WorldWideScience

Sample records for bubble growth

  1. Growth process of helium bubbles in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Haruki; Sakairi, Hideo; Yagi, Eiichi; Karasawa, Takashi; Hashiguti, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    The growth process of helium bubbles in α-particle bombarded pure aluminum during isothermal anneal ranging 200 to 645 0 C and 1 to 100 hr was observed by a transmission electron microscope and the possible growth mechanisms are discussed. The effects of helium concentration and cold work were investigated. The helium bubbles are detectable only at the anneal above 550 0 C in both annealed and cold worked samples. The cold work does not cause any extra coarsening trend of bubbles. The observed types of bubble distribution in the grain interior are divided into two categories, irrespective of helium concentration and cold work; (1) the fine and uniform bubble distribution, in which case the average size is limited to about 200 A or less in diameter even at the anneal just below the melting point, and (2) the coarsened and non-uniform bubble distribution ranging 500 to 4000 A in diameter. The intermediate size bubbles are scarcely found in any cases. In the above fine bubble distribution, the increase of helium concentration by a factor of two increases the density by the same factor of two, but does not change the mean size of bubbles. Corresponding to the above two characteristic bubble distributions, it is concluded that two different mechanisms are operative in this experiment; (1) the growth of bubbles by the Brownian motion, in which the growth rate of bubbles is decreased to almost zero by bubble faceting and this results in the bubble size constancy during the prolonged annealing, and (2) the growth of bubbles by the grain boundary sweep-out mechanism, by which the abrupt coarsening of bubbles is caused. The lack of existence of the intermediate size bubbles is explained in this way. (auth.)

  2. An equation of motion for bubble growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesage, F.J. [College d' Enseignement General et Professionnel de L' Outaouais, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Mathematics; Cotton, J.S. [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Robinson, A.J. [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    2009-07-01

    A mathematical model is developed which describes asymmetric bubble growth, either during boiling or bubble injection from submerged orifices. The model is developed using the integral form of the continuity and momentum equations, resulting in a general expression for the acceleration of the bubble's centre of gravity. The proposed model highlights the need to include acceleration due to an asymmetric gain or loss of mass in order to accurately predict bubble motion. Some scenarios are posed by which the growth of bubbles, particularly idealized bubbles that remain a section of a sphere, must include the fact that bubble growth can be asymmetric. In particular, for approximately hemispherical bubble growth the sum of the forces acting on the bubble is negligible compared with the asymmetric term. Further, for bubble injection from a submerged needle this component in the equation of motion is very significant during the initial rapid growth phase as the bubble issues from the nozzle changing from a near hemisphere to truncated sphere geometry. (author)

  3. An equation of motion for bubble growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesage, F.J.; Cotton, J.S.; Robinson, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed which describes asymmetric bubble growth, either during boiling or bubble injection from submerged orifices. The model is developed using the integral form of the continuity and momentum equations, resulting in a general expression for the acceleration of the bubble's centre of gravity. The proposed model highlights the need to include acceleration due to an asymmetric gain or loss of mass in order to accurately predict bubble motion. Some scenarios are posed by which the growth of bubbles, particularly idealized bubbles that remain a section of a sphere, must include the fact that bubble growth can be asymmetric. In particular, for approximately hemispherical bubble growth the sum of the forces acting on the bubble is negligible compared with the asymmetric term. Further, for bubble injection from a submerged needle this component in the equation of motion is very significant during the initial rapid growth phase as the bubble issues from the nozzle changing from a near hemisphere to truncated sphere geometry. (author)

  4. Bidirectional cinematography of steam-bubble growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, V.A.; Reynolds, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Single steam bubbles were generated in superheated water in an optical cell. The growth process of the bubbles was recorded with a high-speed motion picture camera at 5000 and 10,000 frames per second. A technique was developed to simultaneously image two orthogonal views of the bubbles on each frame of film. The vertical and horizontal diameters of the bubbles were measured on a frame-by-frame basis, and the data analyzed to determine oscillatory frequencies. The analysis also attempted to determine whether the bubbles were undergoing volumetric oscillations during early growth or whether simple surface wave/rotational behavior caused the observed periodic variations in bubble dimensions. For the bubbles studied, typical oscillation frequencies for the diameters were in the range of 100 to 500 Hz

  5. Bidirectional cinematography of steam-bubble growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, V.A.; Reynolds, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Single steam bubbles were generated in superheated water in an optical cell. The growth process of the bubbles was recorded with a high-speed motion picture camera at 5000 and 10,000 frames per second. A technique was developed to simultaneously image two orthogonal views of the bubbles on each frame of film. The vertical and horizontal diameters of the bubbles were measured on a frame-by-frame basis, and the data analyzed to determine oscillatory frequencies. The analysis also attempted to determine whether the bubbles were undergoing volumetric oscillations during early growth or whether simple surface wave/rotational behavior caused the observed periodic variations in bubble dimensions. For the bubbles studied, typical oscillation frequencies for the diameters were in the range of 100 to 500 Hz.

  6. Vapor bubble growth in highly superheated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Dynamics of the bubble growth in the volume of the uniformally superheated liquid is considered. It is supposed that its growth is hampered by heat transfer. An asymptotic expression for the bubble growth rate at high superheatings when heat hold by liquid is comparable with heat of steam formation, is found by the automodel solution of the heat transfer equation. Writing the radius square in the form of a functional applicable for the calculation of steam formation at the pressure change in superheated liquid is suggested for eveluation calculations [ru

  7. Bubble growth in a narrow horizontal space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, Benoit; Goulet, Remi [CETHIL, UMR5008, CNRS, INSA-Lyon, Universite Lyon1 (France); Passos, Julio Cesar [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. LABSOLAR

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an axis-symmetric two-phase flow model describing the growth of a single bubble squeezed between a horizontal heated upward-facing disc and an insulating surface placed parallel to the heated surface. Heat transfers at the liquid-vapour interfaces are predicted by the kinetic limit of vaporisation. The depths of the liquid films deposed on the surfaces (heated surface and confinement space) are determined using the Moriyama and Inoue correlation (1996). Transient heat transfers within the heated wall are taken into account. The model is applied to pentane bubble growth. The influence of the gap size, the initial temperature of the system, the thermal effusivity of the heated wall and the kinetic limit of vaporisation are studied. The results show that the expansion of the bubbles strongly depends on the gap size and can be affected by the effusivity of the material. Mechanical inertia effects are mainly dominant at the beginning of the bubble expansion. Pressure drop induced by viscous effects have to be taken into account for high capillary numbers. Heat transfers at the meniscus are negligible except at the early stages of the bubble growth. (author)

  8. Bubble growth in a narrow horizontal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutz, Benoit; Goulet, Remi; Passos, Julio Cesar

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an axis-symmetric two-phase flow model describing the growth of a single bubble squeezed between a horizontal heated upward-facing disc and an insulating surface placed parallel to the heated surface. Heat transfers at the liquid-vapour interfaces are predicted by the kinetic limit of vaporisation. The depths of the liquid films deposed on the surfaces (heated surface and confinement space) are determined using the Moriyama and Inoue correlation (1996). Transient heat transfers within the heated wall are taken into account. The model is applied to pentane bubble growth. The influence of the gap size, the initial temperature of the system, the thermal effusivity of the heated wall and the kinetic limit of vaporisation are studied. The results show that the expansion of the bubbles strongly depends on the gap size and can be affected by the effusivity of the material. Mechanical inertia effects are mainly dominant at the beginning of the bubble expansion. Pressure drop induced by viscous effects have to be taken into account for high capillary numbers. Heat transfers at the meniscus are negligible except at the early stages of the bubble growth. (author)

  9. Gas and vapor bubble growth and collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnin, J.; Reali, M.; Sardella, L.

    1976-01-01

    The rate of growth or collapse of a spherical bubble of gas or vapor under the effect of a nonequilibrium with the ambient liquid can be expressed in terms of generalized parameters taking into account either mass or heat diffusion. Diffusion equations have been solved either by numerical computation or under the form of a asymptotical solution, for a growing bubble only and with a constant nonequilibrium. Solutions are compared between them and with already published ones. Experimental results obtained match with a unique nonequilibrium parameter, analogous to a Jacob number. Discrepancies with asymptotical solutions can require in some cases complete numerical computation. But taking into account convection due to bubble lift will require a more sophisticated numerical computation [fr

  10. Effect of microstructure on helium bubble growth in irradiated nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Thin nickel films were irradiated with 80 keV helium ions at varying doses and varying temperatures in order to obtain a variety of final microstructures. The growth of bubbles was examined during in-situ irradiations at 950 0 C where migration and coalescence events were observed for bubbles as large as 60 nm. Further direct observations of bubble growth were made during annealing of the irradiated specimens. For sample with no visible bubbles before annealing, the heating to 0.51 T/sub M/ produced bubbles that increased in diameter with annealing time to the power n. For bubbles in the grain interior, n ∼ 1, and on the grain boundaries, n ∼ 0.6. Since no migration and coalescence or ripening theories predict this behavior, a theory described by transient diffusion to spherical sinks was developed to discuss the behavior. This theory predicts that n = 1 for bubbles growing in the grain interior and n = 0.5 for bubbles on the grain boundary. In other annealing of irradiated samples containing large bubble populations, the growth of large bubbles and shrinking of small bubbles was observed at a temperature equal to 0.54 T/sub M/. The theory of Ostwald ripening properly described this type of bubble growth. Mass spectrometer measurements of He content in the irradiated specimens showed a greater He retention in the Ni films that contained a significant bubble population than those with no visible bubbles

  11. The growth of oscillating bubbles in an ultrasound field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Risa; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Ando, Keita

    2017-11-01

    From our recent experiments to test particle removal by underwater ultrasound, dissolved gas supersaturation is found to play an important role in physical cleaning; cavitation bubble nucleation can be triggered easily by weak ultrasound under the supersaturation and mild motion of the bubbles contributes to efficient cleaning without erosion. The state of gas bubble nuclei in water is critical to the determination of a cavitation inception threshold. Under ultrasound forcing, the size of bubble nuclei is varied by the transfer of dissolved gas (i.e., rectified diffusion); the growth rate will be promoted by the supersaturation and is thus expected to contribute to cavitation activity enhancement. In the present work, we experimentally study rectified diffusion for bubbles attached at glass surfaces in an ultrasound field. We will present the evolution of bubble nuclei sizes with varying parameters such as dissolved oxygen supersaturation, and ultrasound intensity and frequency. the Research Grant of Keio Leading-edge Laboratory of Science & Technology.

  12. Effect of temperature on swelling and bubble growth in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the swelling of copper-boron alloys has been studied in the temperature range of 900-1040deg C. It is observed that beyond 1030deg C, swelling as well as the rate of bubble growth decrease. Similar characteristics of the bubble growth have been observed in aluminium-boron alloys also. At 590deg C, the bubble growth in aluminium-boron alloys is faster as compared to that at 640deg C. It thus appears that the swelling as well as the growth of the gas bubble are retarded at temperatures near the melting point in metals. Possible reasons for this kind of behaviour are discussed. (author)

  13. Microlayer Topology And Bubble Growth In Nucleate Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawurek, H. H.; Macgregor, H. G.; Bodenheimer, J. S.

    1987-09-01

    During nucleate boiling thin liquid films (nicrolayers) form beneath the base of bubbles and evaporate into the bubble interiors. A technique is presented which permits the simultaneous determination of microlayer topology and the contribution of microlayer evaporation to bubble growth. Isolated-bubble boiling takes place on an electrically heated, transparent tin-oxide coating deposited on a glass plate, the latter forming the floor of a vessel. With coherent Claser) illumination from beneath, the microlayers reflect fringe patterns similar to Newton's rings. Owing to the rapid evaporation of the layers (the process is completed within milliseconds) the fringes are in rapid motion and are recorded by eine photography at some 4 000 frames per second and exposure times of 50 μs. The resulting interferograms provide details of microlayer shape and thickness versus time, and thus evaporation rate. Simultaneously, and on the same film, bubble profiles (and thus volumes) are obtained under white light illumination. The two bubble images are manipulated by mirrors and lenses so as to appear side by side on the same frame of film, the fringes magnified and the profiles reduced. Sample results for methanol boiling at a pressure of 58.5 kPa and with the liquid bulk at saturation temperature, are presented. Under such conditions microlayer evaporation accounts for 37 per cent of the total bubble volume at detachment.

  14. Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2013-01-01

    A goal of our ongoing research stream is to develop a multidisciplinary metatheory of bubbles. In this viewpoint paper we put forward a typology of bubbles by comparing four types of assets – entertainment, commodities, financial securities (stocks), and housing properties – where bubbles could...... and do form occasionally. Cutting across and comparing such varied asset types provides some rich insights into the nature of bubbles – and offers an inductive way to arrive at the typology of bubbles....

  15. Bubble growth and detachment between two close surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath, H.E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Nucleate boiling is an efficient heat transfer process both as a mean of achieving high heat flux at moderate surface temperature and as a mean of generating steam. The ability to predict nucleate boiling heat flux depends on many interconnected factors such as the number of active sites, the frequency of bubble emission at these sites, and the heat transfer associated with a single bubble. Therefore, the determination of the bubble shape, growth, detachment diameter, and detachment time plays an important role in understanding the boiling mechanisms and in predicting the heat transfer rates. Although much research have been carried-out for the study of free bubble dynamics, the analysis of such problem in a narrow gap-between two close and parallel surfaces (as the gaps between steam generator tubes and tube sheet) has not been attempted, so far as the author is aware. This paper represents an attempt to shed some light on this complex problem. (author)

  16. Dynamic of vapor bubble growth in fields of variable pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, H.K.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical model for the description of the growth from an initial nucleus of a vapor bubble imersed in liquid, subjected to a loss of pressure is presented. The model is important for analysing LOCA (Loss of Coolant Acident) in P.W.R. type reactors. Several simplifications were made in the phenomenum governing equations. With such simplifications the heat diffusion equation became the determining factor for the bubble growth, and the problem was reduced to solve the heat diffusion equation for semi infinite solid whose surface temperature is a well known function of time (it is supposed that the surface temperature is equal to the saturation temperature of the liquid at the system pressure at a given moment). The model results in an analytical expression for the bubble radius as a function of time. Comparisons with experimental data and previous models were made, with reasonable agreement. (author) [pt

  17. Helium solubility and bubble growth in metals under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakmann, J.

    1985-07-01

    Helium solubility and bubble growth in metals under high pressure polycrystals and single crystals of gold were heated in helium at temperatures between 475 K and 1250 K in a pressure regime of 200 to 2700 bar to measure the solubility of helium in gold. After quenching to room temperature the helium content, measured by mass spectrometry, showed the following properties: 1) A linear dependence of the He solubility on pressure. 2) Thinning of the specimen reduces the helium content by a factor 10 to 100 but does not change the linear pressure dependence. 3) The thermal release of He from thinned polycrystals and single crystals occurs mainly in a single peak at 500 K. 4) The He concentration of the thinned single crystals was lower by a factor of 10 to 50 than that of the thinned polycrystals. 5) The He solubility in single crystals can be described by an enthalpy of solution Hsub(s)sup(f) = 0.85 +- 0.7 eV and a non-configurational entropy of Ssub(s)sup(f) between 0 k and 1 k (k: Boltzmann-constant). In order to measure the pressure dependence of helium bubble growth in nickel polycrystal Ni-foils were α-implanted to a helium content of 130 appm. The evaluation of the size distribution of the helium bubbles after heat treatments shows 1) The helium content of the observable bubbles - assumed to be in equilibrium - equals the amount of helium implanted into the specimen. 2) The activation energy for the growth of helium bubbles is 1.25 +- 0.3 eV. The comparison of specimen which had been heated at low pressures up to 10 bar with others heated at 2500-2700 bar does not show an unequivocal pressure dependence for helium bubble growth. (orig./IHOE) [de

  18. Effect of titanium impurities on helium bubble growth in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarendra, G.; Viswanathan, B.; Rajaraman, R.; Srinivasan, S.; Gopinathan, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Positron lifetime measurements in He-implanted Ni and Ni-Ti alloys containing dilute concentrations of Ti, during isochronal annealing, are reported. In the initial annealing stage of Ni-Ti alloys, only a single lifetime ranging from 160 to 180 ps is observed, in contrast with the two lifetimes seen in pure Ni. This indicates saturation positron trapping at helium-bound Ti-vacancy complexes, formed in high concentrations. Lattice statics calculations of the He binding energy at various defect complexes in Ni-containing Ti give credence to the above interpretation. Above 800K, two lifetimes are resolved in Ni-Ti alloys, where the longer lifetime τ 2 increases with a sharp reduction in its intensity. This is indicative of He bubble growth. The bubble radius r B and bubble concentration C B are obtained from an analysis of positron lifetime parameters. These results indicate that, for a given annealing temperature, r B is smaller by a factor of two and C B higher by nearly an order of magnitude in Ni-Ti than the corresponding values in pure Ni. This is explained as due to significant retardation of bubble growth on the addition of Ti to Ni, where the Ti impurities cause an impediment to bubble migration and coalescence. (author)

  19. Theories of nucleation and growth of bubbles and voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speight, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    The application of classical nucleation theory to the formation of voids from a supersaturated concentration of vacancies is reviewed. The effect of a dissolved concentration of barley soluble gas on the nucleation rate of voids is emphasized. Exposure to a damaging flux of irradiation is the most effective way of introducing a vacancy supersaturation, but interstitials are produced at an equal rate. The concentration of interstitials inhibits the nucleation of voids which can occur only in the presence of dislocations since they preferentially absorb interstitials. It is well known that a definite value of internal gas pressure is necessary to stabilize a bubble so that it shows no tendencies to either shrink or grow. The arguments are reviewed which conclude that this pressure is determined by the specific surface free energy of the solid rather than the surface tension. While the former property refers to the energy necessary to create new surface, the latter is a measure of the work done in elastically stretching a a given surface. The presence of an equilibrium gas bubble leaves the stresses in the surrounding solid unperturbed only when surface energy and surface tension are numerically equal. A bubble with internal pressure greater than the restraint offered by surface energy tends to grow to relieve the excess pressure. The mechanism of growth can involve the migration of vacancies from remote sources to the bubble surface or the plastic straining of the solid surrounding the bubble. The kinetics of both mechanisms are developed and compared. The theory of growth of grain-boundary voids by vacancy condensation under an applied stress is also considered. (author)

  20. Cluster Dynamics Modeling with Bubble Nucleation, Growth and Coalescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blondel, Sophie [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bernholdt, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wirth, Brian D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The topic of this communication pertains to defect formation in irradiated solids such as plasma-facing tungsten submitted to helium implantation in fusion reactor com- ponents, and nuclear fuel (metal and oxides) submitted to volatile ssion product generation in nuclear reactors. The purpose of this progress report is to describe ef- forts towards addressing the prediction of long-time evolution of defects via continuum cluster dynamics simulation. The di culties are twofold. First, realistic, long-time dynamics in reactor conditions leads to a non-dilute di usion regime which is not accommodated by the prevailing dilute, stressless cluster dynamics theory. Second, long-time dynamics calls for a large set of species (ideally an in nite set) to capture all possible emerging defects, and this represents a computational bottleneck. Extensions beyond the dilute limit is a signi cant undertaking since no model has been advanced to extend cluster dynamics to non-dilute, deformable conditions. Here our proposed approach to model the non-dilute limit is to monitor the appearance of a spatially localized void volume fraction in the solid matrix with a bell shape pro le and insert an explicit geometrical bubble onto the support of the bell function. The newly cre- ated internal moving boundary provides the means to account for the interfacial ux of mobile species into the bubble, and the growth of bubbles allows for coalescence phenomena which captures highly non-dilute interactions. We present a preliminary interfacial kinematic model with associated interfacial di usion transport to follow the evolution of the bubble in any number of spatial dimensions and any number of bubbles, which can be further extended to include a deformation theory. Finally we comment on a computational front-tracking method to be used in conjunction with conventional cluster dynamics simulations in the non-dilute model proposed.

  1. Simulation of hydrogen bubble growth in tungsten by a hybrid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang, Chaofeng; Sun, Jizhong; Bonnin, Xavier; Wang, L.; Wang, Dezhen

    2015-01-01

    A two dimensional hybrid code (HIIPC-MC) joining rate-theory and Monte Carlo (MC) methods is developed in this work. We evaluate the cascade-coalescence mechanism contribution to the bubble growth by MC. First, effects of the starting radius and solute deuterium concentration on the bubble growth are studied; then the impacts of the wall temperature and implantation ion flux on the bubble growth are assessed. The simulation indicates that the migration-coalescence of the bubbles and the high pressure inside the bubbles are the main driving forces for the bubble growth, and that neglect of the migration and coalescence would lead to an underestimation of the bubble growth or blistering

  2. The onset condition of equatorial plasma bubbles - the role of seeding mechanism and growth condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, H.; Choi, J. M.; Kwak, Y. S.; Lee, W. K.; Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the role of seeding mechanism and growth condition of perturbations in the creation of equatorial plasma bubbles by analyzing the C/NOFS and ROCSAT-1 satellite observations. The initial development times of bubbles were identified by manual processing of the data, and the periodic characteristics in the occurrence of bubbles were investigated using periodograms obtained from segments of bubble chains. Our preliminary results show that bubbles initiate at the time that the pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) ends. This time corresponds to the time that the F region reaches the highest altitude where the growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability is large. The initial onset time of bubbles varies with season and longitude in accordance with the variation of the PRE ending time. Our investigation of the periodicity in the occurrence of bubbles (spacing between bubbles) shows that a dominant periodicity does not exist; the spacing between bubbles ranges from 100 km to over 1000 km. A pronounced periodicity occurs in some series of bubbles, but, in general, multiple periodicity co-exists. The initiation of bubbles at a specific local time but the absence of a preferential wave property in the occurrence of bubbles lead to the conclusion that the onset of bubbles is controlled by the growth condition of the R-T instability.

  3. Fractality and growth of He bubbles in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajita, Shin; Ito, Atsushi M.; Ohno, Noriyasu

    2017-08-01

    Pinholes are formed on surfaces of metals by the exposure to helium plasmas, and they are regarded as the initial process of the growth of fuzzy nanostructures. In this study, number density of the pinholes is investigated in detail from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs of tungsten and tantalum exposed to the helium plasmas. A power law relation was identified between the number density and the size of pinholes. From the slope and the region where the power law was satisfied, the fractal dimension D and smin, which characterize the SEM images, are deduced. Parametric dependences and material dependence of D and smin are revealed. To explain the fractality, simple Monte-Carlo simulations including random walks of He atoms and absorption on bubble was introduced. It is shown that the initial position of the random walk is one of the key factors to deduce the fractality. The results indicated that new nucleations of bubbles are necessary to reproduce the number-density distribution of bubbles.

  4. Dynamics of gas bubble growth in oil-refrigerant mixtures under isothermal decompression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Joao Paulo; Barbosa Junior, Jader R.; Prata, Alvaro T. [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: jpdias@polo.ufsc.br, jrb@polo.ufsc.br, prata@polo.ufsc.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper proposes a numerical model to predict the growth of gaseous refrigerant bubbles in oil-refrigerant mixtures with high contents of oil subjected to isothermal decompression. The model considers an Elementary Cell (EC) in which a spherical bubble is surrounded by a concentric and spherical liquid layer containing a limited amount of dissolved liquid refrigerant. The pressure reduction in the EC generates a concentration gradient at the bubble interface and the refrigerant is transported to the bubble by molecular diffusion. After a sufficiently long period of time, the concentration gradient in the liquid layer and the bubble internal pressure reach equilibrium and the bubble stops growing, having attained its stable radius. The equations of momentum and chemical species conservation for the liquid layer, and the mass balance at the bubble interface are solved via a coupled finite difference procedure to determine the bubble internal pressure, the refrigerant radial concentration distribution and the bubble growth rate. Numerical results obtained for a mixture of ISO VG10 ester oil and refrigerant HFC-134a showed that bubble growth dynamics depends on model parameters like the initial bubble radius, initial refrigerant concentration in the liquid layer, decompression rate and EC temperature. Despite its simplicity, the model showed to be a potential tool to predict bubble growth and foaming which may result from important phenomena occurring inside refrigeration compressors such as lubrication of sliding parts and refrigerant degassing from the oil stored in oil sump during compressor start-up. (author)

  5. A description of bubble growth and gas release of helium implanted tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, S.; Hu, Q.; Ghoniem, N.; Tkahashi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Bubble growth and gas release during annealing of helium implanted tungsten is described using a Kinetic Monte Carlo approach. The implanted spatial profiles of stable bubble nuclei are first determined using the Kinetic Rate Theory based helium evolution code, HEROS. The effects of implantation energy, temperature, and bias forces, such as temperature- and stress gradients on bubble migration and coalescence are investigated to explain experimental gas release measurements. This comprehensive helium bubble evolution and release model, demonstrates the impact of near surface (< 1 um) versus deep helium implantation on bubble evolution. Near surface implanted helium bubbles readily attain large equilibrium sizes, while matrix bubbles remain small with high helium pressures. Using the computer simulation, the various stages of helium bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence, and migration are demonstrated and compared with available experimental results. (authors)

  6. Fluctuation effects on bubble growth in hot nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, A.J.; Chung, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of bubbles with arbitrary density in an infinite nuclear system is studied in a simplified treatment. Kinetic pressure fluctuations on the bubble surface are considered. The critical radius, evolution time and probability for bubble expansion are shown to depend significantly on the initial bubble density. (author)

  7. Dynamics of diffusive bubble growth and pressure recovery in a bubbly rhyolitic melt embedded in an elastic solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouet, Bernard A.; Dawson, Phillip B.; Nakano, Masaru

    2006-01-01

    We present a model of gas exsolution and bubble expansion in a melt supersaturated in response to a sudden pressure drop. In our model, the melt contains a suspension of gas bubbles of identical sizes and is encased in a penny-shaped crack embedded in an elastic solid. The suspension is modeled as a three-dimensional lattice of spherical cells with slight overlap, where each elementary cell consists of a gas bubble surrounded by a shell of volatile-rich melt. The melt is then subjected to a step drop in pressure, which induces gas exsolution and bubble expansion, resulting in the compression of the melt and volumetric expansion of the crack. The dynamics of diffusion-driven bubble growth and volumetric crack expansion span 9 decades in time. The model demonstrates that the speed of the crack response depends strongly on volatile diffusivity in the melt and bubble number density and is markedly sensitive to the ratio of crack thickness to crack radius and initial bubble radius but is relatively insensitive to melt viscosity. The net drop in gas concentration in the melt after pressure recovery represents only a small fraction of the initial concentration prior to the drop, suggesting the melt may undergo numerous pressure transients before becoming significantly depleted of gases. The magnitude of pressure and volume recovery in the crack depends sensitively on the size of the input-pressure transient, becoming relatively larger for smaller-size transients in a melt containing bubbles with initial radii less than 10-5 m. Amplification of the input transient may be large enough to disrupt the crack wall and induce brittle failure in the rock matrix surrounding the crack. Our results provide additional basis for the interpretation of volume changes in the magma conduit under Popocatépetl Volcano during Vulcanian degassing bursts in its eruptive activity in April–May 2000.

  8. Non-Markovian effects on the dynamics of bubble growth in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomietz, V.M.; Sanzhur, A.I.; Shlomo, S.

    2003-01-01

    We study the conditions for the generation and the dynamical evolution of embryonic overcritical vapor bubbles in an overheated asymmetric nuclear matter. We show that the Fermi-surface distortion and memory effects significantly hinder the growth of the bubbles. Moreover, the growth of the bubble is accompanied by characteristic oscillations of its radius R. The characteristic energy E, the damping parameter Γ, and the instability growth rate parameter ζ, depend on the relaxation time τ. The characteristic oscillations disappear in the short relaxation time limit τ→0. Our approach ignores the fluctuations of the particle numbers in the bubble region and the finite diffuse layer of the bubble. The minimum size of the critical radius R * for which our approach applies is determined by the condition a/R * <<1, where a=0.5-1 fm is the temperature-dependent surface thickness of the bubble

  9. A description of stress driven bubble growth of helium implanted tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, Shahram; Takahashi, Akiyuki; Nagasawa, Koji; Ghoniem, Nasr

    2009-01-01

    Low energy (<100 keV) helium implantation of tungsten has been shown to result in the formation of unusual surface morphologies over a large temperature range (700-2100 deg. C). Simulation of these macroscopic phenomena requires a multiscale approach to modeling helium transport in both space and time. We present here a multiscale helium transport model by coupling spatially-resolved kinetic rate theory (KRT) with kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation to model helium bubble nucleation and growth. The KRT-based HEROS Code establishes defect concentrations as well as stable helium bubble nuclei as a function of implantation parameters and position from the implanted surface and the KMC-based Mc-HEROS Code models the growth of helium bubbles due to migration and coalescence. Temperature- and stress-gradients can act as driving forces, resulting in biased bubble migration. The Mc-HEROS Code was modified to simulate the impact of stress gradients on bubble migration and coalescence. In this work, we report on bubble growth and gas release of helium implanted tungsten W/O stress gradients. First, surface pore densities and size distributions are compared with available experimental results for stress-free helium implantation conditions. Next, the impact of stress gradients on helium bubble evolution is simulated. The influence of stress fields on bubble and surface pore evolution are compared with stress-free simulations. It is shown that near surface stress gradients accelerate helium bubbles towards the free surface, but do not increasing average bubble diameters significantly.

  10. Growth rate effects on the formation of dislocation loops around deep helium bubbles in Tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, Luis; Perez, Danny; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Voter, Arthur Ford

    2016-01-01

    Here, the growth process of spherical helium bubbles located 6 nm below a (100) surface is studied using molecular dynamics and parallel replica dynamics simulations, over growth rates from 10"6 to 10"1"2 helium atoms per second. Slower growth rates lead to a release of pressure and lower helium content as compared with fast growth cases. In addition, at slower growth rates, helium bubbles are not decorated by multiple dislocation loops, as these tend to merge or emit given sufficient time. At faster rates, dislocation loops nucleate faster than they can emit, leading to a more complicated dislocation structure around the bubble.

  11. In-situ observations of bubble growth in basaltic, andesitic and rhyodacitic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masotta, M.; Ni, H.; Keppler, H.

    2013-12-01

    Bubble growth strongly affects the physical properties of degassing magmas and their eruption dynamics. Natural samples and products from quench experiments provide only a snapshot of the final state of volatile exsolution, leaving the processes occurring during its early stages unconstrained. In order to fill this gap, we present in-situ high-temperature observations of bubble growth in magmas of different compositions (basalt, andesite and rhyodacite) at 1100 to 1240 °C and 1 bar, obtained using a moissanite cell apparatus. The data show that nucleation occurs at very small degrees of supersaturaturation (bubbles occurring simultaneously with the nucleation of crystals. During the early stages of exsolution, melt degassing is the driving mechanism of bubble growth, with coalescence becoming increasingly important as exsolution progresses. Ostwald ripening occurs only at the end of the process and only in basaltic melt. The average bubble growth rate (GR) ranges from 3.4*10-6 to 5.2*10-7 mm/s, with basalt and andesite showing faster growth rates than rhyodacite. The bubble number density (NB) at nucleation ranges from 1.8*108 to 7.9*107 cm-3 and decreases exponentially over time. While the rhyodacite melt maintained a well-sorted bubble-size distribution (BSD) through time, the BSD's of basalt and andesite are much more inhomogeneous. Our experimental observations demonstrate that bubble growth cannot be ascribed to a single mechanism but is rather a combination of many processes, which depend on the physical properties of the melt. Depending on coalescence rate, annealing of bubbles following a single nucleation event can produce complex bubble size distributions. In natural samples, such BSD's may be misinterpreted as resulting from several separate nucleation events. Incipient crystallization upon cooling of a magma may allow bubble nucleation already at very small degrees of supersaturation and could therefore be an important trigger for volatile release and

  12. Combined effect of viscosity and vorticity on single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability bubble growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Rahul; Mandal, Labakanta; Roy, S.; Khan, M.; Gupta, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    The combined effect of viscosity and vorticity on the growth rate of the bubble associated with single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated. It is shown that the effect of viscosity on the motion of the lighter fluid associated with vorticity accumulated inside the bubble due to mass ablation may be such as to reduce the net viscous drag on the bubble exerted by the upper heavier fluid as the former rises through it.

  13. On the morphological instability of a bubble during inertia-controlled growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyushev, L. M.; Birzina, A. I.; Soboleva, A. S.

    2018-06-01

    The morphological stability of a spherical bubble growing under inertia control is analyzed. Based on the comparison of entropy productions for a distorted and undistorted surface and using the maximum entropy production principle, the morphological instability of the bubble under arbitrary amplitude distortions is shown. This result allows explaining a number of experiments where the surface roughness of bubbles was observed during their explosive-type growth.

  14. Electron irradiation effect on bubble formation and growth in a sodium borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.; Birtcher, R. C.; Donnelly, S. E.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the authors studied simultaneous and intermittent electron irradiation effects on bubble growth in a simple sodium borosilicate glass during Xe ion implantation at 200 C. Simultaneous electron irradiation increases the average bubble size in the glass. This enhanced diffusion is also shown by the migration of Xe from bubbles into the matrix when the sample is irradiated by an electron beam after the Xe implantation

  15. Growth and detachment of single hydrogen bubbles in a magnetohydrodynamic shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczyzmalski, Dominik; Karnbach, Franziska; Mutschke, Gerd; Yang, Xuegeng; Eckert, Kerstin; Uhlemann, Margitta; Cierpka, Christian

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shear flow on the growth and detachment of single sub-millimeter-sized hydrogen gas bubbles. These bubbles were electrolytically generated at a horizontal Pt microelectrode (100 μ m in diameter) in an acidic environment (1 M H2SO4 ). The inherent electric field was superimposed by a homogeneous electrode-parallel magnetic field of up to 700 mT to generate Lorentz forces in the electrolyte, which drive the MHD flow. The growth and motion of the hydrogen bubble was analyzed by microscopic high-speed imaging and measurements of the electric current, while particle tracking velocimetry (μ PTV ) and particle image velocimetry (μ PIV ) were applied to measure the surrounding electrolyte flow. In addition, numerical flow simulations were performed based on the experimental conditions. The results show a significant reduction of the bubble growth time and detachment diameter with increasing magnetic induction, which is known to improve the efficiency of water electrolysis. In order to gain further insight into the bubble detachment mechanism, an analysis of the forces acting on the bubble was performed. The strong MHD-induced drag force causes the bubble to slowly slide away from the center of the microelectrode before its detachment. This motion increases the active electrode area and enhances the bubble growth rate. The results further indicate that at large current densities the coalescence of tiny bubbles formed at the foot of the main bubble might play an important role for the bubble detachment. Moreover, the occurrence of Marangoni stresses at the gas-liquid interface is discussed.

  16. Bubbles in Titan’s Seas: Nucleation, Growth, and RADAR Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Daniel; Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2018-05-01

    In the polar regions of Titan, the main satellite of Saturn, hydrocarbon seas have been discovered by the Cassini–Huygens mission. RADAR observations have revealed surprising and transient bright areas over the Ligeia Mare surface. As suggested by recent research, bubbles could explain these strange features. However, the nucleation and growth of such bubbles, together with their RADAR reflectivity, have never been investigated. All of these aspects are critical to an actual observation. We have thus applied the classical nucleation theory to our context, and we developed a specific radiative transfer model that is appropriate for bubble streams in cryogenic liquids. According to our results, the sea bed appears to be the most plausible place for the generation of bubbles, leading to a signal comparable to observations. This conclusion is supported by thermodynamic arguments and by RADAR properties of a bubbly column. The latter are also valid in the case of bubble plumes, due to gas leaking from the sea floor.

  17. Calculation of vapour bubble growth on the lower generatrix of horizontal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chajka, V.D.

    1987-01-01

    The known models of vapour bubble growth are compared with experimental data. Cinematographic study of vapour formation during water boiling was carried out with elements of horizontal tubes of copper 10, 16, 24, 34 and 70 mm in diameter under the pressure of 100 kPa and specific thermal loadings of 20 and 40 kW/m 2 . According to the experimental data the main volume of vapour phase is occupied by vapour bubbles from the lower part of the horizontal tube. Five stages of vapour bubble growth on the lower generatrix of the horizontal tube: nucleation, growth to the point of breaking off from nucleate centre, the breaking off from the nucleate centre, the tube surface flowing around during floating up, the breaking off from the tube surface, were singled out. The shape of vapour volume varied during the whole period of the bubble growth and it was mainly determined by the horizontal tube diameter. The change of vapour bubble radius in time is the function of the horizontal tube diameter. Comparison of the experimental data with the known models of vapour bubble growth has shown, that every stage of vapour bubble growth on the lower generatrix of the tube is determined by the complex of thermal and hydrodynamic conditions, the effect of which depends on the horizontal tube diameter

  18. Tungsten surface evolution by helium bubble nucleation, growth and rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefta, Faiza; Wirth, Brian D.; Hammond, Karl D.; Juslin, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations reveal sub-surface mechanisms likely involved in the initial formation of nanometre-sized ‘fuzz’ in tungsten exposed to low-energy helium plasmas. Helium clusters grow to over-pressurized bubbles as a result of repeated cycles of helium absorption and Frenkel pair formation. The self-interstitials either reach the surface as isolated adatoms or trap at the bubble periphery before organizing into prismatic 〈1 1 1〉 dislocation loops. Surface roughening occurs as single adatoms migrate to the surface, prismatic loops glide to the surface to form adatom islands, and ultimately as over-pressurized gas bubbles burst. (paper)

  19. Influence of cavitation bubble growth by rectified diffusion on cavitation-enhanced HIFU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kohei; Sugiyama, Kazuyasu; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2017-11-01

    Cavitation is becoming increasingly important in therapeutic ultrasound applications such as diagnostic, tumor ablation and lithotripsy. Mass transfer through gas-liquid interface due to rectified diffusion is important role in an initial stage of cavitation bubble growth. In the present study, influences of the rectified diffusion on cavitation-enhanced high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) was investigated numerically. Firstly, the mass transfer rate of gas from the surrounding medium to the bubble was examined as function of the initial bubble radius and the driving pressure amplitude. As the result, the pressure required to bubble growth was decreases with increasing the initial bubble radius. Next, the cavitation-enhanced HIFU, which generates cavitation bubbles by high-intensity burst and induces the localized heating owing to cavitation bubble oscillation by low-intensity continuous waves, was reproduced by the present simulation. The heating region obtained by the simulation is agree to the treatment region of an in vitro experiment. Additionally, the simulation result shows that the localized heating is enhanced by the increase of the equilibrium bubble size due to the rectified diffusion. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP26420125,JP17K06170.

  20. Regularities of growth, condensation, solution of vapour and gaseous bubbles in turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Corrections for interphase transfer exchange intensity and for bubbles dynamics in the forced turbulent flow as well are obtained on the basis of the surface periodical restoration model. Analysis of the effects, caused by turbulence additional generation due to bubbles floating-up within gravity field, is carried out. Formulae for calculating interphase heat and mass transfer at bubbling are suggested. Application limits for the developed model are determined. Comparison of calculation results according to the derived universal dependence with experimental data on growth rates and condensation of vapour bubble, and on solution rates of gaseous bubbles in water (Re=8x10 3 -2x10 6 ; Pr0.83-568, pressure up to 10 MPa) has revealed their good agreeme nt

  1. The growth of intra-granular bubbles in post-irradiation annealed UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Post-irradiation examinations of low temperature irradiated UO 2 reveal large numbers of very small intra-granular bubbles, typically of around 1 nm diameter. During high temperature reactor transients these bubbles act as sinks for fission gas atoms and vacancies and can give rise to large volumetric swellings, sometimes of the order of 10%. Under irradiation conditions, the nucleation and growth of these bubbles is determined by a balance between irradiation-induced nucleation, diffusional growth and an irradiation induced re-solution mechanism. This conceptual picture is, however, incomplete because in the absence of irradiation the model predicts that the bubble population present from the pre-irradiation would act as the dominant sink for fission gas atoms resulting in large intra-granular swellings and little or no fission gas release. In practice, large fission gas releases are observed from post-irradiation annealed fuel. A recent series of experiments addressed the issue of fission gas release and swelling in post-irradiation annealed UO 2 originating from Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) fuel which had been ramp tested in the Halden Test reactor. Specimens of fuel were subjected to transient heating at ramp rates of 0.5 deg. C/s and 20 deg. C/s to target temperatures between 1600 deg. C and 1900 deg. C. The release of fission gas was monitored during the tests. Subsequently, the fuel was subjected to post-irradiation examination involving detailed Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis. Bubble-size distributions were obtained from seventeen specimens, which entailed the measurement of nearly 26,000 intra-granular bubbles. The analysis reveals that the bubble densities remain approximately invariant during the anneals and the bubble-size distributions exhibit long exponential tails in which the largest bubbles are present in concentrations of 10 4 or 10 5 lower than the concentrations of the average sized bubbles. Detailed modelling of the bubble

  2. Numerical simulation of bubble growth and departure during flow boiling period by lattice Boltzmann method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Tao; Li, Weizhong; Yang, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The bubble departure diameter is proportional to g −0.425 in quiescent fluid. • The bubble release frequency is proportional to g 0.678 in quiescent fluid. • The simulation result supports the transient micro-convection model. • The bubble departure diameter has exponential relation with inlet velocity. • The bubble release frequency has linear relation with inlet velocity. -- Abstract: Nucleate boiling flows on a horizontal plate are studied in this paper by a hybrid lattice Boltzmann method, where both quiescent and slowly flowing ambient are concerned. The process of a single bubble growth on and departure from the superheated wall is simulated. The simulation result supports the transient micro-convection model. The bubble departure diameter and the release frequency are investigated from the simulation result. It is found that the bubble departure diameter and the release frequency are proportional to g −0.425 and g 0.678 in quiescent fluid, respectively, where g is the gravitational acceleration. Nucleate boiling in slowly flowing ambient is also calculated in consideration of forced convection. It is presented that the bubble departure diameter and the release frequency have exponential relationship and linear relationship with inlet velocity in slowly flowing fluid, respectively

  3. Distributions of crystals and gas bubbles in reservoir ice during growth period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-jun Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the dominant factors of the physical properties of ice in ice thermodynamics and mechanics, in-situ observations of ice growth and decay processes were carried out. Two samplings were conducted in the fast and steady ice growth stages. Ice pieces were used to observe ice crystals and gas bubbles in ice, and to measure the ice density. Vertical profiles of the type and size of ice crystals, shape and size of gas bubbles, and gas bubble content, as well as the ice density, were obtained. The results show that the upper layer of the ice pieces is granular ice and the lower layer is columnar ice; the average crystal size increases with the ice depth and remains steady in the fast and steady ice growth stages; the shape of gas bubbles in the upper layer of ice pieces is spherical with higher total content, and the shape in the middle and lower layers is cylinder with lower total content; the gas bubble size and content vary with the ice growth stage; and the ice density decreases with the increase of the gas bubble content.

  4. In situ observations of bubble growth in basaltic, andesitic and rhyodacitic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masotta, M.; Ni, H.; Keppler, H.

    2014-02-01

    Bubble growth strongly affects the physical properties of degassing magmas and their eruption dynamics. Natural samples and products from quench experiments provide only a snapshot of the final state of volatile exsolution, leaving the processes occurring during its early stages unconstrained. In order to fill this gap, we present in situ high-temperature observations of bubble growth in magmas of different compositions (basalt, andesite and rhyodacite) at 1,100 to 1,240 °C and 0.1 MPa (1 bar), obtained using a moissanite cell apparatus. The data show that nucleation occurs at very small degrees of supersaturaturation (bubbles occurring simultaneously with the nucleation of crystals. During the early stages of exsolution, melt degassing is the driving mechanism of bubble growth, with coalescence becoming increasingly important as exsolution progresses. Ostwald ripening occurs only at the end of the process and only in basaltic melt. The average bubble growth rate ( G R) ranges from 3.4 × 10-6 to 5.2 × 10-7 mm/s, with basalt and andesite showing faster growth rates than rhyodacite. The bubble number density ( N B) at nucleation ranges from 7.9 × 104 mm-3 to 1.8 × 105 mm-3 and decreases exponentially over time. While the rhyodacite melt maintained a well-sorted bubble size distribution (BSD) through time, the BSDs of basalt and andesite are much more inhomogeneous. Our experimental observations demonstrate that bubble growth cannot be ascribed to a single mechanism but is rather a combination of many processes, which depend on the physical properties of the melt. Depending on coalescence rate, annealing of bubbles following a single nucleation event can produce complex bubble size distributions. In natural samples, such BSDs may be misinterpreted as resulting from several separate nucleation events. Incipient crystallization upon cooling of a magma may allow bubble nucleation already at very small degrees of supersaturation and could therefore be an important

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of Single Bubble Growth under High-Pressure Pool Boiling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Murallidharan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Component-scale modeling of boiling is predominantly based on the Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid approach. Within this framework, wall boiling is accounted for via the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI model and, within this model, the bubble is characterized using three main parameters: departure diameter (D, nucleation site density (N, and departure frequency (f. Typically, the magnitudes of these three parameters are obtained from empirical correlations. However, in recent years, efforts have been directed toward mechanistic modeling of the boiling process. Of the three parameters mentioned above, the departure diameter (D is least affected by the intrinsic uncertainties of the nucleate boiling process. This feature, along with its prominence within the RPI boiling model, has made it the primary candidate for mechanistic modeling ventures. Mechanistic modeling of D is mostly carried out through solving of force balance equations on the bubble. Forces incorporated in these equations are formulated as functions of the radius of the bubble and have been developed for, and applied to, low-pressure conditions only. Conversely, for high-pressure conditions, no mechanistic information is available regarding the growth rates of bubbles and the forces acting on them. In this study, we use direct numerical simulation coupled with an interface tracking method to simulate bubble growth under high (up to 45 bar pressure, to obtain the kind of mechanistic information required for an RPI-type approach. In this study, we compare the resulting bubble growth rate curves with predictions made with existing experimental data.

  6. Simulation of the ultrasound-induced growth and collapse of a near-wall bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Bradley; Becker, Sid

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we consider the acoustically driven growth and collapse of a cavitation bubble in a fluid medium exposed to an ultrasound field. The bubble dynamics are modelled using a compressible, inviscid, multiphase model. The numerical scheme consists of a conservative interface capturing scheme which uses the fifth-order WENO reconstruction with a maximum-principle-satisfying and positivity-preserving limiter, and the HLLC approximate Riemann flux. To model the ultrasound input, a moving boundary oscillates through a fixed grid of finite-volume cells. The growth phase of the simulation shows the rapid non-spherical growth of the near-wall bubble. Once the bubble reaches its maximum size and the collapse phase begins, the simulation shows the formation of a jet which penetrates the bubble towards the wall at the later stages of the collapse. For a bubble with an initial radius of 50 μ m and an ultrasound pressure amplitude of 200 kPa, the pressure experienced by the wall increased rapidly nearing the end of the collapse, reaching a peak pressure of 13 MPa. This model is an important development in the field as it represents the physics of acoustic cavitation in more detail than before. This work was supported by the Royal Society of New Zealand's Marsden Fund.

  7. Nonequilibrium statistical theory of bubble nucleation and growth under neutron and proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.; Sommer, W.F.; Bradbury, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Microstructural evolution in metals under particle irradiation is described by a non-equilibrium statistics method. This method gives a set of equations for the evolution of bubbles and an approximate solution for a distribution function of bubble size as a function of fluence and temperature. The distribution function gives the number of bubbles of radius r at time t, N(r,t)dr, as a function of size, r/r 0 (r 0 is the radius of a bubble nucleus). It is found that N(r,t)dr increases with fluence. Also, the peak value of N(r,t)dt shifts to higher r/r 0 with increasing fluence. Nucleation depends mainly on helium concentration and defect cluster concentration while bubble growth is controlled mainly by the vacancy concentration and a fluctuation coefficient. If suitable material parameters are chosen, a reasonable distribution function for bubble size is obtained. The helium diffusion coefficient is found to be less than that for vacancies by five orders of magnitude. The fraction of helium remaining in matrix is less than 10 -2 ; the majority of the helium is associated with the bubbles

  8. Steam bubble growth in the bulk of overheated N2O4-NO chemically reacting solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtsev, V.A.; Cherkashin, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    A mathematical model and numerical investigation of the vapour bubble growth that begins from the bubble critical size at the positive radius fluctuation during the initial moment in the bulk of the overheated N 2 O 4 -NO liquid solution are presented. The mathematical model has been stated under the following assumptions: the movement of a bubble wall and surrounding liquid is spherically symmetrical; thermal parameters in the bubble are distributed uniformly; the vapour phase follows the ideal gas law; heat transfer is not affected by the compressibility of liquid; if dissolution of light components is determined by Henry's law, then Hertz-Knudsen's equation determines the velocity of phase transition for a N 2 O 4 component. The mathematical model presented can be applied to another fluids, including chemically reacting ones

  9. Helium bubble nucleation and growth in α-Fe: insights from first–principles simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, W; Zhang, X; Lu, G; Geng, W T

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a first-principles study on the nucleation and early-stage growth of He bubbles in Fe. The energetics, atomic and electronic structure of He-vacancy complexes, involving both a monovacancy and a nine-vacancy cluster, are examined. Based on the energetics, we then perform thermodynamics analysis to gain deeper insights into He bubble nucleation and growth. We have determined the energy cost for the nucleation of He bubbles and found that up to eight He atoms can be trapped at a single vacancy. In order to capture more He atoms, the vacancy has to emit Frenkel pairs to release the substantial stress building on the surrounding Fe lattice. Compared to the monovacancy, the nine-vacancy cluster has a lower energy cost for He bubble nucleation and growth. He atoms at the vacancy repel the surrounding electronic charge and redistribute it on the neighboring Fe atoms. The thermodynamic analysis reveals that He chemical potential provides a driving force for He bubble nucleation and growth. There are two critical He chemical potentials that are of particular importance: one of them marks the transition from single He occupation to multiple He occupation at a monovacancy while the other sets off He-induced superabundant vacancy formation. (paper)

  10. Effect of liquid inertia on bubble growth in the presence of a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.Y.; Lykoudis, P.S.

    1977-01-01

    Liquid metal bubble growth in the presence of a magnetic field has previously been examined by Lykoudis under the assumption that the process is heat transfer controlled. In the present work, the growth of a bubble under the influence of a magnetic field is considered when the effect of the liquid inertia is included. This yields a better description of the phenomena for liquid metals, due to the greater portion of the growth cycle that is dominated by the liquid inertia forces. The results indicate that liquid inertia can significantly affect the growth of a liquid metal bubble when compared with the heat transfer-controlled case. The overall effect of the magnetic field forces the heat transfer-controlled growth to occur earlier in the life of the bubble. Hence, heat transfer effects dominate the growth stage more as the magnetic field is increased. The inertia effects are damped and, in the limit of high magnetic fields, growth is only heat transfer controlled. The heat transfer estimates made in the fashion of Forster and Zuber indicate that the magnetic field reduces the energy transport in nucleate boiling. 5 figures

  11. A three-dimensional meso-scale modeling for helium bubble growth in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzudo, T.; Kaburaki, H.; Wakai, E.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional meso-scale computer model using a Monte-Carlo simulation method has been proposed to simulate the helium bubble growth in metals. The primary merit of this model is that it enables the visual comparison between the microstructure observed by the TEM imaging and those by calculations. The modeling is so simple that one can control easily the calculation by tuning parameters. The simulation results are confirmed by the ideal gas law and the capillary relation. helium bubble growth, meso-scale modeling, Monte-Carlo simulation, the ideal gas law and the capillary relation. (authors)

  12. CFD analysis of bubble microlayer and growth in subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owoeye, Eyitayo James, E-mail: msgenius10@ufl.edu; Schubring, DuWanye, E-mail: dlschubring@ufl.edu

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • A new LES-microlayer model is introduced. • Analogous to the unresolved SGS in LES, analysis of bubble microlayer was performed. • The thickness of bubble microlayer was computed at both steady and transient states. • The macroscale two-phase behavior was captured with VOF coupled with AMR. • Numerical validations were performed for both the micro- and macro-region analyses. - Abstract: A numerical study of single bubble growth in turbulent subcooled flow boiling was carried out. The macro- and micro-regions of the bubble were analyzed by introducing a LES-microlayer model. Analogous to the unresolved sub-grid scale (SGS) in LES, a microlayer analysis was performed to capture the unresolved thermal scales for the micro-region heat transfer by deriving equations for the microlayer thickness at steady and transient states. The phase change at the macro-region was based on Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) interface tracking method coupled with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was used to model the turbulence characteristics. The numerical model was validated with multiple experimental data from the open literature. This study includes parametric variations that cover the operating conditions of boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR). The numerical model was used to study the microlayer thickness, growth rate, dynamics, and distortion of the bubble.

  13. Modeling of helium bubble nucleation and growth in neutron irradiated boron doped RAFM steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dethloff, Christian; Gaganidze, Ermile; Svetukhin, Vyacheslav V.; Aktaa, Jarir

    2012-01-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are promising candidates for structural materials in future fusion technology. In addition to other irradiation defects, the transmuted helium is believed to strongly influence material hardening and embrittlement behavior. A phenomenological model based on kinetic rate equations is developed to describe homogeneous nucleation and growth of helium bubbles in neutron irradiated RAFM steels. The model is adapted to different 10 B doped EUROFER97 based heats, which already had been studied in past irradiation experiments. Simulations yield bubble size distributions, whereby effects of helium generation rate, surface energy, helium sinks and helium density are investigated. Peak bubble diameters under different conditions are compared to preliminary microstructural results on irradiated specimens. Helium induced hardening was calculated by applying the Dispersed Barrier Hardening model to simulated cluster size distributions. Quantitative microstructural investigations of unirradiated and irradiated specimens will be used to support and verify the model.

  14. Modeling of helium bubble nucleation and growth in neutron irradiated boron doped RAFM steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dethloff, Christian, E-mail: christian.dethloff@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gaganidze, Ermile [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Svetukhin, Vyacheslav V. [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy Str. 42, 432970 Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Aktaa, Jarir [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are promising candidates for structural materials in future fusion technology. In addition to other irradiation defects, the transmuted helium is believed to strongly influence material hardening and embrittlement behavior. A phenomenological model based on kinetic rate equations is developed to describe homogeneous nucleation and growth of helium bubbles in neutron irradiated RAFM steels. The model is adapted to different {sup 10}B doped EUROFER97 based heats, which already had been studied in past irradiation experiments. Simulations yield bubble size distributions, whereby effects of helium generation rate, surface energy, helium sinks and helium density are investigated. Peak bubble diameters under different conditions are compared to preliminary microstructural results on irradiated specimens. Helium induced hardening was calculated by applying the Dispersed Barrier Hardening model to simulated cluster size distributions. Quantitative microstructural investigations of unirradiated and irradiated specimens will be used to support and verify the model.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Vapor Bubble Growth and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Jia, Tao; Xiu-Lan, Huai; Zhi-Gang, Li

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to investigate the dynamics of vapor bubble growth in a thin liquid film, movement of the interface between two fluids and the surface heat transfer characteristics. The model takes into account the effects of phase change between the vapor and liquid, gravity, surface tension and viscosity. The details of the multiphase now and heat transfer are discussed for two cases: (1) when a water micro-droplet impacts a thin liquid film with a vapor bubble growing and (2) when the vapor bubble grows and merges with the vapor layer above the liquid film without the droplet impacting. The development trend of the interface between the vapor and liquid is coincident qualitatively with the available literature, mostly at the first stage. We also provide an important method to better understand the mechanism of nucleate spray cooling. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  16. Bubble nucleation and growth in very strong cosmological phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mégevand, Ariel, E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar; Ramírez, Santiago

    2017-06-15

    Strongly first-order phase transitions, i.e., those with a large order parameter, are characterized by a considerable supercooling and high velocities of phase transition fronts. A very strong phase transition may have important cosmological consequences due to the departures from equilibrium caused in the plasma. In general, there is a limit to the strength, since the metastability of the old phase may prevent the transition to complete. Near this limit, the bubble nucleation rate achieves a maximum and thus departs from the widely assumed behavior in which it grows exponentially with time. We study the dynamics of this kind of phase transitions. We show that in some cases a gaussian approximation for the nucleation rate is more suitable, and in such a case we solve analytically the evolution of the phase transition. We compare the gaussian and exponential approximations with realistic cases and we determine their ranges of validity. We also discuss the implications for cosmic remnants such as gravitational waves.

  17. Using a dynamic point-source percolation model to simulate bubble growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Zeigler, David A.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate modeling of nucleation, growth and clustering of helium bubbles within metal tritide alloys is of high scientific and technological importance. Of interest is the ability to predict both the distribution of these bubbles and the manner in which these bubbles interact at a critical concentration of helium-to-metal atoms to produce an accelerated release of helium gas. One technique that has been used in the past to model these materials, and again revisited in this research, is percolation theory. Previous efforts have used classical percolation theory to qualitatively and quantitatively model the behavior of interstitial helium atoms in a metal tritide lattice; however, higher fidelity models are needed to predict the distribution of helium bubbles and include features that capture the underlying physical mechanisms present in these materials. In this work, we enhance classical percolation theory by developing the dynamic point-source percolation model. This model alters the traditionally binary character of site occupation probabilities by enabling them to vary depending on proximity to existing occupied sites, i.e. nucleated bubbles. This revised model produces characteristics for one and two dimensional systems that are extremely comparable with measurements from three dimensional physical samples. Future directions for continued development of the dynamic model are also outlined

  18. Enhanced Generic Phase-field Model of Irradiation Materials: Fission Gas Bubble Growth Kinetics in Polycrystalline UO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin

    2012-05-30

    Experiments show that inter-granular and intra-granular gas bubbles have different growth kinetics which results in heterogeneous gas bubble microstructures in irradiated nuclear fuels. A science-based model predicting the heterogeneous microstructure evolution kinetics is desired, which enables one to study the effect of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system on gas bubble microstructure evolution kinetics and morphology, improve the understanding of the formation mechanisms of heterogeneous gas bubble microstructure, and provide the microstructure to macroscale approaches to study their impact on thermo-mechanical properties such as thermo-conductivity, gas release, volume swelling, and cracking. In our previous report 'Mesoscale Benchmark Demonstration, Problem 1: Mesoscale Simulations of Intra-granular Fission Gas Bubbles in UO2 under Post-irradiation Thermal Annealing', we developed a phase-field model to simulate the intra-granular gas bubble evolution in a single crystal during post-irradiation thermal annealing. In this work, we enhanced the model by incorporating thermodynamic and kinetic properties at grain boundaries, which can be obtained from atomistic simulations, to simulate fission gas bubble growth kinetics in polycrystalline UO2 fuels. The model takes into account of gas atom and vacancy diffusion, vacancy trapping and emission at defects, gas atom absorption and resolution at gas bubbles, internal pressure in gas bubbles, elastic interaction between defects and gas bubbles, and the difference of thermodynamic and kinetic properties in matrix and grain boundaries. We applied the model to simulate gas atom segregation at grain boundaries and the effect of interfacial energy and gas mobility on gas bubble morphology and growth kinetics in a bi-crystal UO2 during post-irradiation thermal annealing. The preliminary results demonstrate that the model can produce the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and the morphology of gas

  19. A novel closed system bubble column photobioreactor for detailed characterisation of micro and macroalgal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Christensen, L.; Iversen, J. J.L.

    produced oxygen was catalytically removed from the closed system by addition of hydrogen over a palladium catalyst to avoid photorespiration and to quantify oxygen production. In addition, the bubble column photobioreactor was well suited for cultivation of algae due to fast gas to liquid mass transfer (k...... in the different batch cultures of both micro and macroalgae. The algal SGR is normally considered to be constant. The maximum SGRs found by on-line determination were 0.13 hr-1 for T. striata and 0.12 d-1 for C. crispus. During batch cultivation growth stoichiometry was determined and photosynthetic quotients......Growth of the marine microalgae Tetraselmis striata Butcher and macroalgae Chondrus crispus Stackhouse was investigated in batch cultures in a closed system bubble column photobioreactor. A laboratory cultivation system was constructed that allowed on-line monitoring of temperature, p...

  20. Bubble growth as a means to measure dissolved nitrogen concentration in aerated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Keita; Yamashita, Tatsuya

    2017-11-01

    Controlling the amount of dissolved gases in water is important, for example, to food processing; it is essential to quantitatively evaluate dissolved gas concentration. The concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) can be measured by commercial DO meters, but that of dissolved nitrogen (DN) cannot be obtained easily. Here, we propose a means to measure DN concentration based on Epstein-Plesset-type analysis of bubble growth under dissolved gas supersaturation. DO supersaturation in water is produced by oxygen microbubble aeration. The diffusion-driven growth of bubbles nucleated at glass surfaces in contact with the aerated water is first observed. The observed growth is then compared to the extended Epstein-Plesset theory that considers Fick's mass transfer of both DO and DN across bubble interfaces; in this comparison, the unknown DN concentration is treated as a fitting parameter. Comparisons between the experiment and the theory suggest, as expected, that DN can be effectively purged by oxygen microbubble aeration. This study was supported in part by the Mizuho Foundation for the Promotion of Science and by a MEXT Grant-in-Aid for the Program for Leading Graduate Schools.

  1. Bubble systems

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeev, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...

  2. Analysis of flashing and swelling phenomena in tanks of nuclear power plants; the importance of bubble growth dynamics and bubble transport models with size tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerezo A, E [University of Caribe, Department of Basics Sciences and Engineering, Lote 1, Manzana 1, Region 78, esq. Fracc. Tabachines, 77500 Cancun, Quintana Roo (Mexico); Munoz C, J L [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a non-equilibrium model to describe flashing phenomena in tanks and cooling pools. The present model is based on Watanabe's work that we have extended by developing a realistic model for the growth of bubbles. We have made the corresponding venting model, continuity equation, gas and liquid phase energy conservation equations for the model. This model takes into account both drag and virtual mass force. The dynamics of bubble growth plays an important role in two-phase phenomena such as flashing. In our model the growth rate is assumed to be limited by the heat conduction in the liquid. The results of the analytic model were compared with the experimental data of Watanabe [1]. The results have shown that the present model evaluates fairly accurately the pressure evolution, the void fraction and the swelling level of a tank.

  3. Analysis of flashing and swelling phenomena in tanks of nuclear power plants; the importance of bubble growth dynamics and bubble transport models with size tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerezo A, E. [University of Caribe, Department of Basics Sciences and Engineering, Lote 1, Manzana 1, Region 78, esq. Fracc. Tabachines, 77500 Cancun, Quintana Roo (Mexico)]. E-mail: ecerezo@unicaribe.edu.mx; Munoz C, J.L. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a non-equilibrium model to describe flashing phenomena in tanks and cooling pools. The present model is based on Watanabe's work that we have extended by developing a realistic model for the growth of bubbles. We have made the corresponding venting model, continuity equation, gas and liquid phase energy conservation equations for the model. This model takes into account both drag and virtual mass force. The dynamics of bubble growth plays an important role in two-phase phenomena such as flashing. In our model the growth rate is assumed to be limited by the heat conduction in the liquid. The results of the analytic model were compared with the experimental data of Watanabe [1]. The results have shown that the present model evaluates fairly accurately the pressure evolution, the void fraction and the swelling level of a tank.

  4. Dynamic observations of vesiculation reveal the role of silicate crystals in bubble nucleation and growth in andesitic magmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleše, P.; Higgins, M. D.; Mancini, L.; Lanzafame, G.; Brun, F.; Fife, J. L.; Casselman, J.; Baker, D. R.

    2018-01-01

    Bubble nucleation and growth control the explosivity of volcanic eruptions, and the kinetics of these processes are generally determined from examinations of natural samples and quenched experimental run products. These samples, however, only provide a view of the final state, from which the initial conditions of a time-evolving magmatic system are then inferred. The interpretations that follow are inexact due to the inability of determining the exact conditions of nucleation and the potential detachment of bubbles from their nucleation sites, an uncertainty that can obscure their nucleation location – either homogeneously within the melt or heterogeneously at the interface between crystals and melts. We present results of a series of dynamic, real-time 4D X-ray tomographic microscopy experiments where we observed the development of bubbles in crystal bearing silicate magmas. Experimentally synthesized andesitic glasses with 0.25–0.5 wt% H2O and seed silicate crystals were heated at 1 atm to induce bubble nucleation and track bubble growth and movement. In contrast to previous studies on natural and experimentally produced samples, we found that bubbles readily nucleated on plagioclase and clinopyroxene crystals, that their contact angle changes during growth and that they can grow to sizes many times that of the silicate on whose surface they originated. The rapid heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles at low degrees of supersaturation in the presence of silicate crystals demonstrates that silicates can affect when vesiculation ensues, influencing subsequent permeability development and effusive vs. explosive transition in volcanic eruptions.

  5. Dynamic observations of vesiculation reveal the role of silicate crystals in bubble nucleation and growth in andesitic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleše, P.; Higgins, M. D.; Mancini, L.; Lanzafame, G.; Brun, F.; Fife, J. L.; Casselman, J.; Baker, D. R.

    2018-01-01

    Bubble nucleation and growth control the explosivity of volcanic eruptions, and the kinetics of these processes are generally determined from examinations of natural samples and quenched experimental run products. These samples, however, only provide a view of the final state, from which the initial conditions of a time-evolving magmatic system are then inferred. The interpretations that follow are inexact due to the inability of determining the exact conditions of nucleation and the potential detachment of bubbles from their nucleation sites, an uncertainty that can obscure their nucleation location - either homogeneously within the melt or heterogeneously at the interface between crystals and melts. We present results of a series of dynamic, real-time 4D X-ray tomographic microscopy experiments where we observed the development of bubbles in crystal bearing silicate magmas. Experimentally synthesized andesitic glasses with 0.25-0.5 wt% H2O and seed silicate crystals were heated at 1 atm to induce bubble nucleation and track bubble growth and movement. In contrast to previous studies on natural and experimentally produced samples, we found that bubbles readily nucleated on plagioclase and clinopyroxene crystals, that their contact angle changes during growth and that they can grow to sizes many times that of the silicate on whose surface they originated. The rapid heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles at low degrees of supersaturation in the presence of silicate crystals demonstrates that silicates can affect when vesiculation ensues, influencing subsequent permeability development and effusive vs. explosive transition in volcanic eruptions.

  6. Diffusion of helium and nucleation-growth of helium-bubbles in metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chonghong; Chen Keqin; Wang Yinshu

    2001-01-01

    Studies of diffusion and aggregation behaviour of helium in metallic materials are very important to solve the problem of helium embrittlement in structural materials used in the environment of nuclear power. Experimental studies on helium diffusion and aggregation in austenitic stainless steels in a wide temperature range have been performed in authors' research group and the main results obtained are briefly summarized. The mechanism of nucleation-growth of helium-bubbles has been discussed and some problems to be solved are also given

  7. A novel closed system bubble column photobioreactor for detailed characterisation of micro- and macroalgal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Christensen, L.; Iversen, J. J. L.

    2014-01-01

    was suited for cultivation of algae due to fast gas-to-liquid mass transfer (kLa) and fast mixing provided by split and dual sparging. Specific growth rates (SGRs) were measured using both offline and online measurements. The latter was possible, because rectilinear correlation was observed between carbon......Growth of the marine microalga Tetraselmis striata Butcher and the macroalga Chondrus crispus Stackhouse was investigated in batch cultures in a closed system bubble column photobioreactor. A laboratory cultivation system was constructed that allowed online monitoring of pH and dissolved oxygen...... changes in growth with up to three different SGRs in the different batch cultures of both micro- and macroalgae. The maximum SGRs found by online determination were 0.13 h-1 for T. striata and 0.12 day-1 for C. crispus. We have developed and described a system and presented some data handling tools...

  8. Study of rare gases behavior in uranium dioxide: diffusion and bubble nucleation and growth mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, A.

    2011-01-01

    During in-reactor irradiation of the nuclear fuel, fission gases, mainly xenon and krypton, are generated that are subject to several phenomena: diffusion and precipitation. These phenomena can have adverse consequences on the fuel physical and chemical properties and its in-reactor behavior. The purpose of this work is to better understand the behavior of fission gases by identifying diffusion, bubble nucleation and growth mechanisms. To do this, studies involving separate effects have been established coupling ion irradiations/implantations with fine characterizations on Large Scale Facilities. The influence of several parameters such as gas type, concentration and temperature has been identified separately. Interpretation of the Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS) measurements has enabled us to determine xenon and krypton diffusion coefficients in uranium dioxide. A heterogeneous nucleation mechanism on defects was determined by means of experiments on the JANNuS platform in Orsay that consists of a coupling of an implantor, an accelerator and a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Finally, TEM and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy characterizations of implanted and annealed samples put in relieve a bubble growth mechanism by atoms and vacancies capture. (author) [fr

  9. Modeling ionospheric pre-reversal enhancement and plasma bubble growth rate using data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, P. K.; Lin, C. C. H.; Chen, C. H.; Matsuo, T.

    2017-12-01

    We report that assimilating total electron content (TEC) into a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere model by using the ensemble Kalman filter results in improved specification and forecast of eastward pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) electric field (E-field). Through data assimilation, the ionospheric plasma density, thermospheric winds, temperature and compositions are adjusted simultaneously. The improvement of dusk-side PRE E-field over the prior state is achieved primarily by intensification of eastward neutral wind. The improved E-field promotes a stronger plasma fountain and deepens the equatorial trough. As a result, the horizontal gradients of Pedersen conductivity and eastward wind are increased due to greater zonal electron density gradient and smaller ion drag at dusk, respectively. Such modifications provide preferable conditions and obtain a strengthened PRE magnitude closer to the observation. The adjustment of PRE E-field is enabled through self-consistent thermosphere and ionosphere coupling processes captured in the model. The assimilative outputs are further utilized to calculate the flux tube integrated Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate during March 2015 for investigation of global plasma bubble occurrence. Significant improvements in the calculated growth rates could be achieved because of the improved update of zonal electric field in the data assimilation forecast. The results suggest that realistic estimate or prediction of plasma bubble occurrence could be feasible by taking advantage of the data assimilation approach adopted in this work.

  10. Nucleation and growth of vapor bubbles in the liquid bulk and at a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagov, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The main achievements in the study of the vapor phase origin in liquid and the subsequent growth of the vapor bubbles are presented briefly, and a number of issues on which there is no single opinion as yet are also outlined. The theory of homogeneous nucleation and a great number of experiments make it possible not only to explain qualitatively the causes of spontaneous formation of vapor nucleation centers in the metastable liquid but provides a simple computational relation for the estimating the intensity of this process. None of the existing hypotheses, however, can give a complete answer to the question of the mechanism of the vapor phase nucleation on a solid surface under ''pure conditions'', although this is a more pressing problem. At the same time, the role of cavities of reservoir type (with a narrow orifice) on the surface under heating as reliable stabilizers of the vapor formation (especially in liquid metals) is clarified from the practical point of view. Thus, the identification of technology for production of such cavities would make it possible to increase substantially the efficiency of heat transferring surfaces. Any computational relations for the growth of bubbles on the heating surface also are (and, according to the author, necessarily will be) approximate ones, although considerable success has been achieved in this field

  11. Water hammer due to rapid bubble growth at a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aya, Izuo; Adachi, Masaki; Shiozaki, Koki; Inasaka, Fujio

    2000-01-01

    On a severe accident of the light water reactor (LWR), by steam explosion and so forth due to hydrogen formation by water-metal reaction and direct contact of molted core with water, it is presumed that a lot of vapor forms for a short time in water at reactor vessel and under part of containment vessel. This study aims at and carries out, under reference of the conventional study results, experimental elucidation on coherence of water block motion due to rapid bubble growth, proposal on reduction method of water hammering, development of water hammer estimating method in an actual reactor, and proposal for upgrading of reliability on severe accident evaluation. In 1998 fiscal year, an 'Experimental apparatus on water hammering elements on sever accident' simulated rapid bubble growth due to steam explosion by injecting high pressure air into water was produced to carry out its function test. As a result of the carried out function tests, extreme water hammering phenomena were observed, by which validity of establishment on the study objects could be confirmed. (G.K.)

  12. Numerical simulation of the bubble growth due to hydrogen isotopes inventory processes in plasma-irradiated tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang, Chaofeng; Sun, Jizhong; Bonnin, Xavier; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Dezhen

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopes (HI) inventory is a key issue for fusion devices like ITER. It is especially urgent to understand how HI are retained in tungsten since it currently is the most important candidate material for the plasma-facing wall. Bubble growth is an important experimental complication that yet prevents a full understanding of HI retention processes in tungsten walls and most critically the divertor elements. In this work, we develop a model based on rate equations, which includes the bubble growth in tungsten being exposed to a HI plasma. In the model, HI molecules can be produced through recombination processes on the inner surface of a bubble, and HI molecules can also dissociate themselves to solute atoms, and the latter diffuse into the bulk wall because of very high pressures inside the bubble. The present model is applied to simulate how HI are retained in plasma-irradiated tungsten in the form of molecules to explain the wall temperature, trap concentration, incident HI flux and fluence dependencies of bubble growth

  13. Effects of displacement damage and helium production rates on the nucleation and growth of helium bubbles - Positron annihilation spectroscopy aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krsjak, Vladimir; Degmova, Jarmila; Sojak, Stanislav; Slugen, Vladimir

    2018-02-01

    Fe-12 wt% Cr model alloy samples were implanted by 250 keV He2+ ions to three different fluencies (3 × 1017, 9 × 1017 and 1.5 × 1018 cm-2) at T steel samples [1] irradiated in the frame of a two-years irradiation program of the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source. Bi-modal defect distribution represented by two defect components in positron lifetime spectrum reveals two distinct helium bubbles growth mechanisms. While at the lower helium production rate of the spallation environment, the bubbles grow primarily by migration and coalescence, at the high production rates of helium in the implanted samples, the results indicate this growth is driven by Ostwald ripening mechanism. A competitive growth process via emission of interstitial atoms (clusters) is discussed in terms of low-temperature He implantations.

  14. Vapor-Gas Bubble Evolution and Growth in Extremely Viscous Fluids Under Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizito, John; Balasubramaniam, R.; Nahra, Henry; Agui, Juan; Truong, Duc

    2008-01-01

    Formation of vapor and gas bubbles and voids is normal and expected in flow processes involving extremely viscous fluids in normal gravity. Practical examples of extremely viscous fluids are epoxy-like filler materials before the epoxy fluids cure to their permanent form to create a mechanical bond between two substrates. When these fluids flow with a free liquid interface exposed to vacuum, rapid bubble expansion process may ensue. Bubble expansion might compromise the mechanical bond strength. The potential sources for the origin of the gases might be incomplete out-gassing process prior to filler application; regasification due to seal leakage in the filler applicator; and/or volatiles evolved from cure reaction products formed in the hardening process. We embarked on a study that involved conducting laboratory experiments with imaging diagnostics in order to deduce the seriousness of bubbling caused by entrained air and volatile fluids under space vacuum and low gravity environment. We used clear fluids with the similar physical properties as the epoxy-like filler material to mimic the dynamics of bubbles. Another aspect of the present study was to determine the likelihood of bubbling resulting from dissolved gases nucleating from solution. These experimental studies of the bubble expansion are compared with predictions using a modified Rayleigh- Plesset equation, which models the bubble expansion.

  15. Research on water hammer forces caused by rapid growth of bubbles at severe accidents of water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, Fujio; Adachi, Masaki; Aya, Izuo

    2004-01-01

    At severe accidents of Water Cooled Reactors a great deal of gas is expected to be produced in a short time within the water of lower part of nuclear pressure vessel and containment vessel caused by hydrogen production with a metal water reaction and steam explosions with direct contact of melting core and water. Water hammer forces caused by rapid growth of bubbles shall work on the wall of containment vessel and affect its integrity. Coherency of water block movement is not clear, whether simultaneous or in the same direction. Water block behavior and water hammer forces caused by rapid growth of bubbles have been tested using a modified scale model and analyzed to obtain experimental correlated equation to estimate water block's rising distance and velocity from water hammer data. Numerical analysis using RELAP5-3D (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program) has been conducted to evaluate water hammer forces and makes clear its modifications needed. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Modeling of helium bubble nucleation and growth in austenitic stainless steels using an Object Kinetic Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Backer, A.; Adjanor, G.; Domain, C.; Lescoat, M.L.; Jublot-Leclerc, S.; Fortuna, F.; Gentils, A.; Ortiz, C.J.; Souidi, A.; Becquart, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of 10 keV helium in 316L steel thin foils was performed in JANNuS-Orsay facility and modeled using a multiscale approach. Density Functional Theory (DFT) atomistic calculations [1] were used to obtain the properties of He and He-vacancy clusters, and the Binary Collision Approximation based code MARLOWE was applied to determine the damage and He-ion depth profiles as in [2,3]. The processes involved in the homogeneous He bubble nucleation and growth were defined and implemented in the Object Kinetic Monte Carlo code LAKIMOCA [4]. In particular as the He to dpa ratio was high, self-trapping of He clusters and the trap mutation of He-vacancy clusters had to be taken into account. With this multiscale approach, the formation of bubbles was modeled up to nanometer-scale size, where bubbles can be observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Their densities and sizes were studied as functions of fluence (up to 5 × 10 19 He/m 2 ) at two temperatures (473 and 723 K) and for different sample thicknesses (25–250 nm). It appears that the damage is not only due to the collision cascades but is also strongly controlled by the He accumulation in pressurized bubbles. Comparison with experimental data is discussed and sensible agreement is achieved

  17. Modeling of helium bubble nucleation and growth in austenitic stainless steels using an Object Kinetic Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Backer, A., E-mail: andree.debacker@ccfe.ac.uk [UMET, UMR 8207, Université Lille 1, Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); CCFE, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom); Adjanor, G.; Domain, C.; Lescoat, M.L. [EDF R& D, MMC Centre des Renardières, Moret-sur-Loing (France); Jublot-Leclerc, S.; Fortuna, F.; Gentils, A. [CSNSM, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Ortiz, C.J. [CIEMAT, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético, Madrid (Spain); Souidi, A. [Université Dr. Tahar Moulay de Saida, Saida (Algeria); Becquart, C.S. [UMET, UMR 8207, Université Lille 1, Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)

    2015-06-01

    Implantation of 10 keV helium in 316L steel thin foils was performed in JANNuS-Orsay facility and modeled using a multiscale approach. Density Functional Theory (DFT) atomistic calculations [1] were used to obtain the properties of He and He-vacancy clusters, and the Binary Collision Approximation based code MARLOWE was applied to determine the damage and He-ion depth profiles as in [2,3]. The processes involved in the homogeneous He bubble nucleation and growth were defined and implemented in the Object Kinetic Monte Carlo code LAKIMOCA [4]. In particular as the He to dpa ratio was high, self-trapping of He clusters and the trap mutation of He-vacancy clusters had to be taken into account. With this multiscale approach, the formation of bubbles was modeled up to nanometer-scale size, where bubbles can be observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Their densities and sizes were studied as functions of fluence (up to 5 × 10{sup 19} He/m{sup 2}) at two temperatures (473 and 723 K) and for different sample thicknesses (25–250 nm). It appears that the damage is not only due to the collision cascades but is also strongly controlled by the He accumulation in pressurized bubbles. Comparison with experimental data is discussed and sensible agreement is achieved.

  18. A mechanical analysis of metallic tritide aging by helium bubble growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montheillet, F. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines (SMS), CNRS UMR 5146 (PECM), 158 cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: montheil@emse.fr; Delaplanche, D.; Fabre, A.; Munier, E.; Thiebaut, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2008-10-25

    A simple mechanical model is proposed for the aging of a metallic tritide. The material is assumed to be elastic-power law viscoplastic. Part of the helium atoms generated by tritium decay form spherical bubbles that weaken the elastic moduli of the overall material. By contrast, others can be stored in solid solution in the matrix and are likely to increase the moduli. Two variants of the model are compared, assuming either instantaneous or finite rate diffusion of helium. They predict globally similar evolutions of the gas pressure inside the bubbles, the geometrical parameters (bubble radius, overall swelling), as well as the matrix and overall elastic moduli. The results are in good agreement with atomistic calculations of the pressure evolution. Furthermore, recent experimental measurements of the Young modulus changes during aging are better reproduced when He diffusion rate is finite, thus supporting the second variant of the model.

  19. A mechanical analysis of metallic tritide aging by helium bubble growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montheillet, F.; Delaplanche, D.; Fabre, A.; Munier, E.; Thiebaut, S.

    2008-01-01

    A simple mechanical model is proposed for the aging of a metallic tritide. The material is assumed to be elastic-power law viscoplastic. Part of the helium atoms generated by tritium decay form spherical bubbles that weaken the elastic moduli of the overall material. By contrast, others can be stored in solid solution in the matrix and are likely to increase the moduli. Two variants of the model are compared, assuming either instantaneous or finite rate diffusion of helium. They predict globally similar evolutions of the gas pressure inside the bubbles, the geometrical parameters (bubble radius, overall swelling), as well as the matrix and overall elastic moduli. The results are in good agreement with atomistic calculations of the pressure evolution. Furthermore, recent experimental measurements of the Young modulus changes during aging are better reproduced when He diffusion rate is finite, thus supporting the second variant of the model

  20. Advanced Mathematical Modeling of Sonar-Induced Bubble Growth and Coalescence in Humans and Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    under high amplitude acoustic excitation, and which explicitly accounts for mass flux across the bubble wall. The thermometric conductivity Xg of the...where Kgo is the thermal conductivity at the reference temperature Tg0. Introducing the reference thermometric conductivity for a gas with reference

  1. Effects of nutrient ratios and carbon dioxide bio-sequestration on biomass growth of Chlorella sp. in bubble column photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Hoang-Nhat-Phong; Bui, Xuan-Thanh; Nguyen, Thanh-Tin; Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Dao, Thanh-Son; Cao, Ngoc-Dan-Thanh; Vo, Thi-Kim-Quyen

    2018-08-01

    Photobioreactor technology, especially bubble column configuration, employing microalgae cultivation (e.g., Chlorella sp.), is an ideal man-made environment to achieve sufficient microalgae biomass through its strictly operational control. Nutrients, typically N and P, are necessary elements in the cultivation process, which determine biomass yield and productivity. Specifically, N:P ratios have certain effects on microalgae's biomass growth. It is also attractive that microalgae can sequester CO 2 by using that carbon source for photosynthesis and, subsequently, reducing CO 2 emission. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of N:P ratios on Chlorella sp.'s growth, and to study the dynamic of CO 2 fixation in the bubble column photobioreactor. According to our results, N:P ratio of 15:1 could produce the highest biomass yield (3568 ± 158 mg L -1 ). The maximum algae concentration was 105 × 10 6  cells mL -1 , receiving after 92 h. Chlorella sp. was also able to sequester CO 2 at 28 ± 1.2%, while the specific growth rate and carbon fixation rate were observed at 0.064 h -1 and 68.9 ± 1.91 mg L -1  h -1 , respectively. The types of carbon sources (e.g., organic and inorganic carbon) possessed potential impact on microalgae's cultivation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamics of vapor bubbles growth at boiling resulting from enthalpy excess of the surrounding superheated liquid and sound pulses generated by bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeev, B. M.; Volkova, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experiments investigating the exponential dependence of the vapor bubble radius on time at saturated boiling are generalized. Three different methods to obtain this dependence are suggested: (1) by the application of the transient heat conduction equation, (2) by using the correlations of energy conservation, and (3) by solving a similar electrodynamic problem. Based on the known experimental data, the accuracy of the dependence up to one percent and a few percent accuracy of its description based on the sound pressure generated by a vapor bubble have been determined. A significant divergence of the power dependence of the vapor bubble radius on time (with an exponent of 1/2) with the experimental results and its inadequacy for the description of the sound pulse generated by the bubble have been demonstrated.

  3. Repeated growth and bubbling transfer of graphene with millimetre-size single-crystal grains using platinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Libo; Ren, Wencai; Xu, Huilong; Jin, Li; Wang, Zhenxing; Ma, Teng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Lian-Mao; Bao, Xinhe; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2012-02-28

    Large single-crystal graphene is highly desired and important for the applications of graphene in electronics, as grain boundaries between graphene grains markedly degrade its quality and properties. Here we report the growth of millimetre-sized hexagonal single-crystal graphene and graphene films joined from such grains on Pt by ambient-pressure chemical vapour deposition. We report a bubbling method to transfer these single graphene grains and graphene films to arbitrary substrate, which is nondestructive not only to graphene, but also to the Pt substrates. The Pt substrates can be repeatedly used for graphene growth. The graphene shows high crystal quality with the reported lowest wrinkle height of 0.8 nm and a carrier mobility of greater than 7,100 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) under ambient conditions. The repeatable growth of graphene with large single-crystal grains on Pt and its nondestructive transfer may enable various applications.

  4. Scale effect on bubble growth and cavitation inception in cavitation susceptibility meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.T.; Gowing, S.

    1985-01-01

    The Reynolds number alone is not adequate to predict cavitation inception scaling. Recent experiments on headforms once again show that the cavitation inception data are very sensitive to the nuclei tensile strength which, in turn depends on the velocity scale. This paper theoretically investigates the influence of Reynolds number and velocity scale on cavitation inception in a cavitation susceptibility meter. The numerical examples given are based on a single bubble spherical model

  5. Modeling of bubble growth in complex fluids. Application to radiolytic swelling of nuclear bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this PhD thesis is to predict the swelling of bitumen barrels in which radioactive salts are mixed. The bitumen exposed to radioactivity undergoes a chemical reaction: the radiolysis. This implies a generation of dihydrogen. The created is solubilized until the concentration reaches a limit value which is called saturation. Over this limit nucleation of bubbles is observed. Then they will grow thank to the contribution of the gas generated by radiolysis and they will be submitted to Archimede's principle so that they will rise in the fluid. The swelling is the result of the competition between generation and evacuation of gas. A model has been built to describe the evolution of a bubble population. Because of it is not possible to solve it analytically, a numerical program was developed. The results show that an increase of the fluid viscosity, the gas generation or the container height lead to an increase of the swelling and that an increase of the diffusion coefficient contributes to a decrease of the swelling. In the particular case of a yield stress fluid, the behavior of the bubble population is modified and the evacuation of gas is done with several shots, at the opposite of the case of a Newtonian fluid for which a stationary evacuation is reached. (author)

  6. Numerical Study of Single Bubble Growth on and Departure from a Horizontal Superheated Wall by Three-dimensional Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; Li, Hui-Xiong; Guo, Kai-Kai; Zhao, Jian-Fu; Wang, Tai

    2018-05-01

    A three-dimensional hybrid lattice Boltzmann method was used to simulate the progress of a single bubble's growth and departure from a horizontal superheated wall. The evolutionary process of the bubble shapes and also the temperature fields during pool nucleate boiling were obtained and the influence of the gravitational acceleration on the bubble departure diameter (BDD), the bubble release frequency (BRF) and the heat flux on the superheated wall was analyzed. The simulation results obtained by the present three-dimensional numerical studies demonstrate that the BDD is proportional to g^{-0.301}, the BRF is proportional to g^{-0.58}, and the averaged wall heat flux is proportional to g^{0.201}, where g is the gravitational acceleration. These results are in good agreement with the common-used experimental correlations, indicating the rationality of the present numerical model and results.

  7. Science Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2013-01-01

    Much like the trade and trait sof bubbles in financial markets,similar bubbles appear on the science market. When economic bubbles burst, the drop in prices causes the crash of unsustainable investments leading to an investor confidence crisis possibly followed by a financial panic. But when...... bubbles appear in science, truth and reliability are the first victims. This paper explores how fashions in research funding and research management may turn science into something like a bubble economy....

  8. Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, Sean; Shao, Lin; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Wirth, Brian; Kennedy, Rory

    2014-01-01

    Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. Many mechanistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, research, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

  9. Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Shao, Lin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tsvetkov, Pavel [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Wirth, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kennedy, Rory [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-04-07

    Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. Many mechanistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, research, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

  10. Global numerical solutions of growth and departure of a vapour bubble at a horizontal superheated wall in a pure liquid and a binary mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, W.; Ramakers, F.J.M.; Stralen, S.J.D. van

    1979-01-01

    The growth and buoyancy induced departure of vapour bubbles at a horizontal superheated wall has been studied by global numerical methods. Integral forms of the heat transport equation have been solved by use of series expansions, obtained by the theory of fractional derivatives. The global orthogonal collocation method has been applied for the potential flow around the bubble. In this way a set of only eight or ten ordinary differential equations has to be integrated by computer. The results, following from prescribed initial temperature distributions, are in quantitative agreement with experimental data, obtained in water and aqueous binary mixtures, boiling at subatmospheric pressure. (author)

  11. Sticky bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniuk, O.; Bos, van der A.; Driessen, T.W.; Es, van B.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Michler, D.; Reinten, H.; Schenker, M.; Snoeijer, J.H.; Srivastava, S.; Toschi, F.; Wijshoff, H.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the physical forces that are required to remove an air bubble immersed in a liquid from a corner. This is relevant for inkjet printing technology, as the presence of air bubbles in the channels of a printhead perturbs the jetting of droplets. A simple strategy to remove the bubble is to

  12. Freezing Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingett, Christian; Ahmadi, Farzad; Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    The two-stage freezing process of a liquid droplet on a substrate is well known; however, how bubbles freeze has not yet been studied. We first deposited bubbles on a silicon substrate that was chilled at temperatures ranging from -10 °C to -40 °C, while the air was at room temperature. We observed that the freeze front moved very slowly up the bubble, and in some cases, even came to a complete halt at a critical height. This slow freezing front propagation can be explained by the low thermal conductivity of the thin soap film, and can be observed more clearly when the bubble size or the surface temperature is increased. This delayed freezing allows the frozen portion of the bubble to cool the air within the bubble while the top part is still liquid, which induces a vapor pressure mismatch that either collapses the top or causes the top to pop. In cases where the freeze front reaches the top of the bubble, a portion of the top may melt and slowly refreeze; this can happen more than just once for a single bubble. We also investigated freezing bubbles inside of a freezer where the air was held at -20 °C. In this case, the bubbles freeze quickly and the ice grows radially from nucleation sites instead of perpendicular to the surface, which provides a clear contrast with the conduction limited room temperature bubbles.

  13. Nucleation in bubble chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harigel, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    Various sources and mechanisms for bubble formation in superheated liquids are discussed. Bubble chambers can be filled with a great variety of liquids, such as e.g. the cryogenic liquids hydrogen, deuterium, neon, neon/hydrogen mixtures, argon, nitrogen, argon/nitrogen mixtures, or the warm liquids propane and various Freon like Freon-13B1. The superheated state is normally achieved by a rapid movement of an expansion piston or membrane, but can also be produced by standing ultrasonic waves, shock waves, or putting liquids under tension. Bubble formation can be initiated by ionizing particles, by intense (laser) light, or on rough surfaces. The creation of embryonic bubbles is not completely understood, but the macroscopic growth and condensation can be calculated, allowing to estimate the dynamic heat load [fr

  14. Bubbles & Squat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre Larsen, Signe

    , a new concept called ‘Bubbles & Squat’, where fitness training is combined with Champagne and a live DJ. One of the invitations for this event describes how “we spice up your friday training with live DJ and lots of refreshing bubbles, to make sure that you are ready for the weekend (...).” Before New...

  15. A theoretical study of the growth of large sodium vapor bubbles in liquid sodium, including the effect of noncondensables and of vapor convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadei, F.; Donne, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The study of the dynamics of the expansion of large bubbles of hot sodium vapor in a pool of liquid sodium plays an important role in understanding the effects of a hypothetical core disruptive accident. A model of the growth of the bubble in the pool is described. The equations of the motion of the liquid and of the nonsteady heat diffusion problem are solved together with the continuity and energy equations for the vapor phase. The first set of calculations has been performed with constant evaporation and condensation coefficients. In the second set, however, due account has been taken of the effect on condensation of noncondensable fission gases and vapor convection. Due to the very high calculated vapor velocities, noncondensable gases have little effect on the condensation rate, and the percentage amount of condensed sodium is considerably higher than previously calculated by other authors

  16. Cellular Injury of Cardiomyocytes during Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene Transfection with Ultrasound-Triggered Bubble Liposome Destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Komamura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We transfected naked HGF plasmid DNA into cultured cardiomyocytes using a sonoporation method consisting of ultrasound-triggered bubble liposome destruction. We examined the effects on transfection efficiency of three concentrations of bubble liposome (1×106, 1×107, 1×108/mL, three concentrations of HGF DNA (60, 120, 180 μg/mL, two insonification times (30, 60 sec, and three incubation times (15, 60, 120 min. We found that low concentrations of bubble liposome and low concentrations of DNA provided the largest amount of the HGF protein expression by the sonoporated cardiomyocytes. Variation of insonification and incubation times did not affect the amount of product. Following insonification, cardiomyocytes showed cellular injury, as determined by a dye exclusion test. The extent of injury was most severe with the highest concentration of bubble liposome. In conclusion, there are some trade-offs between gene transfection efficiency and cellular injury using ultrasound-triggered bubble liposome destruction as a method for gene transfection.

  17. Bubbling away

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-10-15

    Bubble chambers may have almost vanished from the front line of physics research, but the vivid memory of their intricate and sometimes beautiful patterns of particle tracks lives on, and has greatly influenced the computer graphics of track reconstruction in today's big experiments. 'Seeing' an interaction makes it more understandable. Bubble chambers, with their big collaborations of physicists from many widely scattered research institutes, started another ball rolling. The groups formed are even now only surpassed in size by the big collaborations working on today's major detectors at colliding beam machines. From 14-16 July, about 130 physicists gathered at CERN to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the invention of the bubble chamber by Donald Glaser. The meeting, organized by Derek C. Colley from Birmingham, gave a comprehensive overview of bubble chamber contributions to physics, their challenging technology, and the usefulness of bubble chamber photographs in education, both for physics and the public at large. After opening remarks by CERN Director Carlo Rubbia, Donald Glaser began with a brief review of the work which led to his invention - there was much more to it than idly watching beer bubbles rise up the wall of the glass - before turning to his present line of research, biophysics, also very visually oriented.

  18. Bubbling away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Bubble chambers may have almost vanished from the front line of physics research, but the vivid memory of their intricate and sometimes beautiful patterns of particle tracks lives on, and has greatly influenced the computer graphics of track reconstruction in today's big experiments. 'Seeing' an interaction makes it more understandable. Bubble chambers, with their big collaborations of physicists from many widely scattered research institutes, started another ball rolling. The groups formed are even now only surpassed in size by the big collaborations working on today's major detectors at colliding beam machines. From 14-16 July, about 130 physicists gathered at CERN to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the invention of the bubble chamber by Donald Glaser. The meeting, organized by Derek C. Colley from Birmingham, gave a comprehensive overview of bubble chamber contributions to physics, their challenging technology, and the usefulness of bubble chamber photographs in education, both for physics and the public at large. After opening remarks by CERN Director Carlo Rubbia, Donald Glaser began with a brief review of the work which led to his invention - there was much more to it than idly watching beer bubbles rise up the wall of the glass - before turning to his present line of research, biophysics, also very visually oriented

  19. Aspherical bubble dynamics and oscillation times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin, R.P.; Chapyak, E.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Noack, J.; Vogel, A. [Medizinisches Laserzentrum Luebeck (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    The cavitation bubbles common in laser medicine are rarely perfectly spherical and are often located near tissue boundaries, in vessels, etc., which introduce aspherical dynamics. Here, novel features of aspherical bubble dynamics are explored. Time-resolved experimental photographs and simulations of large aspect ratio (length:diameter {approximately}20) cylindrical bubble dynamics are presented. The experiments and calculations exhibit similar dynamics. A small high-pressure cylindrical bubble initially expands radially with hardly any axial motion. Then, after reaching its maximum volume, a cylindrical bubble collapses along its long axis with relatively little radial motion. The growth-collapse period of these very aspherical bubbles differs only sightly from twice the Rayleigh collapse time for a spherical bubble with an equivalent maximum volume. This fact justifies using the temporal interval between the acoustic signals emitted upon bubble creation and collapse to estimate the maximum bubble volume. As a result, hydrophone measurements can provide an estimate of the bubble energy even for aspherical bubbles. The prolongation of the oscillation period of bubbles near solid boundaries relative to that of isolated spherical bubbles is also discussed.

  20. Nuttier bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astefanesei, Dumitru; Mann, Robert B.; Stelea, Cristian

    2006-01-01

    We construct new explicit solutions of general relativity from double analytic continuations of Taub-NUT spacetimes. This generalizes previous studies of 4-dimensional nutty bubbles. One 5-dimensional locally asymptotically AdS solution in particular has a special conformal boundary structure of AdS 3 x S 1 . We compute its boundary stress tensor and relate it to the properties of the dual field theory. Interestingly enough, we also find consistent 6-dimensional bubble solutions that have only one timelike direction. The existence of such spacetimes with non-trivial topology is closely related to the existence of the Taub-NUT(-AdS) solutions with more than one NUT charge. Finally, we begin an investigation of generating new solutions from Taub-NUT spacetimes and nuttier bubbles. Using the so-called Hopf duality, we provide new explicit time-dependent backgrounds in six dimensions

  1. Interaction mechanism of double bubbles in hydrodynamic cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengchao; Cai, Jun; Huai, Xiulan; Liu, Bin

    2013-06-01

    Bubble-bubble interaction is an important factor in cavitation bubble dynamics. In this paper, the dynamic behaviors of double cavitation bubbles driven by varying pressure field downstream of an orifice plate in hydrodynamic cavitation reactor are examined. The bubble-bubble interaction between two bubbles with different radii is considered. We have shown the different dynamic behaviors between double cavitation bubbles and a single bubble by solving two coupling nonlinear equations using the Runge-Kutta fourth order method with adaptive step size control. The simulation results indicate that, when considering the role of the neighbor smaller bubble, the oscillation of the bigger bubble gradually exhibits a lag in comparison with the single-bubble case, and the extent of the lag becomes much more obvious as time goes by. This phenomenon is more easily observed with the increase of the initial radius of the smaller bubble. In comparison with the single-bubble case, the oscillation of the bigger bubble is enhanced by the neighbor smaller bubble. Especially, the pressure pulse of the bigger bubble rises intensely when the sizes of two bubbles approach, and a series of peak values for different initial radii are acquired when the initial radius ratio of two bubbles is in the range of 0.9˜1.0. Although the increase of the center distance between two bubbles can weaken the mutual interaction, it has no significant influence on the enhancement trend. On the one hand, the interaction between two bubbles with different radii can suppress the growth of the smaller bubble; on the other hand, it also can enhance the growth of the bigger one at the same time. The significant enhancement effect due to the interaction of multi-bubbles should be paid more attention because it can be used to reinforce the cavitation intensity for various potential applications in future.

  2. Numeric implementation of a nucleation, growth and transport model for helium bubbles in lead-lithium HCLL breeding blanket channels: Theory and code development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batet, L., E-mail: lluis.batet@upc.edu [Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Energy and Radiation Studies Research Group (GREENER), Technology for Fusion T4F, Barcelona (Spain); UPC, Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (DFEN), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fradera, J. [Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Energy and Radiation Studies Research Group (GREENER), Technology for Fusion T4F, Barcelona (Spain); UPC, Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (DFEN), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Valls, E. Mas de les [Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Energy and Radiation Studies Research Group (GREENER), Technology for Fusion T4F, Barcelona (Spain); UPC, Department of Heat Engines (DMMT), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Sedano, L.A. [EURATOM-CIEMAT Association, Fusion Technology Division, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    Large helium (He) production rates in liquid metal breeding blankets of a DT fusion reactor might have a significant influence in the system design. Low He solubility together with high local concentrations may create the conditions for He cavitation, which would have an impact in the components performance. The paper states that such a possibility is not remote in a helium cooled lithium-lead breeding blanket design. A model based on the Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) has been developed and implemented in order to have a specific tool able to simulate HCLL systems and identify the key parameters and sensitivities. The nucleation and growth model has been implemented in the open source CFD code OpenFOAM so that transport of dissolved atomic He and nucleated He bubbles can be simulated. At the current level of development it is assumed that void fraction is small enough not to affect either the hydrodynamics or the properties of the liquid metal; thus, bubbles can be represented by means of a passive scalar. He growth and transport has been implemented using the mean radius approach in order to save computational time. Limitations and capabilities of the model are shown by means of zero-dimensional simulation and sensitivity analysis under HCLL breeding unit conditions.

  3. Leverage bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wanfeng; Woodard, Ryan; Sornette, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Leverage is strongly related to liquidity in a market and lack of liquidity is considered a cause and/or consequence of the recent financial crisis. A repurchase agreement is a financial instrument where a security is sold simultaneously with an agreement to buy it back at a later date. Repurchase agreement (repo) market size is a very important element in calculating the overall leverage in a financial market. Therefore, studying the behavior of repo market size can help to understand a process that can contribute to the birth of a financial crisis. We hypothesize that herding behavior among large investors led to massive over-leveraging through the use of repos, resulting in a bubble (built up over the previous years) and subsequent crash in this market in early 2008. We use the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of rational expectation bubbles and behavioral finance to study the dynamics of the repo market that led to the crash. The JLS model qualifies a bubble by the presence of characteristic patterns in the price dynamics, called log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior. We show that there was significant LPPL behavior in the market before that crash and that the predicted range of times predicted by the model for the end of the bubble is consistent with the observations.

  4. Bubble bursting at an interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varun; Sajjad, Kumayl; Anand, Sushant; Fezzaa, Kamel

    2017-11-01

    Bubble bursting is crucial to understanding the life span of bubbles at an interface and more importantly the nature of interaction between the bulk liquid and the outside environment from the point of view of chemical and biological material transport. The dynamics of the bubble as it rises from inside the liquid bulk to its disappearance on the interface after bursting is an intriguing process, many aspects of which are still being explored. In our study, we make detailed high speed imaging measurements to examine carefully the hole initiation and growth in bursting bubbles that unearth some interesting features of the process. Previous analyses available in literature are revisited based on our novel experimental visualizations. Using a combination of experiments and theory we investigate the role of various forces during the rupturing process. This work aims to further our current knowledge of bubble dynamics at an interface with an aim of predicting better the bubble evolution from its growth to its eventual integration with the liquid bulk.

  5. Holography in small bubble chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecoq, P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on an experiment to determine the total charm cross section at different incident momenta using the small, heavy liquid bubble chamber HOBC. Holography in liquid hydrogen is also tested using the holographic lexan bubble chamber HOLEBC with the aim of preparing a future holographic experiment in hydrogen. The high intensity tests show that more than 100 incident tracks per hologram do not cause a dramatic effect on the picture quality. Hydrogen is more favorable than freon as the bubble growth is much slower in hydrogen. An advantage of holography is to have the maximum resolution in the full volume of the bubble chamber, which allows a gain in sensitivity by a factor of 10 compared to classical optics as 100 tracks per hologram look reasonable. Holograms are not more difficult to analyze than classical optics high-resolution pictures. The results show that holography is a very powerful technique which can be used in very high resolution particle physics experiments

  6. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  7. Correlation for prediction of growing and detaching bubble contact diameter on a heating wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deqi; Pan Liangming; Huang Yanping

    2011-01-01

    Phenomenal and theoretical analysis on the evolution of bubble contact diameter during bubble growing is presented in this paper, and it was found that the bubble contact diameter is dependent on the bubble growth rate and bubble radius strongly. By analyzing the regarding experimental data published in the literature, the relation between dimensionless bubble contact diameter, and dimensionless bubble growth time is obtained, based on this relation, a correlation relative to dimensionless bubble growth rate and dimensionless bubble radius are proposed for prediction of bubble contact diameter. With proper values of coefficients, a w and n w , this correlation can well predict the bubble contact diameter data published in the literature, with an error within ±20%. (authors)

  8. Bubble nucleation in an explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, D.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a temperature close to the critical temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures spontaneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure

  9. Gas pressure in bubble attached to tube circular outlet

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, A; Gay, Cyprien; Maestro, A; Drenckhan, W; Rio, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    In the present Supplementary notes to our work ``Arresting bubble coarsening: A two-bubble experiment to investigate grain growth in presence of surface elasticity'' (accepted in EPL), we derive the expression of the gas pressure inside a bubble located above and attached to the circular outlet of a vertical tube.

  10. Rational equity bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ge

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the existence of a bubble in the pricing of an asset that pays positive dividends. I show that rational bubbles can exist in a growing economy. The existence of bubbles depends on the relative magnitudes of risk aversion to consumption and to wealth. Furthermore, I examine how an exogenous shock in technology might trigger bubbles.

  11. Fama on Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    2016-01-01

    While Eugene Fama has repeatedly expressed his discontent with the notion of an “irrational bubble,” he has never publicly expressed his opinion on “rational bubbles.” On empirical grounds Fama rejects bubbles by referring to the lack of reliable evidence that price declines are predictable....... However, this argument cannot be used to rule out rational bubbles because such bubbles do not necessarily imply return predictability, and return predictability of the kind documented by Fama does not rule out rational bubbles. On data samples that include the 1990s, there is evidence of an explosive...... component in stock market valuation ratios, consistent with a rational bubble....

  12. "Financial Bubbles" and Monetary Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Yuriy A.; Pudovkina, Olga E.; Permjakova, Juliana V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this research is caused by the need of strengthening a role of monetary regulators to prevent financial bubbles in the financial markets. The aim of the article is the analysis of a problem of crisis phenomena in the markets of financial assets owing to an inadequate growth of their cost, owing to subjective reasons. The leading…

  13. Explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, D.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2007-01-01

    Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a very high temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures homogeneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles almost instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse and

  14. Nucleation, growth and transport modelling of helium bubbles under nuclear irradiation in lead–lithium with the self-consistent nucleation theory and surface tension corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradera, J.; Cuesta-López, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The work presented in this manuscript provides a reliable computational tool to quantify the He complex phenomena in a HCLL. • A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) is exposed. It includes radiation induced nucleation modelling and surface tension corrections. • Results informed reinforce the necessity of conducting experiments to determine nucleation conditions and bubble transport parameters in LM breeders. • Our findings and model provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation phenomenon in LM systems for fusion technology and can be used to identify key system parameters. -- Abstract: Helium (He) nucleation in liquid metal breeding blankets of a DT fusion reactor may have a significant impact regarding system design, safety and operation. Large He production rates are expected due to tritium (T) fuel self-sufficiency requirement, as both, He and T, are produced at the same rate. Low He solubility, local high concentrations, radiation damage and fluid discontinuities, among other phenomena, may yield the necessary conditions for He nucleation. Hence, He nucleation may have a significant impact on T inventory and may lower the T breeding ratio. A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) with a surface tension curvature correction model has been implemented in OpenFOAM ® CFD code. A modification through a single parameter of the necessary nucleation condition is proposed in order to take into account all the nucleation triggering phenomena, specially radiation induced nucleation. Moreover, the kinetic growth model has been adapted so as to allow for the transition from a critical cluster to a macroscopic bubble with a diffusion growth process. Limitations and capabilities of the models are shown by means of zero-dimensional simulations and sensitivity analyses to key parameters under HCLL breeding unit conditions. Results provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation

  15. Nucleation, growth and transport modelling of helium bubbles under nuclear irradiation in lead–lithium with the self-consistent nucleation theory and surface tension corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradera, J., E-mail: jfradera@ubu.es; Cuesta-López, S., E-mail: scuesta@ubu.es

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The work presented in this manuscript provides a reliable computational tool to quantify the He complex phenomena in a HCLL. • A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) is exposed. It includes radiation induced nucleation modelling and surface tension corrections. • Results informed reinforce the necessity of conducting experiments to determine nucleation conditions and bubble transport parameters in LM breeders. • Our findings and model provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation phenomenon in LM systems for fusion technology and can be used to identify key system parameters. -- Abstract: Helium (He) nucleation in liquid metal breeding blankets of a DT fusion reactor may have a significant impact regarding system design, safety and operation. Large He production rates are expected due to tritium (T) fuel self-sufficiency requirement, as both, He and T, are produced at the same rate. Low He solubility, local high concentrations, radiation damage and fluid discontinuities, among other phenomena, may yield the necessary conditions for He nucleation. Hence, He nucleation may have a significant impact on T inventory and may lower the T breeding ratio. A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) with a surface tension curvature correction model has been implemented in OpenFOAM{sup ®} CFD code. A modification through a single parameter of the necessary nucleation condition is proposed in order to take into account all the nucleation triggering phenomena, specially radiation induced nucleation. Moreover, the kinetic growth model has been adapted so as to allow for the transition from a critical cluster to a macroscopic bubble with a diffusion growth process. Limitations and capabilities of the models are shown by means of zero-dimensional simulations and sensitivity analyses to key parameters under HCLL breeding unit conditions. Results provide a good qualitative insight into the helium

  16. Anti-Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufaile, Alberto; Sartorelli, José Carlos

    2003-08-01

    An anti-bubble is a striking kind of bubble in liquid that seemingly does not comply the buoyancy, and after few minutes it disappears suddenly inside the liquid. Different from a simple air bubble that rises directly to the liquid surface, an anti-bubble wanders around in the fluid due to its slightly lesser density than the surrounding liquid. In spite of this odd behavior, an anti-bubble can be understood as the opposite of a conventional soap bubble in air, which is a shell of liquid surrounding air, and an anti-bubble is a shell of air surrounding a drop of the liquid inside the liquid. Two-phase flow has been a subject of interest due to its relevance to process equipment for contacting gases and liquids applied in industry. A chain of bubbles rising in a liquid formed from a nozzle is a two-phase flow, and there are certain conditions in which spherical air shells, called anti-bubbles, are produced. The purpose of this work is mainly to note the existence of anti-bubbling regime as a sequel of a bubbling system. We initially have presented the experimental apparatus. After this we have described the evolution of the bubbling regimes, and emulated the effect of bubbling coalescence with simple maps. Then is shown the inverted dripping as a consequence of the bubble coalescence, and finally the conditions for anti-bubble formation.

  17. Bubble nucleation in an explosive micro-bubble actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, D M; Elwenspoek, M

    2008-01-01

    Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a temperature close to the critical temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures spontaneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse. In this paper we take a closer look at the bubble nucleation. The moment of bubble nucleation was determined by both stroboscopic imaging and resistance thermometry. Two nucleation regimes could be distinguished. Several different heater designs were investigated under heat fluxes of hundreds of W mm −2 . A close correspondence between current density in the heater and point of nucleation was found. This results in design rules for effective heaters

  18. Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kyoko K; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg

    2015-08-01

    We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a correct prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by Tolman, the precise evaluations of the free energy barriers suggest the Tolman length is ≃0.3σ independently of the temperature for argon bubble nucleation, where σ is the unit length of the Lennard-Jones potential. With this Tolman correction and our prefactor one gets accurate bubble nucleation rate predictions in the parameter range probed by current experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.

  19. Pressure waves in a supersaturated bubbly magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzon, I.; Lyakhovsky, V.; Navon, O.; Chouet, B.

    2011-01-01

    We study the interaction of acoustic pressure waves with an expanding bubbly magma. The expansion of magma is the result of bubble growth during or following magma decompression and leads to two competing processes that affect pressure waves. On the one hand, growth in vesicularity leads to increased damping and decreased wave amplitudes, and on the other hand, a decrease in the effective bulk modulus of the bubbly mixture reduces wave velocity, which in turn, reduces damping and may lead to wave amplification. The additional acoustic energy originates from the chemical energy released during bubble growth. We examine this phenomenon analytically to identify conditions under which amplification of pressure waves is possible. These conditions are further examined numerically to shed light on the frequency and phase dependencies in relation to the interaction of waves and growing bubbles. Amplification is possible at low frequencies and when the growth rate of bubbles reaches an optimum value for which the wave velocity decreases sufficiently to overcome the increased damping of the vesicular material. We examine two amplification phase-dependent effects: (1) a tensile-phase effect in which the inserted wave adds to the process of bubble growth, utilizing the energy associated with the gas overpressure in the bubble and therefore converting a large proportion of this energy into additional acoustic energy, and (2) a compressive-phase effect in which the pressure wave works against the growing bubbles and a large amount of its acoustic energy is dissipated during the first cycle, but later enough energy is gained to amplify the second cycle. These two effects provide additional new possible mechanisms for the amplification phase seen in Long-Period (LP) and Very-Long-Period (VLP) seismic signals originating in magma-filled cracks.

  20. Fama on bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    Eugene Fama has repeatedly expressed his discontent with the notion of an irrational bubble. However, he has never publicly expressed his opinion on rational bubbles. This is peculiar since such bubbles build naturally from the rational efficient markets paradigm that Fama strongly adheres to...

  1. A physiological model of the interaction between tissue bubbles and the formation of blood-borne bubbles under decompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappell, M A; Payne, S J

    2006-01-01

    Under decompression, bubbles can form in the human body, and these can be found both within the body tissues and the bloodstream. Mathematical models for the growth of both types of bubbles have previously been presented, but they have not been coupled together. This work thus explores the interaction between the growth of tissue and blood-borne bubbles under decompression, specifically looking at the extent to which they compete for the common resource of inert gas held in solution in the tissues. The influence of tissue bubbles is found to be significant for densities as low as 10 ml -1 for tissues which are poorly perfused. However, the effects of formation of bubbles in the blood are not found until the density of bubble production sites reaches 10 6 ml -1 . From comparison of the model predictions with experimental evidence for bubbles produced in animals and man under decompression, it is concluded that the density of tissue bubbles is likely to have a significant effect on the number of bubbles produced in the blood. However, the density of nucleation sites in the blood is unlikely to be sufficiently high in humans for the formation of bubbles in the blood to have a significant impact on the growth of the bubbles in the tissue

  2. Exploding and Imaging of Electron Bubbles in Liquid Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Neha; Vadakkumbatt, Vaisakh; Maris, Humphrey J.; Ghosh, Ambarish

    2017-06-01

    An electron bubble in liquid helium-4 under the saturated vapor pressure becomes unstable and explodes if the pressure becomes more negative than -1.9 bars. In this paper, we use focused ultrasound to explode electron bubbles. We then image at 30,000 frames per second the growth and subsequent collapse of the bubbles. We find that bubbles can grow to as large as 1 mm in diameter within 2 ms after the cavitation event. We examine the relation between the maximum size of the bubble and the lifetime and find good agreement with the experimental results.

  3. Behavior of oxygem bubbles during alkaline water electrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedershoven, H.M.S.; Jonge, de R.M.; Sillen, C.W.M.P.; Stralen, van S.J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Growth rate, departure radius and population of oxygen bubbles at the transparent anode during alkaline water electrolysis have been investigated experimentally. The supersaturation of dissolved oxygen in the electrolyte adjacent to the anode surface has been derived from bubble growth rates.

  4. In Situ Measurement of Local Hydrogen Production Rate by Bubble-Evolved Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen visibly bubbles during photocatalytic water splitting under illumination with above-bandgap radiation, which provides a direct measurement of local gas-evolving reaction rate. In this paper, optical microscopy of superfield depth was used for recording the hydrogen bubble growth on Cd0.5Zn0.5S photocatalyst in reaction liquid and illuminated with purple light. By analyzing change of hydrogen bubble size as a function of time, we understood that hydrogen bubble growth experienced two periods, which were inertia effect dominated period and diffusion effect dominated period, respectively. The tendency of hydrogen bubble growth was similar to that of the gas bubble in boiling, while the difference in bubble diameter and growth time magnitude was great. Meanwhile, we obtained the local hydrogen production rate on photocatalyst active site by measuring hydrogen bubble growth variation characteristics. This method makes it possible to confirm local actual hydrogen evolution rate quantitatively during photocatalytic water splitting.

  5. Neutron Imaging study of bubble behaviors in Nanofluid Through Engineered Orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Seok Bin; Bang, In Cheol; Kim, Tae Joo

    2014-01-01

    Most studies focused on the change of surface parameters through deposited nanoparticles, while Vafaei and Wen firstly discussed modification of bubble dynamics by dispersed nanoparticles in fluid as well as deposited ones. The boiling mechanism, as an effective heat transfer mode, includes bubble generation, growth, departure, and coalescence. Therefore the change of bubble dynamics can lead to the change of boiling heat transfer condition. That is, not only surface characteristics but the dispersed nanoparticles would be the essential parameters of boiling mechanism in terms of bubble dynamics. For advanced visualization of opaque fluids, the neutron imaging technique is introduced. In the present study, the bubble dynamics in nanofluid through engineered orifices was studied. The main parameters of engineered orifices are size and geometry. Photographic analysis of bubble departure frequency and averaged bubble departure volume provides as follows: With increasing orifice diameter, averaged bubble departure volume increases, while bubble departure frequency decreases. The results are attributed to enhanced capillary force by increasing contact perimeter. Averaged bubble departure volume and bubble departure frequency remain similar for three different types of orifices. But edges of the triangle and square orifice produce small bubbles which interrupts bubble generation. The converged triple contact line due to the edge may be a reason for the emerged baby bubbles. Nanofluid shows less averaged bubble departure volume and higher bubble departure frequency. Considering little change in physical properties of the fluid, interaction between bubble interface and nanoparticles may be in charge of the results

  6. Bubble dynamics in a superheated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, W.T.; Shah, V.L.

    1977-09-01

    The report presents an extensive literature survey on bubble dynamics. Growth of a single spherical bubble moving in a uniformly superheated liquid is considered. Equations of motion and energy are presented in the forms that take into consideration the interaction between the motion and the growth. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is used to obtain a simultaneous solution of equations of motion and growth rate, and the solution is compared with available experimental results. Results for liquid sodium are presented for a range of pressures and Jakob numbers

  7. Chaotic bubbling and nonstagnant foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufaile, Alberto; Sartorelli, José Carlos; Jeandet, Philippe; Liger-Belair, Gerard

    2007-06-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the agglomeration of bubbles obtained from a nozzle working in different bubbling regimes. This experiment consists of a continuous production of bubbles from a nozzle at the bottom of a liquid column, and these bubbles create a two-dimensional (2D) foam (or a bubble raft) at the top of this column. The bubbles can assemble in various dynamically stable arrangement, forming different kinds of foams in a liquid mixture of water and glycerol, with the effect that the bubble formation regimes influence the foam obtained from this agglomeration of bubbles. The average number of bubbles in the foam is related to the bubble formation frequency and the bubble mean lifetime. The periodic bubbling can generate regular or irregular foam, while a chaotic bubbling only generates irregular foam.

  8. Sonoluminescence and bubble fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Arakeri, Vijay H

    2003-01-01

    Sonoluminescence (SL), the phenomenon of light emission from nonlinear motion of a gas bubble, involves an extreme degree of energy focusing. The conditions within the bubble during the last stages of the nearly catastrophic implosion are thought to parallel the efforts aimed at developing inertial confinement fusion. A limited review on the topic of SL and its possible connection to bubble nuclear fusion is presented here. The emphasis is on looking for a link between the various forms o...

  9. Prediction of bubble detachment diameter in flow boiling based on force analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deqi; Pan Liangming; Ren Song

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► All the forces acting on the growing bubbles are taken into account in the model. ► The bubble contact diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. ► Bubble growth force and surface tension are more significant in narrow channel. ► A good agreement between the predicted and the measured results is achieved. - Abstract: Bubble detachment diameter is one of the key parameters in the study of bubble dynamics and boiling heat transfer, and it is hard to be measured in a boiling system. In order to predict the bubble detachment diameter, a theoretical model is proposed based on forces analysis in this paper. All the forces acting on a bubble are taken into account to establish a model for different flow boiling configurations, including narrow and conventional channels, upward, downward and horizontal flows. A correlation of bubble contact circle diameter is adopted in this study, and it is found that the bubble contact circle diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. A new correlation taking the bubble contact circle diameter into account for the evaluation of bubble growth force is proposed in this study, and it is found that the bubble growth force and surface tension force are more significant in narrow channel when comparing with that in conventional channel. A visual experiment was carried out in order to verify present model; and the experimental data from published literature are used also. A good agreement between predicted and measured results is achieved.

  10. Prospects for bubble fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigmatulin, R.I. [Tyumen Institute of Mechanics of Multiphase Systems (TIMMS), Marx (Russian Federation); Lahey, R.T. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.

  11. Soap Bubbles and Crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 6. Soap Bubbles and Crystals. Jean E Taylor. General Article Volume 11 Issue 6 June 2006 pp 26-30. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/06/0026-0030. Keywords. Soap bubble ...

  12. Turbulence, bubbles and drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, several questions related to drop impact and Taylor-Couette turbulence are answered. The deformation of a drop just before impact can cause a bubble to be entrapped. For many applications, such as inkjet printing, it is crucial to control the size of this entrapped bubble. To study

  13. Single bubble sonoluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, Michael P.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef

    2002-01-01

    Single-bubble sonoluminescence occurs when an acoustically trapped and periodically driven gas bubble collapses so strongly that the energy focusing at collapse leads to light emission. Detailed experiments have demonstrated the unique properties of this system: the spectrum of the emitted light

  14. Flow visualization using bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    Soap bubbles were used for visualizing flows. The tests effected allowed some characteristics of flows around models in blow tunnels to be precised at mean velocities V 0 5 . The velocity of a bubble is measured by chronophotography, the bulk envelope of the trajectories is also registered [fr

  15. HCDA bubble experiment, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Kaoru; Mashiko, Hiroyuki; Oka, Yoshiaki; An, Shigehiro; Isozaki, Tadashi.

    1981-06-01

    An experiment simulating the behavior of the very large steam bubbles generated at the time of an accident of core collapse was carried out with a warm water tank, and the applicability of the theory of very small bubble disappearance known at present was examined. The bubbles generated in HCDA (hypothetical core disruptive accident) are expected to be very large, containing sodium, fuel, FP gas and so on, and play important role in the mechanism of emitting radioactive substances in the safety analysis of LMFBRs. In this experiment, the degree of subcool of the warm water pool, the initial radii of steam bubbles and the blowoff pressure of steam were taken as the parameters. The radius of the steam bubbles generated in the experiment was about 6.5 cm, and the state of disappearance was different above and below the degree of unsaturation of 10 deg C. Comparing the disappearance curve obtained by the experiment with the theory of disappearance of small bubbles, the experimental values were between inertia-controlled disappearance and heat transfer-controlled disappearance, and this result was able to be explained generally with the model taking the pressure change within steam bubbles into account. The rise of bubbles was also observed. (Kako, I.)

  16. Bubbles in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Strain-induced deformations in graphene are predicted to give rise to large pseudomagnetic fields. We examine theoretically the case of gas-inflated bubbles to determine whether signatures of such fields are present in the local density of states. Sharp-edged bubbles are found to induce Friedel...

  17. Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…

  18. Interfacial Bubble Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Brian; Shabane, Parvis; Cypull, Olivia; Cheng, Shengfeng; Feitosa, Klebert

    Soap bubbles floating at an air-water experience deformations as a result of surface tension and hydrostatic forces. In this experiment, we investigate the nature of such deformations by taking cross-sectional images of bubbles of different volumes. The results show that as their volume increases, bubbles transition from spherical to hemispherical shape. The deformation of the interface also changes with bubble volume with the capillary rise converging to the capillary length as volume increases. The profile of the top and bottom of the bubble and the capillary rise are completely determined by the volume and pressure differences. James Madison University Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4VA Consortium, Research Corporation for Advancement of Science.

  19. Nucleation path of helium bubbles in metals during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Kazunori

    2008-01-01

    Thermodynamical formalization is made for description of the nucleation and growth of helium bubbles in metals during irradiation. The proposed formalization is available or evaluating both microstructural changes in fusion first wall materials where helium is produced by (n, α) nuclear transmutation reactions, and those in fusion divertor materials where helium particles with low energy are directly implanted. Calculated nucleation barrier is significantly reduced by the presence of helium, showing that a helium bubble with an appropriate number of helium atoms depending on bubble size can nucleate without any large nucleation barriers, even at a condition where an empty void has very large nucleation barrier without helium. With the proposed thermodynamical formalization, the nucleation and growth process of helium bubbles in iron during irradiation is simulated by the kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) technique. It shows the nucleation path of a helium bubble on the (N He , N V ) space as functions of temperatures and the concentration of helium in the matrix, where N He and N V are the number of helium atoms and vacancies in the helium bubble, respectively. Bubble growth rates depend on the nucleation path and suggest that two different mechanisms operate for bubble growth: one is controlled by vacancy diffusion and the other is controlled by interstitial helium diffusion. (author)

  20. Theory calculation of combination of 'embryo' bubble growing-up visible bubble in bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zipiao; Sheng Xiangdong; Dai Changjiang

    2004-01-01

    By aid of island combination theory of 'embryo' bubble, it is resolved well the question which 'embryo' bubble grows up a visible bubble in the bubble chamber. Through theory calculation it is shown that radius of the big' embryo' bubble combinated not only relates with work matter such as surface tension coefficient, saturation vapour pressure and boiling point of liquid, but also does absorbing quantity of heat and the numbers of 'embryo' bubbles combination. It is explained reasonably that the radius of bubbles in bubble chamber is different for the same energies of neutrons and proton. The track of neutron in bubble chamber is long and thin, and the track of proton in bubble chamber is wide and short. It is also explained reasonably that the bubble radius of the incident particles with more charges which there are the same energies will be wider than that of the incident particles with less charges in the track. (author)

  1. Bubbles and breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    The physical processes which control the transfer of gases between the atmosphere and oceans or lakes are poorly understood. Clouds of micro-bubbles have been detected below the surface of Loch Ness when the wind is strong enough to cause the waves to break. The rate of transfer of gas into solution from these bubbles is estimated to be significant if repeated on a global scale. We present here further evidence that the bubbles are caused by breaking waves, and discuss the relationship between the mean frequency of wave breaking at a fixed point and the average distance between breaking waves, as might be estimated from an aerial photograph.

  2. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  3. Growth and setting of gas bubbles in a viscoelastic matrix imaged by X-ray microtomography: the evolution of cellular structures in fermenting wheat flour dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbin-Orger, A; Babin, P; Boller, E; Chaunier, L; Chiron, H; Della Valle, G; Dendievel, R; Réguerre, A L; Salvo, L

    2015-05-07

    X-ray tomography is a relevant technique for the dynamic follow-up of gas bubbles in an opaque viscoelastic matrix, especially using image analysis. It has been applied here to pieces of fermenting wheat flour dough of various compositions, at two different voxel sizes (15 and 5 μm). The resulting evolution of the main cellular features shows that the creation of cellular structures follows two regimes that are defined by a characteristic time of connectivity, tc [30 and 80 min]: first (t ≤ tc), bubbles grow freely and then (t ≥ tc) they become connected since the percolation of the gas phase is limited by liquid films. During the first regime, bubbles can be tracked and the local strain rate can be measured. Its values (10(-4)-5 × 10(-4) s(-1)) are in agreement with those computed from dough viscosity and internal gas pressure, both of which depend on the composition. For higher porosity, P = 0.64 in our case, and thus occurring in the second regime, different cellular structures are obtained and XRT images show deformed gas cells that display complex shapes. The comparison of these images with confocal laser scanning microscopy images suggests the presence of liquid films that separate these cells. The dough can therefore be seen as a three-phase medium: viscoelastic matrix/gas cell/liquid phase. The contributions of the different levels of matter organization can be integrated by defining a capillary number (C = 0.1-1) that makes it possible to predict the macroscopic dough behavior.

  4. Boiling crisis as inhibition of bubble detachment by the vapor recoil force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolayev, V.S.; Beysens, D.; Garrabos, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Boiling crisis is a transition between nucleate and film boiling. In this communication we present a physical model of the boiling crisis based on the vapor recoil effect. Our numerical simulations of the thermally controlled bubble growth at high heat fluxes show how the bubble begins to spread over the heater thus forming a germ for the vapor film. The vapor recoil force not only causes the vapor spreading, it also creates a strong adhesion to the heater that prevents the bubble departure, thus favoring the further bubble spreading. Near the liquid-gas critical point, the bubble growth is very slow and allows the kinetics of the bubble spreading to be observed. Since the surface tension is very small in this regime, only microgravity conditions can preserve a convex bubble shape. Under such conditions, we observed an increase of the apparent contact angle and spreading of the dry spot under the bubble, thus confirming our model of the boiling crisis. (authors)

  5. Bubble Collision in Curved Spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dong-il; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-01-01

    We study vacuum bubble collisions in curved spacetime, in which vacuum bubbles were nucleated in the initial metastable vacuum state by quantum tunneling. The bubbles materialize randomly at different times and then start to grow. It is known that the percolation by true vacuum bubbles is not possible due to the exponential expansion of the space among the bubbles. In this paper, we consider two bubbles of the same size with a preferred axis and assume that two bubbles form very near each other to collide. The two bubbles have the same field value. When the bubbles collide, the collided region oscillates back-and-forth and then the collided region eventually decays and disappears. We discuss radiation and gravitational wave resulting from the collision of two bubbles

  6. Chemistry in Soap Bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Albert W. M.; Wong, A.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Zhou, Ning-Huai

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment in which common chemical gases are trapped inside soap bubbles. Examines the physical and chemical properties of the gases such as relative density and combustion. (Author/MM)

  7. Assisted heterogeneous multinucleation and bubble growth in semicrystalline ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer/expanded graphite nanocomposite foams: Control of morphology and viscoelastic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yousefzade

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite foams of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA reinforced by expanded graphite (EG were prepared using supercritical nitrogen in batch foaming process. Effects of EG particle size, crosslinking of EVA chains and foaming temperature on the cell morphology and foam viscoelastic properties were investigated. EG sheet surface interestingly provide multiple heterogeneous nucleation sites for bubbles. This role is considerably intensified by incorporating lower loadings of EG with higher aspect ratio. The amorphous and non-crosslinked domains of EVA matrix constitute denser bubble areas. Higher void fraction and more uniform cell structure is achieved for non-crosslinked EVA/EG nanocomposites foamed at higher temperatures. With regard to the structural variation, the void fraction of foam samples decreases with increasing the EG content. Storage and loss moduli were analyzed to study the viscoelastic properties of nanocomposite foams. Surprisingly, the foaming process of EVA results in a drastic reduction in loss and storage moduli regardless of whether the thermoplastic matrix contains EG nanofiller or not. For the EVA/EG foams with the same composition, the nanocomposite having higher void fraction shows relatively lower loss modulus and more restricted molecular movements. The study findings have verified that the dynamics of polymer chains varies after foaming EVA matrix in the presence of EG.

  8. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  9. Magnetic-bubble devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairholme, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Magnetic bubbles were first described only ten years ago when research workers were discussing orthoferrites containing μm diameter bubbles. However, problems of material fabrication limit crystals to a few mm across which severely curtailed device development. Since then materials have changed and rare-earth-iron garnet films can be grown up 3 inches in diameter with bubble diameters down to sizes below 1 μm. The first commercial products have device capacities in the range 64 000 to 100 000 bits with bubble diameters between 4 and 6 μm. Chip capacities of 1 Mbit are presently under development in the laboratory, as are new techniques to use submicrometre bubbles. The operation and fabrication of a bubble device is described using the serial loop devices currently being manufactured at Plessey as models. Chip organization is one important variable which directly affects the access time. A range of access times and capacities is available which offers a wide range of market opportunities, ranging from consumer products to fixed head disc replacements. some of the application areas are described. (author)

  10. Bubble transport in bifurcations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph; Qamar, Adnan

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by a developmental gas embolotherapy technique for cancer treatment, we examine the transport of bubbles entrained in liquid. In gas embolotherapy, infarction of tumors is induced by selectively formed vascular gas bubbles that originate from acoustic vaporization of vascular droplets. In the case of non-functionalized droplets with the objective of vessel occlusion, the bubbles are transported by flow through vessel bifurcations, where they may split prior to eventually reach vessels small enough that they become lodged. This splitting behavior affects the distribution of bubbles and the efficacy of flow occlusion and the treatment. In these studies, we investigated bubble transport in bifurcations using computational and theoretical modeling. The model reproduces the variety of experimentally observed splitting behaviors. Splitting homogeneity and maximum shear stress along the vessel walls is predicted over a variety of physical parameters. Maximum shear stresses were found to decrease with increasing Reynolds number. The initial bubble length was found to affect the splitting behavior in the presence of gravitational asymmetry. This work was supported by NIH Grant R01EB006476.

  11. Effect of oxygen and heliox breathing on air bubbles in adipose tissue during 25-kPa altitude exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsoe, T.; Kvist, T.M.; Hyldegaard, O.

    2008-01-01

    and heliox breathing. Preoxygenation enhanced bubble disappearance compared with oxygen and heliox breathing but did not prevent bubble growth. The results indicate that oxygen breathing at 25 kPa promotes air bubble growth in adipose tissue regardless of the tissue nitrogen pressure Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11...

  12. Colliding with a crunching bubble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freivogel, Ben; Freivogel, Ben; Horowitz, Gary T.; Shenker, Stephen

    2007-03-26

    In the context of eternal inflation we discuss the fate of Lambda = 0 bubbles when they collide with Lambda< 0 crunching bubbles. When the Lambda = 0 bubble is supersymmetric, it is not completely destroyed by collisions. If the domain wall separating the bubbles has higher tension than the BPS bound, it is expelled from the Lambda = 0 bubble and does not alter its long time behavior. If the domain wall saturates the BPS bound, then it stays inside the Lambda = 0 bubble and removes a finite fraction of future infinity. In this case, the crunch singularity is hidden behind the horizon of a stable hyperbolic black hole.

  13. Laser controllable generation and manipulation of micro-bubbles in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya.; Maksimyak, P. P.; Maksimyak, A. P.; Hanson, S. G.; Kontush, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Micrometer-sized vapor bubbles are formed due to local heating of the water suspension containing absorptive pigment particles of 100 nm diameter. The heating is performed by the CW near-infrared laser radiation. By changing the laser power, four regimes are realized: (1) bubble generation, (2) stable growth of the existing bubbles; (3) stationary existence of the bubbles and (4) bubbles' shrinkage and collapse. The generation and evolution of single bubbles and ensembles of bubbles with controllable sizes and numbers is demonstrated. The bubbles are grouped within the laserilluminated region. They can be easily moved and transported together with the focal spot. The results can be useful for applications associated with the precise manipulation and the species delivery in nano- and micro-engineering problems.

  14. Bubble Departure from Metal-Graphite Composite Surfaces and Its Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, David F.; Sankovic, John M.; Motil, Brian J.; Yang, W-J.; Zhang, Nengli

    2010-01-01

    The formation and growth processes of a bubble in the vicinity of graphite micro-fiber tips on metal-graphite composite boiling surfaces and their effects on boiling behavior are investigated. It is discovered that a large number of micro bubbles are formed first at the micro scratches and cavities on the metal matrix in pool boiling. By virtue of the non-wetting property of graphite, once the growing micro bubbles touch the graphite tips, the micro bubbles are sucked by the tips and merged into larger micro bubbles sitting on the end of the tips. The micro bubbles grow rapidly and coalesce to form macro bubbles, each spanning several tips. The necking process of a detaching macro bubble is analyzed. It is revealed that a liquid jet is produced by sudden break-off of the bubble throat. The composite surfaces not only have higher temperatures in micro- and macrolayers but also make higher frequency of the bubble departure, which increase the average heat fluxes in both the bubble growth stage and in the bubble departure period. Based on these analyses, the enhancement mechanism of pool boiling heat transfer on composite surfaces is clearly revealed.

  15. Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The collapse of a gas-filled bubble in disequilibrium (i.e., internal pressure much-lt external pressure) can occur with a significant focusing of energy onto the entrapped gas in the form of pressure-volume work and/or acoustical shocks; the resulting heating can be sufficient to cause ionization and the emission of atomic radiations. The suggestion that extreme conditions necessary for thermonuclear fusion to occur may be possible has been examined parametrically in terms of the ratio of initial bubble pressure relative to that required for equilibrium. In this sense, the disequilibrium bubble is viewed as a three-dimensional ''sling shot'' that is ''loaded'' to an extent allowed by the maximum level of disequilibrium that can stably be achieved. Values of this disequilibrium ratio in the range 10 -5 --10 -6 are predicted by an idealized bubble-dynamics model as necessary to achieve conditions where nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium might be observed. Harmonic and aharmonic pressurizations/decompressions are examined as means to achieve the required levels of disequilibrium required to create fusion conditions. A number of phenomena not included in the analysis reported herein could enhance or reduce the small levels of nuclear fusions predicted

  16. Critical scattering by bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler-Ferrari, N.; Nussenzveig, H.M.

    1986-11-01

    We apply the complex angular momentum theory to the problem of the critical scattering of light by spherical cavities in the high frequency limit (permittivity greater than the external media) (e.g, air bubble in water) (M.W.O.) [pt

  17. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  18. MISSING: BUBBLE CHAMBER LENS

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Would the person who borrowed the large bubble chamber lens from the Microcosm workshops on the ISR please return it. This is a much used piece from our object archives. If anybody has any information about the whereabouts of this object, please contact Emma.Sanders@cern.ch Thank you

  19. BEBC bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.

  20. Formation of Nitrogen Bubbles During Solidification of Duplex Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kaiju; Wang, Bo; Xue, Fei; Liu, Shanshan; Huang, Junkai; Zhang, Jieyu

    2018-04-01

    The nucleation and growth of nitrogen bubbles for duplex stainless steels are of great significance for the formation mechanism of bubbles during solidification. In the current study, numerical method and theoretical analysis of formula derivation were used to study the formation of nitrogen bubbles during solidification. The critical sizes of the bubble for homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation at the solid-liquid interface during solidification were derived theoretically by the classical nucleation theory. The results show that the calculated values for the solubility of nitrogen in duplex stainless steel are in good agreement with the experimental values which are quoted by references: for example, when the temperature T = 1823 K and the nitrogen partial pressure P_{{N2 }} = 40P^{Θ} , the calculated value (0.8042 wt pct) for the solubility of Fe-12Cr alloy nitrogen in molten steel is close to the experimental value (0.780 wt pct). Moreover, the critical radii for homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation are identical during solidification. On the one hand, with the increasing temperature or the melt depth, the critical nucleation radius of bubbles at the solid-liquid interface increases, but the bubble growth rate decreases. On the other hand, with the decreasing initial content of nitrogen or the cooling rate, the critical nucleation radius of bubbles at the solid-liquid interface increases, but the bubble growth rate decreases. Furthermore, when the melt depth is greater than the critical depth, which is determined by the technological conditions, the change in the Gibbs free energy for the nucleation is not conducive enough to form new bubbles.

  1. Bubble dynamics and bubble-induced turbulence of a single-bubble chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohyoung; Park, Hyungmin

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the bubble dynamics and liquid-phase turbulence induced by a chain of bubbles injected from a single nozzle have been experimentally investigated. Using a high-speed two-phase particle image velociemtry, measurements on the bubbles and liquid-phase velocity field are conducted in a transparent tank filled with water, while varying the bubble release frequency from 0.1 to 35 Hz. The tested bubble size ranges between 2.0-3.2 mm, and the corresponding bubble Reynolds number is 590-1100, indicating that it belongs to the regime of path instability. As the release frequency increases, it is found that the global shape of bubble dispersion can be classified into two regimes: from asymmetric (regular) to axisymmetric (irregular). In particular, at higher frequency, the wake vortices of leading bubbles cause an irregular behaviour of the following bubble. For the liquid phase, it is found that a specific trend on the bubble-induced turbulence appears in a strong relation to the above bubble dynamics. Considering this, we try to provide a theoretical model to estimate the liquid-phase turbulence induced by a chain of bubbles. Supported by a Grant funded by Samsung Electronics, Korea.

  2. Bubble properties of heterogeneous bubbly flow in a square bubble column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Wei; Deen, Niels G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present work focuses on the measurements of bubble properties in heterogeneous bubbly flows in a square bubble column. A four-point optical fibre probe was used for this purpose. The accuracy and intrusive effect of the optical probe was investigated first. The results show that the optical

  3. Characteristics of bubble plumes, bubble-plume bubbles and waves from wind-steepened wave breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Caulliez, G.; Leeuw, G. de

    2007-01-01

    Observations of breaking waves, associated bubble plumes and bubble-plume size distributions were used to explore the coupled evolution of wave-breaking, wave properties and bubble-plume characteristics. Experiments were made in a large, freshwater, wind-wave channel with mechanical wind-steepened

  4. Bubbles generated from wind-steepened breaking waves: 1. Bubble plume bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Leeuw, G. de

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of bubble plumes from paddle-amplified, wind stress breaking waves were made in a large wind-wave channel during the LUMINY experiment in fresh (but not clean) water. Bubble plumes exhibited considerable variability with respect to dynamics, bubble size distribution, and physical

  5. Exploring the mechanisms of rising bubbles in marine biofouling prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesses, Mark; Belden, Jesse; Dickenson, Natasha; Bird, James

    2015-11-01

    Fluid motion, such as flow past a ship, is known to inhibit the growth of marine biofouling. Bubbles rising along a submerged structure also exhibit this behavior, which is typically attributed to buoyancy induced flow. However, the bubble interface may also have a direct influence on inhibiting growth that is independent of the surrounding flow. Here we aim to decouple these two mechanisms through a combination of field and laboratory experiments. In this study, a wall jet and a stream of bubbles are used to create two flows near a submerged solid surface where biofouling occurs. The flow structure characteristics were recorded using PIV. This experimental analysis allows for us to compare the efficacy of each flow relative to its flow parameters. Exploration of the mechanisms at play in the prevention of biofouling by use of rising bubbles provides a foundation to predict and optimize this antifouling technique under various conditions.

  6. Review—Physicochemical hydrodynamics of gas bubbles in two phase electrochemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taqieddin, Amir; Nazari, Roya; Rajic, Ljiljana; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical systems suffer from poor management of evolving gas bubbles. Improved understanding of bubbles behavior helps to reduce overpotential, save energy and enhance the mass transfer during chemical reactions. This work investigates and reviews the gas bubbles hydrodynamics, behavior, and management in electrochemical cells. Although the rate of bubble growth over the electrode surface is well understood, there is no reliable prediction of bubbles break-off diameter from the electrode surface because of the complexity of bubbles motion near the electrode surface. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) are the most common experimental techniques to measure bubble dynamics. Although the PIV is faster than LDA, both techniques are considered expensive and time-consuming. This encourages adapting Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods as an alternative to study bubbles behavior. However, further development of CFD methods is required to include coalescence and break-up of bubbles for better understanding and accuracy. The disadvantages of CFD methods can be overcome by using hybrid methods. The behavior of bubbles in electrochemical systems is still a complex challenging topic which requires a better understanding of the gas bubbles hydrodynamics and their interactions with the electrode surface and bulk liquid, as well as between the bubbles itself.

  7. Bubble Dynamics and Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library is concerned with the interplay between bubble dynamics and shock waves. It is divided into four parts containing twelve chapters written by eminent scientists. Topics discussed include shock wave emission by laser generated bubbles (W Lauterborn, A Vogel), pulsating bubbles near boundaries (DM Leppinen, QX Wang, JR Blake), interaction of shock waves with bubble clouds (CD Ohl, SW Ohl), shock propagation in polydispersed bubbly liquids by model equations (K Ando, T Colonius, CE Brennen. T Yano, T Kanagawa,  M Watanabe, S Fujikawa) and by DNS (G Tryggvason, S Dabiri), shocks in cavitating flows (NA Adams, SJ Schmidt, CF Delale, GH Schnerr, S Pasinlioglu) together with applications involving encapsulated bubble dynamics in imaging (AA Doinikov, A Novell, JM Escoffre, A Bouakaz),  shock wave lithotripsy (P Zhong), sterilization of ships’ ballast water (A Abe, H Mimura) and bubbly flow model of volcano eruptions ((VK Kedrinskii, K Takayama...

  8. Improvement of the bubble rise velocity model in the pressurizer using ALMOD 3 computer code to calculate evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeira, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    It's studied the improvement for the calculation of bubble rise velocity, by adding two different ways to estimate this velocity, one of which more adequate to pressures normally found in the Reactor Cooling System. Additionally, a limitation in bubble rise velocity growth was imposed, to account for the actual behavior of bubble rise in two-phase mixtures. (Author) [pt

  9. Guest investigator program study: Physics of equatorial plasma bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Roland T.

    1994-01-01

    -shaped plasma bubbles. The second topic was pursued because the inability to predict the day-to-day occurrence of plasma bubbles indicated inadequate knowledge of the physics of plasma bubbles. An understanding of bubble formation requires an understanding of the roles of the various terms in the linearized growth rate of the collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In our study, we examined electric-field perturbations found in SM-D EFI data and found that the seeding is more likely to be produced in the E region rather than the F region. The results of this investigation are presented in the Appendix of this report and will be submitted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research.

  10. Constrained Vapor Bubble Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Shripad; Plawsky, Joel; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Zheng, Ling; Wang, Ying-Xi

    2002-11-01

    Microgravity experiments on the Constrained Vapor Bubble Heat Exchanger, CVB, are being developed for the International Space Station. In particular, we present results of a precursory experimental and theoretical study of the vertical Constrained Vapor Bubble in the Earth's environment. A novel non-isothermal experimental setup was designed and built to study the transport processes in an ethanol/quartz vertical CVB system. Temperature profiles were measured using an in situ PC (personal computer)-based LabView data acquisition system via thermocouples. Film thickness profiles were measured using interferometry. A theoretical model was developed to predict the curvature profile of the stable film in the evaporator. The concept of the total amount of evaporation, which can be obtained directly by integrating the experimental temperature profile, was introduced. Experimentally measured curvature profiles are in good agreement with modeling results. For microgravity conditions, an analytical expression, which reveals an inherent relation between temperature and curvature profiles, was derived.

  11. The migration of intra-granular fission gas bubbles in irradiated uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.

    1977-05-01

    The mobility of intragranular fission gas bubbles in uranium dioxide irradiated at 1600-1800 0 C has been studied following isothermal annealing at temperatures below 1600 0 C. The intragranular fission gas bubbles, average diameter approximately 2nm, are virtually immobile at temperatures below 1500 0 C. The bubbles have clean surfaces with no solid fission product contamination and are faceted to the highest observed irradiation temperature of 1800 0 C. This bubble faceting is believed to be a major cause of bubble immobility. In fuel operating below 1500 0 C the predominant mechanism allowing the growth of intragranular bubbles and the subsequent gas release must be the diffusion of dissolved gas atoms rather than the movement of entire intragranular bubbles. (author)

  12. Effect of Dissolved gas on bubble behavior of subcooled boiling in narrow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shaodan; Tan Sichao; Xu Chao; Gao Puzhen; Xu Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study the effect of dissolved gas on bubble behavior in narrow rectangular channel under subcooled boiling condition. A high-speed digital video camera was applied to capture the dynamics of the bubble with or without dissolved gas in a narrow rectangular channel. It is found that the dissolved gas has great influence on bubble behavior in subcooled boiling condition. The dissolved gas slows down the rate of bubble growth and condensation and makes the variation of the bubble diameter present some oscillation characteristics. This phenomenon was discussed in the view of the vapor evaporation and condensation. The existence of the dissolved gas can facilitate the survival of the bubble and promote the aggregation of bubbles, and enhence heat transfer enhancement in some ways. (authors)

  13. Bubble dynamics in drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broučková Zuzana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces two physical effects known from beverages: the effect of sinking bubbles and the hot chocolate sound effect. The paper presents two simple „kitchen” experiments. The first and second effects are indicated by means of a flow visualization and microphone measurement, respectively. To quantify the second (acoustic effect, sound records are analyzed using time-frequency signal processing, and the obtained power spectra and spectrograms are discussed.

  14. Bubble dynamics in drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broučková, Zuzana; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Šafařík, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    This study introduces two physical effects known from beverages: the effect of sinking bubbles and the hot chocolate sound effect. The paper presents two simple "kitchen" experiments. The first and second effects are indicated by means of a flow visualization and microphone measurement, respectively. To quantify the second (acoustic) effect, sound records are analyzed using time-frequency signal processing, and the obtained power spectra and spectrograms are discussed.

  15. Bubble Driven Quasioscillatory Translational Motion of Catalytic Micromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjare, Manoj; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Y.-P.

    2012-09-01

    A new quasioscillatory translational motion has been observed for big Janus catalytic micromotors with a fast CCD camera. Such motional behavior is found to coincide with both the bubble growth and burst processes resulting from the catalytic reaction, and the competition of the two processes generates a net forward motion. Detailed physical models have been proposed to describe the above processes. It is suggested that the bubble growth process imposes a growth force moving the micromotor forward, while the burst process induces an instantaneous local pressure depression pulling the micromotor backward. The theoretic predictions are consistent with the experimental data.

  16. Influence of Bubble-Bubble interactions on the macroscale circulation patterns in a bubbling gas-solid fluidized bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, J.A.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The macro-scale circulation patterns in the emulsion phase of a gas-solid fluidized bed in the bubbling regime have been studied with a 3D Discrete Bubble Model. It has been shown that bubble-bubble interactions strongly influence the extent of the solids circulation and the bubble size

  17. Simulation of gas bubbles in hypobaric decompressions: roles of O2, CO2, and H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Liew, H D; Burkard, M E

    1995-01-01

    To gain insight into the special features of bubbles that may form in aviators and astronauts, we simulated the growth and decay of bubbles in two hypobaric decompressions and a hyperbaric one, all with the same tissue ratio (TR), where TR is defined as tissue PN2 before decompression divided by barometric pressure after. We used an equation system which is solved by numerical methods and accounts for simultaneous diffusion of any number of gases as well as other major determinants of bubble growth and absorption. We also considered two extremes of the number of bubbles which form per unit of tissue. A) Because physiological mechanisms keep the partial pressures of the "metabolic" gases (O2, CO2, and H2O) nearly constant over a range of hypobaric pressures, their fractions in bubbles are inversely proportional to pressure and their large volumes at low pressure add to bubble size. B) In addition, the large fractions facilitate the entry of N2 into bubbles, and when bubble density is low, enhance an autocatalytic feedback on bubble growth due to increasing surface area. C) The TR is not closely related to bubble size; that is when two different decompressions have the same TR, metabolic gases cause bubbles to grow larger at lower hypobaric pressures. We conclude that the constancy of partial pressures of metabolic gases, unimportant in hyperbaric decompressions, affects bubble size in hypobaric decompressions in inverse relation to the exposure pressure.

  18. Characterization of Bubble Size Distributions within a Bubble Column

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrouz Mohagheghian; Brian R. Elbing

    2018-01-01

    The current study experimentally examines bubble size distribution (BSD) within a bubble column and the associated characteristic length scales. Air was injected into a column of water via a single injection tube. The column diameter (63–102 mm), injection tube diameter (0.8–1.6 mm) and superficial gas velocity (1.4–55 mm/s) were varied. Large samples (up to 54,000 bubbles) of bubble sizes measured via 2D imaging were used to produce probability density functions (PDFs). The PDFs were used to...

  19. Cavitation inception by the backscattering of pressure waves from a bubble interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahira, Hiroyuki, E-mail: takahira@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki, E-mail: oga@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Mori, Naoto, E-mail: su101064@edu.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Moe [Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai-shi, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2015-10-28

    The secondary cavitation that occurs by the backscattering of focused ultrasound from a primary cavitation bubble caused by the negative pressure part of the ultrasound (Maxwell, et al., 2011) might be useful for the energy exchange due to bubble oscillations in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). The present study is concerned with the cavitation inception by the backscattering of ultrasound from a bubble. In the present experiment, a laser-induced bubble which is generated by a pulsed focused laser beam with high intensity is utilized as a primary cavitation bubble. After generating the bubble, focused ultrasound is emitted to the bubble. The acoustic field and the bubble motion are observed with a high-speed video camera. It is confirmed that the secondary cavitation bubble clouds are generated by the backscattering from the laser-induced bubble. The growth of cavitation bubble clouds is analyzed with the image processing method. The experimental results show that the height and width of the bubble clouds grow in stepwise during their evolution. The direct numerical simulations are also conducted for the backscattering of incident pressure waves from a bubble in order to evaluate a pressure field near the bubble. It is shown that the ratio of a bubble collapse time t{sub 0} to a characteristic time of wave propagation t{sub S}, η = t{sub 0}/t{sub s}, is an important determinant for generating negative pressure region by backscattering. The minimum pressure location by the backscattering in simulations is in good agreement with the experiment.

  20. Experimental investigation and mechanistic modelling of dilute bubbly bulk boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutnjak, Josip

    2013-06-27

    During evaporation the geometric shape of the vapour is not described using thermodynamics. In bubbly flows the bubble shape is considered spheric with small diameters and changing into various shapes upon growth. The heat and mass transfer happens at the interfacial area. The forces acting on the bubbles depend on the bubble diameter and shape. In this work the prediction of the bubble diameter and/or bubble number density in bulk boiling was considered outside the vicinity of the heat input area. Thus the boiling effects that happened inside the nearly saturated bulk were under investigation. This situation is relevant for nuclear safety analysis concerning a stagnant coolant in the spent fuel pool. In this research project a new experimental set-up to investigate was built. The experimental set-up consists of an instrumented, partly transparent, high and slender boiling container for visual observation. The direct visual observation of the boiling phenomena is necessary for the identification of basic mechanisms, which should be incorporated in the simulation model. The boiling process has been recorded by means of video images and subsequently was evaluated by digital image processing methods, and by that data concerning the characteristics of the boiling process were generated for the model development and validation. Mechanistic modelling is based on the derivation of relevant mechanisms concluded from observation, which is in line with physical knowledge. In this context two mechanisms were identified; the growth/-shrink mechanism (GSM) of the vapour bubbles and sudden increases of the bubble number density. The GSM was implemented into the CFD-Code ANSYS-CFX using the CFX Expression Language (CEL) by calculation of the internal bubble pressure using the Young-Laplace-Equation. This way a hysteresis is realised as smaller bubbles have an increased internal pressure. The sudden increases of the bubble number density are explainable by liquid super

  1. Experimental investigation and mechanistic modelling of dilute bubbly bulk boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutnjak, Josip

    2013-01-01

    During evaporation the geometric shape of the vapour is not described using thermodynamics. In bubbly flows the bubble shape is considered spheric with small diameters and changing into various shapes upon growth. The heat and mass transfer happens at the interfacial area. The forces acting on the bubbles depend on the bubble diameter and shape. In this work the prediction of the bubble diameter and/or bubble number density in bulk boiling was considered outside the vicinity of the heat input area. Thus the boiling effects that happened inside the nearly saturated bulk were under investigation. This situation is relevant for nuclear safety analysis concerning a stagnant coolant in the spent fuel pool. In this research project a new experimental set-up to investigate was built. The experimental set-up consists of an instrumented, partly transparent, high and slender boiling container for visual observation. The direct visual observation of the boiling phenomena is necessary for the identification of basic mechanisms, which should be incorporated in the simulation model. The boiling process has been recorded by means of video images and subsequently was evaluated by digital image processing methods, and by that data concerning the characteristics of the boiling process were generated for the model development and validation. Mechanistic modelling is based on the derivation of relevant mechanisms concluded from observation, which is in line with physical knowledge. In this context two mechanisms were identified; the growth/-shrink mechanism (GSM) of the vapour bubbles and sudden increases of the bubble number density. The GSM was implemented into the CFD-Code ANSYS-CFX using the CFX Expression Language (CEL) by calculation of the internal bubble pressure using the Young-Laplace-Equation. This way a hysteresis is realised as smaller bubbles have an increased internal pressure. The sudden increases of the bubble number density are explainable by liquid super

  2. Rational Asset Pricing Bubbles Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Werner

    2012-01-01

    Price bubble arises when the price of an asset exceeds the asset's fundamental value, that is, the present value of future dividend payments. The important result of Santos and Woodford (1997) says that price bubbles cannot exist in equilibrium in the standard dynamic asset pricing model with rational agents as long as assets are in strictly positive supply and the present value of total future resources is finite. This paper explores the possibility of asset price bubbles when either one of ...

  3. Morphological bubble evolution induced by air diffusion on submerged hydrophobic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Pengyu; Xiang, Yaolei; Xue, Yahui; Lin, Hao; Duan, Huiling

    2017-03-01

    Bubbles trapped in the cavities always play important roles in the underwater applications of structured hydrophobic surfaces. Air exchange between bubbles and surrounding water has a significant influence on the morphological bubble evolution, which in turn frequently affects the functionalities of the surfaces, such as superhydrophobicity and drag reduction. In this paper, air diffusion induced bubble evolution on submerged hydrophobic micropores under reduced pressures is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The morphological behaviors of collective and single bubbles are observed using confocal microscopy. Four representative evolution phases of bubbles are captured in situ. After depressurization, bubbles will not only grow and coalesce but also shrink and split although the applied pressure remains negative. A diffusion-based model is used to analyze the evolution behavior and the results are consistent with the experimental data. A criterion for bubble growth and shrinkage is also derived along with a phase diagram, revealing that the competition of effective gas partial pressures across the two sides of the diffusion layer dominates the bubble evolution process. Strategies for controlling the bubble evolution behavior are also proposed based on the phase diagram. The current work provides a further understanding of the general behavior of bubble evolution induced by air diffusion and can be employed to better designs of functional microstructured hydrophobic surfaces.

  4. Electron beam-induced radiation damage: the bubbling response in amorphous dried sodium phosphate buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massover, William H

    2010-06-01

    Irradiation of an amorphous layer of dried sodium phosphate buffer (pH = 7.0) by transmission electron microscopy (100-120 kV) causes rapid formation of numerous small spherical bubbles [10-100 A (= 1-10 nm)] containing an unknown gas. Bubbling is detected even with the first low-dose exposure. In a thin layer (ca. 100-150 A), bubbling typically goes through nucleation, growth, possible fusion, and end-state, after which further changes are not apparent; co-irradiated adjacent areas having a slightly smaller thickness never develop bubbles. In moderately thicker regions (ca. over 200 A), there is no end-state. Instead, a complex sequence of microstructural changes is elicited during continued intermittent high-dose irradiation: nucleation, growth, early simple fusions, a second round of extensive multiple fusions, general reduction of matrix thickness (producing flattening and expansion of larger bubbles, occasional bubble fission, and formation of very large irregularly-shaped bubbles by a third round of compound fusion events), and slow shrinkage of all bubbles. The ongoing lighter appearance of bubble lumens, maintenance of their rounded shape, and extensive changes in size and form indicate that gas content continues throughout their surprisingly long lifetime; the thin dense boundary layer surrounding all bubbles is proposed to be the main mechanism for their long lifetime.

  5. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; de Jong, Nico; Versluis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to circulate within blood vessels. Perfluorocarbon liquid droplets can be a potential new generation of microbubble agents as ultrasound can trigger their conversion into gas bubbles. Prior to activation, they are at least five times smaller in diameter than the resulting bubbles. Together with the violent nature of the phase-transition, the droplets can be used for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, HIFU enhancement and tumor imaging. Here we explain the basics of bubble dynamics, described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, bubble resonance frequency, damping and quality factor. We show the elegant calculation of the above characteristics for the case of small amplitude oscillations by linearizing the equations. The effect and importance of a bubble coating and effective surface tension are also discussed. We give the main characteristics of the power spectrum of bubble oscillations. Preceding bubble dynamics, ultrasound propagation is introduced. We explain the speed of sound, nonlinearity and attenuation terms. We examine bubble ultrasound scattering and how it depends on the wave-shape of the incident wave. Finally, we introduce droplet interaction with ultrasound. We elucidate the ultrasound-focusing concept within a droplets sphere, droplet shaking due to media compressibility and droplet phase-conversion dynamics.

  6. Helium bubble bursting in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefta, Faiza; Juslin, Niklas; Wirth, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to systematically study the pressure evolution and bursting behavior of sub-surface helium bubbles and the resulting tungsten surface morphology. This study specifically investigates how bubble shape and size, temperature, tungsten surface orientation, and ligament thickness above the bubble influence bubble stability and surface evolution. The tungsten surface is roughened by a combination of adatom “islands,” craters, and pinholes. The present study provides insight into the mechanisms and conditions leading to various tungsten topology changes, which we believe are the initial stages of surface evolution leading to the formation of nanoscale fuzz

  7. Bubble formation in Zr alloys under heavy ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagano, L. Jr.; Motta, A.T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Birtcher, R.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.

    1995-12-01

    Kr ions were used in the HVEM/Tandem facility at ANL to irradiate several Zr alloys, including Zircaloy-2 and -4, at 300-800 C to doses up to 2{times}10{sup 16}ion.cm{sup -2}. Both in-situ irradiation of thin foils as well as irradiation of bulk samples with an ion implanter were used in this study. For the thin foil irradiations, a distribution of small bubbles in the range of 30-100 {angstrom} was found at all temperatures with the exception of the Cr-rich Valloy where 130 {angstrom} bubbles were found. Irradiation of bulk samples at 700-800 C produced large faceted bubbles up to 300 {angstrom} after irradiation to 2{times}10{sup 16}ion.cm{sup -2}. Results are examined in context of existing models for bubble formation and growth in other metals.

  8. Interface tracking computations of bubble dynamics in nucleate flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giustini, G.

    2015-01-01

    The boiling process is of utter importance for the design and operation of water-cooled nuclear reactors. Despite continuous effort over the past decades, a fully mechanistic model of boiling in the presence of a solid surface has not yet been achieved. Uncertainties exist at fundamental level, since the microscopic phenomena governing nucleate boiling are still not understood, and as regards 'component scale' modelling, which relies heavily on empirical representations of wall boiling. Accurate models of these phenomena at sub-milli-metric scale are capable of elucidating the various processes and to produce quantitative data needed for up-scaling. Within this context, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) represents a powerful tool for CFD analysis of boiling flows. In this contribution, DNS coupled with an Interface Tracking method (Y. Sato, B. Niceno, Journal of Computational Physics, Volume 249, 15 September 2013, Pages 127-161) are used to analyse the hydrodynamics and heat transfer associated with heat diffusion controlled bubble growth at a solid substrate during nucleate flow boiling. The growth of successive bubbles from a single nucleation site is simulated with a computational model that includes heat conduction in the solid substrate and evaporation from the liquid film (micro-layer) present beneath the bubble. Bubble evolution is investigated and the additional (with respect to single phase convection) heat transfer mechanisms due to the ebullition cycle are quantified. The simulations show that latent heat exchange due to evaporation in the micro-layer and sensible heat exchange during the waiting time after bubble departure are the main heat transfer mechanisms. It is found that the presence of an imposed flow normal to the bubble rising path determines a complex velocity and temperature distribution near the nucleation site. This conditions can result in bubble sliding, and influence bubble shape, departure diameter and departure frequency

  9. Bubble Coalescence: Effect of Bubble Approach Velocity and Liquid Viscosity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orvalho, Sandra; Růžička, Marek; Olivieri, G.; Marzocchella, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 134, SEP 29 (2015), s. 205-216 ISSN 0009-2509 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : bubble coalescence * bubble approach velocity * liquid viscosity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.750, year: 2015

  10. Bubble Size Distribution in a Vibrating Bubble Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Wilson, Trevor; Valenzuela, Bret; Hinds, Tyler; Moseni, Kevin; Elbing, Brian

    2016-11-01

    While vibrating bubble columns have increased the mass transfer between phases, a universal scaling law remains elusive. Attempts to predict mass transfer rates in large industrial scale applications by extrapolating laboratory scale models have failed. In a stationary bubble column, mass transfer is a function of phase interfacial area (PIA), while PIA is determined based on the bubble size distribution (BSD). On the other hand, BSD is influenced by the injection characteristics and liquid phase dynamics and properties. Vibration modifies the BSD by impacting the gas and gas-liquid dynamics. This work uses a vibrating cylindrical bubble column to investigate the effect of gas injection and vibration characteristics on the BSD. The bubble column has a 10 cm diameter and was filled with water to a depth of 90 cm above the tip of the orifice tube injector. BSD was measured using high-speed imaging to determine the projected area of individual bubbles, which the nominal bubble diameter was then calculated assuming spherical bubbles. The BSD dependence on the distance from the injector, injector design (1.6 and 0.8 mm ID), air flow rates (0.5 to 5 lit/min), and vibration conditions (stationary and vibration conditions varying amplitude and frequency) will be presented. In addition to mean data, higher order statistics will also be provided.

  11. Understanding the bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    that are identified to exist between the Internet and housing market bubbles: uncertainty and sentiments. The iteration between uncertainty and sentiments leads to the emergence of the third commonality: residue. The residue is the difference between the actors’ overall sentiment about exaggerated future prospects...... all boils down to the role pricing plays vis-à-vis the emergence of a new venture and its perceived value. Being in the midst of the global economic crisis provides us with a unique opportunity to refine the proposed model, especially by understanding its temporal and contextual boundaries....

  12. Visualization of airflow growing soap bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rahbi, Hamood; Bock, Matthew; Ryu, Sangjin

    2016-11-01

    Visualizing airflow inside growing soap bubbles can answer questions regarding the fluid dynamics of soap bubble blowing, which is a model system for flows with a gas-liquid-gas interface. Also, understanding the soap bubble blowing process is practical because it can contribute to controlling industrial processes similar to soap bubble blowing. In this study, we visualized airflow which grows soap bubbles using the smoke wire technique to understand how airflow blows soap bubbles. The soap bubble blower setup was built to mimic the human blowing process of soap bubbles, which consists of a blower, a nozzle and a bubble ring. The smoke wire was placed between the nozzle and the bubble ring, and smoke-visualized airflow was captured using a high speed camera. Our visualization shows how air jet flows into the growing soap bubble on the ring and how the airflow interacts with the soap film of growing bubble.

  13. Bubble levitation and translation under single-bubble sonoluminescence conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Thomas J

    2003-08-01

    Bubble levitation in an acoustic standing wave is re-examined for conditions relevant to single-bubble sonoluminescence. Unlike a previous examination [Matula et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 1522-1527 (1997)], the stable parameter space [Pa,R0] is accounted for in this realization. Forces such as the added mass force and drag are included, and the results are compared with a simple force balance that equates the Bjerknes force to the buoyancy force. Under normal sonoluminescence conditions, the comparison is quite favorable. A more complete accounting of the forces shows that a stably levitated bubble does undergo periodic translational motion. The asymmetries associated with translational motion are hypothesized to generate instabilities in the spherical shape of the bubble. A reduction in gravity results in reduced translational motion. It is hypothesized that such conditions may lead to increased light output from sonoluminescing bubbles.

  14. Large amplitude oscillation of a boiling bubble growing at a wall in stagnation flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geld, C.W.M. van der; Berg, R. van de; Peukert, P.

    2009-01-01

    A boiling bubble is created on an artificial site that is part of a bubble generator that is mounted at the center of a pipe. Downflow of water impinges on the bubble generator and creates a stagnation flow above the artificial cavity. Stable axisymmetric elongation in the direction away from the wall and multiple shape oscillation cycles are observed. The time of growth and attachment is typically of the order of 250 ms. Amongst the length scales that characterize the bubble shape is the radius of curvature of the upper part of the bubble, R. The period of oscillation, T, is strongly dependent on time, as is R. The parameters C and m in the defining equation T = C R m √(ρL/σ) have been determined by fitting to data of more than 100 bubbles. For each operating condition, the same values of C and m have been found. The value of m is 1.49 ± 0.02, which is explained from the continuous growth of the bubble and from the relation to the period of oscillation of a free bubble deforming in the fundamental mode corresponding to the third Legendre Polynomial. For the latter, R is the radius of the volume-equivalent sphere, R 0 , and C is √12, while for attached boiling bubbles C is found to amount 1.9√12. The difference is easily explained from the continuous growth, difference in definition, finite amplitude oscillation and proximity of the wall. (author)

  15. New mechanism for bubble nucleation: Classical transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easther, Richard; Giblin, John T. Jr; Hui Lam; Lim, Eugene A.

    2009-01-01

    Given a scalar field with metastable minima, bubbles nucleate quantum mechanically. When bubbles collide, energy stored in the bubble walls is converted into kinetic energy of the field. This kinetic energy can facilitate the classical nucleation of new bubbles in minima that lie below those of the 'parent' bubbles. This process is efficient and classical, and changes the dynamics and statistics of bubble formation in models with multiple vacua, relative to that derived from quantum tunneling.

  16. Blistering and bubble formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.

    1976-01-01

    Blister formation in metals has been observed during bombardment with inert-gas ions in the energy range between 1 and 2000 keV at doses of about 10 17 to 10 19 cm -2 . The changes in surface topography and the erosion yields were mainly studied in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Additionally the release of the implanted gas during blister formation was observed. Recently measurements on single crystals were performed determining simultaneously the implantation profile, the total amount of trapped ions, the depth distribution of the induced lattice damage and the thickness of the covers of the blisters. In several stages of the formation process of blisters the implanted layer was observed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) showing the formation of gas bubbles. Using the results of all these measurements in this review an attempt is made to develop a model of blister formation combining the effects of hydrostatic pressure in the gas bubbles and lateral stress due to volume swelling. (author)

  17. Sonoluminescing Air Bubbles Rectify Argon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohse, Detlef; Brenner, Michael P.; Dupont, Todd F.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Johnston, Blaine

    1997-01-01

    The dynamics of single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) strongly depends on the percentage of inert gas within the bubble. We propose a theory for this dependence, based on a combination of principles from sonochemistry and hydrodynamic stability. The nitrogen and oxygen dissociation and subsequent

  18. Bubble coalescence in breathing DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotný, Tomas; Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Ambjörnsson, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the coalescence of two DNA bubbles initially located at weak segments and separated by a more stable barrier region in a designed construct of double-stranded DNA. The characteristic time for bubble coalescence and the corresponding distribution are derived, as well as the distribu...... vicious walkers in opposite potentials....

  19. A prediction for bubbling geometries

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, Takuya

    2007-01-01

    We study the supersymmetric circular Wilson loops in N=4 Yang-Mills theory. Their vacuum expectation values are computed in the parameter region that admits smooth bubbling geometry duals. The results are a prediction for the supergravity action evaluated on the bubbling geometries for Wilson loops.

  20. Preparation of bubble damage detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Caiqing; Guo Shilun; Wang Yulan; Hao Xiuhong; Chen Changmao; Su Jingling

    1997-01-01

    Bubble damage detectors have been prepared by using polyacrylamide as detector solid and freon as detector liquid. Tests show that the prepared detectors are sensitive to fast neutrons and have proportionality between bubble number and neutron fluence within a certain range of neutron fluence. Therefore, it can be used as a fast neutron detector and a dosimeter

  1. The little holographic bubble chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, A.

    1983-01-01

    The lifetime study of the charmed particles has readvanced the idea to use holography for the little fast-cycle bubble chambers. A pilot experiment has been realised in 1982 with a little bubble chamber filled up with freon-115. 40000 holograms have been recorded [fr

  2. Bubble chamber: colour enhanced tracks

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    This artistically-enhanced image of real particle tracks was produced in the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). Liquid hydrogen is used to create bubbles along the paths of the particles as a piston expands the medium. A magnetic field is produced in the detector causing the particles to travel in spirals, allowing charge and momentum to be measured.

  3. Sinking bubbles in stout beers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. T.; Kaar, S.; O'Brien, S. B. G.

    2018-04-01

    A surprising phenomenon witnessed by many is the sinking bubbles seen in a settling pint of stout beer. Bubbles are less dense than the surrounding fluid so how does this happen? Previous work has shown that the explanation lies in a circulation of fluid promoted by the tilted sides of the glass. However, this work has relied heavily on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Here, we show that the phenomenon of sinking bubbles can be predicted using a simple analytic model. To make the model analytically tractable, we work in the limit of small bubbles and consider a simplified geometry. The model confirms both the existence of sinking bubbles and the previously proposed mechanism.

  4. LET dependence of bubbles evaporation pulses in superheated emulsion detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Fulvio, Angela; Huang, Jean; Staib, Lawrence [Yale University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, TAC N140, New Haven, CT 06520-8043 (United States); D’Errico, Francesco [Yale University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, TAC N140, New Haven, CT 06520-8043 (United States); Scuola di Ingegneria, Universitá di Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, Pisa (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Superheated emulsion detectors are suspensions of metastable liquid droplets in a compliant inert medium. Upon interaction with ionizing radiation, the droplets evaporate, generating visible bubbles. Bubble expansion associated with the boiling of the droplets is accompanied by pressure pulses in both the sonic and ultrasonic frequency range. In this work, we analyzed the signal generated by bubble evaporation in the frequency and time domain. We used octafluoropropane (R-218) based emulsions, sensitive to both photons and neutrons. The frequency content of the detected pulses appears to extend well into the hundreds of kHz, beyond the range used in commercial devices to count bubbles as they are formed (typically 1–10 kHz). Kilohertz components characterize the early part of the waveforms, potentially containing information about the energetics of the explosive bubble initial growth phase. The power spectral density of the acoustic signal produced by neutron-induced evaporation shows a characteristic frequency pattern in the 200–400 kHz range, which is not observed when bubbles evaporate upon gamma ray-induced irradiation. For practical applications, detection of ultrasonic pulses associated with the boiling of the superheated drops can be exploited as a fast readout method, negligibly affected by mechanical ambient noise.

  5. Formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattice in UMo metal fuels: Phase-field modeling investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shenyang, E-mail: shenyang.hu@pnnl.gov; Burkes, Douglas E.; Lavender, Curt A.; Senor, David J.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Xu, Zhijie

    2016-10-15

    Nano-gas bubble superlattices are often observed in irradiated UMo nuclear fuels. However, the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices is not well understood. A number of physical processes may affect the gas bubble nucleation and growth; hence, the morphology of gas bubble microstructures including size and spatial distributions. In this work, a phase-field model integrating a first-passage Monte Carlo method to investigate the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices was developed. Six physical processes are taken into account in the model: 1) heterogeneous generation of gas atoms, vacancies, and interstitials informed from atomistic simulations; 2) one-dimensional (1-D) migration of interstitials; 3) irradiation-induced dissolution of gas atoms; 4) recombination between vacancies and interstitials; 5) elastic interaction; and 6) heterogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles. We found that the elastic interaction doesn’t cause the gas bubble alignment, and fast 1-D migration of interstitials along 〈110〉 directions in the body-centered cubic U matrix causes the gas bubble alignment along 〈110〉 directions. It implies that 1-D interstitial migration along [110] direction should be the primary mechanism of a fcc gas bubble superlattice which is observed in bcc UMo alloys. Simulations also show that fission rates, saturated gas concentration, and elastic interaction all affect the morphology of gas bubble microstructures.

  6. Dynamics and noise emission of laser induced cavitation bubbles in a vortical flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweis, Ghanem F.; Choi, Jaehyug; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2004-03-01

    The sound produced by the collapse of discrete cavitation bubbles was examined. Laser-generated cavitation bubbles were produced in both a quiescent and a vortical flow. The sound produced by the collapse of the cavitation bubbles was recorded, and its spectral content was determined. It was found that the risetime of the sound pulse produced by the collapse of single, spherical cavitation bubbles in quiescent fluid exceeded that of the slew rate of the hydrophone, which is consistent with previously published results. It was found that, as collapsing bubbles were deformed by the vortical flow, the acoustic impulse of the bubbles was reduced. Collapsing nonspherical bubbles often created a sound pulse with a risetime that exceeded that of the hydrophone slew rate, although the acoustic impulse created by the bubbles was influenced largely by the degree to which the bubbles became nonspherical before collapse. The noise produced by the slow growth of cavitation bubbles in the vortex core was not detectable. These results have implications for the interpretation of hydrodynamic cavitation noise produced by vortex cavitation.

  7. The interaction of bubbles with solidification interfaces. [during coasting phase of sounding rocket flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazian, J. M.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    The behavior of bubbles at a dendritic solidification interface was studied during the coasting phase of a sounding rocket flight. Sequential photographs of the gradient freeze experiment showed nucleation, growth and coalescence of bubbles at the moving interface during both the low-gravity and one-gravity tests. In the one-gravity test the bubbles were observed to detach from the interface and float to the top of the melt. However, in the low-gravity tests no bubble detachment from the interface or steady state bubble motion occurred and large voids were grown into the crystal. These observations are discussed in terms of the current theory of thermal migration of bubbles and in terms of their implications on the space processing of metals.

  8. PIV measurement of a contraction flow using micro-bubble tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masaaki; Irabu, Kunio; Teruya, Isao; Nitta, Munehiro

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a technique using the micro-bubbles is focused. It was applied to many fields such as purification of rivers and lakes, washing the industrial parts, growth of plants and marine products. The characteristics of micro-bubbles are small size, wide surface area, low terminal velocity, and so on. If this micro-bubble is available as tracer of PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry), environment load would become lower because it doesn't need to discard particle. In this paper, we make a micro-bubble generator with Venturi type mechanism. The generated micro-bubbles are applied to a vertical channel flow with contraction. We validate about traceability of the micro-bubble tracer in comparison with the particle tracer.

  9. Pressure and tension waves from bubble collapse near a solid boundary: A numerical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Christiane; Koch, Max; Lauterborn, Werner; Mettin, Robert

    2017-12-01

    The acoustic waves being generated during the motion of a bubble in water near a solid boundary are calculated numerically. The open source package OpenFOAM is used for solving the Navier-Stokes equation and extended to include nonlinear acoustic wave effects via the Tait equation for water. A bubble model with a small amount of gas is chosen, the gas obeying an adiabatic law. A bubble starting from a small size with high internal pressure near a flat, solid boundary is studied. The sequence of events from bubble growth via axial microjet formation, jet impact, annular nanojet formation, torus-bubble collapse, and bubble rebound to second collapse is described. The different pressure and tension waves with their propagation properties are demonstrated.

  10. Use of an ultrasonic reflectance technique to examine bubble size changes in dough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strybulevych, A.; Leroy, V.; Shum, A. L.; Koksel, H. F.; Scanlon, M. G.; Page, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Bread quality largely depends on the manner in which bubbles are created and manipulated in the dough during processing. We have developed an ultrasonic reflectance technique to monitor bubbles in dough, even at high volume fractions, where near the bubble resonances it is difficult to make measurements using transmission techniques. A broadband transducer centred at 3.5 MHz in a normal incidence wave reflection set-up is used to measure longitudinal velocity and attenuation from acoustic impedance measurements. The technique is illustrated by examining changes in bubbles in dough due to two very different physical effects. In dough made without yeast, a peak in attenuation due to bubble resonance is observed at approximately 2 MHz. This peak diminishes rapidly and shifts to lower frequencies, indicative of Ostwald ripening of bubbles within the dough. The second effect involves the growth of bubble sizes due to gas generated by yeast during fermentation. This process is experimentally challenging to investigate with ultrasound because of very high attenuation. The reflectance technique allows the changes of the velocity and attenuation during fermentation to be measured as a function of frequency and time, indicating bubble growth effects that can be monitored even at high volume fractions of bubbles.

  11. Use of an ultrasonic reflectance technique to examine bubble size changes in dough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strybulevych, A; Leroy, V; Page, J H; Shum, A L; Koksel, H F; Scanlon, M G

    2012-01-01

    Bread quality largely depends on the manner in which bubbles are created and manipulated in the dough during processing. We have developed an ultrasonic reflectance technique to monitor bubbles in dough, even at high volume fractions, where near the bubble resonances it is difficult to make measurements using transmission techniques. A broadband transducer centred at 3.5 MHz in a normal incidence wave reflection set-up is used to measure longitudinal velocity and attenuation from acoustic impedance measurements. The technique is illustrated by examining changes in bubbles in dough due to two very different physical effects. In dough made without yeast, a peak in attenuation due to bubble resonance is observed at approximately 2 MHz. This peak diminishes rapidly and shifts to lower frequencies, indicative of Ostwald ripening of bubbles within the dough. The second effect involves the growth of bubble sizes due to gas generated by yeast during fermentation. This process is experimentally challenging to investigate with ultrasound because of very high attenuation. The reflectance technique allows the changes of the velocity and attenuation during fermentation to be measured as a function of frequency and time, indicating bubble growth effects that can be monitored even at high volume fractions of bubbles.

  12. Hydrodynamics of circulating and bubbling fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidaspow, D.P.; Tsuo, Y.P.; Ding, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a review of modeling of the hydrodynamics of fluidization of bubbling beds showed that inviscid two-fluid models were able to predict a great deal of the behavior of bubbling beds because the dominant mechanism of energy dissipation is the drag between the particles and the fluid. The formation, the growth and the bursting of bubbles were predicted. Predicted wall-to-bed heat transfer coefficients and velocity profiles of jets agreed with measurements. Time average porosity distributions agreed with measurements done using gamma-ray densitometers without the use of any adjustable parameters. However, inviscid models could not correctly predict rates of erosion around tubes immersed into fluidized beds. To correctly model such behavior, granular stresses involving solids viscosity were added into the computer model. This viscosity arises due to random collision of particles. Several models fro this viscosity were investigated and the results compared to measurements of solids distributions in two-dimensional beds and to particle velocities reported in the literature. While in the case of bubbling beds the solids viscosity plays the role of a correction, modeling of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) without a viscosity is not possible. Recent experimental data obtained at IIT and at IGT show that in CFB the solids viscous dissipation is responsible for as much as half of the pressure drop. From such measurement, solids viscosities were computed. These were used in the two fluid hydrodynamic model, to predict radial solids distributions and solids velocities which matched the experimental distributions. Most important, the model predicted cluster formation and transient internal circulation which is responsible for the favorable characteristics of CFBs, such as good wall-to-bed heat transfer. Video tape movies of computations compared favorably with high speed movies of the experiments

  13. Direct numerical simulation of bubble dynamics in subcooled and near-saturated convective nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Sreeyuth; Sato, Yohei; Niceno, Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulate convective nucleate pool boiling with a novel phase-change model. • We simulate four cases at different sub-cooling and wall superheat levels. • We investigate the flow structures around the growing bubble and analyze the accompanying physics. • We accurately simulate bubble shape elongation and enhanced wall cooling due to the sliding and slanting motions of bubbles. • Bubble cycle durations show good agreement with experimental observations. - Abstract: With the long-term objective of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) prediction, bubble dynamics in convective nucleate boiling flows has been studied using a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). A sharp-interface phase change model which was originally developed for pool boiling flows is extended to convective boiling flows. For physical scales smaller than the smallest flow scales (smaller than the grid size), a micro-scale model was used. After a grid dependency study and a parametric study for the contact angle, four cases of simulation were carried out with different wall superheat and degree of subcooling. The flow structures around the growing bubble were investigated together with the accompanying physics. The relation between the heat flux evolution and the bubble growth was studied, along with investigations of bubble diameter and bubble base diameter evolutions across the four cases. As a validation, the evolutions of bubble diameter and bubble base diameter were compared to experimental observations. The bubble departure period and the bubble shapes show good agreement between the experiment and the simulation, although the Reynolds number of the simulation cases is relatively low

  14. Segregating gas from melt: an experimental study of the Ostwald ripening of vapor bubbles in magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautze, Nicole C.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Diffusive coarsening (Ostwald ripening) of H2O and H2O-CO2 bubbles in rhyolite and basaltic andesite melts was studied with elevated temperature–pressure experiments to investigate the rates and time spans over which vapor bubbles may enlarge and attain sufficient buoyancy to segregate in magmatic systems. Bubble growth and segregation are also considered in terms of classical steady-state and transient (non-steady-state) ripening theory. Experimental results are consistent with diffusive coarsening as the dominant mechanism of bubble growth. Ripening is faster in experiments saturated with pure H2O than in those with a CO2-rich mixed vapor probably due to faster diffusion of H2O than CO2 through the melt. None of the experimental series followed the time1/3 increase in mean bubble radius and time-1 decrease in bubble number density predicted by classical steady-state ripening theory. Instead, products are interpreted as resulting from transient regime ripening. Application of transient regime theory suggests that bubbly magmas may require from days to 100 years to reach steady-state ripening conditions. Experimental results, as well as theory for steady-state ripening of bubbles that are immobile or undergoing buoyant ascent, indicate that diffusive coarsening efficiently eliminates micron-sized bubbles and would produce mm-sized bubbles in 102–104 years in crustal magma bodies. Once bubbles attain mm-sizes, their calculated ascent rates are sufficient that they could transit multiple kilometers over hundreds to thousands of years through mafic and silicic melt, respectively. These results show that diffusive coarsening can facilitate transfer of volatiles through, and from, magmatic systems by creating bubbles sufficiently large for rapid ascent.

  15. Sonochemistry and the acoustic bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Grieser, Franz; Enomoto, Naoya; Harada, Hisashi; Okitsu, Kenji; Yasui, Kyuichi

    2015-01-01

    Sonochemistry and the Acoustic Bubble provides an introduction to the way ultrasound acts on bubbles in a liquid to cause bubbles to collapse violently, leading to localized 'hot spots' in the liquid with temperatures of 5000° celcius and under pressures of several hundred atmospheres. These extreme conditions produce events such as the emission of light, sonoluminescence, with a lifetime of less than a nanosecond, and free radicals that can initiate a host of varied chemical reactions (sonochemistry) in the liquid, all at room temperature. The physics and chemistry behind the p

  16. The microjetting behavior from single laser-induced bubbles generated above a solid boundary with a through hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Jack E.; Oweis, Ghanem F.

    2013-01-01

    An inertial bubble collapsing near a solid boundary generates a fast impulsive microjet directed toward the boundary. The jet impacts the solid boundary at a high velocity, and this effect has been taken advantage of in industrial cleaning such as when tiny bubbles are driven ultrasonically to cavitate around machined parts to produce jets that are believed to induce the cleaning effect. In this experimental investigation, we are interested in the jetting from single cavities near a boundary. By introducing a through hole in the boundary beneath a laser-induced bubble, it is hypothesized that the forming jet, upon bubble implosion, will proceed to penetrate through the hole to the other side and that it may be utilized in useful applications such as precise surgeries. It was found that the growth of the bubble induced a fast flow through the hole and lead to the formation of secondary hydrodynamic cavitation. The experiments also showed the formation of a counter jet directed away from the hole and into the bubble. During the growth phase of the bubble, and near the point of maximum expansion, the bubble wall bulged out toward the hole in a `bulb' like formation, which sometimes resulted in the pinching-off of a secondary small bubble. This was ensued by the inward recoiling of the primary bubble wall near the pinch-off spot, which developed into a counter jet seen to move away from the hole and inward into the bubble.

  17. Effect of bubble interface parameters on predicted of bubble departure diameter in a narrow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jianjun; Xie Tianzhou; Zhou Wenbin; Chen Bingde; Huang Yanping

    2014-01-01

    The predicted model on the bubble departure diameter in a narrow channel is built by analysis of forces acting on the bubble, and effects of bubble interface parameters such as the bubble inclination angle, upstream contact angle, downstream contact angle and bubble contact diameter on predicted bubble departure diameters in a narrow channel are analysed by comparing with the visual experimental data. Based on the above results, the bubble interface parameters as the input parameters used to obtain the bubble departure diameter in a narrow channel are assured, and the bubble departure diameters in a narrow channel are predicted by solving the force equation. The predicted bubble departure diameters are verified by the 58 bubble departure diameters obtained from the vertical and inclined visual experiment, and the predicted results agree with the experimental results. The different forces acting on the bubble are obtained and the effect of thermal parameters in this experiment on bubble departure diameters is analysed. (authors)

  18. New evidence on the first financial bubble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frehen, R.G.P.; Goetzmann, W.; Rouwenhorst, K.G.

    2013-01-01

    The Mississippi Bubble, South Sea Bubble and the Dutch Windhandel of 1720 together represent the world's first global financial bubble. We hand-collect cross-sectional price data and investor account data from 1720 to test theories about market bubbles. Our tests suggest that innovation was a key

  19. Characterization of Bubble Size Distributions within a Bubble Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrouz Mohagheghian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study experimentally examines bubble size distribution (BSD within a bubble column and the associated characteristic length scales. Air was injected into a column of water via a single injection tube. The column diameter (63–102 mm, injection tube diameter (0.8–1.6 mm and superficial gas velocity (1.4–55 mm/s were varied. Large samples (up to 54,000 bubbles of bubble sizes measured via 2D imaging were used to produce probability density functions (PDFs. The PDFs were used to identify an alternative length scale termed the most frequent bubble size (dmf and defined as the peak in the PDF. This length scale as well as the traditional Sauter mean diameter were used to assess the sensitivity of the BSD to gas injection rate, injector tube diameter, injection tube angle and column diameter. The dmf was relatively insensitive to most variation, which indicates these bubbles are produced by the turbulent wakes. In addition, the current work examines higher order statistics (standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis and notes that there is evidence in support of using these statistics to quantify the influence of specific parameters on the flow-field as well as a potential indicator of regime transitions.

  20. Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    and their diameter. The variation in melting temperature has little influence on the overall bubble volume. However, the size distribution of the bubbles varies with the melting temperature. When the melt is slowly cooled, the bubble volume increases, implying decreased solubility of the gaseous species. Mass...... spectroscopy analysis of gases liberated during heating of the glass reveals that small bubbles contain predominantly CH4, CO and CO2, whereas large bubbles bear N2, SO2 and H2S. The methodology utilised in this work can, besides mapping the bubbles in a glass, be applied to shed light on the sources of bubble...

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of a vapor bubble expanding in a superheated region of finite size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annenkova, E. A., E-mail: a-a-annenkova@yandex.ru [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kreider, W. [Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th St., Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Sapozhnikov, O. A. [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th St., Seattle, WA 98105 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Growth of a vapor bubble in a superheated liquid is studied theoretically. Contrary to the typical situation of boiling, when bubbles grow in a uniformly heated liquid, here the superheated region is considered in the form of a millimeter-sized spherical hot spot. An initial micron-sized bubble is positioned at the hot spot center and a theoretical model is developed that is capable of studying bubble growth caused by vapor pressure inside the bubble and corresponding hydrodynamic and thermal processes in the surrounding liquid. Such a situation is relevant to the dynamics of vapor cavities that are created in soft biological tissue in the focal region of a high-intensity focused ultrasound beam with a shocked pressure waveform. Such beams are used in the recently proposed treatment called boiling histotripsy. Knowing the typical behavior of vapor cavities during boiling histotripsy could help to optimize the therapeutic procedure.

  2. Microstreaming from Sessile Semicylindrical Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Guo, Lin; Wang, Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Powerful steady streaming flows result from the ultrasonic driving of microbubbles, in particular when these bubbles have semicylindrical cross section and are positioned in contact with a microfluidic channel wall. We have used this streaming in experiment to develop novel methods for trapping and sorting of microparticles by size, as well as for micromixing. Theoretically, we arrive at an analytical description of the streaming flow field through an asymptotic computation that, for the first time, reconciles the boundary layers around the bubble and along the substrate wall, and also takes into account the oscillation modes of the bubble. This approach gives insight into changes in the streaming pattern with bubble size and driving frequency, including a reversal of the flow direction at high frequencies with potentially useful applications. Present address: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri S &T.

  3. Electroweak bubble wall speed limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bödeker, Dietrich [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Moore, Guy D., E-mail: bodeker@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: guymoore@ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    In extensions of the Standard Model with extra scalars, the electroweak phase transition can be very strong, and the bubble walls can be highly relativistic. We revisit our previous argument that electroweak bubble walls can 'run away,' that is, achieve extreme ultrarelativistic velocities γ ∼ 10{sup 14}. We show that, when particles cross the bubble wall, they can emit transition radiation. Wall-frame soft processes, though suppressed by a power of the coupling α, have a significance enhanced by the γ-factor of the wall, limiting wall velocities to γ ∼ 1/α. Though the bubble walls can move at almost the speed of light, they carry an infinitesimal share of the plasma's energy.

  4. Growing bubbles and freezing drops: depletion effects and tip singularities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enriquez Paz y Puente, O.R.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the author investigates the growth of gas bubbles in a supersaturated solution and the freezing of water drops when placed on a cold plate. Supersaturated solutions are common in nature and industry; perhaps the best know examples are carbonated drinks, such as beer or soda. These

  5. Bubbles in a freshwater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, S A; Stubbs, A R

    1979-05-31

    WHEN the wind is strong enough to produce whitecaps on Loch Ness, patchy 'clouds' of acoustic reflectors are detected well below the surface, the depth to which they penetrate increasing with wind speed (Fig. 1). No seasonal variation in the occurrence of the reflectors has been detected. A biological explanation is therefore discounted and we suggest here that they are bubbles caused by waves breaking and forming whitecaps in deep water. Similar bubble clouds may occur in other lakes and in the sea.

  6. Slowing down bubbles with sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Cedric; Dangla, Remie; Guinard, Marion

    2009-11-01

    We present experimental evidence that a bubble moving in a fluid in which a well-chosen acoustic noise is superimposed can be significantly slowed down even for moderate acoustic pressure. Through mean velocity measurements, we show that a condition for this effect to occur is for the acoustic noise spectrum to match or overlap the bubble's fundamental resonant mode. We render the bubble's oscillations and translational movements using high speed video. We show that radial oscillations (Rayleigh-Plesset type) have no effect on the mean velocity, while above a critical pressure, a parametric type instability (Faraday waves) is triggered and gives rise to nonlinear surface oscillations. We evidence that these surface waves are subharmonic and responsible for the bubble's drag increase. When the acoustic intensity is increased, Faraday modes interact and the strongly nonlinear oscillations behave randomly, leading to a random behavior of the bubble's trajectory and consequently to a higher slow down. Our observations may suggest new strategies for bubbly flow control, or two-phase microfluidic devices. It might also be applicable to other elastic objects, such as globules, cells or vesicles, for medical applications such as elasticity-based sorting.

  7. Measuring online social bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Nikolov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social media have become a prevalent channel to access information, spread ideas, and influence opinions. However, it has been suggested that social and algorithmic filtering may cause exposure to less diverse points of view. Here we quantitatively measure this kind of social bias at the collective level by mining a massive datasets of web clicks. Our analysis shows that collectively, people access information from a significantly narrower spectrum of sources through social media and email, compared to a search baseline. The significance of this finding for individual exposure is revealed by investigating the relationship between the diversity of information sources experienced by users at both the collective and individual levels in two datasets where individual users can be analyzed—Twitter posts and search logs. There is a strong correlation between collective and individual diversity, supporting the notion that when we use social media we find ourselves inside “social bubbles.” Our results could lead to a deeper understanding of how technology biases our exposure to new information.

  8. Beyond the gas bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilt, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The deliverability issue currently being discussed within the natural gas industry involves both near-term and long-term questions. In the near-term, over the next two or three years, it is probable that the natural gas industry will need to mobilize for much greater levels of investment than have been the experience over the past few years. In the longer-term, it is expected that new opportunities for gas will arise as the nation seeks to meet increasing energy requirements within new environmental constraints. Methane for emissions control, CNG vehicles, expanded gas-fired electricity generation, and increased efficiency of traditional energy services are just a few examples. The issues in the longer-term center on the ability of the gas industry to meet increasing supply requirements reliably and at cost-competitive prices for these markets. This paper begins by reviewing the historical situation of gas deliverability that is the capability of the gas producing and transportation portions of the industry. The delivery system's ability to handle shifts in the centers of consumption and production is discussed, with an emphasis on regional problems of gas deliverability and potential bottlenecks. On the production side, the paper reviews the capability and the required investment necessary to handle an orderly transition to a stable supply and demand balance once the elusive bubble had finally disappeared

  9. A Possible Method for Warning of House Price Bubble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Yanxiang Gu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Metropolitan areas that had the most house price inflation between 1998 and 2006 and the highest price to income ratios are characterized by strong income growth and high population density. Areas with the highest price to income ratios in 2006 and lowest population density suffered the largest percentage price declines after the bubble burst. An equation is established for estimating warning level against house price bubble, and the estimated warning could leave 19 percent room and more than two years of time for action.

  10. A simple parameterization for the rising velocity of bubbles in a liquid pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Hoon [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Hwan; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Technology, Co., Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The determination of the shape and rising velocity of gas bubbles in a liquid pool is of great importance in analyzing the radioactive aerosol emissions from nuclear power plant accidents in terms of the fission product release rate and the pool scrubbing efficiency of radioactive aerosols. This article suggests a simple parameterization for the gas bubble rising velocity as a function of the volume-equivalent bubble diameter; this parameterization does not require prior knowledge of bubble shape. This is more convenient than previously suggested parameterizations because it is given as a single explicit formula. It is also shown that a bubble shape diagram, which is very similar to the Grace's diagram, can be easily generated using the parameterization suggested in this article. Furthermore, the boundaries among the three bubble shape regimes in the E{sub o}–R{sub e} plane and the condition for the bypass of the spheroidal regime can be delineated directly from the parameterization formula. Therefore, the parameterization suggested in this article appears to be useful not only in easily determining the bubble rising velocity (e.g., in postulated severe accident analysis codes) but also in understanding the trend of bubble shape change due to bubble growth.

  11. A simple parameterization for the rising velocity of bubbles in a liquid pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Hoon; Park, Chang Hwan; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Byung Chul

    2017-01-01

    The determination of the shape and rising velocity of gas bubbles in a liquid pool is of great importance in analyzing the radioactive aerosol emissions from nuclear power plant accidents in terms of the fission product release rate and the pool scrubbing efficiency of radioactive aerosols. This article suggests a simple parameterization for the gas bubble rising velocity as a function of the volume-equivalent bubble diameter; this parameterization does not require prior knowledge of bubble shape. This is more convenient than previously suggested parameterizations because it is given as a single explicit formula. It is also shown that a bubble shape diagram, which is very similar to the Grace's diagram, can be easily generated using the parameterization suggested in this article. Furthermore, the boundaries among the three bubble shape regimes in the E_o–R_e plane and the condition for the bypass of the spheroidal regime can be delineated directly from the parameterization formula. Therefore, the parameterization suggested in this article appears to be useful not only in easily determining the bubble rising velocity (e.g., in postulated severe accident analysis codes) but also in understanding the trend of bubble shape change due to bubble growth

  12. Image analysis of bubble behavior in the pressurized fluidized bed using neutron radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Yasuo; Miyamoto, Masahide; Miike, Hidetoshi; Kishimoto, Yasuyuki; Matsubayasi, Masahito; Mochiki, Kouichi.

    1996-01-01

    It is very important to know about the formation for bubble production growth and destruction. Because blowing gas nozzle decide the ability of the solid-gas fluidized bed system. For the pressurized 3-D fluidized bed, it was some interested in the bubble production and configuration which was taken place the interaction between bubble and particle under the pressurized condition. For the understanding of the three dimensional characteristics of production bubble under pressurized condition, the study of visualization of neutron radiograph seemed to be useful. In stead of typical X-ray visualization method, visualization of neutron radiograph method for observation of bubble behavior were carried out. Then an image analysis of it was done the same way as two dimension method P-system (PIAS-LA555WS Image Analysis). As the results, the characteristic of production bubble was more clear quantitatively, for example, the bubble production frequency, the bubble diameter and the bubble horizontal and vertical sizes so on. (author)

  13. FEASTING BLACK HOLE BLOWS BUBBLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A monstrous black hole's rude table manners include blowing huge bubbles of hot gas into space. At least, that's the gustatory practice followed by the supermassive black hole residing in the hub of the nearby galaxy NGC 4438. Known as a peculiar galaxy because of its unusual shape, NGC 4438 is in the Virgo Cluster, 50 million light-years from Earth. These NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy's central region clearly show one of the bubbles rising from a dark band of dust. The other bubble, emanating from below the dust band, is barely visible, appearing as dim red blobs in the close-up picture of the galaxy's hub (the colorful picture at right). The background image represents a wider view of the galaxy, with the central region defined by the white box. These extremely hot bubbles are caused by the black hole's voracious eating habits. The eating machine is engorging itself with a banquet of material swirling around it in an accretion disk (the white region below the bright bubble). Some of this material is spewed from the disk in opposite directions. Acting like high-powered garden hoses, these twin jets of matter sweep out material in their paths. The jets eventually slam into a wall of dense, slow-moving gas, which is traveling at less than 223,000 mph (360,000 kph). The collision produces the glowing material. The bubbles will continue to expand and will eventually dissipate. Compared with the life of the galaxy, this bubble-blowing phase is a short-lived event. The bubble is much brighter on one side of the galaxy's center because the jet smashed into a denser amount of gas. The brighter bubble is 800 light-years tall and 800 light-years across. The observations are being presented June 5 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Rochester, N.Y. Both pictures were taken March 24, 1999 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. False colors were used to enhance the details of the bubbles. The red regions in the picture denote the hot gas

  14. Nonperturbative production of multiboson states and quantum bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsky, A.S.; Voloshin, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The amplitude of production of n on-mass-shell scalar bosons by a highly virtual field φ is considered in a λφ 4 theory with weak coupling λ and spontaneously broken symmetry. The amplitude of this process is known to have an n exclamation point growth when the produced bosons are exactly at rest. Here it is shown that for n much-gt 1/λ the process goes through ''quantum bubbles,'' i.e., quantized droplets of a different vacuum phase, which are nonperturbative resonant states of the field φ. The bubbles provide a form factor for the production amplitude, which rapidly decreases above the threshold. As a result the probability of the process may be heavily suppressed and may decrease with energy E as exp(-constxE a ), where the power a depends on the number of space dimensions. Also discussed are the quantized states of bubbles and the amplitudes of their formation and decay

  15. Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in viscoelastic media with relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnez, M. T.; Johnsen, E.

    2015-06-01

    Cavitation occurs in a variety of non-Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials. The large-amplitude volumetric oscillations of cavitation bubbles give rise to high temperatures and pressures at collapse, as well as induce large and rapid deformation of the surroundings. In this work, we develop a comprehensive numerical framework for spherical bubble dynamics in isotropic media obeying a wide range of viscoelastic constitutive relationships. Our numerical approach solves the compressible Keller-Miksis equation with full thermal effects (inside and outside the bubble) when coupled to a highly generalized constitutive relationship (which allows Newtonian, Kelvin-Voigt, Zener, linear Maxwell, upper-convected Maxwell, Jeffreys, Oldroyd-B, Giesekus, and Phan-Thien-Tanner models). For the latter two models, partial differential equations (PDEs) must be solved in the surrounding medium; for the remaining models, we show that the PDEs can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. To solve the general constitutive PDEs, we present a Chebyshev spectral collocation method, which is robust even for violent collapse. Combining this numerical approach with theoretical analysis, we simulate bubble dynamics in various viscoelastic media to determine the impact of relaxation time, a constitutive parameter, on the associated physics. Relaxation time is found to increase bubble growth and permit rebounds driven purely by residual stresses in the surroundings. Different regimes of oscillations occur depending on the relaxation time.

  16. Helium bubbles in bcc Fe and their interactions with irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Xiao, E-mail: X.Gai@lboro.ac.uk; Lazauskas, Tomas; Smith, Roger; Kenny, Steven D.

    2015-07-15

    The properties of helium bubbles in a body-centred cubic (bcc) Fe lattice have been examined. The atomic configurations and formation energies of different He–vacancy complexes were determined. The 0 K results show that the most energetically favourable He to Fe vacancy ratio increases from about 1:1 for approximately 5 vacancies up to about 4:1 for 36 vacancies. The formation mechanisms for small He clusters have also been considered. Isolated interstitials and small clusters can diffuse quickly through the lattice. MD simulations of randomly placed interstitial He atoms at 500 K showed clustering over the time scale of nanoseconds with He clusters containing up to 4 atoms being mobile over this time scale. He clusters containing 4 or 5 atoms were shown to eject an Fe dumbbell interstitial which could then detach from the He cluster and diffuse with the remaining He–vacancy complex being effectively immobile. Collision cascades initiated near larger bubbles showed that Fe vacancies produced by the cascades readily become part of the He–vacancy complexes. Energy barriers for He to join an existing bubble as a function of the He–vacancy ratio are also calculated. These can be larger than the diffusion barrier in the pristine lattice, but are lower when the bubbles contain excess vacancies, thus indicating that bubble growth may be kinetically constrained.

  17. A three-dimensional numerical study on dynamics behavior of a rising vapor bubble in uniformly superheated liquid by lattice Boltzmann method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Tao; Sun, Jiangang; Ang, Xueye; Li, Shanshan; Su, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamics of vapor bubble in uniformly superheated liquid is studied by a 3D LBM. • The growth rate reaches a maximum value and then decrease until a certain value. • The vapor bubble will take place a larger deformation at high ratio of Re/Eo. • The bubble wake has a great influence on motion and deformation of vapor bubble. • Ratio of Re/Eo has an important influence on evolution of temperature field. - Abstract: In this paper, dynamics behaviors of a rising vapor bubble in uniformly superheated liquid are firstly studied by a hybrid three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model. In order to validate this model, two test cases regarding bubble rising in an isothermal system and vapor bubble growth in a superheated liquid are performed, respectively. The test results are consistent with existing results and indicate the feasibility of the hybrid model. The hybrid model is further applied to simulate growth and deformation of a rising vapor bubble in different physical conditions. Some physical parameters of vapor bubble such as equivalent diameter and growth rate are evaluated accurately by three-dimensional simulations. It is found that the growth rate of vapor bubble changes with time and temperature gradient. It reaches a maximum value at the initial stage and then decrease until a certain value. The growth and deformation of vapor bubble at different ratios of Re/Eo are discussed. The numerical results show the vapor bubble will take place a larger deformation at high ratio of Re/Eo at the middle and final stages. In addition, the hybrid model is also applied to predict the evolution of flow and temperature fields. The bubble wake has a great influence on the motion and deformation of vapor bubble during rising process. As far as the temperature field is concerned, a ratio of Re/Eo has an important influence on heat transfer and evolution of temperature field.

  18. Spherical Solutions of an Underwater Explosion Bubble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Wardlaw

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the 1D explosion bubble flow field out to the first bubble minimum is examined in detail using four different models. The most detailed is based on the Euler equations and accounts for the internal bubble fluid motion, while the simplest links a potential water solution to a stationary, Isentropic bubble model. Comparison of the different models with experimental data provides insight into the influence of compressibility and internal bubble dynamics on the behavior of the explosion bubble.

  19. Bifurcation scenarios for bubbling transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimin, Aleksey V; Hunt, Brian R; Ott, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Dynamical systems with chaos on an invariant submanifold can exhibit a type of behavior called bubbling, whereby a small random or fixed perturbation to the system induces intermittent bursting. The bifurcation to bubbling occurs when a periodic orbit embedded in the chaotic attractor in the invariant manifold becomes unstable to perturbations transverse to the invariant manifold. Generically the periodic orbit can become transversely unstable through a pitchfork, transcritical, period-doubling, or Hopf bifurcation. In this paper a unified treatment of the four types of bubbling bifurcation is presented. Conditions are obtained determining whether the transition to bubbling is soft or hard; that is, whether the maximum burst amplitude varies continuously or discontinuously with variation of the parameter through its critical value. For soft bubbling transitions, the scaling of the maximum burst amplitude with the parameter is derived. For both hard and soft transitions the scaling of the average interburst time with the bifurcation parameter is deduced. Both random (noise) and fixed (mismatch) perturbations are considered. Results of numerical experiments testing our theoretical predictions are presented.

  20. Shock formation within sonoluminescence bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong, V.Q.; Szeri, A.J.; Young, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    A strong case has been made by several authors that sharp, spherically symmetric shocks converging on the center of a spherical bubble driven by a strong acoustic field give rise to rapid compression and heating that produces the brief flash of light known as sonoluminescence. The formation of such shocks is considered. It is found that, although at the main collapse the bubble wall does indeed launch an inwardly-traveling compression wave, and although the subsequent reflection of the wave at the bubble center produces a very rapid temperature peak, the wave is prevented from steepening into a sharp shock by an adverse gradient in the sound speed caused by heat transfer. It is shown that the mathematical characteristics of the flow can be prevented from accumulating into a shock front by this adverse sound speed gradient. A range of results is presented for a variety of bubble ambient radii and sound field amplitudes suggested by experiments. The time scale of the peak temperature in the bubble is set by the dynamics of the compression wave: this is typically in the range 100 - 300 ps (FWHM) in concert with recent measurements of the sonoluminescence pulse width. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  1. Bursting Bubbles and Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Wrenn, Stephen M. Dicker, Eleanor F. Small, Nily R. Dan, Michał Mleczko, Georg Schmitz, Peter A. Lewin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses various interactions between ultrasound, phospholipid monolayer-coated gas bubbles, phospholipid bilayer vesicles, and cells. The paper begins with a review of microbubble physics models, developed to describe microbubble dynamic behavior in the presence of ultrasound, and follows this with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict inertial cavitation profiles. Predicted sensitivities of inertial cavitation to changes in the values of membrane properties, including surface tension, surface dilatational viscosity, and area expansion modulus, indicate that area expansion modulus exerts the greatest relative influence on inertial cavitation. Accordingly, the theoretical dependence of area expansion modulus on chemical composition - in particular, poly (ethylene glyclol (PEG - is reviewed, and predictions of inertial cavitation for different PEG molecular weights and compositions are compared with experiment. Noteworthy is the predicted dependence, or lack thereof, of inertial cavitation on PEG molecular weight and mole fraction. Specifically, inertial cavitation is predicted to be independent of PEG molecular weight and mole fraction in the so-called mushroom regime. In the “brush” regime, however, inertial cavitation is predicted to increase with PEG mole fraction but to decrease (to the inverse 3/5 power with PEG molecular weight. While excellent agreement between experiment and theory can be achieved, it is shown that the calculated inertial cavitation profiles depend strongly on the criterion used to predict inertial cavitation. This is followed by a discussion of nesting microbubbles inside the aqueous core of microcapsules and how this significantly increases the inertial cavitation threshold. Nesting thus offers a means for avoiding unwanted inertial cavitation and cell death during imaging and other applications such as sonoporation. A review of putative sonoporation mechanisms is then presented

  2. Bubble Dynamics in Laser Lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadzadeh, Milad; Mercado, Julian Martinez; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Laser lithotripsy is a medical procedure for fragmentation of urinary stones with a fiber guided laser pulse of several hundred microseconds long. Using high-speed photography, we present an in-vitro study of bubble dynamics and stone motion induced by Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy. The experiments reveal that detectable stone motion starts only after the bubble collapse, which we relate with the collapse-induced liquid flow. Additionally, we model the bubble formation and dynamics using a set of 2D Rayleigh-Plesset equations with the measured laser pulse profile as an input. The aim is to reduce stone motion through modification of the temporal laser pulse profile, which affects the collapse scenario and consequently the remnant liquid motion. (paper)

  3. Hamiltonian description of bubble dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimov, A. O.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of a nonspherical bubble in a liquid is described within the Hamiltonian formalism. Primary attention is focused on the introduction of the canonical variables into the computational algorithm. The expansion of the Dirichlet-Neumann operator in powers of the displacement of a bubble wall from an equilibrium position is obtained in the explicit form. The first three terms (more specifically, the second-, third-, and fourth-order terms) in the expansion of the Hamiltonian in powers of the canonical variables are determined. These terms describe the spectrum and interaction of three essentially different modes, i.e., monopole oscillations (pulsations), dipole oscillations (translational motions), and surface oscillations. The cubic nonlinearity is analyzed for the problem associated with the generation of Faraday ripples on the wall of a bubble in an acoustic field. The possibility of decay processes occurring in the course of interaction of surface oscillations for the first fifteen (experimentally observed) modes is investigated.

  4. Disruption of an Aligned Dendritic Network by Bubbles During Re-Melting in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Brush, Lucien N.; Anilkumar, Amrutur V.

    2012-01-01

    The quiescent Microgravity environment can be quite dynamic. Thermocapillary flow about "large" static bubbles on the order of 1mm in diameter was easily observed by following smaller tracer bubbles. The bubble induced flow was seen to disrupt a large dendritic array, effectively distributing free branches about the solid-liquid interface. "Small" dynamic bubbles were observed to travel at fast velocities through the mushy zone with the implication of bringing/detaching/redistributing dendrite arm fragments at the solid-liquid interface. Large and small bubbles effectively re-orient/re-distribute dendrite branches/arms/fragments at the solid liquid interface. Subsequent initiation of controlled directional solidification results in growth of dendrites having random orientations which significantly compromises the desired science.

  5. How Stressful Is "Deep Bubbling"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrmi, Jaana; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2017-03-01

    Water resistance therapy by phonating through a tube into the water is used to treat dysphonia. Deep submersion (≥10 cm in water, "deep bubbling") is used for hypofunctional voice disorders. Using it with caution is recommended to avoid vocal overloading. This experimental study aimed to investigate how strenuous "deep bubbling" is. Fourteen subjects, half of them with voice training, repeated the syllable [pa:] in comfortable speaking pitch and loudness, loudly, and in strained voice. Thereafter, they phonated a vowel-like sound both in comfortable loudness and loudly into a glass resonance tube immersed 10 cm into the water. Oral pressure, contact quotient (CQ, calculated from electroglottographic signal), and sound pressure level were studied. The peak oral pressure P(oral) during [p] and shuttering of the outer end of the tube was measured to estimate the subglottic pressure P(sub) and the mean P(oral) during vowel portions to enable calculation of transglottic pressure P(trans). Sensations during phonation were reported with an open-ended interview. P(sub) and P(oral) were higher in "deep bubbling" and P(trans) lower than in loud syllable phonation, but the CQ did not differ significantly. Similar results were obtained for the comparison between loud "deep bubbling" and strained phonation, although P(sub) did not differ significantly. Most of the subjects reported "deep bubbling" to be stressful only for respiratory and lip muscles. No big differences were found between trained and untrained subjects. The CQ values suggest that "deep bubbling" may increase vocal fold loading. Further studies should address impact stress during water resistance exercises. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cavitation inception from bubble nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Knud Aage

    2015-01-01

    , and experimental investigations of bubbles and cavitation inception have been presented. These results suggest that cavitation nuclei in equilibrium are gaseous voids in the water, stabilized by a skin which allows diffusion balance between gas inside the void and gas in solution in the surrounding liquid....... The cavitation nuclei may be free gas bubbles in the bulk of water, or interfacial gaseous voids located on the surface of particles in the water, or on bounding walls. The tensile strength of these nuclei depends not only on the water quality but also on the pressure-time history of the water. A recent model...

  7. Vapor bubble behavior in subcooled flow boiling in annuli heated by water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licheng Sun; Zhongning Sun; Changqi Yan

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper describes experimental and theoretical work conducted on vapor bubble behavior in subcooled flow boiling at atmospheric pressure. The test section is mainly consisted of two concentrically installed circular tubes, the outside tube is made of quartz and therefore all test courses can be visualized. Water is forced to flow through annuli with gap sizes of 3 mm and 5 mm, and is heated by high temperature water in the inner tube. The main objective is to visually study the bubble behavior of subcooled flow boiling water in the condition of surface heated by water. The results show that bubbles depart from wall directly or slide a certain distance before departure, this is same as that heated by electricity. There exists a bubble layer near the wall, most bubbles move and disappear in the layer after departure, the bubble sliding behavior is not very obvious in 5 mm annulus, however, we found that most bubbles in 3 mm annulus will slide a long distance before departure and their growth courses are different from usual experimental results. The bubbles are not always growing, but shrinking a little quickly after growing for some time, and then the course will repeat for some times till they depart from wall or disappeared, the collision and coalescence of bubbles is very common and makes the bubbles depart from wall more easily in 3 mm annulus. At last, the forces on bubbles growing and detaching in flow along the wall are analyzed to comprehend these phenomena more accurately. (authors)

  8. Bubble dynamics equations in Newton fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, J

    2008-01-01

    For the high-speed flow of Newton fluid, bubble is produced and expanded when it moves toward the surface of fluid. Bubble dynamics is a very important research field to understand the intrinsic feature of bubble production and motion. This research formulates the bubble expansion by expansion-local rotation transformation, which can be calculated by the measured velocity field. Then, the related dynamic equations are established to describe the interaction between the fluid and the bubble. The research shows that the bubble production condition can be expressed by critical vortex value and fluid pressure; and the bubble expansion rate can be obtained by solving the non-linear dynamic equation of bubble motion. The results may help the related research as it shows a special kind of fluid motion in theoretic sense. As an application example, the nanofiber radium-voltage relation and threshold voltage-surface tension relation in electrospinning process are discussed

  9. Discrete bubble modeling for a micro-structured bubble column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, D.; Lau, Y.M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Deen, N.G.

    2013-01-01

    Gas–liquid flows with solid catalyst particles are encountered in many applications in the chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical industries, etc. Most commonly, two reactor types are applied for large scale in the industry. They are slurry bubble column and trickle bed reactors. Both of these

  10. Formation of soap bubbles by gas jet

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, M. L.; Li, M.; Chen, Z. Y.; Han, J. F.; Liu, D.

    2017-01-01

    Soap bubbles can be easily generated by varies methods, while their formation process is complicated and still worth study. A model about the bubble formation process was proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 077801 recently, and it was reported that the bubbles were formed when the gas blowing velocity was above one threshold. However, after repeating these experiments, we found the bubbles could be generated in two velocities ranges which corresponded to laminar and turbulent gas jet respective...

  11. Fluid dynamics of bubbly flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegenhein, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Bubbly flows can be found in many applications in chemical, biological and power engineering. Reliable simulation tools of such flows that allow the design of new processes and optimization of existing one are therefore highly desirable. CFD-simulations applying the multi-fluid approach are very promising to provide such a design tool for complete facilities. In the multi-fluid approach, however, closure models have to be formulated to model the interaction between the continuous and dispersed phase. Due to the complex nature of bubbly flows, different phenomena have to be taken into account and for every phenomenon different closure models exist. Therefore, reliable predictions of unknown bubbly flows are not yet possible with the multi-fluid approach. A strategy to overcome this problem is to define a baseline model in which the closure models including the model constants are fixed so that the limitations of the modeling can be evaluated by validating it on different experiments. Afterwards, the shortcomings are identified so that the baseline model can be stepwise improved without losing the validity for the already validated cases. This development of a baseline model is done in the present work by validating the baseline model developed at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf mainly basing on experimental data for bubbly pipe flows to bubble columns, bubble plumes and air-lift reactors that are relevant in chemical and biological engineering applications. In the present work, a large variety of such setups is used for validation. The buoyancy driven bubbly flows showed thereby a transient behavior on the scale of the facility. Since such large scales are characterized by the geometry of the facility, turbulence models cannot describe them. Therefore, the transient simulation of bubbly flows with two equation models based on the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is investigated. In combination with the before mentioned baseline model these

  12. Fluid dynamics of bubbly flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegenhein, Thomas

    2016-07-08

    Bubbly flows can be found in many applications in chemical, biological and power engineering. Reliable simulation tools of such flows that allow the design of new processes and optimization of existing one are therefore highly desirable. CFD-simulations applying the multi-fluid approach are very promising to provide such a design tool for complete facilities. In the multi-fluid approach, however, closure models have to be formulated to model the interaction between the continuous and dispersed phase. Due to the complex nature of bubbly flows, different phenomena have to be taken into account and for every phenomenon different closure models exist. Therefore, reliable predictions of unknown bubbly flows are not yet possible with the multi-fluid approach. A strategy to overcome this problem is to define a baseline model in which the closure models including the model constants are fixed so that the limitations of the modeling can be evaluated by validating it on different experiments. Afterwards, the shortcomings are identified so that the baseline model can be stepwise improved without losing the validity for the already validated cases. This development of a baseline model is done in the present work by validating the baseline model developed at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf mainly basing on experimental data for bubbly pipe flows to bubble columns, bubble plumes and air-lift reactors that are relevant in chemical and biological engineering applications. In the present work, a large variety of such setups is used for validation. The buoyancy driven bubbly flows showed thereby a transient behavior on the scale of the facility. Since such large scales are characterized by the geometry of the facility, turbulence models cannot describe them. Therefore, the transient simulation of bubbly flows with two equation models based on the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is investigated. In combination with the before mentioned baseline model these

  13. On the how latitude scanning photometer signatures of equatorial ionosphere plasma bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdu, M.A.; Sobral, J.H.A.; Nakamura, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Meridional and east-west scan 6300 (angstrom) night airglow photometer are being extensively used at the low latitude station Cachoeira Paulista (23 0 S 45 0 W, dip latitude 14 0 ), Brazil, for investigation of trans-equatorial ionospheric plasma bubble dynamics. The zonal velocities of the flux aligned plasma bubbles can be determined, in a straingforward way, from the east-west displacement of the airglow intensity valleys observed by the east-west scan photometer. On the other hand, the determination of the other velocity component of the plasma bubble motion (namely, vertical motion in the equatorial plane) has to be based on the meridional propagation of the airglow valleys observed by the meriodinal scan photometer. Such determinatios of the bubbles vertical rise velocity should, however, involved considerations on different bubble parameters such as, for exemple, the phase of the bubble event (whether growth, mature or decay phase), the limited east-west extension, and the often observed westward tilt of the bubble. In this brief report there were condidered in some detail, possible influences of these different factors on the interpretation of low latitude scanning photometer data to infer trans-equatorial plasma bubble dynamics. (author) [pt

  14. Dissolution of spherical cap CO2 bubbles attached to flat surfaces in air-saturated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Pablo; Parrales, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier

    2014-11-01

    Bubbles attached to flat surfaces immersed in quiescent liquid environments often display a spherical cap (SC) shape. Their dissolution is a phenomenon commonly observed experimentally. Modelling these bubbles as fully spherical may lead to an inaccurate estimate of the bubble dissolution rate. We develop a theoretical model for the diffusion-driven dissolution or growth of such multi-component SC gas bubbles under constant pressure and temperature conditions. Provided the contact angle of the bubble with the surface is large, the concentration gradients in the liquid may be approximated as spherically symmetric. The area available for mass transfer depends on the instantaneous bubble contact angle, whose dynamics is computed from the adhesion hysteresis model [Hong et al., Langmuir, vol. 27, 6890-6896 (2011)]. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements on the dissolution of SC CO2 bubbles immersed in air-saturated water support the validity of our model. We verify that contact line pinning slows down the dissolution rate, and the fact that any bubble immersed in a saturated gas-liquid solution eventually attains a final equilibrium size. Funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through Grant DPI2011-28356-C03-0.

  15. Development of Bubble Lift-off Diameter Model for Subcooled Boiling Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Nhan Hien; Chu, Incheol; Song Chulhwa; Euh, Dongjin

    2014-01-01

    A lot of models and correlations for predicting the bubble departure/lift-off diameter are available in the literature. Most of them were developed based on a hydrodynamic principle, which balances forces acting on a bubble at the departure/lift-off point. One difficulty of these models is lack of essential information, such as bubble front velocity, liquid velocity, or relative velocity, to estimate the active force elements. Hence, the lift-off bubble diameter predicted by these hydrodynamic-controlled models may be suffered a large uncertainty. In contract to the hydrodynamic approach, there are few models developed based on the heat transfer aspect. By balancing the heat conducted through a microlayer underneath a bubble with the heat taken away by condensation at the upper part of the bubble, Unal derived a heat-controlled model of the bubble lift-off diameter. This model did not consider the role of superheat liquid layer surrounding the bubble as well as the effect of liquid properties on the heat transfer process. Beside these two approaches, several empirical correlations have been proposed based on dimensionless analyses for measured experimental databases. The application of these correlations to different experiments conditions is, of course, questionable because of the lack of physical bases. Regarding the heat transfer accompanied by a vapor bubble, four involved heat transfer regions surrounding this bubble can be defined as in Fig. 1. These are dry region, microlayer, superheated liquid layer (SpLL) and subcooled liquid layer (SbLL). The existing of the microlayer is confirmed by experiments, and it is considered to be very effective in the heat transfer. Sernas and Hoper defined five types of the microlayer and indicated that the microlayer acting as a very thick liquid layer gives a best prediction for the bubble growth. However, beside the microlayer, the SpLL might play an important role in the heat transfer if its effective heat transfer area

  16. Mechanics of gas-vapor bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, Yue; Zhang, Yuhang; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Most bubbles contain a mixture of vapor and incondensible gases. While the limit cases of pure vapor and pure gas bubbles are well studied, much less is known about the more realistic case of a mixture. The bubble contents continuously change due to the combined effects of evaporation and

  17. Vapor Bubbles in Flow and Acoustic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea; Hao, Yue; Sadhal, S.S

    2002-01-01

    A review of several aspects of the interaction of bubbles with acoustic and flow fields is presented. The focus of the paper is on bubbles in hot liquids, in which the bubble contains mostly vapor, with little or no permanent gas. The topics covered include the effect of translation on condensation

  18. Computing bubble-points of CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdin, M.; Balaji, S.P.; Vicent Luna, J.M.; Torres-Knoop, A; Chen, Q.; Dubbeldam, D.; Calero, S; de Loos, T.W.; Vlugt, T.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Computing bubble-points of multicomponent mixtures using Monte Carlo simulations is a non-trivial task. A new method is used to compute gas compositions from a known temperature, bubble-point pressure, and liquid composition. Monte Carlo simulations are used to calculate the bubble-points of

  19. Cutting bubbles with a single wire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, M.W.; Segers, Q.I.E.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Deen, N.G.

    2017-01-01

    Many gas-liquid-solid contactors, such as trickle bed and bubble slurry columns, suffer from heat and mass transfer limitations. To overcome these limitations, new micro-structured bubble column reactor is proposed. In this reactor, a catalyst coated wire mesh is introduced in a bubble column to cut

  20. Experimental study of vapor bubble dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquini, Maria-Elena

    2015-01-01

    The object of this thesis is an experimental study of vapor bubble dynamics in sub-cooled nucleate boiling. The test section is locally heated by focusing a laser beam: heat fluxes from 1 e4 to 1.5 e6 W/m 2 and water temperature between 100 and 88 C have been considered. Three boiling regimes have been observed. Under saturated conditions and with low heat fluxes a developed nucleate boiling regime has been observed. Under higher sub-cooling and still with low heat fluxes an equilibrium regime has been observed in which the liquid flowrate evaporating at the bubble base is compensated by the vapor condensing flowrate at bubble top. A third regime have been observed at high heat fluxes for all water conditions: it is characterized by the formation of a large dry spot on the heated surface that keeps the nucleation site dry after bubble detachment. The condensation phase starts after bubble detachment. Bubble equivalent radius at detachment varies between 1 and 2.5 mm. Bubble properties have been measured and non-dimensional groups have been used to characterize bubble dynamics. Capillary waves have been observed on the bubble surface thanks to high-speed images acquisition. Two main phenomena have been proposed to explain capillary waves effects on bubble condensation: increasing of the phases interface area and decreasing of vapor bubble translation velocity, because of the increased drag force on the deformed bubble. (author) [fr

  1. Numerical study of the dielectric liquid around an electrical discharge generated vapor bubble in ultrasonic assisted EDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervani-Tabar, Mohammad T; Mobadersany, Nima

    2013-07-01

    In electrical discharge machining due to the electrical current, very small bubbles are created in the dielectric fluid between the tool and the workpiece. Increase of the number of bubbles and their growth in size generate a single bubble. The bubble has an important role in electrical discharge machining. In this paper the effect of ultrasonic vibration of the tool and the velocity fields and pressure distribution in the dielectric fluid around the bubble in the process of electrical discharge machining are studied numerically. The boundary integral equation method is applied for the numerical solution of the problem. It is shown that ultrasonic vibration of the tool has great influence on the evolution of the bubble, fluid behavior and the efficiency of the machining in EDM. At the last stages of the collapse phase of the bubble, a liquid jet develops on the bubble which has different shapes. Due to the different cases, and a high pressure region appears just near the jet of the bubble. Also the fluid particles have the highest relative velocity just near the liquid jet of the bubble. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shpak, O.; Verweij, M.; de Jong, N.; Versluis, Michel; Escoffre, J.M.; Bouakaz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to

  3. Soliton bubbles and phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masperi, L.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that no topological classical solutions in form of bubbles of a real scalar field theory with Lagrangian of quartet and sextet self interactions in 1+1 dimensions are responsible to discontinue transitions in the quantum problem between phases with degenerated and disordered excited level. (M.C.K.)

  4. Impurity bubbles in a BEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Eddy; Blinova, Alina; Boshier, Malcolm

    2013-05-01

    Polarons (particles that interact with the self-consistent deformation of the host medium that contains them) self-localize when strongly coupled. Dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) doped with neutral distinguishable atoms (impurities) and armed with a Feshbach-tuned impurity-boson interaction provide a unique laboratory to study self-localized polarons. In nature, self-localized polarons come in two flavors that exhibit qualitatively different behavior: In lattice systems, the deformation is slight and the particle is accompanied by a cloud of collective excitations as in the case of the Landau-Pekar polarons of electrons in a dielectric lattice. In natural fluids and gases, the strongly coupled particle radically alters the medium, e.g. by expelling the host medium as in the case of the electron bubbles in superfluid helium. We show that BEC-impurities can self-localize in a bubble, as well as in a Landau-Pekar polaron state. The BEC-impurity system is fully characterized by only two dimensionless coupling constants. In the corresponding phase diagram the bubble and Landau-Pekar polaron limits correspond to large islands separated by a cross-over region. The same BEC-impurity species can be adiabatically Feshbach steered from the Landau-Pekar to the bubble regime. This work was funded by the Los Alamos LDRD program.

  5. Large amplitude oscillation of a boiling bubble growing at a wall in stagnation flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geld, C.W.M. van der; Berg, R. van de; Peukert, P. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering], e-mail: C.W.M._v.d.Geld@tue.nl

    2009-07-01

    A boiling bubble is created on an artificial site that is part of a bubble generator that is mounted at the center of a pipe. Downflow of water impinges on the bubble generator and creates a stagnation flow above the artificial cavity. Stable axisymmetric elongation in the direction away from the wall and multiple shape oscillation cycles are observed. The time of growth and attachment is typically of the order of 250 ms. Amongst the length scales that characterize the bubble shape is the radius of curvature of the upper part of the bubble, R. The period of oscillation, T, is strongly dependent on time, as is R. The parameters C and m in the defining equation T = C R{sup m} {radical}({rho}L/{sigma}) have been determined by fitting to data of more than 100 bubbles. For each operating condition, the same values of C and m have been found. The value of m is 1.49 {+-} 0.02, which is explained from the continuous growth of the bubble and from the relation to the period of oscillation of a free bubble deforming in the fundamental mode corresponding to the third Legendre Polynomial. For the latter, R is the radius of the volume-equivalent sphere, R{sub 0}, and C is {radical}12, while for attached boiling bubbles C is found to amount 1.9{radical}12. The difference is easily explained from the continuous growth, difference in definition, finite amplitude oscillation and proximity of the wall. (author)

  6. Is the United States in the middle of a healthcare bubble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Yi; Liang, Yia-Wun; Lin, Yu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the possibility of multiple healthcare bubbles in the US healthcare market. We first applied the newly developed Generalized Sup ADF test to locate multiple healthcare bubble episodes and then estimated the switching regression model specifying multiple healthcare bubble periods to evaluate to what extent macroeconomic variables (such as the interest rate, public debt, and fiscal deficit) and public financing healthcare programs influence the magnitude of healthcare bubbles in terms of the deviation of the medical care price inflation from either the overall price inflation or the money wage growth. Our results show that expansionary monetary and fiscal policies play important roles in determining the deviation of the medical care price inflation from the overall price inflation and that the net government debt has a positive impact on the deviation of the medical care price inflation from the money wage growth. The US healthcare market is now in the middle of a healthcare bubble, and this healthcare bubble has developed slowly and has lasted for approximately 3 decades, mirroring an increased societal preference for healthcare. Policymakers in the US should cautiously consider the fact that healthcare bubbles must imply a misallocation of resources into healthcare, leading to negative consequences on the sustainability of the healthcare system.

  7. Electric fields effect on the rise of single bubbles during boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siedel, Samuel; Cioulachtjian, Serge; Bonjour, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of saturated pool boiling on a single artificial nucleation site without and with the application of an electric field on the boiling surface has been conducted. N-pentane is boiling on a copper surface and is recorded with a high speed camera providing high quality pictures and movies. The accuracy of the visualization allowed establishing an experimental bubble growth law from a large number of experiments. This law shows that the evaporation rate is decreasing during the bubble growth, and underlines the importance of liquid motion induced by the preceding bubble. Bubble rise is therefore studied: once detached, bubbles accelerate vertically until reaching a maximum velocity in good agreement with a correlation from literature. The bubbles then turn to another direction. The effect of applying an electric field on the boiling surface in finally studied. In addition to changes of the bubble shape, changes are also shown in the liquid plume and the convective structures above the surface. Lower maximum rising velocities were measured in the presence of electric fields, especially with a negative polarity. (author)

  8. Selecting the swimming mechanisms of colloidal particles: bubble propulsion versus self-diffusiophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sijia; Wu, Ning

    2014-04-01

    Bubble propulsion and self-diffusiophoresis are two common mechanisms that can drive autonomous motion of microparticles in hydrogen peroxide. Although microtubular particles, when coated with platinum in their interior concave surfaces, can propel due to the formation and release of bubbles from one end, the convex Janus particles usually do not generate any visible bubble. They move primarily due to the self-diffusiophoresis. Coincidentally, the platinum films on those particles were typically coated by physical evaporation. In this paper, we use a simple chemical deposition method to make platinum-polystyrene Janus dimers. Surprisingly, those particles are propelled by periodic growth and collapse of bubbles on the platinum-coated lobes. We find that both high catalytic activity and rough surface are necessary to change the propulsion mode from self-diffusiophoresis to bubble propulsion. Our Janus dimers, with combined geometric and interfacial anisotropy, also exhibit distinctive motions at the respective stages of bubble growth and collapse, which differ by 5-6 orders of magnitude in time. Our study not only provides insight into the link between self-diffusiophoresis and bubble propulsion but also reveals the intriguing impacts of the combined geometric and interfacial anisotropy on self-propulsion of particles.

  9. Hydrodynamics in a swarm of rising bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riboux, G.

    2007-04-01

    In many applications, bubbles are used to agitate a liquid in order to enhance mixing and transfer. This work is devoted to the study of the hydrodynamics in a stable bubble column. Experimentally, we have determined the properties of the velocity fluctuations inside and behind a homogeneous swarm of rising bubbles for different bubble sizes and gas volume fractions α: self-similarity in α 0,4 , spectrum in k -3 and integral length scale controlled by buoyancy. Numerically, we have reproduced these properties by means of large-scale simulations, the bubbles being modeled by volume-forces. This confirms that the dynamics is controlled by wake interactions. (author)

  10. Nano-scale bubble thermonuclear fusion in acoustically cavitated deuterated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert I Nigmatulin; Richard T Lahey Jr; Rusi Taleyarkhan

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: It has been experimentally shown (Taleyarkhan, West, Cho, Lahey, Nigmatulin, Block, 2002, 2004) that neutron emission and tritium formation may occur in deuterated acetone (D-acetone C 3 DO 6 ) under acoustic cavitation conditions. Intensity of the fast neutron (2.45 MeV) emission and tritium nucleus production is ∼ 4 x 10 5 s -1 . This suggests ultrahigh compression of matter produced inside bubbles during their collapse. In the paper a systematic theoretical analysis of the vapor bubble growth and subsequent implosion in intense acoustic fields in D-acetone is presented. The goal is to describe and explain the experimental observations of thermonuclear fusion for collapsing cavitation bubble in D-acetone. The dynamics of bubbles formed during maximum rarefaction in the liquid is numerically studied on the basis of the developed models of a single bubble and bubble clusters. It is supposed that during their growth the bubbles coagulate and form a few bigger bubbles, which then collapse under the action of additional pressure pulses produced in the liquid through the intensification of acoustic waves within the cluster. A shock wave is shown to be formed inside the bubble during the latter's rapid contraction. Focusing of this shock wave in the bubble center initiates dissociation and ionization, violent increases in density (10 4 kg m 3 ), pressure (10 10 -10 11 bar) and temperature (2 x 10 8 K), high enough to produce nuclear fusion reactions. The bubble looks like micro-hydrogen bomb. The diameter of the neutron emission zone is about 100 nm. The highest neutron emission is recorded at about 10-20 nm from the bubble center. It is found out that the intensity of bubble implosion and the number of neutron emitted increase with variations in nucleation phase, positive half-wave amplitude, liquid temperature and also with the involvement of coagulation mechanisms within the cluster during the bubble simultaneous growth. The number

  11. Bubbles generated from wind-steepened breaking waves: 2. Bubble plumes, bubbles, and wave characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Caulliez, G.; Leeuw, G.de

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of breaking-wave-generated bubble plumes were made in fresh (but not clean) water in a large wind-wave tunnel. To preserve diversity, a classification scheme was developed on the basis of plume dimensions and "optical density," or the plume's ability to obscure the background. Optically

  12. Bubble formation upon crystallization of high nitrogen iron base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svyazhin, A.G.; Sivka, E.; Skuza, Z.

    2000-01-01

    A study is made into the conditions of nitrogen bubble formation during crystallization of unalloyed iron, alloys of Fe-O, Fe-O-S systems, steels 1Kh13, 0Kh18N9 and a two-phase Fe-11%Cr-1%Mo-0.2%V steel. It is revealed that the amount of bubbles in a high nitrogen steel casting increases with a degree of nitrogen supersaturation and decreases with a cooling rate growth and with a rise of surfactant concentration in the metal. In sound castings a nitrogen content can be increased due to a cooling rate growth, nitrogen dilution with inert gas, an increase of nitrogen pressure during crystallization as well as due to the introduction of such surfactants as sulphur, selenium, tellurium, tin [ru

  13. A study of gas bubbles in liquid mercury in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaasen, B.; Blanpain, B. [KU Leuven, Research Group for High Temperature Processes and Industrial Ecology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Leuven (Belgium); Verhaeghe, F. [KU Leuven, Research Group for High Temperature Processes and Industrial Ecology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Leuven (Belgium); Umicore Group Research and Development, Olen (Belgium); Fransaer, J. [KU Leuven, Research Group for Materials with Novel Functionality, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-01-15

    High-quality observations of mesoscopic gas bubbles in liquid metal are vital for a further development of pyrometallurgical gas injection reactors. However, the opacity of metals enforces the use of indirect imaging techniques with limited temporal or spatial resolution. In addition, accurate interface tracking requires tomography which further complicates the design of a high-temperature experimental setup. In this paper, an alternative approach is suggested that circumvents these two main restrictions. By injecting gas in a thin layer of liquid metal entrapped between two flat and closely spaced plates, bubbles in a Hele-Shaw flow regime are generated. The resulting quasi-2D multiphase flow phenomena can be fully captured from a single point of view and, when using a non-wetted transparent plate material, the bubbles can be observed directly. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated by observations on buoyancy-driven nitrogen bubbles in liquid mercury in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell. By using a moving high-speed camera to make continuous close up recordings of individual bubbles, the position and geometry of these bubbles are quantified with a high resolution along their entire path. After a thorough evaluation of the experimental accuracy, this information is used for a detailed analysis of the bubble expansion along the path. While the observed bubble growth is mainly caused by the hydrostatic pressure gradient, a careful assessment of the volume variations for smaller bubbles shows that an accurate bubble description should account for significant dynamic pressure variations that seem to be largely regime dependent. (orig.)

  14. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  15. The contribution of bubble chambers to European scientific collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krige, John

    1994-01-01

    We tend to take the organization of bubble chamber experiments for granted today. Yet the schemes put in practice in the early 1960s were innovative at the time. They required breaking with existing habits of mind which were dominated by the so-called truck team system for doing experiments. They required the formulation of new procedures for both the definition and the implementation of an experimental programme, procedures which were to serve as a ''model'' for the organization of experimental work at CERN with other techniques. And they stimulated an impressive growth of physics activities in universities and national institutes in the CERN member states. In short, bubble chamber physics was the avenue through which multinational, multi-institutional collaborative work was initiated at CERN, the means whereby the laboratory fulfilled its mission to rebuild physics on a European scale. If the bubble chamber physicists achieved these objectives it is not simply because they had already developed a tradition of collaboration. It was also because their technique imposed certain forms of organization on them. It was this combination of historical, technical and political factors which ensured that bubble chamber physics played the key role that it did in the early history of CERN and indeed of European high-energy physics as a whole. (orig./HB)

  16. The virtual mass of a growing and collapsing bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah Abbas Kendoush

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The acceleration of bubbles are encountered in flash evaporation, that results form the hypothetical sudden depressurization of the primary cooling circuit of light water nuclear reactors. Bubble growth during flash evaporation is a transient phenomenon, leads to a virtual mass force that should be introduced into the equation of motion. The importance of the virtual mass concept was appreciated by many investigators. They demonstrated that the inclusion of the virtual mass effect into the numerical solution of the transient two-phase flow appears to improve numerical stability and efficiency, and to achieve accurate results in many cases of practical concern. Analytical solutions were obtained for the virtual mass coefficient of a growing and collapsing bubble at high and low Jakob numbers. The method of solution was similar to that used previously by the author [Physics of Fluids 15(2782- 2785)2003]. The present solution is valid by its asymptotic approach to the limit of the virtual mass coefficient of the constant volume bubble. (author)

  17. Synchrotron quantification of ultrasound cavitation and bubble dynamics in Al-10Cu melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W W; Tzanakis, I; Srirangam, P; Mirihanage, W U; Eskin, D G; Bodey, A J; Lee, P D

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of the kinetics of gas bubble formation and evolution under cavitation conditions in molten alloys is important for the control casting defects such as porosity and dissolved hydrogen. Using in situ synchrotron X-ray radiography, we studied the dynamic behaviour of ultrasonic cavitation gas bubbles in a molten Al-10 wt%Cu alloy. The size distribution, average radius and growth rate of cavitation gas bubbles were quantified under an acoustic intensity of 800 W/cm(2) and a maximum acoustic pressure of 4.5 MPa (45 atm). Bubbles exhibited a log-normal size distribution with an average radius of 15.3 ± 0.5 μm. Under applied sonication conditions the growth rate of bubble radius, R(t), followed a power law with a form of R(t)=αt(β), and α=0.0021 &β=0.89. The observed tendencies were discussed in relation to bubble growth mechanisms of Al alloy melts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bubble entrapment through topological change

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2010-05-03

    When a viscousdrop impacts onto a solid surface, it entraps a myriad of microbubbles at the interface between liquid and solid. We present direct high-speed video observations of this entrapment. For viscousdrops, the tip of the spreading lamella is separated from the surface and levitated on a cushion of air. We show that the primary mechanism for the bubble entrapment is contact between this precursor sheet of liquid with the solid and not air pulled directly through cusps in the contact line. The sheet makes contact with the solid surface,forming a wetted patch, which grows in size, but only entraps a bubble when it meets the advancing contact line. The leading front of this wet patch can also lead to the localized thinning and puncturing of the liquid film producing strong splashing of droplets.

  19. Bubbling in vibrated granular films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamankhan, Piroz

    2011-02-01

    With the help of experiments, computer simulations, and a theoretical investigation, a general model is developed of the flow dynamics of dense granular media immersed in air in an intermediate regime where both collisional and frictional interactions may affect the flow behavior. The model is tested using the example of a system in which bubbles and solid structures are produced in granular films shaken vertically. Both experiments and large-scale, three-dimensional simulations of this system are performed. The experimental results are compared with the results of the simulation to verify the validity of the model. The data indicate evidence of formation of bubbles when peak acceleration relative to gravity exceeds a critical value Γ(b). The air-grain interfaces of bubblelike structures are found to exhibit fractal structure with dimension D=1.7±0.05.

  20. Bubble entrapment through topological change

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.

    2010-01-01

    When a viscousdrop impacts onto a solid surface, it entraps a myriad of microbubbles at the interface between liquid and solid. We present direct high-speed video observations of this entrapment. For viscousdrops, the tip of the spreading lamella is separated from the surface and levitated on a cushion of air. We show that the primary mechanism for the bubble entrapment is contact between this precursor sheet of liquid with the solid and not air pulled directly through cusps in the contact line. The sheet makes contact with the solid surface,forming a wetted patch, which grows in size, but only entraps a bubble when it meets the advancing contact line. The leading front of this wet patch can also lead to the localized thinning and puncturing of the liquid film producing strong splashing of droplets.

  1. Effect of oxygen breathing on micro oxygen bubbles in nitrogen-depleted rat adipose tissue at sea level and 25 kPa altitude exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsoe, Thomas; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The standard treatment of altitude decompression sickness (aDCS) caused by nitrogen bubble formation is oxygen breathing and recompression. However, micro air bubbles (containing 79% nitrogen), injected into adipose tissue, grow and stabilize at 25 kPa regardless of continued oxygen breathing...... at 101.3 kPa (sea level) or at 25 kPa altitude exposures during continued oxygen breathing. In keeping with previous observations and bubble kinetic models, we hypothesize that oxygen breathing may contribute to oxygen bubble growth at altitude. Anesthetized rats were exposed to 3 h of oxygen...... prebreathing at 101.3 kPa (sea level). Micro oxygen bubbles of 500-800 nl were then injected into the exposed abdominal adipose tissue. The oxygen bubbles were studied for up to 3.5 h during continued oxygen breathing at either 101.3 or 25 kPa ambient pressures. At 101.3 kPa, all bubbles shrank consistently...

  2. Bubble collisions in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siklos, S.T.C.; Wu, Z.C.; University of Science and Technology of China, Hofei, Anhwei)

    1983-01-01

    The collision of two bubbles of true vacuum in a background of false vacuum is considered in the context of General Relativity. It is found that in the thin wall approximation, the problem, can be solved exactly. The region to the future of the collision is described by the pseudo-Schwarzschild de Sitter metric. The parameters in this metric are found by solving the junction conditions at each collision. (author)

  3. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  4. Bubbling Controlled by Needle Movement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejražka, Jiří; Zedníková, Mária; Stanovský, Petr; Růžička, Marek; Drahoš, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, 7-8 (2008), s. 521-533 ISSN 0169-5983 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP101/05/P229; GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/2566 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : bubble * detechment * control Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.012, year: 2008

  5. Informational pathologies and interest bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Wiewiura, Joachim Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    This article contends that certain configurations of information networks facilitate specific cognitive states that are instrumental for decision and action on social media. Group-related knowledge and belief states—in particular common knowledge and pluralistic ignorance—may enable strong public...... signals. Indeed, some network configurations and attitude states foster informational pathologies that may fuel interest bubbles affecting agenda-setting and the generation of narratives in public spheres....

  6. When Will Occur the Crude Oil Bubbles?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Chi-Wei; Li, Zheng-Zheng; Chang, Hsu-Ling; Lobonţ, Oana-Ramona

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a recursive unit root test to investigate whether there exist multiple bubbles in crude oil price. The method is best suited for a practical implementation of a time series and delivers a consistent date-stamping strategy for the origination and termination of multiple bubbles. The empirical result indicates that there exist six bubbles during 1986–2016 when the oil price deviate from its intrinsic value based on market fundamentals. Specifically, oil price contains the fundamentals and bubble components. The dates of the bubbles correspond to specific events in the politics and financial markets. The authorities should actively fight speculative bubbles or just observe their evolutions and speculation activities may decrease, which is favour of the stabilisation of the staple commodities including crude oil price. These findings have important economic and policy implications to recognise the cause of bubbles and take corresponding measures to reduce the impact on the real economy cause of the fluctuation of crude oil price. - Highlights: • Investigate multiple bubbles in crude oil price. • Indicate six bubbles deviate from its intrinsic value based on market fundamentals. • The bubbles correspond to specific events in the politics and financial markets. • Reduce the impact on the real economy cause of the fluctuation of crude oil price.

  7. Armoring confined bubbles in concentrated colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxian; Khodaparast, Sepideh; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Encapsulation of a bubble with microparticles is known to significantly improve the stability of the bubble. This phenomenon has recently gained increasing attention due to its application in a variety of technologies such as foam stabilization, drug encapsulation and colloidosomes. Nevertheless, the production of such colloidal armored bubble with controlled size and particle coverage ratio is still a great challenge industrially. We study the coating process of a long air bubble by microparticles in a circular tube filled with a concentrated microparticles colloidal suspension. As the bubble proceeds in the suspension of particles, a monolayer of micro-particles forms on the interface of the bubble, which eventually results in a fully armored bubble. We investigate the phenomenon that triggers and controls the evolution of the particle accumulation on the bubble interface. Moreover, we examine the effects of the mean flow velocity, the size of the colloids and concentration of the suspension on the dynamics of the armored bubble. The results of this study can potentially be applied to production of particle-encapsulated bubbles, surface-cleaning techniques, and gas-assisted injection molding.

  8. Numerical simulation of bubbles motion in lifting pipe of bubble pump for lithium bromide absorption chillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hongtao; Liu, Bingbing; Yan, Yuying

    2017-01-01

    A bubble pump is proposed to replace the traditional mechanical solution pump in lithium bromide absorption chillers, for its advantageous feature that can be driven by industrial waste heat or solar energy or other low-grade energy. In two-stage bubble pump driven lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system, flow patterns in lifting pipe have significant effects on the performance of bubble pump. In this paper, the single bubble motion and the double bubbles coalescence in vertical ascending pipe are simulated by an improved free energy model of lattice Boltzmann method, in which the two-phase liquid to gas density ratio is 2778. The details of bubbles coalescence process are studied. Density and velocity of bubbles have been obtained. The computational results show that the initial radius of each bubble has a great influence on the coalescence time. The larger the initial bubble radius, the shorter the coalescence time. The pipe diameter has a little effect on the two bubbles coalescence time while it has a significant effect on the bubble velocity. As the pipe diameter increases, the bubble velocity increases. The obtained results are helpful for studying the transition mechanisms of two-phase flow patterns and useful for improving the bubble pump performance by controlling the flow patterns in lifting pipe.

  9. Fission-induced recrystallization effect on intergranular bubble-driven swelling in U-Mo fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Linyun; Mei, Zhi-Gang; Yacout, Abdellatif M.

    2017-10-01

    We have developed a mesoscale phase-field model for studying the effect of recrystallization on the gas-bubble-driven swelling in irradiated U-Mo alloy fuel. The model can simulate the microstructural evolution of the intergranular gas bubbles on the grain boundaries as well as the recrystallization process. Our simulation results show that the intergranular gas-bubble-induced fuel swelling exhibits two stages: slow swelling kinetics before recrystallization and rapid swelling kinetics with recrystallization. We observe that the recrystallization can significantly expedite the formation and growth of gas bubbles at high fission densities. The reason is that the recrystallization process increases the nucleation probability of gas bubbles and reduces the diffusion time of fission gases from grain interior to grain boundaries by increasing the grain boundary area and decreasing the diffusion distance. The simulated gas bubble shape, size distribution, and density on the grain boundaries are consistent with experimental measurements. We investigate the effect of the recrystallization on the gas-bubble-driven fuel swelling in UMo through varying the initial grain size and grain aspect ratio. We conclude that the initial microstructure of fuel, such as grain size and grain aspect ratio, can be used to effectively control the recrystallization and therefore reduce the swelling in U-Mo fuel.

  10. Single DNA denaturation and bubble dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, Ralf; Ambjoernsson, Tobias; Hanke, Andreas; Fogedby, Hans C

    2009-01-01

    While the Watson-Crick double-strand is the thermodynamically stable state of DNA in a wide range of temperature and salt conditions, even at physiological conditions local denaturation bubbles may open up spontaneously due to thermal activation. By raising the ambient temperature, titration, or by external forces in single molecule setups bubbles proliferate until full denaturation of the DNA occurs. Based on the Poland-Scheraga model we investigate both the equilibrium transition of DNA denaturation and the dynamics of the denaturation bubbles with respect to recent single DNA chain experiments for situations below, at, and above the denaturation transition. We also propose a new single molecule setup based on DNA constructs with two bubble zones to measure the bubble coalescence and extract the physical parameters relevant to DNA breathing. Finally we consider the interplay between denaturation bubbles and selectively single-stranded DNA binding proteins.

  11. Bernoulli Suction Effect on Soap Bubble Blowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    As a model system for thin-film bubble with two gas-liquid interfaces, we experimentally investigated the pinch-off of soap bubble blowing. Using the lab-built bubble blower and high-speed videography, we have found that the scaling law exponent of soap bubble pinch-off is 2/3, which is similar to that of soap film bridge. Because air flowed through the decreasing neck of soap film tube, we studied possible Bernoulli suction effect on soap bubble pinch-off by evaluating the Reynolds number of airflow. Image processing was utilized to calculate approximate volume of growing soap film tube and the volume flow rate of the airflow, and the Reynolds number was estimated to be 800-3200. This result suggests that soap bubbling may involve the Bernoulli suction effect.

  12. Formation of soap bubbles by gas jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Maolei; Li, Min; Chen, Zhiyuan; Han, Jifeng; Liu, Dong

    2017-12-01

    Soap bubbles can be easily generated by various methods, while their formation process is complicated and still worth studying. A model about the bubble formation process was proposed in the study by Salkin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 077801 (2016)] recently, and it was reported that the bubbles were formed when the gas blowing velocity was above one threshold. However, after a detailed study of these experiments, we found that the bubbles could be generated in two velocity ranges which corresponded to the laminar and turbulent gas jet, respectively, and the predicted threshold was only effective for turbulent gas flow. The study revealed that the bubble formation was greatly influenced by the aerodynamics of the gas jet blowing to the film, and these results will help to further understand the formation mechanism of the soap bubble as well as the interaction between the gas jet and the thin liquid film.

  13. Manipulating bubbles with secondary Bjerknes forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanoy, Maxime [Institut Langevin, ESPCI ParisTech, CNRS (UMR 7587), PSL Research University, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris-Diderot, CNRS (UMR 7057), 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris (France); Derec, Caroline; Leroy, Valentin [Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris-Diderot, CNRS (UMR 7057), 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris (France); Tourin, Arnaud [Institut Langevin, ESPCI ParisTech, CNRS (UMR 7587), PSL Research University, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

    2015-11-23

    Gas bubbles in a sound field are submitted to a radiative force, known as the secondary Bjerknes force. We propose an original experimental setup that allows us to investigate in detail this force between two bubbles, as a function of the sonication frequency, as well as the bubbles radii and distance. We report the observation of both attractive and, more interestingly, repulsive Bjerknes force, when the two bubbles are driven in antiphase. Our experiments show the importance of taking multiple scatterings into account, which leads to a strong acoustic coupling of the bubbles when their radii are similar. Our setup demonstrates the accuracy of secondary Bjerknes forces for attracting or repealing a bubble, and could lead to new acoustic tools for noncontact manipulation in microfluidic devices.

  14. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon, E-mail: junkeun@postech.ac.kr; Kang, Kwan Hyoung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In Seok [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  15. The KEK 1 m hydrogen bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Yoshikuni; Araoka, Osamu; Hayashi, Kohei; Hayashi, Yoshio; Hirabayashi, Hiromi.

    1978-03-01

    A medium size hydrogen bubble chamber has been constructed at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, KEK. The bubble chamber has been designed to be operated with a maximum rate of three times per half a second in every two second repetition time of the accelerator, by utilizing a hydraulic expansion system. The bubble chamber has a one meter diameter and a visible volume of about 280 l. A three-view stereo camera system is used for taking photographic pictures of the chamber. A 2 MW bubble chamber magnet is constructed. The main part of the bubble chamber vessel is supported by the magnet yoke. The magnet gives a maximum field of 18.4 kG at the centre of the fiducial volume of the chamber. The overall system of the KEK 1 m hydrogen bubble chamber facility is described in some detail. Some operational characteristics of the facility are also reported. (auth.)

  16. Manipulating bubbles with secondary Bjerknes forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanoy, Maxime; Derec, Caroline; Leroy, Valentin; Tourin, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Gas bubbles in a sound field are submitted to a radiative force, known as the secondary Bjerknes force. We propose an original experimental setup that allows us to investigate in detail this force between two bubbles, as a function of the sonication frequency, as well as the bubbles radii and distance. We report the observation of both attractive and, more interestingly, repulsive Bjerknes force, when the two bubbles are driven in antiphase. Our experiments show the importance of taking multiple scatterings into account, which leads to a strong acoustic coupling of the bubbles when their radii are similar. Our setup demonstrates the accuracy of secondary Bjerknes forces for attracting or repealing a bubble, and could lead to new acoustic tools for noncontact manipulation in microfluidic devices

  17. Study of stream flow effects on bubble motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    The formation of air bubbles at constant-pressure by submerged orifices was investigated in both quiescent and moving streams inside a vertical tube. Parameters affecting the bubble rise velocity, such as bubble generating frequency and diameter, were studied and analyzed for bubbles rising in a chain and homogeneous mixture. A special technique for measuring bubble motion parameters has been developed, tested, and employed throughout the experimental investigation. The method is based on a water-air impedance variation. Results obtained in stagnant liquid show that increasing the bubble diameter serves to increase bubble rise velocity, while an opposite trend has been observed for stream liquid where the bubble diameter increase reduces the bubble rise velocity. The increase of bubble generation frequency generally increases the bubble rise velocity. Experimental data covered with bubble radial distribution showed symmetrical profiles of bubble velocity and frequency, and the radial distribution of the velocity profiles sometimes has two maxima and one minimum depending on the liquid velocity. Finally, in stagnant liquid, a normalized correlation has been developed to predict the terminal rise velocity in terms of bubble generating frequency, bubble diameter, single bubble rise velocity, and conduit dimensions. Another correlation is presented for forced bubbly flow, where the bubble rise velocity is expressed as a function of bubble generating frequency, bubble diameter, and water superficial velocity

  18. Local measurements in turbulent bubbly flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzanne, C.; Ellingsen, K.; Risso, F.; Roig, V.

    1998-01-01

    Local measurements methods in bubbly flows are discussed. Concerning liquid velocity measurement, problems linked to HFA and LDA are first analysed. Then simultaneously recorded velocity signals obtained by both anemometers are compared. New signal processing are developed for the two techniques. Bubble sizes and velocities measurements methods using intrusive double optical sensor probe are presented. Plane bubbly mixing layer has been investigated. Local measurements using the described methods are presented as examples. (author)

  19. Bursting the bubble of melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2015-01-01

    Most silicate melt inclusions (MI) contain bubbles, whose significance has been alternately calculated, pondered, and ignored, but rarely if ever directly explored. Moore et al. (2015) analyze the bubbles, as well as their host glasses, and conclude that they often hold the preponderance of CO2 in the MI. Their findings entreat future researchers to account for the presence of bubbles in MI when calculating volatile budgets, saturation pressures, and eruptive flux.

  20. On Bubble Rising in Countercurrent Flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeř, M.; Leštinský, P.; Wichterle, K.; Růžička, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2012 (2012), A30 ISSN 1542-6580 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0972; GA ČR GA104/07/1110 Grant - others:GA MŠMT(CZ) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0069 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ellipsoidal bubble * bubble shape * bubble velocity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.790, year: 2011

  1. Fast Initialization of Bubble-Memory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, K. T.; Nichols, C. D.; Hayes, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Improved scheme several orders of magnitude faster than normal initialization scheme. State-of-the-art commercial bubble-memory device used. Hardware interface designed connects controlling microprocessor to bubblememory circuitry. System software written to exercise various functions of bubble-memory system in comparison made between normal and fast techniques. Future implementations of approach utilize E2PROM (electrically-erasable programable read-only memory) to provide greater system flexibility. Fastinitialization technique applicable to all bubble-memory devices.

  2. Housing market in Israel: Is there a bubble?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arestis Philip

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available House prices in Israel have registered unprecedented growth rates in the last few years. At first glance, these hikes could be explained by the evolution of fundamentals such strong population growth and favourable macroeconomic conditions, i.e. low interest rates. However, further investigation is needed in order to explore whether there is a misalignment between house prices and their fundamentals. Firstly, this paper investigates the role of construction costs in the evolution of house prices. Secondly, this contribution decomposes the “price-to-rent” ratio into fundamentals, frictions and bubble episodes for a better understanding of the recent trends of the market.

  3. Numerical study of the bubbly flow regime in micro-channel flow boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvankar, Pramod; Dabiri, Sadegh

    2017-11-01

    Two-phase flow accompanied by boiling in micro-channel heat sinks is an effective means for heat removal from computer chips. We present a numerical study of flow boiling in micro-channels with conjugate heat transfer with a focus on the bubbly flow regime. The bubbles are assumed to nucleate at a pre-determined location and frequency. The Navier Stokes equations are solved using a single fluid formulation with the Front tracking method. Phase change is implemented using the deficit in heat flux across the bubble interface. The analytical solution for bubble growth in a superheated liquid is used as a benchmark to validate the mentioned numerical method. Water and FC-72 are studied as the operating fluids in a micro-channel made of Copper with a focus on hotspot mitigation. The micro-channel of cross-section 231 μm × 1000 μm , is used to study the effects of vertical up-flow, vertical down-flow and horizontal flow of the mentioned fluids on the heat transfer coefficients. A simple film model accounting for mass and energy conservation is applied wherever the bubble approaches closer than a cell width to the wall. The results of the simulation are compared with existing experimental data for bubble growth rates and heat transfer coefficients.

  4. Electric field effects on the dynamics of bubble detachment from an inclined surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marco, P; Morganti, N; Saccone, G

    2015-01-01

    An experimental apparatus to study bubble detachment from an inclined surface under the action of electric forces is described. It consists of a container filled with FC72 at room temperature and pressure where a train of gas bubbles is injected from an orifice. An electrostatic field can be imposed around the bubble, while the cell can be tilted from 0 to 90°. It is possible to study interface growth with the aid of high-speed cinematography. Since the interface is asymmetrical, a mirror system allowed to acquire, in the same frame, two images at 90° of the bubble. Different inclinations, injection rates and voltages were tested in order to couple the effects of shear gravity and electric field. Curvature and contact angles have been derived with appropriate interpolation methods of the profile. Force balances on the bubble were checked, finding an electric force, which, at first pulls the bubbles from the orifice, then pushes it against the surface. The motion of the center of gravity confirms this behaviour. A power balance has been developed to determine the energy contributions, revealing that surface growth incorporates both the effects of inlet power and electric field. (paper)

  5. Bubble nuclei in relativistic mean field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, A.; Aberg, S.; Patra, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Bubble nuclei are characterized by a depletion of their central density, i.e. the formation of the proton or neutron void and subsequently forming proton or neutron bubble nuclei. Possibility of the formation of bubble nuclei has been explored through different nuclear models and in different mass regions. Advancements in experimental nuclear physics has led our experimental access to many new shapes and structures, which were inaccessible hitherto. In the present paper, the possibility of observing nuclear bubble in oxygen isotopes, particularly for 22 O has been studied

  6. Improvised bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvised bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) device at the National Hospital Abuja gives immediate improvement in respiratory rate and oxygenation in neonates with respiratory distress.

  7. Observation of He bubbles in ion irradiated fusion materials by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongyu [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Li, Ruihuan [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yang, Deming [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Wu, Yunfeng; Niu, Jinhai; Yang, Qi [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Zhao, Jijun [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Dongping, E-mail: dongping.liu@dlnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Electronic Science, Aeronautics, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Using a non-destructive conductive atomic force microscope combined with the Ar{sup +} etching technique, we demonstrate that nanoscale and conductive He bubbles are formed in the implanted layer of single-crystalline 6H-SiC irradiated with 100 keV He{sup +}. We find that the surface swelling of irradiated SiC samples is well correlated with the growth of elliptic He bubbles in the implanted layer. First-principle calculations are performed to estimate the internal pressure of the He bubble in the void of SiC. Analysis indicates that nanoscale He bubbles acting as a captor capture the He atoms diffusing along the implanted layer at an evaluated temperature and result in the surface swelling of irradiated SiC materials.

  8. The Behavior of Micro Bubbles and Bubble Cluster in Ultrasound Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Shin; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2001-11-01

    Ultrasound is widely applied in the clinical field today, such as ultrasound imaging, Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) and so on. It is essential to take a real understanding of the dynamics of micro bubbles and bubble cluster in these applications. Thus we numerically simulate them in ultrasound field in this paper. In the numerical simulation, we consider the thermal behavior inside the bubble and the pressure wave phenomena in the bubble cluster in detail, namely, the evaporation and condensation of liquid at the bubble wall, heat transfer through the bubble wall, diffusion of non-condensable gas inside the bubble and the compressibility of liquid. Initial cluster radius is to 0.5[mm], bubble radius is 1.7[mm], void fraction is 0.1[ambient pressure is 101.3[kPa], temperature is 293[K] and the amplitude of ultrasound is 50[kPa]. We simulate bubble cluster in ultrasound field at various frequencies and we obtain the following conclusions. 1) The maximum pressure inside bubble cluster reaches 5[MPa] and this is much higher than that of a bubble. 2) Bubble cluster behaves like a rigid body acoustically when the frequency of ultrasound is much higher than its natural frequency.

  9. Interaction of a bubble and a bubble cluster in an ultrasonic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cheng-Hui; Cheng Jian-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using an appropriate approximation, we have formulated the interacting equation of multi-bubble motion for a system of a single bubble and a spherical bubble cluster. The behavior of the bubbles is observed in coupled and uncoupled states. The oscillation of bubbles inside the cluster is in a coupled state. The numerical simulation demonstrates that the secondary Bjerknes force can be influenced by the number density, initial radius, distance, driving frequency, and amplitude of ultrasound. However, if a bubble approaches a bubble cluster of the same initial radii, coupled oscillation would be induced and a repulsive force is evoked, which may be the reason why the bubble cluster can exist steadily. With the increment of the number density of the bubble cluster, a secondary Bjerknes force acting on the bubbles inside the cluster decreases due to the strong suppression of the coupled bubbles. It is shown that there may be an optimal number density for a bubble cluster which can generate an optimal cavitation effect in liquid for a stable driving ultrasound. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  10. Neutrino Interactions in a Hybrid Emulsion - Bubble Chamber Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbladt, Robert Ludwig [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1981-05-01

    target consisting of 22 - 1 liter stacks of cryogenically sensitive nuclear emulsion has been exposed inside the 15 Foot Bubble Chamber to the Fermilab wide-band neutrino beam. A hybrid system of emulsion plus bubble chamber was used to find and analyze neutrino interactions with nuclei in the emulsion target. The average multiplicity of charged minimum ionization tracks of the 45 events was found to be 6.8 ± 0.5. The normalized multiplicity with respect to neutrino - proton interactions at the same average hadronic center of mass energy was found to be 1.3 ± 0.2. When compared to neutrino - proton interactions, the rapidity distribution shows a clear signal for intranuclear cascading in the target fragmentation region. Measured rapidity and multiplicity distributions are compared with predictions of the Growth of Longitudinal Distances Model of Nikolaev and the Coherent Tube Model.

  11. Bubbling in unbounded coflowing liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Herrada, Miguel A; Garstecki, Piotr

    2006-03-31

    An investigation of the stability of low density and viscosity fluid jets and spouts in unbounded coflowing liquids is presented. A full parametrical analysis from low to high Weber and Reynolds numbers shows that the presence of any fluid of finite density and viscosity inside the hollow jet elicits a transition from an absolute to a convective instability at a finite value of the Weber number, for any value of the Reynolds number. Below that critical value of the Weber number, the absolute character of the instability leads to local breakup, and consequently to local bubbling. Experimental data support our model.

  12. Scales and structures in bubbly flows. Experimental analysis of the flow in bubble columns and in bubbling fluidized beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    In this project a detailed experimental analysis was performed of the dynamic flow field in bubbly flows, with the purpose of determining local hydrodynamics and scale effects. Measurements were done in gas-liquid systems (air-water bubble columns) and in gas-solid systems (air-sand bubbing

  13. Effects of sequential helium and hydrogen ion irradiation on the nucleation and evolution of bubbles in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Zhenyu; Zheng, Zhongcheng [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072 (China); Luo, Fengfeng [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072 (China); Institute of Applied Physics, Jiangxi Academy of Science, Nanchang, 330029 (China); Hu, Wenhui [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Zhang, Weiping [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072 (China); Ren, Yaoyao [Center for Electron Microscopy, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The effect of H{sup +} irradiation on formation and evolution of helium bubbles is explored. • The growth of hydrogen bubbles under He{sup +} irradiation is observed. • Mechanism of synergistic effect between He and H is discussed. - Abstract: Irradiations of He{sup +} and H{sup +} have been performed to investigate the effect of H{sup +} irradiation on existing helium bubbles and the effect of pre-irradiation of H{sup +} on the formation of helium bubbles in tungsten. The specimens were irradiated at 800 °C with either 10kev-H{sup +}, 20kev-He{sup +}, or sequentially irradiated with both H{sup +} and He{sup +}. After H{sup +} irradiation, the growth of existing helium bubbles was observed. It was also found that pre- or post- irradiation of H{sup +} enhanced the nucleation of helium bubbles. The growth of hydrogen bubbles was also observed after post irradiation of He{sup +}. The possible mechanism is discussed.

  14. Bubble Swarm Rise Velocity in Fluidized Beds.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Miroslav; Růžička, Marek; Šimčík, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 152, OCT 2 (2016), s. 84-94 ISSN 0009-2509 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05534S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : bubbling fluidized bed * gas-solid * bubble swarm velocity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.895, year: 2016

  15. The use of microholography in bubble chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Royer, H

    1981-01-01

    In-line holography has been used for the first time in a bubble chamber for the account of the CERN (Geneva, CH). The holograms were recorded with the help of a single-mode pulse laser. Bubble tracks of 25 microns in diameter have been reconstructed with a resolution of 2 microns. (12 refs).

  16. Cavitation bubble nucleation induced by shock-bubble interaction in a gelatin gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Ryota; Ando, Keita

    2018-05-01

    An optical visualization technique is developed to study cavitation bubble nucleation that results from interaction between a laser-induced shock and a preexisting gas bubble in a 10 wt. % gelatin gel; images of the nucleated cavitation bubbles are captured and the cavitation inception pressure is determined based on Euler flow simulation. A spherical gas cavity is generated by focusing an infrared laser pulse into a gas-supersaturated gel and the size of the laser-generated bubble in mechanical equilibrium is tuned via mass transfer of the dissolved gas into the bubble. A spherical shock is then generated, through rapid expansion of plasma induced by the laser focusing, in the vicinity of the gas bubble. The shock-bubble interaction is recorded by a CCD camera with flash illumination of a nanosecond green laser pulse. The observation captures cavitation inception in the gel under tension that results from acoustic impedance mismatching at the bubble interface interacting with the shock. We measure the probability of cavitation inception from a series of the repeated experiments, by varying the bubble radius and the standoff distance. The threshold pressure is defined at the cavitation inception probability equal to one half and is calculated, through comparisons to Euler flow simulation, at -24.4 MPa. This threshold value is similar to that from shock-bubble interaction experiments using water, meaning that viscoelasticity of the 10 wt. % gelatin gel has a limited impact on bubble nucleation dynamics.

  17. Nonlinear Bubble Dynamics And The Effects On Propagation Through Near-Surface Bubble Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Timothy G.

    2004-11-01

    Nonlinear bubble dynamics are often viewed as the unfortunate consequence of having to use high acoustic pressure amplitudes when the void fraction in the near-surface oceanic bubble layer is great enough to cause severe attenuation (e.g. >50 dB/m). This is seen as unfortunate since existing models for acoustic propagation in bubbly liquids are based on linear bubble dynamics. However, the development of nonlinear models does more than just allow quantification of the errors associated with the use of linear models. It also offers the possibility of propagation modeling and acoustic inversions which appropriately incorporate the bubble nonlinearity. Furthermore, it allows exploration and quantification of possible nonlinear effects which may be exploited. As a result, high acoustic pressure amplitudes may be desirable even in low void fractions, because they offer opportunities to gain information about the bubble cloud from the nonlinearities, and options to exploit the nonlinearities to enhance communication and sonar in bubbly waters. This paper presents a method for calculating the nonlinear acoustic cross-sections, scatter, attenuations and sound speeds from bubble clouds which may be inhomogeneous. The method allows prediction of the time dependency of these quantities, both because the cloud may vary and because the incident acoustic pulse may have finite and arbitrary time history. The method can be readily adapted for bubbles in other environments (e.g. clouds of interacting bubbles, sediments, structures, in vivo, reverberant conditions etc.). The possible exploitation of bubble acoustics by marine mammals, and for sonar enhancement, is explored.

  18. Galactic Teamwork Makes Distant Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    During the period of reionization that followed the dark ages of our universe, hydrogen was transformed from a neutral state, which is opaque to radiation, to an ionized one, which is transparent to radiation. But what generated the initial ionizing radiation? The recent discovery of multiple distant galaxies offers evidence for how this process occurred.Two Distant GalaxiesWe believe reionization occurred somewhere between a redshift of z = 6 and 7, because Ly-emitting galaxies drop out at roughly this redshift. Beyond this distance, were generally unable to see the light from these galaxies, because the universe is no longer transparent to their emission. This is not always the case, however: if a bubble of ionized gas exists around a distant galaxy, the radiation can escape, allowing us to see the galaxy.This is true of two recently-discovered Ly-emitting galaxies, confirmed to be at a redshift of z~7 and located near one another in a region known as the Bremer Deep Field. The fact that were able to see the radiation from these galaxies means that they are in an ionized HII region presumably one of the earlier regions to have become reionized in the universe.But on their own, neither of these galaxies is capable of generating an ionized bubble large enough for their light to escape. So what ionized the region around them, and what does this mean for our understanding of how reionization occurred in the universe?A Little Help From FriendsLocation in different filters of the objects in the Hubble Bremer Deep Field catalog. The z~7 selection region is outlined by the grey box. BDF-521 and BDF-3299 were the two originally discovered galaxies; the remaining red markers indicate the additional six galaxies discovered in the same region. [Castellano et al. 2016]A team of scientists led by Marco Castellano (Rome Observatory, INAF) investigated the possibility that there are other, faint galaxies near these two that have helped to ionize the region. Performing a survey

  19. Impact of bubble wakes on a developing bubble flow in a vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, A.; Makino, Y.; Miyoshi, K.; Tamai, H.; Serizawa, A.; Zun, I.

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional two-way bubble tracking simulation of single large air bubbles rising through a stagnant water filled in a vertical pipe was conducted to investigate the structures of bubble wakes. Spatial distributions of time-averaged liquid velocity field, turbulent intensity and Reynolds stress caused by bubble wakes were deduced from the calculated local instantaneous liquid velocities. It was confirmed that wake structures are completely different from the ones estimated by a conventional wake model. Then, we developed a simple wake model based on the predicted time-averaged wake velocity fields, and implemented it into a 3D one-way bubble tracking method to examine the impact of bubble wake structures on time-spatial evolution of a developing air-water bubble flow in a vertical pipe. As a results, we confirmed that the developed wake model can give better prediction for flow pattern evolution than a conventional wake model

  20. Single DNA denaturation and bubble dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzler, Ralf; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Hanke, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    While the Watson-Crick double-strand is the thermodynamically stable state of DNA in a wide range of temperature and salt conditions, even at physiological conditions local denaturation bubbles may open up spontaneously due to thermal activation. By raising the ambient temperature, titration......, or by external forces in single molecule setups bubbles proliferate until full denaturation of the DNA occurs. Based on the Poland-Scheraga model we investigate both the equilibrium transition of DNA denaturation and the dynamics of the denaturation bubbles with respect to recent single DNA chain experiments...... for situations below, at, and above the denaturation transition. We also propose a new single molecule setup based on DNA constructs with two bubble zones to measure the bubble coalescence and extract the physical parameters relevant to DNA breathing. Finally we consider the interplay between denaturation...

  1. Oscillation of large air bubble cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Y.Y.; Kim, H.Y.; Park, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The behavior of a large air bubble cloud, which is generated by the air discharged from a perforated sparger, is analyzed by solving Rayleigh-Plesset equation, energy equations and energy balance equation. The equations are solved by Runge-Kutta integration and MacCormack finite difference method. Initial conditions such as driving pressure, air volume, and void fraction strongly affect the bubble pressure amplitude and oscillation frequency. The pool temperature has a strong effect on the oscillation frequency and a negligible effect on the pressure amplitude. The polytropic constant during the compression and expansion processes of individual bubbles ranges from 1.0 to 1.4, which may be attributed to the fact that small bubbles oscillated in frequencies different from their resonance. The temperature of the bubble cloud rapidly approaches the ambient temperature, as is expected from the polytropic constants being between 1.0 and 1.4. (authors)

  2. Oscillation of large air bubble cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Y.Y.; Kim, H.Y.; Park, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of a large air bubble cloud, which is generated by the air discharged from a perforated sparger, is analyzed by solving Rayleigh-Plesset equation, energy equations and energy balance equation. The equations are solved by Runge-Kutta integration and MacCormack finite difference method. Initial conditions such as driving pressure, air volume, and void fraction strongly affect the bubble pressure amplitude and oscillation frequency. The pool temperature has a strong effect on the oscillation frequency and a negligible effect on the pressure amplitude. The polytropic constant during the compression and expansion processes of individual bubbles ranges from 1.0 to 1.4, which may be attributed to the fact that small bubbles oscillated in frequencies different from their resonance. The temperature of the bubble cloud rapidly approaches the ambient temperature, as is expected from the polytropic constants being between 1.0 and 1.4. (authors)

  3. Mesoporous hollow spheres from soap bubbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianglin; Liang, Fuxin; Liu, Jiguang; Lu, Yunfeng; Yang, Zhenzhong

    2012-02-01

    The smaller and more stable bubbles can be generated from the large parent bubbles by rupture. In the presence of a bubble blowing agent, hollow spheres can be prepared by bubbling a silica sol. Herein, the trapped gas inside the bubble acts as a template. When the porogen, i.e., other surfactant, is introduced, a mesostructured shell forms by the co-assembly with the silica sol during sol-gel process. Morphological evolution emphasizes the prerequisite of an intermediate interior gas flow rate and high exterior gas flow rate for hollow spheres. The method is valid for many compositions from inorganic, polymer to their composites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure and kinematics of bubble flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackme, C.

    1967-01-01

    This report deals with the components and use of resistivity probes in bubble flow. With a single probe, we have studied the longitudinal and radial structure of the flow. The very complicated evolution of the radial structure is shown by the measurement of the mean bubble flux at several points in the tube. A double probe associated with a device the principle of which is given in this report, permits the measure of the local velocity of bubbles. Unlike the mean bubble flux profile, the change in the velocity profile along the tube is not significant. We have achieved the synthesis of these two pieces of information, mean local bubble flux and local velocity, by computing the mean weighed velocity in the tube. This weighed velocity compares remarkably with the velocity computed from the volumetric gas flow rate and the mean void fraction. (author) [fr

  5. Analysis of large two phase uranium dioxide bubble behavior in water and sodium pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.L.

    1984-05-01

    An understanding of the behavior of large, two-phase UO 2 bubbles is important in assessing the consequences of a hypothetical core disruptive accident in a fast reactor. The UVABUBL II computer program was written to study the dynamics and heat and mass transfer in large UO 2 bubbles, and the code was used to analyze data from the underwater and undersodium FAST experiments conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in which the behavior of UO 2 bubbles under a wide variety of conditions was examined. Significant understanding of the phenomena that govern UO 2 bubble behavior in both water and sodium was obtained by matching calculations of pressure, bubble size, and bubble growth and collapse rate to the experimental data. Heat and mass transfer included radiative heat losses and coolant entrainment. Larger heat transfer rates were calculated for the water tests with significant surface vaporization occurring. Because of the high thermal conductivity of sodium, no surface vaporization was calculated for the sodium tests. Entrainment was not found to be necessary for either the water or sodium tests, but calculations that included entrainment implied that it may be occurring. 38 references

  6. Air bubbles induce a critical continuous stress to prevent marine biofouling accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Jesse; Menesses, Mark; Dickenson, Natasha; Bird, James

    2017-11-01

    Significant shear stresses are needed to remove established hard fouling organisms from a ship hull. Given that there is a link between the amount of time that fouling accumulates and the stress required to remove it, it is not surprising that more frequent grooming requires less shear stress. One approach to mitigate marine biofouling is to continuously introduce a curtain of air bubbles under a submerged surface; it is believed that this aeration exploits the small stresses induced by rising bubbles to continuously prevent accumulation. Although curtains of rising bubbles have successfully prevented biofouling accumulation, it is unclear if a single stream of bubbles could maintain a clean surface. In this talk, we show that single bubble stream aeration can prevent biofouling accumulation in regions for which the average wall stress exceeds approximately 0.01 Pa. This value is arrived at by comparing observations of biofouling growth and prevention from field studies with laboratory measurements that probe the associated flow fields. We also relate the spatial and temporal characteristics of the flow to the size and frequency of the rising bubbles, which informs the basic operating conditions required for aeration to continuously prevent biofouling accumulation.

  7. Micro-bubble generated by laser irradiation on an individual carbon nanocoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yanming; Pan, Lujun; Liu, Yuli; Sun, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have investigated laser irradiated microbubbles which can be generated at fixed point on surface of an individual carbon nanocoil (CNC) immerged in deionized water. • The microbubble can be operated easily and flexibly. • Based on classical heat and mass transfer theories, the bubble growth data is in good agreement with the simplified model. - Abstract: We have investigated the micro-bubbles generated by laser induction on an individual carbon nanocoil (CNC) immerged in deionized water. The photon energy of the incident focused laser beam is absorbed by CNC and converted to thermal energy, which efficiently vaporizes the surrounding water, and subsequently a micro-bubble is generated at the laser location. The dynamics behavior of bubble generation, including its nucleation, expansion and steady-state, has been studied experimentally and theoretically. We have derived equations to analyze the expansion process of a bubble based on classical heat and mass transfer theories. The conclusion is in good agreement with the experiment. CNC, which acts as a realistic micro-bubble generator, can be operated easily and flexibly

  8. Effect of free-air nuclei on fully developed individual bubble cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danel, F.; Lecoffre, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Fully developed individual-bubble cavitation was studied. Nuclei population and pressure distribution at the boundary of a cavitating converging-diverging test section were measured. It was shown that some cavitation tests can only yield valid results if the free air content of the water is known. During the initial stages of bubble growth the wall pressure in the cavitation region is lower than the vapor pressure. Wall pressure rises later. For a given cavitation number and flow velocity, the pressure distribution depends on the number of expanding bubbles on the hydrofoil. Minimum pressure coefficient depends only on the cavitation number, the flow velocity and the number of expanding bubbles present. Bubbles generate pressure pulses at the wall; combined effect of all such pulses is to shift the wall pressure away from the value that would be obtained at the same cavitation number if no cavitation was present. The greater the number of expanding bubbles, the more the wall pressure tends to approach the vapor pressure. An important result of the work is to pin-point free air contents of water tunnel which lead to correct scaling of cavitation flows [fr

  9. Mobile access to the Internet: from personal bubble to satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerla, Mario

    2001-10-01

    Mobile, wireless access and networking has emerged in the last few years as one of the most important directions of Internet growth. The popularity of mobile, and, more generally, nomadic Internet access is due to many enabling factors including: (a) emergence of meaningful applications tailored to the individual on the move; (b) small form factor and long battery life; (c) efficient middleware designed to support mobility; and, (d) efficient wireless networking technologies. A key player in the mobile Internet access is the nomad, i.e. the individual equipped with various computing and I/O gadgets (cellular phone, earphones, GPS navigator, palm pilot, beeper, portable scanner, digital camera, etc.). These devices form his/her Personal Area Network or PAN or personal bubble. The connectivity within the bubble is wireless (using for example a low cost, low power wireless LAN such as Bluetooth). The bubble can expand and contract dynamically depending on needs. It may temporarily include sensors and actuators as the nomad walks into a new environment. In this paper, we identify the need for the interconnection of the PAN with other wireless networks in order to achieve costeffective mobile access to the Internet. We will overview some key networking technologies required to support the PAN (eg, Bluetooth). We will also discuss an emerging technology, Ad Hoc wireless networking which is the natural complement of the PAN in sparsely populated areas. Finally, we will identify the need for intelligent routers to assist the mobile user in the selection of the best Internet access strategy.

  10. Phase change heat transfer and bubble behavior observed on twisted wire heater geometries in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Troy R.; Koeln, Justin P.; Fassmann, Andrew W.; Barnett, Robert J.; Ban, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Subcooled water boiled in microgravity on twists of thin wires. • Wire twisting creates heat transfer enhancements because of high local temperatures. • A preliminary version of a new bubble dynamics method is discussed. • A critical distance that fluid must be superheated for boiling onset is presented. - Abstract: Phase change is an effective method of transferring heat, yet its application in microgravity thermal management systems requires greater understanding of bubble behavior. To further this knowledge base, a microgravity boiling experiment was performed (floating) onboard an aircraft flying in a parabolic trajectory to study the effect of surface geometry and heat flux on phase change heat transfer in a pool of subcooled water. A special emphasis was the investigation of heat transfer enhancement caused by modifying the surface geometry through the use of a twist of three wires and a twist of four wires. A new method for bubble behavior analysis was developed to quantify bubble growth characteristics, which allows a quantitative comparison of bubble dynamics between different data sets. It was found that the surface geometry of the three-wire twist enhanced heat transfer by reducing the heat flux needed for bubble incipience and the average wire temperature in microgravity. Simulation results indicated that increased local superheating in wire crevices may be responsible for the change of bubble behavior seen as the wire geometry configuration was varied. The convective heat transfer rate, in comparison to ground experiments, was lower for microgravity at low heating rates, and higher at high heating rates. This study provides insights into the role of surface geometry on superheating behavior and presents an initial version of a new bubble behavior analysis method. Further research on these topics could lead to new designs of heater surface geometries using phase change heat transfer in microgravity applications

  11. Characterization of intergranular fission gas bubbles in U-Mo fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Hofman, G.; Rest, J.; Shevlyakov, G. V.

    2008-01-01

    first bubble appearance is the grain boundary. Analysis using a simple diffusion model showed that, although the difference in the Mo-content between the grain boundary and grain interior region decreased with burnup, a complete convergence in the Mo-content was not reached at the end of the test for all RERTR tests. A total of 13 plates from RERTR-1, 2, 3 and 5 tests with different as-fabrication conditions and irradiation conditions were included for gas bubble analyses. Among them, two plates contained powders γ-annealed at ∼800 C for ∼100 hours. Most of the plates were fabricated with as-atomized powders except for two as-machined powder plates. The Mo contents were 6, 7 and 10wt%. The irradiation temperature was in the range 70-190 C and the fission rate was in the range 2.4 x 10 14 - 7 x 10 14 f/cm 3 -s. Bubble size for both of the γ-annealed powder plates is smaller than the as-atomized powder plates. The bubble size for the as-atomized powder plates increases as a function of burnup and the bubble growth rate shows signs of slowing at burnups higher than ∼40 at% U-235 (LEU). The bubble-size distribution for all plates is a quasi-normal, with the average bubble size ranging 0.14-0.18 (micro)m. Although there are considerable errors, after an initial incubation period the average bubble size increases with fission density and shows saturation at high fission density. Bubble population (density) per unit grain boundary length was measured. The γ-annealed powder plates have a higher bubble density per unit grain boundary length than the as-atomized powder plates. The measured bubble number densities per unit grain boundary length for as-atomized powder plates are approximately constant with respect to burnup. Bubble density per unit cross section area was calculated using the density per unit grain boundary length data. The grains were modeled as tetrakaidecahedrons. Direct measurements for some plates were also performed and compared with the calculated

  12. Analysis of intergranular fission-gas bubble-size distributions in irradiated uranium-molybdenum alloy fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, J. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: jrest@anl.gov; Hofman, G.L.; Kim, Yeon Soo [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    An analytical model for the nucleation and growth of intra and intergranular fission-gas bubbles is used to characterize fission-gas bubble development in low-enriched U-Mo alloy fuel irradiated in the advanced test reactor in Idaho as part of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program. Fuel burnup was limited to less than {approx}7.8 at.% U in order to capture the fuel-swelling stage prior to irradiation-induced recrystallization. The model couples the calculation of the time evolution of the average intergranular bubble radius and number density to the calculation of the intergranular bubble-size distribution based on differential growth rate and sputtering coalescence processes. Recent results on TEM analysis of intragranular bubbles in U-Mo were used to set the irradiation-induced diffusivity and re-solution rate in the bubble-swelling model. Using these values, good agreement was obtained for intergranular bubble distribution compared against measured post-irradiation examination (PIE) data using grain-boundary diffusion enhancement factors of 15-125, depending on the Mo concentration. This range of enhancement factors is consistent with values obtained in the literature.

  13. Analysis of intergranular fission-gas bubble-size distributions in irradiated uranium-molybdenum alloy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rest, J.; Hofman, G. L.; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2009-04-01

    An analytical model for the nucleation and growth of intra and intergranular fission-gas bubbles is used to characterize fission-gas bubble development in low-enriched U-Mo alloy fuel irradiated in the advanced test reactor in Idaho as part of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program. Fuel burnup was limited to less than ˜7.8 at.% U in order to capture the fuel-swelling stage prior to irradiation-induced recrystallization. The model couples the calculation of the time evolution of the average intergranular bubble radius and number density to the calculation of the intergranular bubble-size distribution based on differential growth rate and sputtering coalescence processes. Recent results on TEM analysis of intragranular bubbles in U-Mo were used to set the irradiation-induced diffusivity and re-solution rate in the bubble-swelling model. Using these values, good agreement was obtained for intergranular bubble distribution compared against measured post-irradiation examination (PIE) data using grain-boundary diffusion enhancement factors of 15-125, depending on the Mo concentration. This range of enhancement factors is consistent with values obtained in the literature.

  14. Legacies of the bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvey, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Legacies are what we pass on to those who follow us, the foundations on which the next advances in our science are being made; the things by which we shall be remembered, recorded in learned journals, written in the text books -food for the historians of science. This is not a summary, and it will draw no conclusions. It is a personal view which will look a little wider than the main physics results to include a mention of one or two of the technologies and methods handed on to both particle physics and other branches of sciences, a brief reference to bubble chamber pictures as aids in teaching, and a comment on the challenge now increasingly applied in the UK - and perhaps elsewhere -as a criterion for funding research: will it contribute to ''wealth creation''? (orig.)

  15. An experimental propane bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogozinski, A.

    1957-01-01

    Describes a propane bubble chamber 10 cm in diameter and 5 cm deep. The body of the chamber is in stainless steel, and it has two windows of polished hardened glass. The compression and decompression of the propane are performed either through a piston in direct contact with the liquid, or by the action on the liquid, through a triple-mylar-Perbunan membrane, of a compressed gas. The general and also optimum working conditions of the chamber are described, and a few results are given concerning, in particular, the tests of the breakage-resistance of the windows and the measurements of the thermal expansion of the compressibility isotherm for the propane employed. (author) [fr

  16. Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christian; Su, Yanqing; Parmigiani, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the complex non-linear physics that governs volcanic eruptions is contingent on our ability to characterize the dynamics of bubbles and its effect on the ascending magma. The exsolution and migration of bubbles has also a great impact on the heat and mass transport in and out of magma bodies stored at shallow depths in the crust. Multiphase systems like magmas are by definition heterogeneous at small scales. Although mixture theory or homogenization methods are convenient to represent multiphase systems as a homogeneous equivalent media, these approaches do not inform us on possible feedbacks at the pore-scale and can be significantly misleading. In this presentation, we discuss the development and application of bubble-scale multiphase flow modeling to address the following questions : How do bubbles impact heat and mass transport in magma chambers ? How efficient are chemical exchanges between the melt and bubbles during magma decompression? What is the role of hydrodynamic interactions on the deformation of bubbles while the magma is sheared? Addressing these questions requires powerful numerical methods that accurately model the balance between viscous, capillary and pressure stresses. We discuss how these bubble-scale models can provide important constraints on the dynamics of magmas stored at shallow depth or ascending to the surface during an eruption.

  17. Performance Tests for Bubble Blockage Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kwang Soon; Wi, Kyung Jin; Park, Rae Joon; Wan, Han Seong

    2014-01-01

    Postulated severe core damage accidents have a high threat risk for the safety of human health and jeopardize the environment. Versatile measures have been suggested and applied to mitigate severe accidents in nuclear power plants. To improve the thermal margin for the severe accident measures in high-power reactors, engineered corium cooling systems involving boiling-induced two-phase natural circulation have been proposed for decay heat removal. A boiling-induced natural circulation flow is generated in a coolant path between a hot vessel wall and cold coolant reservoir. In general, it is possible for some bubbles to be entrained in the natural circulation loop. If some bubbles entrain in the liquid phase flow passage, flow instability may occur, that is, the natural circulation mass flow rate may be oscillated. A new device to block the entraining bubbles is proposed and verified using air-water test loop. To avoid bubbles entrained in the natural circulation flow loop, a new device was proposed and verified using an air-water test loop. The air injection and liquid circulation loop was prepared, and the tests for the bubble blockage devices were performed by varying the geometry and shape of the devices. The performance of the bubble blockage device was more effective as the area ratio of the inlet to the down-comer increased, and the device height decreased. If the device has a rim to generate a vortex zone, the bubbles will be most effectively blocked

  18. Bubbles in the self-accelerating universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Keisuke; Tanaka, Takahiro; Koyama, Kazuya; Pujolas, Oriol

    2007-01-01

    We revisit the issue of the stability in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model by considering the nucleation of bubbles of the conventional branch within the self-accelerating branch. We construct an instanton describing this process in the thin wall approximation. On one side of the bubble wall, the bulk consists of the exterior of the brane, while on the other side it is the interior. The solution requires the presence of a 2-brane (the bubble wall) which induces the transition. However, we show that this instanton cannot be realized as the thin wall limit of any smooth solution. Once the bubble thickness is resolved, the equations of motion do not allow O(4) symmetric solutions joining the two branches. We conclude that the thin wall instanton is unphysical, and that one cannot have processes connecting the two branches, unless negative tension bubble walls are introduced. This also suggests that the self-accelerating branch does not decay into the conventional branch nucleating bubbles. We comment on other kinds of bubbles that could interpolate between the two branches

  19. Average properties of bidisperse bubbly flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-García, J. C.; Mendez-Díaz, S.; Zenit, R.

    2018-03-01

    Experiments were performed in a vertical channel to study the properties of a bubbly flow composed of two distinct bubble size species. Bubbles were produced using a capillary bank with tubes with two distinct inner diameters; the flow through each capillary size was controlled such that the amount of large or small bubbles could be controlled. Using water and water-glycerin mixtures, a wide range of Reynolds and Weber number ranges were investigated. The gas volume fraction ranged between 0.5% and 6%. The measurements of the mean bubble velocity of each species and the liquid velocity variance were obtained and contrasted with the monodisperse flows with equivalent gas volume fractions. We found that the bidispersity can induce a reduction of the mean bubble velocity of the large species; for the small size species, the bubble velocity can be increased, decreased, or remain unaffected depending of the flow conditions. The liquid velocity variance of the bidisperse flows is, in general, bound by the values of the small and large monodisperse values; interestingly, in some cases, the liquid velocity fluctuations can be larger than either monodisperse case. A simple model for the liquid agitation for bidisperse flows is proposed, with good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  20. Dynamic evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor bubbles from sinusoidal, W-shaped, and random perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Rui; Zhang, You-Sheng; Tian, Bao-Lin

    2018-03-01

    Implicit large eddy simulations of two-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability at different density ratios (i.e., Atwood number A =0.05 , 0.5, and 0.9) are conducted to investigate the late-time dynamics of bubbles. To produce a flow field full of bounded, semibounded, and chaotic bubbles, three problems with distinct perturbations are simulated: (I) periodic sinusoidal perturbation, (II) isolated W-shaped perturbation, and (III) random short-wave perturbations. The evolution of height h , velocity v , and diameter D of the (dominant) bubble with time t are formulated and analyzed. In problem I, during the quasisteady stage, the simulations confirm Goncharov's prediction of the terminal speed v∞=Fr√{A g λ /(1 +A ) } , where Fr=1 /√{3 π } . Moreover, the diameter D at this stage is found to be proportional to the initial perturbation wavelength λ as D ≈λ . This differed from Daly's simulation result of D =λ (1 +A )/2 . In problem II, a W-shaped perturbation is designed to produce a bubble environment similar to that of chaotic bubbles in problem III. We obtain a similar terminal speed relationship as above, but Fr is replaced by Frw≈0.63 . In problem III, the simulations show that h grows quadratically with the bubble acceleration constant α ≡h /(A g t2)≈0.05 , and D expands self-similarly with a steady aspect ratio β ≡D /h ≈(1 +A )/2 , which differs from existing theories. Therefore, following the mechanism of self-similar growth, we derive a relationship of β =4 α (1 +A ) /Frw2 to relate the evolution of chaotic bubbles in problem III to that of semibounded bubbles in problem II. The validity of this relationship highlights the fact that the dynamics of chaotic bubbles in problem III are similar to the semibounded isolated bubbles in problem II, but not to that of bounded periodic bubbles in problem I.

  1. The Minnaert bubble: an acoustic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaud, Martin; Hocquet, Thierry; Bacri, Jean-Claude [Laboratoire Matiere et Systemes Complexes, Universite Paris Diderot and CNRS UMR 7057, 10 rue Alice Domont et Leonie Duquet, 75013 Paris (France); Leroy, Valentin [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, Universite Paris 7 and CNRS UMR 7587, ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: martin.devaud@univ-paris-diderot.fr

    2008-11-15

    We propose an ab initio introduction to the well-known Minnaert pulsating bubble at graduate level. After a brief recall of the standard stuff, we begin with a detailed discussion of the radial movements of an air bubble in water. This discussion is managed from an acoustic point of view, and using the Lagrangian rather than the Eulerian variables. In unbounded water, the air-water system has a continuum of eigenmodes, some of them correspond to regular Fabry-Perot resonances. A singular resonance, the lowest one, is shown to coincide with that of Minnaert. In bounded water, the eigenmodes spectrum is discrete, with a finite fundamental frequency. A spectacular quasi-locking of the latter occurs if it happens to exceed the Minnaert frequency, which provides an unforeseen one-bubble alternative version of the famous 'hot chocolate effect'. In the (low) frequency domain in which sound propagation inside the bubble reduces to a simple 'breathing' (i.e. inflation/deflation), the light air bubble can be 'dressed' by the outer water pressure forces, and is turned into the heavy Minnaert bubble. Thanks to this unexpected renormalization process, we demonstrate that the Minnaert bubble definitely behaves like a true harmonic oscillator of the spring-bob type, but with a damping term and a forcing term in apparent disagreement with those commonly admitted in the literature. Finally, we underline the double role played by the water. In order to tell the water motion associated with water compressibility (i.e. the sound) from the simple incompressible accompaniment of the bubble breathing, we introduce a new picture analogous to the electromagnetic radiative picture in Coulomb gauge, which naturally leads us to split the water displacement in an instantaneous and a retarded part. The Minnaert renormalized mass of the dressed bubble is then automatically recovered.

  2. Lifetime of Bubble Rafts: Cooperativity and Avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritacco, Hernán; Kiefer, Flavien; Langevin, Dominique

    2007-06-01

    We have studied the collapse of pseudo-bi-dimensional foams. These foams are made of uniformly sized soap bubbles packed in an hexagonal lattice sitting at the top of a liquid surface. The collapse process follows the sequence: (1) rupture of a first bubble, driven by thermal fluctuations and (2) a cascade of bursting bubbles. We present a simple numerical model which captures the main characteristics of the dynamics of foam collapse. We show that in a certain range of viscosities of the foaming solutions, the size distribution of the avalanches follows power laws as in self-organized criticality processes.

  3. Decay of bubble of disoriented chiral condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gani, V.A.; Kudryavtsev, A.E.; Belova, T.I.

    1999-01-01

    The space-time structure for the process of decay of a bubble of hypothetical phase -disoriented chiral condensate (DCC) i discussed. The evolution of the initial classical field configuration corresponding to the bubble of DCC is studied, both numerically and analytically. The decay of this initial configuration depends crucially on self-interaction of the pionic fields. It is shown that in some cases this self-interaction leads to the formation of sort of breather solution, formed from pionic fields situated in the center of the initial bubble of DCC. This breather looks like a long-lived source of pionic fields [ru

  4. Experimental investigation of shock wave - bubble interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Mohsen

    2010-04-09

    In this work, the dynamics of laser-generated single cavitation bubbles exposed to lithotripter shock waves has been investigated experimentally. The energy of the impinging shock wave is varied in several steps. High-speed photography and pressure field measurements simultaneously with image acquisition provide the possibility of capturing the fast bubble dynamics under the effect of the shock wave impact. The pressure measurement is performed using a fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH) which operates based on optical diagnostics of the shock wave propagating medium. After a short introduction in chapter 1 an overview of the previous studies in chapter 2 is presented. The reported literatures include theoretical and experimental investigations of several configurations of physical problems in the field of bubble dynamics. In chapter 3 a theoretical description of propagation of a shock wave in a liquid like water has been discussed. Different kinds of reflection of a shock wave at an interface are taken into account. Undisturbed bubble dynamics as well as interaction between a planar shock wave and an initially spherical bubble are explored theoretically. Some physical parameters which are important in this issue such as the velocity of the shock-induced liquid jet, Kelvin impulse and kinetic energy are explained. The shock waves are generated in a water filled container by a focusing piezoelectric generator. The shock wave profile has a positive part with pulse duration of ∼1 μs followed by a longer tension tail (i.e. ∼3 μs). In chapter 4 high-speed images depict the propagation of a shock wave in the water filled tank. The maximum pressure is also derived for different intensity levels of the shock wave generator. The measurement is performed in the free field (i.e. in the absence of laser-generated single bubbles). In chapter 5 the interaction between lithotripter shock waves and laserinduced single cavitation bubbles is investigated experimentally. An

  5. Dechanneling of particles by gas bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronikier-Polonsky, Danuta.

    1976-01-01

    The dechanneling probability P of a particle hitting a gas bubble in a solid is evaluated theoretically. This probability is found to depend neither on the energy of the particle, nor on the radius of the bubble. A simple expression of P is given in the case of a harmonic channeling potential. Then an experiment is described concerning α particles channeled along (111) planes in aluminium containing helium bubbles. In this particular case, the measured probabilitity (P=0.27+-0.09) is in good agreement with the corresponding theoretical values (0.34 for a harmonic potential and 0.24 for a more realistic potential) [fr

  6. Experimental observation of exploding electron bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classen, J.; Su, C.K.; Hall, S.C.; Pettersen, M.S.; Maris, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Since free electrons form small voids in liquid helium they are expected to be preferred sites for nucleating macroscopic bubbles when the liquid is exposed to sufficiently large negative pressures. We have performed a series of cavitation experiments using focussed ultrasound where free electrons were introduced into the liquid by a radioactive source. The electron bubbles are found to explode at negative pressures significantly lower than those required for homogeneous nucleation. We present measurements of the thresholds for cavitation at electrons in the temperature range 1 - 4.5 K. Reasonable agreement with a simple model for the stability limit of the electron bubble is obtained. (author)

  7. A view inside the Gargamelle bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    Gargamelle was the name given to a big bubble chamber built at the Saclay Laboratory in France during the late 1960s. It was designed principally for the detection at CERN of the elusive particles called neutrinos. A bubble chamber contains a liquid under pressure, which reveals the tracks of electrically charged particles as trails of tiny bubbles when the pressure is reduced. Neutrinos have no charge, and so leave no tracks, but the aim with Gargamelle was "see neutrinos" by making visible any charged particles set in motion by the interaction of neutrinos in the liquid

  8. A model established of a 'Embryo' bubble growing-up some visible bubble in bubble chamber and its primary theory calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zipiao; Sheng Xiangdong

    2006-01-01

    A model of a 'embryo' bubble growing up a visible bubble in the bubble chamber is established. Through primary theory calculation it is shown that the 'embryo' bubble is not only absorbing quantity of heat, but also some molecules get into the 'embryo' bubble from its environment. It is explained reasonably that the radius of bubbles in bubble camber is different for the same energies of neutrons and proton. The track of neutron in bubble camber is long and thin, and the track of proton in bubble camber is wide and short. It is explained reasonably that the bubble radius of the incident particles with more charges which there are the same energies will be wider than that of the incident particles with less charges in the track. It is also explained reasonably that there are a little different radius of the bubbles of a track at the some region. It can be predicted theoretically that there should be big bubbles to burst when incident particles enter the bubble chamber at first. The sensitivity and the detective efficiency of bubble camber can be enhanced by choosing appropriate work matter. (authors)

  9. Bubbles, Bubbles, Tremors & Trouble: The Bayou Corne Sinkhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    In May 2012, thermogenic methane bubbles were first observed in Bayou Corne in Assumption Parish, Louisiana. As of July 2013, ninety one bubbling sites have been identified. Gas was also found in the top of the Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer (MRAA) about 125 ft below the surface. Vent wells drilled into the MRAA have flared more 16 million SCF of gas. Trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide also have been detected. Bayou Corne flows above the Napoleonville salt dome which has been an active area for oil and gas exploration since the 1920s. The dome is also a site of dissolution salt mining which has produced large caverns with diameters of up to 300 ft and heights of 2000 ft. Some caverns are used for storage of natural gas. Microseismic activity was confirmed by an Earthscope seismic station in White Castle, LA in July 2012. An array of microseismic stations set up in the area recorded more than 60 microseismic events in late July and early August, 2012. These microseismic events were located on the western side of the dome. Estimated focal depths are just above the top of salt. In August 2012, a sinkhole developed overnight just to the northwest of a plugged and abandoned brine filled cavern (see figure below). The sinkhole continues to grow in area to more than 20 acres and has consumed a pipeline right of way. The sinkhole is more than 750 ft deep at its center. Microseismic activity was reduced for several months following the formation of the sinkhole. Microseismic events have reoccurred episodically since then with periods of frequent events preceding slumping of material into the sinkhole or a 'burp' where fluid levels in the sinkhole drop and then rebound followed by a decrease in microseismic activity. Some gas and/or oil may appear at the surface of the sinkhole following a 'burp'. Very long period events also have been observed which are believed to be related to subsurface fluid movement. A relief well drilled into the abandoned brine cavern found that

  10. Track formation in a liquid hydrogen ultrasonic bubble chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, R C A; Jarman, P D

    1973-01-01

    Track sensitivity to minimum ionising particles has been demonstrated in liquid hydrogen using only an intense ultrasonic field. Carefully designed transducer systems are shown to be capable of producing pressure amplitudes >2.8 atm in a standing wave system in liquid hydrogen. The growth of bubbles to visible size (0.1 mm) in less than 0.2 ms, and their collapse in less than 15 ms, indicates that rapid cycling rates of 50-100 pulses per second may be feasible with this technique. (11 refs).

  11. Treatment of micro air bubbles in rat adipose tissue at 25 kPa altitude exposures with perfluorocarbon emulsions and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randsøe, Thomas; Hyldegaard, O

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFC) and nitric oxide (NO) releasing agents have on experimental basis demonstrated therapeutic properties in treating and preventing the formation of venous gas embolism as well as increased survival rate during decompression sickness from diving. The effect is ascribed to an increased solubility and transport capacity of respiratory gases in the PFC emulsion and possibly enhanced nitrogen washout through NO-increased blood flow rate and/or the removal of endothelial micro bubble nuclei precursors. Previous reports have shown that metabolic gases (i.e., oxygen in particular) and water vapor contribute to bubble growth and stabilization during altitude exposures. Accordingly, we hypothesize that the administration of PFC and NO donors upon hypobaric pressure exposures either (1) enhance the bubble disappearance rate through faster desaturation of nitrogen, or in contrast (2) promote bubble growth and stabilization through an increased oxygen supply. In anesthetized rats, micro air bubbles (containing 79% nitrogen) of 4-500 nl were injected into exposed abdominal adipose tissue. Rats were decompressed in 36 min to 25 kPa (~10,376 m above sea level) and bubbles studied for 210 min during continued oxygen breathing (FIO2 = 1). Rats were administered PFC, NO, or combined PFC and NO. In all groups, most bubbles grew transiently, followed by a stabilization phase. There were no differences in the overall bubble growth or decay between groups or when compared with previous data during oxygen breathing alone at 25 kPa. During extreme altitude exposures, the contribution of metabolic gases to bubble growth compromises the therapeutic effects of PFC and NO, but PFC and NO do not induce additional bubble growth.

  12. Investigation of contact line dynamics under a vapor bubble at boiling on the transparent heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surtaev, A. S.; Serdyukov, V. S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of dynamics of vapor bubble growth and departure at pool boiling, obtained with the use of high-speed video recording and IR thermography. The study was carried out at saturated water boiling under the atmospheric pressure in the range of heat fluxes of 30-150 kW/m2. To visualize the process and determine the growth rates of the outer bubble diameter, microlayer region and dry spot area, transpa-rent thin film heater with the thickness of 1 μm deposited on sapphire substrate was used in the experiments, and video recording was performed from the bottom side of the heating surface. To study integral heat transfer as well as local non-stationary thermal characteristics, high-speed infrared thermography with a frequency of up to 1000 FPS was used. High-speed video recording showed that after formation of vapor bubble and microlayer region, dry spot appears in a short time (up to 1 ms) under the vapor bubble. Various stages of contact line boundary propagation were ob-served. It was shown that at the initial stage before the development of small-scale perturbations, the dry spot propaga-tion rate is constant. It was also showed that the bubble departure stage begins after complete evaporation of liquid in the microlayer region.

  13. Stability of a Bubble Expanding and Translating Through an Inviscid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A bubble expands adiabatically and translates in an incompressible and inviscid liquid. We investigate the number of equilibrium points of the bubble and the nature of stability of the bubble at these points. We find that there is only one equilibrium point and the bubble is stable there.

  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF SERIAL AND PARALLEL BUBBLE SORT ON FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Marhaendro Jati Purnomo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorting is common process in computational world. Its utilization are on many fields from research to industry. There are many sorting algorithm in nowadays. One of the simplest yet powerful is bubble sort. In this study, bubble sort is implemented on FPGA. The implementation was taken on serial and parallel approach. Serial and parallel bubble sort then compared by means of its memory, execution time, and utility which comprises slices and LUTs. The experiments show that serial bubble sort required smaller memory as well as utility compared to parallel bubble sort. Meanwhile, parallel bubble sort performed faster than serial bubble sort

  15. Generation of a bubble universe using a negative energy bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dong-il; Yeom, Dong-han

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a model for a bubble universe using buildable false vacuum bubbles. We study the causal structures of collapsing false vacuum bubbles using double-null simulations. False vacuum bubbles violate the null energy condition and emit negative energy along the outgoing direction through semi-classical effects. If there are a few collapsing false vacuum bubbles and they emit negative energy to a certain region, then the region can be approximated by a negative energy bath, which means that the region is homogeneously filled by negative energy. If a false vacuum bubble is generated in the negative energy bath and the tension of the bubble effectively becomes negative in the bath, then the bubble can expand and form an inflating bubble universe. This scenario uses a set of assumptions different from those in previous studies because it does not require tunneling to unbuildable bubbles.

  16. Effect of supercritical water shell on cavitation bubble dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Wei-Hang; Chen Wei-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Based on reported experimental data, a new model for single cavitation bubble dynamics is proposed considering a supercritical water (SCW) shell surrounding the bubble. Theoretical investigations show that the SCW shell apparently slows down the oscillation of the bubble and cools the gas temperature inside the collapsing bubble. Furthermore, the model is simplified to a Rayleigh–Plesset-like equation for a thin SCW shell. The dependence of the bubble dynamics on the thickness and density of the SCW shell is studied. The results show the bubble dynamics depends on the thickness but is insensitive to the density of the SCW shell. The thicker the SCW shell is, the smaller are the wall velocity and the gas temperature in the bubble. In the authors’ opinion, the SCW shell works as a buffering agent. In collapsing, it is compressed to absorb a good deal of the work transformed into the bubble internal energy during bubble collapse so that it weakens the bubble oscillations. (paper)

  17. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Multiple Bubbles Motion under Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deming Nie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The motion of multiple bubbles under gravity in two dimensions is numerically studied through the lattice Boltzmann method for the Eotvos number ranging from 1 to 12. Two kinds of initial arrangement are taken into account: vertical and horizontal arrangement. In both cases the effects of Eotvos number on the bubble coalescence and rising velocity are investigated. For the vertical arrangement, it has been found that the coalescence pattern is similar. The first coalescence always takes place between the two uppermost bubbles. And the last coalescence always takes place between the coalesced bubble and the bottommost bubble. For four bubbles in a horizontal arrangement, the outermost bubbles travel into the wake of the middle bubbles in all cases, which allows the bubbles to coalesce. The coalescence pattern is more complex for the case of eight bubbles, which strongly depends on the Eotvos number.

  18. Letter: Entrapment and interaction of an air bubble with an oscillating cavitation bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Y. S.; Karri, Badarinath; Sahu, Kirti Chandra

    2018-04-01

    The mechanism of the formation of an air bubble due to an oscillating cavitation bubble in its vicinity is reported from an experimental study using high-speed imaging. The cavitation bubble is created close to the free surface of water using a low-voltage spark circuit comprising two copper electrodes in contact with each other. Before the bubble is created, a third copper wire is positioned in contact with the free surface of water close to the two crossing electrodes. Due to the surface tension at the triple point (wire-water-air) interface, a small dip is observed in the free surface at the point where the wire is immersed. When the cavitation bubble is created, the bubble pushes at the dip while expanding and pulls at it while collapsing. The collapse phase leads to the entrapment of an air bubble at the wire immersion point. During this phase, the air bubble undergoes a "catapult" effect, i.e., it expands to a maximum size and then collapses with a microjet at the free surface. To the best of our knowledge, this mechanism has not been reported so far. A parametric study is also conducted to understand the effects of wire orientation and bubble distance from the free surface.

  19. How are soap bubbles blown? Fluid dynamics of soap bubble blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John; Lambert, Lori; Sherman, Erica; Wei, Timothy; Ryu, Sangjin

    2013-11-01

    Soap bubbles are a common interfacial fluid dynamics phenomenon having a long history of delighting not only children and artists but also scientists. In contrast to the dynamics of liquid droplets in gas and gas bubbles in liquid, the dynamics of soap bubbles has not been well documented. This is possibly because studying soap bubbles is more challenging due to there existing two gas-liquid interfaces. Having the thin-film interface seems to alter the characteristics of the bubble/drop creation process since the interface has limiting factors such as thickness. Thus, the main objective of this study is to determine how the thin-film interface differentiates soap bubbles from gas bubbles and liquid drops. To investigate the creation process of soap bubbles, we constructed an experimental model consisting of air jet flow and a soap film, which consistently replicates the conditions that a human produces when blowing soap bubbles, and examined the interaction between the jet and the soap film using the high-speed videography and the particle image velocimetry.

  20. Optimization of the bubble radius in a moving single bubble sonoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirheydari, Mona; Sadighi-Bonabi, Rasoul; Rezaee, Nastaran; Ebrahimi, Homa

    2011-01-01

    A complete study of the hydrodynamic force on a moving single bubble sonoluminescence in N-methylformamide is presented in this work. All forces exerted, trajectory, interior temperature and gas pressure are discussed. The maximum values of the calculated components of the hydrodynamic force for three different radii at the same driving pressure were compared, while the optimum bubble radius was determined. The maximum value of the buoyancy force appears at the start of bubble collapse, earlier than the other forces whose maximum values appear at the moment of bubble collapse. We verified that for radii larger than the optimum radius, the temperature peak value decreases.

  1. Effect of isobaric breathing gas shifts from air to heliox mixtures on resolution of air bubbles in lipid and aqueous tissues of recompressed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegaard, Ole; Kerem, Dikla; Melamed, Y

    2011-01-01

    Deep tissue isobaric counterdiffusion that may cause unwanted bubble formation or transient bubble growth has been referred to in theoretical models and demonstrated by intravascular gas formation in animals, when changing inert breathing gas from nitrogen to helium after hyperbaric air breathing....... We visually followed the in vivo resolution of extravascular air bubbles injected at 101 kPa into nitrogen supersaturated rat tissues: adipose, spinal white matter, skeletal muscle or tail tendon. Bubbles were observed during isobaric breathing-gas shifts from air to normoxic (80:20) heliox mixture...... breathing. No such bubble growth was observed in spinal white matter, skeletal muscle or tendon. In spinal white matter, an immediate breathing gas shift after the hyperbaric air exposure from air to both (80:20) and (50:50) heliox, coincident with recompression to either 285 or 405 kPa, caused consistent...

  2. Bubble collisions and measures of the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    To compute the spectrum of bubble collisions seen by an observer in an eternally-inflating multiverse, one must choose a measure over the diverging spacetime volume, including choosing an ''initial'' hypersurface below which there are no bubble nucleations. Previous calculations focused on the case where the initial hypersurface is pushed arbitrarily deep into the past. Interestingly, the observed spectrum depends on the orientation of the initial hypersurface, however one's ability observe the effect rapidly decreases with the ratio of inflationary Hubble rates inside and outside one's bubble. We investigate whether this conclusion might be avoided under more general circumstances, including placing the observer's bubble near the initial hypersurface. We find that it is not. As a point of reference, a substantial appendix reviews relevant aspects of the measure problem of eternal inflation

  3. Bubble collisions and measures of the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, Michael P., E-mail: salem@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    To compute the spectrum of bubble collisions seen by an observer in an eternally-inflating multiverse, one must choose a measure over the diverging spacetime volume, including choosing an ''initial'' hypersurface below which there are no bubble nucleations. Previous calculations focused on the case where the initial hypersurface is pushed arbitrarily deep into the past. Interestingly, the observed spectrum depends on the orientation of the initial hypersurface, however one's ability observe the effect rapidly decreases with the ratio of inflationary Hubble rates inside and outside one's bubble. We investigate whether this conclusion might be avoided under more general circumstances, including placing the observer's bubble near the initial hypersurface. We find that it is not. As a point of reference, a substantial appendix reviews relevant aspects of the measure problem of eternal inflation.

  4. The charged bubble oscillator: Dynamics and thresholds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nonlinear, forced oscillations of a bubble in a fluid due to an external pressure field are studied theoretically. ... for the system, delineating different dynamics. Keywords. ..... (c) Power spectral density of the charged and uncharged bub-.

  5. The 2008 oil bubble. Causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokic, Damir

    2010-01-01

    We argue that 'the 2008 Oil Bubble' was directly and indirectly created by the Federal Reserve in response to deflationary risks that resurfaced after the housing bubble burst and the resulting credit crisis of 2008. Deflationary risks first appeared after the dot.com bubble burst in 2000 and after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Manipulation of the US dollar value has been one of the key emergency tools in the Fed's arsenal. During the entire period from 2000 to 2008, the US dollar has been falling, while the price of crude oil has been rising, with the culmination in July 2008. If other global central banks embrace the Fed's anti-deflationary strategies, the consequences could be dire for the global economy, potentially resulting in an ultimate gold bubble. (author)

  6. Universe out of a breathing bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, Eduardo I.; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    We consider the model of a false-vacuum bubble with a thin wall where the surface energy density is composed of two different components, 'domain-wall' type and 'dust' type, with opposite signs. We find stably oscillating solutions, which we call 'breathing bubbles'. By decay to a lower mass state, such a breathing bubble could become either (i) a child universe or ii) a bubble that 'eats up' the original universe, depending on the sign of the surface energy of the domain-wall component. We also discuss the effect of the finite-thickness corrections to the thin-wall approximation and possible origins of the energy contents of our model

  7. Electron acceleration in the bubble regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Oliver

    2014-02-03

    The bubble regime of laser-wakefield acceleration has been studied over the recent years as an important alternative to classical accelerators. Several models and theories have been published, in particular a theory which provides scaling laws for acceleration parameters such as energy gain and acceleration length. This thesis deals with numerical simulations within the bubble regime, their comparison to these scaling laws and data obtained from experiments, as well as some specific phenomenona. With a comparison of the scaling laws with numerical results a parameter scan was able to show a large parameter space in which simulation and theory agree. An investigation of the limits of this parameter space revealed boundaries to other regimes, especially at very high (a{sub 0} > 100) and very low laser amplitudes (a{sub 0} < 4). Comparing simulation data with data from experiments concerning laser pulse development and electron energies, it was found that experimental results can be adequately reproduced using the Virtual-Laser-Plasma-Laboratory code. In collaboration with the Institut fuer Optik und Quantenelektronik at the Friedrich-Schiller University Jena synchrotron radiation emitted from the inside of the bubble was investigated. A simulation of the movement of the electrons inside the bubble together with time dependent histograms of the emitted radiation helped to prove that the majority of radiation created during a bubble acceleration originates from the inside of the bubble. This radiation can be used to diagnose the amplitude of oscillation of the trapped electrons. During a further study it was proven that the polarisation of synchrotron radiation from a bubble contains information about the exact oscillation direction. This oscillation was successfully controlled by using either a laser pulse with a tilted pulse front or an asymmetric laser pulse. First results of ongoing studies concerning injecting electrons into an existing bubble and a scheme called

  8. Sono-chemiluminescence from a single cavitation bubble in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotchie, Adam; Shchukin, Dmitry; Moehwald, Helmuth; Schneider, Julia; Pflieger, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    In summary, this study has revealed the conditions required for a single bubble to be sono-chemically active. Evidence of radical-induced processes surrounding the bubble was only observed below the SL threshold, where the bubble was not spatially stable, and did not correlate with emission from excited molecular states inside the bubble. Moreover, this work substantiates recent progress that has been made in bridging the gap between single and multi-bubble cavitation. (authors)

  9. Effects of Gas Dynamics on Rapidly Collapsing Bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bauman, Spenser; Fomitchev-Zamilov, Max

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of rapidly collapsing bubbles are of great interest due to the high degree of energy focusing that occurs withing the bubble. Molecular dynamics provides a way to model the interior of the bubble and couple the gas dynamics with the equations governing the bubble wall. While much theoretical work has been done to understand how a bubble will respond to an external force, the internal dynamics of the gas system are usually simplified greatly in such treatments. This paper shows ho...

  10. Astronaut Pedro Duque Watches A Water Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain watches a water bubble float between a camera and himself. The bubble shows his reflection (reversed). Duque was launched aboard a Russian Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 18th, along with expedition-8 crew members Michael C. Foale, Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer, and Cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer.

  11. Acoustic waves in polydispersed bubbly liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubaidullin, D A; Gubaidullina, D D; Fedorov, Yu V

    2014-01-01

    The propagation of acoustic waves in polydispersed mixtures of liquid with two sorts of gas bubbles each of which has its own bubble size distribution function is studied. The system of the differential equations of the perturbed motion of a mixture is presented, the dispersion relation is obtained. Equilibrium speed of sound, low-frequency and high-frequency asymptotes of the attenuation coefficient are found. Comparison of the developed theory with known experimental data is presented

  12. Acoustic waves in polydispersed bubbly liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubaidullin, D. A.; Gubaidullina, D. D.; Fedorov, Yu V.

    2014-11-01

    The propagation of acoustic waves in polydispersed mixtures of liquid with two sorts of gas bubbles each of which has its own bubble size distribution function is studied. The system of the differential equations of the perturbed motion of a mixture is presented, the dispersion relation is obtained. Equilibrium speed of sound, low-frequency and high-frequency asymptotes of the attenuation coefficient are found. Comparison of the developed theory with known experimental data is presented.

  13. Bubbles on the river of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper is concerned with modern cosmology, and the possibility that our Universe is just one bubble among many in some greater suprauniverse. These ideas are connected with the concept of inflation; inflation occurred shortly after the moment of creation of the Universe and just before the fireball stage that represents the big bang proper. A description is given of inflation and its use to explain the creation of the Universe from bubbles of mass-energy. (U.K.)

  14. Test ventilation with smoke, bubbles, and balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, P.L.; Cucchiara, A.L.; McAtee, J.L.; Gonzales, M.

    1987-01-01

    The behavior of smoke, bubbles, and helium-filled balloons was videotaped to demonstrate the mixing of air in the plutonium chemistry laboratories, a plutonium facility. The air-distribution patterns, as indicated by each method, were compared. Helium-filled balloons proved more useful than bubbles or smoke in the visualization of airflow patterns. The replay of various segments of the videotape proved useful in evaluating the different techniques and in identifying airflow trends responsible for air mixing. 6 refs

  15. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    OpenAIRE

    Mantic-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P-T; Gallaire, F.

    2015-01-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong exp...

  16. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantič-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P.-T.; Gallaire, F.

    2015-12-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong expansion and a sudden contraction ending in their collapse and fragmentation into a large amount of small bubbles. Second, the bubble clouds present a large surface area to volume ratio, enhancing the CO2 diffusion from the supersaturated liquid, hence growing rapidly and depleting the CO2. The clouds of bubbles migrate upwards in the form of plumes pulling the surrounding liquid with them and eventually resulting in the foam overflow. The sudden pressure drop that triggers the bubble dynamics with a collapse and oscillations is modelled by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble dynamics from impact to collapse occurs over a time (tb ≃ 800 μs) much larger than the acoustic time scale of the liquid bulk (tac = 2H/c ≃ 80 μs), for the experimental container of height H = 6 cm and a speed of sound around c ≃ 1500 m/s. This scale separation, together with the comparison of numerical and experimental results, suggests that the pressure drop is controlled by two parameters: the acceleration of the container and the distance from the bubble to the free surface.

  17. Numerical simulation of single bubble boiling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of a single bubble boiling process are studied with numerical modeling. The mass, momentum, energy and level set equations are solved using COMSOL multi-physics software. The bubble boiling dynamics, the transient pressure field, velocity field and temperature field in time are analyzed, and reasonable results are obtained. The numeral model is validated by the empirical equation of Fritz and could be used for various applications.

  18. Bubble nonlinear dynamics and stimulated scattering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Shi; De-Sen, Yang; Sheng-Guo, Shi; Bo, Hu; Hao-Yang, Zhang; Shi-Yong, Hu

    2016-02-01

    A complete understanding of the bubble dynamics is deemed necessary in order to achieve their full potential applications in industry and medicine. For this purpose it is first needed to expand our knowledge of a single bubble behavior under different possible conditions including the frequency and pressure variations of the sound field. In addition, stimulated scattering of sound on a bubble is a special effect in sound field, and its characteristics are associated with bubble oscillation mode. A bubble in liquid can be considered as a representative example of nonlinear dynamical system theory with its resonance, and its dynamics characteristics can be described by the Keller-Miksis equation. The nonlinear dynamics of an acoustically excited gas bubble in water is investigated by using theoretical and numerical analysis methods. Our results show its strongly nonlinear behavior with respect to the pressure amplitude and excitation frequency as the control parameters, and give an intuitive insight into stimulated sound scattering on a bubble. It is seen that the stimulated sound scattering is different from common dynamical behaviors, such as bifurcation and chaos, which is the result of the nonlinear resonance of a bubble under the excitation of a high amplitude acoustic sound wave essentially. The numerical analysis results show that the threshold of stimulated sound scattering is smaller than those of bifurcation and chaos in the common condition. Project supported by the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. IRT1228) and the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204050 and 11204049).

  19. A simple circuit to deliver bubbling CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Charanjit; Sema, Akatoli; Beri, Rajbir S; Puliyel, Jacob M

    2008-04-01

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), especially bubbling CPAP, is known to reduce the need for more invasive ventilation. We here describe a circuit that can deliver bubbling CPAP in resource poor settings. We describe how the oxygen concentration can be altered from 98% to 21% oxygen using this system. Addition of a humidifier in the circuit has the effect of reducing the oxygen concentration by 1 to 5%. The cost of putting together the system is approximately Rs 5000.

  20. Bubble chamber: Omega production and decay

    CERN Document Server

    1973-01-01

    This image is taken from one of CERN's bubble chambers and shows the decay of a positive kaon in flight. The decay products of this kaon can be seen spiraling in the magnetic field of the chamber. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that has been heated to boiling point.

  1. Bubble parameters analysis of gas-liquid two-phase sparse bubbly flow based on image method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yunlong; Zhou Hongjuan; Song Lianzhuang; Liu Qian

    2012-01-01

    The sparse rising bubbles of gas-liquid two-phase flow in vertical pipe were measured and studied based on image method. The bubble images were acquired by high-speed video camera systems, the characteristic parameters of bubbles were extracted by using image processing techniques. Then velocity variation of rising bubbles were drawn. Area and centroid variation of single bubble were also drawn. And then parameters and movement law of bubbles were analyzed and studied. The test results showed that parameters of bubbles had been analyzed well by using image method. (authors)

  2. Intensely oscillating cavitation bubble in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siew-Wan, Ohl; Tandiono; Klaseboer, Evert; Dave, Ow; Choo, Andre; Claus-Dieter, Ohl

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the technical breakthrough in generating intense ultrasonic cavitation in the confinement of a microfluidics channel [1], and applications that has been developed on this platform for the past few years [2,3,4,5]. Our system consists of circular disc transducers (10-20 mm in diameter), the microfluidics channels on PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane), and a driving circuitry. The cavitation bubbles are created at the gas- water interface due to strong capillary waves which are generated when the system is driven at its natural frequency (around 100 kHz) [1]. These bubbles oscillate and collapse within the channel. The bubbles are useful for sonochemistry and the generation of sonoluminescence [2]. When we add bacteria (Escherichia coli), and yeast cells (Pichia pastoris) into the microfluidics channels, the oscillating and collapsing bubbles stretch and lyse these cells [3]. Furthermore, the system is effective (DNA of the harvested intracellular content remains largely intact), and efficient (yield reaches saturation in less than 1 second). In another application, human red blood cells are added to a microchamber. Cell stretching and rapture are observed when a laser generated cavitation bubble expands and collapses next to the cell [4]. A numerical model of a liquid pocket surrounded by a membrane with surface tension which was placed next to an oscillating bubble was developed using the Boundary Element Method. The simulation results showed that the stretching of the liquid pocket occurs only when the surface tension is within a certain range. (paper)

  3. Gas transfer in a bubbly wake flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, A.; Gulliver, J. S.; Monson, G. M.; Ellis, C.; Arndt, R. E. A.; Hong, J.

    2016-05-01

    The present work reports simultaneous bubble size and gas transfer measurements in a bubbly wake flow of a hydrofoil, designed to be similar to a hydroturbine blade. Bubble size was measured by a shadow imaging technique and found to have a Sauter mean diameter of 0.9 mm for a reference case. A lower gas flow rate, greater liquid velocities, and a larger angle of attack all resulted in an increased number of small size bubbles and a reduced weighted mean bubble size. Bubble-water gas transfer is measured by the disturbed equilibrium technique. The gas transfer model of Azbel (1981) is utilized to characterize the liquid film coefficient for gas transfer, with one scaling coefficient to reflect the fact that characteristic turbulent velocity is replaced by cross-sectional mean velocity. The coefficient was found to stay constant at a particular hydrofoil configuration while it varied within a narrow range of 0.52-0.60 for different gas/water flow conditions.

  4. Gas Bubble Dynamics under Mechanical Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Elbing, Brian

    2017-11-01

    The scientific community has a limited understanding of the bubble dynamics under mechanical oscillations due to over simplification of Navier-Stockes equation by neglecting the shear stress tensor and not accounting for body forces when calculating the acoustic radiation force. The current work experimental investigates bubble dynamics under mechanical vibration and resulting acoustic field by measuring the bubble size and velocity using high-speed imaging. The experimental setup consists of a custom-designed shaker table, cast acrylic bubble column, compressed air injection manifold and an optical imaging system. The mechanical vibrations resulted in accelerations between 0.25 to 10 times gravitational acceleration corresponding to frequency and amplitude range of 8 - 22Hz and 1 - 10mm respectively. Throughout testing the void fraction was limited to <5%. The bubble size is larger than resonance size and smaller than acoustic wavelength. The amplitude of acoustic pressure wave was estimated using the definition of Bjerknes force in combination with Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Physical behavior of the system was capture and classified. Bubble size, velocity as well as size and spatial distribution will be presented.

  5. Bubbling AdS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelli, Dario; Morales, Jose Francisco

    2005-01-01

    In the light of the recent Lin, Lunin, Maldacena (LLM) results, we investigate 1/2-BPS geometries in minimal (and next to minimal) supergravity in D = 6 dimensions. In the case of minimal supergravity, solutions are given by fibrations of a two-torus T 2 specified by two harmonic functions. For a rectangular torus the two functions are related by a non-linear equation with rare solutions: AdS 3 x S 3 , the pp-wave and the multi-center string. 'Bubbling', i.e. superpositions of droplets, is accommodated by allowing the complex structure of the T 2 to vary over the base. The analysis is repeated in the presence of a tensor multiplet and similar conclusions are reached, with generic solutions describing D1D5 (or their dual fundamental string-momentum) systems. In this framework, the profile of the dual fundamental string-momentum system is identified with the boundaries of the droplets in a two-dimensional plane. (author)

  6. A discrete trinomial model for the birth and death of stock financial bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Persio, Luca; Guida, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    The present work proposes a novel way to model the dynamic of financial bubbles. In particular we exploit the so called trinomial tree technique, which is mainly inspired by the typical market order book (MOB) structure. According to the typical MOB rules, we exploit a bottom-up approach to derive the relevant generator process for the financial quantities characterizing the market we are considering. Our proposal pays attention in considering the real world changes in probability levels characterizing the bid-ask preferences, focusing the attention on the market movements. In particular, we show that financial bubbles are originated by these movements which also act amplify their growth.

  7. Enhancement of eruption explosivity by heterogeneous bubble nucleation triggered by magma mingling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Mariño, Joali; Dobson, Katherine J; Ortenzi, Gianluigi; Kueppers, Ulrich; Morgavi, Daniele; Petrelli, Maurizio; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Laeger, Kathrin; Porreca, Massimiliano; Pimentel, Adriano; Perugini, Diego

    2017-12-04

    We present new evidence that shows magma mingling can be a key process during highly explosive eruptions. Using fractal analysis of the size distribution of trachybasaltic fragments found on the inner walls of bubbles in trachytic pumices, we show that the more mafic component underwent fracturing during quenching against the trachyte. We propose a new mechanism for how this magmatic interaction at depth triggered rapid heterogeneous bubble nucleation and growth and could have enhanced eruption explosivity. We argue that the data support a further, and hitherto unreported contribution of magma mingling to highly explosive eruptions. This has implications for hazard assessment for those volcanoes in which evidence of magma mingling exists.

  8. TEM study of the nucleation of bubbles induced by He implantation in 316L industrial austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jublot-Leclerc, S.; Lescoat, M.-L.; Fortuna, F.; Legras, L.; Li, X.; Gentils, A.

    2015-01-01

    10 keV He ions were implanted in-situ in a TEM into thin foils of 316L industrial austenitic stainless steel at temperatures ranging from 200 to 550 °C. As a result, overpressurized nanometric bubbles are created with density and size depending strongly on both the temperature and fluence of implantation. An investigation on their nucleation and growth is reported through a rigorous statistical analysis whose procedure, including the consideration of free surface effects, is detailed. In the parameter range considered, the results show that an increase of fluence promotes both the nucleation and growth of the bubbles whilst an increase of temperature enhances the growth of the bubbles at the expense of their nucleation. The confrontation of resulting activation energies with existing models for bubble nucleation enables the identification of the underlying mechanisms. In spite of slight differences resulting from different conditions of implantation among which the He concentration, He production rate and He/dpa ratio, it appears that the dominating mechanisms are the same as those obtained in metals in previous studies, which, in addition to corroborating literature results, shows the suitability of in-situ TEM experiments to simulate the production of helium in nuclear materials. - Highlights: • A rigorous TEM statistical analysis, including free surface effects, is reported. • Increasing He fluence promotes both the nucleation and growth of bubbles. • Increasing implantation temperature enhances the growth of bubbles. • Activation energies describing the evolution of the bubble population are obtained. • A He diffusion controlled nucleation through a replacement mechanism is suggested.

  9. Fundamental study of FC-72 pool boiling surface temperature fluctuations and bubble behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Alison R.

    A heater designed to monitor surface temperature fluctuations during pool boiling experiments while the bubbles were simultaneously being observed has been fabricated and tested. The heat source was a transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) layer commercially deposited on a fused quartz substrate. Four copper-nickel thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) on the heater surface measured the surface temperature, while a thin layer of sapphire or fused silica provided electrical insulation between the TFTCs and the ITO. The TFTCs were micro-fabricated using the liftoff process to deposit the nickel and copper metal films. The TFTC elements were 50 mum wide and overlapped to form a 25 mum by 25 mum junction. TFTC voltages were recorded by a DAQ at a sampling rate of 50 kHz. A high-speed CCD camera recorded bubble images from below the heater at 2000 frames/second. A trigger sent to the camera by the DAQ synchronized the bubble images and the surface temperature data. As the bubbles and their contact rings grew over the TFTC junction, correlations between bubble behavior and surface temperature changes were demonstrated. On the heaters with fused silica insulation layers, 1--2°C temperature drops on the order of 1 ms occurred as the contact ring moved over the TFTC junction during bubble growth and as the contact ring moved back over the TFTC junction during bubble departure. These temperature drops during bubble growth and departure were due to microlayer evaporation and liquid rewetting the heated surface, respectively. Microlayer evaporation was not distinguished as the primary method of heat removal from the surface. Heaters with sapphire insulation layers did not display the measurable temperature drops observed with the fused silica heaters. The large thermal diffusivity of the sapphire compared to the fused silica was determined as the reason for the absence of these temperature drops. These findings were confirmed by a comparison of temperature drops in a 2-D simulation of

  10. Application of coalescence and breakup models in a discrete bubble model for bubble columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hengel, E.I.V.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, a discrete bubble model (DBM) is used to investigate the hydrodynamics, coalescence, and breakup occurring in a bubble column. The DBM, originally developed by Delnoij et al. (Chem. Eng. Sci. 1997, 52, 1429-1458; Chem. Eng. Sci. 1999, 54, 2217-2226),1,2 was extended to incorporate

  11. Development of three-dimensional individual bubble-velocity measurement method by bubble tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Taizo; Furuya, Masahiro; Arai, Takahiro; Shirakawa, Kenetsu; Nishi, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    A gas-liquid two-phase flow in a large diameter pipe exhibits a three-dimensional flow structure. Wire-Mesh Sensor (WMS) consists of a pair of parallel wire layers located at the cross section of a pipe. Both the parallel wires cross at 90o with a small gap and each intersection acts as an electrode. The WMS allows the measurement of the instantaneous two-dimensional void-fraction distribution over the cross-section of a pipe, based on the difference between the local instantaneous conductivity of the two-phase flow. Furthermore, the WMS can acquire a phasic-velocity on the basis of the time lag of void signals between two sets of WMS. Previously, the acquired phasic velocity was one-dimensional with time-averaged distributions. The authors propose a method to estimate the three-dimensional bubble-velocity individually WMS data. The bubble velocity is determined by the tracing method. In this tracing method, each bubble is separated from WMS signal, volume and center coordinates of the bubble is acquired. Two bubbles with near volume at two WMS are considered as the same bubble and bubble velocity is estimated from the displacement of the center coordinates of the two bubbles. The validity of this method is verified by a swirl flow. The proposed method can successfully visualize a swirl flow structure and the results of this method agree with the results of cross-correlation analysis. (author)

  12. Formation and evolution of bubbly screens in confined oscillating bubbly liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklyaev, Sergey; Straube, Arthur V.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of dilute monodisperse bubbly liquid confined by two plane solid walls and subject to small-amplitude high-frequency oscillations normal to the walls. The initial state corresponds to the uniform distribution of bubbles and motionless liquid. The period of external driving is assumed much smaller than typical relaxation times for a single bubble but larger than the period of volume eigenoscillations. The time-averaged description accounting for the two-way coupling between the liquid and the bubbles is applied. We show that the model predicts accumulation of bubbles in thin sheets parallel to the walls. These singular structures, which are formally characterized by infinitely thin width and infinitely high concentration, are referred to as bubbly screens. The formation of a bubbly screen is described analytically in terms of a self-similar solution, which is in agreement with numerical simulations. We study the evolution of bubbly screens and detect a one-dimensional stationary state, which is shown to be unconditionally unstable.

  13. Financial Bubbles, Real Estate Bubbles, Derivative Bubbles, and the Financial and Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier; Woodard, Ryan

    The financial crisis of 2008, which started with an initially well-defined epicenter focused on mortgage backed securities (MBS), has been cascading into a global economic recession, whose increasing severity and uncertain duration has led and is continuing to lead to massive losses and damage for billions of people. Heavy central bank interventions and government spending programs have been launched worldwide and especially in the USA and Europe, with the hope to unfreeze credit and bolster consumption. Here, we present evidence and articulate a general framework that allows one to diagnose the fundamental cause of the unfolding financial and economic crisis: the accumulation of several bubbles and their interplay and mutual reinforcement have led to an illusion of a "perpetual money machine" allowing financial institutions to extract wealth from an unsustainable artificial process. Taking stock of this diagnostic, we conclude that many of the interventions to address the so-called liquidity crisis and to encourage more consumption are ill-advised and even dangerous, given that precautionary reserves were not accumulated in the "good times" but that huge liabilities were. The most "interesting" present times constitute unique opportunities but also great challenges, for which we offer a few recommendations.

  14. Effects of additional inertia force on bubble breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Liangming; Zhang Wenzhi; Chen Deqi; Xu Jianhui; Xu Jianjun; Huang Yanping

    2011-01-01

    Through VOF two-phase flow model, the single bubble deformation and breakup in a vertical narrow channel is numerically investigated in the study based on the force balance at the process of bubble breakup. The effect of surface tension force, the additional inertia force and bubble initial shape on bubble breakup are analyzed according to the velocity variation at the break-up point and the minimum necking size when the bubble is breaking up. It is found that the surface tension force, the additional inertia force and the bubble initial shape have significant effects on the bubble breakup through the fluid injection toward to the bubble, which finally induces the onset of bubble breakup. (authors)

  15. Non-intuitive bubble effects in reactor and containment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Most people know a lot about bubbles, including how they rise in liquids and the way they appear when the cap is removed from a bottle of carbonated beverage. A lot of bubble knowledge is obtained from bubbling air through water in aquariums to keep the fish alive and happy, or watching scuba divers feed the sharks in large glass tanks at the local zoo. But innocent bubbles can be sources of structural loadings and sometimes destructive fluid behavior. In fact, there are many non-intuitive effects associated with bubbles which have been discovered by experiments and analyses. It has been necessary to design various reactor and containment components in the nuclear energy industry to accommodate the fact that bubbles can expand like compressed springs, or oscillate, or collapse abruptly, and create structural loads. This paper describes several important phenomena associated with bubble action in nuclear reactor and containment systems and the associated loads exerted. An awareness of these effects can help to avoid unwelcome surprises in general thermal-hydraulic applications when a system is disturbed by bubble behavior. Major topics discussed include expanding and collapsing submerged bubbles, steam chugging and ringout, bubble shattering, surprising hot bubble action in a saturated pool, bubble effects on fluid-structure-interaction, waterhammer from collapsing bubble in pipes, and vapor bubble effects on sound speed in saturated mixtures

  16. Convective mass transfer around a dissolving bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplat, Jerome; Grandemange, Mathieu; Poulain, Cedric

    2017-11-01

    Heat or mass transfer around an evaporating drop or condensing vapor bubble is a complex issue due to the interplay between the substrate properties, diffusion- and convection-driven mass transfer, and Marangoni effects, to mention but a few. In order to disentangle these mechanisms, we focus here mainly on the convective mass transfer contribution in an isothermal mass transfer problem. For this, we study the case of a millimetric carbon dioxide bubble which is suspended under a substrate and dissolved into pure liquid water. The high solubility of CO2 in water makes the liquid denser and promotes a buoyant-driven flow at a high (solutal) Rayleigh number (Ra˜104 ). The alteration of p H allows the concentration field in the liquid to be imaged by laser fluorescence enabling us to measure both the global mass flux (bubble volume, contact angle) and local mass flux around the bubble along time. After a short period of mass diffusion, where the boundary layer thickens like the square root of time, convection starts and the CO2 is carried by a plume falling at constant velocity. The boundary layer thickness then reaches a plateau which depends on the bubble cross section. Meanwhile the plume velocity scales like (dV /d t )1 /2 with V being the volume of the bubble. As for the rate of volume loss, we recover a constant mass flux in the diffusion-driven regime followed by a decrease in the volume V like V2 /3 after convection has started. We present a model which agrees well with the bubble dynamics and discuss our results in the context of droplet evaporation, as well as high Rayleigh convection.

  17. A grid-independent EMMS/bubbling drag model for bubbling and turbulent fluidization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Hao; Lu, Bona; Zhang, Jingyuan

    2017-01-01

    The EMMS/bubbling drag model takes the effects of meso-scale structures (i.e. bubbles) into modeling of drag coefficient and thus improves coarse-grid simulation of bubbling and turbulent fluidized beds. However, its dependence on grid size has not been fully investigated. In this article, we adopt...... a two-step scheme to extend the EMMS/bubbling model to the sub-grid level. Thus the heterogeneity index, HD, which accounts for the hydrodynamic disparity between homogeneous and heterogeneous fluidization, can be correlated as a function of both local voidage and slip velocity. Simulations over...... a periodic domain show the new drag model is less sensitive to grid size because of the additional dependence on local slip velocity. When applying the new drag model to simulations of realistic bubbling and turbulent fluidized beds, we find grid-independent results are easier to obtain for high...

  18. The thermodynamic and kinetic interactions of He interstitial clusters with bubbles in W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Danny, E-mail: danny-perez@lanl.gov; Sandoval, Luis; Voter, Arthur F. [Theoretical Division T-1, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Uberuaga, Blas P. [Materials Science and Technology MST-8, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Due to its enviable properties, tungsten is a leading candidate plasma facing material in nuclear fusion reactors. However, like many other metals, tungsten is known to be affected by the high doses of helium atoms incoming from the plasma. Indeed, the implanted interstitial helium atoms cluster together and, upon reaching a critical cluster size, convert into substitutional nanoscale He bubbles. These bubbles then grow by absorbing further interstitial clusters from the matrix. This process can lead to deleterious changes in microstructure, degradation of mechanical properties, and contamination of the plasma. In order to better understand the growth process, we use traditional and accelerated molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interactions between interstitial He clusters and pre-existing bubbles. These interactions are characterized in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics. We show that the proximity of the bubble leads to an enhancement of the trap mutation rate and, consequently, to the nucleation of satellite bubbles in the neighborhood of existing ones. We also uncover a number of mechanisms that can lead to the subsequent annihilation of such satellite nanobubbles.

  19. Optical nucleation of bubble clouds in a high pressure spherical resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Phillip; Sampathkumar, A; Murray, Todd W; Gaitan, D Felipe; Glynn Holt, R

    2011-11-01

    An experimental setup for nucleating clouds of bubbles in a high-pressure spherical resonator is described. Using nanosecond laser pulses and multiple phase gratings, bubble clouds are optically nucleated in an acoustic field. Dynamics of the clouds are captured using a high-speed CCD camera. The images reveal cloud nucleation, growth, and collapse and the resulting emission of radially expanding shockwaves. These shockwaves are reflected at the interior surface of the resonator and then reconverge to the center of the resonator. As the shocks reconverge upon the center of the resonator, they renucleate and grow the bubble cloud. This process is repeated over many acoustic cycles and with each successive shock reconvergence, the bubble cloud becomes more organized and centralized so that subsequent collapses give rise to stronger, better defined shockwaves. After many acoustic cycles individual bubbles cannot be distinguished and the cloud is then referred to as a cluster. Sustainability of the process is ultimately limited by the detuning of the acoustic field inside the resonator. The nucleation parameter space is studied in terms of laser firing phase, laser energy, and acoustic power used.

  20. The slender bubble model for very slow degassing in porous media and cold production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chraibi, M. [Total, Paris (France); Zaleski, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, London (United Kingdom)]|[Paris Univ., Paris (France); Franco, F. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, London (United Kingdom)]|[Total, Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    Cold oil production leads to degassing of the light species and the formation of a bubbly phase. This is often referred to as the foamy oil effect and is particularly observed with heavy oils, combining high viscosity and asphaltenes. The presence and behaviour of a foamy-oil effect is critical to the cold production process. However, because a wide range of different petrophysical parameters and experimental factors interact in a complex manner, this process is not a well-understood production mechanism. This study focused on improving the understanding of the solution gas drive mechanism in primary heavy oil recovery. A Darcy-scale model was developed that took into account the basic physical phenomena of bubble nucleation, bubble growth by solute diffusion and expansion, and bubble mobilization. The relative permeability of the gas phase was replaced by an expression for the gas mobility with new physical effects related to capillarity, viscosity, gravity, and bubble geometry. The purpose was to fit the productions with a limited number of parameters, having physical meaning, independently from the depletion rate. The paper also presented several simplifications of the basic Darcy-scale equations, that enabled the production prediction in a much simpler manner than through full simulations. The full set of Darcy-scale equations were solved using a numerical solution. The formation of strong gradients of the gas phase saturation were shown to depend on gravity and viscosity. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Generalized Rate Theory for Void and Bubble Swelling and its Application to Delta-Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wall, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolfer, W. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-04

    A rate theory for void and bubble swelling is derived that allows both vacancies and self-interstitial atoms to be generated by thermal activation at all sinks. In addition, they can also be produced by displacement damage from external and internal radiation. This generalized rate theory (GRT) is applied to swelling of gallium-stabilized δ-plutonium in which α-decay causes the displacement damage. Since the helium atoms produced also become trapped in vacancies, a distinction is made between empty and occupied vacancies. The growth of helium bubbles observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in weapons-grade and in material enriched with Pu238 is analyzed, using different values for the formation energy of self-interstitial atoms (SIA) and two different sets of relaxation volumes for the vacancy and for the SIA. One set allows preferential capture of SIA at dislocations, while the other set gives equal preference to both vacancy and SIA. It is found that the helium bubble diameters observed are in better agreement with GRT predictions if no preferential capture occurs at dislocations. Therefore, helium bubbles in δ-plutonium will not evolve into voids. The helium density within the bubbles remains sufficiently high to cause thermal emission of SIA. Based on a helium density between two to three helium atoms per vacant site, the sum of formation and migration energies must be around 2.0 eV for SIA in δ-plutonium.

  2. Effect of oxygen breathing and perfluorocarbon emulsion treatment on air bubbles in adipose tissue during decompression sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsoe, T; Hyldegaard, O

    2009-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) after air diving has been treated with success by means of combined normobaric oxygen breathing and intravascular perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions causing increased survival rate and faster bubble clearance from the intravascular compartment. The beneficial PFC effect...... has been explained by the increased transport capacity of oxygen and inert gases in blood. However, previous reports have shown that extravascular bubbles in lipid tissue of rats suffering from DCS will initially grow during oxygen breathing at normobaric conditions. We hypothesize that the combined...... effect of normobaric oxygen breathing and intravascular PFC infusion could lead to either enhanced extravascular bubble growth on decompression due to the increased oxygen supply, or that PFC infusion could lead to faster bubble elimination due to the increased solubility and transport capacity in blood...

  3. Particle-bubble aggregate stability on static bubble generated by single nozzle on flotation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warjito, Harinaldi, Setyantono, Manus; Siregar, Sahala D.

    2016-06-01

    There are three sub-processes on flotation. These processes are intervening liquid film into critical thickness, rupture of liquid film forming three phase contact line, and expansion three phase contact line forming aggregate stability. Aggregate stability factor contribute to determine flotation efficiency. Aggregate stability has some important factors such as reagent and particle geometry. This research focussed on to understand effect of particle geometry to aggregate stability. Experimental setup consists of 9 x 9 x26 cm flotation column made of glass, bubble generator, particle feeding system, and high speed video camera. Bubble generator made from single nozzle with 0.3 mm diameter attached to programmable syringe pump. Particle feeding system made of pipette. Particle used in this research is taken from open pit Grasberg in Timika, Papua. Particle has sub-angular geometry and its size varies from 38 to 300 µm. Bubble-particle interaction are recorded using high speed video camera. Recordings from high speed video camera analyzed using image processing software. Experiment result shows that aggregate particle-bubble and induction time depends on particle size. Small particle (38-106 µm) has long induction time and able to rupture liquid film and also forming three phase contact line. Big particle (150-300 µm) has short induction time, so it unable to attach with bubble easily. This phenomenon is caused by apparent gravity work on particle-bubble interaction. Apparent gravity worked during particle sliding on bubble surface experience increase and reached its maximum magnitude at bubble equator. After particle passed bubble equator, apparent gravity force experience decrease. In conclusion particle size from 38-300 µm can form stable aggregate if particle attached with bubble in certain condition.

  4. Herds of methane chambers grazing bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Water to air methane emissions from freshwater reservoirs can be dominated by sediment bubbling (ebullitive) events. Previous work to quantify methane bubbling from a number of Australian sub-tropical reservoirs has shown that this can contribute as much as 95% of total emissions. These bubbling events are controlled by a variety of different factors including water depth, surface and internal waves, wind seiching, atmospheric pressure changes and water levels changes. Key to quantifying the magnitude of this emission pathway is estimating both the bubbling rate as well as the areal extent of bubbling. Both bubbling rate and areal extent are seldom constant and require persistent monitoring over extended time periods before true estimates can be generated. In this paper we present a novel system for persistent monitoring of both bubbling rate and areal extent using multiple robotic surface chambers and adaptive sampling (grazing) algorithms to automate the quantification process. Individual chambers are self-propelled and guided and communicate between each other without the need for supervised control. They can maintain station at a sampling site for a desired incubation period and continuously monitor, record and report fluxes during the incubation. To exploit the methane sensor detection capabilities, the chamber can be automatically lowered to decrease the head-space and increase concentration. The grazing algorithms assign a hierarchical order to chambers within a preselected zone. Chambers then converge on the individual recording the highest 15 minute bubbling rate. Individuals maintain a specified distance apart from each other during each sampling period before all individuals are then required to move to different locations based on a sampling algorithm (systematic or adaptive) exploiting prior measurements. This system has been field tested on a large-scale subtropical reservoir, Little Nerang Dam, and over monthly timescales. Using this technique

  5. Creeping motion of long bubbles and drops in capillary tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westborg, Henrik; Hassager, Ole

    1989-01-01

    The flow of inviscid bubbles and viscous drops in capillary tubes has been simulated by a Galerkin finite element method with surface tension included at the bubble/liquid interface. The results show good agreement with published experimental results. At low capillary numbers the front and the rear...... of the bubble are nearly spherical. As the capillary number increases the thickness of the wetting film between the tube wall and the bubble increases, and the bubble assumes a more slender shape with a characteristic bump at the rear. Recirculations are found in front and behind the bubble, which disappear...

  6. Interferometric measurement of film thickness during bubble blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Mandracchia, B.; Ferraro, V.; Tammaro, D.; Di Maio, E.; Maffettone, P. L.; Ferraro, P.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose digital holography in transmission configuration as an effective method to measure the time-dependent thickness of polymeric films during bubble blowing. We designed a complete set of experiments to measure bubble thickness, including the evaluation of the refractive index of the polymer solution. We report the measurement of thickness distribution along the film during the bubble formation process until the bubble`s rupture. Based on those data, the variation range and variation trend of bubble film thickness are clearly measured during the process of expansion to fracture is indicated.

  7. Bubble coalescence in a Newtonian fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vishrut; Basaran, Osman

    2017-11-01

    Bubble coalescence plays a central role in the hydrodynamics of gas-liquid systems such as bubble column reactors, spargers, and foams. Two bubbles approaching each other at velocity V coalesce when the thin film between them ruptures, which is often the rate-limiting step. Experimental studies of this system are difficult, and recent works provide conflicting results on the effect of V on coalescence times. We simulate the head-on approach of two bubbles of equal radii R in an incompressible Newtonian fluid (density ρ, viscosity μ, and surface tension σ) by solving numerically the free boundary problem comprised of the Navier Stokes and continuity equations. Simulations are made challenging by the existence of highly disparate lengthscales, i.e. film thickness and drop radii, which are resolved by using the method of elliptic mesh generation. For a given liquid, the bubbles are shown to coalesce for all velocities below a critical value. The effects of Ohnesorge number Oh = μ /√{ ρσR } on coalescence time and critical velocity are also investigated.

  8. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-11

    This report describes the continuation of the work reported in “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development” and “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development II”. The experiment was performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 2014. A rastered 35 MeV electron beam deposited power in a solution of uranyl sulfate, generating heat and radiolytic gas bubbles. Irradiations were performed at beam power levels between 6 and 15 kW. Solution temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and gas bubble behavior was recorded. The previous report2 described the Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis performed on the as-built solution vessel geometry. The CFD simulations in the current analysis were performed using Ansys Fluent, Ver. 17.2. The same power profiles determined from MCNP calculations in earlier work were used for the 12 and 15 kW simulations. The primary goal of the current work is to calculate the temperature profiles for the 12 and 15 kW cases using reasonable estimates for the gas generation rate, based on images of the bubbles recorded during the irradiations. Temperature profiles resulting from the CFD calculations are compared to experimental measurements.

  9. Drop impact entrapment of bubble rings

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, M.-J.

    2013-04-29

    We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to look at the initial contact of a drop impacting on a liquid layer. We observe experimentally the vortex street and the bubble-ring entrapments predicted numerically, for high impact velocities, by Thoraval et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 108, 2012, article 264506). These dynamics mainly occur within 50 -s after the first contact, requiring imaging at 1 million f.p.s. For a water drop impacting on a thin layer of water, the entrapment of isolated bubbles starts through azimuthal instability, which forms at low impact velocities, in the neck connecting the drop and pool. For Reynolds number Re above -12 000, up to 10 partial bubble rings have been observed at the base of the ejecta, starting when the contact is -20% of the drop size. More regular bubble rings are observed for a pool of ethanol or methanol. The video imaging shows rotation around some of these air cylinders, which can temporarily delay their breakup into micro-bubbles. The different refractive index in the pool liquid reveals the destabilization of the vortices and the formation of streamwise vortices and intricate vortex tangles. Fine-scale axisymmetry is thereby destroyed. We show also that the shape of the drop has a strong influence on these dynamics. 2013 Cambridge University Press.

  10. Turbulent shear control with oscillatory bubble injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Jin; Oishi, Yoshihiko; Tasaka, Yuji; Murai, Yuichi; Takeda, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    It is known that injecting bubbles into shear flow can reduce the frictional drag. This method has advantages in comparison to others in simplicity of installation and also in environment. The amount of drag reduction by bubbles depends on the void fraction provided in the boundary layer. It means, however, that certain power must be consumed to generate bubbles in water, worsening the total power-saving performance. We propose oscillatory bubble injection technique to improve the performance in this study. In order to prove this idea of new type of drag reduction, velocity vector field and shear stress profile in a horizontal channel flow are measured by ultrasonic velocity profiler (UVP) and shear stress transducer, respectively. We measure the gas-liquid interface from the UVP signal, as well. This compound measurement with different principles leads to deeper understanding of bubble-originated drag reduction phenomena, in particular for unsteady process of boundary layer alternation. At these experiments, the results have demonstrated that the intermittency promotes the drag reduction more than normal continuous injection for the same void fraction supplied.

  11. Modelling of boiling bubbly flows using a polydisperse approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaepffel, D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to improve the modelling of boiling bubbly flows.We focused on the modelling of the polydisperse aspect of a bubble population, i.e. the fact that bubbles have different sizes and different velocities. The multi-size aspect of a bubble population can originate from various mechanisms. For the bubbly flows we are interested in, bubble coalescence, bubble break-up, phase change kinematics and/or gas compressibility inside the bubbles can be mentioned. Since, bubble velocity depends on bubble size, the bubble size spectrum also leads to a bubble velocity spectrum. An averaged model especially dedicated to dispersed flows is introduced in this thesis. Closure of averaged interphase transfer terms are written in a polydisperse framework, i.e. using a distribution function of the bubble sizes and velocities. A quadratic law and a cubic law are here proposed for the modelling of the size distribution function, whose evolution in space and time is then obtained with the use of the moment method. Our averaged model has been implemented in the NEPTUNE-CFD computation code in order to simulate the DEBORA experiment. The ability of our model to deal with sub-cooled boiling flows has therefore been evaluated. (author) [fr

  12. The bubble method of water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, B. M.; Babaeva, N. Yu.; Naidis, G. V.; Panov, V. A.; Saveliev, A. S.; Son, E. E.; Tereshonok, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    The processes of water purification from admixture molecules are analyzed. The purification rate is limited due to a low diffusion coefficient of the admixture molecules in water. At non-small concentrations of the admixture molecules, the water purication can proceed through association of molecules in condensed nanoparticles which fall on the bottom of the water volume. The rate of association may be increased in an external electric field, but in reality this cannot change significantly the rate of the purification process. The bubble method of water purification is considered, where air bubbles formed at the bottom of the water volume, transfer admixture molecules to the interface. This method allows one to clean small water volumes fast. This mechanism of water purification is realized experimentally and exhibits the promises of the bubble purification method.

  13. Bubbles, sparks, and the postwar laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galison, P.

    1989-01-01

    The development and use of bubble chambers and spark chambers in the 1950s form the main thrust of this article, the bubble chamber as an example of ''image-producing'' instruments and the spark chamber as a ''logic'' device. Work on a cloud chamber by Glaser led to the development of the bubble chamber detector using liquid hydrogen, which was later linked to a computer for accurate automatic track analysis. It made possible demonstrations of the existence of a particle or interaction. Spark chambers were easier to build and so soon became common, various types being developed across the world. The development of spark chambers originated in the need for timing devices for the Manhattan Project, but work on their design occurred in a number of units worldwide. (UK)

  14. Bubble and Drop Nonlinear Dynamics experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Bubble and Drop Nonlinear Dynamics (BDND) experiment was designed to improve understanding of how the shape and behavior of bubbles respond to ultrasound pressure. By understanding this behavior, it may be possible to counteract complications bubbles cause during materials processing on the ground. This 12-second sequence came from video downlinked from STS-94, July 5 1997, MET:3/19:15 (approximate). The BDND guest investigator was Gary Leal of the University of California, Santa Barbara. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced fluid dynamics experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (189KB JPEG, 1293 x 1460 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300163.html.

  15. ON THE ANALYSIS OF BUBBLE CHAMBER TRACKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradner, H.; Solmitz, F.

    1958-01-01

    Since its invention by Glaser in 1953, the bubble chamber has become a most valuable tool in high-energy physics. It combines a number of advantages of various older methods of particle detection: it offers high spatial resolution, rapid accumulation of data, some time resolution, and some choice of the nucleus whose interaction one wants to study (bubble chambers have been made to operate with a large number of different liquids, including H 2 , D 2 , He, Xe, and several hydrocarbons). In order to exploit the advantages of spatial resolution and rapid data accumulation, high-speed high-precision analysis procedures must be developed. In this article they discuss some of the problems posed by such analysis. The discussion is based largely on experience gained in performing hydrogen bubble chamber experiments with the University of California's Bevatron (6-Bev proton synchrotron)

  16. Bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, John

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we provide a unifying framework for a set of seemingly disparate models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies in financial markets. Markets operate by balancing intrinsic levels of risk and return. This seemingly simple observation is commonly over-looked by academics and practitioners alike. Our model shares its origins in statistical physics with others. However, under our approach, changes in market regime can be explicitly shown to represent a phase transition from random to deterministic behaviour in prices. This structure leads to an improved physical and econometric model. We develop models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies. The list of empirical applications is both interesting and topical and includes real-estate bubbles and the on-going Eurozone crisis. We close by comparing the results of our model with purely qualitative findings from the finance literature.

  17. Experimental investigation of bubble plume structure instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco Simiano; Robert Zboray; Francois de Cachard [Thermal-Hydraulics Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Djamel Lakehal; George Yadigaroglu [Institute of Energy Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zentrum/CLT, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The hydrodynamic properties of a 3D bubble plume in a large water pool are investigated experimentally. Bubble plumes are present in various industrial processes, including chemical plants, stirred reactors, and nuclear power plants, e.g. in BWR suppression pools. In these applications, the main issue is to predict the currents induced by the bubbles in the liquid phase, and to determine the consequent mixing. Bubble plumes, especially large and unconfined ones, present strong 3D effects and a superposition of different characteristic length scales. Thus, they represent relevant test cases for assessment and verification of 3D models in thermal-hydraulic codes. Bubble plumes are often unsteady, with fluctuations in size and shape of the bubble swarm, and global movements of the plume. In this case, local time-averaged data are not sufficient to characterize the flow. Additional information regarding changes in plume shape and position is required. The effect of scale on the 3D flow structure and stability being complex, there was a need to conduct studies in a fairly large facility, closer to industrial applications. Air bubble plumes, up to 30 cm in base diameter and 2 m in height were extensively studied in a 2 m diameter water pool. Homogeneously sized bubbles were obtained using a particular injector. The main hydrodynamic parameters. i.e., gas and liquid velocities, void fraction, bubble shape and size, plume shape and position, were determined experimentally. Photographic and image processing techniques were used to characterize the bubble shape, and double-tip optical probes to measure bubble size and void fraction. Electromagnetic probes measured the recirculation velocity in the pool. Simultaneous two-phase flow particle image velocimetry (STPFPIV) in a vertical plane containing the vessel axis provided instantaneous velocity fields for both phases and therefore the relative velocity field. Video recording using two CCD

  18. Rational speculative bubbles: A critical view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonjić Ognjen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of rational bubbles, the bubble is present whenever asset prices progressively diverge from their fundamental value, which occurs because agents expect that asset prices will continue to grow exponentially (self-fulfilling prophecies far in the future and consistently, which promises the realization of ever larger capital gains. In our opinion, the basic shortcoming of this theory refers to the assumption that all market agents are perfectly informed and rational and, accordingly, form homogeneous expectations. The model does not explain decision-making processes or expectation formation, nor does it detect potential psychological and institutional factors that might significantly influence decision making processes and market participants’ reactions to news. Since assumptions of the model critically determine its validity, we conclude that comprehensiveness of the rational bubble model is, to put it mildly, limited.

  19. Toward a Metatheory of Economic Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Turcan, Romeo V.

    Dholakia and Turcan present their interdisciplinary metatheory of bubbles with short case studies of minor and major bubbles. They comprehensively identify and exemplify constructs of the theory, set its temporal and contextual boundaries, and examine the underlying economic, psychological......, and social dynamics assumptions, explaining how these elements are related. By doing so, they provide a partial window into the precarious nature of contemporary finance-driven capitalism and suggest some possible ways of overcoming the wrenching ups and downs of the prevalent system. The case studies...... and original research in Toward a Metatheory of Economic Bubbles have far-reaching implications for the study and practice of entrepreneurship and marketing, public and corporate finance, and public policies towards innovation, economy, and finance. It contributes to the defining issues for economic sociology...

  20. A large bubble around the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.; Reach, William T.; Koo, Bon Chul; Heiles, Carl

    1990-01-01

    IRAS and 21 cm observations of the interstellar medium around the Crab nebula show evidence of a large bubble surrounded by a partial shell. If located at the canonical 2 kpc distance of the Crab pulsar, the shell is estimated to have a radius of about 90 pc and to contain about 50,000 solar masses of swept-up gas. The way in which interior conditions of this bubble can have important implications for observations of the Crab are described, and the fashion in which presupernova evolution of the pulsar progenitor has affected its local environment is described.

  1. On the maximum drawdown during speculative bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundo, Giulia; Navarra, Mauro

    2007-08-01

    A taxonomy of large financial crashes proposed in the literature locates the burst of speculative bubbles due to endogenous causes in the framework of extreme stock market crashes, defined as falls of market prices that are outlier with respect to the bulk of drawdown price movement distribution. This paper goes on deeper in the analysis providing a further characterization of the rising part of such selected bubbles through the examination of drawdown and maximum drawdown movement of indices prices. The analysis of drawdown duration is also performed and it is the core of the risk measure estimated here.

  2. Bubble chamber: Omega production and decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This image is of real particle tracks taken from the CERN 2 m liquid hydrogen bubble chamber and shows the production and decay of a negative omega particle. A negative kaon enters the chamber which decays into many particles, including a negative omega that travels a short distance before decaying into more particles. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  3. Bubbling in delay-coupled lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flunkert, V; D'Huys, O; Danckaert, J; Fischer, I; Schöll, E

    2009-06-01

    We theoretically study chaos synchronization of two lasers which are delay coupled via an active or a passive relay. While the lasers are synchronized, their dynamics is identical to a single laser with delayed feedback for a passive relay and identical to two delay-coupled lasers for an active relay. Depending on the coupling parameters the system exhibits bubbling, i.e., noise-induced desynchronization, or on-off intermittency. We associate the desynchronization dynamics in the coherence collapse and low-frequency fluctuation regimes with the transverse instability of some of the compound cavity's antimodes. Finally, we demonstrate how, by using an active relay, bubbling can be suppressed.

  4. Resolving single bubble sonoluminescence flask width

    OpenAIRE

    Arakeri, Vijay H

    1998-01-01

    Single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL), first studied and observed by Gaitan et al., is the of light emission from a single gas bubble trapped at the pressure maximum of a resonant sound field in a liquid medium, generally water. One of the most striking aspects of SBSL was the estimated optical flash width being less than 50 picoseconds (ps)3; this upper estimate was based on the relative response of a SBSL flash in comparison to a 34 ps laser pulse using a microchannel platephotomultiplier ...

  5. Partial coalescence from bubbles to drops

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, F. H.

    2015-10-07

    The coalescence of drops is a fundamental process in the coarsening of emulsions. However, counter-intuitively, this coalescence process can produce a satellite, approximately half the size of the original drop, which is detrimental to the overall coarsening. This also occurs during the coalescence of bubbles, while the resulting satellite is much smaller, approximately 10 %. To understand this difference, we have conducted a set of coalescence experiments using xenon bubbles inside a pressure chamber, where we can continuously raise the pressure from 1 up to 85 atm and thereby vary the density ratio between the inner and outer fluid, from 0.005 up to unity. Using high-speed video imaging, we observe a continuous increase in satellite size as the inner density is varied from the bubble to emulsion-droplet conditions, with the most rapid changes occurring as the bubble density grows up to 15 % of that of the surrounding liquid. We propose a model that successfully relates the satellite size to the capillary wave mode responsible for its pinch-off and the overall deformations from the drainage. The wavelength of the primary wave changes during its travel to the apex, with the instantaneous speed adjusting to the local wavelength. By estimating the travel time of this wave mode on the bubble surface, we also show that the model is consistent with the experiments. This wavenumber is determined by both the global drainage as well as the interface shapes during the rapid coalescence in the neck connecting the two drops or bubbles. The rate of drainage is shown to scale with the density of the inner fluid. Empirically, we find that the pinch-off occurs when 60 % of the bubble fluid has drained from it. Numerical simulations using the volume-of-fluid method with dynamic adaptive grid refinement can reproduce these dynamics, as well as show the associated vortical structure and stirring of the coalescing fluid masses. Enhanced stirring is observed for cases with second

  6. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with deformed bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the direct numerical simulation of a fully-developed turbulent channel flow with deformed bubbles were conducted by means of the refined MARS method, turbulent Reynolds number 150, and Bubble Reynolds number 120. As the results, large-scale wake motions were observed round the bubbles. At the bubble located region, mean velocity was degreased and turbulent intensities and Reynolds shear stress were increased by the effects of the large-scale wake motions round bubbles. On the other hands, near wall region, bubbles might effect on the flow laminarlize and drag reduction. Two types of drag coefficient of bubble were estimated from the accelerated velocity of bubble and correlation equation as a function of Particle Reynolds number. Empirical correlation equation might be overestimated the drag effects in this Particle Reynolds number range. (author)

  7. A note on effects of rational bubble on portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chan; Nie, Pu-yan

    2018-02-01

    In general, demand increases in wealth and decreases in price in microeconomics. We thereby propose a completely different perspective. By establishing expected utility function of investors, this article introduces one rational bubble asset and one bubble free asset in portfolios and focuses on the effects of bubble on investment portfolios from wealth and price perspectives. All conclusions are obtained by theoretical analysis with microeconomics theory. We argue that inferior goods and Giffen behavior can occur for the bubble free asset in microeconomic fields. The results can help investors to recognize bubble assets and bubble free assets more scientifically. Both bubble and bubble free assets can be inferior goods under some conditions, so we cannot to say which asset better than the other one absolutely.

  8. Motion of air bubbles in stagnant water condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdegumeli, U.; Ozdemir, S.; Yesin, O.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In this study, air bubble motion in stagnant water condition in a vertical pipe is investigated experimentally. For this purpose, a test set-up was designed and constructed. Motions of single bubbles, having different diameters in the range of 3.0-4.8 mm, were recorded by using a monochrome camera, an image capture card and a PC. Recorded video images were processed to analyse bubble motion and to obtain the necessary data. The purpose of the study is to determine the variation of bubble axial velocity and bubble drag coefficient as a function of equivalent bubble diameter and bubble Reynolds number, Re b . Therefore, detailed information for this range of bubble diameters was obtained. The results have shown good consistency with the previous studies found in the literature

  9. Motion of air bubbles in stagnant water condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdegumeli, U.; Ozdemir, S.; Yesin, O.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, air bubble motion in stagnant water condition in a vertical pipe of 4.6 cm diameter is investigated experimentally. For this purpose, a test set-up was designed and constructed. Motions of single bubbles, having different diameters in the range of 3.0-4.8 mm, were recorded by using a monochrome camera, an image capture card and a PC. Recorded video images were processed to analyse bubble motion and to obtain the necessary data. The purpose of the study is to determine the variation of bubble axial velocity and bubble drag coefficient as a function of equivalent bubble diameter and bubble Reynolds number, Re b . Therefore, detailed information for this range of bubble diameters was obtained. The results have shown good consistency with the previous studies found in the literature. (author)

  10. A three field two fluid CFD model for the bubbly-cap bubble regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Lopez de Bertodano; Xiaodong Sun; Mamoru Ishii; Asim Ulke

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The lateral phase distribution of a two phase duct flow in the cap bubble regime is analyzed with a three dimensional three field two-fluid CFD model based on the turbulent k-ε model for bubbly flows developed by Lopez de Bertodano et. al. [2]. The turbulent diffusion of the bubbles is the dominant phase distribution mechanism. A new analytic result is presented to support the development of the model for the bubble induced turbulent diffusion force. New experimental data obtained with a state-of-the-art four sensor miniature conductivity probe are used to validate the two-fluid model. The focus of this work is modeling the transport of the dispersed phase. Previous work (e.g., Lopez de Bertodano et. al.) was focused on the interfacial forces of drag, lift and virtual mass. However, the dispersion of the bubbles by the turbulent eddies of the continuous phase must be considered too. The rigorous formulation of a model for the turbulent dispersion of the bubbles results in a turbulent diffusion force which is obtained from a probability distribution function average (i.e., Boltzmann averaging) of the dispersed phase momentum equation. This force was recently applied to a turbulent bubbly jet with small bubbles (i.e., 1 mm diameter) without adjusting any coefficient. However, the application of this force to industrial conditions (i.e., larger bubbles) requires specific two-phase flow experimental data to calibrate the model due to the uncertainties of the flow around large bubbles. In particular the void distribution and the interfacial area concentration are measured in a mixture of big and small bubbles. The state-of-the-art miniaturized four-sensor conductivity probe developed by Kim et al. [3] is used to obtain the interfacial area concentration in complex two-phase flow situations. This probe can discriminate between small and large bubbles so it offers an opportunity to perform further developments of the multidimensional two

  11. Implementation of Serial and Parallel Bubble Sort on Fpga

    OpenAIRE

    Purnomo, Dwi Marhaendro Jati; Arinaldi, Ahmad; Priyantini, Dwi Teguh; Wibisono, Ari; Febrian, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Sorting is common process in computational world. Its utilization are on many fields from research to industry. There are many sorting algorithm in nowadays. One of the simplest yet powerful is bubble sort. In this study, bubble sort is implemented on FPGA. The implementation was taken on serial and parallel approach. Serial and parallel bubble sort then compared by means of its memory, execution time, and utility which comprises slices and LUTs. The experiments show that serial bubble sort r...

  12. Double, Double Toil and Trouble: The Melt Inclusion Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, D. J.; Plank, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Melt inclusions provide a powerful means for probing the depth of magmatic processes and volatile budgets of magmas. Both objectives require that the inclusions accurately record the volatile content of the entrapped melt. However, post-entrapment cooling and diffusive loss of water lead to a decrease in internal pressure, resulting in volatile exsolution (importantly CO2) and vapor bubble growth in inclusions. Several methods have been developed recently that attempt to reconstruct the entrapped CO2 contents, but the methods yield inconsistent results. Here we report on new homogenization experiments and attempt to reconcile inconsistencies in CO2 reconstruction methods. Experiments were conducted on olivine-hosted melt inclusions from Seguam volcano using a piston cylinder apparatus at 500 MPa, 1150-1170 °C, hydrous conditions, and a run duration of 1-2 hours. FTIR analyses of the homogenized inclusions show some diffusive water gain (≤1 wt% excess) relative to unheated inclusions (most 4 wt%). Inclusions from this same sample were previously reconstructed using Raman addition (RA; Moore et al., 2015), and we have constituted the CO2 with two different computational approaches: the ideal gas law (IGL; Shaw et al., 2010) and a bubble growth model (BG; Riker, 2005). CO2 and S contents of heated inclusions are correlated, defining a S-CO2 degassing path. Relative to this empirical degassing path, IGL results are offset to higher CO2 (100s-1000s of ppm) or lower S (100s of ppm), while RA and BG results overlap and are offset to lower CO2 (≤100s of ppm) or higher S (≤100s of ppm). Because S contents of heated and unheated inclusions have similar ranges, we attribute the discrepancy to CO2. High values of CO2 from the IGL correction may be because CO2 diffusion cannot keep pace with bubble growth during rapid cooling upon eruption. Mass balance calculations indicate that a minute amount of carbonate, which could escape detection by Raman, would affect CO2

  13. Negative wake behind bubbles in non-newtonian liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole

    1979-01-01

    Gas bubbles rising by gravity in non-Newtonian elastic liquids are different to gas bubbles in viscous Newtonian fluids in at least two ways. First, the bubbles in the non-Newtonian liquids often have a peculiar tip at the rear pole, and second, the terminal rise velocity versus volume curve ofte...

  14. The Milky Way Project: A Census of Small Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Kim; Wolf-Chase, G. A.; Way Project, Milky

    2013-01-01

    The first data release (DR1) from the Milky Way Project (MWP) contains 1362 visually identified small bubbles drawn by users. These small infrared bubbles typically have diameters MSX6C point source catalog; >90% of all small bubbles are MSX point sources.

  15. Adhesion of solid particles to gas bubbles. Part 2: Experimental

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omota, Florin; Dimian, Alexandre C.; Bliek, A.

    2006-01-01

    In slurry bubble columns, the adhesion of solid catalyst particles to bubbles may significantly affect the G–L mass transfer and bubble size distribution. This feature may be exploited in design by modifying the hydrophilic or hydrophobic nature of the particles used. Previously we have proposed a

  16. Optical measurement of bubbles: System design and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Leeuw, G.de; Cohen, L.H.

    2003-01-01

    Affordable high quality charge-coupled device (CCD) video cameras and image processing software are powerful tools for bubble measurements. Because of the wide variation between bubble populations, different bubble measurement systems (BMSs) are required depending upon the application. Two BMSs are

  17. Numerical simulation of single bubble dynamics under acoustic travelling waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojian; Huang, Biao; Li, Yikai; Chang, Qing; Qiu, Sicong; Su, Zheng; Fu, Xiaoying; Wang, Guoyu

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply CLSVOF method to investigate the single bubble dynamics in acoustic travelling waves. The Naiver-Stokes equation considering the acoustic radiation force is proposed and validated to capture the bubble behaviors. And the CLSVOF method, which can capture the continuous geometric properties and satisfies mass conservation, is applied in present work. Firstly, the regime map, depending on the dimensionless acoustic pressure amplitude and acoustic wave number, is constructed to present different bubble behaviors. Then, the time evolution of the bubble oscillation is investigated and analyzed. Finally, the effect of the direction and the damping coefficient of acoustic wave propagation on the bubble behavior are also considered. The numerical results show that the bubble presents distinct oscillation types in acoustic travelling waves, namely, volume oscillation, shape oscillation, and splitting oscillation. For the splitting oscillation, the formation of jet, splitting of bubble, and the rebound of sub-bubbles may lead to substantial increase in pressure fluctuations on the boundary. For the shape oscillation, the nodes and antinodes of the acoustic pressure wave contribute to the formation of the "cross shape" of the bubble. It should be noted that the direction of the bubble translation and bubble jet are always towards the direction of wave propagation. In addition, the damping coefficient causes bubble in shape oscillation to be of asymmetry in shape and inequality in size, and delays the splitting process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bubbles as a means for the deaeration of water bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yuhang; Zhou, Gedi; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Occasional dissolved-air supersaturation - such as may occur, for instance, downstream of dams - is harmful to fish because it causes gas bubble disease. A counterintuitive but effective means of reducing dissolved air content is the injection of bubbles in the supersaturated water. The bubbles

  19. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure: does bubbling improve gas exchange?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, C J; Lau, R; De Paoli, A; Davis, P G

    2005-07-01

    In a randomised crossover trial, 26 babies, treated with Hudson prong continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) from a bubbling bottle, received vigorous, high amplitude, or slow bubbling for 30 minutes. Pulse oximetry, transcutaneous carbon dioxide, and respiratory rate were recorded. The bubbling rates had no effect on carbon dioxide, oxygenation, or respiratory rate.

  20. A mathematical definition of the financial bubbles and crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2007-09-01

    We check the validity of the mathematical method of detecting financial bubbles or crashes, which is based on a data fitting with an exponential function. We show that the period of a bubble can be determined nearly uniquely independent of the precision of data. The method is widely applicable for stock market data such as the Internet bubble.

  1. Air bubble migration is a random event post embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confino, E; Zhang, J; Risquez, F

    2007-06-01

    Air bubble location following embryo transfer (ET) is the presumable placement spot of embryos. The purpose of this study was to document endometrial air bubble position and migration following embryo transfer. Multicenter prospective case study. Eighty-eight embryo transfers were performed under abdominal ultrasound guidance in two countries by two authors. A single or double air bubble was loaded with the embryos using a soft, coaxial, end opened catheters. The embryos were slowly injected 10-20 mm from the fundus. Air bubble position was recorded immediately, 30 minutes later and when the patient stood up. Bubble marker location analysis revealed a random distribution without visible gravity effect when the patients stood up. The bubble markers demonstrated splitting, moving in all directions and dispersion. Air bubbles move and split frequently post ET with the patient in the horizontal position, suggestive of active uterine contractions. Bubble migration analysis supports a rather random movement of the bubbles and possibly the embryos. Standing up changed somewhat bubble configuration and distribution in the uterine cavity. Gravity related bubble motion was uncommon, suggesting that horizontal rest post ET may not be necessary. This report challenges the common belief that a very accurate ultrasound guided embryo placement is mandatory. The very random bubble movement observed in this two-center study suggests that a large "window" of embryo placement maybe present.

  2. The interaction between multiple bubbles and the free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aman; Yao Xiongliang

    2008-01-01

    The flow is assumed to be potential, and a boundary integral method is used to solve the Laplace equation for the velocity potential to investigate the shape and the position of the bubble. A 3D code to study the bubble dynamics is developed, and the calculation results agree well with the experimental data. Numerical analyses are carried out for the interaction between multiple bubbles near the free surface including in-phase and out-of-phase bubbles. The calculation result shows that the bubble period increases with the decrease of the distance between bubble centres because of the depression effect between multiple bubbles. The depression has no relationship with the free surface and it is more apparent for out-of-phase bubbles. There are great differences in dynamic behaviour between the in-phase bubbles and the out-of-phase bubbles due to the depression effect. Furthermore, the interaction among eight bubbles is simulated with a three-dimensional model, and the evolving process and the relevant physical phenomena are presented. These phenomena can give a reference to the future work on the power of bubbles induced by multiple charges exploding simultaneously or continuously

  3. The impact of dissolved fluorine on bubble nucleation in hydrous rhyolite melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James E.; Hajimirza, Sahand; Webster, James D.; Gonnermann, Helge M.

    2018-04-01

    Surface tension of hydrous rhyolitic melt is high enough that large degrees of supersaturation are needed to homogeneously nucleate H2O bubbles during eruptive magma ascent. This study examines whether dissolved fluorine lowers surface tension of hydrous rhyolite, and thus lowers the supersaturation required for bubble nucleation. Fluorine was targeted because it, like H2O, changes melt properties and is highly soluble, unlike all other common magmatic volatiles. Rhyolite melts were saturated at Ps = 245 MPa with H2O fluid that contained F, generating rhyolite with 6.7 ± 0.4 wt.% H2O and 1.1-1.3 wt.% F. When these melts were decompressed rapidly to Pf = 149-202 MPa and quenched after 60 s, bubbles nucleated at supersaturations of ΔP = Ps - Pf ≥52 MPa, and reached bubble number densities of NB = 1012-13 m-3 at ΔP = 78-101 MPa. In comparison, rhyolite saturated with 6.34 ± 0.09 wt.% H2O, but only 0.25 wt.% F, did not nucleate bubbles until ΔP ≥ 100-116 MPa, and even then, at significantly lower NB (<1010 m-3). Numerical modeling of bubble nucleation and growth was used to estimate the values of surface tension required to generate the observed values of NB. Slight differences in melt compositions (i.e., alkalinity and H2O content), H2O diffusivity, or melt viscosity cannot explain the observed differences in NB. Instead, surface tension of F-rich rhyolite must be lower by approximately 4% than that of F-poor rhyolite. This difference in surface tension is significant and, for example, exceeds that found between hydrous basaltic andesite and hydrous rhyolite. These results suggest that is likely that surface tension for F-rich magmas, such as topaz rhyolite, is significantly lower than for F-poor magmas.

  4. Vertical Rise Velocity of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles Estimated from Equatorial Atmosphere Radar Observations and High-Resolution Bubble Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, T.; Ajith, K. K.; Yamamoto, M.; Niranjan, K.

    2017-12-01

    Equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) is a well-known phenomenon in the equatorial ionospheric F region. As it causes severe scintillation in the amplitude and phase of radio signals, it is important to understand and forecast the occurrence of EPBs from a space weather point of view. The development of EPBs is presently believed as an evolution of the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have already developed a 3D high-resolution bubble (HIRB) model with a grid spacing of as small as 1 km and presented nonlinear growth of EPBs which shows very turbulent internal structures such as bifurcation and pinching. As EPBs have field-aligned structures, the latitude range that is affected by EPBs depends on the apex altitude of EPBs over the dip equator. However, it was not easy to observe the apex altitude and vertical rise velocity of EPBs. Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) in Indonesia is capable of steering radar beams quickly so that the growth phase of EPBs can be captured clearly. The vertical rise velocities of the EPBs observed around the midnight hours are significantly smaller compared to those observed in postsunset hours. Further, the vertical growth of the EPBs around midnight hours ceases at relatively lower altitudes, whereas the majority of EPBs at postsunset hours found to have grown beyond the maximum detectable altitude of the EAR. The HIRB model with varying background conditions are employed to investigate the possible factors that control the vertical rise velocity and maximum attainable altitudes of EPBs. The estimated rise velocities from EAR observations at both postsunset and midnight hours are, in general, consistent with the nonlinear evolution of EPBs from the HIRB model.

  5. Making continuous bubble type polyethylene foam incombustible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Kanako; Hatada, Motoyoshi; Yoshizawa, Iwao; Komai, Kuniaki; Kohara, Choji.

    1989-01-01

    Since continuous bubble type plastic foam has excellent compression characteristics and sound absorption characteristics, it has been widely used as cushion material, sealing material, sound insulating material and so on. However, the most part of plastic foam is taken by air, therefore at the time of fires, it becomes a very dangerous material. At present, the material used mostly as the seat cushions for airliners, railroad coaches, automobiles and others is polyurethane foam, but since it contains C-N couples in its molecules, it is feared to generate cyanic gas according to the condition of combustion. As the plastic foam that does not generate harmful gas at the time of fires, there is continuous bubble type polyethylene which is excellent in its weathering property and chemical resistance. A reactive, phosphorus-containing oligomer has large molecular weight and two or more double couplings in a molecule, therefore, it does not enter the inside of polyethylene, and polymerizes and crosslinks on the surfaces of bubble walls in the foam, accordingly it is expected that the apparent graft polymerization is carried out, and it is very effective for making polyethylene foam incombustible. The method of making graft foam, the properties of graft foam and so on are reported. When the graft polymerization of this oligomer to continuous bubble type polyethylene foam was tried, highly incombustible polyethylene foam was obtained. (K.I.)

  6. Bubbles in piezo-acoustic inkjet printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohse, D.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.; de Jong, J.; Versluis, M.; Wijshoff, H.M.A.; van den Berg, M.; Reinten, H.

    2008-01-01

    Ink-jet printing is considered as the hitherto most successful application of microfluidics. A notorious problem in piezo-acoustic ink-jet systems is the formation of air bubbles during operation. They seriously disturb the acoustics and can cause the droplet formation to stop. We could show by a

  7. Non-Abelian bubbles in microstate geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez, Pedro F. [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera, 13-15, C.University Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,Orme des Merisiers bâtiment 774, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-24

    We find the first smooth bubbling microstate geometries with non-Abelian fields. The solutions constitute an extension of the BPS three-charge smooth microstates. These consist in general families of regular supersymmetric solutions with non-trivial topology, i.e. bubbles, of N=1, d=5 Super-Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, having the asymptotic charges of a black hole or black ring but with no horizon. The non-Abelian fields make their presence at the very heart of the microstate structure: the physical size of the bubbles is affected by the non-Abelian topological charge they carry, which combines with the Abelian flux threading the bubbles to hold them up. Interestingly the non-Abelian fields carry a set of adjustable continuous parameters that do not alter the asymptotics of the solutions but modify the local geometry. This feature can be used to obtain a classically infinite number of microstate solutions with the asymptotics of a single black hole or black ring.

  8. Customized bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-02-09

    Feb 9, 2013 ... our institution, we modified the existing Bubble CPAP devise using readily available but far less expensive materials. The resultant product is cheap, easily assem- .... Hurd SS, Bryan MH, Cotton RB,. Epstein MF et al. is chronic lung disease in low birth weight infants preventable? Pediatrics 1987; 9. (1):26- ...

  9. Bubble and Drop Nonlinear Dynamics (BDND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.; Leal, L. Gary; Thomas, D. A.; Crouch, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    Free drops and bubbles are weakly nonlinear mechanical systems that are relatively simple to characterize experimentally in 1-G as well as in microgravity. The understanding of the details of their motion contributes to the fundamental study of nonlinear phenomena and to the measurement of the thermophysical properties of freely levitated melts. The goal of this Glovebox-based experimental investigation is the low-gravity assessment of the capabilities of a modular apparatus based on ultrasonic resonators and on the pseudo- extinction optical method. The required experimental task is the accurate measurements of the large-amplitude dynamics of free drops and bubbles in the absence of large biasing influences such as gravity and levitation fields. A single-axis levitator used for the positioning of drops in air, and an ultrasonic water-filled resonator for the trapping of air bubbles have been evaluated in low-gravity and in 1-G. The basic feasibility of drop positioning and shape oscillations measurements has been verified by using a laptop-interfaced automated data acquisition and the optical extinction technique. The major purpose of the investigation was to identify the salient technical issues associated with the development of a full-scale Microgravity experiment on single drop and bubble dynamics.

  10. THE AGE OF THE LOCAL INTERSTELLAR BUBBLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2011-01-01

    The Local Interstellar Bubble is an irregular region from 50 to 150 pc from the Sun in which the interstellar gas density is 10 -2 -10 -3 of that outside the bubble and the interstellar temperature is 10 6 K. Evidently most of the gas was swept out by one or more supernovae. I explored the stellar contents and ages of the region from visual double stars, spectroscopic doubles, single stars, open clusters, emission regions, X-ray stars, planetary nebulae, and pulsars. The bubble has three sub-regions. The region toward the galactic center has stars as early as O9.5 V and with ages of 2-4 M yr. It also has a pulsar (PSRJ1856-3754) with a spin-down age of 3.76 Myr. That pulsar is likely to be the remnant of the supernova that drove away most of the gas. The central lobe has stars as early as B7 V and therefore an age of about 160 Myr or less. The Pleiades lobe has stars as early as B3 and therefore an age of about 50 Myr. There are no obvious pulsars that resulted from the supernovae that cleared out those areas. As found previously by Welsh and Lallement, the bubble has five B stars along its perimeter that show high-temperature ions of O VI and C II along their lines of sight, confirming its high interstellar temperature.

  11. The bubble distribution in glass refining channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Lubomír; Cincibusová, P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2005), s. 269-277 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : glass fining * bubble distribution s models * horizontal channel Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.463, year: 2005

  12. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report describes the continuation of the work reported in “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development”. The experiment was performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 2014. A rastered 35 MeV electron beam deposited power in a solution of uranyl sulfate, generating heat and radiolytic gas bubbles. Irradiations were performed at three beam power levels, 6, 12 and 15 kW. Solution temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and gas bubble behavior was observed. This report will describe the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that was developed to calculate the temperatures and gas volume fractions in the solution vessel during the irradiations. The previous report described an initial analysis performed on a geometry that had not been updated to reflect the as-built solution vessel. Here, the as-built geometry is used. Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations were performed on the updated geometry, and these results were used to define the power deposition profile for the CFD analyses, which were performed using Fluent, Ver. 16.2. CFD analyses were performed for the 12 and 15 kW irradiations, and further improvements to the model were incorporated, including the consideration of power deposition in nearby vessel components, gas mixture composition, and bubble size distribution. The temperature results of the CFD calculations are compared to experimental measurements.

  13. Organization of bubble chamber image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritsaenko, I.A.; Petrovykh, L.P.; Petrovykh, Yu.L.; Fenyuk, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    A programme of bubble chamber image processing is described. The programme is written in FORTRAN, it is developed for the DEC-10 computer and is designed for operation of semi-automation processing-measurement projects PUOS-2 and PUOS-4. Fornalization of the image processing permits to use it for different physical experiments

  14. Ultrasound induced by CW laser cavitation bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korneev, N; Montero, P Rodriguez; Ramos-Garcia, R; Ramirez-San-Juan, J C; Padilla-Martinez, J P

    2011-01-01

    The generation of ultrasound by a collapsing single cavitation bubble in a strongly absorbing liquid illuminated with a moderate power CW laser is described. The ultrasound shock wave is detected with hydrophone and interferometric device. To obtain a stronger pulse it is necessary to adjust a liquid absorption and a beam diameter. Their influence can be qualitatively understood with a simple model.

  15. Heat transport in bubbling turbulent convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkaraju, Rajaram; Stevens, Richard J A M; Oresta, Paolo; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2013-06-04

    Boiling is an extremely effective way to promote heat transfer from a hot surface to a liquid due to numerous mechanisms, many of which are not understood in quantitative detail. An important component of the overall process is that the buoyancy of the bubble compounds with that of the liquid to give rise to a much-enhanced natural convection. In this article, we focus specifically on this enhancement and present a numerical study of the resulting two-phase Rayleigh-Bénard convection process in a cylindrical cell with a diameter equal to its height. We make no attempt to model other aspects of the boiling process such as bubble nucleation and detachment. The cell base and top are held at temperatures above and below the boiling point of the liquid, respectively. By keeping this difference constant, we study the effect of the liquid superheat in a Rayleigh number range that, in the absence of boiling, would be between 2 × 10(6) and 5 × 10(9). We find a considerable enhancement of the heat transfer and study its dependence on the number of bubbles, the degree of superheat of the hot cell bottom, and the Rayleigh number. The increased buoyancy provided by the bubbles leads to more energetic hot plumes detaching from the cell bottom, and the strength of the circulation in the cell is significantly increased. Our results are in general agreement with recent experiments on boiling Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

  16. Is there a Housing Bubble in Turkey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Yener

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There was a notable housing price inflation in aggregate/local levels in Turkey during the last few years. Although the country’s economic fundamentals remain strong, the probability of a housing bubble is a heated debate among market participants. This timely investigation brings greater clarity to whether the Turkish housing market is in a bubble. The study uses a multi-strand approach to dissect the bubble over the period of Jan. 2010 - Dec. 2014. First, monthly/annual price-to-income and monthly price-to-rent ratios are examined for the national Turkish as well as regional Istanbul, Izmir and Ankara housing markets. Second, an extended CASE and SHILLER (2003 model is applied assessing the interdependence between housing prices and a series of explanatory variables. Lastly, the Right Tail Augmented Dickey-Fuller (Rtadf test is performed to support the overall analysis. This study finds that neither affordability ratios nor regression estimates support the existence of the bubble in Turkey.

  17. Condensation of vapor bubble in subcooled pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, K.; Koiwa, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Ueno, I.

    2017-02-01

    We focus on condensation process of vapor bubble exposed to a pooled liquid of subcooled conditions. Two different geometries are employed in the present research; one is the evaporation on the heated surface, that is, subcooled pool boiling, and the other the injection of vapor into the subcooled pool. The test fluid is water, and all series of the experiments are conducted under the atmospheric pressure condition. The degree of subcooling is ranged from 10 to 40 K. Through the boiling experiment, unique phenomenon known as microbubble emission boiling (MEB) is introduced; this phenomenon realizes heat flux about 10 times higher than the critical heat flux. Condensation of the vapor bubble is the key phenomenon to supply ambient cold liquid to the heated surface. In order to understand the condensing process in the MEB, we prepare vapor in the vapor generator instead of the evaporation on the heated surface, and inject the vapor to expose the vapor bubble to the subcooled liquid. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of the vapor bubble detected by the high-speed video camera, and on the enhancement of the heat transfer due to the variation of interface area driven by the condensation.

  18. Radiolytic and thermolytic bubble gas hydrogen composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodham, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-11

    This report describes the development of a mathematical model for the estimation of the hydrogen composition of gas bubbles trapped in radioactive waste. The model described herein uses a material balance approach to accurately incorporate the rates of hydrogen generation by a number of physical phenomena and scale the aforementioned rates in a manner that allows calculation of the final hydrogen composition.

  19. Is Education Facing a "Tech Bubble"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Educational technology companies and entrepreneurs may face the risk of a "tech bubble," similar to the massive boom-and-bust that rocked the technology market in the late 1990s, according to market analysts and a recently released paper. A relatively new focus on K-12 educational technology as an investment vehicle, a surge of investors looking…

  20. Image digitizer system for bubble chamber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggerty, H.

    1986-01-01

    An IBM PC-based image digitizer system has been assembled to monitor the laser flash used for holography at the 15 foot bubble chamber. The hardware and the operating software are outlined. For an operational test of the system, an array of LEDs was flashed with a 10 microsecond pulse and the image was grabbed by one of the operating programs and processed

  1. Bubbles That Change the Speed of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The influence of bubbles on sound has long attracted the attention of physicists. In his 1920 book Sir William Bragg described sound absorption caused by foam in a glass of beer tapped by a spoon. Frank S. Crawford described and analyzed the change in the pitch of sound in a similar experiment and named the phenomenon the "hot chocolate effect."…

  2. BUBBLE - an urban boundary layer meteorology project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotach, M.W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, C.

    2005-01-01

    ground truth, as well as on urban turbulence and profiling (sodar, RASS, tethered balloon) were performed. Also tracer experiments with near-roof-level release and sampling were performed. In parallel to the experimental activities within BUBBLE, a meso-scale numerical atmospheric model, which contains...

  3. On Stability of a Bubble Column

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2013), s. 191-203 ISSN 0263-8762 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1110 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : bubble column * flow regimes * steady solution Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2013

  4. Heat transport in bubbling turbulent convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakkaraju, R.; Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Oresta, P.; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Boiling is an extremely effective way to promote heat transfer from a hot surface to a liquid due to numerous mechanisms, many of which are not understood in quantitative detail. An important component of the overall process is that the buoyancy of the bubble compounds with that of the liquid to

  5. Partial coalescence from bubbles to drops

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, F. H.; Thoraval, Marie-Jean; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Taborek, P.

    2015-01-01

    the travel time of this wave mode on the bubble surface, we also show that the model is consistent with the experiments. This wavenumber is determined by both the global drainage as well as the interface shapes during the rapid coalescence in the neck

  6. Drop impact entrapment of bubble rings

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, M.-J.; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T.G.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to look at the initial contact of a drop impacting on a liquid layer. We observe experimentally the vortex street and the bubble-ring entrapments predicted numerically, for high impact velocities, by Thoraval et

  7. Detailed modeling of hydrodynamics mass transfer and chemical reactions in a bubble column using a discrete bubble model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darmana, D.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A 3D discrete bubble model is adopted to investigate complex behavior involving hydrodynamics, mass transfer and chemical reactions in a gas¿liquid bubble column reactor. In this model a continuum description is adopted for the liquid phase and additionally each individual bubble is tracked in a

  8. Modeling of mass transfer and chemical reactions in a bubble column reactor using a discrete bubble model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darmana, D.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A 3D discrete bubble model is adopted to investigate complex behavior involving hydrodynamics, mass transfer and chemical reactions in a gas-liquid bubble column reactor. In this model a continuum description is adopted for the liquid phase and additionally each individual bubble is tracked in a

  9. Detailed modeling of hydrodynamics mass transfer and chemical reactions in a bubble column using a discrete bubble model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darmana, D.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A 3D discrete bubble model is adopted to investigate complex behavior involving hydrodynamics, mass transfer and chemical reactions in a gas–liquid bubble column reactor. In this model a continuum description is adopted for the liquid phase and additionally each individual bubble is tracked in a

  10. Cap Bubble Drift Velocity in a Confined Test Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodong Sun; Seungjin Kim; Mamoru Ishii; Lincoln, Frank W.; Beus, Stephen G.

    2002-01-01

    In the two-group interfacial area transport equation, bubbles are categorized into two groups, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as group 1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as group 2. The bubble rise velocities for both groups of bubbles may be estimated by the drift flux model by applying different distribution parameters and drift velocities for both groups. However, the drift velocity for group 2 bubbles is not always applicable (when the wall effect becomes important) as in the current test loop of interest where the flow channel is confined by two parallel flat walls, with a dimension of 200-mm in width and 10-mm in gap. The previous experiments indicated that no stable slug flow existed in this test section, which was designed to permit visualization of the flow patterns and bubble characteristics without the distortion associated with curved surfaces. In fact, distorted cap bubbly and churn-turbulent flow was observed. Therefore, it is essential to developed a correlation for cap bubble drift velocity in this confined flow channel. Since the rise velocity of a cap bubble depends on its size, a high-speed movie camera is used to capture images of cap bubbles to obtain the bubble size information. Meanwhile, the rise velocity of cap and elongated bubbles (called cap bubbles hereafter) is investigated by examining the captured images frame by frame. As a result, the conventional correlation of drift velocity for slug bubbles is modified and acceptable agreements between the measurements and correlation estimation are achieved

  11. Bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Siew-Wan; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2015-10-06

    The study of the interaction of bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound is sometimes termed 'acoustic cavitation'. It is of importance in many biomedical applications where sound waves are applied. The use of shock waves and ultrasound in medical treatments is appealing because of their non-invasiveness. In this review, we present a variety of acoustics-bubble interactions, with a focus on shock wave-bubble interaction and bubble cloud phenomena. The dynamics of a single spherically oscillating bubble is rather well understood. However, when there is a nearby surface, the bubble often collapses non-spherically with a high-speed jet. The direction of the jet depends on the 'resistance' of the boundary: the bubble jets towards a rigid boundary, splits up near an elastic boundary, and jets away from a free surface. The presence of a shock wave complicates the bubble dynamics further. We shall discuss both experimental studies using high-speed photography and numerical simulations involving shock wave-bubble interaction. In biomedical applications, instead of a single bubble, often clouds of bubbles appear (consisting of many individual bubbles). The dynamics of such a bubble cloud is even more complex. We shall show some of the phenomena observed in a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field. The nonlinear nature of the sound field and the complex inter-bubble interaction in a cloud present challenges to a comprehensive understanding of the physics of the bubble cloud in HIFU. We conclude the article with some comments on the challenges ahead.

  12. A derivation of the stable cavitation threshold accounting for bubble-bubble interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédra, Matthieu; Cornu, Corentin; Inserra, Claude

    2017-09-01

    The subharmonic emission of sound coming from the nonlinear response of a bubble population is the most used indicator for stable cavitation. When driven at twice their resonance frequency, bubbles can exhibit subharmonic spherical oscillations if the acoustic pressure amplitude exceeds a threshold value. Although various theoretical derivations exist for the subharmonic emission by free or coated bubbles, they all rest on the single bubble model. In this paper, we propose an analytical expression of the subharmonic threshold for interacting bubbles in a homogeneous, monodisperse cloud. This theory predicts a shift of the subharmonic resonance frequency and a decrease of the corresponding pressure threshold due to the interactions. For a given sonication frequency, these results show that an optimal value of the interaction strength (i.e. the number density of bubbles) can be found for which the subharmonic threshold is minimum, which is consistent with recently published experiments conducted on ultrasound contrast agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of droplet entrainment from bubbling surface in a bubble column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez de Santiago, M.

    1991-05-01

    In a bubble column droplets are ejected from the free surface by bubble bursting or splashing. Depending on their size, the droplets are partly carried away by the streaming gas or fall back to the bubbling surface by gravity force. Experiments have been carried out to determine the void fraction in the column by means of an optical probe. In the interfacial zone the bubble bursting process was captured with a high-speed video camera. Simultaneous measurements were made of size and velocity of droplets at several distances from the bubbling surface with a Phase-Doppler Anemometry. The bubble column can be divided into three regions: A lower zone with a flat profile of the local void fraction, a central zone where the flow regime is steady and an upper zone where the local void fraction grows rapidly. A two-parameter log-normal distribution function was proposed in order to describe the polydisperse distribution of droplet-size. Results were obtained concerning the entrainment, concentration, volume fraction and interfacial area of droplets. Finally, it was found that the turbulence intensity affects the droplet terminal velocity for droplets smaller than the Kolmogorov microscale [fr

  14. Champagne experiences various rhythmical bubbling regimes in a flute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Tufaile, Alberto; Jeandet, Philippe; Sartorelli, José-Carlos

    2006-09-20

    Bubble trains are seen rising gracefully from a few points on the glass wall (called nucleation sites) whenever champagne is poured into a glass. As time passes during the gas-discharging process, the careful observation of some given bubble columns reveals that the interbubble distance may change suddenly, thus revealing different rhythmical bubbling regimes. Here, it is reported that the transitions between the different bubbling regimes of some nucleation sites during gas discharging is a process which may be ruled by a strong interaction between tiny gas pockets trapped inside the nucleation site and/or also by an interaction between the tiny bubbles just blown from the nucleation site.

  15. Observation of high-temperature bubbles in an ECR plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaka, K.; Yoshimura, S.; Tanaka, M. Y.

    2018-05-01

    Creation and annihilation of high-temperature bubbles have been observed in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The electron temperature in the bubble core is three times higher than that in the ambient region, and the size perpendicular to the magnetic field is much smaller than the plasma diameter. Formation of a bubble accompanies large negative spikes in the floating potential of a Langmuir probe, and the spatiotemporal behavior of the bubble has been visualized with a high-impedance wire grid detector. It is found that the bubble is in a prolate spheroidal shape with the axis along the magnetic field and occurs randomly in time and independently in space.

  16. Investigation of the condensing vapor bubble behavior through CFD simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sablania, Sidharth; Verma, Akash; Goyal, P.; Dutta, Anu; Singh, R.K.

    2013-09-01

    In nuclear systems the sub-cooled boiling flow is an important problem due to the behavior of condensing vapor bubble which has a large effect on the heat transfer characteristics as well as pressure drops and flow instability. The sub-cooled boiling flows become very complex and dynamic phenomena by the vapor bubble-water interaction. This happens due to the boiling/condensation, break-up, and coalescence of the bubble and needs to be addressed for characterizing the above mentioned flow parameters. There have been many researches to analyze the behavior of bubble experimentally and analytically. However, it is very difficult to get complete information about the behavior of bubble because of ever changing interface between vapor and water phase due to bubble condensation/evaporation Therefore, it is necessary to carry out a CFD simulation for better understanding the complex phenomenon of the bubble behavior. The present work focuses on the simulation of condensing bubble in subcooled boiling flow using (Volume of Fluid) VOF method in the CFD code CFD-ACE+. In order to simulate the heat and mass transfer through the bubble interface, CFD modeling for the bubble condensation was developed by modeling the source terms in the governing equations of VOF model using the User-Defined Function (UDF) in CFD-ACE+ code. The effect of condensation on bubble behavior was analyzed by comparing the behavior of condensing bubble with that of adiabatic bubble. It was observed that the behavior of condensing bubble was different from that of non condensing bubble in respect of bubble shape, diameter, velocity etc. The results obtained from the present simulation in terms of various parameters such as bubble velocity, interfacial area and bubble volume agreed well with the reported experimental results verified with FLUENT code in available literature. Hence, this CFD-ACE+ simulation of single bubble condensation will be a useful computational fluid dynamics tool for analyzing the

  17. The effect of ion irradiation on inert gas bubble mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.E.; Birtcher, R.C.

    1991-09-01

    The effect of Al ion irradiation on the mobility of Xe gas bubbles in Al thin films was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine bubble diffusivities in films irradiated and/or annealed at 673K, 723K and 773K. Irradiation increased bubble diffusivity by a factor of 2--9 over that due to thermal annealing alone. The Arrhenius behavior and dose rate dependence of bubble diffusivity are consistent with a radiation enhanced diffusion phenomenon affecting a volume diffusion mechanism of bubble transport. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Effect of metabolic gases and water vapor, perfluorocarbon emulsions, and nitric oxide on tissue bubbles during decompression sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randsøe, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    In aviation and diving, fast decrease in ambient pressure, such as during accidental loss of cabin pressure or when a diver decompresses too fast to sea level, may cause nitrogen (N2) bubble formation in blood and tissue resulting in decompression sickness (DCS). Conventional treatment of DCS is oxygen (O2) breathing combined with recompression.  However, bubble kinetic models suggest, that metabolic gases, i.e. O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor contribute significantly to DCS bubble volume and growth at hypobaric altitude exposures. Further, perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFC) and nitric oxide (NO) donors have, on an experimental basis, demonstrated therapeutic properties both as treatment and prophylactic intervention against DCS. The effect was ascribed to solubility of respiratory gases in PFC, plausible NO elicited nuclei demise and/or N2 washout through enhanced blood flow rate. Accordingly, by means of monitoring injected bubbles in exposed adipose tissue or measurements of spinal evoked potentials (SEPs) in anaesthetized rats, the aim of this study was to: 1) evaluate the contribution of metabolic gases and water vapor to bubble volume at different barometrical altitude exposures, 2) clarify the O2 contribution and N2 solubility from bubbles during administration of PFC at normo- and hypobaric conditions and, 3) test the effect of different NO donors on SEPs during DCS upon a hyperbaric air dive and, to study the influence of  NO on tissue bubbles at high altitude exposures. The results support the bubble kinetic models and indicate that metabolic gases and water vapor contribute significantly to bubble volume at 25 kPa (~10,376 m above sea level) and constitute a threshold for bubble stabilization or decay at the interval of 47-36 kPa (~6,036 and ~7,920 m above sea level). The effect of the metabolic gases and water vapor seemed to compromise the therapeutic properties of both PFC and NO at altitude, while PFC significantly increased bubble

  19. Modeling Space-Time Dependent Helium Bubble Evolution in Tungsten Armor under IFE Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiyang Hu; Shahram Sharafat; Nasr Ghoniem

    2006-01-01

    The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is a coordinated effort to develop Laser Inertial Fusion Energy. The implosion of the D-T target produces a spectrum of neutrons, X-rays, and charged particles, which arrive at the first wall (FW) at different times within about 2.5 μs at a frequency of 5 to 10 Hz. Helium is one of several high-energy charged particle constituents impinging on the candidate tungsten armored low activation ferritic steel First Wall. The spread of the implanted debris and burn helium energies results in a unique space-time dependent implantation profile that spans about 10 μm in tungsten. Co-implantation of X-rays and other ions results in spatially dependent damage profiles and rapid space-time dependent temperature spikes and gradients. The rate of helium transport and helium bubble formation will vary significantly throughout the implanted region. Furthermore, helium will also be transported via the migration of helium bubbles and non-equilibrium helium-vacancy clusters. The HEROS code was developed at UCLA to model the spatial and time-dependent helium bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence, and migration under transient damage rates and transient temperature gradients. The HEROS code is based on kinetic rate theory, which includes clustering of helium and vacancies, helium mobility, helium-vacancy cluster stability, cavity nucleation and growth and other microstructural features such as interstitial loop evolution, grain boundaries, and precipitates. The HEROS code is based on space-time discretization of reaction-diffusion type equations to account for migration of mobile species between neighboring bins as single atoms, clusters, or bubbles. HAPL chamber FW implantation conditions are used to model helium bubble evolution in the implanted tungsten. Helium recycling rate predictions are compared with experimental results of helium ion implantation experiments. (author)

  20. Measurement of micro Bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, S; Tanaka, K; Tomiyama, A [Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Maeda, Y; Yamaguchi, S; Ito, Y, E-mail: hosokawa@mech.kobe-u.ac.j [Panasonic Electric Works Co., Ltd., 1048 Kadoma, Osaka 571-8686 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    Diameters of micro-bubbles are apt to range from about one mm to several-hundred mm, and therefore, it is difficult to measure a correct diameter distribution using a single measurement method. In this study, diameters of bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method are measured by using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and an image processing method, which is based on the Sobel filter and Hough transform. The diameter distribution and the Sauter mean diameter of micro bubbles are evaluated based on the diameters measured by both methods. Experiments are conducted for several mass flow rates of dissolved gas and of air bubbles entrained in the upstream of the decompression nozzle to examine effects of the entrained bubbles on bubble diameter. As a result, the following conclusions are obtained: (1) Diameter distribution of micro bubbles can be accurately measured for a wide range of diameter by using PDA and the image processing method. (2) The mean diameter of micro-bubbles generated by gasification of dissolved gas is smaller than that generated by breakup of air bubbles entrained in the upstream of the decompression nozzle. (3) The mean bubble diameter increases with the entrainment of air bubbles in the upstream of the decompression nozzle at a constant mass flow rate of dissolved gas.

  1. Measurement of micro Bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, S; Tanaka, K; Tomiyama, A; Maeda, Y; Yamaguchi, S; Ito, Y

    2009-01-01

    Diameters of micro-bubbles are apt to range from about one mm to several-hundred mm, and therefore, it is difficult to measure a correct diameter distribution using a single measurement method. In this study, diameters of bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method are measured by using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and an image processing method, which is based on the Sobel filter and Hough transform. The diameter distribution and the Sauter mean diameter of micro bubbles are evaluated based on the diameters measured by both methods. Experiments are conducted for several mass flow rates of dissolved gas and of air bubbles entrained in the upstream of the decompression nozzle to examine effects of the entrained bubbles on bubble diameter. As a result, the following conclusions are obtained: (1) Diameter distribution of micro bubbles can be accurately measured for a wide range of diameter by using PDA and the image processing method. (2) The mean diameter of micro-bubbles generated by gasification of dissolved gas is smaller than that generated by breakup of air bubbles entrained in the upstream of the decompression nozzle. (3) The mean bubble diameter increases with the entrainment of air bubbles in the upstream of the decompression nozzle at a constant mass flow rate of dissolved gas.

  2. Ignition modes of nanosecond discharge with bubbles in distilled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min Suk

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the microscopic physical characteristics of nanosecond discharges with an array of bubbles in distilled water. In particular, applying a single high-voltage pulse, four delayed intensified charge-coupled device cameras successfully visualized four successive images during a single discharge event. We identified three distinctive modes of ignition inside a bubble, depending on the relative location of the bubble with respect to pin-to-hollow needle electrodes when a single bubble was located in an inter-electrode gap of 1 mm: anode-driven ignition, cathode-driven ignition, and co-ignition near both electrodes. Anode- and cathode-driven ignitions evolved into either a complete propagation of the streamer or an incomplete propagation, which were limited in location by proximity to an ignition location, while co-ignitions consistently showed complete propagation. When we increased the gap to 2 mm to accommodate multiple bubbles in the gap, an ignited bubble near the cathode was able to cause the ignition of an upper adjacent bubble. Bubble–bubble interface zones can also be spots of ignition, such that we observed simultaneous co-ignitions in the zones of bubble–bubble interfaces and near electrodes with triple bubbles. We compared the experimental results of discharge propagation with different ignition modes between Ar, He, and N 2 bubbles. In addition, numerical simulations for static electric fields reasonably supported observed ignition behavior such that field intensity was locally enhanced. (paper)

  3. Inertial collapse of bubble pairs near a solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahyari Beig, Shahaboddin; Johnsen, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Cavitation occurs in a variety of applications ranging from naval structures to biomedical ultrasound. One important consequence is structural damage to neighboring surfaces following repeated inertial collapse of vapor bubbles. Although the mechanical loading produced by the collapse of a single bubble has been widely investigated, less is known about the detailed dynamics of the collapse of multiple bubbles. In such a problem, the bubble-bubble interactions typically affect the dynamics, e.g., by increasing the non-sphericity of the bubbles and amplifying/hindering the collapse intensity depending on the flow parameters. Here, we quantify the effects of bubble-bubble interactions on the bubble dynamics, as well as the pressures/temperatures produced by the collapse of a pair of gas bubbles near a rigid surface. We perform high-resolution simulations of this problem by solving the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for gas/liquid flows. The results are used to investigate the non-spherical bubble dynamics and characterize the pressure and temperature fields based on the relevant parameters entering the problem: stand-off distance, geometrical configuration (angle, relative size, distance), collapse strength. This research was supported in part by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0751 and NSF Grant CBET 1253157.

  4. Post-midnight occurrence of equatorial plasma bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, K. K.; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Tulasiram, S.

    2016-07-01

    The equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs)/equatorial spread F (ESF) irregularities are an important topic of space weather interest because of their impact on transionospheric radio communications, satellite-based navigation and augmentation systems. This local plasma depleted structures develop at the bottom side F layer through Rayleigh-Taylor instability and rapidly grow to topside ionosphere via polarization electric fields within them. The steep vertical gradients due to quick loss of bottom side ionization and rapid uplift of equatorial F layer via prereversal enhancement (PRE) of zonal electric field makes the post-sunset hours as the most preferred local time for the formation of EPBs. However, there is a different class of irregularities that occurs during the post-midnight hours of June solstice reported by the previous studies. The occurrence of these post-midnight EPBs maximize during the low solar activity periods. The growth characteristics and the responsible mechanism for the formation of these post-midnight EPBs are not yet understood. Using the rapid beam steering ability of 47 MHz Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) at Kototabang (0.2°S geographic latitude, 100.3°E geographic longitude, and 10.4°S geomagnetic latitude), Indonesia, the spatial and temporal evolution of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) were examined to classify the evolutionary-type EPBs from those which formed elsewhere and drifted into the field of view of radar. The responsible mechanism for the genesis of summer time post-midnight EPBs were discussed in light of growth rate of Rayleigh-Taylor instability using SAMI2 model.

  5. On the mobility of fission-gas bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, F.A.; Ronchi, C.

    1986-01-01

    The importance of bubble migration in fuel swelling and fission-product release remains a controversial topic in spite of a great deal of research. For steady state analyses some authors ignore bubble motion totally, whereas others use mobilities (based on out-of-pile measurements) which are far below the theoretical diffusion-control predictions. Under transient conditions some continue to use zero or low bubble mobilities, whereas others invoke higher mobilities. Experimental information on mobility of bubbles under irradiation conditions is very limited, but supports the theoretical values for bubble sizes above 1 μm. The authors discuss here some interesting new results which may provide direct evidence for in-pile mobilities comparable with surface-diffusion control predictions for much smaller bubbles (<20nm), where out-of-pile studies indicate greatly reduced mobilities. A brief summary is presented of information available for bubble mobilities, both in- and out-of-pile

  6. Dynamics of micro-bubble sonication inside a phantom vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan; Samtaney, Ravi; Bull, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    A model for sonicated micro-bubble oscillations inside a phantom vessel is proposed. The model is not a variant of conventional Rayleigh-Plesset equation and is obtained from reduced Navier-Stokes equations. The model relates the micro-bubble oscillation dynamics with geometric and acoustic parameters in a consistent manner. It predicts micro-bubble oscillation dynamics as well as micro-bubble fragmentation when compared to the experimental data. For large micro-bubble radius to vessel diameter ratios, predictions are damped, suggesting breakdown of inherent modeling assumptions for these cases. Micro-bubble response with acoustic parameters is consistent with experiments and provides physical insight to the micro-bubble oscillation dynamics.

  7. Gas transport into a cavitation bubble during the explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenziel, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    When considering cavitation bubbles exploding from small stream nuclei the surface tension plays an important role, and mostly negative pressures exist in the surroundings of such a bubble. During the short explosion time, the gas and vapor pressure in the bubble plays no important role in the dynamic process. The high radial velocity of the bubble wall introduces a steep gradient in the concentration of dissolved air near it, which results in some enforced gas transport into the bubble. During the bubble implosion it is necessary to take into account the amount of gas in the bubble, as it certainly plays an important role in exploring the cavitation erosion. In this survey the solution of a mathematical model for the gas diffusion process is compared with some experimental results

  8. Numerical simulation of high Reynolds number bubble motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, J.B. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results of numerical simulations of bubble motion. All the results are for single bubbles in unbounded fluids. The liquid phase is quiescent except for the motion created by the bubble, which is axisymmetric. The main focus of the paper is on bubbles that are of order 1 mm in diameter in water. Of particular interest is the effect of surfactant molecules on bubble motion. Results for the {open_quotes}insoluble surfactant{close_quotes} model will be presented. These results extend research by other investigators to finite Reynolds numbers. The results indicate that, by assuming complete coverage of the bubble surface, one obtains good agreement with experimental observations of bubble motion in tap water. The effect of surfactant concentration on the separation angle is discussed.

  9. Dynamics of micro-bubble sonication inside a phantom vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2013-01-10

    A model for sonicated micro-bubble oscillations inside a phantom vessel is proposed. The model is not a variant of conventional Rayleigh-Plesset equation and is obtained from reduced Navier-Stokes equations. The model relates the micro-bubble oscillation dynamics with geometric and acoustic parameters in a consistent manner. It predicts micro-bubble oscillation dynamics as well as micro-bubble fragmentation when compared to the experimental data. For large micro-bubble radius to vessel diameter ratios, predictions are damped, suggesting breakdown of inherent modeling assumptions for these cases. Micro-bubble response with acoustic parameters is consistent with experiments and provides physical insight to the micro-bubble oscillation dynamics.

  10. Numerical simulation of superheated vapor bubble rising in stagnant liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkhaniani, N.; Ansari, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    In present study, the rising of superheated vapor bubble in saturated liquid is simulated using volume of fluid method in OpenFOAM cfd package. The surface tension between vapor-liquid phases is considered using continuous surface force method. In order to reduce spurious current near interface, Lafaurie smoothing filter is applied to improve curvature calculation. Phase change is considered using Tanasawa mass transfer model. The variation of saturation temperature in vapor bubble with local pressure is considered with simplified Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The couple velocity-pressure equation is solved using PISO algorithm. The numerical model is validated with: (1) isothermal bubble rising and (2) one-dimensional horizontal film condensation. Then, the shape and life time history of single superheated vapor bubble are investigated. The present numerical study shows vapor bubble in saturated liquid undergoes boiling and condensation. It indicates bubble life time is nearly linear proportional with bubble size and superheat temperature.

  11. Interaction of equal-size bubbles in shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jai; Lavrenteva, Olga M; Byk, Leonid; Nir, Avinoam

    2013-04-01

    The inertia-induced forces on two identical spherical bubbles in a simple shear flow at small but finite Reynolds number, for the case when the bubbles are within each other's inner viscous region, are calculated making use of the reciprocal theorem. This interaction force is further employed to model the dynamics of air bubbles injected to a viscous fluid sheared in a Couette device at the first shear flow instability where the bubbles are trapped inside the stable Taylor vortex. It was shown that, during a long time scale, the inertial interaction between the bubbles in the primary shear flow drives them away from each other and, as a result, equal-size bubbles eventually assume an ordered string with equal separation distances between all neighbors. We report on experiments showing the dynamic evolution of various numbers of bubbles. The results of the theory are in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  12. Eternal inflation, bubble collisions, and the persistence of memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga, Jaume; Guth, Alan H.; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    A 'bubble universe' nucleating in an eternally inflating false vacuum will experience, in the course of its expansion, collisions with an infinite number of other bubbles. In an idealized model, we calculate the rate of collisions around an observer inside a given reference bubble. We show that the collision rate violates both the homogeneity and the isotropy of the bubble universe. Each bubble has a center which can be related to 'the beginning of inflation' in the parent false vacuum, and any observer not at the center will see an anisotropic bubble collision rate that peaks in the outward direction. Surprisingly, this memory of the onset of inflation persists no matter how much time elapses before the nucleation of the reference bubble

  13. Comparison of cavitation bubbles evolution in viscous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasikova Darina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been tried many types of liquids with different ranges of viscosity values that have been tested to form a single cavitation bubble. The purpose of these experiments was to observe the behaviour of cavitation bubbles in media with different ranges of absorbance. The most of the method was based on spark to induced superheat limit of liquid. Here we used arrangement of the laser-induced breakdown (LIB method. There were described the set cavitation setting that affects the size bubble in media with different absorbance. We visualized the cavitation bubble with a 60 kHz high speed camera. We used here shadowgraphy setup for the bubble visualization. There were observed time development and bubble extinction in various media, where the size of the bubble in the silicone oil was extremely small, due to the absorbance size of silicon oil.

  14. Measurements of fast neutrons by bubble detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, F.; Martinez, H. [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia, Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico); Leal, B. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Rangel, J. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D. F (Mexico); Reyes, P. G. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Instituto Literario 100, Col. Centro, 50000, Toluca Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-07-03

    Neutron bubble detectors have been studied using Am-Be and D-D neuron sources, which give limited energy information. The Bubble Detector Spectrometer (BDS) have six different energy thresholds ranging from 10 KeV to 10 Mev. The number of bubbles obtained in each measurement is related to the dose (standardized response R) equivalent neutrons through sensitivity (b / {mu}Sv) and also with the neutron flux (neutrons per unit area) through a relationship that provided by the manufacturer. Bubble detectors were used with six different answers (0.11 b/ {mu}Sv, 0093 b/{mu}Sv, 0.14 b/{mu}Sv, 0.17 b/{mu}Sv, 0051 b/{mu}Sv). To test the response of the detectors (BDS) radiate a set of six of them with different energy threshold, with a source of Am-Be, placing them at a distance of one meter from it for a few minutes. Also, exposed to dense plasma focus Fuego Nuevo II (FN-II FPD) of ICN-UNAM, apparatus which produces fusion plasma, generating neutrons by nuclear reactions of neutrons whose energy emitting is 2.45 MeV. In this case the detectors were placed at a distance of 50 cm from the pinch at 90 Degree-Sign this was done for a certain number of shots. In both cases, the standard response is reported (Dose in {mu}Sv) for each of the six detectors representing an energy range, this response is given by the expression R{sub i}= B{sub i} / S{sub i} where B{sub i} is the number of bubbles formed in each and the detector sensitivity (S{sub i}) is given for each detector in (b / {mu}Sv). Also, reported for both cases, the detected neutron flux (n cm{sup -2}), by a given ratio and the response involves both standardized R, as the average cross section sigma. The results obtained have been compared with the spectrum of Am-Be source. From these measurements it can be concluded that with a combination of bubble detectors, with different responses is possible to measure the equivalent dose in a range of 10 to 100 {mu}Sv fields mixed neutron and gamma, and pulsed generated fusion

  15. Numerical simulation of increasing initial perturbations of a bubble in the bubble–shock interaction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, Boris [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutsky lane, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation); Levchenko, Vadim, E-mail: boris.korneev@phystech.edu [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, 4 Miusskaya square, Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A set of numerical experiments on the interaction between a planar shock wave and a spherical bubble with a slightly perturbed surface is considered. Spectral analysis of the instability growth is carried out and three-dimensional Euler equations of fluid dynamics are chosen as the mathematical model for the process. The equations are solved via the Runge–Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method and the special DiamondTorre algorithm for multi-GPU implementation is used. (paper)

  16. Three-dimensional one-way bubble tracking method for the prediction of developing bubble-slug flows in a vertical pipe. 1st report, models and demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Hidesada; Tomiyama, Akio

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional one-way bubble tracking method is one of the most promising numerical methods for the prediction of a developing bubble flow in a vertical pipe, provided that several constitutive models are prepared. In this study, a bubble shape, an equation of bubble motion, a liquid velocity profile, a pressure field, turbulent fluctuation and bubble coalescence are modeled based on available knowledge on bubble dynamics. Bubble shapes are classified into four types in terms of bubble equivalent diameter. A wake velocity model is introduced to simulate approaching process among bubbles due to wake entrainment. Bubble coalescence is treated as a stochastic phenomenon with the aid of coalescence probabilities that depend on the sizes of two interacting bubbles. The proposed method can predict time-spatial evolution of flow pattern in a developing bubble-slug flow. (author)

  17. Non-equilibrium phase stabilization versus bubble nucleation at a nanoscale-curved Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Luo, Tengfei

    Using continuum dynamic van der Waals theory in a radial 1D geometry with a Lennard-Jones fluid model, we investigate the nature of vapor bubble nucleation near a heated, nanoscale-curved convex interface. Vapor bubble nucleation and growth are observed for interfaces with sufficiently large radius of curvature while phase stabilization of a superheated fluid layer occurs at interfaces with smaller radius. The hypothesis that the high Laplace pressure required for stable equilibrium of very small bubbles is responsible for phase stability is tested by effectively varying the parameter which controls liquid-vapor surface tension. In doing so, the liquid-vapor surface tension- hence Laplace pressure-is shown to have limited effect on phase stabilization vs. bubble nucleation. However, the strong dependence of nucleation on leading-order momentum transport, i.e. viscous dissipation, near the heated inner surface is demonstrated. We gratefully acknowledge ND Energy for support through the ND Energy Postdoctoral Fellowship program and the Army Research Office, Grant No. W911NF-16-1-0267, managed by Dr. Chakrapani Venanasi.

  18. Bubble retention in synthetic sludge: Testing of alternative gas retention apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassat, S.D.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1995-07-01

    Several of the underground storage tanks currently used to store waste at Hanford have been placed on the Flammable Gas Watch List, because the waste is either known or suspected to generate, store, and episodically release flammable gases. The objective of this experimental study is to develop a method to measure gas bubble retention in simulated tank waste and in diluted simulant. The method and apparatus should (1) allow for reasonably rapid experiments, (2) minimize sample disturbance, and (3) provide realistic bubble nucleation and growth. The scope of this experimental study is to build an apparatus for measuring gas retention in simulated waste and to design the apparatus to be compatible with future testing on actual waste. The approach employed for creating bubbles in sludge involves dissolving a soluble gas into the supernatant liquid at an elevated pressure, recirculating the liquid containing the dissolved gas through the sludge, then reducing the pressure to allow bubbles to nucleate and grow. Results have been obtained for ammonia as the soluble gas and SY1-SIM-91A, a chemically representative simulated tank waste. In addition, proof-of-principle experiments were conducted with both ammonia and CO 2 as soluble gases and sludge composed of 90-micron glass beads. Results are described

  19. Tests of Bubble Damage Detectors in a Heavy Ion Beam from the SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is designed to investigate the properties of a bubble damage polymer (BDP) using ion beams from the SPS. These polymers are already used commercially for making neutron and gamma-ray dosimeters. \\\\ \\\\ An attractive feature of BDP detectors is the ability to ``design'' a material to have a particular dE/dx threshold which can be used to detect such objects as monopoles and heavy ions as well as relativistic, singly charged tracks originating f particle interactions. \\\\ \\\\ The BDP detector is a polymer which holds droplets of super-heated liquid in suspension. The droplet size is typically a few microns and the droplet density is normally between 10|5 and 10|7 droplets/cm|3. The passage of a particle with a dE/dx exceeding the threshold of the material will cause the droplets with a sufficiently s parameter to change state, giving rise to bubbles. The dE/dx threshold of the BDP varies with pressure and temperature. The growth of bubbles in the bubble trail is limited by the polymer matrix and th...

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of Xe bubble nucleation in nanocrystalline UO2 nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Emily; René Corrales, L.; Desai, Tapan; Devanathan, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We simulated the interactions of defects and fission gas with grain boundaries in nuclear fuel. ► We observed the formation of Xe bubble nuclei that are difficult to observe experimentally. ► The bubble nuclei form by vacancy-assisted diffusion of Xe atoms. ► We also observed the initial stages of grain boundary motion. ► The study offers insights to the design of nuclear fuel to control fission gas release. - Abstract: We have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the dynamical interactions between vacancy defects, fission gas atoms (Xe), and grain boundaries in a model of polycrystalline UO 2 nuclear fuel with average grain diameter of about 20 nm. We followed the mobility and aggregation of Xe atoms in the vacancy-saturated model compound for up to 2 ns. During this time we observed the aggregation of Xe atoms into nuclei, which are possible precursors to Xe bubbles. The nucleation was driven by the migration of Xe atoms via vacancy-assisted diffusion. The Xe clusters aggregate faster than grain boundary diffusion rates and are smaller than experimentally observed bubbles. As the system evolves towards equilibrium, the Xe atom cluster growth slows down significantly, and the lattice relaxes around the cluster. These simulations provide insights into fundamental physical processes that are inaccessible to experiment.