worked out a c

  15. Dancing building prevents collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, R.

    2007-01-01

    In future, anybody caught inside a building during an earthquake need no longer fear the roof collapsing on them. Thanks to the use of composite materials, all the building will do is dance along, riding the waves of the earthquake. At least, according to Professor Ir. Adriaan Beukers of the Aerospa

  16. Oscillating bubbles at the tips of optical fibers in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, K. F.; Fedotov, V. A.; Pochon, S.; Soares, B. F.; Zheludev, N. I.; Guignard, C.; Mihaescu, A.; Besnard, P.

    2003-08-01

    We report that a bubble with a radius of a few micrometers may be created at a precise location on a metal-coated optical fiber tip immersed in liquid nitrogen by microsecond optical pulses with peak powers of less than 20 mW. Dynamic optical measurements reveal that after termination of the optical pulse the bubble exhibits stable oscillations for several tens of microseconds, at frequencies up to several megahertz, as it slowly collapses.

  17. Bursting Bubbles and Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Wrenn, Stephen M. Dicker, Eleanor F. Small, Nily R. Dan, Michał Mleczko, Georg Schmitz, Peter A. Lewin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses various interactions between ultrasound, phospholipid monolayer-coated gas bubbles, phospholipid bilayer vesicles, and cells. The paper begins with a review of microbubble physics models, developed to describe microbubble dynamic behavior in the presence of ultrasound, and follows this with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict inertial cavitation profiles. Predicted sensitivities of inertial cavitation to changes in the values of membrane properties, including surface tension, surface dilatational viscosity, and area expansion modulus, indicate that area expansion modulus exerts the greatest relative influence on inertial cavitation. Accordingly, the theoretical dependence of area expansion modulus on chemical composition - in particular, poly (ethylene glyclol (PEG - is reviewed, and predictions of inertial cavitation for different PEG molecular weights and compositions are compared with experiment. Noteworthy is the predicted dependence, or lack thereof, of inertial cavitation on PEG molecular weight and mole fraction. Specifically, inertial cavitation is predicted to be independent of PEG molecular weight and mole fraction in the so-called mushroom regime. In the “brush” regime, however, inertial cavitation is predicted to increase with PEG mole fraction but to decrease (to the inverse 3/5 power with PEG molecular weight. While excellent agreement between experiment and theory can be achieved, it is shown that the calculated inertial cavitation profiles depend strongly on the criterion used to predict inertial cavitation. This is followed by a discussion of nesting microbubbles inside the aqueous core of microcapsules and how this significantly increases the inertial cavitation threshold. Nesting thus offers a means for avoiding unwanted inertial cavitation and cell death during imaging and other applications such as sonoporation. A review of putative sonoporation mechanisms is then presented

  18. GAS BUBBLE-FACILITATED TRANSPORT OF METALS IN LITHOSPHERE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A physicochemical model for transport of mobile forms of occurrence of elements by gas bubbles in porous medium-gas bubble-facilitated transport of metals in the lithosphere is proposed and its corresponding mathematical model is discussed. The physico-chemical model consists of three phases: water with dissolved metallic elements, gas bubbles and solid matrix of the porous medium. In the model the gas bubbles act as carriers to transport the elements in the pore water from the depth in the lithosphere to the Earth's surface. In the process of transportation the elements dissipate in porous rocks and consequently a new kind of geochemical halo-jet halo of dispersion is formed in the rocks. In order to describe the transport and fate of the elements in the porous rocks a nonlinear quasiconvection mathematical model is developed, in which the transport of elements is modeled by a quasiconvection of gas bubbles with the elements and the interaction of elements with the porous medium is represented by a second-order chemical kinetics. A finite difference scheme is provided to solve the nonlinear quasiconvection model. From the numerical solutions a stabilization effect of concentration front in the transportation of elements in the porous medium is discovered. The sensitivities of the stabilization effect to model parameters are analyzed. To verify the reality of the mathematical model, physicochemical modeling experiments are conducted. The obtained experimental data support the proposed model in this work.

  19. Nucleus factory on cavitation bubble for amyloid β fibril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kichitaro; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Adachi, Kanta; Noi, Kentaro; Hirao, Masahiko; Yagi, Hisashi; Goto, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    Structural evolution from monomer to fibril of amyloid β peptide is related to pathogenic mechanism of Alzheimer disease, and its acceleration is a long-running problem in drug development. This study reveals that ultrasonic cavitation bubbles behave as catalysts for nucleation of the peptide: The nucleation reaction is highly dependent on frequency and pressure of acoustic wave, and we discover an optimum acoustical condition, at which the reaction-rate constant for nucleation is increased by three-orders-of magnitudes. A theoretical model is proposed for explaining highly frequency and pressure dependent nucleation reaction, where monomers are captured on the bubble surface during its growth and highly condensed by subsequent bubble collapse, so that they are transiently exposed to high temperatures. Thus, the dual effects of local condensation and local heating contribute to dramatically enhance the nucleation reaction. Our model consistently reproduces the frequency and pressure dependences, supporting its essential applicability.

  20. Collapse in the Endurance Athlete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Sallis

    2005-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS · Most cases of collapse are benign in nature and occur after an athlete crosses the finish line or stops exercising. Athletes who collapse before finishing are more likely to have a serious condition.

  1. Visualizing the Histotripsy Process: Bubble Cloud-Cancer Cell Interactions in a Tissue-Mimicking Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Maxwell, Adam; Mancia, Lauren; Johnsen, Eric; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    Histotripsy is a non-invasive ultrasonic ablation method that uses cavitation to mechanically fractionate tissue into acellular debris. With a sufficient number of pulses, histotripsy can completely fractionate tissue into a liquid-appearing homogenate with no cellular structures. The location, shape and size of lesion formation closely match those of the cavitation cloud. Previous work has led to the hypothesis that the rapid expansion and collapse of histotripsy bubbles fractionate tissue by inducing large stress and strain on the tissue structures immediately adjacent to the bubbles. In the work described here, the histotripsy bulk tissue fractionation process is visualized at the cellular level for the first time using a custom-built 2-MHz transducer incorporated into a microscope stage. A layer of breast cancer cells were cultured within an optically transparent fibrin-based gel phantom to mimic cells inside a 3-D extracellular matrix. To test the hypothesis, the cellular response to single and multiple histotripsy pulses was investigated using high-speed optical imaging. Bubbles were always generated in the extracellular space, and significant cell displacement/deformation was observed for cells directly adjacent to the bubble during both bubble expansion and collapse. The largest displacements were observed during collapse for cells immediately adjacent to the bubble, with cells moving more than 150-300 μm in less than 100 μs. Cells often underwent multiple large deformations (>150% strain) over multiple pulses, resulting in the bisection of cells multiple times before complete removal. To provide theoretical support to the experimental observations, a numerical simulation was conducted using a single-bubble model, which indicated that histotripsy exerts the largest strains and cell displacements in the regions immediately adjacent to the bubble. The experimental and simulation results support our hypothesis, which helps to explain the formation of the

  2. Colliding with a crunching bubble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freivogel, Ben; Freivogel, Ben; Horowitz, Gary T.; Shenker, Stephen

    2007-03-26

    In the context of eternal inflation we discuss the fate of Lambda = 0 bubbles when they collide with Lambda< 0 crunching bubbles. When the Lambda = 0 bubble is supersymmetric, it is not completely destroyed by collisions. If the domain wall separating the bubbles has higher tension than the BPS bound, it is expelled from the Lambda = 0 bubble and does not alter its long time behavior. If the domain wall saturates the BPS bound, then it stays inside the Lambda = 0 bubble and removes a finite fraction of future infinity. In this case, the crunch singularity is hidden behind the horizon of a stable hyperbolic black hole.

  3. MEASUREMENT OF BUBBLE-BUBBLE INTERACTION DEPENDED ON REYNOLDS NUMBER USING STEREOSCOPIC BUBBLE-TRACKING TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jian-wu; MURAI Yuichi; YAMAMOTO Fujio

    2005-01-01

    Bubble-bubble interaction in free rising bubbly flows is experimentally investigated in the present study.The velocity vectors of the bubbles are measured by a stereoscopic bubble-tracking technique and then the relative velocity vectors of two nearest-neighbor bubbles are calculated with high statistical reliability.With the measurement data at Reynolds number ranging from 5 to 75, the vertical attraction and the horizontal repulsion are confirmed for Re<10 as known by the past study based on Navier-Stokes simulation.The new finding of the present measurement is that the bubbles of Re>30 have repulsive velocity bothin the horizontal and the vertical directions as those rise closely.Moreover, the three-dimensional structure of the bubble-bubble interaction is discussed with the data analysis of the interaction vector fields.

  4. Fermi Bubbles with HAWC

    CERN Document Server

    Solares, H A Ayala; Hüntemeyer, P

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi Bubbles, which comprise two large and homogeneous regions of spectrally hard gamma-ray emission extending up to $55^{o}$ above and below the Galactic Center, were first noticed in GeV gamma-ray data from the Fermi Telescope in 2010. The mechanism or mechanisms which produce the observed hard spectrum are not understood. Although both hadronic and lep- tonic models can describe the spectrum of the bubbles, the leptonic model can also explain similar structures observed in microwave data from the WMAP and Planck satellites. Recent publications show that the spectrum of the Fermi Bubbles is well described by a power law with an exponential cutoff in the energy range of 100MeV to 500GeV. Observing the Fermi Bubbles at higher gamma-ray energies will help constrain the origin of the bubbles. A steeper cutoff will favor a leptonic model. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory, located 4100m above sea level in Mexico, is designed to measure high-energy gamma rays between 100GeV to 100TeV. With...

  5. Rigid collapsible dish structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, William B. (Inventor); Giebler, Martin M. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A collapsible dish structure composed of a plurality of rows of rigid radial petal assemblies concentric with the axis of the dish. The petal assemblies consist of a center petal and two side petals, the center petal hinged on an axis tangent to a circle concentric with the axis of the dish and the side petals hinged to the center petal at their mating edge. The center petal is foldable inwardly and the side petals rotate about their hinges such that the collapsed dish structure occupies a much smaller volume than the deployed dish. Means of controlling the shape of the dish to compensate for differential expansion of the deployed dish are also provided.

  6. On the Wavefunction Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Cristinel Stoica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wavefunction collapse is usually seen as a discontinuous violation of the unitary evolution of a quantum system, caused by the observation. Moreover, the collapse appears to be nonlocal in a sense which seems at odds with general relativity. In this article the possibility that the wavefunction evolves continuously and hopefully unitarily during the measurement process is analyzed. It is argued that such a solution has to be formulated using a time symmetric replacement of the initial value problem in quantum mechanics. Major difficulties in apparent conflict with unitary evolution are identified, but eventually its possibility is not completely ruled out. This interpretation is in a weakened sense both local and realistic, without contradicting Bell's theorem. Moreover, if it is true, it makes general relativity consistent with quantum mechanics in the semiclassical framework.Quanta 2016; 5: 19–33.

  7. Shock induced cavity collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Jonathan; Doyle, Hugo; Tully, Brett; Betney, Matthew; Foster, Peta; Ringrose, Tim; Ramasamy, Rohan; Parkin, James; Edwards, Tom; Hawker, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Results from the experimental investigation of cavity collapse driven by a strong planar shock (>6km/s) are presented. Data from high speed framing cameras, laser backlit diagnostics and time-resolved pyromety are used to validate the results of hydrodynamic front-tracking simulations. As a code validation exercise, a 2-stage light gas gun was used to accelerate a 1g Polycarbonate projectile to velocities exceeding 6km/s; impact with a PMMA target containing a gas filled void results in the formation of a strong shockwave with pressures exceeding 1Mbar. The subsequent phenomena associated with the collapse of the void and excitation of the inert gas fill are recorded and compared to simulated data. Variation of the mass density and atomic number of the gas fill is used to alter the plasma parameters furthering the extent of the code validation.

  8. Self-Collapse Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuanzhen; Xu, Xiaobin; Yang, Qing; Man, Tianxing; Jonas, Steven J; Schwartz, Jeffrey J; Andrews, Anne M; Weiss, Paul S

    2017-08-09

    We report a facile, high-throughput soft lithography process that utilizes nanoscale channels formed naturally at the edges of microscale relief features on soft, elastomeric stamps. Upon contact with self-assembled monolayer (SAM) functionalized substrates, the roof of the stamp collapses, resulting in the selective removal of SAM molecules via a chemical lift-off process. With this technique, which we call self-collapse lithography (SCL), sub-30 nm patterns were achieved readily using masters with microscale features prepared by conventional photolithography. The feature sizes of the chemical patterns can be varied continuously from ∼2 μm to below 30 nm by decreasing stamp relief heights from 1 μm to 50 nm. Likewise, for fixed relief heights, reducing the stamp Young's modulus from ∼2.0 to ∼0.8 MPa resulted in shrinking the features of resulting patterns from ∼400 to ∼100 nm. The self-collapse mechanism was studied using finite element simulation methods to model the competition between adhesion and restoring stresses during patterning. These results correlate well with the experimental data and reveal the relationship between the line widths, channel heights, and Young's moduli of the stamps. In addition, SCL was applied to pattern two-dimensional arrays of circles and squares. These chemical patterns served as resists during etching processes to transfer patterns to the underlying materials (e.g., gold nanostructures). This work provides new insights into the natural propensity of elastomeric stamps to self-collapse and demonstrates a means of exploiting this behavior to achieve patterning via nanoscale chemical lift-off lithography.

  9. Inhomogeneous electromagnetic gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1985-04-15

    The collapse of an inhomogeneous dust cloud in the presence of an electromagnetic field is investigated in detail. The possibility of a naked singularity arising is studied using some known solutions for a spherical charged inhomogeneous dust cloud. It is found that locally naked singularities may develop when the arbitrary functions in the solution are chosen in a special way, but that a global naked singularity will not form. Also the role of the electromagnetic pressure is discussed.

  10. Collapse, environment, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Karl W

    2012-03-06

    Historical collapse of ancient states poses intriguing social-ecological questions, as well as potential applications to global change and contemporary strategies for sustainability. Five Old World case studies are developed to identify interactive inputs, triggers, and feedbacks in devolution. Collapse is multicausal and rarely abrupt. Political simplification undermines traditional structures of authority to favor militarization, whereas disintegration is preconditioned or triggered by acute stress (insecurity, environmental or economic crises, famine), with breakdown accompanied or followed by demographic decline. Undue attention to stressors risks underestimating the intricate interplay of environmental, political, and sociocultural resilience in limiting the damages of collapse or in facilitating reconstruction. The conceptual model emphasizes resilience, as well as the historical roles of leaders, elites, and ideology. However, a historical model cannot simply be applied to contemporary problems of sustainability without adjustment for cumulative information and increasing possibilities for popular participation. Between the 14th and 18th centuries, Western Europe responded to environmental crises by innovation and intensification; such modernization was decentralized, protracted, flexible, and broadly based. Much of the current alarmist literature that claims to draw from historical experience is poorly focused, simplistic, and unhelpful. It fails to appreciate that resilience and readaptation depend on identified options, improved understanding, cultural solidarity, enlightened leadership, and opportunities for participation and fresh ideas.

  11. Acceleration of lithotripsy using cavitation bubbles induced by second-harmonic superimposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, Masamizu; Yasuda, Jun; Jimbo, Hayato; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy potentially produces residual stone fragments too large to pass through ureters and significant injury to the normal tissue surrounding the stone. Previous works have shown that the collapse of cavitation bubbles induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound can produce small stone fragments via cavitation erosion. However, the erosion rate is hypothesized to be reduced by ultrasound attenuation by excessively generated bubble clouds. If so, it is important to generate the bubbles only on the stone surface. The effects of peak-negative-enhanced (PNE) and peak-positive-enhanced (PPE) waves obtained by second-harmonic superimposition were investigated to control cavitation bubbles. With the PNE waves, the bubbles were generated only on the stone surface and the maximum erosion rate was 232 ± 32 mg/min. All the fragments were smaller than 2 mm, which makes them pass through ureters naturally. The proposed method shows the potential to significantly improve the speed of lithotripsy.

  12. Bubble nuclei; Noyaux Bulles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legoll, F. [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1998-07-22

    For nuclei with very high electrical charge, the Coulomb field is expected to drive the protons away from the centre to the surface of the nucleus. Such a nucleus would be no more compact but look like a bubble. The goal of this work is to confirm this idea. We are interested in only the ground state of spherical nuclei. We use the Skyrme potential with the Sly4 parametrization to calculate the mean-field Hamiltonian. Paring correlations are described by a surface-active delta paring interaction. In its ground state the nucleus {sup A=900} X{sub Z=274} is shown to be a bubble. Another stable state is found with a little higher energy: it is also a bubble. (author) 11 refs., 18 figs., 33 tabs.

  13. Bubble nuclei; Noyaux Bulles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legoll, F. [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1998-07-22

    For nuclei with very high electrical charge, the Coulomb field is expected to drive the protons away from the centre to the surface of the nucleus. Such a nucleus would be no more compact but look like a bubble. The goal of this work is to confirm this idea. We are interested in only the ground state of spherical nuclei. We use the Skyrme potential with the Sly4 parametrization to calculate the mean-field Hamiltonian. Paring correlations are described by a surface-active delta paring interaction. In its ground state the nucleus {sup A=900} X{sub Z=274} is shown to be a bubble. Another stable state is found with a little higher energy: it is also a bubble. (author) 11 refs., 18 figs., 33 tabs.

  14. Experimantal Study on the Bubble Clustering in Bubbly Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shu; Fujiwara, Akiko; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2003-11-01

    The statistical properties of bubbly flows and the near-wall bubble-clustering behaviors are investigated for upward flow in a rectangular channel. Bubble size, turbulent properties of liquid phase and the bubble clustering motion were measured using image-processing technique, Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), respectively. Using 3-pentanol as a surfactant, the mono-dispersed 1mm-bubbles are generated. The mono-dispersed bubbles in upward flows accumulate near the wall and construct bubble clusters. These bubble clusters were investigated. Experimental observation showed that the size of bubble cluster can be much larger than that of the coherent structure in single phase turbulence. The clusters change their shape in time and space and these bubble motions accelerate the mean streamwise velocity near the wall due to the buoyancy effect. Thus the mean velocity profile of the liquid phase becomes flattened. It is suggested that the highly accumulated bubbles in the vicinity of the wall disturb the transport of turbulence energy produced in the wall shear layer from the central region of the channel flow. Furthermore, in the middle of channel, the fluctuations of the liquid phase are mainly generated by the bubble motions.

  15. Multifocal laser surgery: cutting enhancement by hydrodynamic interactions between cavitation bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toytman, I; Silbergleit, A; Simanovski, D; Palanker, D

    2010-10-01

    Transparent biological tissues can be precisely dissected with ultrafast lasers using optical breakdown in the tight focal zone. Typically, tissues are cut by sequential application of pulses, each of which produces a single cavitation bubble. We investigate the hydrodynamic interactions between simultaneous cavitation bubbles originating from multiple laser foci. Simultaneous expansion and collapse of cavitation bubbles can enhance the cutting efficiency, by increasing the resulting deformations in tissue, and the associated rupture zone. An analytical model of the flow induced by the bubbles is presented and experimentally verified. The threshold strain of the material rupture is measured in a model tissue. Using the computational model and the experimental value of the threshold strain one can compute the shape of the rupture zone in tissue resulting from application of multiple bubbles. With the threshold strain of 0.7 two simultaneous bubbles produce a continuous cut when applied at the distance 1.35 times greater than that required in sequential approach. Simultaneous focusing of the laser in multiple spots along the line of intended cut can extend this ratio to 1.7. Counterpropagating jets forming during collapse of two bubbles in materials with low viscosity can further extend the cutting zone-up to approximately a factor of 1.5.

  16. Cavitation Bubble Nucleation by Energetic Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.

    1998-12-01

    In the early sixties, experimental measurements using a bubble chamber confirmed quantitatively the thermal spike theory of bubble nucleation by energetic particles: the energy of the slow, heavy alpha decay recoils used in those experiments matched the calculated bubble nucleation energy to within a few percent. It was a triumph, but was soon to be followed by a puzzle. Within a couple of years, experiments on similar liquids, but well below their normal boiling points, placed under tensile stress showed that the calculated bubble nucleation energy was an order of magnitude less than the recoil energy. Why should the theory work so well in the one case and so badly in the other? How did the liquid, or the recoil particle, "know" the difference between the two experiments? Another mathematical model of the same physical process, introduced in 1967, showed qualitatively why different analyses would be needed for liquids with high and low vapor pressures under positive or negative pressures. But, the quantitative agreement between the calculated nucleation energy and the recoil energy was still poor--the former being smaller by a factor of two to three. In this report, the 1967 analysis is extended and refined: the qualitative understanding of the difference between positive and negative pressure nucleation, "boiling" and "cavitation" respectively, is retained, and agreement between the negative pressure calculated to be needed for nucleation and the energy calculated to be available is much improved. A plot of the calculated negative pressure needed to induce bubble formation against the measured value now has a slope of 1.0, although there is still considerable scatter in the individual points.

  17. Numerical study of spike characteristics due to the motions of a non-spherical rebounding bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王加夏; 宗智; 孙雷; 李章锐; 姜明佐

    2016-01-01

    The boundary integral method (BIM) is used to simulate the 3-D gas bubble, generated within the two bubble pulsation periods in proximity to a free surface in an inviscid, incompressible and irrotational flow. The present method is well validated by comparing the calculated shapes of the bubble and the free surface with both the experimental results and the numerical ones obtained by the Axisymmetric BIM code. The expansion, the collapse of the gas bubble and the further evolution of the rebounding non-spherical bubble are simulated. The various variation patterns of the free surface spike and the bubble centroid for different standoff distances, the buoyancy parameters and the strength parameters are obtained to reveal the nonlinear interaction between the bubble and the free surface. The amplitude of the second maximum bubble volume and the four typical patterns of the bubble jet and the free surface spike are examined in the context of the standoff distance. The large buoyancy is used to elevate the spray dome rather than the free surface spike.

  18. Allee effects and colony collapse disorder in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    We propose a mathematical model to quantify the hypothesis that a major ultimate cause of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in honey bees is the presence of an Allee effect in the growth dynamics of honey bee colonies. In the model, both recruitment of adult bees as well as mortality of adult bees have...

  19. Sufficient condition for Blackhole formation in spherical gravitational collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Giambo, R; Magli, G; Giambo', Roberto; Giannoni, Fabio; Magli, Giulio

    2002-01-01

    A sufficient condition for the validity of Cosmic Censorship in spherical gravitational collapse is formulated and proved. The condition relies on an attractive mathematical property of the apparent horizon, which holds if ''minimal'' requirements of physical reasonableness are satisfied by the matter model.

  20. Multivariate bubbles and antibubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, John

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we develop models for multivariate financial bubbles and antibubbles based on statistical physics. In particular, we extend a rich set of univariate models to higher dimensions. Changes in market regime can be explicitly shown to represent a phase transition from random to deterministic behaviour in prices. Moreover, our multivariate models are able to capture some of the contagious effects that occur during such episodes. We are able to show that declining lending quality helped fuel a bubble in the US stock market prior to 2008. Further, our approach offers interesting insights into the spatial development of UK house prices.

  1. Fermi Bubbles with HAWC

    OpenAIRE

    Solares, H. A. Ayala; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; collaboration, for the HAWC

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi Bubbles, which comprise two large and homogeneous regions of spectrally hard gamma-ray emission extending up to $55^{o}$ above and below the Galactic Center, were first noticed in GeV gamma-ray data from the Fermi Telescope in 2010. The mechanism or mechanisms which produce the observed hard spectrum are not understood. Although both hadronic and lep- tonic models can describe the spectrum of the bubbles, the leptonic model can also explain similar structures observed in microwave d...

  2. Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; New, Kimberly C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

  3. Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L. Fryer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

  4. The Early Years: Blowing Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Blowing bubbles is not only a favorite summer activity for young children. Studying bubbles that are grouped together, or "foam," is fun for children and fascinating to many real-world scientists. Foam is widely used--from the bedroom (mattresses) to outer space (insulating panels on spacecraft). Bubble foam can provide children a…

  5. Karst Collapse Mechanism and Criterion for Its Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺可强; 刘长礼; 王思敬

    2001-01-01

    Karst collapse, caused by natural or artificial abstraction of groundwater, has been a focus of environmental geological problems for its ever-increasing hazardousness. The potential erosion theory and vacuum suction erosion theory,which reveal the origin of karst collapse macroscopically, are popularly accepted. However, a mathematic prediction criterion for karst collapse cannot be established only by these two theories. From a new perspective, this paper attempts to explain the microcosmic mechanism of karst collapse on the basis of these two theories. When the shear stress surpasses the shear strength of soil, a certain point or a certain plane in the unconsolidated soil covering karst caves will fail under the mechanical effects of water and air as well as its load-pressure, and with the increase of damaged points, a breaking plane appears and the soil on karst caves is completely damaged; as a result, the karst ground collapses. On the basis of the MohrCoulomb failure theory and previous studies, the paper presents a prediction criterion of karst collapse. Finally, by taking,for example, nine typical cases of collapse caused by pumping tests in Guizhou, the paper gives the calculation process of the model and proves its reliability.``

  6. The Joy of Mathematics Discovering Mathematics All Around You

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    1993-01-01

    Part of the joy of mathematics is that it is everywhere-in soap bubbles, electricity, da Vinci's masterpieces, even in an ocean wave. Written by the well-known mathematics teacher consultant, this volume's collection of over 200 clearly illustrated mathematical ideas, concepts, puzzles, and games shows where they turn up in the "real" world. You'll find out what a googol is, visit hotel infinity, read a thorny logic problem that was stumping them back in the 8th century. THE JOY OF MATHEMATICS is designed to be opened at random…it's mini essays are self-contained providing the reader

  7. Modelling of single bubble-dynamics and thermal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, D.; Gavaises, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper evaluates the solution effects of different Rayleigh-Plesset models (R-P) for simulating the growth/collapse dynamics and thermal behaviour of homogeneous gas bubbles. The flow inputs used for the discrete cavitation bubble calculations are obtained from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations (RANS), performed in high-pressure nozzle holes. Parametric 1-D results are presented for the classical thermal R-P equation [1] as well as for refined models which incorporated compressibility corrections and thermal effects [2, 3]. The thermal bubble model is coupled with the energy equation, which provides the temperature of the bubble as a function of conduction/convection and radiation heat-transfer mechanisms. For approximating gas pressure variations a high-order virial equation of state (EOS) was used, based on Helmholtz free energy principle [4]. The coded thermal R-P model was validated against experimental measurements [5] and model predictions [6] reported in single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL).

  8. Study of acoustic bubble cluster dynamics using a lattice Boltzmann model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahdi Daemi; Mohammad Taeibi-Rahni; Hamidreza Massah

    2015-01-01

    Search for the development of a reliable mathematical model for understanding bubble dynamics behavior is an ongoing endeavor. A long list of complex phenomena underlies physics of this problem. In the past decades, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method has emerged as a promising tool to address such complexities. In this regard, we have applied a 121-velocity multiphase lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) to an asymmetric cluster of bubbles in an acoustic field. A problem as a benchmark is studied to check the consistency and applicability of the model. The problem of interest is to study the deformation and coalescence phenomena in bubble cluster dynamics, and the screening effect on an acoustic multi-bubble medium. It has been observed that the LB model is able to simulate the combination of the three aforementioned phenomena for a bubble cluster as a whole and for every individual bubble in the cluster.

  9. Understanding the bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    that are identified to exist between the Internet and housing market bubbles: uncertainty and sentiments. The iteration between uncertainty and sentiments leads to the emergence of the third commonality: residue. The residue is the difference between the actors’ overall sentiment about exaggerated future prospects...

  10. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  11. The Liberal Arts Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agresto, John

    2011-01-01

    The author expresses his doubt that the general higher education bubble will burst anytime soon. Although tuition, student housing, and book costs have all increased substantially, he believes it is still likely that the federal government will continue to pour billions into higher education, largely because Americans have been persuaded that it…

  12. Popping the Bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Amid concerns surrounding the presence of housing bubbles across China,the Chinese Government is taking action to secure and stabilize the real estate market.In the past month,the government launched a series of regulatory policies aimed at cooling the overheated market.

  13. BEBC bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.

  14. Scanning bubble chamber pictures

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    These were taken at the 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber. The photo shows an early Shiva system where the pre-measurements needed to qualify the event were done manually (cf photo 7408136X). The scanning tables were located in bld. 12. Gilberte Saulmier sits on foreground, Inge Arents at centre.

  15. The dynamics of a non-equilibrium bubble near bio-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, S. W.; Klaseboer, E.; Khoo, B. C.

    2009-10-01

    In many medical treatments oscillating (non-equilibrium) bubbles appear. They can be the result of high-intensity-focused ultrasound, laser treatments or shock wave lithotripsy for example. The physics of such oscillating bubbles is often not very well understood. This is especially so if the bubbles are oscillating near (soft) bio-materials. It is well known that bubbles oscillating near (hard) materials have a tendency to form a high speed jet directed towards the material during the collapse phase of the bubble. It is equally well studied that bubbles near a free interface (air) tend to collapse with a jet directed away from this interface. If the interface is neither 'free' nor 'hard', such as often occurs in bio-materials, the resulting flow physics can be very complex. Yet, in many bio-applications, it is crucial to know in which direction the jet will go (if there is a jet at all). Some applications require a jet towards the tissue, for example to destroy it. For other applications, damage due to impacting jets is to be prevented at all cost. This paper tries to address some of the physics involved in these treatments by using a numerical method, the boundary element method (BEM), to study the dynamics of such bubbles near several bio-materials. In the present work, the behaviour of a bubble placed in a water-like medium near various bio-materials (modelled as elastic fluids) is investigated. It is found that its behaviour depends on the material properties (Young's modulus, Poisson ratio and density) of the bio-material. For soft bio-materials (fat, skin, brain and muscle), the bubble tends to split into smaller bubbles. In certain cases, the resulting bubbles develop opposing jets. For hard bio-materials (cornea, cartilage and bone), the bubble collapses towards the interface with high speed jets (between 100 and about 250 m s-1). A summary graph is provided identifying the combined effects of the dimensionless elasticity (κ) and density ratio (α) of the

  16. Characteristics of bubble plumes, bubble-plume bubbles and waves from wind-steepened wave breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Caulliez, G.; Leeuw, G. de

    2007-01-01

    Observations of breaking waves, associated bubble plumes and bubble-plume size distributions were used to explore the coupled evolution of wave-breaking, wave properties and bubble-plume characteristics. Experiments were made in a large, freshwater, wind-wave channel with mechanical wind-steepened w

  17. Bubble properties of heterogeneous bubbly flows in a square bubble column: draft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Wei; Deen, Niels G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The present work focuses on the measurements of bubble properties in heterogeneous bubbly flows in a square bubble column. A four-point optical fibre probe was used for this purpose. The accuracy and intrusive effect of the optical probe was investigated first. The results show that the optical prob

  18. Bubble dynamics and bubble-induced turbulence of a single-bubble chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohyoung; Park, Hyungmin

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the bubble dynamics and liquid-phase turbulence induced by a chain of bubbles injected from a single nozzle have been experimentally investigated. Using a high-speed two-phase particle image velociemtry, measurements on the bubbles and liquid-phase velocity field are conducted in a transparent tank filled with water, while varying the bubble release frequency from 0.1 to 35 Hz. The tested bubble size ranges between 2.0-3.2 mm, and the corresponding bubble Reynolds number is 590-1100, indicating that it belongs to the regime of path instability. As the release frequency increases, it is found that the global shape of bubble dispersion can be classified into two regimes: from asymmetric (regular) to axisymmetric (irregular). In particular, at higher frequency, the wake vortices of leading bubbles cause an irregular behaviour of the following bubble. For the liquid phase, it is found that a specific trend on the bubble-induced turbulence appears in a strong relation to the above bubble dynamics. Considering this, we try to provide a theoretical model to estimate the liquid-phase turbulence induced by a chain of bubbles. Supported by a Grant funded by Samsung Electronics, Korea.

  19. Bubbles generated from wind-steepened breaking waves: 1. Bubble plume bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Leeuw, G. de

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of bubble plumes from paddle-amplified, wind stress breaking waves were made in a large wind-wave channel during the LUMINY experiment in fresh (but not clean) water. Bubble plumes exhibited considerable variability with respect to dynamics, bubble size distribution, and physical

  20. Bubble properties of heterogeneous bubbly flow in a square bubble column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, W.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present work focuses on the measurements of bubble properties in heterogeneous bubbly flows in a square bubble column. A four-point optical fibre probe was used for this purpose. The accuracy and intrusive effect of the optical probe was investigated first. The results show that the optical prob

  1. Bubbles generated from wind-steepened breaking waves: 1. Bubble plume bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Leeuw, G. de

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of bubble plumes from paddle-amplified, wind stress breaking waves were made in a large wind-wave channel during the LUMINY experiment in fresh (but not clean) water. Bubble plumes exhibited considerable variability with respect to dynamics, bubble size distribution, and physical extent

  2. Investigation of the interaction dynamics of a pair of laser-induced bubbles generated at the same time through double-exposure strobe method and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Liu; Ni, Xiao-Wu

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the interaction dynamics of a pair of laser-induced bubbles, a double-exposure strobe photography experimental setup is build up to study the temporal evolution of the bubble pairs and to measure the transient bubble-interface moving speed. The interaction mechanisms of the bubble pairs are discussed together with the numerical results obtained through OpenFOAM. It is shown that the direction and the velocity of the jetting could be controlled by the relative size and the relative initiation distance of the bubble pair, when the bubbles are generated at the same time, i.e., in-phase. The liquid jet is considered to be a penetrating jet. The jet is originated from the smaller bubble and clearly protruding outside of the bigger bubble. The parameter space of the relative size and the initiation distance of the bubble pair allowing the formation of the penetrating jet are very narrow. It is concluded that the liquid jet induced by the bubble interactions resulted from the collapse and the rebound of the smaller bubble nearby the bigger bubble. This is defined as the "catapult effect." Such a directional liquid transportation is a promising tool as a micro-injector or a micro-pump. The investigation results could be also supplementary to the understandings of the bubble dynamics.

  3. Properties of Neutron Star Critical Collapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Mew-Bing

    2010-01-01

    Critical phenomena in gravitational collapse opened a new mathematical vista into the theory of general relativity and may ultimately entail fundamental physical implication in observations. However, at present, the dynamics of critical phenomena in gravitational collapse scenarios are still largely unknown. My thesis seeks to understand the properties of the threshold in the solution space of the Einstein field equations between the black hole and neutron star phases, understand the properties of the neutron star critical solution and clarify the implication of these results on realistic astrophysical scenarios. We develop a new set of neutron star-like initial data to establish the universality of the neutron star critical solution and analyze the structure of neutron star and neutron star-like critical collapses via the study of the phase spaces. We also study the different time scales involved in the neutron star critical solution and analyze the properties of the critical index via comparisons between neutron star and neutron star-like initial data. Finally, we explore the boundary of the attraction basin of the neutron star critical solution and its transition to a known set of non-critical fixed points.

  4. PREFACE: Collapse Calderas Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottsmann, Jo; Aguirre-Diaz, Gerardo

    2008-10-01

    Caldera-formation is one of the most awe-inspiring and powerful displays of nature's force. Resultant deposits may cover vast areas and significantly alter the immediate topography. Post-collapse activity may include resurgence, unrest, intra-caldera volcanism and potentially the start of a new magmatic cycle, perhaps eventually leading to renewed collapse. Since volcanoes and their eruptions are the surface manifestation of magmatic processes, calderas provide key insights into the generation and evolution of large-volume silicic magma bodies in the Earth's crust. Despite their potentially ferocious nature, calderas play a crucial role in modern society's life. Collapse calderas host essential economic deposits and supply power for many via the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs, and thus receive considerable scientific, economic and industrial attention. Calderas also attract millions of visitors world-wide with their spectacular scenic displays. To build on the outcomes of the 2005 calderas workshop in Tenerife (Spain) and to assess the most recent advances on caldera research, a follow-up meeting was proposed to be held in Mexico in 2008. This abstract volume presents contributions to the 2nd Calderas Workshop held at Hotel Misión La Muralla, Querétaro, Mexico, 19-25 October 2008. The title of the workshop `Reconstructing the evolution of collapse calderas: Magma storage, mobilisation and eruption' set the theme for five days of presentations and discussions, both at the venue as well as during visits to the surrounding calderas of Amealco, Amazcala and Huichapan. The multi-disciplinary workshop was attended by more than 40 scientist from North, Central and South America, Europe, Australia and Asia. Contributions covered five thematic topics: geology, geochemistry/petrology, structural analysis/modelling, geophysics, and hazards. The workshop was generously supported by the International Association of Volcanology and the Chemistry of The Earth's Interior

  5. Bubble Dynamics and Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library is concerned with the interplay between bubble dynamics and shock waves. It is divided into four parts containing twelve chapters written by eminent scientists. Topics discussed include shock wave emission by laser generated bubbles (W Lauterborn, A Vogel), pulsating bubbles near boundaries (DM Leppinen, QX Wang, JR Blake), interaction of shock waves with bubble clouds (CD Ohl, SW Ohl), shock propagation in polydispersed bubbly liquids by model equations (K Ando, T Colonius, CE Brennen. T Yano, T Kanagawa,  M Watanabe, S Fujikawa) and by DNS (G Tryggvason, S Dabiri), shocks in cavitating flows (NA Adams, SJ Schmidt, CF Delale, GH Schnerr, S Pasinlioglu) together with applications involving encapsulated bubble dynamics in imaging (AA Doinikov, A Novell, JM Escoffre, A Bouakaz),  shock wave lithotripsy (P Zhong), sterilization of ships’ ballast water (A Abe, H Mimura) and bubbly flow model of volcano eruptions ((VK Kedrinskii, K Takayama...

  6. Dynamics study of a laser-induced bubble on a finite metallic surface in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Qiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamics of a bubble induced on a finite rigid boundary in water, a simple experimental method based on laser beam transmission probe is developed to measure the time dependence of the bubble’s radius on a finite metallic surface under different incident laser energies, and a numerical method is employed to simulate the bubble’s first collapse. A correction factor based on the Raleigh collapse time formula is proposed to describe the collapse time of the bubble induced on a finite rigid boundary. The experimental and simulation results show that the correction factor is slightly different for the bubble’s first and subsequent two oscillations, and its detailed expression is obtained from the experimental and simulation results. The experimental results show that the conversion efficiency of the incident laser energy into bubble energy increases with the former, and the ratio of the energy left for subsequent bubble oscillation increases with the number of bubble oscillation.

  7. Does nitrogen gas bubbled through a low density polymer gel dosimeter solution affect the polymerization process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: It appeared that reactions between gelatin-free radicals and monomers, due to an increase in the gel temperature during rotation in the household mixer, led to a higher R 2 -background response. In the second type of gel, it seemed that the collapse of the nitrogen bubbles was the main factor that affected the R 2 -responses.

  8. Are we in a bubble? A simple time-series-based diagnostic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTime series with bubble-like patterns display an unbalance between growth and acceleration, in the sense that growth in the upswing is “too fast” and then there is a collapse. In fact, such time series show periods where both the first differences (1-L) and the second differences (1-L)2

  9. Online fuzzy voltage collapse risk quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berizzi, A.; Bovo, C.; Delfanti, M.; Merlo, M. [Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cirio, D. [CESI Ricerca (Italy); Pozzi, M. [CESI (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Many voltage stability indicators have been proposed in the past for the voltage collapse assessment. Almost all of them are determined through quite complex analytical tools; therefore, it is difficult for system operators to give them a physical meaning. In order to perform a simple and reliable evaluation of the security margins, it is necessary to make a synthesis of the information given by the various indices. The present work proposes an Artificial Intelligence-based tool for the evaluation of the voltage security. In particular, a Fuzzy Inference Engine is developed and optimized by two different approaches (Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms). Starting from the state estimation, a given set of mathematical indices is computed to represent a snapshot of the current electric system operating point. The numerical values are then translated into a set of symbolic and linguistic quantities that are manipulated through a set of logical connectives and Inference Methods provided by the mathematical logic. As a result, the Fuzzy Logic gives a MW measure of the distance from the collapse limit, a metric usually appreciated by system operators. The Fuzzy System has been built and optimized by using, as a test system, a detailed model of the EHV Italian transmission network connected to an equivalent of the UCTE network (about 1700 buses). (author)

  10. Disproportionate Collapse in Building Structures.

    OpenAIRE

    JANSSENS, VICTORIA MARIA; O'DWYER, DERMOT WILLIAM

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Cork, Ireland The failure of the Ronan Point apartment tower focused interest in disproportionate collapse, and prompted the ?Fifth Amendment? to the UK Building Regulations which was introduced in 1970. From this point on structures were required to exhibit a minimum level of robustness to resist progressive collapse. These rules have remained relatively unchanged for over 40 years. This paper presents a review of the concepts relating to structural collapse, and the robustne...

  11. Cylindrical Collapse and Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, L

    2005-01-01

    We study the matching conditions for a collapsing anisotropic cylindrical perfect fluid, and we show that its radial pressure is non zero on the surface of the cylinder and proportional to the time dependent part of the field produced by the collapsing fluid. This result resembles the one that arises for the radiation - though non-gravitational - in the spherically symmetric collapsing dissipative fluid, in the diffusion approximation.

  12. On collapsibilities of Yule's measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    impson's paradox reminds people that the statistical inference in a low-dimensional space probably distorts the reality in a high one seriously.To study the paradox with respect to Yule's measure,this paper discusses simple collapsibility,strong collapsibility and consecutive collapsibility,and presents necessary and sufficient conditions of them.In fact,these conditions are of great importance for observational and experimental designs,eliminating confounding bias,categorizing discrete variables and so on.

  13. Mathematical concepts for mechanical engineering design

    CERN Document Server

    Asli, Kaveh Hariri; Aliyev, Soltan Ali Ogli

    2013-01-01

    PrefaceIntroductionHeat Flow: From Theory to PracticeDispersed Fluid and Ideal Fluid MechanicsModeling for Pressure Wave into Water PipelineHeat Transfer and Vapor BubbleMathematical Concepts and Computational Approaches on Hydrodynamics InstabilityMathematical Concepts and Dynamic ModelingModeling for Predictions of Air Entrance into Water PipelineIndex

  14. Analysis and numerical simulation of the dynamics of bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez Rodríguez, Num

    2010-01-01

    This project will consist of the following tasks: - analysis of the mathematical models for oscillating bubbles (axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric cases). - numerical simulation of different phenomena related with oscillating bubbles. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo el estudio y simulación de la diámica de burbujas. Inicialmente se introducen los modelos matemáticos de burbujas esféricas, para dar paso a la formulacón tridimensional basada en el método de los elementos de contorno. Para l...

  15. Energy concentration and positional stability of sonoluminescent bubbles in sulfuric acid for different static pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, Juan Manuel; Dellavale, Damián; Bonetto, Fabián José

    2013-09-01

    In this study we report several experimental and numerical results on the influence of static pressure (P_{0}) over the main parameters in single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL), using a sulfuric acid aqueous solution (SA) with low concentrations of argon gas dissolved. Bifrequency driving was used in the experiments to enhance spatial stability of the bubbles. The experimental results were compared with simulations provided by a numerical code that models the radial dynamics of the bubbles. The results showed that an increase on the static pressure of the system shifts the Bjerknes instability threshold, allowing the bubble to access higher acoustic pressures (P_{Ac}^{}). Furthermore, a decrease in the measured ambient radius R_{0} and the calculated relative gas concentration c_{∞}/c_{0} were observed. A notorious increment in the bubble collapse violence and energy focusing for P_{0} above 1 bar was achieved. These were mainly indicated by the growth of the bubble expansion ratio (R_{max}/R_{0}), the bubble mechanical energy density, and the maximum bubble wall velocity dR/dt. In agreement with the previous statement, the maximum temperature during the bubble collapse predicted by the model is augmented as well. The use of different harmonics in the ultrasound pressure field regarding energy focusing is also discussed. Finally, we analyzed the stability regions of the R_{0}-P_{Ac}^{} parameter space via numerical predictions for P_{0} above the measured, identifying the shape instabilities as the main limiting agent to obtain further energy concentration in SA systems at high static pressures.

  16. How the instant collapse of a spatially-extended quantum state is consistent with relativity of simultaneity

    CERN Document Server

    Fayngold, Moses

    2016-01-01

    A thought experiment is considered on observation of instantaneous collapse of an extended wave packet. According to relativity of simultaneity, such a collapse being instantaneous in some reference frame must be a lasting process in other frames. But according to quantum mechanics, collapse is instantaneous in any frame. Mathematical structure of quantum mechanics eliminates any contradictions between these two apparently conflicting statements. Here the invariance of quantum-mechanical collapse is shown to follow directly from the Born postulate, without any use of mathematical properties of quantum operators. The consistency of quantum mechanics with Relativity is also shown for instant disentanglement of a composite system.

  17. Interaction of underwater explosion bubble with complex elastic-plastic structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG A-man; YAO Xiong-liang

    2008-01-01

    Considering the elastic-plasticity of the structure, the combination of bound-ary element method and finite element method (FEM) is employed to present the calcu-lation method for solving the complex coupled dynamic problem of bubble, elastic-plastic structure and the free surface, and the complete three-dimensional calculation program is developed as well. The error between the calculated result and the experimental re- sult is within 10%. Taking a surface ship for example, the three-dimensional calculation program is extended to engineering filed. By employing the program, the response of the ship under the bubble loading is analyzed. From the stress-time history curves of typical elements of the structure, it can be seen that the pressure reaches its maximum when the bubble collapses and this validates that the pressure generated by the bubble collapse and the jet can cause serious damage on the ship structure. From the dynamic process of the interaction between the three-dimensional bubble and the ship, the low order vertical mode of the ship is provoked and the ship presents whip-shaped motion. And the ship does elevation and subsidence movement with the expansion and shrinkage of the bubble. Some rules and conclusions which can be applied to the engineering problems are obtained from the analysis in this paper.

  18. Numerical study of the dielectric liquid around an electrical discharge generated vapor bubble in ultrasonic assisted EDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervani-Tabar, Mohammad T; Mobadersany, Nima

    2013-07-01

    In electrical discharge machining due to the electrical current, very small bubbles are created in the dielectric fluid between the tool and the workpiece. Increase of the number of bubbles and their growth in size generate a single bubble. The bubble has an important role in electrical discharge machining. In this paper the effect of ultrasonic vibration of the tool and the velocity fields and pressure distribution in the dielectric fluid around the bubble in the process of electrical discharge machining are studied numerically. The boundary integral equation method is applied for the numerical solution of the problem. It is shown that ultrasonic vibration of the tool has great influence on the evolution of the bubble, fluid behavior and the efficiency of the machining in EDM. At the last stages of the collapse phase of the bubble, a liquid jet develops on the bubble which has different shapes. Due to the different cases, and a high pressure region appears just near the jet of the bubble. Also the fluid particles have the highest relative velocity just near the liquid jet of the bubble.

  19. Bubble colloidal AFM probes formed from ultrasonically generated bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Lee, Judy; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Grieser, Franz

    2008-02-05

    Here we introduce a simple and effective experimental approach to measuring the interaction forces between two small bubbles (approximately 80-140 microm) in aqueous solution during controlled collisions on the scale of micrometers to nanometers. The colloidal probe technique using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was extended to measure interaction forces between a cantilever-attached bubble and surface-attached bubbles of various sizes. By using an ultrasonic source, we generated numerous small bubbles on a mildly hydrophobic surface of a glass slide. A single bubble picked up with a strongly hydrophobized V-shaped cantilever was used as the colloidal probe. Sample force measurements were used to evaluate the pure water bubble cleanliness and the general consistency of the measurements.

  20. Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rados, Novica

    Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids

  1. CRISIS FOCUS Blowing Bubbles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese stock and property markets have been outperforming expectations, fueled by an unprecedented surge in bank lending. Xie Guozhong, an economist and board member of Rosetta Stone Advisors, argues the robust Chinese economic figures are only propped up by bubbles, whose bursting will lead to a hard landing for the economy. Xie published his opinion in a related article in Caijing Magazine. Edited excerpts follow:

  2. Shrinking equatorial plasma bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, V. L.; Gurubaran, S.; Shiokawa, K.; Emperumal, K.

    2016-07-01

    The formation of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) associated with spread F irregularities are fairly common phenomenon in the postsunset equatorial ionosphere. These bubbles grow as a result of eastward polarization electric field resulting in upward E × B drift over the dip equator. As they grow they are also mapped to low latitudes along magnetic field lines. The EPBs are often observed as airglow depletions in the images of OI 630 nm emission. On occasions the growth of the features over the dip equator is observed as poleward extensions of the depletions in all-sky images obtained from low latitudes. Herein, we present interesting observations of decrease in the latitudinal extent of the EPBs corresponding to a reduction in their apex altitudes over the dip equator. Such observations indicate that these bubbles not only grow but also shrink on occasions. These are the first observations of shrinking EPBs. The observations discussed in this work are based on all-sky airglow imaging observations of OI 630.0 nm emission made from Panhala (11.1°N dip latitude). In addition, ionosonde observations made from dip equatorial site Tirunelveli (1.1°N dip latitude) are used to understand the phenomenon better. The analysis indicates that the speed of shrinking occurring in the topside is different from the bottomside vertical drifts. When the EPBs shrink, they might decay before sunrise hours.

  3. Bubble dynamics in a compressible liquid in contact with a rigid boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianxi; Liu, Wenke; Zhang, A M; Sui, Yi

    2015-10-06

    A bubble initiated near a rigid boundary may be almost in contact with the boundary because of its expansion and migration to the boundary, where a thin layer of water forms between the bubble and the boundary thereafter. This phenomenon is modelled using the weakly compressible theory coupled with the boundary integral method. The wall effects are modelled using the imaging method. The numerical instabilities caused by the near contact of the bubble surface with the boundary are handled by removing a thin layer of water between them and joining the bubble surface with its image to the boundary. Our computations correlate well with experiments for both the first and second cycles of oscillation. The time history of the energy of a bubble system follows a step function, reducing rapidly and significantly because of emission of shock waves at inception of a bubble and at the end of collapse but remaining approximately constant for the rest of the time. The bubble starts being in near contact with the boundary during the first cycle of oscillation when the dimensionless stand-off distance γ = s/R m bubble centre from the boundary and R m is the maximum bubble radius. This leads to (i) the direct impact of a high-speed liquid jet on the boundary once it penetrates through the bubble, (ii) the direct contact of the bubble at high temperature and high pressure with the boundary, and (iii) the direct impingement of shock waves on the boundary once emitted. These phenomena have clear potential to damage the boundary, which are believed to be part of the mechanisms of cavitation damage.

  4. Caldera types and collapse styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.

    2008-12-01

    Three main types of collapse calderas can be defined, 1) summit caldera, 2) classic caldera, and 3) graben caldera. Summit calderas are those formed at the top of large volcanoes and are related to relatively small- volume pyroclastic products that include plinian fallouts and ignimbrites, such as Crater Lake, Las Cañadas, and Somma-Vesuvio. Classic calderas are semi-circular to irregular-shaped large structures, several km in diameter that are related to relatively large-volume pyroclastic products including pumice fallouts and widespread ignimbrites, such as Long-Valley, Campi Flegrei, and Los Humeros. Graben calderas are explosive volcano-tectonic collapse structures from which large-volume, ignimbrite-forming eruptions occurred through several vents along the graben walls and the intra-graben block faults causing the collapse of the graben or of a sector of the graben. The main products of graben calderas are surge-deposits and large-volume widespread ignimbrite sheets. Pumice fallouts are practically absent. Examples include the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico, La Pacana (Andes), Catalan Pyrenees, and perhaps Scafell (United Kingdom). Any of the three caldera types mentioned above could have collapsed at least in three different ways, 1) piston, when the collapse occurs as a single crustal block; 2) trap-door, when collapse occurs unevenly along one side while the opposite side remains with no collapse; 3) piece-meal, when collapse occurs as broken pieces of the crust on top of the magma chamber.

  5. The collapsed football pla yer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are several reasons why football players collapse or appear to have collapsed on ... minor, resulting in mild concussion (brain injury), but ... after being struck by lightning. The match ... does occur, it attracts a great deal of media attention ...

  6. Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the melting temperature on bubble size and bubble formation in an iron bearing calcium aluminosilicate melt is studied by means of in-depth images acquired by optical microscopy. The bubble size distribution and the total bubble volume are determined by counting the number of bubble...

  7. Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the melting temperature on bubble size and bubble formation in an iron bearing calcium aluminosilicate melt is studied by means of in-depth images acquired by optical microscopy. The bubble size distribution and the total bubble volume are determined by counting the number of bubbles...

  8. Simulating shock-bubble interactions at water-gelatin interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Stefan; Kaiser, Jakob; Bermejo-Moreno, Ivan; Adams, Nikolaus

    2016-11-01

    Biomedical problems are often driven by fluid dynamics, as in vivo organisms are usually composed of or filled with fluids that (strongly) affected their physics. Additionally, fluid dynamical effects can be used to enhance certain phenomena or destroy organisms. As examples, we highlight the benign potential of shockwave-driven kidney-stone lithotripsy or sonoporation (acoustic cavitation of microbubbles) to improve drug delivery into cells. During the CTR SummerProgram 2016 we have performed axisymmetric three-phase simulations of a shock hitting a gas bubble in water near a gelatin interface mimicking the fundamental process during sonoporation. We used our multi-resolution finite volume method with sharp interface representation (level-set), WENO-5 shock capturing and interface scale-separation and compared the results with a diffuse-interface method. Qualitatively our simulation results agree well with the reference. Due to the interface treatment the pressure profiles are sharper in our simulations and bubble collapse dynamics are predicted at shorter time-scales. Validation with free-field collapse (Rayleigh collapse) shows very good agreement. The project leading to this application has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant agreement No 667483).

  9. Electrowetting of a soap bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Arscott, Steve

    2013-01-01

    A proof-of-concept demonstration of the electrowetting-on-dielectric of a sessile soap bubble is reported here. The bubbles are generated using a commercial soap bubble mixture - the surfaces are composed of highly doped, commercial silicon wafers covered with nanometre thick films of Teflon. Voltages less than 40V are sufficient to observe the modification of the bubble shape and the apparent bubble contact angle. Such observations open the way to inter alia the possibility of bubble-transport, as opposed to droplet-transport, in fluidic microsystems (e.g. laboratory-on-a-chip) - the potential gains in terms of volume, speed and surface/volume ratio are non-negligible.

  10. Sensitivity of free radicals production in acoustically driven bubble to the ultrasonic frequency and nature of dissolved gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouani, Slimane; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Rezgui, Yacine; Guemini, Miloud

    2015-01-01

    Central events of ultrasonic action are the bubbles of cavitation that can be considered as powered microreactors within which high-energy chemistry occurs. This work presents the results of a comprehensive numerical assessment of frequency and saturating gases effects on single bubble sonochemistry. Computer simulations of chemical reactions occurring inside a bubble oscillating in liquid water irradiated by an ultrasonic wave have been performed for a wide range of ultrasonic frequencies (213-1100kHz) under different saturating gases (O2, air, N2 and H2). For O2 and H2 bubbles, reactions mechanism consisting in 25 reversible chemical reactions were proposed for studying the internal bubble-chemistry whereas 73 reversible reactions were taken into account for air and N2 bubbles. The numerical simulations have indicated that radicals such as OH, H, HO2 and O are created in the bubble during the strong collapse. In all cases, hydroxyl radical (OH) is the main oxidant created in the bubble. The production rate of the oxidants decreases as the driving ultrasonic frequency increases. The production rate of OH radical followed the order O2>air>N2>H2 and the order becomes more remarkable at higher ultrasonic frequencies. The effect of ultrasonic frequency on single bubble sonochemistry was attributed to its significant impact on the cavitation process whereas the effects of gases were attributed to the nature of the chemistry produced in the bubble at the strong collapse. It was concluded that, in addition to the gas solubility, the nature of the internal bubble chemistry is another parameter of a paramount importance that controls the overall sonochemical activity in aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; de Jong, Nico; Versluis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to circulate within blood vessels. Perfluorocarbon liquid droplets can be a potential new generation of microbubble agents as ultrasound can trigger their conversion into gas bubbles. Prior to activation, they are at least five times smaller in diameter than the resulting bubbles. Together with the violent nature of the phase-transition, the droplets can be used for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, HIFU enhancement and tumor imaging. Here we explain the basics of bubble dynamics, described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, bubble resonance frequency, damping and quality factor. We show the elegant calculation of the above characteristics for the case of small amplitude oscillations by linearizing the equations. The effect and importance of a bubble coating and effective surface tension are also discussed. We give the main characteristics of the power spectrum of bubble oscillations. Preceding bubble dynamics, ultrasound propagation is introduced. We explain the speed of sound, nonlinearity and attenuation terms. We examine bubble ultrasound scattering and how it depends on the wave-shape of the incident wave. Finally, we introduce droplet interaction with ultrasound. We elucidate the ultrasound-focusing concept within a droplets sphere, droplet shaking due to media compressibility and droplet phase-conversion dynamics.

  12. Studies on threshold pressures of sonoluminescence for bubbles with different noble gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING; Chunfeng; XING; Da

    2004-01-01

    The noble gases inside bubbles may have a profound effect on the threshold pressure of sonoluminescence (SL). In this work, the SL threshold pressures have been measured experimentally for bubbles with different noble gases. Results show that the threshold pressure increases with the decrease of molecular mass for gases inside the bubbles. The simulating temperature values at the collapse are almost equal to each other for different gas bubbles at the threshold pressures. However, when the pressure is above the threshold one, the SL mechanism satisfies the bremsstrahlung. On the basis of the experiments and simulations, we found that firstly water molecules dissociate in the process of cavitation and light emission follows; then, the noble gases ionize with the increase of temperature and the bremsstrahlung occurs. SL is a process from molecular emission to bremsstrahlung.

  13. Comparison between the single-bubble sonoluminescences in sulfuric acid and in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; GAO XianXian; LIANG Yue

    2009-01-01

    Single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) is achieved with strong stability in sulfuric acid solutions. Bubble dynamics and the SBSL spectroscopy in the sulfuric acid solutions with different concentrations are studied with phase-locked integral stroboscopic photography method and a spectrograph, respectively. The experimental results are compared with those in water. The SBSL in sulfuric acid is brighter than that in water. One of the most important reasons for that is the larger viscosity of sulfuric acid, which results in the larger ambient radius and thus the more contents of luminous material inside the bubble. However, sonoluminescence bubble's collapse in sulfuric acid is less violent than that in water, and the corresponding blackbody radiation temperature of the SBSL in sulfuric acid is lower than that in water.

  14. Distributions of the high temperature and the high pressure inside a single acoustically driven bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应崇福; 安宇

    2002-01-01

    The physical circumstances inside an acoustically driven single gas bubble in water has been intensively explored during the past few years. Starting from the results obtained for a typical case in a well known early paper (Wu, C. C., Roberts, P. H., Phys. Rev. Lett., 1993, 70(22): 3424) and introducing successively several corrections to the physical model, this paper computes in corresponding order the temporal and spatial distributions of significant physical parameters, including the temperature and the pressure, in the bubble around the moment of the bubble's violent collapse, until expectations in consistence with the present points of view are procured. For the peak temperature our results agree with the prevailing belief that in a typical stable single bubble it is of the order of ten thousand degrees.

  15. Study of Interfacial Mass Transfer on Vapor Bubbles in Microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Straub

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of interfacial heat and mass transfer is important for environmental and technical applications, especially nowadays for numerical simulations of two phase problems. However, the data available up to now are inconsistent, because most experiments performed on earth suffer under buoyancy and convection, and thus the boundary conditions at the evaluation could not clearly be defined. Therefore, we seized the opportunity to investigate interfacial heat and mass transfer in microgravity environment. In these experiments the growth and collapse in the overall superheated and subcooled bubles, respectively, liquid or free vapor bubbles were observed at various liquid temperature and pressure states and over periods of from a few seconds up to 300 seconds. It was for the first time that such very long periods of bubble growth could be observed. The experimental set-up allowed the control of the liquid supersaturation before the bubbles were initiated by a short heat pulse at a miniaturized heater. Therefore it was possible to perform a systematic parametric study. The measured curves for vapor bubble growth are in good agreement with our numerical simulation. Based on this model the kinetic coefficients for the evaporation and condensation according to Hertz-Knudsen have been derived from the experimental data.

  16. Dynamics of Fe-Ni Bubbles in Young Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Blondin, J M; Reynolds, S P

    2001-01-01

    Observations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) have revealed the presence of extensive mixing of radioactive material in SN ejecta. The mixing of radioactive material, mostly freshly synthesized Ni, is not complete, which leads to a two-phase SN ejecta structure. The low-density phase consists of Fe bubbles, created by the energy input from radioactive Co and Ni, surrounded by compressed high-density metal-rich ejecta. We report on the theoretical investigation of supernova remnant (SNR) dynamics with the two-phase SN ejecta. We first present 3-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of a single Fe bubble immersed in an outer ejecta envelope, and compare the results with previous work on shock-cloud interactions. We then consider randomly distributed Fe bubbles with an average volume filling fraction of 1/2. We find that the presence of Fe bubbles leads to vigorous turbulence and mixing of Fe with other heavy elements and with the ambient normal-abundance gas. The turbulent energy can be an order of magnitude la...

  17. Bubble Size Distribution in a Vibrating Bubble Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Wilson, Trevor; Valenzuela, Bret; Hinds, Tyler; Moseni, Kevin; Elbing, Brian

    2016-11-01

    While vibrating bubble columns have increased the mass transfer between phases, a universal scaling law remains elusive. Attempts to predict mass transfer rates in large industrial scale applications by extrapolating laboratory scale models have failed. In a stationary bubble column, mass transfer is a function of phase interfacial area (PIA), while PIA is determined based on the bubble size distribution (BSD). On the other hand, BSD is influenced by the injection characteristics and liquid phase dynamics and properties. Vibration modifies the BSD by impacting the gas and gas-liquid dynamics. This work uses a vibrating cylindrical bubble column to investigate the effect of gas injection and vibration characteristics on the BSD. The bubble column has a 10 cm diameter and was filled with water to a depth of 90 cm above the tip of the orifice tube injector. BSD was measured using high-speed imaging to determine the projected area of individual bubbles, which the nominal bubble diameter was then calculated assuming spherical bubbles. The BSD dependence on the distance from the injector, injector design (1.6 and 0.8 mm ID), air flow rates (0.5 to 5 lit/min), and vibration conditions (stationary and vibration conditions varying amplitude and frequency) will be presented. In addition to mean data, higher order statistics will also be provided.

  18. Dynamic Bubble Behaviour during Microscale Subcooled Boiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; PENG Xiao-Feng; David M.Christopher

    2005-01-01

    @@ Bubble cycles, including initiation, growth and departure, are the physical basis of nucleate boiling. The presentinvestigation, however, reveals unusual bubble motions during subcooled nucleate boiling on microwires 25 orl00μm in diameter. Two types of bubble motions, bubble sweeping and bubble return, are observed in theexperiments. Bubble sweeping describes a bubble moving back and forth along the wire, which is motion parallelto the wire. Bubble return is the bubble moving back to the wire after it has detached or leaping above thewire. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the driving mechanisms forboth bubble sweeping and return. Marangoni flow from warm to cool regions along the bubble interface is foundto produce the shear stresses needed to drive these unusual bubble movements.

  19. Shearing flow from transient bubble oscillations in narrow gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Milad; Li, Fenfang; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    The flow driven by a rapidly expanding and collapsing cavitation bubble in a narrow cylindrical gap is studied with the volume of fluid method. The simulations reveal a developing plug flow during the early expansion followed by flow reversal at later stages. An adverse pressure gradient leads to boundary layer separation and flow reversal, causing large shear stress near the boundaries. Analytical solution to a planar pulsating flow shows qualitative agreement with the CFD results. The shear stress close to boundaries has implications to deformable objects located near the bubble: Experiments reveal that thin, flat biological cells entrained in the boundary layer become stretched, while cells with a larger cross section are mainly transported with the flow.

  20. Modeling colony collapse disorder in honeybees as a contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M; Mitchell, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Honeybee pollination accounts annually for over $14 billion in United States agriculture alone. Within the past decade there has been a mysterious mass die-off of honeybees, an estimated 10 million beehives and sometimes as much as 90% of an apiary. There is still no consensus on what causes this phenomenon, called Colony Collapse Disorder, or CCD. Several mathematical models have studied CCD by only focusing on infection dynamics. We created a model to account for both healthy hive dynamics and hive extinction due to CCD, modeling CCD via a transmissible infection brought to the hive by foragers. The system of three ordinary differential equations accounts for multiple hive population behaviors including Allee effects and colony collapse. Numerical analysis leads to critical hive sizes for multiple scenarios and highlights the role of accelerated forager recruitment in emptying hives during colony collapse.

  1. Gravitational collapse in Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz theory

    CERN Document Server

    Greenwald, Jared; Satheeshkumar, V H; Wang, Anzhong

    2013-01-01

    We study gravitational collapse of a spherical fluid in Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz theory with the projectability condition and an arbitrary coupling constant $\\lambda$, where $|\\lambda - 1|$ characterizes the deviation of the theory from general relativity in the infrared limit. The junction conditions across the surface of a collapsing star are derived under the (minimal) assumption that the junctions be mathematically meaningful in terms of generalized functions. When the collapsing star is made of a homogeneous and isotropic perfect fluid, {and} the external region is described by a stationary spacetime, the problem reduces to the matching of six independent conditions. When the perfect fluid is pressureless (a dust fluid), it is found that such matching is possible only in the case $\\lambda = 1$. In this case, the external spacetime is described by the Schwarzschild (anti-) de Sitter solution written in Painlev\\'e-Gullstrand coordinates. Our treatment can be easily generalized to other versions of Ho\\v{r}ava-Li...

  2. Theory of supercompression of vapor bubbles and nanoscale thermonuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatulin, Robert I.; Akhatov, Iskander Sh.; Topolnikov, Andrey S.; Bolotnova, Raisa Kh.; Vakhitova, Nailya K.; Lahey, Richard T.; Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2005-10-01

    shock waves in both phases, which converge toward and reflect from the center of the bubble, causing dissociation, ionization, and other related plasma physics phenomena during the final stage of bubble collapse. For a vapor bubble in a deuterated organic liquid (e.g., acetone), during the final stage of collapse there is a nanoscale region (diameter ˜100nm) near the center of the bubble in which, for a fraction of a picosecond, the temperatures and densities are extremely high (˜108K and ˜10g/cm3, respectively) such that thermonuclear fusion may take place. To quantify this, the kinetics of the local deuterium/deuterium (D/D) nuclear fusion reactions was used in the HYDRO code to determine the intensity of the fusion reactions. Numerical HYDRO code simulations of the bubble implosion process have been carried out for the experimental conditions used by Taleyarkhan et al. [Science 295, 1868 (2002); Phys. Rev. E 69, 036109 (2004)] at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The results show good agreement with the experimental data on bubble fusion that was measured in chilled deuterated acetone.

  3. Studies on the tempo of bubble formation in recently cavitated vessels: a model to predict the pressure of air bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Pan, Ruihua; Tyree, Melvin T

    2015-06-01

    A cavitation event in a vessel replaces water with a mixture of water vapor and air. A quantitative theory is presented to argue that the tempo of filling of vessels with air has two phases: a fast process that extracts air from stem tissue adjacent to the cavitated vessels (less than 10 s) and a slow phase that extracts air from the atmosphere outside the stem (more than 10 h). A model was designed to estimate how water tension (T) near recently cavitated vessels causes bubbles in embolized vessels to expand or contract as T increases or decreases, respectively. The model also predicts that the hydraulic conductivity of a stem will increase as bubbles collapse. The pressure of air bubbles trapped in vessels of a stem can be predicted from the model based on fitting curves of hydraulic conductivity versus T. The model was validated using data from six stem segments each of Acer mono and the clonal hybrid Populus 84 K (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). The model was fitted to results with root mean square error less than 3%. The model provided new insight into the study of embolism formation in stem tissue and helped quantify the bubble pressure immediately after the fast process referred to above. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Well-posed Euler model of shock-induced two-phase flow in bubbly liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukhvatullina, R. R.; Frolov, S. M.

    2017-07-01

    A well-posed mathematical model of non-isothermal two-phase two-velocity flow of bubbly liquid is proposed. The model is based on the two-phase Euler equations with the introduction of an additional pressure at the gas bubble surface, which ensures the well-posedness of the Cauchy problem for a system of governing equations with homogeneous initial conditions, and the Rayleigh-Plesset equation for radial pulsations of gas bubbles. The applicability conditions of the model are formulated. The model is validated by comparing one-dimensional calculations of shock wave propagation in liquids with gas bubbles with a gas volume fraction of 0.005-0.3 with experimental data. The model is shown to provide satisfactory results for the shock propagation velocity, pressure profiles, and the shock-induced motion of the bubbly liquid column.

  5. Stable tridimensional bubble clusters in multi-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, J M; Dellavale, D; Bonetto, F J

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, stable clusters made of multiple sonoluminescent bubbles are experimentally and theoretically studied. Argon bubbles were acoustically generated and trapped using bi-frequency driving within a cylindrical chamber filled with a sulfuric acid aqueous solution (SA85w/w). The intensity of the acoustic pressure field was strong enough to sustain, during several minutes, a large number of positionally and spatially fixed (without pseudo-orbits) sonoluminescent bubbles over an ellipsoidally-shaped tridimensional array. The dimensions of the ellipsoids were studied as a function of the amplitude of the applied low-frequency acoustic pressure (PAc(LF)) and the static pressure in the fluid (P0). In order to explain the size and shape of the bubble clusters, we performed a series of numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic forces acting over the bubbles. In both cases the observed experimental behavior was in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The simulations revealed that the positionally stable region, mainly determined by the null primary Bjerknes force (F→Bj), is defined as the outer perimeter of an axisymmetric ellipsoidal cluster centered in the acoustic field antinode. The role of the high-frequency component of the pressure field and the influence of the secondary Bjerknes force are discussed. We also investigate the effect of a change in the concentration of dissolved gas on the positional and spatial instabilities through the cluster dimensions. The experimental and numerical results presented in this paper are potentially useful for further understanding and modeling numerous current research topics regarding multi-bubble phenomena, e.g. forces acting on the bubbles in multi-frequency acoustic fields, transient acoustic cavitation, bubble interactions, structure formation processes, atomic and molecular emissions of equal bubbles and nonlinear or unsteady acoustic pressure fields in bubbly media.

  6. Ultrasound induced bubble clusters and tunnels in tissue-mimicking agar phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, Pooya; Kreider, Wayne; Maxwell, Adam D.; Bailey, Michael R.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2016-11-01

    Soft tissue fractionation induced by acoustic cavitation is desired for non-invasive tissue removal in histotripsy, while being a potential injury mechanism in other therapeutic ultrasound treatments such as lithotripsy. In this work, we investigate the formation of bubble clusters and tunnels in tissue-mimicking agar phantoms by focused ultrasound bursts to inform a class of damage models. Agar phantoms of different stiffness were subjected to a series of multi-cycle ultrasound bursts, using a burst wave lithotripsy (BWL) protocol, and simultaneously imaged at 200 frames per second (1 image per ultrasound burst). Some bubbles become visible in images ( 200 microns) due to the negative pressure ( 7.5 MPa) in the initial bursts, and the number of visible bubbles increases continuously during the subsequent bursts. A Rayleigh-Plesset-type bubble dynamics model, which accounts for viscoelastic confinement of agar gels, is developed. Material fatigue leading to eventual irreversible fracture-like failure in this model is proposed to explain the key observations. In addition to isolated, approximately spherical bubbles, long tunnel-like features are observed, which are seemingly lines of joined bubbles along a possible fracture or defect. The geometry of these tunnel-like features is quantified, and a physical explanation for tunnel formation is proposed in terms of bubble expansion and unstable collapse. This work was supported by NIH NIDDK Grant P01-DK043881.

  7. Tuning bubbly structures in microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Sharon M; Anna, Shelley L

    2012-06-01

    Foams have many useful applications that arise from the structure and size distribution of the bubbles within them. Microfluidics allows for the rapid formation of uniform bubbles, where bubble size and volume fraction are functions of the input gas pressure, liquid flow rate, and device geometry. After formation, the microchannel confines the bubbles and determines the resulting foam structure. Bubbly structures can vary from a single row ("dripping"), to multiple rows ("alternating"), to densely packed bubbles ("bamboo" and dry foams). We show that each configuration arises in a distinct region of the operating space defined by bubble volume and volume fraction. We describe the boundaries between these regions using geometric arguments and show that the boundaries are functions of the channel aspect ratio. We compare these geometric arguments with foam structures observed in experiments using flow-focusing, T-junction, and co-flow designs to generate stable nitrogen bubbles in aqueous surfactant solution and stable droplets in oil containing dissolved surfactant. The outcome of this work is a set of design parameters that can be used to achieve desired foam structures as a function of device geometry and experimental control parameters.

  8. Bubble chamber: colour enhanced tracks

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    This artistically-enhanced image of real particle tracks was produced in the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). Liquid hydrogen is used to create bubbles along the paths of the particles as a piston expands the medium. A magnetic field is produced in the detector causing the particles to travel in spirals, allowing charge and momentum to be measured.

  9. Bubble coalescence in breathing DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotný, Tomas; Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Ambjörnsson, Tobias;

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the coalescence of two DNA bubbles initially located at weak segments and separated by a more stable barrier region in a designed construct of double-stranded DNA. The characteristic time for bubble coalescence and the corresponding distribution are derived, as well as the distribu...

  10. Track formation in a liquid hydrogen ultrasonic bubble chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, R C A; Jarman, P D

    1973-01-01

    Track sensitivity to minimum ionising particles has been demonstrated in liquid hydrogen using only an intense ultrasonic field. Carefully designed transducer systems are shown to be capable of producing pressure amplitudes >2.8 atm in a standing wave system in liquid hydrogen. The growth of bubbles to visible size (0.1 mm) in less than 0.2 ms, and their collapse in less than 15 ms, indicates that rapid cycling rates of 50-100 pulses per second may be feasible with this technique. (11 refs).

  11. Triangular bubble spline surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapl, Mario; Byrtus, Marek; Jüttler, Bert

    2011-11-01

    We present a new method for generating a [Formula: see text]-surface from a triangular network of compatible surface strips. The compatible surface strips are given by a network of polynomial curves with an associated implicitly defined surface, which fulfill certain compatibility conditions. Our construction is based on a new concept, called bubble patches, to represent the single surface patches. The compatible surface strips provide a simple [Formula: see text]-condition between two neighboring bubble patches, which are used to construct surface patches, connected with [Formula: see text]-continuity. For [Formula: see text], we describe the obtained [Formula: see text]-condition in detail. It can be generalized to any [Formula: see text]. The construction of a single surface patch is based on Gordon-Coons interpolation for triangles.Our method is a simple local construction scheme, which works uniformly for vertices of arbitrary valency. The resulting surface is a piecewise rational surface, which interpolates the given network of polynomial curves. Several examples of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]-surfaces are presented, which have been generated by using our method. The obtained surfaces are visualized with reflection lines to demonstrate the order of smoothness.

  12. Squeezing through: capsule or bubble?

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we compare the deformation of two flexible particles as they propagate through a sudden constriction of a liquid filled channel under constant-flux flow: a gas bubble, and a capsule formed by encapsulating a liquid droplet in a cross-linked polymeric membrane. Both bubble and capsule adopt highly contorted configurations as they squeeze through the constriction, exhibit broadly similar features over a wide range of flow rates, and rupture for sufficiently high flow rates. However, at flow rates prior to rupture, certain features of the deformation allow bubble and capsule to be distinguished: bubbles exhibit a tip-streaming singularity associated with critical thinning of the rear of the bubble, while the capsule membrane wrinkles under large compressive stresses induced by the constriction.

  13. Growing bubbles rising in line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Harper

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.

  14. Nanoscale dynamics of Joule heating and bubble nucleation in a solid-state nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Edlyn V.; Burns, Michael M.; Golovchenko, Jene A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for Joule heating of an electrolytic solution in a nanopore. The model couples the electrical and thermal dynamics responsible for rapid and extreme superheating of the electrolyte within the nanopore. The model is implemented numerically with a finite element calculation, yielding a time and spatially resolved temperature distribution in the nanopore region. Temperatures near the thermodynamic limit of superheat are predicted to be attained just before the explosive nucleation of a vapor bubble is observed experimentally. Knowledge of this temperature distribution enables the evaluation of related phenomena including bubble nucleation kinetics, relaxation oscillation, and bubble dynamics.

  15. Nanoscale dynamics of Joule heating and bubble nucleation in a solid-state nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Edlyn V; Burns, Michael M; Golovchenko, Jene A

    2016-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for Joule heating of an electrolytic solution in a nanopore. The model couples the electrical and thermal dynamics responsible for rapid and extreme superheating of the electrolyte within the nanopore. The model is implemented numerically with a finite element calculation, yielding a time and spatially resolved temperature distribution in the nanopore region. Temperatures near the thermodynamic limit of superheat are predicted to be attained just before the explosive nucleation of a vapor bubble is observed experimentally. Knowledge of this temperature distribution enables the evaluation of related phenomena including bubble nucleation kinetics, relaxation oscillation, and bubble dynamics.

  16. Geophysical observations at cavity collapse

    OpenAIRE

    Jousset, Philippe; Bazargan-Sabet, Behrooz; Lebert, François; Bernardie, Séverine; Gourry, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In Lorraine region (France) salt layers at about 200 meters depth are exploited by Solvay using solution mining methodology which consists in extracting the salt by dissolution, collapsing the cavern overburden during the exploitation phase and finally reclaiming the landscape by creating a water area. In this process, one of the main challenges for the exploiting company is to control the initial 120-m diameter collapse so as to minimize possible damages. In order to ...

  17. Vibrational Collapse of Hexapod Packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuchen; Ding, Jingqiu; Barés, Jonathan; Dierichs, Karola; Behringer, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Columns made of convex noncohesive grains like sand collapse after being released from a confining container. However, structures built from concave grains can be stable without external support. Previous research show that the stability of the columns depends on column diameter and height, by observing column stability after carefully lifting their confinement tubes. Thinner and taller columns collapse with higher probability. While the column stability weakly depends on packing density, it strongly depends on inter-particle friction. Experiments that cause the column to collapse also reveal similar trends, as more effort (such as heavier loading or shearing) is required to destabilize columns that are intrinsically more stable. In the current experiments, we invesitage the effect of vibration on destructing a column. Short columns collapse following the relaxation dynamics of disorder systems, which coincides with similar experiments on staple packings. However, tall columns collapse faster at the beginning, in addition to the relaxation process coming after. Using high-speed imaging, we analyze column collapse data from different column geometries. Ongoing work is focusing on characterizing the stability of hexapod packings to vibration. We thanks NSF-DMR-1206351 and the William M. Keck Foundation.

  18. Optical nucleation of bubble clouds in a high pressure spherical resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Phillip; Sampathkumar, A; Murray, Todd W; Gaitan, D Felipe; Glynn Holt, R

    2011-11-01

    An experimental setup for nucleating clouds of bubbles in a high-pressure spherical resonator is described. Using nanosecond laser pulses and multiple phase gratings, bubble clouds are optically nucleated in an acoustic field. Dynamics of the clouds are captured using a high-speed CCD camera. The images reveal cloud nucleation, growth, and collapse and the resulting emission of radially expanding shockwaves. These shockwaves are reflected at the interior surface of the resonator and then reconverge to the center of the resonator. As the shocks reconverge upon the center of the resonator, they renucleate and grow the bubble cloud. This process is repeated over many acoustic cycles and with each successive shock reconvergence, the bubble cloud becomes more organized and centralized so that subsequent collapses give rise to stronger, better defined shockwaves. After many acoustic cycles individual bubbles cannot be distinguished and the cloud is then referred to as a cluster. Sustainability of the process is ultimately limited by the detuning of the acoustic field inside the resonator. The nucleation parameter space is studied in terms of laser firing phase, laser energy, and acoustic power used.

  19. Parametric Study of Flow Patterns behind the Standing Accretion Shock Wave for Core-Collapse Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Iwakami, Wakana; Yamada, Shoichi

    2013-01-01

    The systematic research of flow patterns behind the accretion shock wave is conducted using three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations for core-collapse supernovae in this study. Changing the accretion rate and neutrino luminosity, the steady solutions of the one-dimensional irrotational accretion flow passing through the spherical shock wave are evolved by imposing a random perturbation with 1% amplitude at the onset of the simulations. Depending on the accretion rate and neutrino luminosity, various flow patterns appear behind the shock wave. We classified them into the three fundamental flow patterns: (1) sloshing motion, (2) spiral motion, (3) multiple high-entropy bubbles, and the two anomalous flow patterns: (4) spiral motion with buoyant bubbles, and (5) spiral motion with pulsating rotational velocity. The sloshing and spiral motions tend to be dominant in the higher accretion rate and lower neutrino luminosity, and the generations of multiple buoyant bubbles tend to prevail in the lower accretion ra...

  20. Doughnut-shaped soap bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préve, Deison; Saa, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Soap bubbles are thin liquid films enclosing a fixed volume of air. Since the surface tension is typically assumed to be the only factor responsible for conforming the soap bubble shape, the realized bubble surfaces are always minimal area ones. Here, we consider the problem of finding the axisymmetric minimal area surface enclosing a fixed volume V and with a fixed equatorial perimeter L . It is well known that the sphere is the solution for V =L3/6 π2 , and this is indeed the case of a free soap bubble, for instance. Surprisingly, we show that for V <α L3/6 π2 , with α ≈0.21 , such a surface cannot be the usual lens-shaped surface formed by the juxtaposition of two spherical caps, but is rather a toroidal surface. Practically, a doughnut-shaped bubble is known to be ultimately unstable and, hence, it will eventually lose its axisymmetry by breaking apart in smaller bubbles. Indisputably, however, the topological transition from spherical to toroidal surfaces is mandatory here for obtaining the global solution for this axisymmetric isoperimetric problem. Our result suggests that deformed bubbles with V <α L3/6 π2 cannot be stable and should not exist in foams, for instance.

  1. Energy spectra in bubbly turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Vivek N; Ramos, Fabio Ernesto Mancilla; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2013-01-01

    We conduct experiments in a turbulent bubbly flow to study the unknown nature of the transition between the classical -5/3 energy spectrum scaling for a single-phase turbulent flow and the -3 scaling for a swarm of bubbles rising in a quiescent liquid and of bubble-dominated turbulence. The bubblance parameter, b, which measures the ratio of the bubble-induced kinetic energy to the kinetic energy induced by the turbulent liquid fluctuations before bubble injection, is used to characterise the bubbly flow. We vary b from $b = \\infty$ (pseudo-turbulence) to b = 0 (single-phase flow) over 2-3 orders of magnitude: ~O(0.01, 0.1, 5) to study its effect on the turbulent energy spectrum and liquid velocity fluctuations. The experiments are conducted in a multi-phase turbulent water tunnel with air bubbles of diameters 2-4 mm and 3-5 mm. An active-grid is used to generate nearly homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in the liquid flow. The liquid speeds and gas void fractions are varied to achieve the above mentioned b...

  2. Peculiarities of the dynamic behavior of bubbles in a cluster caused by their hydrodynamic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubaidullin, A. A.; Gubkin, A. S.

    2015-07-01

    Numerical investigation of the collective interaction of bubbles in clusters of different configurations was carried out. The mathematical model was used, which accounted for the compressibility and viscosity of the liquid as well as the hydrodynamic interaction between the bubbles. The heat exchange of gas bubbles with liquid was handled within the framework of a two-temperature scheme. An expression for the heat flux to the bubble unit surface was used, which makes it possible to describe the heat exchange of gaseous bubbles with the liquid in a fairly wide range of the values of the liquid pressures and temperatures. The behavior of an individual bubble in the collective of bubbles at an instantaneous compression and at a periodic disturbance of different frequencies was investigated. It is shown that under certain conditions, considerable compression ratios and, as a consequence, high temperatures and temperatures are reached for some bubbles. The influence of the cluster configuration has been investigated. It is shown by the examples of a cluster of three embedded dodecahedra, linear and stochastic clusters that the configuration of the cluster may affect strongly its dynamics.

  3. Geophysical observations at cavity collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Bazargan-Sabet, Behrooz; Lebert, François; Bernardie, Séverine; Gourry, Jean-Christophe

    2010-05-01

    In Lorraine region (France) salt layers at about 200 meters depth are exploited by Solvay using solution mining methodology which consists in extracting the salt by dissolution, collapsing the cavern overburden during the exploitation phase and finally reclaiming the landscape by creating a water area. In this process, one of the main challenges for the exploiting company is to control the initial 120-m diameter collapse so as to minimize possible damages. In order to detect potential precursors and understand processes associated with such collapses, a wide series of monitoring techniques including micro seismics, broad-band seismology, hydro-acoustic, electromagnetism, gas probing, automatic leveling, continuous GPS, continuous gravity and borehole extensometry was set-up in the frame of an in-situ study carried out by the "Research Group for the Impact and Safety of Underground Works" (GISOS, France). Equipments were set-up well before the final collapse, giving a unique opportunity to analyze a great deal of information prior to and during the collapse process which has been successfully achieved on February the 13th, 2009 by controlling the cavity internal pressure. In this work, we present the results of data recorded by a network of 3 broadband seismometers, 2 accelerometers, 2 tilt-meters and a continuously gravity meter. We relate the variations of the brine pumping rate with the evolutions of the induced geophysical signals and finally we propose a first mechanical model for describing the controlled collapse. Beyond the studied case, extrapolation of the results obtained might contribute to the understanding of uncontrolled cavity collapses, such as pit-craters or calderas at volcanoes.

  4. Mathematical Competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westphael, Henning; Mogensen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    In this article we present the notion of Mathematical competences as a tool to describe the mathematically gifted students.......In this article we present the notion of Mathematical competences as a tool to describe the mathematically gifted students....

  5. Investigation of Bubble-Slag Layer Behaviors with Hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian Modeling and Large Eddy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linmin; Li, Baokuan

    2016-08-01

    In ladle metallurgy, bubble-liquid interaction leads to complex phase structures. Gas bubble behavior, as well as the induced slag layer behavior, plays a significant role in the refining process and the steel quality. In the present work, a mathematical model using the large eddy simulation (LES) is developed to investigate the bubble transport and slag layer behavior in a water model of an argon-stirred ladle. The Eulerian volume of fluid model is adopted to track the liquid steel-slag-air free surfaces while the Lagrangian discrete phase model is used for tracking and handling the dynamics of discrete bubbles. The bubble coalescence is considered using O'Rourke's algorithm to solve the bubble diameter redistribution and bubbles are removed after leaving the air-liquid interface. The turbulent liquid flow that is induced by bubble-liquid interaction is solved by LES. The slag layer fluactuation, slag droplet entrainment and spout eye open-close phenomenon are well revealed. The bubble diameter distribution and the spout eye size are compared with the experiment. The results show that the hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian-LES model provides a valid modeling framework to predict the unsteady gas bubble-slag layer coupled behaviors.

  6. Partial coalescence of soap bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel M.; Pucci, Giuseppe; Bush, John W. M.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the merger of a soap bubble with a planar soap film. When gently deposited onto a horizontal film, a bubble may interact with the underlying film in such a way as to decrease in size, leaving behind a smaller daughter bubble with approximately half the radius of its progenitor. The process repeats up to three times, with each partial coalescence event occurring over a time scale comparable to the inertial-capillary time. Our results are compared to the recent numerical simulations of Martin and Blanchette and to the coalescence cascade of droplets on a fluid bath.

  7. Bubble Growth in Lunar Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.

    2009-05-01

    Although Moon is usually said to be volatile-"free", lunar basalts are often vesicular with mm-size bubbles. The vesicular nature of the lunar basalts suggests that they contained some initial gas concentration. A recent publication estimated volatile concentrations in lunar basalts (Saal et al. 2008). This report investigates bubble growth on Moon and compares with that on Earth. Under conditions relevant to lunar basalts, bubble growth in a finite melt shell (i.e., growth of multiple regularly-spaced bubbles) is calculated following Proussevitch and Sahagian (1998) and Liu and Zhang (2000). Initial H2O content of 700 ppm (Saal et al. 2008) or lower is used and the effect of other volatiles (such as carbon dioxide, halogens, and sulfur) is ignored. H2O solubility at low pressures (Liu et al. 2005), concentration-dependent diffusivity in basalt (Zhang and Stolper 1991), and lunar basalt viscosity (Murase and McBirney 1970) are used. Because lunar atmospheric pressure is essentially zero, the confining pressure on bubbles is completely supplied by the overlying magma. Due to low H2O content in lunar basaltic melt (700 ppm H2O corresponds to a saturation pressure of 75 kPa), H2O bubbles only grow in the upper 16 m of a basalt flow or lake. A depth of 20 mm corresponds to a confining pressure of 100 Pa. Hence, vesicular lunar rocks come from very shallow depth. Some findings from the modeling are as follows. (a) Due to low confining pressure as well as low viscosity, even though volatile concentration is very low, bubble growth rate is extremely high, much higher than typical bubble growth rates in terrestrial melts. Hence, mm-size bubbles in lunar basalts are not strange. (b) Because the pertinent pressures are so low, bubble pressure due to surface tension plays a main role in lunar bubble growth, contrary to terrestrial cases. (c) Time scale to reach equilibrium bubble size increases as the confining pressure increases. References: (1) Liu Y, Zhang YX (2000) Earth

  8. Thermal Phase in Bubbling Geometries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chang-Yong

    2008-01-01

    We use matrix model to study thermal phase in bubbling half-BPS type IIB geometries with SO(4)×SO(4) symmetry.Near the horizon limit,we find that thermal vacua of bubbling geometries have disjoint parts,and each part is one kind of phase of the thermal system.We connect the thermal dynamics of bubbling geometries with one-dimensional fermions thermal system.Finally,we try to give a new possible way to resolve information loss puzzle.

  9. Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    spectroscopy analysis of gases liberated during heating of the glass reveals that small bubbles contain predominantly CH4, CO and CO2, whereas large bubbles bear N2, SO2 and H2S. The methodology utilised in this work can, besides mapping the bubbles in a glass, be applied to shed light on the sources of bubble...

  10. Bubble stimulation efficiency of dinoflagellate bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Grant B; Stokes, M Dale; Latz, Michael I

    2016-02-01

    Dinoflagellate bioluminescence, a common source of bioluminescence in coastal waters, is stimulated by flow agitation. Although bubbles are anecdotally known to be stimulatory, the process has never been experimentally investigated. This study quantified the flash response of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum to stimulation by bubbles rising through still seawater. Cells were stimulated by isolated bubbles of 0.3-3 mm radii rising at their terminal velocity, and also by bubble clouds containing bubbles of 0.06-10 mm radii for different air flow rates. Stimulation efficiency, the proportion of cells producing a flash within the volume of water swept out by a rising bubble, decreased with decreasing bubble radius for radii less than approximately 1 mm. Bubbles smaller than a critical radius in the range 0.275-0.325 mm did not stimulate a flash response. The fraction of cells stimulated by bubble clouds was proportional to the volume of air in the bubble cloud, with lower stimulation levels observed for clouds with smaller bubbles. An empirical model for bubble cloud stimulation based on the isolated bubble observations successfully reproduced the observed stimulation by bubble clouds for low air flow rates. High air flow rates stimulated more light emission than expected, presumably because of additional fluid shear stress associated with collective buoyancy effects generated by the high air fraction bubble cloud. These results are relevant to bioluminescence stimulation by bubbles in two-phase flows, such as in ship wakes, breaking waves, and sparged bioreactors.

  11. Seismic Progressive Collapse: Qualitative Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wibowo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive collapse is a catastrophic structural phenomenon that can occur because of human-made and natural hazards. In progressive collapse mechanism, a single local failure may cause a significant deformation which then may lead to collapse of a structure. The current practices in progressive collapse analysis and design method generally focus on preventing progressive collapse due to abnormal gravity and blast loads. Progressive collapse behaviour of structures due to earthquake loads has not received as much attention. This paper presents a brief overview of the current state-of-knowledge, insights, and issues related to progressive collapse behaviour of structures caused by earthquake loading.

  12. Bubble Dynamics and Resulting Noise from Traveling Bubble Cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-13

    has resulted in models which aqree well with bubble dynamics recorded by high speed film . Chahine, et. al. (23) incorporated asymmetric bubble...recording on the tape soundtrack . 3.8 Measurement of Gas Nuclei in Water The role of nuclei density and size in cavitation inception has been the subject...interference between the coherent background and the particle-diffracted radiation exooses photographic film in the far-field of the nuclei. This

  13. Research on nonlinear characteristics of strata collapse because of the multi-frequency mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fan; HU Zhen-qi; YANG Lun; MA Feng-hai

    2008-01-01

    Based on the complexity of mine stratum and coupling of the multi-frequency for the damage of mine stratum, using the method of on-site inspection and mathematical statistics, the regulation and nonlinear characteristics of strata collapse in mine stratum's multi-frequency mining were put forward and systemically studied. Study result shows that the influence of multi-frequency mining in mine stratum has the feature of multi-frequency incontinuity, multi-characteristic and multi-type nonlinear collapse, strata collapse activation turned worse, presenting an accumulation effect of multi-frequency mining for the strata damage. With the example of multi-frequency mining in the mine, the real characteristics of strata collapse by multi-frequency mining and nonlinear characteristics of accumulative response damage were analyzed. Research achievements about the surface recover and controlling of strata collapse by the multi-frequency mining have instruction meaning.

  14. Bubble bean bags in shampoo

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Anup; Das, Gargi; Harikrishnan, G

    2011-01-01

    In these fluid dynamics videos, we, for the first time, show various interactions of a 'Taylor bubble' with their smaller and differently, shaped counterparts, in a shear thinning, non-Newtonian fluid, confined in a narrow channel.

  15. Gravitational collapse and naked singularities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tomohiro Harada

    2004-10-01

    Gravitational collapse is one of the most striking phenomena in gravitational physics. The cosmic censorship conjecture has provided strong motivation for research in this field. In the absence of a general proof for censorship, many examples have been proposed, in which naked singularity is the outcome of gravitational collapse. Recent developments have revealed that there are examples of naked singularity formation in the collapse of physically reasonable matter fields, although the stability of these examples is still uncertain. We propose the concept of `effective naked singularities', which will be quite helpful because general relativity has limitation in its application at the high-energy end. The appearance of naked singularities is not detestable but can open a window for the new physics of strongly curved space-times.

  16. Moduli destabilization via gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dong-il [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Center for Quantum Spacetime; Pedro, Francisco G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Yeom, Dong-han [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Center for Quantum Spacetime; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2013-06-15

    We examine the interplay between gravitational collapse and moduli stability in the context of black hole formation. We perform numerical simulations of the collapse using the double null formalism and show that the very dense regions one expects to find in the process of black hole formation are able to destabilize the volume modulus. We establish that the effects of the destabilization will be visible to an observer at infinity, opening up a window to a region in spacetime where standard model's couplings and masses can differ significantly from their background values.

  17. Ekpyrotic collapse with multiple fields

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, K; Koyama, Kazuya; Wands, David

    2007-01-01

    A scale invariant spectrum of isocurvature perturbations is generated during collapse in the scaling solution in models where two or more fields have steep negative exponential potentials. The scale invariance of the spectrum is realised by a tachyonic instability in the isocurvature field. We show that this instability is due to the fact that the scaling solution is a saddle point in the phase space. The late time attractor is identified with a single field dominated ekpyrotic collapse in which a steep blue spectrum for isocurvature perturbations is found. Although quantum fluctuations do not necessarily to disrupt the classical solution, an additional preceding stage is required to establish classical homogeneity.

  18. Doughnut-shaped soap bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Preve, Deison

    2015-01-01

    Soap bubbles are thin liquid films enclosing a fixed volume of air. Since the surface tension is typically assumed to be the only responsible for conforming the soap bubble shape, the realized bubble surfaces are always minimal area ones. Here, we consider the problem of finding the axisymmetric minimal area surface enclosing a fixed volume $V$ and with a fixed equatorial perimeter $L$. It is well known that the sphere is the solution for $V=L^3/6\\pi^2$, and this is indeed the case of a free soap bubble, for instance. Surprisingly, we show that for $V<\\alpha L^3/6\\pi^2$, with $\\alpha\\approx 0.21$, such a surface cannot be the usual lens-shaped surface formed by the juxtaposition of two spherical caps, but rather a toroidal surface. Practically, a doughnut-shaped bubble is known to be ultimately unstable and, hence, it will eventually lose its axisymmetry by breaking apart in smaller bubbles. Indisputably, however, the topological transition from spherical to toroidal surfaces is mandatory here for obtainin...

  19. A reduced-order, single-bubble cavitation model with applications to therapeutic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Wayne; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A

    2011-11-01

    Cavitation often occurs in therapeutic applications of medical ultrasound such as shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Because cavitation bubbles can affect an intended treatment, it is important to understand the dynamics of bubbles in this context. The relevant context includes very high acoustic pressures and frequencies as well as elevated temperatures. Relative to much of the prior research on cavitation and bubble dynamics, such conditions are unique. To address the relevant physics, a reduced-order model of a single, spherical bubble is proposed that incorporates phase change at the liquid-gas interface as well as heat and mass transport in both phases. Based on the energy lost during the inertial collapse and rebound of a millimeter-sized bubble, experimental observations were used to tune and test model predictions. In addition, benchmarks from the published literature were used to assess various aspects of model performance. Benchmark comparisons demonstrate that the model captures the basic physics of phase change and diffusive transport, while it is quantitatively sensitive to specific model assumptions and implementation details. Given its performance and numerical stability, the model can be used to explore bubble behaviors across a broad parameter space relevant to therapeutic ultrasound.

  20. The effects of surfactants on the lateral migration of bubbles and the bubble clustering phenomenon in a bubbly channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shu; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2004-11-01

    The behaviors of bubbles in an upward channel flow are experimentally investigated. Two kinds of surfactant, 3-pentanol and Triton X-100 are added in the bubbly flow. Addition of surfactant prevents the bubble coalescence and mono-dispersed 1mm spherical bubbles were obtained, although these surfactants do not modify the single-phase turbulence statistics. At the condition of high Reynolds number (Re=8200) with 20-60ppm 3-Pentanol, bubbles migrated towards the wall. These bubbles highly accumulated near the wall and formed crescent like shaped horizontal bubble clusters of 10-40mm length. On the other hand, bubble clusters did not appear in the 2ppm Triton-X100 aqueous solution. By the addition of the small amount of Triton-X100, bubble coalescences were also preventable and the bubble size and its distribution became almost the same as in the case of 60ppm 3-Pentanol aqueous solution. However, the tendency of the lateral migration of bubbles towards the wall weakened and the bubbles did not accumulated near the wall. And this is the main reason of the disapperance of bubble cluster. We discuss this phenomenon, related to the lift force acting on bubbles and particles.

  1. Measuring online social bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Nikolov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social media have become a prevalent channel to access information, spread ideas, and influence opinions. However, it has been suggested that social and algorithmic filtering may cause exposure to less diverse points of view. Here we quantitatively measure this kind of social bias at the collective level by mining a massive datasets of web clicks. Our analysis shows that collectively, people access information from a significantly narrower spectrum of sources through social media and email, compared to a search baseline. The significance of this finding for individual exposure is revealed by investigating the relationship between the diversity of information sources experienced by users at both the collective and individual levels in two datasets where individual users can be analyzed—Twitter posts and search logs. There is a strong correlation between collective and individual diversity, supporting the notion that when we use social media we find ourselves inside “social bubbles.” Our results could lead to a deeper understanding of how technology biases our exposure to new information.

  2. FEASTING BLACK HOLE BLOWS BUBBLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A monstrous black hole's rude table manners include blowing huge bubbles of hot gas into space. At least, that's the gustatory practice followed by the supermassive black hole residing in the hub of the nearby galaxy NGC 4438. Known as a peculiar galaxy because of its unusual shape, NGC 4438 is in the Virgo Cluster, 50 million light-years from Earth. These NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy's central region clearly show one of the bubbles rising from a dark band of dust. The other bubble, emanating from below the dust band, is barely visible, appearing as dim red blobs in the close-up picture of the galaxy's hub (the colorful picture at right). The background image represents a wider view of the galaxy, with the central region defined by the white box. These extremely hot bubbles are caused by the black hole's voracious eating habits. The eating machine is engorging itself with a banquet of material swirling around it in an accretion disk (the white region below the bright bubble). Some of this material is spewed from the disk in opposite directions. Acting like high-powered garden hoses, these twin jets of matter sweep out material in their paths. The jets eventually slam into a wall of dense, slow-moving gas, which is traveling at less than 223,000 mph (360,000 kph). The collision produces the glowing material. The bubbles will continue to expand and will eventually dissipate. Compared with the life of the galaxy, this bubble-blowing phase is a short-lived event. The bubble is much brighter on one side of the galaxy's center because the jet smashed into a denser amount of gas. The brighter bubble is 800 light-years tall and 800 light-years across. The observations are being presented June 5 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Rochester, N.Y. Both pictures were taken March 24, 1999 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. False colors were used to enhance the details of the bubbles. The red regions in the picture denote the hot gas

  3. Collapsar Jets, Bubbles and Fe Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Mészáros, P

    2001-01-01

    According to collapsar models, gamma ray bursts are caused by relativistic jets that expel energy along the rotation axis of a collapsing stellar core. We discuss how the structure and time-dependence of such jets depends on the properties of the stellar envelope and the central engine. It takes a few seconds for the jet to bore its way through the core of the star; most of the energy output during that period goes into a cocoon of relativistic plasma surrounding the jet. This material subsequently forms a bubble of highly-magnetised plasma that would take several hours to expand, subrelativistically, through the extended envelope of a high-mass supergiant. Shock waves and magnetic dissipation in this plasma (where the internal fields could still be $10^5$ G) can contribute a non thermal UV/X-ray afterglow, and also excite Fe line emission from thermal gas, in addition to the standard power-law afterglow from the jet deceleration shock.

  4. Critical behavior of collapsing surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper; Sourdis, C.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the mean curvature evolution of rotationally symmetric surfaces. Using numerical methods, we detect critical behavior at the threshold of singularity formation resembling that of gravitational collapse. In particular, the mean curvature simulation of a one-parameter family of initial...

  5. Dynamics of multiple bubbles, excited by femtosecond filament in water: Role of aberrations

    CERN Document Server

    Potemkin, F V

    2014-01-01

    Using shadow photography, we observed microsecond time scale evolution of multiple cavitation bubbles, excited by tighty focused femtosecond laser pulse in water under supercritical power regime (~100 Pcr). In these extreme conditions high energy delivery into the microvolume of liquid sample leads to creation of single filament which becomes a source of cavitation region formation. When aberrations were added to the optical scheme the hot spots along the filament axis are formed. At high energies (more than 40uJ) filaments in these hot spots are fired and, as a result, complex pattern of cavitation bubbles is created. The bubbles can be isolated from each other or build exotic drop-shaped cavitation region, which evolution at the end of its life, before the final collapse, contains the jet emission. The dynamics of the cavitation pattern was investigated from pulse energy and focusing. We found that greater numerical aperture of the focusing optics leads to greater cavitation area length. The strong interact...

  6. Pinch-off of underwater air bubbles with up--down asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Herbst, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    Topological singularities occur in a broad range of physical systems, including collapsing stars and pinching fluid interfaces. They are important for being able to concentrate energy into a small region. Underwater air bubbles in particular appear in many practical applications, including new technologies to reduce skin drag on cargo ships. Previous theories show that just before an air bubble pinches off, the neck looks like a cylinder at its very smallest point. Unusually, however, the neck approaches this shape so gradually that the theoretical cylinder solution is not reached in practice; the singularity spends its entire lifetime in a transient phase. Therefore, in order to understand the evolution, we study the transient effects in detail. This paper details the simulation results of bubbles with initial conditions far from the cylindrical solution: squat, up--down asymmetric neck shapes, with imposed vertical flow. We find that the asymmetry is transient: the neck quickly shifts vertically to become u...

  7. Comparison between the single-bubble sonoluminescences in sulfuric acid and in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) is achieved with strong stability in sulfuric acid solutions. Bubble dynamics and the SBSL spectroscopy in the sulfuric acid solutions with different concentra- tions are studied with phase-locked integral stroboscopic photography method and a spectrograph, respectively. The experimental results are compared with those in water. The SBSL in sulfuric acid is brighter than that in water. One of the most important reasons for that is the larger viscosity of sulfuric acid, which results in the larger ambient radius and thus the more contents of luminous material inside the bubble. However, sonoluminescence bubble’s collapse in sulfuric acid is less violent than that in water, and the corresponding blackbody radiation temperature of the SBSL in sulfuric acid is lower than that in water.

  8. Numerical simulation of ultrasound-induced dynamics of a gas bubble neighboring a rigid wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Ando, Keita

    2016-11-01

    Cavitation erosion has been a technical issue in ultrasonic cleaning under which cavitation bubbles appear near target surfaces to be cleaned. In the present study, we numerically study the interaction of ultrasonic standing waves with a gas bubble in the neighborhood of a rigid wall. We solve multicomponent Euler equations that ignore surface tension and phase change at interfaces, by the finite-volume WENO scheme with interface capturing. The pressure amplitude of the ultrasound is set at several atmospheres and the ultrasound wavelength is tuned to obtain the situation near resonance. In the simulation, we observe jetting flow toward the rigid wall at violent bubble collapse that may explain cavitation erosion in ultrasonic cleaning.

  9. Cavitation of spherical bubbles: closed-form, parametric, and numerical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Mancas, S C

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation for a three dimensional vacuous bubble in water. When the effects of surface tension are neglected we find the radius and time of the evolution of the bubble as parametric closed-form solutions in terms of hypergeometric functions. A simple novel particular solution is obtained by integration of Rayleigh-Plesset equation and we also find the collapsing time of the bubble. By including capillarity we show the connection between the Rayleigh-Plesset equation and Abel's equation, and we present parametric rational Weierstrass periodic solutions for nonzero surface tension. In the same Abel approach, we also provide a discussion of the nonintegrable case of nonzero viscosity for which we perform a numerical integration

  10. Mathematics Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…

  11. Mathematics Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…

  12. Bubble-Facilitated VOC Transport from LNAPL Smear Zones and Its Potential Effect on Vapor Intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucy, Nicole C; Mumford, Kevin G

    2017-02-10

    Most conceptual and mathematical models of soil vapor intrusion assume that the transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a source toward a building is limited by diffusion through the soil gas. Under conditions where advection occurs, transport rates are higher and can lead to higher indoor air concentrations. Advection-dominated conditions can be created by gas bubble flow in the saturated zone. A series of laboratory column experiments were conducted to measure mass flux due to bubble-facilitated VOC transport from light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) smear zones. Smear zones that contained both LNAPL residual and trapped gas, as well as those that contained only LNAPL residual, were investigated. Results showed that the VOC mass flux due to bubble-facilitated transport was orders-of-magnitude higher than under diffusion-limited conditions. Results also showed that the mass flux due to bubble-facilitated transport was intermittent, and increased with an increased supply of dissolved gases.

  13. Optimization of the Geometrical Parameters of a Solar Bubble Pump for Absorption-Diffusion Cooling Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dammak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this study was to optimize the geometrical parameters of a bubble pump integrated in a solar flat plate collector. Approach: This solar bubble pump was part of an ammonia/water/helium (NH3/H2O/He absorption-diffusion cooling system. Results: An empirical model was developed on the basis of momentum, mass, material equations and energy balances. The mathematical model was solved using the simulation tool “Engineering Equation Solver (EES”. Conclusion/Recommendations: Using metrological data from Gabes (Tunisia various parameters were geometrically optimized for maximum bubble pump efficiency which was best for a bubble pump tube diameter of 6 mm, a tube length of 1.5 m, an inclination to the horizontal between 30 and 50° of the solar flat plate collector and a submergence ratio between 0.2 and 0.3.

  14. CFD modelling of most probable bubble nucleation rate from binary mixture with estimation of components' mole fraction in critical cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ban Zhen; Keong, Lau Kok; Shariff, Azmi Mohd

    2016-05-01

    The employment of different mathematical models to address specifically for the bubble nucleation rates of water vapour and dissolved air molecules is essential as the physics for them to form bubble nuclei is different. The available methods to calculate bubble nucleation rate in binary mixture such as density functional theory are complicated to be coupled along with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. In addition, effect of dissolved gas concentration was neglected in most study for the prediction of bubble nucleation rates. The most probable bubble nucleation rate for the water vapour and dissolved air mixture in a 2D quasi-stable flow across a cavitating nozzle in current work was estimated via the statistical mean of all possible bubble nucleation rates of the mixture (different mole fractions of water vapour and dissolved air) and the corresponding number of molecules in critical cluster. Theoretically, the bubble nucleation rate is greatly dependent on components' mole fraction in a critical cluster. Hence, the dissolved gas concentration effect was included in current work. Besides, the possible bubble nucleation rates were predicted based on the calculated number of molecules required to form a critical cluster. The estimation of components' mole fraction in critical cluster for water vapour and dissolved air mixture was obtained by coupling the enhanced classical nucleation theory and CFD approach. In addition, the distribution of bubble nuclei of water vapour and dissolved air mixture could be predicted via the utilisation of population balance model.

  15. Measurement of bubble and pellet size distributions: past and current image analysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Beth

    2006-08-01

    Measurements of bubble and pellet size distributions are useful for biochemical process optimizations. The accuracy, representation, and simplicity of these measurements improve when the measurement is performed on-line and in situ rather than off-line using a sample. Historical and currently available measurement systems for photographic methods are summarized for bubble and pellet (morphology) measurement applications. Applications to cells, mycelia, and pellets measurements have driven key technological developments that have been applied for bubble measurements. Measurement trade-offs exist to maximize accuracy, extend range, and attain reasonable cycle times. Mathematical characterization of distributions using standard statistical techniques is straightforward, facilitating data presentation and analysis. For the specific application of bubble size distributions, selected bioreactor operating parameters and physicochemical conditions alter distributions. Empirical relationships have been established in some cases where sufficient data have been collected. In addition, parameters and conditions with substantial effects on bubble size distributions were identified and their relative effects quantified. This information was used to guide required accuracy and precision targets for bubble size distribution measurements from newly developed novel on-line and in situ bubble measurement devices.

  16. Study of cavitation bubble dynamics during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy by high-speed camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian J.; Xuan, Jason R.; Yu, Honggang; Devincentis, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    Although laser lithotripsy is now the preferred treatment option for urolithiasis, the mechanism of laser pulse induced calculus damage is still not fully understood. This is because the process of laser pulse induced calculus damage involves quite a few physical and chemical processes and their time-scales are very short (down to sub micro second level). For laser lithotripsy, the laser pulse induced impact by energy flow can be summarized as: Photon energy in the laser pulse --> photon absorption generated heat in the water liquid and vapor (super heat water or plasma effect) --> shock wave (Bow shock, acoustic wave) --> cavitation bubble dynamics (oscillation, and center of bubble movement , super heat water at collapse, sonoluminscence) --> calculus damage and motion (calculus heat up, spallation/melt of stone, breaking of mechanical/chemical bond, debris ejection, and retropulsion of remaining calculus body). Cavitation bubble dynamics is the center piece of the physical processes that links the whole energy flow chain from laser pulse to calculus damage. In this study, cavitation bubble dynamics was investigated by a high-speed camera and a needle hydrophone. A commercialized, pulsed Ho:YAG laser at 2.1 mu;m, StoneLightTM 30, with pulse energy from 0.5J up to 3.0 J, and pulse width from 150 mu;s up to 800 μs, was used as laser pulse source. The fiber used in the investigation is SureFlexTM fiber, Model S-LLF365, a 365 um core diameter fiber. A high-speed camera with frame rate up to 1 million fps was used in this study. The results revealed the cavitation bubble dynamics (oscillation and center of bubble movement) by laser pulse at different energy level and pulse width. More detailed investigation on bubble dynamics by different type of laser, the relationship between cavitation bubble dynamics and calculus damage (fragmentation/dusting) will be conducted as a future study.

  17. Bubble-sort图和Modified Bubble-sort图的自同构群%Automorphism Groups of Bubble-sort Graphs and Modified Bubble-sort Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昭; 黄琼湘

    2005-01-01

    Bubble-sort graphs and modified bubble-sort graphs are two classes of Cayley graphs which are widely studied for their application in network construction. In this paper, we determine the full automorphism groups of bubble-sort graphs and modified bubble-sort graphs.%Bubble-Sort图和Modified Bubble-Sort图是两类特殊的Cayley图,由于其在网络构建中的应用而受到广泛关注.本文完全确定了这两类图的自同构群.

  18. Spherical Solutions of an Underwater Explosion Bubble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Wardlaw

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the 1D explosion bubble flow field out to the first bubble minimum is examined in detail using four different models. The most detailed is based on the Euler equations and accounts for the internal bubble fluid motion, while the simplest links a potential water solution to a stationary, Isentropic bubble model. Comparison of the different models with experimental data provides insight into the influence of compressibility and internal bubble dynamics on the behavior of the explosion bubble.

  19. Hierarchical gravitational fragmentation. I. Collapsing cores within collapsing clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Raúl Naranjo; Loughnane, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Hierarchical Gravitational Fragmentation scenario through numerical simulations of the prestellar stages of the collapse of a marginally gravitationally unstable isothermal sphere immersed in a strongly gravitationally unstable, uniform background medium. The core developes a Bonnor-Ebert (BE)-like density profile, while at the time of singularity (the protostar) formation the envelope approaches a singular-isothermal-sphere (SIS)-like $r^-2$ density profile. However, these structures are never hydrostatic. In this case, the central flat region is characterized by an infall speed, while the envelope is characterized by a uniform speed. This implies that the hydrostatic SIS initial condition leading to Shu's classical inside-out solution is not expected to occur, and therefore neither should the inside-out solution. Instead, the solution collapses from the outside-in, naturally explaining the observation of extended infall velocities. The core, defined by the radius at which it merges with t...

  20. A Mass Transfer Model Based on Individual Bubbles and an Unsteady State Film Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斌; 王铁峰; 王金福

    2004-01-01

    A gas-liquid mass transfer model based on an unsteady state film mechanism applied to a single bubble is presented. The mathematical model was solved using Laplace transform to obtain an analytical solution of concentration profile in terms of the radial position r and time t. The dynamic mass transfer flux was deduced and the influence of the bubble size was also determined. A mathematical method for deducing the average mass transfer flux directly from the Laplace transformed concentration is presented. Its accuracy is verified by comparing the numerical results with those from the indirect method. The influences of the model parameters, namely, the bubble size R, liquid film thickness δ, and the surface renewal constant s on the average mass transfer flux were investigated. The proposed model is useful for a better understanding of the mass transfer mechanism and an optimum design of gas-liquid contact equipment.

  1. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  2. Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toseland, B.A.

    1998-10-29

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  3. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2002-09-30

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  4. Quantum Bubble Nucleation beyond WKB Resummation of Vacuum Bubble Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, H; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yasuta, Hirofumi

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of Borel resummation, we propose a systematical improvement of bounce calculus of quantum bubble nucleation rates. We study a metastable super-renormalizable field theory, D dimensional O(N) symmetric \\phi^4 model (D<4) with an attractive interaction. The validity of our proposal is tested in D=1 (quantum mechanics) by using the perturbation series of ground state energy to high orders. We also present a result in D=2 based on an explicit calculation of vacuum bubble diagrams to five loop orders.

  5. Computational Models of Stellar Collapse and Core-Collapse Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, C D; Burrows, A; Livne, E; O'Connor, E; Löffler, F

    2009-01-01

    Core-collapse supernovae are among Nature's most energetic events. They mark the end of massive star evolution and pollute the interstellar medium with the life-enabling ashes of thermonuclear burning. Despite their importance for the evolution of galaxies and life in the universe, the details of the core-collapse supernova explosion mechanism remain in the dark and pose a daunting computational challenge. We outline the multi-dimensional, multi-scale, and multi-physics nature of the core-collapse supernova problem and discuss computational strategies and requirements for its solution. Specifically, we highlight the axisymmetric (2D) radiation-MHD code VULCAN/2D and present results obtained from the first full-2D angle-dependent neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the post-core-bounce supernova evolution. We then go on to discuss the new code Zelmani which is based on the open-source HPC Cactus framework and provides a scalable AMR approach for 3D fully general-relativistic modeling of stellar col...

  6. Numerical study on effect of aeration bubbles with different radii on wall pressure of cavitation bubble%不同半径掺气泡对空泡泡壁压力影响的数值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志萍; 董志勇

    2013-01-01

    通过考虑含有一定量蒸汽的空泡和掺入一个大气压空气的掺气泡之间的相互作用,在黏性可压缩液体中建立了空泡与掺气泡相互作用的耦合方程组模型,研究了不同掺气泡半径变化对空泡泡壁压力的影响,并进行了数值计算.计算结果表明:在同一个掺气泡初始半径下,空泡含气量越小,溃灭时泡壁最大压力越高.随着掺气泡初始半径的增大,空泡泡壁的最大压力先增大后减小,最大压力出现极值,此极值使空泡在压力升高区溃灭时能阻止空泡被过度压缩,减少了空蚀破坏能力,表明在空泡与掺气泡相互作用的掺气减蚀研究中掺气泡有最佳半径值.%The behavior of cavitation bubble wall pressure under the influence of aeration bubble of different radii is studied to consider the effects of vapor and noncondensable gas inside a cavitation bubble and the effects of air inside an aeration bubble in this study. Dynamical models for interaction of these two bubbles in viscous compressible liquid are developed, and coupling equations are used for description of the effects of aeration bubble on the cavitation bubble. Calculations indicate that with a given initial radius of the aeration bubble, the maximum collapsing pressure on the wall of cavitation bubble increases when its air content is reduced. As the initial radius is increased, this maximum pressure temporally climbs up and then declines, resulting in a peak value. This means that if collapsing in a higher pressure region, the cavitation bubble would be prevented from excessive compression and its capacity of cavitation erosion be lowered. Therefore, in terms of bubble interaction behavior, the radius of aeration bubble has an optimum value, which is valuable to cavitation control by aeration.

  7. How fast is protein hydrophobic collapse?

    OpenAIRE

    Sadqi, Mourad; Lapidus, Lisa J.; Muñoz, Victor

    2003-01-01

    One of the most recurring questions in protein folding refers to the interplay between formation of secondary structure and hydrophobic collapse. In contrast with secondary structure, it is hard to isolate hydrophobic collapse from other folding events. We have directly measured the dynamics of protein hydrophobic collapse in the absence of competing processes. Collapse was triggered with laser-induced temperature jumps in the acid-denatured form of a simple protein and monitored by fluoresce...

  8. Distributional Enstrophy Dissipation Via the Collapse of Three Point Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Takeshi; Sakajo, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    Dissipation of enstrophy in 2D incompressible flows in the zero viscous limit is considered to play a significant role in the emergence of the inertial range corresponding to the forward enstrophy cascade in the energy spectrum of 2D turbulent flows. However, since smooth solutions of the 2D incompressible Euler equations conserve the enstrophy, we need to consider non-smooth inviscid and incompressible flows so that the enstrophy dissipates. Moreover, it is physically uncertain what kind of a flow evolution gives rise to such an anomalous enstrophy dissipation. In this paper, in order to acquire an insight about the singular phenomenon mathematically as well as physically, we consider a dispersive regularization of the 2D Euler equations, known as the Euler-α equations, for the initial vorticity distributions whose support consists of three points, i.e., three α -point vortices, and take the α → 0 limit of its global solutions. We prove with mathematical rigor that, under a certain condition on their vortex strengths, the limit solution becomes a self-similar evolution collapsing to a point followed by the expansion from the collapse point to infinity for a wide range of initial configurations of point vortices. We also find that the enstrophy always dissipates in the sense of distributions at the collapse time. This indicates that the triple collapse is a mechanism for the anomalous enstrophy dissipation in non-smooth inviscid and incompressible flows. Furthermore, it is an interesting example elucidating the emergence of the irreversibility of time in a Hamiltonian dynamical system.

  9. How safe is Bubble Soccer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halani, Sameer H; Riley, Jonathan P; Pradilla, Gustavo; Ahmad, Faiz U

    2016-12-01

    Traumatic neurologic injury in contact sports is a rare but serious consequence for its players. These injuries are most commonly associated with high-impact collisions, for example in football, but are found in a wide variety of sports. In an attempt to minimize these injuries, sports are trying to increase safety by adding protection for participants. Most recently is the seemingly 'safe' sport of Bubble Soccer, which attempts to protect its players with inflatable plastic bubbles. We report a case of a 16-year-old male sustaining a cervical spine burst fracture with incomplete spinal cord injury while playing Bubble Soccer. To our knowledge, this is the first serious neurological injury reported in the sport.

  10. Numerical analysis of the jet stage of bubble near a solid wall using a front tracking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. T.; Yao, X. L.; Zhang, A. M.; Chen, Y. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of a toroidal bubble near a solid wall for a large part of stand-off parameters γ (γ=d/Rmax, d is the distance between the solid wall and the bubble centre at the moment of formation and Rmax is the maximum bubble radius) have been extensively studied, but some mechanics of a toroidal bubble are not completely clear, especially for the small stand-off parameters γ ≤ 0.8. In the present study, on the basis of the finite volume method, the Navier-Stokes equations with inviscid and incompressible assumption are directly solved using a staggered grid on the fixed grid. The dynamics of the toroidal bubble near the solid for different stand-off parameters (γ = 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 0.97, respectively) are simulated by a front tracking method. Initial conditions of numerical simulation are estimated through the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, based on the maximum size and collapse time of a spark-generated bubble. One of the numerical results is compared with a spark-generated bubble experiment, showing that the results between them are favorable with regard to both the bubble shape history and translational motion of the bubble. The numerical results for the different stand-off parameters, including the change process of the water layer, the development process of the splash flow and radial flow, the splitting phenomenon of the toroidal bubble, and the trend of pressure on the center of the solid wall, are discussed, where some new phenomena are discovered.

  11. On collapsibilities of Yule's measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Jianhua

    2001-01-01

    [1]Simpson,E.H.,The interpretation of interaction in contingency tables,J.R.Statist.Soc.B,1951,13:238-241.[2]Bishop,Y.M.M.,Effects of collapsing multidimensional contingency tables,Biometrics,1971,27:545-562.[3]Whittemore,A.S.,Collapsibility of multidimensional contingency tables,J.R.Statist.Soc.B,1978,40:328-340.[4]Good,I.J.,Mittal,Y.,The amalgamation and geometry of two-by-two contingency tables,Ann.Statist.,1987,15:694-711.[5]Gail,M.H.,Adjusting for covariates that have the same distribution in exposed and unexposed cohorts,Modern Statistical Methods in Chronic Disease Epidemiology (eds.Moolgavkar,S.H.,Prentice,R.L.),New York:Wiley,1986,3-18.[6]Wermuth,N.,Parametric collapsibility and the lack of moderating effects in contingency tables with a dichotomous response variable,J.R.Statist.Soc.B,1987,49:353-364.[7]Wermuth,N.,Moderating effects of subgroups in linear models,Biometrika,1989,76:81-92.[8]Ducharme,G.R.,Lepage,Y.,Testing collapsibility in contingency tables,J.R.Statist.Soc.B,1986,48:197-205.[9]Geng Zhi,Collapsibility of relative risk in contingency tables with a response variable,J.R.Statist.Soc.B,1992,54:585-593.[10]Guo Jianhua,Geng Zhi,Collapsibility of logistic regression coefficients,J.R.Statist.Soc.B,1995,57:263-267.[11]Rosenbaum,P.,Rubin,D.B.,The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects,Biometrika,1983,70:41-55.[12]Greenland,S.,Robins,J.M.,Pearl,J.,Confounding and collapsibility in causal inference,Statist.Sci.,1999,14:29-46.[13]Freedman,D.,From association to causation:some remarks on the history of statistics,Statist.Sci.,1999,14:243-258.[14]Geng,Z.,Guo,J.H.,Lau,T.S.et al.,Confounding,consistency and collapsibility for causal effects in epidemiologic studies,To appear in Statist.Sinica,2001.[15]Yule,G.U.,Notes on the theory of association of attributes in statistics,Biometrika,1903,2:121-134.[16]Lancaster,H.O.,The Chi-squared Distribution

  12. Spreadsheets and the Financial Collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Croll, Grenville J

    2009-01-01

    We briefly review the well-known risks, weaknesses and limitations of spreadsheets and then introduce some more. We review and slightly extend our previous work on the importance and criticality of spreadsheets in the City of London, introducing the notions of ubiquity, centrality, legality and contagion. We identify the sector of the financial market that we believed in 2005 to be highly dependant on the use of spreadsheets and relate this to its recent catastrophic financial performance. We outline the role of spreadsheets in the collapse of the Jamaican banking system in the late 1990's and then review the UK financial regulator's knowledge of the risks of spreadsheets in the contemporary financial system. We summarise the available evidence and suggest that there is a link between the use of spreadsheets and the recent collapse of the global financial system. We provide governments and regulating authorities with some simple recommendations to reduce the risks of continued overdependence on unreliable spr...

  13. Bubble dynamics in metal nanoparticle formation by laser ablation in liquid studied through high-speed laser stroboscopic videography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Rie; Nguyen, Thao T.P.; Sugiura, Takahiro; Ito, Yoshiro, E-mail: itoy@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Observations at 1 μs interval were carried out for laser ablation in water. • Laser-induced shock wave and cavitation bubble are dynamically observed. • Jet-like shadows are observed during LAL in water after multiple-pulse irradiation. • Cloudlike-shadow moving away from the irradiated copper surface was observed. - Abstract: Laser ablation in liquid (LAL) is utilized in many applications, such as the fabrication of nanoparticles, laser cleaning and laser peening. We have developed a high-speed laser stroboscopic videography system that enables observations at intervals of 1 μs. Using this imaging system, we investigated the dynamics of cavitation bubbles induced by LAL to elucidate the timing and location of nanoparticle formation and dispersion into the surrounding liquid. The initial bubble demonstrated a well-defined, smooth boundary during its growth and shrinkage. Although previous studies have reported the ejection of particles at the boundary of the bubble, this was not observed in our images. Intermixing between the gas phase of the bubble and the surrounding liquid occurred when the first bubble collapsed. Jet-like shadows were recorded during LAL in water after multiple-pulse irradiation, but were not observed in freshly filled water that had not yet been irradiated. These shadows disappeared within 10 μs and are postulated to be micro-bubbles induced by interactions between nanoparticles suspended in the water and the incoming laser beam.

  14. Collapsing floating-point operations

    OpenAIRE

    Defour, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of collapsing dependent floating-point operations. The presentation focuses on studying the dataflow graph of benchmark involving a large number of floating-point instructions. In particular, it focuses on the relevance of new floating-point operators performing two dependent operations which are similar to "fused multiply and add". Finally, this paper examines the implementation cost and critical path reduction from this strategy.

  15. Preventing State Collapse in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    region.4 The longer the war goes on, the higher the probability of state collapse, fragmentation, endemic terrorism, and continued refugee flows. The...fighting extremism, sectarianism, and non-interference in the internal affairs of Syria, a political solution, respect for minority rights , human rights ...Even the Muslim Brotherhood had de-emphasized sectarian loyalties in favor of human rights and rule of law.56 A tradition of centralized governance

  16. Temperature evolution during dissipative collapse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S D Maharaj; G Govender; M Govender

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the gravitational collapse of a radiating sphere evolving into a final static configuration described by the interior Schwarzschild solution. The temperature profiles of this particular model are obtained within the framework of causal thermodynamics. The overall temperature evolution is enhanced by contributions from the temperature gradient induced by perturbations as well as relaxational effects within the stellar core.

  17. Understanding Core-Collapse Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, A

    2004-01-01

    I summarize, in the form of an extended abstract, the ongoing efforts at the University of Arizona (and in collaboration) to understand core-collapse supernovae theoretically. Included are short discussions of 1D (SESAME) and 2D (VULCAN/2D) codes and results, as well as discussions of the possible role of rotation. Highlighted are recent developments in multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics and the essential physics of the neutrino-driven mechanism.

  18. Colony collapse disorder in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainat, Benjamin; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Neumann, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is a condition of honey bees, which has contributed in part to the recent major losses of honey bee colonies in the USA. Here we report the first CCD case from outside of the USA. We suggest that more standardization is needed for the case definition to diagnose CCD and to compare data on a global scale. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Fine bubble generator and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, P.M.; Koros, R.M.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes a method of forming fine gaseous bubbles in a liquid ambient. It comprises: forcing a gas through orifices located in the liquid ambient while simultaneously forcing a liquid through liquid orifices at a velocity sufficient to form jet streams of liquid, the liquid orifices being equal in number to the gas orifices and so oriented that each jet stream of liquid intersects the gas forced through each gas orifice and creates sufficient turbulence where the gas and jet stream of liquid intersect, whereby fine gaseous bubbles are formed.

  20. Bubble Content in Air/Hydro System--Part 1:Measurement of Bubble Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of bubble formation in air/hydro systems is investigated. Results presented in this paper include further insight into the mechanism of bubble formation and the measurement of bubble content. The regularity of bubble transport in the system is found, with an idea for a new method for separating gas from oil. The method has been verified experimentally with favorable results.

  1. Bubble Departure Diameter and Bubble Release Frequency Measurement from TAMU Subcooled Flow Boiling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jun Soo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The bubble departure diameter and bubble release frequency were obtained through the analysis of TAMU subcooled flow boiling experimental data. The numerous images of bubbles at departure were analyzed for each experimental condition to achieve the reliable statistics of the measured bubble parameters. The results are provided in this report with simple discussion.

  2. Bubble nucleation in an explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den D.M.; Elwenspoek, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a temperature close to the critical temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures spontaneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure

  3. Single bubble sonoluminescence and stable cavitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qian; QIAN Menglu

    2004-01-01

    A single bubble trapped at an antinode of an acoustic standing wave field in water can emit 50ps-140ps light pulses, called "single bubble sonoluminescence" (SBSL). It arouses much interest in physical acoustics because of its highly non-linear characteristics, high concentration of energy, and stable cavitation behavior. In this paper, bubble stability, the dynamic behavior of bubbles, non-invasive measurement of driving acoustic pressure and Mie scattering method are introduced.

  4. Monetary Policy and Controlling Asset Bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Masaya Sakuragawa

    2015-01-01

    A great concern is whether there is any means of monetary policy that works for the "leaning against the wind" policy in the bubbly economy. This paper explores the scope for monetary policy that can control bubbles within the framework of the stochastic version of overlapping-generations model with rational bubbles. The policy that raises the cost of external finance, could be identified as monetary tightening, represses the boom, but appreciate bubbles. In contrast, an open market operation...

  5. Expansion of Bubbles in Inflationary Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Mohazzab, M.; Jabbari, M. M. Sheikh; Salehi, H.

    1995-01-01

    We show that particle production during the expansion of bubbles of true vacuum in the sea of false vacuum is possible and calculate the resulting rate. As a result the nucleated bubbles cannot expand due to the transfer of false vacuum energy to the created particles inside the bubbles. Therefore all the inflationary models dealing with the nucleation and expansion of the bubbles (including extended inflation) may not be viable.

  6. Expansion of bubbles in inflationary universe

    CERN Document Server

    Mohazzab, M

    1995-01-01

    We show that particle production during the expansion of bubbles of true vacuum in the sea of false vacuum is possible and calculate the resulting rate. As a result the nucleated bubbles cannot expand due to the transfer of false vacuum energy to the created particles inside the bubbles. Therefore all the inflationary models dealing with the nucleation and expansion of the bubbles (including extended inflation) may not be viable.

  7. Modeling of Multisize Bubbly Flow and Application to the Simulation of Boiling Flows with the Neptune_CFD Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Morel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the modeling of boiling multisize bubbly flows and its application to the simulation of the DEBORA experiment. We follow the method proposed originally by Kamp, assuming a given mathematical expression for the bubble diameter pdf. The original model is completed by the addition of some new terms for vapor compressibility and phase change. The liquid-to-interface heat transfer term, which essentially determines the bubbles condensation rate in the DEBORA experiment, is also modeled with care. First numerical results realized with the Neptune_CFD code are presented and discussed.

  8. Mathematical Footprints Discovering Mathematics Everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    1999-01-01

    MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS takes a creative look at the role mathematics has played since prehistoric times, and will play in the future, and uncovers mathematics where you least expect to find it from its many uses in medicine, the sciences, and its appearance in art to its patterns in nature and its central role in the development of computers. Pappas presents mathematical ideas in a readable non-threatening manner. MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS is another gem by the creator of THE MATHEMATICS CALENDAR and author of THE JOY OF MATHEMATICS. "Pappas's books have been gold mines of mathematical ent

  9. Collapse Mechanisms Of Masonry Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, G.; Rauci, M.

    2008-07-01

    The paper outlines a possible approach to typology recognition, safety check analyses and/or damage measuring taking advantage by a multimedia tool (MEDEA), tracing a guided procedure useful for seismic safety check evaluation and post event macroseismic assessment. A list of the possible collapse mechanisms observed in the post event surveys on masonry structures and a complete abacus of the damages are provided in MEDEA. In this tool a possible combination between a set of damage typologies and each collapse mechanism is supplied in order to improve the homogeneity of the damages interpretation. On the other hand recent researches of one of the author have selected a number of possible typological vulnerability factors of masonry buildings, these are listed in the paper and combined with potential collapse mechanisms to be activated under seismic excitation. The procedure takes place from simple structural behavior models, derived from the Umbria-Marche earthquake observations, and tested after the San Giuliano di Puglia event; it provides the basis either for safety check analyses of the existing buildings or for post-event structural safety assessment and economic damage evaluation. In the paper taking advantage of MEDEA mechanisms analysis, mainly developed for the post event safety check surveyors training, a simple logic path is traced in order to approach the evaluation of the masonry building safety check. The procedure starts from the identification of the typological vulnerability factors to derive the potential collapse mechanisms and their collapse multipliers and finally addresses the simplest and cheapest strengthening techniques to reduce the original vulnerability. The procedure has been introduced in the Guide Lines of the Regione Campania for the professionals in charge of the safety check analyses and the buildings strengthening in application of the national mitigation campaign introduced by the Ordinance of the Central Government n. 3362

  10. Radiation Damping at a Bubble Wall

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J; Lee, C H; Jang, J; Lee, Jae-weon; Kim, Kyungsub; Lee, Chul H.; Jang, Ji-ho

    1999-01-01

    The first order phase transition proceeds via nucleation and growth of true vacuum bubbles. When charged particles collide with the bubble they could radiate electromagnetic wave. We show that, due to an energy loss of the particles by the radiation, the damping pressure acting on the bubble wall depends on the velocity of the wall even in a thermal equilibrium state.

  11. Bubble Formation in Silicon-Quartz Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Kakimoto, K.; EGUCHI, M.; Ozoe, H.

    1997-01-01

    Bubble formation at an interface between silicon melt and a quartz crucible was studied by thermodynamical calculation and visualization of bubble formation using X-ray radiography. A phase diagram of silicon-oxygen (Si-O) system is also calculated from the reported thermodynamical data. Critical temperature and radius of bubble formation at the interface was discussed.

  12. Bubble Size Distributions in Coastal Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Cohen, L.H.

    1995-01-01

    Bubble size distributions have been measured with an optical system that is based on imaging of a small sample volume with a CCD camera system, and processing of the images to obtain the size of individual bubbles in the diameter range from 30 to lOOO^m. This bubble measuring system is deployed from

  13. Numerical simulation of trapped dipolar quantum gases: Collapse studies and vortex dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Sparber, Christof

    2010-01-01

    We numerically study the three dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation for dipolar quantum gases using a time-splitting algorithm. We are mainly concerned with numerical investigations of the possible blow-up of solutions, i.e. collapse of the condensate, and the dynamics of vortices. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  14. Sufficient condition for black-hole formation in spherical gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giambo, Roberto [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Camerino (Italy); Giannoni, Fabio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Camerino (Italy); Magli, Giulio [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)

    2002-01-21

    A sufficient condition for the validity of cosmic censorship in spherical gravitational collapse is formulated and proved. The condition relies on an attractive mathematical property of the apparent horizon, which holds if 'minimal' requirements of physical reasonableness are satisfied by the matter model. (letter to the editor)

  15. Sufficient condition for black-hole formation in spherical gravitational collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Giambo, R; Magli, G

    2002-01-01

    A sufficient condition for the validity of cosmic censorship in spherical gravitational collapse is formulated and proved. The condition relies on an attractive mathematical property of the apparent horizon, which holds if 'minimal' requirements of physical reasonableness are satisfied by the matter model. (letter to the editor)

  16. Research Progress in Bubble Dynamics Characteristics%空泡动力学特性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱超; 张会臣; 连峰

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics characteristics of bubble are the key to achieving special function.The evolution of bubble contains nucleation,growth and collapse.Ways and basic principles for nucleation,the change of bubble during growth stage,and energy and shock wave in collapsing process were introduced.The effects of ambient pressure,viscosity and surface tension on bubble dynamics characteristics in latest years were summarized.The emphasis of researches and the potential applica-tions of bubble were prospected.%空泡的动力学特性是其实现特定功能的关键。从空泡成核、生长以及溃灭3个阶段,分别介绍空泡的成核方式和基本原理、空泡生长过程中的变化以及溃灭时的能量和射流冲击。阐述环境压力、液体黏度和表面张力对空泡动力学特性影响的研究进展,并对空泡研究的重点和应用前景进行展望。

  17. Magnetar Driven Bubbles and the Origin of Collimated Outflows from GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Bucciantini, N; Arons, J; Metzger, B D; Thompson, Todd A

    2007-01-01

    We model the interaction between the wind from a newly formed rapidly rotating magnetar and the surrounding progenitor. In the first few seconds after core collapse the magnetar inflates a bubble of plasma and magnetic fields behind the supernova shock, which expands asymmetrically because of the pinching effect of the toroidal magnetic field, as in PWNe, even if the host star is spherically symmetric. The degree of asymmetry depends on the ratio of the magnetic energy to the total energy in the bubble. We assume that the wind by newly formed magnetars inflating these bubbles is more magnetized than for PWNe. We show that for a magnetic to total power supplied by the central magnetar $\\sim 0.1$ the bubble expands relatively spherically while for values greater than 0.3, most of the pressure in the bubble is exerted close to the rotation axis, driving a collimated outflow out through the host star. This can account for the collimation inferred from observations of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Given t...

  18. An Eulerian-based Bubble Dynamics Model for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Asish; Kinzel, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Cavitation dynamics of nuclei are largely governed by the Rayleigh-Plesset Equation (RPE). This research explores the implementation of a one-way coupling to the solution of the RPE to a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation in an Eulerian-framework. In this work, we used transport equations (i.e., advection) of the bubble radius and bubble growth rate, both of which are governed by advection mechanisms and coupling to the RPE through the CFD pressure field. The method is validated in the context of hypothetical pressure fields by prescribing a temporally varying pressure. Then, it is extended to one-way coupling with cavitation development in three different flow situations: (1) flow over a cylinder, (2) bubble formation during a bottle collapse event, and (3) cavitation in a tip vortex. In the context of these flows, the CFD simulations replicate an equivalent MATLAB-based solution to the RPE, thus validating the model. Additionally, an analytical formulation for appropriate upper and lower bounds for the bubble's physical properties is presented. These boundary values allow the CFD solver to run at larger time steps, therefore increasing the rate of convergence as well as maintaining solution accuracy. The results from this work suggest that Eulerian-based RPE cavitation models are practical and have the potential to simulate large numbers of bubbles that challenge Lagrangian methods.

  19. The dynamics of Bow-shock Pulsar Wind Nebula: Reconstruction of multi-bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Doosoo; Heinz, Sebastian

    2014-08-01

    Bow-shock pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) exhibit a characteristic cometary shape due to the supersonic motion of the pulsar interacting with the interstellar medium (ISM). One of the spectacular bow-shock is the Guitar Nebula, which is produced by the fast pulsar PSR B2224+65 (vpsr > 1000 km s-1 ), and consists of a bright head, a faint neck, a two larger bubbles. We present that the peculiar mophology arises from variations in the interstellar medium density. We perform 3-D hydrodynamic simulation to understand the evolution of the pulsar as its moves through the density discontinuity. We found that when the pulsar encounters the low-density medium, the pressure balance at the head of the bow shock begins to collapse, producing the second bubble. The expansion rate of the bubble is related to the properties of both the pulsar and the ambient medium. Assuming that the pulsar’s properties, including spin-down energy, are constant, we conclude that the ambient density around the second bubble should be 4.46 times larger than around the first bubble in the Guitar body. We further found that when the pulsar encounters the inclined density dicontinuity, it can produce the asymmetric shape of the bow shock observed in a subset of bow-shock PWNe including J2124-3358.

  20. The Fluid-Solid Interaction Dynamics between Underwater Explosion Bubble and Corrugated Sandwich Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight sandwich structures with highly porous 2D cores or 3D (three-dimensional periodic cores can effectively withstand underwater explosion load. In most of the previous studies of sandwich structure antiblast dynamics, the underwater explosion (UNDEX bubble phase was neglected. As the UNDEX bubble load is one of the severest damage sources that may lead to structure large plastic deformation and crevasses failure, the failure mechanisms of sandwich structures might not be accurate if only shock wave is considered. In this paper, detailed 3D finite element (FE numerical models of UNDEX bubble-LCSP (lightweight corrugated sandwich plates interaction are developed by using MSC.Dytran. Upon the validated FE model, the bubble shape, impact pressure, and fluid field velocities for different stand-off distances are studied. Based on numerical results, the failure modes of LCSP and the whole damage process are obtained. It is demonstrated that the UNDEX bubble collapse jet local load plays a more significant role than the UNDEX shock wave load especially in near-field underwater explosion.

  1. Sloshing of a bubbly magma reservoir as a mechanism of triggered eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiki, Atsuko; Rivalta, Eleonora; Woith, Heiko; Walter, Thomas R.

    2016-06-01

    Large earthquakes sometimes activate volcanoes both in the near field as well as in the far field. One possible explanation is that shaking may increase the mobility of the volcanic gases stored in magma reservoirs and conduits. Here experimentally and theoretically we investigate how sloshing, the oscillatory motion of fluids contained in a shaking tank, may affect the presence and stability of bubbles and foams, with important implications for magma conduits and reservoirs. We adopt this concept from engineering: severe earthquakes are known to induce sloshing and damage petroleum tanks. Sloshing occurs in a partially filled tank or a fully filled tank with density-stratified fluids. These conditions are met at open summit conduits or at sealed magma reservoirs where a bubbly magma layer overlays a newly injected denser magma layer. We conducted sloshing experiments by shaking a rectangular tank partially filled with liquids, bubbly fluids (foams) and fully filled with density-stratified fluids; i.e., a foam layer overlying a liquid layer. In experiments with foams, we find that foam collapse occurs for oscillations near the resonance frequency of the fluid layer. Low viscosity and large bubble size favor foam collapse during sloshing. In the layered case, the collapsed foam mixes with the underlying liquid layer. Based on scaling considerations, we constrain the conditions for the occurrence of foam collapse in natural magma reservoirs. We find that seismic waves with lower frequencies 0.5 m. Strong ground motion > 0.1 m s- 1 can excite sloshing with sufficient amplitude to collapse a magma foam in an open conduit or a foam overlying basaltic magma in a closed magma reservoir. The gas released from the collapsed foam may infiltrate the rock or diffuse through pores, enhancing heat transfer, or may generate a gas slug to cause a magmatic eruption. The overturn in the magma reservoir provides new nucleation sites which may help to prepare a following

  2. Quantum dust collapse in 2 +1 dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Souvik; Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we will examine the consequence of a canonical theory of quantum dust collapse in 2 +1 dimensions. The solution of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation describing the collapse indicates that collapsing shells outside the apparent horizon are accompanied by outgoing shells within the apparent horizon during their collapse phase and stop collapsing once they reach the apparent horizon. Taking this picture of quantum collapse seriously, we determine a static solution with energy density corresponding to a dust ball whose collapse has terminated at the apparent horizon. We show that the boundary radius of the ball is larger than the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli radius confirming that no event horizon is formed. The ball is sustained by radial pressure which we determine and which we attribute to the Unruh radiation within it.

  3. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shpak, O.; Verweij, M.; Jong, de N.; Versluis, M.; Escoffre, J.M.; Bouakaz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to

  4. "Financial Bubbles" and Monetary Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Yuriy A.; Pudovkina, Olga E.; Permjakova, Juliana V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this research is caused by the need of strengthening a role of monetary regulators to prevent financial bubbles in the financial markets. The aim of the article is the analysis of a problem of crisis phenomena in the markets of financial assets owing to an inadequate growth of their cost, owing to subjective reasons. The leading…

  5. Explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den D.M.; Elwenspoek, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a very high temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures homogeneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles almost instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse and fina

  6. Bubble-Driven Inertial Micropump

    CERN Document Server

    Torniainen, Erik D; Markel, David P; Kornilovitch, Pavel E

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental action of the bubble-driven inertial micropump is investigated. The pump has no moving parts and consists of a thermal resistor placed asymmetrically within a straight channel connecting two reservoirs. Using numerical simulations, the net flow is studied as a function of channel geometry, resistor location, vapor bubble strength, fluid viscosity, and surface tension. Two major regimes of behavior are identified: axial and non-axial. In the axial regime, the drive bubble either remains inside the channel or continues to grow axially when it reaches the reservoir. In the non-axial regime the bubble grows out of the channel and in all three dimensions while inside the reservoir. The net flow in the axial regime is parabolic with respect to the hydraulic diameter of the channel cross-section but in the non-axial regime it is not. From numerical modeling, it is determined that the net flow is maximal when the axial regime crosses over to the non-axial regime. To elucidate the basic physical princi...

  7. The Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The 3.70 metre Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC), dismantled on 9 August 1984. During operation it was one of the biggest detectors in the world, producing direct visual recordings of particle tracks. 6.3 million photos of interactions were taken with the chamber in the course of its existence.

  8. Giant Bubble Pinch-Off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann, R.P.H.M.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Stijnman, Mark; Stijnman, M; Sandtke, M.; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    Self-similarity has been the paradigmatic picture for the pinch-off of a drop. Here we will show through high-speed imaging and boundary integral simulations that the inverse problem, the pinch-off of an air bubble in water, is not self-similar in a strict sense: A disk is quickly pulled through a w

  9. Murray Strasberg and bubble acoustics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Murray Strasberg made seminal contributions to the nucleation and acoustics of bubbles. Half a century after publication, these papers still receive a sizable number of citations every year. The talk will review this work, comment on its impact, and put Strasberg's classical results in a modern

  10. Electrolysis Bubbles Make Waterflow Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    Technique for visualization of three-dimensional flow uses tiny tracer bubbles of hydrogen and oxygen made by electrolysis of water. Strobe-light photography used to capture flow patterns, yielding permanent record that is measured to obtain velocities of particles. Used to measure simulated mixing turbulence in proposed gas-turbine combustor and also used in other water-table flow tests.

  11. Impurity bubbles in a BEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Eddy; Blinova, Alina; Boshier, Malcolm

    2013-05-01

    Polarons (particles that interact with the self-consistent deformation of the host medium that contains them) self-localize when strongly coupled. Dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) doped with neutral distinguishable atoms (impurities) and armed with a Feshbach-tuned impurity-boson interaction provide a unique laboratory to study self-localized polarons. In nature, self-localized polarons come in two flavors that exhibit qualitatively different behavior: In lattice systems, the deformation is slight and the particle is accompanied by a cloud of collective excitations as in the case of the Landau-Pekar polarons of electrons in a dielectric lattice. In natural fluids and gases, the strongly coupled particle radically alters the medium, e.g. by expelling the host medium as in the case of the electron bubbles in superfluid helium. We show that BEC-impurities can self-localize in a bubble, as well as in a Landau-Pekar polaron state. The BEC-impurity system is fully characterized by only two dimensionless coupling constants. In the corresponding phase diagram the bubble and Landau-Pekar polaron limits correspond to large islands separated by a cross-over region. The same BEC-impurity species can be adiabatically Feshbach steered from the Landau-Pekar to the bubble regime. This work was funded by the Los Alamos LDRD program.

  12. Experimental study of the interaction between the spark-induced cavitation bubble and the air bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晶; 许唯临; 牛志攀; 罗书靖; 郑秋文

    2013-01-01

    Experiments are carried out by using high-speed photography to investigate the interaction between the spark-generated cavitation bubble and the air bubble in its surrounding fluid. Three problems are discussed in detail: the impact of the air bubble upon the development of the cavitation bubble, the evolution of the air bubble under the influence of the cavitation bubble, and the change of the fluid pressure during the development of a micro jet of the cavitation bubble. Based on the experimental results, under the condition of no air bubble present, the lifetime of the cavitation bubble from expansion to contraction increases with the increase of the maximum radius. On the other hand, when there is an air bubble present, different sized cavitation bubbles have similarity with one another generally in terms of the lifetime from expansion to contraction, which does not depend on the maximum radius. Also, with the presence of an air bubble, the lifetime of the smaller cavitation bubble is extended while that of the bigger ones reduced. Furthermore, it is shown in the experiment that the low pressure formed in the opposite direction to the cavitation bubble micro jet makes the air bubble in the low pressure area being stretched into a steplike shape.

  13. Shell correction energy for bubble nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Y; Magierski, P; Bulgac, Aurel; Magierski, Piotr

    2000-01-01

    The positioning of a bubble inside a many fermion system does not affect the volume, surface or curvature terms in the liquid drop expansion of the total energy. Besides possible Coulomb effects, the only other contribution to the ground state energy of such a system arises from shell effects. We show that the potential energy surface is a rather shallow function of the displacement of the bubble from the center and in most cases the preferential position of a bubble is off center. Systems with bubbles are expected to have bands of extremely low lying collective states, corresponding to various bubble displacements.

  14. Lidar signature from bubbles in the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churnside, James H

    2010-04-12

    The lidar signature from a collection of bubbles is proportional to the volume backscatter coefficient at a scattering angle of 180 degrees . This quantity, calculated using a combination of geometric optics and diffraction, is proportional to the void fraction of the bubbles in the water for any bubble size distribution. The constant of proportionality is 233 m(-1) sr(-1)for clean bubbles, slightly less for bubbles coated with a thin layer of organic material, and as large as 1445 m(-1) sr(-1) for a thick coating of protein.

  15. Supercoiling induces denaturation bubbles in circular DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae-Hyung; Adamcik, Jozef; Dietler, Giovanni; Metzler, Ralf

    2010-11-12

    We present a theoretical framework for the thermodynamic properties of supercoiling-induced denaturation bubbles in circular double-stranded DNA molecules. We explore how DNA supercoiling, ambient salt concentration, and sequence heterogeneity impact on the bubble occurrence. An analytical derivation of the probability distribution to find multiple bubbles is derived and the relevance for supercoiled DNA discussed. We show that in vivo sustained DNA bubbles are likely to occur due to partial twist release in regions rich in weaker AT base pairs. Single DNA plasmid imaging experiments clearly demonstrate the existence of bubbles in free solution.

  16. Bubble Universe Dynamics After Free Passage

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlqvist, Pontus; Greene, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We consider bubble collisions in single scalar field theories with multiple vacua. Recent work has argued that at sufficiently high impact velocities, collisions between such bubble vacua are governed by 'free passage' dynamics in which field interactions can be ignored during the collision, providing a systematic process for populating local minima without quantum nucleation. We focus on the time period that follows the bubble collision and provide evidence that, for certain potentials, interactions can drive significant deviations from the free-passage bubble profile, thwarting the production of bubbles with different field values.

  17. Design of Pneumatic Collapsible Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Nair

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The steering wheel is the important cause of fatal injury for drivers in frontal collision. When frontal collision occurs, due to the kinetic energy of driver or occupant body, it moves forward against steering wheel and wind shield. Actually in a frontal collision forces will be first transmitted through driver’s feet which act as fulcrum so the body will rotate about it. For the taller driver steering works as fulcrum. Driver head & chest hit the steering or windshield which may cause severe injury or death. Considering the injury potential of steering wheel we are presenting a new idea Pneumatic Collapsible Steering Column (PCS.

  18. Spherically symmetric scalar field collapse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koyel Ganguly; Narayan Banerjee

    2013-03-01

    It is shown that a scalar field, minimally coupled to gravity, may have collapsing modes even when the energy condition is violated, that is, for ( + 3) < 0. This result may be useful in the investigation of the possible clustering of dark energy. All the examples dealt with have apparent horizons formed before the formation of singularity. The singularities formed are shell focussing in nature. The density of the scalar field distribution is seen to diverge at singularity. The Ricci scalar also diverges at the singularity. The interior spherically symmetric metric is matched with exterior Vaidya metric at the hypersurface and the appropriate junction conditions are obtained.

  19. Thermodynamics of a collapsed object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaubey, N. (Inst. of Science and Techn., Sultanpur (India). Technological Faculty); De Sabbata, V. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica)

    1981-06-20

    Here is presented a thermodynamic study in the Reissner-Nordstroem blackhole which leads to a beautiful conclusion that the product of surface gravities of the outer horizon and the inner horizon of the blackhole is equal to the inverse square of charge distribution over it. If one considers a more general collapsed object wherein rotation is also considered, a similar inference is that the product of surface gravities of the inner and the outer horizon is equal to the inverse of the sum of squares of the charge distribution and angular momentum per unit mass of the rotation.

  20. Digital Microfluidics with Bubble Manipulations by Dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Kang Fan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic bubble manipulations, including transporting, splitting, and merging, by dielectrophoresis (DEP in an oil environment. In our presented method, bubbles are placed between parallel plates in an oil medium of a low vapor pressure, which eliminates the possibility of changing the gaseous composition of the bubble caused by evaporation of the medium. DEP has been previously investigated to actuate dielectric droplets and is adopted here to drive the oil environment as well as the immersed bubbles between parallel plates. In our experiment, air bubbles of 0.3 ml were successfully transported in a 20 cSt silicone oil medium between a 75 mm-high parallel plate gap. In addition, 0.6 ml air bubbles were successfully split into two 0.3 ml air bubbles, and then merged again by DEP. These successful manipulations make digital gaseous lab-on-a-chip a reality.

  1. Cosmological HII Bubble Growth During Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Min-Su; Cen, Renyue

    2007-01-01

    We present general properties of ionized hydrogen (HII) bubbles and their growth based on a state-of-the-art large-scale (100 Mpc/h) cosmological radiative transfer simulation. The simulation resolves all halos with atomic cooling at the relevant redshifts and simultaneously performs radiative transfer and dynamical evolution of structure formation. Our major conclusions include: (1) for significant HII bubbles, the number distribution is peaked at a volume of ~ 0.6 Mpc^3/h^3 at all redshifts. But, at z 10 even the largest HII bubbles have a balanced ionizing photon contribution from Pop II and Pop III stars, while at z < 8 Pop II stars start to dominate the overall ionizing photon production for large bubbles, although Pop III stars continue to make a non-negligible contribution. (6) The relationship between halo number density and bubble size is complicated but a strong correlation is found between halo number density and bubble size for for large bubbles.

  2. Bubbles generated from wind-steepened breaking waves: 2. Bubble plumes, bubbles, and wave characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Caulliez, G.; Leeuw, G.de

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of breaking-wave-generated bubble plumes were made in fresh (but not clean) water in a large wind-wave tunnel. To preserve diversity, a classification scheme was developed on the basis of plume dimensions and "optical density," or the plume's ability to obscure the background. Optically

  3. Shockwave and cavitation bubble dynamics of atmospheric air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Ch.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The generation and evolution of laser induced shock waves (SWs and the hot core plasma (HCP created by focusing 7 ns, 532 nm laser pulses in ambient air is studied using time resolved shadowgraphic imaging technique. The dynamics of rapidly expanding plasma releasing SWs into the ambient atmosphere were studied for time delays ranging from nanoseconds to milliseconds with ns temporal resolution. The SW is observed to get detached from expanding HCP at around 3μs. Though the SWs were found to expand spherically following the Sedov-Taylor theory, the rapidly expanding HCP shows asymmetric expansion during both the expansion and cooling phase similar to that of inertial cavitation bubble (CB dynamics. The asymmetric expansion of HCP leads to oscillation of the plasma boundary, eventually leading to collapse by forming vortices formed by the interaction of ambient air.

  4. Evidence of a worldwide stock market log-periodic anti-bubble since mid-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-Xing; Sornette, Didier

    2003-12-01

    Following our investigation of the USA Standard and Poor index anti-bubble that started in August 2000 (Quant. Finance 2 (2002) 468), we analyze 38 world stock market indices and identify 21 “bearish anti-bubbles” and six “bullish anti-bubbles”. An “anti-bubble” is defined as a self-reinforcing price trajectory with self-similar expanding log-periodic oscillations. Mathematically, a bearish anti-bubble is characterize by a power law decrease of the price (or of the logarithm of the price) as a function of time and by expanding log-periodic oscillations. We propose that bearish anti-bubbles are created by positive price-to-price feedbacks feeding overall pessimism and negative market sentiment further strengthened by inter-personal interactions. Bullish anti-bubbles are here identified for the first time. The most striking discovery is that the majority of European and Western stock market indices as well as other stock indices exhibit practically the same log-periodic power law anti-bubble structure as found for the USA S&P500 index. These anti-bubbles are found to start approximately at the same time, August 2000, in all these markets. This shows a remarkable degree of worldwide synchronization. The descent of the worldwide stock markets since 2000 is thus an international event, suggesting the strengthening of globalization.

  5. Bubble dynamics during the non-isothermal degassing of liquids. Exploiting microgravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostoglou, Margaritis; Karapantsios, Thodoris D

    2007-10-31

    This work reviews the up to date state of understanding of dynamic phenomena occurring when gas bubbles grow over submerged heated surfaces. Gas bubbles are produced on hot surfaces because the adjacent liquid layers become superheated causing local desorption of dissolved gases while the liquid far afield remains at low temperatures. Non-isothermal degassing is a very complex process combining heat and mass transport coupled with momentum exchange between the two phases. Difficulties due to buoyancy effects on gas bubbles as well as natural convection of hot liquid layers hindered its thorough investigation in terrestrial conditions and only recent microgravity data allowed serious progress to be made. To reduce the complexity, gas bubble growth on a heated wall was studied here separately from bubble lateral motion and coalescence. A complete mathematical formulation was provided but given the inability to solve the problem numerically with the present resources, a series of approximate solutions were attempted. The comparison between experimental observations and theoretical predictions revealed useful information regarding the governing mechanisms of bubble growth.

  6. Studies on the Tempo of Bubble Formation in Recently Cavitated Vessels: A Model to Predict the Pressure of Air Bubbles1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Pan, Ruihua; Tyree, Melvin T.

    2015-01-01

    A cavitation event in a vessel replaces water with a mixture of water vapor and air. A quantitative theory is presented to argue that the tempo of filling of vessels with air has two phases: a fast process that extracts air from stem tissue adjacent to the cavitated vessels (less than 10 s) and a slow phase that extracts air from the atmosphere outside the stem (more than 10 h). A model was designed to estimate how water tension (T) near recently cavitated vessels causes bubbles in embolized vessels to expand or contract as T increases or decreases, respectively. The model also predicts that the hydraulic conductivity of a stem will increase as bubbles collapse. The pressure of air bubbles trapped in vessels of a stem can be predicted from the model based on fitting curves of hydraulic conductivity versus T. The model was validated using data from six stem segments each of Acer mono and the clonal hybrid Populus 84K (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). The model was fitted to results with root mean square error less than 3%. The model provided new insight into the study of embolism formation in stem tissue and helped quantify the bubble pressure immediately after the fast process referred to above. PMID:25907963

  7. On the Nature of Core-Collapse Supernova Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Adam; Hayes, John; Fryxell, Bruce A.

    1995-09-01

    We investigate in this paper the core-collapse supernova explosion mechanism in both one and two dimensions. With a radiation/hydrodynamic code based upon the PPM algorithm, we verify the usefulness of neutrino-driven overturn ("convection") between the shock and the neutrinosphere in igniting the supernova explosion. The two-dimensional simulation of the core of a 15 Msun star that we present here indicates that the breaking of spherical symmetry may be central to the explosion itself and that a multitude of bent and broken fingers is a common feature of the ejecta. As in one dimension, the explosion seems to be a mathematically critical phenomenon, evolving from a steady state to explosion after a critical mass accretion rate through the stalled shock has been reached. In the two-dimensional simulation the preexplosion convective phase lasted ˜30 overturns (˜100 ms) before exploding. The preexplosion steady state in two dimensions is similar to that achieved in one dimension, but in two dimensions, owing to the longer dwell time of matter in the overturning region, the average entropy achieved behind the stalled shock is larger. In addition, the entropy gradient in the convecting region is flatter. These effects, together with the dynamical pressure of the buoyant plumes, serve to increase the steady state shock radius (Rs) over its value in one dimension by 30%-100%. A large Rs enlarges the volume of the gain region, puts shocked matter lower in the gravitational potential well, and lowers the accretion ram pressure at the shock for a given Mdot. The critical condition for explosion is thereby relaxed. Since the "escape" temperature (Tesc) decreases with radius faster than the actual matter temperature (T) behind the shock, a larger Rs puts a larger fraction of the shocked material above its local escape temperature. T > Tesc is the condition for a thermally driven corona to lift off a star. In one, two, or three dimensions, since supernovae are driven by

  8. Geotechnical properties of Egyptian collapsible soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled E. Gaaver

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk of constructing structures on collapsible soils presents significant challenges to geotechnical engineers due to sudden reduction in volume upon wetting. Identifying collapsible soils when encountered in the field and taking the needed precautions should substantially reduce the risk of such problems usually reported in buildings and highways. Collapsible soils are those unsaturated soils that can withstand relatively high pressure without showing significant change in volume, however upon wetting; they are susceptible to a large and sudden reduction in volume. Collapsible soils cover significant areas around the world. In Egypt, collapsible soils were observed within the northern portion of the western desert including Borg El-Arab region, and around the city of Cairo in Six-of-October plateau, and Tenth-of-Ramadan city. Settlements associated with development on untreated collapsible soils usually lead to expensive repairs. One method for treating collapsible soils is to densify their structure by compaction. The ongoing study presents the effect of compaction on the geotechnical properties of the collapsible soils. Undisturbed block samples were recovered from test pits at four sites in Borg El-Arab district, located at about 20 km west of the city of Alexandria, Egypt. The samples were tested in both unsoaked and soaked conditions. Influence of water inundation on the geotechnical properties of collapsible soils was demonstrated. A comparative study between natural undisturbed and compacted samples of collapsible soils was performed. An attempt was made to relate the collapse potential to the initial moisture content. An empirical correlation between California Bearing Ratio of the compacted collapsible soils and liquid limit was adopted. The presented simple relationships should enable the geotechnical engineers to estimate the complex parameters of collapsible soils using simple laboratory tests with a reasonable accuracy.

  9. Mathematical bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu; Tetiva, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Building bridges between classical results and contemporary nonstandard problems, Mathematical Bridges embraces important topics in analysis and algebra from a problem-solving perspective. Blending old and new techniques, tactics and strategies used in solving challenging mathematical problems, readers will discover numerous genuine mathematical gems throughout that will heighten their appreciation of the inherent beauty of mathematics. Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics. Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bri...

  10. A computational model for large eddy simulation of dilute bubbly turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajit, Mohammad; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2013-11-01

    A mathematical formulation of filtered equations for two phase bubbly flows based on two-fluid method is presented. To remove high frequencies (noise), we extracted the filtered form of the equations in curvilinear coordinates, converting the microscopic governing equations to macroscopic equations via spatial averaging of solution variables. The set of equations describing the hydrodynamics in a gas-liquid system can be solved effectively if the solution procedure is decoupled so that an efficient iterative scheme can be employed. We propose a formulation for dilute bubbly flows in which the equations are converted to a loosely-coupled form. The resulting mathematical model is based on five distinct sets of equations, namely mixture momentum balance, pressure Poisson equation, Boyle's law and momentum and mass balances of gas phase. This mathematical formulation provides an efficient numerical procedure for two-way coupling of bubbly flows at low gas holdups. The subgrid-scale modeling is based on dynamic procedure of Germano for both phases. The formulation is validated for a fully turbulent bubble column test by comparing to available experimental results. This work is supported by the US department of energy (DE-EE0005416) and the Minnesota supercomputing institute.

  11. Experimental Verification of Steel Pipe Collapse under Vacuum Pressure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrique, R.; Rodal, E.

    2016-11-01

    Steel pipes are used widely in hydroelectric systems and in pumping systems. Both systems are subject to hydraulic transient effects caused by changes in boundary conditions, such as sudden valve closures, pump failures, or accidents. Water column separation, and its associated vaporization pressure inside the pipe, can cause the collapse of thin walled steel pipes subject to atmospheric pressure, as happened during the well known Oigawa Power Plant accident in Japan, in 1950. The conditions under which thin walled pipes subject to external pressure can collapse have been studied mathematically since the second half of the XIX century, with classical authors Southwell and Von Mises obtaining definitive equations for long and short pipes in the second decade of the XX century, in which the fundamental variables are the diameter to thickness ratio D/t and the length to diameter ratio L/D. In this paper, the predicted critical D/t ratio for steel pipe collapse is verified experimentally, in a physical model able to reproduce hydraulic transients, generating vacuum pressures through rapid upstream valve closures.

  12. Understanding (sessile/constrained) bubble and drop oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, A J B; Defez, B; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M; Amirfazli, A

    2014-01-01

    The diffuse literature on drop oscillation is reviewed, with an emphasis on capillary wave oscillations of constrained drops. Based on the review, a unifying conceptual framework is presented for drop and bubble oscillations, which considers free and constrained drops/bubbles, oscillation of the surface or the bulk (i.e. center of mass) of the drop/bubble, as well as different types of restoring forces (surface tension, gravity, electromagnetic, etc). Experimental results (both from literature and from a new set of experiments studying sessile drops in cross flowing air) are used to test mathematical models from literature, using a novel whole profile analysis technique for the new experiments. The cause of oscillation (cross flowing air, vibrated surface, etc.) is seen not to affect oscillation frequency. In terms of models, simplified models are seen to poorly predict oscillation frequencies. The most advanced literature models are found to be relatively accurate at predicting frequency. However it is seen that no existing models are reliably accurate across a wide range of contact angles, indicating the need for advanced models/empirical relations especially for drops undergoing the lowest frequency mode of oscillation (the order 1 degree 1 non-axisymmetric 'bending' mode that corresponds to a lateral 'rocking' motion of the drop).

  13. Studies on modelling of bubble driven flows in chemical reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grevskott, Sverre

    1997-12-31

    Multiphase reactors are widely used in the process industry, especially in the petrochemical industry. They very often are characterized by very good thermal control and high heat transfer coefficients against heating and cooling surfaces. This thesis first reviews recent advances in bubble column modelling, focusing on the fundamental flow equations, drag forces, transversal forces and added mass forces. The mathematical equations for the bubble column reactor are developed, using an Eulerian description for the continuous and dispersed phase in tensor notation. Conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and chemical species are given, and the k-{epsilon} and Rice-Geary models for turbulence are described. The different algebraic solvers used in the model are described, as are relaxation procedures. Simulation results are presented and compared with experimental values. Attention is focused on the modelling of void fractions and gas velocities in the column. The energy conservation equation has been included in the bubble column model in order to model temperature distributions in a heated reactor. The conservation equation of chemical species has been included to simulate absorption of CO{sub 2}. Simulated axial and radial mass fraction profiles for CO{sub 2} in the gas phase are compared with measured values. Simulations of the dynamic behaviour of the column are also presented. 189 refs., 124 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Developed ‘laminar’ bubbly flow with non-uniform bubble sizes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Bubbles with different sizes have different dynamic and kineticbehavior in a two-phase bubbly flow. A common two-fluid model based on the uniform bubble size assumption is not suitable for a bubbly flow with non-uniform bubble sizes. To deal with non-uniform bubbly flows, a multi-fluid model is established, with which bubbles are divided into several groups according to their sizes and a set of basic equations is derived for each group of bubbles with almost the same size. Through analyzing the bubble-bubble and bubble-pipe wall interactions, two new constitutive laws for the wall-force and pressure difference between the liquid phase and interface are developed to close the averaged basic equations. The respective phase distributions for each group of bubbles measured by a specially designed three-dimensional photographic method are used to check the model. Comparison between model-predicted values and experimental data shows that the model can describe laminar bubbly flow with non-uniform bubble sizes.

  15. Bubble–bubble interaction effects on dynamics of multiple bubbles in a vortical flow field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Cui

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bubble–bubble interactions play important roles in the dynamic behaviours of multiple bubbles or bubble clouds in a vortical flow field. Based on the Rayleigh–Plesset equation and the modified Maxey–Riley equation of a single bubble, bubble–bubble interaction terms are derived and introduced for multiple bubbles. Thus, both the Rayleigh–Plesset and modified Maxey–Riley equations are improved by considering bubble–bubble interactions and then applied for the multiple bubbles entrainment into a stationary Gaussian vortex. Runge–Kutta fourth-order scheme is adopted to solve the coupled dynamic and kinematic equations and the convergence study has been conducted. Numerical result has also been compared and validated with the published experimental data. On this basis, the oscillation, trajectory and effects of different parameters of double-bubble and multi-bubble entrainment into Gaussian vortex have been studied and the results have been compared with those of the cases without bubble–bubble interactions. It indicates that bubble–bubble interactions influence the amplitudes and periods of bubble oscillations severely, but have small effects on bubble trajectories.

  16. Suppression of cavitation inception by gas bubble injection: a numerical study focusing on bubble-bubble interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Masato; Naoe, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2007-10-01

    The dynamic behavior of cavitation and gas bubbles under negative pressure has been studied numerically to evaluate the effect of gas bubble injection into a liquid on the suppression of cavitation inception. In our previous studies, it was demonstrated by direct observation that cavitation occurs in liquid mercury when mechanical impacts are imposed, and this will cause cavitation damage in spallation neutron sources, in which liquid mercury is bombarded by a high-power proton beam. In the present paper, we describe numerical investigations of the dynamics of cavitation bubbles in liquid mercury using a multibubble model that takes into account the interaction of a cavitation bubble with preexisting gas bubbles through bubble-radiated pressure waves. The numerical results suggest that, if the mercury includes gas bubbles whose equilibrium radius is much larger than that of the cavitation bubble, the explosive expansion of the cavitation bubble (i.e., cavitation inception) is suppressed by the positive-pressure wave radiated by the injected bubbles, which decreases the magnitude of the negative pressure in the mercury.

  17. Silo Collapse under Granular Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, G.; Colonnello, C.; Boltenhagen, P.; Darias, J. R.; Peralta-Fabi, R.; Brau, F.; Clément, E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate, at a laboratory scale, the collapse of cylindrical shells of radius R and thickness t induced by a granular discharge. We measure the critical filling height for which the structure fails upon discharge. We observe that the silos sustain filling heights significantly above an estimation obtained by coupling standard shell-buckling and granular stress distribution theories. Two effects contribute to stabilize the structure: (i) below the critical filling height, a dynamical stabilization due to granular wall friction prevents the localized shell-buckling modes to grow irreversibly; (ii) above the critical filling height, collapse occurs before the downward sliding motion of the whole granular column sets in, such that only a partial friction mobilization is at play. However, we notice also that the critical filling height is reduced as the grain size d increases. The importance of grain size contribution is controlled by the ratio d /√{R t }. We rationalize these antagonist effects with a novel fluid-structure theory both accounting for the actual status of granular friction at the wall and the inherent shell imperfections mediated by the grains. This theory yields new scaling predictions which are compared with the experimental results.

  18. Partially saturated granular column collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Barbara; Johnson, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Debris flows are gravity-driven sub-aerial mass movements containing water, sediments, soil and rocks. These elements lead to characteristics common to dry granular media (e.g. levee formation) and viscous gravity currents (viscous fingering and surge instabilities). The importance of pore fluid in these flows is widely recognised, but there is significant debate over the mechanisms of build up and dissipation of pore fluid pressure within debris flows, and the resultant effect this has on dilation and mobility of the grains. Here we specifically consider the effects of the liquid surface in the flow. We start with a simple experiment constituting a classical axisymmetric granular column collapse, but with fluid filling the column up to a depth comparable to the depth of grains. Thus, as the column collapses, capillary forces may be generated between the grains that prevent dilation. We explore a parameter space to uncover the effects of fluid viscosity, particle size, column size, aspect ratio, grain shape, saturation level, initial packing fraction and significantly, the effects of fine sediments in suspension which can alter the capillary interaction between wetted macroscopic grains. This work presents an initial scaling analysis and attempts to relate the findings to current debris flow modelling approaches.

  19. Growth of a gas bubble in a supersaturated and slightly compressible liquid at low Mach number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadein, S. A.; Mohamed, K. G.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the growth of a gas bubble in a supersaturated and slightly compressible liquid is discussed. The mathematical model is solved analytically by using the modified Plesset and Zwick method. The growth process is affected by: sonic speed in the liquid, polytropic exponent, diffusion coefficient, initial concentration difference, surface tension, viscosity, adjustment factor and void fraction. The famous formula of Plesset and Zwick is produced as a special case of the result at some values of the adjustment factor. Moreover, the resultant formula is implemented to the case of the growth of underwater gas bubble.

  20. Time symmetry in wave-function collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedingham, D. J.; Maroney, O. J. E.

    2017-04-01

    The notion of a physical collapse of the wave function is embodied in dynamical collapse models. These involve a modification of the unitary evolution of the wave function so as to give a dynamical account of collapse. The resulting dynamics is at first sight time asymmetric for the simple reason that the wave function depends on those collapse events in the past but not those in the future. Here we show that dynamical wave-function collapse models admit a general description that has no built-in direction of time. Given some simple constraints, we show that there exist empirically equivalent pictures of collapsing wave functions in both time directions, each satisfying the same dynamical rules. A preferred direction is singled out only by the asymmetric initial and final time constraints on the state of the universe.

  1. Effects of heterogeneous structure and diffusion permeability of body tissues on decompression gas bubble dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, V P

    2000-07-01

    To gain insight into the special nature of gas bubbles that may form in astronauts, aviators and divers, we developed a mathematical model which describes the following: 1) the dynamics of extravascular bubbles formed in intercellular cavities of a hypothetical tissue undergoing decompression; and 2) the dynamics of nitrogen tension in a thin layer of intercellular fluid and in a thick layer of cells surrounding the bubbles. This model is based on the assumption that, due to limited cellular membrane permeability for gas, a value of effective nitrogen diffusivity in the massive layer of cells in the radial direction is essentially lower compared to conventionally accepted values of nitrogen diffusivity in water and body tissues. Due to rather high nitrogen diffusivity in intercellular fluid, a bubble formed just at completion of fast one-stage reduction of ambient pressure almost instantly grows to the size determined by the initial volume of the intercellular cavity, surface tension of the fluid, the initial nitrogen tension in the tissue, and the level of final pressure. The rate of further bubble growth and maximum bubble size depend on comparatively low effective nitrogen diffusivity in the cell layer, the tissue perfusion rate, the initial nitrogen tension in the tissue, and the final ambient pressure. The tissue deformation pressure performs its conservative action on bubble dynamics only in a limited volume of tissue (at a high density of formed bubbles). Our model is completely consistent with the available data concerning the random latency times to the onset of decompression sickness (DCS) symptoms associated with hypobaric decompressions simulating extravehicular activity. We believe that this model could be used as a theoretical basis for development of more adequate methods for the DCS risk prediction.

  2. Bubble entrapment through topological change

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2010-05-03

    When a viscousdrop impacts onto a solid surface, it entraps a myriad of microbubbles at the interface between liquid and solid. We present direct high-speed video observations of this entrapment. For viscousdrops, the tip of the spreading lamella is separated from the surface and levitated on a cushion of air. We show that the primary mechanism for the bubble entrapment is contact between this precursor sheet of liquid with the solid and not air pulled directly through cusps in the contact line. The sheet makes contact with the solid surface,forming a wetted patch, which grows in size, but only entraps a bubble when it meets the advancing contact line. The leading front of this wet patch can also lead to the localized thinning and puncturing of the liquid film producing strong splashing of droplets.

  3. Cavitation inception from bubble nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Knud Aage

    2015-01-01

    , and experimental investigations of bubbles and cavitation inception have been presented. These results suggest that cavitation nuclei in equilibrium are gaseous voids in the water, stabilized by a skin which allows diffusion balance between gas inside the void and gas in solution in the surrounding liquid....... The cavitation nuclei may be free gas bubbles in the bulk of water, or interfacial gaseous voids located on the surface of particles in the water, or on bounding walls. The tensile strength of these nuclei depends not only on the water quality but also on the pressure-time history of the water. A recent model......The tensile strength of ordinary water such as tap water or seawater is typically well below 1 bar. It is governed by cavitation nuclei in the water, not by the tensile strength of the water itself, which is extremely high. Different models of the nuclei have been suggested over the years...

  4. Conformal gravity and "gravitational bubbles"

    CERN Document Server

    Berezin, V A; Eroshenko, Yu N

    2015-01-01

    We describe the general structure of the spherically symmetric solutions in the Weyl conformal gravity. The corresponding Bach equations are derived for the special type of metrics, which can be considered as the representative of the general class. The complete set of the pure vacuum solutions, consisting of two classes, is found. The first one contains the solutions with constant two-dimensional curvature scalar, and the representatives are the famous Robertson--Walker metrics. We called one of them the "gravitational bubbles", which is compact and with zero Weyl tensor. These "gravitational bubbles" are the pure vacuum curved space-times (without any material sources, including the cosmological constant), which are absolutely impossible in General Relativity. This phenomenon makes it easier to create the universe from "nothing". The second class consists of the solutions with varying curvature scalar. We found its representative as the one-parameter family, which can be conformally covered by the thee-para...

  5. Radiation driven collapse of protein crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Sébastien; Robinson, Ian K

    2006-01-01

    During coherent X-ray diffraction measurements on crystals of ferritin at room temperature using monochromatic undulator radiation from the Advanced Photon Source, a sudden lattice contraction was observed following a characteristic latent period and ultimately leading to the collapse of the crystal. The progression of this collapse is analysed using a two-state Hendricks-Teller model. It reveals that 55% of the layers collapse by 1.6% before the crystal completely stops diffracting.

  6. Collapse of three on a sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidambi, R.; Newton, P.K. [Southern California Univ., Los Angeles (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Center for Applied Mathematical Sciences

    1999-12-01

    The self-similar collapse of three vortices moving on the surface of a sphere of radius R is analysed and compared with known results of critical literature. Formulas for the collapsing trajectories are derived and compared with the planar formulas. The Hamiltonian system is derived governing the vortex motion. In this projected plane, the solutions are not self-similar. In the last section, the collapse process is studied using tri-linear coordinates, which reduces the system to a planar one.

  7. Self-similar scalar field collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Narayan; Chakrabarti, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    A spherically symmetric collapsing scalar field model is discussed with a dissipative fluid which includes a heat flux. This vastly general matter distribution is analyzed at the expense of a high degree of symmetry in the space-time, that of conformal flatness and self-similarity. Indeed collapsing models terminating into a curvature singularity can be obtained. The formation of black holes or the occurrence of naked singularities depends on the initial collapsing profiles.

  8. 含不凝性气体的蒸汽气泡凝结过程研究%Study on Condensation Process of Vapor Bubble Containing Noncondensable Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐继国; 阎昌琪; 孙立成; 侯晓凡

    2015-01-01

    A visualized investigation was performed to study the condensation and collapse processes of vapor bubbles at high liquid subcooling with a high‐speed video camera (Fastcam SA5) .Experiment results show that a vapor bubble will collapse to many microbubbles rapidly when the initial volumetric fraction of noncondensable gas in the bubble ,x0 ,is less than 2.5% .Instead ,a large bubble will split into just several tiny bubbles when x0 is between 2.5% and 7.5% . Further , x0 increases exceeding 7.5% ,the bubble surface will be very stable ,and no collapse or fragmentation occurs . The noncondensable gas in a vapor bubble reduces the condensation at the bubble surface ,which weakens the inertial shock of the liquid on the surface and makes the bubble more stable . This may elucidate that the presence of noncondensable gas will inhibit the bubble collapse in microbubble emission boiling and deteriorate the heat transfer performance consequently .%利用高速摄像仪对高过冷度下含不凝性气体的蒸汽气泡冷凝及破裂过程进行可视化研究,以分析不凝性气体对气泡微细化沸腾(MEB)过程的影响。实验结果表明:初始不凝性气体体积份额 x0小于2.5%时,气泡突然破碎成大量微小气泡;x0在2.5%~7.5%之间时,较大气泡只会分裂成数个小气泡;x0大于7.5%时,气泡界面非常稳定,不会发生破碎和分裂现象。此外,当蒸汽气泡中含有较多不凝性气体时,气泡凝结过程减弱,液体对气泡的惯性冲击减小,气泡不易破裂。由此可表明,在气泡微细化沸腾发生时,不凝性气体的存在会阻碍加热面上气泡的破碎,从而降低传热能力。

  9. Armoring confined bubbles in concentrated colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxian; Khodaparast, Sepideh; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Encapsulation of a bubble with microparticles is known to significantly improve the stability of the bubble. This phenomenon has recently gained increasing attention due to its application in a variety of technologies such as foam stabilization, drug encapsulation and colloidosomes. Nevertheless, the production of such colloidal armored bubble with controlled size and particle coverage ratio is still a great challenge industrially. We study the coating process of a long air bubble by microparticles in a circular tube filled with a concentrated microparticles colloidal suspension. As the bubble proceeds in the suspension of particles, a monolayer of micro-particles forms on the interface of the bubble, which eventually results in a fully armored bubble. We investigate the phenomenon that triggers and controls the evolution of the particle accumulation on the bubble interface. Moreover, we examine the effects of the mean flow velocity, the size of the colloids and concentration of the suspension on the dynamics of the armored bubble. The results of this study can potentially be applied to production of particle-encapsulated bubbles, surface-cleaning techniques, and gas-assisted injection molding.

  10. Soap bubbles in paintings: Art and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozi, F.

    2008-12-01

    Soap bubbles became popular in 17th century paintings and prints primarily as a metaphor for the impermanence and fragility of life. The Dancing Couple (1663) by the Dutch painter Jan Steen is a good example which, among many other symbols, shows a young boy blowing soap bubbles. In the 18th century the French painter Jean-Simeon Chardin used soap bubbles not only as metaphor but also to express a sense of play and wonder. In his most famous painting, Soap Bubbles (1733/1734) a translucent and quavering soap bubble takes center stage. Chardin's contemporary Charles Van Loo painted his Soap Bubbles (1764) after seeing Chardin's work. In both paintings the soap bubbles have a hint of color and show two bright reflection spots. We discuss the physics involved and explain how keenly the painters have observed the interaction of light and soap bubbles. We show that the two reflection spots on the soap bubbles are images of the light source, one real and one virtual, formed by the curved surface of the bubble. The faint colors are due to thin film interference effects.

  11. Bioinspired bubble design for particle generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Oguzhan; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Stride, Eleanor; Tamerler, Candan; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2012-02-07

    In this study, we devise a method to generate homogeneous particles from a bubble suspension, with the capability to control loading and the structure of bubbles. Ideally, a process such as this would occur at the interface between daughter bubble formation (instant) and gaseous diffusion (gradual). Interestingly, the budding mechanism in micro-organisms is one that demonstrates features of the desired phenomena (although at a much slower rate), as viruses can eject and evolve structures from their membranes. With these natural concepts, a bubble's surface can also be made to serve as a platform for particle generation, which transfers significant elements from the initial bubble coating to the newly generated structures. Here, we illustrate this by preparing coated bubbles (approx. 150 µm in diameter) using a hydrophobic polymer, which may be comparable to naturally occurring bubble coatings (e.g. organic matter forming part of bubble coatings in the sea), and dye (which can demonstrate entrapment of smaller quantities of a desired moiety) and then observe particle generation (approx. 500 nm). The process, which may be driven by a polymerosome-forming mechanism, also illustrates how additional uniform sub-micrometre-scale structures may form from a bubble's surface, which may have also previously been attributed to gas diffusion. In addition, such methods of particle formation from a bubble structure, the incorporation of chemical or biological media via an in situ process and subsequent release technologies have several areas of interest across the broad scientific community.

  12. Informational pathologies and interest bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Wiewiura, Joachim Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    This article contends that certain configurations of information networks facilitate specific cognitive states that are instrumental for decision and action on social media. Group-related knowledge and belief states—in particular common knowledge and pluralistic ignorance—may enable strong public...... signals. Indeed, some network configurations and attitude states foster informational pathologies that may fuel interest bubbles affecting agenda-setting and the generation of narratives in public spheres....

  13. Electrino bubbles and relational entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Vecchi, I

    2007-01-01

    In this note, which is based and expands on some previous work, it is argued that the phenomena exhibited by bubbles forming around free electrons in liquid helium and examined by Maris in his controversial 2000 paper point to the experimental relevance of an understanding of entanglement based on the relational approach to quantum mechanics. An experiment to verify/disprove the relevant argument is suggested.

  14. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  15. Photon Bubbles in Accretion Discs

    OpenAIRE

    Gammie, Charles F.

    1998-01-01

    We show that radiation dominated accretion discs are likely to suffer from a ``photon bubble'' instability similar to that described by Arons in the context of accretion onto neutron star polar caps. The instability requires a magnetic field for its existence. In an asymptotic regime appropriate to accretion discs, we find that the overstable modes obey the remarkably simple dispersion relation \\omega^2 = -i g k F(B,k). Here g is the vertical gravitational acceleration, B the magnetic field, ...

  16. Mathematics Connection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... In the transmission culture of teaching and learning, mathematics is seen as a body of knowledge and ... Keyword: algebraic thinking, discussion in mathematics classroom, teaching approaches ...

  17. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of transport through moving interfaces with application to bubble growth and collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öttinger, H.C.; Bedeaux, D.; Venerus, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    We develop the general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling framework of thermodynamics to handle moving interfaces in the context of a gas that can be dissolved in a surrounding liquid. The key innovation is a “moving interface normal transfer” term required for

  18. Shock and bubble collapse loading for close proximity underwater explosions with rigid and deformable targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riley, M.; Smith, M.; Alin, N.; Aanhold, J.E. van; Lee, J.

    2010-01-01

    The study describes recent simulation results for underwater explosions in close-proximity to rigid and responding targets. Simulations are performed using Chinook, an Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, in standalone mode and coupled with the Lagrangian solver LS-DYNA. Predicted fluid

  19. Shock and bubble collapse loading for close proximity underwater explosions with rigid and deformable targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riley, M.; Smith, M.; Alin, N.; Aanhold, J.E. van; Lee, J.

    2010-01-01

    The study describes recent simulation results for underwater explosions in close-proximity to rigid and responding targets. Simulations are performed using Chinook, an Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, in standalone mode and coupled with the Lagrangian solver LS-DYNA. Predicted fluid

  20. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2000-12-31

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large-diameter reactors. Washington University's work during the reporting period involved the implementation of the automated calibration device, which will provide an advanced method of determining liquid and slurry velocities at high pressures. This new calibration device is intended to replace the original calibration setup, which depended on fishing lines and hooks to position the radioactive particle. The report submitted by Washington University contains a complete description of the new calibration device and its operation. Improvements to the calibration program are also discussed. Iowa State University utilized air-water bubble column simulations in an effort to determine the domain size needed to represent all of the flow scales in a gas-liquid column at a high superficial velocity. Ohio State's report summarizes conclusions drawn from the completion of gas injection phenomena studies, specifically with respect to the characteristics of bubbling-jetting at submerged single orifices in liquid-solid suspensions.

  1. Catastrophic volcanic collapse: relation to hydrothermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, D L; Williams, S N

    1993-06-18

    Catastrophic volcanic collapse, without precursory magmatic activity, is characteristic of many volcanic disasters. The extent and locations of hydrothermal discharges at Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia, suggest that at many volcanoes collapse may result from the interactions between hydrothermal fluids and the volcanic edifice. Rock dissolution and hydrothermal mineral alteration, combined with physical triggers such as earth-quakes, can produce volcanic collapse. Hot spring water compositions, residence times, and flow paths through faults were used to model potential collapse at Ruiz. Caldera dimensions, deposits, and alteration mineral volumes are consistent with parameters observed at other volcanoes.

  2. Collapse of granular media subjected to wetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Korchi Fatima Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the collapse of granular materials subjected to wetting action. For soils, the collapse potential depends on several parameters such as liquid limit, matric suction, compactness, initial water content and the amount of fine particles. The effect of grain size, which plays a key role in the rearrangement of grains, remains little studied and poorly understood. To investigate the capillary origin of the collapse phenomenon, we present an experimental study on macroscopic and local scales. Our results show the effect of grain size and water content on collapse.

  3. The calculation of weakly non-spherical cavitation bubble impact on a solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganin, A. A.; Guseva, T. S.; Kosolapova, L. A.; Khismatullina, N. A.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of small spheroidal non-sphericity of a cavitation bubble touching a solid at the beginning of its collapse on its impact on the solid of a copper-nickel alloy is investigated. The impact on the solid is realized by means of a high-speed liquid jet arising at collapse on the bubble surface. The shape of the jet, its velocity and pressure are calculated by the boundary element method. The spatial and temporal characteristics of the pressure pulses on the solid surface are determined by the CIP-CUP method on dynamically adaptive grids without explicitly separating the gas-liquid interface. The solid surface layer dynamics is evaluated by the Godunov method. The results are analyzed in dimensionless variables obtained with using the water hammer pressure, the time moment and the jet-solid contact area radius at which the jet begins to spread on the solid surface. It is shown that in those dimensionless variables, the dependence of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the solid surface pressure pulses on the initial bubble shape non-sphericity is relatively small. The nonsphericity also slightly influences the main qualitative features of the dynamic processes inside the solid, whereas its effect on their quantitative characteristics can be significant.

  4. Rainforest Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the contested way that ethnomathematics has sometimes been received by mathematicians and others and what that disagreement might suggest about issues in mathematics education; namely, (a) the relation of ethnomathematics to academic mathematics; (b) recent efforts to reform secondary school mathematics so that it prepares…

  5. Rainforest Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the contested way that ethnomathematics has sometimes been received by mathematicians and others and what that disagreement might suggest about issues in mathematics education; namely, (a) the relation of ethnomathematics to academic mathematics; (b) recent efforts to reform secondary school mathematics so that it prepares…

  6. Collapse Analysis of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...... of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall...... be fulfilled: a) demonstrating that those parts of the structure essential for the safety only have little sensitivity with respect to unintentional loads and defects, or b) demonstrating a load case with „removal of a limited part of the structure‟ in order to document that an extensive failure...

  7. Gravitational Collapse in Gravity's Rainbow

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed Farag; Majumder, Barun; Mistry, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyze the gravitational collapse in the framework of gravity's rainbow. We will demonstrate that the position of the horizon for a particle inside the black hole depends on the energy of that particle. It will also be observe that the position of the horizon for a particle falling radially into the black hole also depends on its energy. Thus, it is possible for a particle coming from outside to interact with a particle inside the black, and take some information outside the black hole. This is because for both these particles the position of horizon is different. So, even though the particle from inside the black hole is in its own horizon, it is not in the horizon of the particle coming from outside. Thus, we will demonstrate that in gravity's rainbow information can get out of a black hole.

  8. Critical perspectives on historical collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Karl W; Endfield, Georgina H

    2012-03-06

    Historical collapse of ancient states or civilizations has raised new awareness about its possible relevance to current issues of sustainability, in the context of global change. This Special Feature examines 12 case studies of societies under stress, of which seven suffered severe transformation. Outcomes were complex and unpredictable. Five others overcame breakdown through environmental, political, or socio-cultural resilience, which deserves as much attention as the identification of stressors. Response to environmental crises of the last millennium varied greatly according to place and time but drew from traditional knowledge to evaluate new information or experiment with increasing flexibility, even if modernization or intensification were decentralized and protracted. Longer-term diachronic experience offers insight into how societies have dealt with acute stress, a more instructive perspective for the future than is offered by apocalyptic scenarios.

  9. Higgs portals to pulsar collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Bramante, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Pulsars apparently missing from the galactic center could have been destroyed by asymmetric fermionic dark matter ($m_X = 1-100$ GeV) coupled to a light scalar ($m_{\\phi}= 5-20$ MeV), which mixes with the Higgs boson. We point out that this pulsar-collapsing dark sector can resolve the core-cusp problem and will either be excluded or discovered by upcoming direct detection experiments. Another implication is a maximum pulsar age curve that increases with distance from the galactic center, with a normalization that depends on the couplings and masses of dark sector particles. In addition, we use old pulsars outside the galactic center to place bounds on asymmetric Higgs portal models.

  10. Bubbling at high flow rates in inviscid and viscous liquids (slags)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh, T. Abel; Nilmani, M.

    1988-02-01

    The behavior of gas discharging into melts at high velocities but still in the bubbling regime has been investigated in a laboratory modeling study for constant flow conditions. Air or helium was injected through a vertical tuyere into water, zinc-chloride, and aqueous glycerol solutions. High speed cinematography and pressure measurements in the tuyere have been carried out simultaneously. Pressure fluctuations at the injection point were monitored and correlated to the mode of bubble formation. The effects of high gas flow rates and high liquid viscosities have been examined in particular. Flow rates were employed up to 10-3 m3/s and viscosity to 0.5 Ns/m2. In order to attain a high gas momentum, the tuyere diameter was only 3 x 10-3 m. The experimental conditions and modeling liquids were chosen with special reference to the established practice of submerged gas injection to treat nonferrous slags. Such slags can be highly viscous. Bubble volume is smaller than that calculated from existing models such as those given by Davidson and Schüler10,11 due to the effect of gas momentum elongating the bubbles. On the other hand, viscosity tends to retard the bubble rise velocity, thus increasing volumes. To take elongation into account, a mathematical model is presented that assumes a prolate ellipsoidal shape of the bubbles. The unsteady potential flow equations for the liquid are solved for this case. Viscous effects are taken into account by noting that flow deviates from irrotational motion only in a thin boundary layer along the surface of the bubble. Thus, drag on the bubble can be obtained by calculating the viscous energy dissipation for potential flow past an ellipse. The time-dependent inertia coefficient for the ellipsoid is found by equating the vertical pressure increase inside and outside the bubble. This pressure change in the bubble is obtained by assuming that gas enters as a homogeneous jet and then calculating the stagnation pressure at the apex of

  11. Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Kyoko K; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a new prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by T...

  12. Single DNA denaturation and bubble dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, Ralf [Physics Department, Technical University of Munich, James Franck Strasse, 85747 Garching (Germany); Ambjoernsson, Tobias [Chemistry Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hanke, Andreas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas, 80 Fort Brown, Brownsville (United States); Fogedby, Hans C [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arhus, Ny Munkegade, 8000 Arhus C (Denmark)], E-mail: metz@ph.tum.de

    2009-01-21

    While the Watson-Crick double-strand is the thermodynamically stable state of DNA in a wide range of temperature and salt conditions, even at physiological conditions local denaturation bubbles may open up spontaneously due to thermal activation. By raising the ambient temperature, titration, or by external forces in single molecule setups bubbles proliferate until full denaturation of the DNA occurs. Based on the Poland-Scheraga model we investigate both the equilibrium transition of DNA denaturation and the dynamics of the denaturation bubbles with respect to recent single DNA chain experiments for situations below, at, and above the denaturation transition. We also propose a new single molecule setup based on DNA constructs with two bubble zones to measure the bubble coalescence and extract the physical parameters relevant to DNA breathing. Finally we consider the interplay between denaturation bubbles and selectively single-stranded DNA binding proteins.

  13. Bubbles Rising Through a Soft Granular Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mestre, Robin; MacMinn, Chris; Lee, Sungyon

    2016-11-01

    Bubble migration through a soft granular material involves a strong coupling between the bubble dynamics and the deformation of the material. This is relevant to a variety of natural processes such as gas venting from sediments and gas exsolution from magma. Here, we study this process experimentally by injecting air bubbles into a quasi-2D packing of soft hydrogel beads and measuring the size, speed, and morphology of the bubbles as they rise due to buoyancy. Whereas previous work has focused on deformation resisted by intergranular friction, we focus on the previously inaccessible regime of deformation resisted by elasticity. At low confining stress, the bubbles are irregular and rounded, migrating via local rearrangement. At high confining stress, the bubbles become unstable and branched, migrating via pathway opening. The authors thank The Royal Society for support (International Exchanges Ref IE150885).

  14. Bernoulli Suction Effect on Soap Bubble Blowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    As a model system for thin-film bubble with two gas-liquid interfaces, we experimentally investigated the pinch-off of soap bubble blowing. Using the lab-built bubble blower and high-speed videography, we have found that the scaling law exponent of soap bubble pinch-off is 2/3, which is similar to that of soap film bridge. Because air flowed through the decreasing neck of soap film tube, we studied possible Bernoulli suction effect on soap bubble pinch-off by evaluating the Reynolds number of airflow. Image processing was utilized to calculate approximate volume of growing soap film tube and the volume flow rate of the airflow, and the Reynolds number was estimated to be 800-3200. This result suggests that soap bubbling may involve the Bernoulli suction effect.

  15. Manipulating bubbles with secondary Bjerknes forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanoy, Maxime [Institut Langevin, ESPCI ParisTech, CNRS (UMR 7587), PSL Research University, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris-Diderot, CNRS (UMR 7057), 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris (France); Derec, Caroline; Leroy, Valentin [Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris-Diderot, CNRS (UMR 7057), 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris (France); Tourin, Arnaud [Institut Langevin, ESPCI ParisTech, CNRS (UMR 7587), PSL Research University, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

    2015-11-23

    Gas bubbles in a sound field are submitted to a radiative force, known as the secondary Bjerknes force. We propose an original experimental setup that allows us to investigate in detail this force between two bubbles, as a function of the sonication frequency, as well as the bubbles radii and distance. We report the observation of both attractive and, more interestingly, repulsive Bjerknes force, when the two bubbles are driven in antiphase. Our experiments show the importance of taking multiple scatterings into account, which leads to a strong acoustic coupling of the bubbles when their radii are similar. Our setup demonstrates the accuracy of secondary Bjerknes forces for attracting or repealing a bubble, and could lead to new acoustic tools for noncontact manipulation in microfluidic devices.

  16. Tube erosion in bubbling fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.K. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center; Stallings, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper reports on experimental and theoretical studies that were preformed of the interaction between bubbles and tubes and tube erosion in fluidized beds. The results are applicable to the erosion of horizontal tubes in the bottom row of a tube bundle in a bubbling bed. Cold model experimental data show that erosion is caused by the impact of bubble wakes on the tubes, with the rate of erosion increasing with the velocity of wake impact with the particle size. Wake impacts resulting from the vertical coalescence of pairs of bubbles directly beneath the tube result in particularly high rates of erosion damage. Theoretical results from a computer simulation of bubbling and erosion show very strong effects of the bed geometry and bubbling conditions on computed rates of erosion. These results show, for example, that the rate of erosion can be very sensitive to the vertical location of the bottom row of tubes with respect to the distributor.

  17. Ostwald Ripening in Multiple-Bubble Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Inaoka, Hajime; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The ostwald ripening of bubbles is studied by molecular dynamics simulations involving up to 679 million Lennard-Jones particles. Many bubbles appear after depressurizing a system that is initially maintained in the pure-liquid phase, and the coarsening of bubbles follows. The self-similarity of the bubble-size distribution function predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory is directly confirmed. The total number of bubbles decreases asymptotically as $t^{-x}$ with scaling exponent $x$. As the initial temperature increases, the exponent changes from $x=3/2$ to $1$, which implies that the growth of bubbles changes from interface-limited (the $t^{1/2}$ law) to diffusion-limited (the $t^{1/3}$ law) growth.

  18. Ostwald ripening in multiple-bubble nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masaru; Inaoka, Hajime; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2014-12-21

    The Ostwald ripening of bubbles is studied by molecular dynamics simulations involving up to 679 × 10(6) Lennard-Jones particles. Many bubbles appear after depressurizing a system that is initially maintained in the pure-liquid phase, and the coarsening of bubbles follows. The self-similarity of the bubble-size distribution function predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory is directly confirmed. The total number of bubbles decreases asymptotically as t(-x) with scaling exponent x. As the initial temperature increases, the exponent changes from x = 3/2 to 1, which implies that the growth of bubbles changes from interface-limited (the t(1/2) law) to diffusion-limited (the t(1/3) law) growth.

  19. Collapse of a nanoscopic void triggered by a spherically symmetric traveling sound wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hołyst, Robert; Litniewski, Marek; Garstecki, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of the Lennard-Jones fluid (up to 10(7) atoms) are used to analyze the collapse of a nanoscopic bubble. The collapse is triggered by a traveling sound wave that forms a shock wave at the interface. The peak temperature T(max) in the focal point of the collapse is approximately ΣR(0)(a), where Σ is the surface density of energy injected at the boundary of the container of radius R(0) and α ≈ 0.4-0.45. For Σ = 1.6 J/m(2) and R(0) = 51 nm, the shock wave velocity, which is proportional to √Σ, reaches 3400 m/s (4 times the speed of sound in the liquid); the pressure at the interface, which is proportional to Σ, reaches 10 GPa; and T(max) reaches 40,000 K. The Rayleigh-Plesset equation together with the time of the collapse can be used to estimate the pressure at the front of the shock wave.

  20. Collapse simulation of building constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekrest'yanov Viktor Nikolaevich

    Full Text Available The physical reasons for building structures destruction are both the forces arising at stress-strain state of construction elements and external influences arising at emergency situations, as well as their moments, impulses and periodic impulses with the frequencies close to of fluctuations frequencies of construction elements. We shall call the mathematical calculation models for the parameters-reasons of destructions the basic models. The basic models of destruction of building structures elements allow not only providing necessary level of reliability and survivability of the elements and the construction as a whole already at the stage of their design, but also giving the chance, at their corresponding completion, to provide rational decisions on the general need of recovery works and their volume depending on destruction level. Especially important for rational design decisions development, which ensure the demanded constructional safety of building structures, is library creation of the basic mathematical models of standard processes of bearing elements destructions for standard construction designs for the purpose of the further forecast (assessment of the level and probabilities of standard destructions. Some basic mathematical models of destructions processes of the standard elements of building structures are presented in the present article. A model of accounting for construction defects and a model of obtaining requirements to probabilities of partial destructions of a construction are given. Both of these models are probabilistic.