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Sample records for brugia malayi l3

  1. The effect of chitin synthesis inhibitors on the development of Brugia malayi in Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, R; Ranjit, M R; Dash, A P

    1996-09-01

    Two chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) viz., triflumuron and hexaflumuron interfere++ with the development of Brugia malayi in Aedes aegypti (a black-eyed Liverpool strain). The development of B. malayi was slow in both the treated populations and the infection rate, infectivity rate and L3 load per mosquito decreased significantly (P triflumuron. PMID:8984113

  2. The Immunodominant Brugia malayi Paramyosin as a Marker of Current Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti Adult Worms

    OpenAIRE

    Langy, Sandra; Plichart, Catherine; Luquiaud, Patrick; Williams, Steven A.; Nicolas, Luc

    1998-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence encoding Brugia malayi L3 paramyosin has been isolated by immunoscreening a cDNA library with a mouse antiserum raised against Wuchereria bancrofti L3 infective larvae. A recombinant truncated form of paramyosin was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein and used to evaluate humoral responses of adults from a W. bancrofti-endemic area in French Polynesia according to their parasitological status. Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) preferentially bound to p...

  3. Draft genome of the filarial nematode parasite Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedin, Elodie; Wang, Shiliang; Spiro, David; Caler, Elisabet; Zhao, Qi; Crabtree, Jonathan; Allen, Jonathan E; Delcher, Arthur L; Guiliano, David B; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Angiuoli, Samuel V; Creasy, Todd; Amedeo, Paolo; Haas, Brian; El-Sayed, Najib M; Wortman, Jennifer R; Feldblyum, Tamara; Tallon, Luke; Schatz, Michael; Shumway, Martin; Koo, Hean; Salzberg, Steven L; Schobel, Seth; Pertea, Mihaela; Pop, Mihai; White, Owen; Barton, Geoffrey J; Carlow, Clotilde K S; Crawford, Michael J; Daub, Jennifer; Dimmic, Matthew W; Estes, Chris F; Foster, Jeremy M; Ganatra, Mehul; Gregory, William F; Johnson, Nicholas M; Jin, Jinming; Komuniecki, Richard; Korf, Ian; Kumar, Sanjay; Laney, Sandra; Li, Ben-Wen; Li, Wen; Lindblom, Tim H; Lustigman, Sara; Ma, Dong; Maina, Claude V; Martin, David M A; McCarter, James P; McReynolds, Larry; Mitreva, Makedonka; Nutman, Thomas B; Parkinson, John; Peregrín-Alvarez, José M; Poole, Catherine; Ren, Qinghu; Saunders, Lori; Sluder, Ann E; Smith, Katherine; Stanke, Mario; Unnasch, Thomas R; Ware, Jenna; Wei, Aguan D; Weil, Gary; Williams, Deryck J; Zhang, Yinhua; Williams, Steven A; Fraser-Liggett, Claire; Slatko, Barton; Blaxter, Mark L; Scott, Alan L

    2007-09-21

    Parasitic nematodes that cause elephantiasis and river blindness threaten hundreds of millions of people in the developing world. We have sequenced the approximately 90 megabase (Mb) genome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi and predict approximately 11,500 protein coding genes in 71 Mb of robustly assembled sequence. Comparative analysis with the free-living, model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans revealed that, despite these genes having maintained little conservation of local synteny during approximately 350 million years of evolution, they largely remain in linkage on chromosomal units. More than 100 conserved operons were identified. Analysis of the predicted proteome provides evidence for adaptations of B. malayi to niches in its human and vector hosts and insights into the molecular basis of a mutualistic relationship with its Wolbachia endosymbiont. These findings offer a foundation for rational drug design.

  4. Whole body lymphangioscintigraphy in ferrets chronically infected with Brugia malayi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, M.; McNeill, G.; Crandall, C.; Case, T.; Witte, C.; Crandall, R.; Hall, J.; Williams, W.

    1988-12-01

    Whole body lymphangioscintigraphy was performed after intradermal injection of /sup 99m/technetium human serum albumin or antimony colloid in the distal hindlimbs and forelimbs of ferrets chronically infected with Brugia malayi. The findings were compared with control ferrets and those with surgical interruption of the iliac lymphatics. While only one infected ferret manifested chronic hindlimb lymphedema, all exhibited delayed transport of radioisotope from the hindpaw with obstruction in the groin, poor or absent visualization of central lymphatic channels and regional lymph nodes, a picture similar to that following surgically induced lymphatic obstruction. In control ferrets, there was prompt visualization of peripheral lymphatic channels and regional lymph nodes with sharper and more extensive channel visualization after radiolabeled albumin and more intense sustained nodal visualization after radiolabeled antimony colloid. This noninvasive technique provides a readily repeatable investigative tool adaptable to small animals to study the evolution of lymphatic filariasis and other conditions associated with lymphatic obstruction.

  5. Detection of Brugia malayi infected mosquitoes with a species specific DNA probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A species specific DNA probe (pβm15) was used in a field area where two filarial infections coexist: Brugia malayi in man and Brugia pahangi in cats. In our laboratory at Jakarta, this DNA probe proved to be sensitive enough to detect 500 pg of purified Brugia malayi microfilarial DNA. One to two infective larvae of Brugia malayi could be detected with ease. This DNA probe did not react with infective larvae of Brugia pahangi, Wuchereria bancrofti and Dirofilaria spp. Mosquitoes, which are vectors in Riau, were collected and fed on microfilaremic patients of Riau. The set of mosquitoes were tested in parallel with mosquitoes infected with Brugia pahangi from cats. All fed mosquitoes were tested after 10-12 days. Only mosquitoes infected with Brugia malayi reacted with the assay. This study shows that we have succeeded in applying the DNA probe technique in Jakarta. Further application in the field should be encouraged, with some modification of the DNA probing techniques for cheaper and easier implementation. 6 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  6. Brugia malayi: vaccination of jirds with /sup 60/cobalt-attenuated infective stage larvae protects against homologous challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, J.A.; Higashi, G.I.

    1985-11-01

    Vaccination of inbred jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) with /sup 60/cobalt radiation-attenuated Brugia malayi infective stage larvae (L3) protected against homologous challenge given either subcutaneously (sc) or by the intraperitoneal (ip) route. Groups of jirds vaccinated once sc with 75, 15 Krad L3 showed from 69% to 91% reduction in recovered worms after ip challenge infection compared to infection in non-vaccinated control jirds, while 75% reduction in mean worm burden was seen in jirds receiving sc challenge infection. A single sc vaccination with 75, 10 or 20 Krad L3 produced no protection (10 Krad) and 64% reduction in recovered worms (20 Krad). Therefore the 15 Krad dose appeared to be best. A marked increase in anti-B. malayi antibody in vaccinated jirds was seen (by ELISA) immediately after challenge infection and an immunofluorescence assay showed that L3 incubated in serum from vaccinated jirds were completely and uniformly covered with specific antibody. Eosinophil-rich granulomas containing dead and moribund L3 were recovered from vaccinated jirds. This model of protective immunity in a Brugia-susceptible small rodent may provide a useful system for identification of molecularly defined filarial-protective immunogens.

  7. Dissection and PCR-based detection of Brugia malayi on Mansonia spp in Tanjung Jabung Timur District

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    Santoso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis is a public health problem in East Tanjung Jabung. Eventhough that mass treatment had been carried out since 2002, there were still villages with microfilaria rate >1%. This study aims to detect filarial worm larvae in the mosquitoes with dissections and PCR method. The mosquitoes used in this study were Mansonia spp. The number of mosquitoes that examined was 450,133 and some of Mansonia mosquitoes were checked by PCR. The result showed that microscopic dissection did not found stage 3 (L3 of filarial worm larvae in the mosquitoes. The results from PCR test showed the presence of B. malayi DNA in 8 samples of Ma. indiana. Mansonia indiana is a potential vectors for Brugia malayi filariasis in East Tanjung Jabung. PCR method is more sensitive examination in detecting microfilaria compared with dissection method.

  8. A STUDY ON THE MICROFILARIAL PERIODICITY AT BIREUEN, THE TYPE LOCALITY OF BRUGIA MALAYI (BRUG, 1927

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    Menabu Sasa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brugia malayi ('Brug, 1927 adalah salah satu bibit penyakit filaría yang ditemukan di Indonesia yang dilaporkan pertama kali oleh Brug ditahun 1927 dari daerah endemis Bireuen, Aceh Utara. Walaupun akhir-akhir ini diketahui di Indonesia bahwa B. malayi ini mempunyai sifat periodisitas yang periodik nokturna dan juga sub-periodik nokturna, namun dari daerah endemis Bireuen dimana parasit ini pertama kali ditemukan dan dilaporkan belum jelas sifat periodisitasnya. Oleh sebab itulah dilakukan penyelidikan didaerah ini guna menentukan sifat periodisitas dari B. malayi didaerah endemis dimana pertama kali bibit penyakit dilaporkan. Dari hasil penyelidikan didaerah endemis Bireuen pada bulan Agustus tahun 1974 ini ternyata bahwa B. malayi yang ditemukan mempunyai sifat periodisitas yang periodik nokturna. Disamping itu ditemukan pula bibit penyakit filaría dari jenis Wuchereria bancrofti yang juga mempunyai sifat periodisitas yang periodik nokturna.

  9. Identification of Brugia malayi in vectors with a species-specific DNA probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, B K; Mak, J W; Cheong, W H; Sutanto, I; Kurniawan, L; Marwoto, H A; Franke, E; Campell, J R; Wirth, D F; Piessens, W F

    1986-05-01

    We evaluated the potential value of a cloned sequence of genomic DNA of Brugia malayi as a species-specific probe. Clone pBm 15 reacted with all stages of 8 different geographic isolates of B. malayi and cross-hybridized with microfilariae of B. timori. It did not hybridize with Wuchereria bancrofti or with B. pahangi, W. kalimantani, Dirofilaria repens, Breinlia booliati or Cardiofilaria species, animal filariids that can be sympatric with B. malayi. P32-labeled clone pBm 15 correctly identified mosquitoes infected even with 1 infective larva of B. malayi. This specific DNA probe should be an invaluable tool to monitor control programs of Brugian filariasis. PMID:3518507

  10. The genome of Brugia malayi – all worms are not created equal

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Alan; Ghedin, Elodie

    2008-01-01

    Filarial nematode parasites, the causative agents of elephantiasis and river blindness, undermine the livelihoods of over one hundred millions people in the developing world. Recently, the Filarial Genome Project reported the draft sequence of the ~95 Mb genome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi - the first parasitic nematode genome to be sequenced. Comparative genome analysis with the prevailing model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans revealed similarities and differences in genome s...

  11. Modeling analysis of GST (glutathione-S-transferases) from Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargavi, Rayavarapu; Vishwakarma, Siddharth; Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana

    2005-01-01

    GST (glutathione S-transferases) are a family of detoxification enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of reduced GSH (glutathione) to xenobiotic (endogenous electrophilic) compounds. GST from Wb (Wuchereria bancrofti) and Bm (Brugia malayi) are significantly different from human GST in sequence and structure. Thus, Wb-GST and Bm-GST are potential chemotherapeutic targets for anti-filarial treatment. Comparison of modeled Wb and Bm GST with human GST show structural difference between them. An...

  12. Diversity and expression of microRNAs in the filarial parasite, Brugia malayi.

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    Catherine B Poole

    Full Text Available Human filarial parasites infect an estimated 120 million people in 80 countries worldwide causing blindness and the gross disfigurement of limbs and genitals. An understanding of RNA-mediated regulatory pathways in these parasites may open new avenues for treatment. Toward this goal, small RNAs from Brugia malayi adult females, males and microfilariae were cloned for deep-sequencing. From ∼ 30 million sequencing reads, 145 miRNAs were identified in the B. malayi genome. Some microRNAs were validated using the p19 RNA binding protein and qPCR. B. malayi miRNAs segregate into 99 families each defined by a unique seed sequence. Sixty-one of the miRNA families are highly conserved with homologues in arthropods, vertebrates and helminths. Of those miRNAs not highly conserved, homologues of 20 B. malayi miRNA families were found in vertebrates. Nine B. malayi miRNA families appear to be filarial-specific as orthologues were not found in other organisms. The miR-2 family is the largest in B. malayi with 11 members. Analysis of the sequences shows that six members result from a recent expansion of the family. Library comparisons found that 1/3 of the B. malayi miRNAs are differentially expressed. For example, miR-71 is 5-7X more highly expressed in microfilariae than adults. Studies suggest that in C.elegans, miR-71 may enhance longevity by targeting the DAF-2 pathway. Characterization of B. malayi miRNAs and their targets will enhance our understanding of their regulatory pathways in filariads and aid in the search for novel therapeutics.

  13. Diversity and expression of microRNAs in the filarial parasite, Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Catherine B; Gu, Weifeng; Kumar, Sanjay; Jin, Jingmin; Davis, Paul J; Bauche, David; McReynolds, Larry A

    2014-01-01

    Human filarial parasites infect an estimated 120 million people in 80 countries worldwide causing blindness and the gross disfigurement of limbs and genitals. An understanding of RNA-mediated regulatory pathways in these parasites may open new avenues for treatment. Toward this goal, small RNAs from Brugia malayi adult females, males and microfilariae were cloned for deep-sequencing. From ∼ 30 million sequencing reads, 145 miRNAs were identified in the B. malayi genome. Some microRNAs were validated using the p19 RNA binding protein and qPCR. B. malayi miRNAs segregate into 99 families each defined by a unique seed sequence. Sixty-one of the miRNA families are highly conserved with homologues in arthropods, vertebrates and helminths. Of those miRNAs not highly conserved, homologues of 20 B. malayi miRNA families were found in vertebrates. Nine B. malayi miRNA families appear to be filarial-specific as orthologues were not found in other organisms. The miR-2 family is the largest in B. malayi with 11 members. Analysis of the sequences shows that six members result from a recent expansion of the family. Library comparisons found that 1/3 of the B. malayi miRNAs are differentially expressed. For example, miR-71 is 5-7X more highly expressed in microfilariae than adults. Studies suggest that in C.elegans, miR-71 may enhance longevity by targeting the DAF-2 pathway. Characterization of B. malayi miRNAs and their targets will enhance our understanding of their regulatory pathways in filariads and aid in the search for novel therapeutics.

  14. Molecular evidence for a functional ecdysone signaling system in Brugia malayi.

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    George Tzertzinis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Filarial nematodes, including Brugia malayi, the causative agent of lymphatic filariasis, undergo molting in both arthropod and mammalian hosts to complete their life cycles. An understanding of how these parasites cross developmental checkpoints may reveal potential targets for intervention. Pharmacological evidence suggests that ecdysteroids play a role in parasitic nematode molting and fertility although their specific function remains unknown. In insects, ecdysone triggers molting through the activation of the ecdysone receptor: a heterodimer of EcR (ecdysone receptor and USP (Ultraspiracle. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We report the cloning and characterization of a B. malayi EcR homologue (Bma-EcR. Bma-EcR dimerizes with insect and nematode USP/RXRs and binds to DNA encoding a canonical ecdysone response element (EcRE. In support of the existence of an active ecdysone receptor in Brugia we also cloned a Brugia rxr (retinoid X receptor homolog (Bma-RXR and demonstrate that Bma-EcR and Bma-RXR interact to form an active heterodimer using a mammalian two-hybrid activation assay. The Bma-EcR ligand-binding domain (LBD exhibits ligand-dependent transactivation via a GAL4 fusion protein combined with a chimeric RXR in mammalian cells treated with Ponasterone-A or a synthetic ecdysone agonist. Furthermore, we demonstrate specific up-regulation of reporter gene activity in transgenic B. malayi embryos transfected with a luciferase construct controlled by an EcRE engineered in a B. malayi promoter, in the presence of 20-hydroxy-ecdysone. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies and characterizes the two components (Bma-EcR and Bma-RXR necessary for constituting a functional ecdysteroid receptor in B. malayi. Importantly, the ligand binding domain of BmaEcR is shown to be capable of responding to ecdysteroid ligands, and conversely, ecdysteroids can activate transcription of genes downstream of an EcRE in live B. malayi embryos. These results together

  15. Anti-idiotypic antibodies function as a surrogate surface epitope of Brugia malayi infective larvae.

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    Carlow, C K; Busto, P; Storey, N; Philipp, M

    1990-07-01

    Anti-idiotypic (AB2) antibodies were generated in rabbits following immunization with a murine IgM monoclonal antibody (AB1) recognizing a surface determinant of Brugia malayi infective stage larvae. AB2 specifically inhibited the binding of AB1 to B. malayi larvae. Furthermore, AB2 had the ability to mimic the original antigen since mice immunized with AB2 possessed serum antibodies (AB3) specific for the B. malayi surface determinant. The presence of anti-surface antibodies (AB3 and AB1) induced either by AB2 immunization or by administration of AB1, did not alter the outcome of an intraperitoneal infection of B. malayi larvae in BABL/c mice when compared to untreated animals. AB3 antibodies like AB1, were IgM, thus indicating an isotype restricted response to the B. malayi epitope. There were no detectable cell mediated responses to the surface determinant in mice immunized with AB2, assessed by lymphocyte blastogenesis or IL3 production in vitro in response to the idiotope as presented by living larvae. The lack of cellular responses and/or the previously demonstrated rapid shedding of the epitope may explain the inability of AB1 or AB2 to protect mice against larval challenge in this study.

  16. Mining predicted essential genes of Brugia malayi for nematode drug targets.

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    Kumar, Sanjay; Chaudhary, Kshitiz; Foster, Jeremy M; Novelli, Jacopo F; Zhang, Yinhua; Wang, Shiliang; Spiro, David; Ghedin, Elodie; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2007-01-01

    We report results from the first genome-wide application of a rational drug target selection methodology to a metazoan pathogen genome, the completed draft sequence of Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode responsible for human lymphatic filariasis. More than 1.5 billion people worldwide are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, a related filarial disease. Drug treatments for filariasis have not changed significantly in over 20 years, and with the risk of resistance rising, there is an urgent need for the development of new anti-filarial drug therapies. The recent publication of the draft genomic sequence for B. malayi enables a genome-wide search for new drug targets. However, there is no functional genomics data in B. malayi to guide the selection of potential drug targets. To circumvent this problem, we have utilized the free-living model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a surrogate for B. malayi. Sequence comparisons between the two genomes allow us to map C. elegans orthologs to B. malayi genes. Using these orthology mappings and by incorporating the extensive genomic and functional genomic data, including genome-wide RNAi screens, that already exist for C. elegans, we identify potentially essential genes in B. malayi. Further incorporation of human host genome sequence data and a custom algorithm for prioritization enables us to collect and rank nearly 600 drug target candidates. Previously identified potential drug targets cluster near the top of our prioritized list, lending credibility to our methodology. Over-represented Gene Ontology terms, predicted InterPro domains, and RNAi phenotypes of C. elegans orthologs associated with the potential target pool are identified. By virtue of the selection procedure, the potential B. malayi drug targets highlight components of key processes in nematode biology such as central metabolism, molting and regulation of gene expression.

  17. Mining predicted essential genes of Brugia malayi for nematode drug targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar

    Full Text Available We report results from the first genome-wide application of a rational drug target selection methodology to a metazoan pathogen genome, the completed draft sequence of Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode responsible for human lymphatic filariasis. More than 1.5 billion people worldwide are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, a related filarial disease. Drug treatments for filariasis have not changed significantly in over 20 years, and with the risk of resistance rising, there is an urgent need for the development of new anti-filarial drug therapies. The recent publication of the draft genomic sequence for B. malayi enables a genome-wide search for new drug targets. However, there is no functional genomics data in B. malayi to guide the selection of potential drug targets. To circumvent this problem, we have utilized the free-living model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a surrogate for B. malayi. Sequence comparisons between the two genomes allow us to map C. elegans orthologs to B. malayi genes. Using these orthology mappings and by incorporating the extensive genomic and functional genomic data, including genome-wide RNAi screens, that already exist for C. elegans, we identify potentially essential genes in B. malayi. Further incorporation of human host genome sequence data and a custom algorithm for prioritization enables us to collect and rank nearly 600 drug target candidates. Previously identified potential drug targets cluster near the top of our prioritized list, lending credibility to our methodology. Over-represented Gene Ontology terms, predicted InterPro domains, and RNAi phenotypes of C. elegans orthologs associated with the potential target pool are identified. By virtue of the selection procedure, the potential B. malayi drug targets highlight components of key processes in nematode biology such as central metabolism, molting and regulation of gene expression.

  18. Glucose and Glycogen Metabolism in Brugia malayi Is Associated with Wolbachia Symbiont Fitness.

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    Voronin, Denis; Bachu, Saheed; Shlossman, Michael; Unnasch, Thomas R; Ghedin, Elodie; Lustigman, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria found in the majority of arthropods and filarial nematodes of medical and veterinary importance. They have evolved a wide range of symbiotic associations. In filarial nematodes that cause human lymphatic filariasis (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi) or onchocerciasis (Onchocerca volvulus), Wolbachia are important for parasite development, reproduction and survival. The symbiotic bacteria rely in part on nutrients and energy sources provided by the host. Genomic analyses suggest that the strain of Wolbachia found in B. malayi (wBm) lacks the genes for two glycolytic enzymes--6-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase--and is thus potentially unable to convert glucose into pyruvate, an important substrate for energy generation. The Wolbachia surface protein, wBm00432, is complexed to six B. malayi glycolytic enzymes, including aldolase. In this study we characterized two B. malayi aldolase isozymes and found that their expression is dependent on Wolbachia fitness and number. We confirmed by immuno-transmission electron microscopy that aldolase is associated with the Wolbachia surface. RNAi experiments suggested that aldolase-2 plays a significant role in both Wolbachia survival and embryogenesis in B. malayi. Treatment with doxycycline reduced Wolbachia fitness and increased the amount of both glucose and glycogen detected in the filarial parasite, indicating that glucose metabolism and glycogen storage in B. malayi are associated with Wolbachia fitness. This metabolic co-dependency between Wolbachia and its filarial nematode indicates that glycolysis could be a shared metabolic pathway between the bacteria and B. malayi, and thus a potential new target for anti-filarial therapy. PMID:27078260

  19. Insights into the structure-function relationship of Brugia malayi thymidylate kinase (BmTMK).

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    Doharey, Pawan Kumar; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Verma, Pravesh; Verma, Anita; Rathaur, Sushma; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating disease caused by lymph dwelling nematodal parasites like Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. Thymidylate kinase of B. malayi is a key enzyme in the de novo and salvage pathways for thymidine 5'-triphosphate (dTTP) synthesis. Therefore, B. malayi thymidylate kinase (BmTMK) is an essential enzyme for DNA biosynthesis and an important drug target to rein in filariasis. In the present study, the structural and functional changes associated with recombinant BmTMK, in the presence of protein denaturant GdnHCl, urea and pH were studied. GdnHCl and urea induced unfolding of BmTMK is non-cooperative and influence the functional property of the enzyme much lower than their Cm values. The study delineate that BmTMK is more prone to ionic perturbation. The dimeric assembly of BmTMK is an absolute requirement for enzymatic acitivity and any subtle change in dimeric conformation due to denaturation leads to loss of enzymatic activity. The pH induced changes on structure and activity suggests that selective modification of active site microenvironment pertains to difference in activity profile. This study also envisages that chemical moieties which acts by modulating oligomeric assembly, could be used for better designing of inhibitors against BmTMK enzyme. PMID:27044348

  20. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

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    Rao Ramakrishna U

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%. In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes. Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion. Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron

  1. UDP-galactopyranose mutase, a potential drug target against human pathogenic nematode Brugia malayi.

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    Misra, Sweta; Valicherla, Guru R; Mohd Shahab; Gupta, Jyoti; Gayen, Jiaur R; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2016-08-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, a vector-borne neglected tropical disease affects millions of population in tropical and subtropical countries. Vaccine unavailability and emerging drug resistance against standard antifilarial drugs necessitate search of novel drug targets for developing alternate drugs. Recently, UDP-galactopyranose mutases (UGM) have emerged as a promising drug target playing an important role in parasite virulence and survival. This study deals with the cloning and characterization of Brugia malayi UGM and further exploring its antifilarial drug target potential. The recombinant protein was actively involved in conversion of UDP-galactopyranose (substrate) to UDP-galactofuranose (product) revealing Km and Vmax to be ∼51.15 μM and ∼1.27 μM/min, respectively. The purified protein appeared to be decameric in native state and its 3D homology modeling using Aspergillus fumigatus UGM enzyme as template revealed conservation of active site residues. Two specific prokaryotic inhibitors (compounds A and B) of the enzyme inhibited B. malayi UGM enzymatic activity competitively depicting Ki values ∼22.68 and ∼23.0 μM, respectively. These compounds were also active in vitro and in vivo against B. malayi The findings suggest that B. malayi UGM could be a potential antifilarial therapeutic drug target. PMID:27465638

  2. In vitro antifilarial effects of three plant species against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaridah, M Z; Idid, S Z; Omar, A W; Khozirah, S

    2001-11-01

    Five aqueous extracts from three plant species, i.e., dried husks (HX), dried seeds (SX) and dried leaves (LX) of Xylocarpus granatum (Meliaceae), dried stems (ST) of Tinospora crispa (Menispermaceae) and dried leaves (LA) of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) were tested in vitro against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi. The relative movability (RM) value of the adult worms over the 24-h observation period was used as a measure of the antifilarial activity of the aqueous extracts. SX extract of X. granatum demonstrated the strongest activity, followed by the LA extract of A. paniculata, ST extract of T. crispa, HX extract and LX extract of X. granatum. PMID:11585692

  3. The genome of Brugia malayi - all worms are not created equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alan L; Ghedin, Elodie

    2009-03-01

    Filarial nematode parasites, the causative agents of elephantiasis and river blindness, undermine the livelihoods of over one hundred million people in the developing world. Recently, the Filarial Genome Project reported the draft sequence of the ~95 Mb genome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi - the first parasitic nematode genome to be sequenced. Comparative genome analysis with the prevailing model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans revealed similarities and differences in genome structure and organization that will prove useful as additional nematode genomes are completed. The Brugia genome provides the first opportunity to comprehensively compare the full gene repertoire of a free-living nematode species and one that has evolved as a human pathogen. The Brugia genome also provides an opportunity to gain insight into genetic basis for mutualism, as Brugia, like a majority of filarial species, harbors an endosybiotic bacterium (Wolbachia). The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the results of genomic analysis and how these observations provide new insights into the biology of filarial species. PMID:18952001

  4. Release of Small RNA-containing Exosome-like Vesicles from the Human Filarial Parasite Brugia malayi.

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    Mostafa Zamanian

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a socio-economically devastating mosquito-borne Neglected Tropical Disease caused by parasitic filarial nematodes. The interaction between the parasite and host, both mosquito and human, during infection, development and persistence is dynamic and delicately balanced. Manipulation of this interface to the detriment of the parasite is a promising potential avenue to develop disease therapies but is prevented by our very limited understanding of the host-parasite relationship. Exosomes are bioactive small vesicles (30-120 nm secreted by a wide range of cell types and involved in a wide range of physiological processes. Here, we report the identification and partial characterization of exosome-like vesicles (ELVs released from the infective L3 stage of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi. Exosome-like vesicles were isolated from parasites in culture media and electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis were used to confirm that vesicles produced by juvenile B. malayi are exosome-like based on size and morphology. We show that loss of parasite viability correlates with a time-dependent decay in vesicle size specificity and rate of release. The protein cargo of these vesicles is shown to include common exosomal protein markers and putative effector proteins. These Brugia-derived vesicles contain small RNA species that include microRNAs with host homology, suggesting a potential role in host manipulation. Confocal microscopy shows J774A.1, a murine macrophage cell line, internalize purified ELVs, and we demonstrate that these ELVs effectively stimulate a classically activated macrophage phenotype in J774A.1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of exosome-like vesicle release by a human parasitic nematode and our data suggest a novel mechanism by which human parasitic nematodes may actively direct the host responses to infection. Further interrogation of the makeup and function of these bioactive

  5. Brugia malayi excreted/secreted proteins at the host/parasite interface: stage- and gender-specific proteomic profiling.

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    Sasisekhar Bennuru

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known about the filarial proteins that interact with the human host. Although the filarial genome has recently been completed, protein profiles have been limited to only a few recombinants or purified proteins of interest. Here, we describe a large-scale proteomic analysis using microcapillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry to identify the excretory-secretory (ES products of the L3, L3 to L4 molting ES, adult male, adult female, and microfilarial stages of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi. The analysis of the ES products from adult male, adult female, microfilariae (Mf, L3, and molting L3 larvae identified 852 proteins. Annotation suggests that the functional and component distribution was very similar across each of the stages studied; however, the Mf contributed a higher proportion to the total number of identified proteins than the other stages. Of the 852 proteins identified in the ES, only 229 had previous confirmatory expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the available databases. Moreover, this analysis was able to confirm the presence of 274 "hypothetical" proteins inferred from gene prediction algorithms applied to the B. malayi (Bm genome. Not surprisingly, the majority (160/274 of these "hypothetical" proteins were predicted to be secreted by Signal IP and/or SecretomeP 2.0 analysis. Of major interest is the abundance of previously characterized immunomodulatory proteins such as ES-62 (leucyl aminopeptidase, MIF-1, SERPIN, glutathione peroxidase, and galectin in the ES of microfilariae (and Mf-containing adult females compared to the adult males. In addition, searching the ES protein spectra against the Wolbachia database resulted in the identification of 90 Wolbachia-specific proteins, most of which were metabolic enzymes that have not been shown to be immunogenic. This proteomic analysis extends our knowledge of the ES and provides insight into the host-parasite interaction.

  6. Suppression of Brugia malayi (sub-periodic larval development in Aedes aegypti (Liverpool strain fed on blood of animals immunized with microfilariae

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    K Athisaya Mary

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies were carried out to investigate the role of filarial specific antibodies, raised in an animal model against the filarial parasite, Brugia malayi (sub-periodic, in blocking their early development in an experimental mosquito host, Aedes aegypti (Liverpool strain. In order to generate filarial specific antibodies, Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, were immunized either with live microfilariae (mf of B. malayi or their homogenate. Mf were harvested from the peritoneal cavity of Mongolian gerbils with patent infection of B. malayi and fed to A. aegypti along with the blood from immunized animals. Development of the parasite in infected mosquitoes was monitored until they reached infective stage larvae (L3. Fewer number of parasites developed to first stage (L1 and subsequently to L2 and L3 in mosquitoes fed with blood of immunized animals, when compared to those fed with blood of control animals. The results thus indicated that filarial parasite specific antibodies present in the blood of the immunized animals resulted in the reduction of number of larvae of B. malayi developing in the mosquito host.

  7. Moxidectin causes adult worm mortality of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in rodent models.

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    Verma, Meenakshi; Pathak, Manisha; Shahab, Mohd; Singh, Kavita; Mitra, Kalyan; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2014-12-01

    Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone belonging to milbemycin family closely related to ivermectin and is currently progressing towards Phase III clinical trial against human infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1894). There is a single report on the microfilaricidal and embryostatic activity of moxidectin in case of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) in Mastomys coucha (Smith) but without any adulticidal action. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo antifilarial efficacy of moxidectin was evaluated on, B. malayi. In vitro moxidectin showed 100% reduction in adult female worm motility at 0.6 μM concentration within 7 days with 68% inhibition in the reduction of MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide dye) (which is used to detect viability of worms). A 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxidectin for adult female parasite was 0.242 μM, for male worm 0.186 μM and for microfilaria IC50 was 0.813 μM. In adult B. malayi-transplanted primary screening model (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards), moxidectin at a single optimal dose of 20 mg/kg by oral and subcutaneous route was found effective on both adult parasites and microfilariae. In secondary screening (M coucha, subcutaneously inoculated with infective larvae), moxidectin at the same dose by subcutaneous route brought about death of 49% of adult worms besides causing sterilisation in 54% of the recovered live female worms. The treated animals exhibited a continuous and sustained reduction in peripheral blood microfilaraemia throughout the observation period of 90 days. The mechanism of action of moxidectin is suggested to be similar to avermectins. The in silico studies were also designed to explore the interaction of moxidectin with glutamate-gated chloride channels of B. malayi. The docking results revealed a close interaction of moxidectin with various GluCl ligand sites of B. malayi. PMID:25651699

  8. Yeast-Based High-Throughput Screens to Identify Novel Compounds Active against Brugia malayi.

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    Elizabeth Bilsland

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is caused by the parasitic worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi or B. timori, which are transmitted via the bites from infected mosquitoes. Once in the human body, the parasites develop into adult worms in the lymphatic vessels, causing severe damage and swelling of the affected tissues. According to the World Health Organization, over 1.2 billion people in 58 countries are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis. Very few drugs are available to treat patients infected with these parasites, and these have low efficacy against the adult stages of the worms, which can live for 7-15 years in the human body. The requirement for annual treatment increases the risk of drug-resistant worms emerging, making it imperative to develop new drugs against these devastating diseases.We have developed a yeast-based, high-throughput screening system whereby essential yeast genes are replaced with their filarial or human counterparts. These strains are labeled with different fluorescent proteins to allow the simultaneous monitoring of strains with parasite or human genes in competition, and hence the identification of compounds that inhibit the parasite target without affecting its human ortholog. We constructed yeast strains expressing eight different Brugia malayi drug targets (as well as seven of their human counterparts, and performed medium-throughput drug screens for compounds that specifically inhibit the parasite enzymes. Using the Malaria Box collection (400 compounds, we identified nine filarial specific inhibitors and confirmed the antifilarial activity of five of these using in vitro assays against Brugia pahangi.We were able to functionally complement yeast deletions with eight different Brugia malayi enzymes that represent potential drug targets. We demonstrated that our yeast-based screening platform is efficient in identifying compounds that can discriminate between human and filarial enzymes. Hence, we are confident

  9. The Effect of In Vitro Cultivation on the Transcriptome of Adult Brugia malayi.

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    Cristina Ballesteros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Filarial nematodes cause serious and debilitating infections in human populations of tropical countries, contributing to an entrenched cycle of poverty. Only one human filarial parasite, Brugia malayi, can be maintained in rodents in the laboratory setting. It has been a widely used model organism in experiments that employ culture systems, the impact of which on the worms is unknown.Using Illumina RNA sequencing, we characterized changes in gene expression upon in vitro maintenance of adult B. malayi female worms at four time points: immediately upon removal from the host, immediately after receipt following shipment, and after 48 h and 5 days in liquid culture media. The dramatic environmental change and the 24 h time lapse between removal from the host and establishment in culture caused a globally dysregulated gene expression profile. We found a maximum of 562 differentially expressed genes based on pairwise comparison between time points. After an initial shock upon removal from the host and shipping, a few stress fingerprints remained after 48 h in culture and until the experiment was stopped. This was best illustrated by a strong and persistent up-regulation of several genes encoding cuticle collagens, as well as serpins.These findings suggest that B. malayi can be maintained in culture as a valid system for pharmacological and biological studies, at least for several days after removal from the host and adaptation to the new environment. However, genes encoding several stress indicators remained dysregulated until the experiment was stopped.

  10. Identification of a highly immunoreactive epitope of Brugia malayi TPx recognized by the endemic sera.

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    Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Gayatri, Subash Chellam; Aparnaa, Ramanathan; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2010-12-01

    Filarial thiordoxin peroxidase is a major antioxidant that plays a crucial role in parasite survival. Although Brugia malayi TPx has been shown to be a potential vaccine candidate, it shares 63% homology with its mammalian counterpart, limiting its use as a vaccine or drug target. In silico analysis of TPx sequence revealed a linear B epitope in the host's nonhomologous region. The peptide sequence (TPx peptide(27-48)) was synthesized, and its reactivity with clinical sera from an endemic region was analyzed. The peptide showed significantly high reactivity (P patent infection. The high reactivity of the peptide with endemic immune sera equivalent to that of whole protein shows that it forms a dominant B epitope of TPx protein and thus could be utilized for incorporation into a multiepitope vaccine construct for filariasis. PMID:21158641

  11. The Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi has an active pyruvate phosphate dikinase.

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    Raverdy, Sylvine; Foster, Jeremy M; Roopenian, Erica; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2008-08-01

    Genome analysis of the glycolytic/gluconeogenic pathway in the Wolbachia endosymbiont from the filarial parasite Brugia malayi (wBm) has revealed that wBm lacks pyruvate kinase (PK) and may instead utilize the enzyme pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK; ATP:pyruvate, orthophosphate phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.9.1). PPDK catalyses the reversible conversion of AMP, PPi and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) into ATP, Pi and pyruvate. The glycolytic pathway of most organisms, including mammals, contains exclusively PK for the production of pyruvate from PEP. Therefore, the absence of PPDK in mammals makes the enzyme an attractive Wolbachia drug target. In the present study, we have cloned and expressed an active wBm-PPDK, thereby providing insight into the energy metabolism of the endosymbiont. Our results support the development of wBm-PPDK as a promising new drug target in an anti-symbiotic approach to controlling filarial infection.

  12. Localization of Brugia malayi (sub-periodic adults in different organs of Mastomys coucha and its influence on microfilaraemia and host antibody response

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    K Athisaya Mary

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis caused by nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi is a spectral disease and produces wide range of immune responses and varying levels ofmicrofilaraemia in infected individuals. The relationship between the immune response of host and the developmental stage of the parasite as well as the microfilariae (mf density and specific location of the adult worms is yet to be understood. As an experimental model, B. malayi adapted in the experimental animal Mastomys coucha has been used widely for various studies in filariasis. The present study was to assess microfilaraemia as well as the humoral immune response of M. coucha during various stages of B. malayi development and their localization in different organs. The result showed that the density of mf in the circulating blood of the experimental animal depended upon the number of female worms as well as the location and co-existence of male and female worms. The mf density in the blood increased with the increase in the number of females. The clearance of inoculated infective stage (L3 or single sex infection or segregation of male and female to different organs of infected host resulted in amicrofilaraemic condition. With respect to antibody response, those animals cleared L3 after inoculation and those with adult worm as well as mf showed low antibody levels. But those with developmental fourth stage and/or adult worms without mf showed significantly higher antibody levels.

  13. Cloning and characterization of high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi

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    Thirugnanam, Sivasakthivel; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar; Veerapathran, Anandharaman; Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; Reddy, Maryada V.; RAMASWAMY, KALYANASUNDARAM

    2012-01-01

    A human homologue of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein was cloned and characterized from the human filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Sequence analysis showed that W. bancrofti HMGB1 (WbHMGB1) and B. malayi HMGB1 (BmHMGB1) proteins share 99 % sequence identity. Filarial HMGB1 showed typical architectural sequence characteristics of HMGB family of proteins and consisted of only a single HMG box domain that had significant sequence similarity to the pro-inflammat...

  14. Computational prediction of essential genes in an unculturable endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia of Brugia malayi

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    Carlow Clotilde KS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia (wBm is an obligate endosymbiotic bacterium of Brugia malayi, a parasitic filarial nematode of humans and one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis. There is a pressing need for new drugs against filarial parasites, such as B. malayi. As wBm is required for B. malayi development and fertility, targeting wBm is a promising approach. However, the lifecycle of neither B. malayi nor wBm can be maintained in vitro. To facilitate selection of potential drug targets we computationally ranked the wBm genome based on confidence that a particular gene is essential for the survival of the bacterium. Results wBm protein sequences were aligned using BLAST to the Database of Essential Genes (DEG version 5.2, a collection of 5,260 experimentally identified essential genes in 15 bacterial strains. A confidence score, the Multiple Hit Score (MHS, was developed to predict each wBm gene's essentiality based on the top alignments to essential genes in each bacterial strain. This method was validated using a jackknife methodology to test the ability to recover known essential genes in a control genome. A second estimation of essentiality, the Gene Conservation Score (GCS, was calculated on the basis of phyletic conservation of genes across Wolbachia's parent order Rickettsiales. Clusters of orthologous genes were predicted within the 27 currently available complete genomes. Druggability of wBm proteins was predicted by alignment to a database of protein targets of known compounds. Conclusion Ranking wBm genes by either MHS or GCS predicts and prioritizes potentially essential genes. Comparison of the MHS to GCS produces quadrants representing four types of predictions: those with high confidence of essentiality by both methods (245 genes, those highly conserved across Rickettsiales (299 genes, those similar to distant essential genes (8 genes, and those with low confidence of essentiality (253 genes. These data facilitate

  15. A deep sequencing approach to comparatively analyze the transcriptome of lifecycle stages of the filarial worm, Brugia malayi.

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    Young-Jun Choi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing intervention strategies for the control of parasitic nematodes continues to be a significant challenge. Genomic and post-genomic approaches play an increasingly important role for providing fundamental molecular information about these parasites, thus enhancing basic as well as translational research. Here we report a comprehensive genome-wide survey of the developmental transcriptome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using deep sequencing, we profiled the transcriptome of eggs and embryos, immature (≤3 days of age and mature microfilariae (MF, third- and fourth-stage larvae (L3 and L4, and adult male and female worms. Comparative analysis across these stages provided a detailed overview of the molecular repertoires that define and differentiate distinct lifecycle stages of the parasite. Genome-wide assessment of the overall transcriptional variability indicated that the cuticle collagen family and those implicated in molting exhibit noticeably dynamic stage-dependent patterns. Of particular interest was the identification of genes displaying sex-biased or germline-enriched profiles due to their potential involvement in reproductive processes. The study also revealed discrete transcriptional changes during larval development, namely those accompanying the maturation of MF and the L3 to L4 transition that are vital in establishing successful infection in mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Characterization of the transcriptional program of the parasite's lifecycle is an important step toward understanding the developmental processes required for the infectious cycle. We find that the transcriptional program has a number of stage-specific pathways activated during worm development. In addition to advancing our understanding of transcriptome dynamics, these data will aid in the study of genome structure and organization by facilitating

  16. Distribution of Brugia malayi larvae and DNA in vector and non-vector mosquitoes: implications for molecular diagnostics

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    Christensen Bruce M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to extend prior studies of molecular detection of Brugia malayi DNA in vector (Aedes aegypti- Liverpool and non-vector (Culex pipiens mosquitoes at different times after ingestion of infected blood. Results Parasite DNA was detected over a two week time course in 96% of pooled thoraces of vector mosquitoes. In contrast, parasite DNA was detected in only 24% of thorax pools from non-vectors; parasite DNA was detected in 56% of midgut pools and 47% of abdomen pools from non-vectors. Parasite DNA was detected in vectors in the head immediately after the blood meal and after 14 days. Parasite DNA was also detected in feces and excreta of the vector and non-vector mosquitoes which could potentially confound results obtained with field samples. However, co-housing experiments failed to demonstrate transfer of parasite DNA from infected to non-infected mosquitoes. Parasites were also visualized in mosquito tissues by immunohistololgy using an antibody to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14. Parasite larvae were detected consistently after mf ingestion in Ae. aegypti- Liverpool. Infectious L3s were seen in the head, thorax and abdomen of vector mosquitoes 14 days after Mf ingestion. In contrast, parasites were only detected by histology shortly after the blood meal in Cx. pipiens, and these were not labeled by the antibody. Conclusion This study provides new information on the distribution of filarial parasites and parasite DNA in vector and non-vector mosquitoes. This information should be useful for those involved in designing and interpreting molecular xenomonitoring studies.

  17. Localization of Brugia malayi (sub-periodic) adults in different organs of Mastomys coucha and its influence on microfilaraemia and host antibody response

    OpenAIRE

    K Athisaya Mary; SL Hoti; Paily KP

    2006-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis caused by nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi is a spectral disease and produces wide range of immune responses and varying levels ofmicrofilaraemia in infected individuals. The relationship between the immune response of host and the developmental stage of the parasite as well as the microfilariae (mf) density and specific location of the adult worms is yet to be understood. As an experimental model, B. malayi adapted in the experimental animal Masto...

  18. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms.

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    Li, Ben-Wen; Rush, Amy C; Weil, Gary J

    2015-12-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of "classical" anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs) in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12) in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of V as deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63) were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the broad effects of

  19. Detection of enzymes dehydrogenases and proteases inBrugia malayi filarial parasites.

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    Bhandary, Y P; Krithika, K N; Kulkarni, Sandeep; Reddy, M V R; Harinath, B C

    2006-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis caused mainly by infection fromW. bancrofti andB. malayi remains a major cause of clinical morbidity in tropical and subtropical countries. Analysis ofB. malayi mf, infective larval and adult worm lysates for the activity of enzymes led to the demonstration of activities of three key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism viz., Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), Malic enzyme (ME) and Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in all the three stages of the parasite. The specific activity of all the three dehydrogenases was significantly high in mf lysate compared to their activity in lysates of the other two stages (PFlouride (PMSF). In sodium do-decyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), using gelatin copolymerized gel, the microfilarial lysate showed 3 protease molecules of 40 kDa, 180 kDa and 200 kDa and the L(3) larval lysate had 6 protease molecules of 18, 25, 37, 49, 70 and 200 kDa size.

  20. Potential involvement of Brugia malayi cysteine proteases in the maintenance of the endosymbiotic relationship with Wolbachia

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    Sara Lustigman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode that causes lymphatic filariasis, harbors endosymbiotic intracellular bacteria, Wolbachia, that are required for the development and reproduction of the worm. The essential nature of this endosymbiosis led to the development of anti-Wolbachia chemotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of human filarial infections. Our study is aimed at identifying specific proteins that play a critical role in this endosymbiotic relationship leading to the identification of potential targets in the adult worms. Filarial cysteine proteases are known to be involved in molting and embryogenesis, processes shown to also be Wolbachia dependent. Based on the observation that cysteine protease transcripts are differentially regulated in response to tetracycline treatment, we focused on defining their role in symbiosis. We observe a bimodal regulation pattern of transcripts encoding cysteine proteases when in vitro tetracycline treated worms were examined. Using tetracycline-treated infertile female worms and purified embryos we established that the first peak of the bimodal pattern corresponds to embryonic transcripts while the second takes place within the hypodermis of the adult worms. Localization studies of the native proteins corresponding to Bm-cpl-3 and Bm-cpl-6 indicate that they are present in the area surrounding Wolbachia, and, in some cases, the proteins appear localized within the bacteria. Both proteins were also found in the inner bodies of microfilariae. The possible role of these cysteine proteases during development and endosymbiosis was further characterized using RNAi. Reduction in Bm-cpl-3 and Bm-cpl-6 transcript levels was accompanied by hindered microfilarial development and release, and reduced Wolbachia DNA levels, making these enzymes strong drug target candidates.

  1. The Effects of Ivermectin on Brugia malayi Females In Vitro: A Transcriptomic Approach

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    O’Neill, Maeghan; Burkman, Erica; Zaky, Weam I.; Xia, Jianguo; Moorhead, Andrew; Williams, Steven A.; Geary, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are disabling and disfiguring neglected tropical diseases of major importance in developing countries. Ivermectin is the drug of choice for mass drug administration programs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in areas where the diseases are co-endemic. Although ivermectin paralyzes somatic and pharyngeal muscles in many nematodes, these actions are poorly characterized in adult filariae. We hypothesize that paralysis of pharyngeal pumping by ivermectin in filariae could result in deprivation of essential nutrients, especially iron, inducing a wide range of responses evidenced by altered gene expression, changes in metabolic pathways, and altered developmental states in embryos. Previous studies have shown that ivermectin treatment significantly reduces microfilariae release from females within four days of exposure in vivo, while not markedly affecting adult worms. However, the mechanisms responsible for reduced production of microfilariae are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed transcriptomic profiles from Brugia malayi adult females, an important model for other filariae, using RNAseq technology after exposure in culture to ivermectin at various concentrations (100 nM, 300 nM and 1 μM) and time points (24, 48, 72 h, and 5 days). Our analysis revealed drug-related changes in expression of genes involved in meiosis, as well as oxidative phosphorylation, which were significantly down-regulated as early as 24 h post-exposure. RNA interference phenotypes of the orthologs of these down-regulated genes in C. elegans include “maternal sterile”, “embryonic lethal”, “larval arrest”, “larval lethal” and “sick”. Conclusion/Significance These changes provide insight into the mechanisms involved in ivermectin-induced reduction in microfilaria output and impaired fertility, embryogenesis, and larval development. PMID:27529747

  2. Production of Brugia malayi BmSXP Recombinant Protein Expressed in Escherichia coli

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    Khoo, T. K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid antibody detection test is very useful for detection of lymphatic filariasis, especially for certification and surveillance of post-mass drug administration. One such kit, panLF RapidTM (commercialized by Malaysian BioDiagnostic Research Sdn. Bhd. had been developed in our laboratory for the detection of all species of filarial infections. It is based on the detection of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies that react with recombinant Brugia malayi antigens, BmR1 and BmSXP. In this study, the growth of recombinant bacteria that produce BmSXP was optimized under shake flask fermentation for high yield of the recombinant antigen. The optimizations involved selection of suitable growth medium, IPTG concentration and induction time. The medium that yielded the highest biomass as well as total protein was Terrific Broth (TB medium, which is an undefined medium. Initiation of induction of protein expression was found to be best at mid-log phase (OD600 = 1.5, with IPTG concentration of 1.0 mM, and harvest time at 9 h post-induction. This study showed that under the optimized conditions, the shake flask culture produced 4 g/L biomass (dry cell weight of recombinant Escherichia coli BmSXP/pPROEXHTa/TOP10F’, which yielded 2.42 mg/L of purified BmSXP recombinant antigen. The purified antigen was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and the antigenicity of protein was confirmed by Western blot.

  3. Protection against filarial infection by 45-49 kDa molecules of Brugia malayi via IFN-γ-mediated iNOS induction.

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    Verma, Shiv K; Joseph, Sujith K; Verma, Richa; Kushwaha, Vikas; Parmar, Naveen; Yadav, Pawan K; Thota, Jagadeshwar Reddy; Kar, Susanta; Murthy, P Kalpana

    2015-01-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) mediated mechanisms have been implicated in killing of some life-stages of Brugia malayi/Wuchereria bancrofti and protect the host through type 1 responses and IFN-γ stimulated toxic mediators' release. However, the identity of NO stimulating molecules of the parasites is not known. Three predominantly NO-stimulating SDS-PAGE resolved fractions F8 (45.24-48.64 kDa), F11 (33.44-38.44 kDa) and F12 (28.44-33.44 kDa) from B. malayi were identified and their proteins were analyzed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Tropomyosin, calponin and de novo peptides were identified by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF in F8 and immunization with F8 conferred most significant protection against L3-initiated infection in Mastomys coucha. Immunized animals showed upregulated F8-induced NO, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, TGF-β release, cellular proliferative responses and specific IgG and IgG1. Anti-IFN-γ, anti-TNF-α, and anti-IL-1β significantly reduced F8-mediated NO generation and iNOS induction at protein levels. Anti-IFN-γ treated cells showed maximum reduction (>74%) in NO generation suggesting a predominant role of IFN-γ in iNOS induction. In conclusion, the findings suggest that F8 which contains tropomyosin, calponin and de novo peptides protects the host via IFN-γ mediated iNOS induction and may hold promise as vaccine candidate(s). This is also the first report of identification of tropomyosin and calponin in B. malayi. PMID:25454090

  4. Immunization of Mastomys coucha with Brugia malayi recombinant trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase results in significant protection against homologous challenge infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susheela Kushwaha

    Full Text Available Development of a vaccine to prevent or reduce parasite development in lymphatic filariasis would be a complementary approach to existing chemotherapeutic tools. Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase of Brugia malayi (Bm-TPP represents an attractive vaccine target due to its absence in mammals, prevalence in the major life stages of the parasite and immunoreactivity with human bancroftian antibodies, especially from endemic normal subjects. We have recently reported on the cloning, expression, purification and biochemical characterization of this vital enzyme of B. malayi. In the present study, immunoprophylactic evaluation of Bm-TPP was carried out against B. malayi larval challenge in a susceptible host Mastomys coucha and the protective ability of the recombinant protein was evaluated by observing the adverse effects on microfilarial density and adult worm establishment. Immunization caused 78.4% decrease in microfilaremia and 71.04% reduction in the adult worm establishment along with sterilization of 70.06% of the recovered live females. The recombinant protein elicited a mixed Th1/Th2 type of protective immune response as evidenced by the generation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4 and an increased production of antibody isotypes IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgA. Thus immunization with Bm-TPP conferred considerable protection against B. malayi establishment by engendering a long-lasting effective immune response and therefore emerges as a potential vaccine candidate against lymphatic filariasis (LF.

  5. Molecular characterization of NAD+-dependent DNA ligase from Wolbachia endosymbiont of lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi.

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    Nidhi Shrivastava

    Full Text Available The lymphatic filarial parasite, Brugia malayi contains Wolbachia endobacteria that are essential for development, viability and fertility of the parasite. Therefore, wolbachial proteins have been currently seen as the potential antifilarial drug targets. NAD(+-dependent DNA ligase is characterized as a promising drug target in several organisms due to its crucial, indispensable role in DNA replication, recombination and DNA repair. We report here the cloning, expression and purification of NAD(+-dependent DNA ligase of Wolbachia endosymbiont of B. malayi (wBm-LigA for its molecular characterization. wBm-LigA has all the domains that are present in nearly all the eubacterial NAD(+-dependent DNA ligases such as N-terminal adenylation domain, OB fold, helix-hairpin-helix (HhH and BRCT domain except zinc-binding tetracysteine domain. The purified recombinant protein (683-amino acid was found to be biochemically active and was present in its native form as revealed by the circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra. The purified recombinant enzyme was able to catalyze intramolecular strand joining on a nicked DNA as well as intermolecular joining of the cohesive ends of BstEII restricted lamda DNA in an in vitro assay. The enzyme was localized in the various life-stages of B. malayi parasites by immunoblotting and high enzyme expression was observed in Wolbachia within B. malayi microfilariae and female adult parasites along the hypodermal chords and in the gravid portion as evident by the confocal microscopy. Ours is the first report on this enzyme of Wolbachia and these findings would assist in validating the antifilarial drug target potential of wBm-LigA in future studies.

  6. Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of Brugia malayi Heavy Chain Myosin as Homologous DNA, Protein and Heterologous DNA/Protein Prime Boost Vaccine in Rodent Model.

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    Jyoti Gupta

    Full Text Available We earlier demonstrated the immunoprophylactic efficacy of recombinant heavy chain myosin (Bm-Myo of Brugia malayi (B. malayi in rodent models. In the current study, further attempts have been made to improve this efficacy by employing alternate approaches such as homologous DNA (pcD-Myo and heterologous DNA/protein prime boost (pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo in BALB/c mouse model. The gene bm-myo was cloned in a mammalian expression vector pcDNA 3.1(+ and protein expression was confirmed in mammalian Vero cell line. A significant degree of protection (79.2%±2.32 against L3 challenge in pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo immunized group was observed which was much higher than that exerted by Bm-Myo (66.6%±2.23 and pcD-Myo (41.6%±2.45. In the heterologous immunized group, the percentage of peritoneal leukocytes such as macrophages, neutrophils, B cells and T cells marginally increased and their population augmented further significantly following L3 challenge. pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo immunization elicited robust cellular and humoral immune responses as compared to pcD-Myo and Bm-Myo groups as evidenced by an increased accumulation of CD4+, CD8+ T cells and CD19+ B cells in the mouse spleen and activation of peritoneal macrophages. Though immunized animals produced antigen-specific IgG antibodies and isotypes, sera of mice receiving pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo or Bm-Myo developed much higher antibody levels than other groups and there was profound antibody-dependent cellular adhesion and cytotoxicity (ADCC to B. malayi infective larvae (L3. pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo as well as Bm-Myo mice generated a mixed T helper cell phenotype as evidenced by the production of both pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IFN-γ and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10 cytokines. Mice receiving pcD-Myo on contrary displayed a polarized pro-inflammatory immune response. The findings suggest that the priming of animals with DNA followed by protein booster generates heightened and mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses that are capable of

  7. The Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi has an active phosphoglycerate mutase: a candidate target for anti-filarial therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jeremy M; Raverdy, Sylvine; Ganatra, Mehul B; Colussi, Paul A; Taron, Christopher H; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2009-04-01

    Phosphoglycerate mutases (PGM) interconvert 2- and 3-phosphoglycerate in the glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. A putative cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase gene (iPGM) was identified in the genome sequence of the Wolbachia endosymbiont from the filarial nematode, Brugia malayi (wBm). Since iPGM has no sequence or structural similarity to the cofactor-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase (dPGM) found in mammals, it may represent an attractive Wolbachia drug target. In the present study, wBm-iPGM cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli was mostly insoluble and inactive. However, the protein was successfully produced in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis and the purified recombinant wBm-iPGM showed typical PGM activity. Our results provide a foundation for further development of wBm-iPGM as a promising new drug target for novel anti-filarial therapies that selectively target the endosymbiont.

  8. Rapid Detection and Identification of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, B. pahangi, and Dirofilaria immitis in Mosquito Vectors and Blood Samples by High Resolution Melting Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Kaewkong, Worasak; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Choochote, Wej; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and high-throughput method for detection and identification of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, and Dirofilaria immitis in mosquito vectors and blood samples was developed using a real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Amplicons of the 4 filarial species were generated from 5S rRNA and spliced leader sequences by the real-time PCR and their melting temperatures were determined by the HRM method. Melting of amplicons from W. ban...

  9. 蚊体内马来丝虫幼虫的基因检测%Studies on Gene Detection of Brugia malayi Larvae in Mosquito

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锡欣; 黄炳成; 刘慎良; 韩广东; 刘新

    2001-01-01

    目的:探索蚊体内马来丝虫幼虫基因检测的新方法,并用于丝虫病监测。方法:利用基因工程技术合成马来丝虫寡核苷酸片段,经32P标记后作为探针,以斑点杂交法检测蚊体内马来丝虫幼虫。结果:该探针可从多种标本中特异地检出马来幼丝虫DNA,敏感性为2ng靶DNA量,蚊体内含1条幼虫即可出现阳性杂交。结论:该技术具有良好的实用性,可用于蚊体内马来丝虫幼虫的基因检测。%Objective:To establish a new method for gene detection of Brugiamalayi larvae in mosquito and use it in filariasis surveillance. Methods:Oligonucleotide fragment of Brugia malayi synthesized by genetic engineering technique was labeled with 32P and used as probe. The B.malayi larvae in mosquito was detected with dot blot. Results: Brugia malayi larvae DNA could be specifically detected in different samples with this probe and the sensitivity was 2 ng target DNA of B.malayi. Even only one larvae in mosquito could be detected after hybridization. Conclusions:This method is practicable and reliable for gene detection of Brugia malayi larvae in mosquito.

  10. Sequences necessary for trans-splicing in transiently transfected Brugia malayi

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Canhui; Oliveira, Ana; Higazi, Tarig B.; Ghedin, Elodie; DePasse, Jay; Thomas R Unnasch

    2007-01-01

    Many genes in parasitic nematodes are both cis- and trans-spliced. Previous studies have demonstrated that a 7nt element encoded in the first intron of the B. malayi 70 kDa heat shock protein (BmHSP70) gene was necessary to permit trans-splicing of transgenic mRNAs in embryos transfected with constructs encoding portions of the BmHSP70 gene. Here we demonstrate that this element (the B. malayi HSP70 trans-splicing motif, or BmHSP70 TSM) is necessary and sufficient to direct trans-splicing of ...

  11. Structure of the trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase from Brugia malayi reveals key design principles for anthelmintic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farelli, Jeremiah D; Galvin, Brendan D; Li, Zhiru; Liu, Chunliang; Aono, Miyuki; Garland, Megan; Hallett, Olivia E; Causey, Thomas B; Ali-Reynolds, Alana; Saltzberg, Daniel J; Carlow, Clotilde K S; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Allen, Karen N

    2014-07-01

    Parasitic nematodes are responsible for devastating illnesses that plague many of the world's poorest populations indigenous to the tropical areas of developing nations. Among these diseases is lymphatic filariasis, a major cause of permanent and long-term disability. Proteins essential to nematodes that do not have mammalian counterparts represent targets for therapeutic inhibitor discovery. One promising target is trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (T6PP) from Brugia malayi. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, T6PP is essential for survival due to the toxic effect(s) of the accumulation of trehalose 6-phosphate. T6PP has also been shown to be essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of T6PP from B. malayi. The protein structure revealed a stabilizing N-terminal MIT-like domain and a catalytic C-terminal C2B-type HAD phosphatase fold. Structure-guided mutagenesis, combined with kinetic analyses using a designed competitive inhibitor, trehalose 6-sulfate, identified five residues important for binding and catalysis. This structure-function analysis along with computational mapping provided the basis for the proposed model of the T6PP-trehalose 6-phosphate complex. The model indicates a substrate-binding mode wherein shape complementarity and van der Waals interactions drive recognition. The mode of binding is in sharp contrast to the homolog sucrose-6-phosphate phosphatase where extensive hydrogen-bond interactions are made to the substrate. Together these results suggest that high-affinity inhibitors will be bi-dentate, taking advantage of substrate-like binding to the phosphoryl-binding pocket while simultaneously utilizing non-native binding to the trehalose pocket. The conservation of the key residues that enforce the shape of the substrate pocket in T6PP enzymes suggest that development of broad-range anthelmintic and antibacterial therapeutics employing this platform may be possible.

  12. Structure of the trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase from Brugia malayi reveals key design principles for anthelmintic drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah D Farelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are responsible for devastating illnesses that plague many of the world's poorest populations indigenous to the tropical areas of developing nations. Among these diseases is lymphatic filariasis, a major cause of permanent and long-term disability. Proteins essential to nematodes that do not have mammalian counterparts represent targets for therapeutic inhibitor discovery. One promising target is trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (T6PP from Brugia malayi. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, T6PP is essential for survival due to the toxic effect(s of the accumulation of trehalose 6-phosphate. T6PP has also been shown to be essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of T6PP from B. malayi. The protein structure revealed a stabilizing N-terminal MIT-like domain and a catalytic C-terminal C2B-type HAD phosphatase fold. Structure-guided mutagenesis, combined with kinetic analyses using a designed competitive inhibitor, trehalose 6-sulfate, identified five residues important for binding and catalysis. This structure-function analysis along with computational mapping provided the basis for the proposed model of the T6PP-trehalose 6-phosphate complex. The model indicates a substrate-binding mode wherein shape complementarity and van der Waals interactions drive recognition. The mode of binding is in sharp contrast to the homolog sucrose-6-phosphate phosphatase where extensive hydrogen-bond interactions are made to the substrate. Together these results suggest that high-affinity inhibitors will be bi-dentate, taking advantage of substrate-like binding to the phosphoryl-binding pocket while simultaneously utilizing non-native binding to the trehalose pocket. The conservation of the key residues that enforce the shape of the substrate pocket in T6PP enzymes suggest that development of broad-range anthelmintic and antibacterial therapeutics employing this platform may be possible.

  13. Functional analysis of the cathepsin-like cysteine protease genes in adult Brugia malayi using RNA interference.

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    Louise Ford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cathepsin-like enzymes have been identified as potential targets for drug or vaccine development in many parasites, as their functions appear to be essential in a variety of important biological processes within the host, such as molting, cuticle remodeling, embryogenesis, feeding and immune evasion. Functional analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans cathepsin L (Ce-cpl-1 and cathepsin Z (Ce-cpz-1 has established that both genes are required for early embryogenesis, with Ce-cpl-1 having a role in regulating in part the processing of yolk proteins. Ce-cpz-1 also has an important role during molting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: RNA interference assays have allowed us to verify whether the functions of the orthologous filarial genes in Brugia malayi adult female worms are similar. Treatment of B. malayi adult female worms with Bm-cpl-1, Bm-cpl-5, which belong to group Ia of the filarial cpl gene family, or Bm-cpz-1 dsRNA resulted in decreased numbers of secreted microfilariae in vitro. In addition, analysis of the intrauterine progeny of the Bm-cpl-5 or Bm-cpl Pro dsRNA- and siRNA-treated worms revealed a clear disruption in the process of embryogenesis resulting in structural abnormalities in embryos and a varied differential development of embryonic stages. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies suggest that these filarial cathepsin-like cysteine proteases are likely to be functional orthologs of the C. elegans genes. This functional conservation may thus allow for a more thorough investigation of their distinct functions and their development as potential drug targets.

  14. Inflammatory mediator release byBrugia malayi from macrophages of susceptible hostMastomys coucha andTHP-1 andRAW 264.7 cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiv Kumar Verma; Vikas Kushwaha; Vijaya Dubey; Kirti Saxena; Aakanksha Sharma; Puvvada Kalpana Murthy

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate which life stage of the parasite has the ability to stimulate release of pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators from macrophages.Methods: The human macrophage/monocyte cell lineTHP-1, the mouse macrophage cell lineRAW 264.7 and naive peritoneal macrophages(PM)from the rodent hostMastomys coucha (M. coucha)were incubated at37 ℃in 5% CO2atmosphere with extracts of microfilariae(Mf), third stage infective larvae(L3) and adult worms (Ad)ofBrugia malayi. After48 hr post exposure,IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and nitric oxide (NO) in cell-free supernatants were estimated.Results: Extracts of all the life stages of the parasite were capable of stimulating pro-(IL-1β, IL-6 andTNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10)cytokines in both the cell lines and peritoneal macrophages ofM. coucha. Mf was the strongest stimulator of pro-inflammatory cytokines followed by L3 and Ad; however, Ad was a strong stimulator ofIL-10 release. Mf was found to have potential to modulateLPS-inducedNO release inRAW cells. Ad-inducedNO release was concentration dependent with maximum at 20 μg/mL in bothRAW andPMs.Conclusions:The results show that parasites at all life stages were capable of stimulating pro- (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory(IL-10) cytokines andNO release from macrophages of susceptible hostM. coucha, human and mouse macrophage cell lines.Mf can suppress theLPS-inducedNO release inRAW cells. The findings also show that the two cell lines may provide a convenientin vitro system for assaying parasite-induced inflammatory mediator release.

  15. The heme biosynthetic pathway of the obligate Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi as a potential anti-filarial drug target.

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    Bo Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Filarial parasites (e.g., Brugia malayi, Onchocerca volvulus, and Wuchereria bancrofti are causative agents of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, which are among the most disabling of neglected tropical diseases. There is an urgent need to develop macro-filaricidal drugs, as current anti-filarial chemotherapy (e.g., diethylcarbamazine [DEC], ivermectin and albendazole can interrupt transmission predominantly by killing microfilariae (mf larvae, but is less effective on adult worms, which can live for decades in the human host. All medically relevant human filarial parasites appear to contain an obligate endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia. This alpha-proteobacterial mutualist has been recognized as a potential target for filarial nematode life cycle intervention, as antibiotic treatments of filarial worms harboring Wolbachia result in the loss of worm fertility and viability upon antibiotic treatments both in vitro and in vivo. Human trials have confirmed this approach, although the length of treatments, high doses required and medical counter-indications for young children and pregnant women warrant the identification of additional anti-Wolbachia drugs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genome sequence analysis indicated that enzymes involved in heme biosynthesis might constitute a potential anti-Wolbachia target set. We tested different heme biosynthetic pathway inhibitors in ex vivo B. malayi viability assays and report a specific effect of N-methyl mesoporphyrin (NMMP, which targets ferrochelatase (FC, the last step. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates evolutionarily significant divergence between Wolbachia heme genes and their human homologues. We therefore undertook the cloning, overexpression and analysis of several enzymes of this pathway alongside their human homologues, and prepared proteins for drug targeting. In vitro enzyme assays revealed a approximately 600-fold difference in drug sensitivities to succinyl acetone (SA between

  16. In vitro flubendazole-induced damage to vital tissues in adult females of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maeghan; Geary, James F; Agnew, Dalen W; Mackenzie, Charles D; Geary, Timothy G

    2015-12-01

    The use of a microfilaricidal drug for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis necessitates prolonged yearly dosing. Prospects for elimination or eradication of these diseases would be enhanced by availability of a macrofilaricidal drug. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic, is an appealing candidate macrofilaricide. FLBZ has demonstrated profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in a number of experimental filarial rodent models and one human trial. Unfortunately, FLBZ was deemed unsatisfactory for use in mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns due to its markedly limited oral bioavailability. However, a new formulation that provided sufficient bioavailability following oral administration could render FLBZ an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. This study characterized the effects of FLBZ and its reduced metabolite (FLBZ-R) on filarial nematodes in vitro to determine the exposure profile which results in demonstrable damage. Adult female Brugia malayi were exposed to varying concentrations of FLBZ or FLBZ-R (100 nM-10 μM) for up to five days, after which worms were fixed for histology. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in the hypodermis and developing embryos at concentrations as low as 100 nM following 24 h exposure. The results indicate that damage to tissues required for reproduction and survival can be achieved at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. PMID:26288741

  17. An In Vitro/In Vivo Model to Analyze the Effects of Flubendazole Exposure on Adult Female Brugia malayi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeghan O'Neill

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Current control strategies for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF rely on prolonged yearly or twice-yearly mass administration of microfilaricidal drugs. Prospects for near-term elimination or eradication of these diseases would be improved by availability of a macrofilaricide that is highly effective in a short regimen. Flubendazole (FLBZ, a benzimidazole anthelmintic registered for control of human gastrointestinal nematode infections, is a potential candidate for this role. FLBZ has profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in many experimental animal models of filariases and in one human trial for onchocerciasis after parental administration. Unfortunately, the marketed formulation of FLBZ provides very limited oral bioavailability and parenteral administration is required for macrofilaricidal efficacy. A new formulation that provided sufficient oral bioavailability could advance FLBZ as an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. Short-term in vitro culture experiments in adult filariae have shown that FLBZ damages tissues required for reproduction and survival at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The current study characterized the long-term effects of FLBZ on adult Brugia malayi by maintaining parasites in jirds for up to eight weeks following brief drug exposure (6-24 hr to pharmacologically relevant concentrations (100 nM-10 μM in culture. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in developing embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in microfilarial output at 4 weeks post-exposure. Although FLBZ exposure clearly damaged the parasites, exposed worms recovered and were viable 8 weeks after treatment.

  18. In vitro flubendazole-induced damage to vital tissues in adult females of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeghan O'Neill

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of a microfilaricidal drug for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis necessitates prolonged yearly dosing. Prospects for elimination or eradication of these diseases would be enhanced by availability of a macrofilaricidal drug. Flubendazole (FLBZ, a benzimidazole anthelmintic, is an appealing candidate macrofilaricide. FLBZ has demonstrated profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in a number of experimental filarial rodent models and one human trial. Unfortunately, FLBZ was deemed unsatisfactory for use in mass drug administration (MDA campaigns due to its markedly limited oral bioavailability. However, a new formulation that provided sufficient bioavailability following oral administration could render FLBZ an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. This study characterized the effects of FLBZ and its reduced metabolite (FLBZ-R on filarial nematodes in vitro to determine the exposure profile which results in demonstrable damage. Adult female Brugia malayi were exposed to varying concentrations of FLBZ or FLBZ-R (100 nM–10 μM for up to five days, after which worms were fixed for histology. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in the hypodermis and developing embryos at concentrations as low as 100 nM following 24 h exposure. The results indicate that damage to tissues required for reproduction and survival can be achieved at pharmacologically relevant concentrations.

  19. An In Vitro/In Vivo Model to Analyze the Effects of Flubendazole Exposure on Adult Female Brugia malayi

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neill, Maeghan; Mansour, Abdelmoneim; DiCosty, Utami; Geary, James; Dzimianski, Michael; McCall, Scott D.; McCall, John W.; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Geary, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Current control strategies for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) rely on prolonged yearly or twice-yearly mass administration of microfilaricidal drugs. Prospects for near-term elimination or eradication of these diseases would be improved by availability of a macrofilaricide that is highly effective in a short regimen. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic registered for control of human gastrointestinal nematode infections, is a potential candidate for this role. FLBZ has profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in many experimental animal models of filariases and in one human trial for onchocerciasis after parental administration. Unfortunately, the marketed formulation of FLBZ provides very limited oral bioavailability and parenteral administration is required for macrofilaricidal efficacy. A new formulation that provided sufficient oral bioavailability could advance FLBZ as an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. Short-term in vitro culture experiments in adult filariae have shown that FLBZ damages tissues required for reproduction and survival at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The current study characterized the long-term effects of FLBZ on adult Brugia malayi by maintaining parasites in jirds for up to eight weeks following brief drug exposure (6–24 hr) to pharmacologically relevant concentrations (100 nM—10 μM) in culture. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in developing embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in microfilarial output at 4 weeks post-exposure. Although FLBZ exposure clearly damaged the parasites, exposed worms recovered and were viable 8 weeks after treatment. PMID:27145083

  20. Detection of Brugia malayi in laboratory and wild-caught Mansonioides mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) using Hha I PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoti, S L; Vasuki, V; Lizotte, M W; Patra, K P; Ravi, G; Vanamail, P; Manonmani, A; Sabesan, S; Krishnamoorthy, K; Williams, S A

    2001-04-01

    An Hha 1 based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay developed for the detection of Brugia malayi, the causative agent of Brugian lymphatic filariasis, was evaluated for its sensitivity in the laboratory and for its usefulness in measuring changes in transmission of the disease in the field. Laboratory studies showed that the new assay was highly sensitive in comparison with the standard dissection and microscopy technique. The assay can detect as little as 4 pg of parasite DNA or a single microfilaria in pools of up to 100 mosquitoes. The optimum pool size for convenience was found to be 50 mosquitoes per pool. The efficacy of PCR assay was evaluated in filariasis control programmes in operation in endemic areas of Kerala State, South India. The infection rates obtained by the Hha I PCR assay and the conventional dissection and microscopy technique were 1.2% and 1.7% respectively in operational areas and 8.3% and 4.4% respectively, in check areas, which were not significantly different (P used as a new epidemiological tool for assessing parasite infection in field-collected mosquitoes. PMID:11260722

  1. An In Vitro/In Vivo Model to Analyze the Effects of Flubendazole Exposure on Adult Female Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maeghan; Mansour, Abdelmoneim; DiCosty, Utami; Geary, James; Dzimianski, Michael; McCall, Scott D; McCall, John W; Mackenzie, Charles D; Geary, Timothy G

    2016-05-01

    Current control strategies for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) rely on prolonged yearly or twice-yearly mass administration of microfilaricidal drugs. Prospects for near-term elimination or eradication of these diseases would be improved by availability of a macrofilaricide that is highly effective in a short regimen. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic registered for control of human gastrointestinal nematode infections, is a potential candidate for this role. FLBZ has profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in many experimental animal models of filariases and in one human trial for onchocerciasis after parental administration. Unfortunately, the marketed formulation of FLBZ provides very limited oral bioavailability and parenteral administration is required for macrofilaricidal efficacy. A new formulation that provided sufficient oral bioavailability could advance FLBZ as an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. Short-term in vitro culture experiments in adult filariae have shown that FLBZ damages tissues required for reproduction and survival at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The current study characterized the long-term effects of FLBZ on adult Brugia malayi by maintaining parasites in jirds for up to eight weeks following brief drug exposure (6-24 hr) to pharmacologically relevant concentrations (100 nM-10 μM) in culture. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in developing embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in microfilarial output at 4 weeks post-exposure. Although FLBZ exposure clearly damaged the parasites, exposed worms recovered and were viable 8 weeks after treatment. PMID:27145083

  2. Tissue and stage-specific distribution of Wolbachia in Brugia malayi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Fischer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most filarial parasite species contain Wolbachia, obligatory bacterial endosymbionts that are crucial for filarial development and reproduction. They are targets for alternative chemotherapy, but their role in the biology of filarial nematodes is not well understood. Light microscopy provides important information on morphology, localization and potential function of these bacteria. Surprisingly, immunohistology and in situ hybridization techniques have not been widely used to monitor Wolbachia distribution during the filarial life cycle. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A monoclonal antibody directed against Wolbachia surface protein and in situ hybridization targeting Wolbachia 16S rRNA were used to monitor Wolbachia during the life cycle of B. malayi. In microfilariae and vector stage larvae only a few cells contain Wolbachia. In contrast, large numbers of Wolbachia were detected in the lateral chords of L4 larvae, but no endobacteria were detected in the genital primordium. In young adult worms (5 weeks p.i., a massive expansion of Wolbachia was observed in the lateral chords adjacent to ovaries or testis, but no endobacteria were detected in the growth zone of the ovaries, uterus, the growth zone of the testis or the vas deferens. Confocal laser scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that numerous Wolbachia are aligned towards the developing ovaries and single endobacteria were detected in the germline. In inseminated females (8 weeks p.i. Wolbachia were observed in the ovaries, embryos and in decreasing numbers in the lateral chords. In young males Wolbachia were found in distinct zones of the testis and in large numbers in the lateral chords in the vicinity of testicular tissue but never in mature spermatids or spermatozoa. CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistology and in situ hybridization show distinct tissue and stage specific distribution patterns for Wolbachia in B. malayi. Extensive multiplication of Wolbachia occurs in the

  3. Characterization of transcription factors that regulate the type IV secretion system and riboflavin biosynthesis in Wolbachia of Brugia malayi.

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    Zhiru Li

    Full Text Available The human filarial parasite Brugia malayi harbors an endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia (wBm that is required for parasite survival. Consequently, targeting wBm is a promising approach for anti-filarial drug development. The Type IV secretion system (T4SS plays an important role in bacteria-host interactions and is under stringent regulation by transcription factors. In wBm, most T4SS genes are contained in two operons. We show the wBm is active since the essential assembly factor virB8-1, is transcribed in adult worms and larval stages, and VirB8-1 is present in parasite lysates. We also identify two transcription factors (wBmxR1 and wBmxR2 that bind to the promoter region of several genes of the T4SS. Gel shift assays show binding of wBmxR1 to regions upstream of the virB9-2 and wBmxR2 genes, whereas wBmxR2 binds to virB4-2 and wBmxR1 promoter regions. Interestingly, both transcription factors bind to the promoter of the ribA gene that precedes virB8-1, the first gene in operon 1 of the wBm T4SS. RT-PCR reveals ribA and virB8-1 genes are co-transcribed as one operon, indicating the ribA gene and T4SS operon 1 are co-regulated by both wBmxR1 and wBmxR2. RibA encodes a bi-functional enzyme that catalyzes two essential steps in riboflavin (Vitamin B2 biosynthesis. Importantly, the riboflavin pathway is absent in B. malayi. We demonstrate the pathway is functional in wBm, and observe vitamin B2 supplementation partially rescues filarial parasites treated with doxycycline, indicating Wolbachia may supply the essential vitamin to its worm host. This is the first characterization of a transcription factor(s from wBm and first report of co-regulation of genes of the T4SS and riboflavin biosynthesis pathway. In addition, our results demonstrate a requirement of vitamin B2 for worm health and fertility, and imply a nutritional role of the symbiont for the filarial parasite host.

  4. Characterization of transcription factors that regulate the type IV secretion system and riboflavin biosynthesis in Wolbachia of Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiru; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2012-01-01

    The human filarial parasite Brugia malayi harbors an endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia (wBm) that is required for parasite survival. Consequently, targeting wBm is a promising approach for anti-filarial drug development. The Type IV secretion system (T4SS) plays an important role in bacteria-host interactions and is under stringent regulation by transcription factors. In wBm, most T4SS genes are contained in two operons. We show the wBm is active since the essential assembly factor virB8-1, is transcribed in adult worms and larval stages, and VirB8-1 is present in parasite lysates. We also identify two transcription factors (wBmxR1 and wBmxR2) that bind to the promoter region of several genes of the T4SS. Gel shift assays show binding of wBmxR1 to regions upstream of the virB9-2 and wBmxR2 genes, whereas wBmxR2 binds to virB4-2 and wBmxR1 promoter regions. Interestingly, both transcription factors bind to the promoter of the ribA gene that precedes virB8-1, the first gene in operon 1 of the wBm T4SS. RT-PCR reveals ribA and virB8-1 genes are co-transcribed as one operon, indicating the ribA gene and T4SS operon 1 are co-regulated by both wBmxR1 and wBmxR2. RibA encodes a bi-functional enzyme that catalyzes two essential steps in riboflavin (Vitamin B2) biosynthesis. Importantly, the riboflavin pathway is absent in B. malayi. We demonstrate the pathway is functional in wBm, and observe vitamin B2 supplementation partially rescues filarial parasites treated with doxycycline, indicating Wolbachia may supply the essential vitamin to its worm host. This is the first characterization of a transcription factor(s) from wBm and first report of co-regulation of genes of the T4SS and riboflavin biosynthesis pathway. In addition, our results demonstrate a requirement of vitamin B2 for worm health and fertility, and imply a nutritional role of the symbiont for the filarial parasite host.

  5. Brugia malayi Microfilariae Induce a Regulatory Monocyte/Macrophage Phenotype That Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Gopinath; Rao, Gopala B.; Lucius, Richard; Srikantam, Aparna; Hartmann, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Background Monocytes and macrophages contribute to the dysfunction of immune responses in human filariasis. During patent infection monocytes encounter microfilariae in the blood, an event that occurs in asymptomatically infected filariasis patients that are immunologically hyporeactive. Aim To determine whether blood microfilariae directly act on blood monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages to induce a regulatory phenotype that interferes with innate and adaptive responses. Methodology and principal findings Monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages from filaria non-endemic normal donors were stimulated in vitro with Brugia malayi microfilarial (Mf) lysate. We could show that monocytes stimulated with Mf lysate develop a defined regulatory phenotype, characterised by expression of the immunoregulatory markers IL-10 and PD-L1. Significantly, this regulatory phenotype was recapitulated in monocytes from Wuchereria bancrofti asymptomatically infected patients but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. Monocytes from non-endemic donors stimulated with Mf lysate directly inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-13 and IL-10). IFN-γ responses were restored by neutralising IL-10 or PD-1. Furthermore, macrophages stimulated with Mf lysate expressed high levels of IL-10 and had suppressed phagocytic abilities. Finally Mf lysate applied during the differentiation of macrophages in vitro interfered with macrophage abilities to respond to subsequent LPS stimulation in a selective manner. Conclusions and significance Conclusively, our study demonstrates that Mf lysate stimulation of monocytes from healthy donors in vitro induces a regulatory phenotype, characterized by expression of PD-L1 and IL-10. This phenotype is directly reflected in monocytes from filarial patients with asymptomatic infection but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. We suggest that suppression of T cell functions typically seen in lymphatic

  6. Rapid detection and identification of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, B. pahangi, and Dirofilaria immitis in mosquito vectors and blood samples by high resolution melting real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Intapan, Pewpan M; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Kaewkong, Worasak; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Choochote, Wej; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    A simple, rapid, and high-throughput method for detection and identification of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, and Dirofilaria immitis in mosquito vectors and blood samples was developed using a real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Amplicons of the 4 filarial species were generated from 5S rRNA and spliced leader sequences by the real-time PCR and their melting temperatures were determined by the HRM method. Melting of amplicons from W. bancrofti, B. malayi, D. immitis, and B. pahangi peaked at 81.5±0.2℃, 79.0±0.3℃, 76.8±0.1℃, and 79.9±0.1℃, respectively. This assay is relatively cheap since it does not require synthesis of hybridization probes. Its sensitivity and specificity were 100%. It is a rapid and technically simple approach, and an important tool for population surveys as well as molecular xenomonitoring of parasites in vectors. PMID:24516268

  7. Detection and quantification of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi DNA in blood samples and mosquitoes using duplex droplet digital polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongthawin, Jurairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2016-08-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne disease, is still a major public health problem in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Effective diagnostic tools are required for identification of infected individuals, for epidemiological assessment, and for monitoring of control programs. A duplex droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) was conducted to differentiate and quantify Wuchereria bancrofti DNA by targeting the long DNA repeat (LDR) element and Brugia malayi DNA by targeting the HhaI element in blood samples and mosquito vectors. The analytical sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Our results indicated that the duplex ddPCR assay could differentiate and quantify W. bancrofti and B. malayi DNA from blood samples and mosquitoes. DNA from a single larva in 50 μl of a blood sample, or in one mosquito vector, could be detected. The analytical sensitivity and specificity for W. bancrofti are both 100 %. Corresponding values for B. malayi are 100 and 98.3 %, respectively. Therefore, duplex ddPCR is a potential tool for simultaneous diagnosis and monitoring of bancroftian and brugian filariasis in endemic areas. PMID:27085707

  8. DETECTION OF BRUGIA MALAYI INFECTED MOSQUITOES WITH SPECIES SPECIFIC DNA PROBE pBm 15, IN RIAU, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kurniawan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A species specific DNA probe (pBm15 was used in a field area where 2 filarial infections coexist: B.malayi in man and B.pahangi in cats. In our laboratory in Jakarta, this DNA probe proved to be sensitive enough to detect 500 ng DNA. One to two infective larvae of B.malayi could be detected with ease. This DNA probe did not react with infective larvae of wuchereria bancrofti, B.pahangi, and Dirofilaria spp. Non specific binding caused by undefined mosquito components was overcome with proteinase K and chitinase treatment. This additional step, made it possible for whole body mosquitoes to be squashed directly onto nitrocellulose paper. A comparative study of experimental infections of laboratory bred mosquitoes infected with B.malayi, showed no difference in infection rate between the group examined by dissection or by DNA probing. Mosquitoes which are vectors in Riau were collected and fed on microfilaremic patients of Riau. The set of mosquitoes were tested in parallel with mosquitoes infected with B.pahangi from cats. All fed mosquitoes were tested after 10-12 days. Only mosquitoes infected with B.malayi reacted in the assay. This study shows a success in applying the DNA probe technique in Jakarta. Further application in the field should be encouraged, with some modification of the DNA probing technique, for cheaper and easier implementation.

  9. Exome and transcriptome sequencing of Aedes aegypti identifies a locus that confers resistance to Brugia malayi and alters the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Punita; Ariani, Cristina V; Ho, Yung Shwen; Akorli, Jewelna; Palmer, William J; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M

    2015-03-01

    Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model for studying lymphatic filariasis, is genetically variable for its capacity to harbor the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. The genome of Ae. aegypti is large and repetitive, making genome resequencing difficult and expensive. We designed exome captures to target protein-coding regions of the genome, and used association mapping in a wild Kenyan population to identify a single, dominant, sex-linked locus underlying resistance. This falls in a region of the genome where a resistance locus was previously mapped in a line established in 1936, suggesting that this polymorphism has been maintained in the wild for the at least 80 years. We then crossed resistant and susceptible mosquitoes to place both alleles of the gene into a common genetic background, and used RNA-seq to measure the effect of this locus on gene expression. We found evidence for Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT pathway activity in response to early stages of B. malayi infection when the parasites are beginning to die in the resistant genotype. We also found that resistant mosquitoes express anti-microbial peptides at the time of parasite-killing, and that this expression is suppressed in susceptible mosquitoes. Together, we have found that a single resistance locus leads to a higher immune response in resistant mosquitoes, and we identify genes in this region that may be responsible for this trait. PMID:25815506

  10. Exome and transcriptome sequencing of Aedes aegypti identifies a locus that confers resistance to Brugia malayi and alters the immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punita Juneja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model for studying lymphatic filariasis, is genetically variable for its capacity to harbor the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. The genome of Ae. aegypti is large and repetitive, making genome resequencing difficult and expensive. We designed exome captures to target protein-coding regions of the genome, and used association mapping in a wild Kenyan population to identify a single, dominant, sex-linked locus underlying resistance. This falls in a region of the genome where a resistance locus was previously mapped in a line established in 1936, suggesting that this polymorphism has been maintained in the wild for the at least 80 years. We then crossed resistant and susceptible mosquitoes to place both alleles of the gene into a common genetic background, and used RNA-seq to measure the effect of this locus on gene expression. We found evidence for Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT pathway activity in response to early stages of B. malayi infection when the parasites are beginning to die in the resistant genotype. We also found that resistant mosquitoes express anti-microbial peptides at the time of parasite-killing, and that this expression is suppressed in susceptible mosquitoes. Together, we have found that a single resistance locus leads to a higher immune response in resistant mosquitoes, and we identify genes in this region that may be responsible for this trait.

  11. Exome and Transcriptome Sequencing of Aedes aegypti Identifies a Locus That Confers Resistance to Brugia malayi and Alters the Immune Response

    KAUST Repository

    Juneja, Punita

    2015-03-27

    Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model for studying lymphatic filariasis, is genetically variable for its capacity to harbor the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. The genome of Ae. aegypti is large and repetitive, making genome resequencing difficult and expensive. We designed exome captures to target protein-coding regions of the genome, and used association mapping in a wild Kenyan population to identify a single, dominant, sex-linked locus underlying resistance. This falls in a region of the genome where a resistance locus was previously mapped in a line established in 1936, suggesting that this polymorphism has been maintained in the wild for the at least 80 years. We then crossed resistant and susceptible mosquitoes to place both alleles of the gene into a common genetic background, and used RNA-seq to measure the effect of this locus on gene expression. We found evidence for Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT pathway activity in response to early stages of B. malayi infection when the parasites are beginning to die in the resistant genotype. We also found that resistant mosquitoes express anti-microbial peptides at the time of parasite-killing, and that this expression is suppressed in susceptible mosquitoes. Together, we have found that a single resistance locus leads to a higher immune response in resistant mosquitoes, and we identify genes in this region that may be responsible for this trait.

  12. A recombinant plasmid of composite cysteine proteinase inhibitor/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of periodic Brugia malayi functions on DNA immunity in the host

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    Z Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Both cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CPIs and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH play important roles in the pathogenesis of parasites and their relationship with the hosts. We constructed a new eukaryotic recombinant expression plasmid pcDNA3.1(+-BmCPI/BmGAPDH of periodic Brugia malayi for investigation of the DNA vaccine-elicited immune responses. Materials and Methods: We cloned a gene encoding the CPIs and GAPDH from periodic B. malayi into vector pcDNA3.1. The composited plasmid or the control was injected into the tibialis anterior muscle of the hind leg in BALB/c mice, respectively. The target genes were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in muscle tissues. The stimulation index (SI of T-lymphocyte proliferation and the levels of interferon-gamma (INF-g and interleukin-4 ( IL-4 in serum were detected by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: The pcDNA3.1(+-BmCPI/BmGAPDH was amplified from muscle tissues of the mice after immunisation. The SI of the immunised group was significantly higher than that of the two control groups (P < 0.05. The levels of INF-g and IL-4 of pcDNA3.1(+-BmCPI/BmGAPDH group were both higher than those of the two control groups (P < 0.05. The level of INF-g of pcDNA3.1(+-BmCPI/BmGAPDH group was significantly higher than that of pcDNA3.1(+-BmCPI/CpG group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: We conclude that the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1(+-BmCPI/BmGAPDH could elicit specific humoural and cellular immune responses in mice.

  13. Cloning, expression and characterization of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (MurA from Wolbachia endosymbiont of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi.

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    Mohd Shahab

    Full Text Available Wolbachia, an endosymbiont of filarial nematode, is considered a promising target for treatment of lymphatic filariasis. Although functional characterization of the Wolbachia peptidoglycan assembly has not been fully explored, the Wolbachia genome provides evidence for coding all of the genes involved in lipid II biosynthesis, a part of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (MurA is one of the lipid II biosynthesis pathway enzymes and it has inevitably been recognized as an antibiotic target. In view of the vital role of MurA in bacterial viability and survival, MurA ortholog from Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi (wBm-MurA was cloned, expressed and purified for further molecular characterization. The enzyme kinetics and inhibition studies were undertaken using fosfomycin. wBm-MurA was found to be expressed in all the major life stages of B. malayi and was immunolocalized in Wolbachia within the microfilariae and female adults by the confocal microscopy. Sequence analysis suggests that the amino acids crucial for enzymatic activity are conserved. The purified wBm-MurA was shown to possess the EPSP synthase (3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase like activity at a broad pH range with optimal activity at pH 7.5 and 37°C temperature. The apparent affinity constant (Km for the substrate UDP-N-acetylglucosamine was found to be 0.03149 mM and for phosphoenolpyruvate 0.009198 mM. The relative enzymatic activity was inhibited ∼2 fold in presence of fosfomycin. Superimposition of the wBm-MurA homology model with the structural model of Haemophilus influenzae (Hi-MurA suggests binding of fosfomycin at the same active site. The findings suggest wBm-MurA to be a putative antifilarial drug target for screening of novel compounds.

  14. PENENTUAN JENIS NYAMUK MansoniaSEBAGAI TERSANGKA VEKTOR FILARIASIS Brugia malayi DAN HEWAN ZOONOSIS DI KABUPATEN MUARO JAMBI

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso Santoso; Yahya Yahya; Milana Salim

    2015-01-01

    AbstrakFilariasis merupakan penyakit yang tidak mudah menular. Filariasis adalah penyakit yang ditularkan oleh nyamuk sebagai vector. Jenis nyamuk yang dapat berperan sebagai vector filariasis dipengaruhi oleh jenis cacing penyebab filaria. Brugia spp. umumnya ditularkan oleh nyamuk Mansonia spp dan Anopheles spp. Vektor dan hewan zoonosis merupakan salah satu factor yang dapat perlu mendapat perhatian dalam pengendalian filariasis. Penelitian terhadap vector dan hewan zoonosis telah dilakuka...

  15. Vaccination of Gerbils with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 Concurrently or as a Fusion Protein Confers Consistent and Improved Protection against Brugia malayi Infection.

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    Sridhar Arumugam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brugia malayi Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 proteins are orthologous to Onchocerca volvulus Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, and which were selected as the best candidates for the development of an O. volvulus vaccine. The B. malayi gerbil model was used to confirm the efficacy of these Ov vaccine candidates on adult worms and to determine whether their combination is more efficacious.Vaccine efficacy of recombinant Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 administered individually, concurrently or as a fusion protein were tested in gerbils using alum as adjuvant. Vaccination with Bm-103 resulted in worm reductions of 39%, 34% and 22% on 42, 120 and 150 days post infection (dpi, respectively, and vaccination with Bm-RAL-2 resulted in worm reductions of 42%, 22% and 46% on 42, 120 and 150 dpi, respectively. Vaccination with a fusion protein comprised of Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 resulted in improved efficacy with significant reduction of worm burden of 51% and 49% at 90 dpi, as did the concurrent vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2, with worm reduction of 61% and 56% at 90 dpi. Vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 as a fusion protein or concurrently not only induced a significant worm reduction of 61% and 42%, respectively, at 150 dpi, but also significantly reduced the fecundity of female worms as determined by embryograms. Elevated levels of antigen-specific IgG were observed in all vaccinated gerbils. Serum from gerbils vaccinated with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 individually, concurrently or as a fusion protein killed third stage larvae in vitro when combined with peritoneal exudate cells.Although vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 individually conferred protection against B. malayi infection in gerbils, a more consistent and enhanced protection was induced by vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 fusion protein and when they were used concurrently. Further characterization and optimization of these filarial vaccines are warranted.

  16. Bm-CPI-2, a cystatin from Brugia malayi nematode parasites, differs from Caenorhabditis elegans cystatins in a specific site mediating inhibition of the antigen-processing enzyme AEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Janice; Manoury, Bénédicte; Balic, Adam; Watts, Colin; Maizels, Rick M

    2005-02-01

    The filarial parasite Brugia malayi survives for many years in the human lymphatic system. One immune evasion mechanism employed by Brugia is thought to be the release of cysteine protease inhibitors (cystatins), and we have previously shown that the recombinant cystatin Bm-CPI-2 interferes with protease-dependent antigen processing in the MHC class II antigen presentation pathway. Analogy with vertebrate cystatins suggested that Bm-CPI-2 is bi-functional, with one face of the protein blocking papain-like proteases, and the other able to inhibit legumains such as asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP). Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out on Bm-CPI-2 at Asn-77, the residue on which AEP inhibition is dependent in vertebrate homologues. Two mutations at this site (to Asp and Lys) showed 10-fold diminished and ablated activity respectively, in assays of AEP inhibition, while blocking of papain-like proteases was reduced by only a small degree. Comparison of the B. malayi cystatins with two homologues encoded by the free-living model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, suggested that while the papain site may be intact, the AEP site would not be functional. This supposition was tested with recombinant C. elegans proteins, Ce-CPI-1 (K08B4.6) and Ce-CPI-2 (R01B10.1), both of which block cathepsins and neither of which possess the ability to block AEP. Thus, Brugia CPI-2 may have convergently evolved to inhibit an enzyme important only in the mammalian environment.

  17. In vitro silencing of Brugia malayi trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase impairs embryogenesis and in vivo development of infective larvae in jirds.

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    Susheela Kushwaha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The trehalose metabolic enzymes have been considered as potential targets for drug or vaccine in several organisms such as Mycobacterium, plant nematodes, insects and fungi due to crucial role of sugar trehalose in embryogenesis, glucose uptake and protection from stress. Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP is one of the enzymes of trehalose biosynthesis that has not been reported in mammals. Silencing of tpp gene in Caenorhabditis elegans revealed an indispensable functional role of TPP in nematodes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, functional role of B. malayi tpp gene was investigated by siRNA mediated silencing which further validated this enzyme to be a putative antifilarial drug target. The silencing of tpp gene in adult female B. malayi brought about severe phenotypic deformities in the intrauterine stages such as distortion and embryonic development arrest. The motility of the parasites was significantly reduced and the microfilarial production as well as their in vitro release from the female worms was also drastically abridged. A majority of the microfilariae released in to the culture medium were found dead. B. malayi infective larvae which underwent tpp gene silencing showed 84.9% reduced adult worm establishment after inoculation into the peritoneal cavity of naïve jirds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present findings suggest that B. malayi TPP plays an important role in the female worm embryogenesis, infectivity of the larvae and parasite viability. TPP enzyme of B. malayi therefore has the potential to be exploited as an antifilarial drug target.

  18. Brugia malayi Antigen (BmA Inhibits HIV-1 Trans-Infection but Neither BmA nor ES-62 Alter HIV-1 Infectivity of DC Induced CD4+ Th-Cells.

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    Emily E I M Mouser

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of HIV-1 disease is the association of heightened CD4+ T-cell activation with HIV-1 replication. Parasitic helminths including filarial nematodes have evolved numerous and complex mechanisms to skew, dampen and evade human immune responses suggesting that HIV-1 infection may be modulated in co-infected individuals. Here we studied the effects of two filarial nematode products, adult worm antigen from Brugia malayi (BmA and excretory-secretory product 62 (ES-62 from Acanthocheilonema viteae on HIV-1 infection in vitro. Neither BmA nor ES-62 influenced HIV-1 replication in CD4+ enriched T-cells, with either a CCR5- or CXCR4-using virus. BmA, but not ES-62, had the capacity to bind the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN thereby inhibiting HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ enriched T-cells. As for their effect on DCs, neither BmA nor ES-62 could enhance or inhibit DC maturation as determined by CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR expression, or the production of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α. As expected, due to the unaltered DC phenotype, no differences were found in CD4+ T helper (Th cell phenotypes induced by DCs treated with either BmA or ES-62. Moreover, the HIV-1 susceptibility of the Th-cell populations induced by BmA or ES-62 exposed DCs was unaffected for both CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 viruses. In conclusion, although BmA has the potential capacity to interfere with HIV-1 transmission or initial viral dissemination through preventing the virus from interacting with DCs, no differences in the Th-cell polarizing capacity of DCs exposed to BmA or ES-62 were observed. Neither antigenic source demonstrated beneficial or detrimental effects on the HIV-1 susceptibility of CD4+ Th-cells induced by exposed DCs.

  19. 周期型马来丝虫3-磷酸甘油醛脱氢酶基因真核表达载体的构建及DNA免疫研究%Construction of pcDNA3. 1-Brugia malayi glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase eukaryotic recombinant plasmid and study on its role in DNA immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童海燕; 方政; 谢东方; 黄为群; 方浩; 徐邦生

    2009-01-01

    Objective To construct the pcDNA3. 1-Brugia malayi (Bm) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) eukaryotic recombinant plasmid and to study its effect on mouse cellular immunity response. Methods Total RNA was prepared from periodic Bm. The target gene fragments were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique and then were inserted into the cloning vector. pGEM-T Easy, and sub-cloned into pcDNA3. 1. Purified pcDNA 3. 1-BmGAPDH recombinant plasmid and CpG were injected into the anterior tibial muscle of BALB/c mice in order to induce host immunity response. Mice injected with PBS and mice injected with blank plasmid were prepared as controls. The mouse models were immunized for 3 times with an interval of 2 weeks. RT-PCR was utilized to detect target gene expression in the muscle tissue. MTT method was used to measure the immunized mice T lymphocytes stimulation index, while enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) was used to determine the serum interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ level. Means were compared using t test with SPSS software. Results The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3. 1-BmGAPDH was constructed sucessfully. The target gene was 1020 bp long and its homology with known gene sequence in database was 99%. BmGAPDH gene in the injected muscle of the immunized mice was detected by PCR. The proliferation of spleen T lymphocytes was higher in pcDNA3-BmGAPDH group than in the 2 control groups which were 1. 398, 1. 006 and 1. 017,respectively (P< 0. 05). The levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 in serums from the immunized mice were significantly higher than those of the PBS control group and blank plasmid control group which were 163.905, 58.589, 51. 317 and 107. 906, 27.111, 34.627, respectively (P<0. 05). Immune adjuvant CpG could accelerate and boost antigen-specific immune responses induced by vaccine, which presented as significant increase of IFN-γ and lymphocyte proliferation at 4 weeks after immunization.Conclusion The

  20. Proinflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression by Murine Macrophages in Response to Brugia malayi Wolbachia Surface Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantima Porksakorn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium found in most species of filarial parasites, is thought to play a significant role in inducing innate inflammatory responses in lymphatic filariasis patients. However, the Wolbachia-derived molecules that are recognized by the innate immune system have not yet been identified. In this study, we exposed the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 to a recombinant form of the major Wolbachia surface protein (rWSP to determine if WSP is capable of innately inducing cytokine transcription. Interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF mRNAs were all upregulated by the rWSP stimulation in a dose-dependant manner. TNF transcription peaked at 3 hours, whereas IL-1β and IL-6 transcription peaked at 6 hours post-rWSP exposure. The levels of innate cytokine expression induced by a high-dose (9.0 μg/mL rWSP in the RAW 264.7 cells were comparable to the levels induced by 0.1 μg/mL E. coli-derived lipopolysaccharides. Pretreatment of the rWSP with proteinase-K drastically reduced IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF transcription. However, the proinflammatory response was not inhibited by polymyxin B treatment. These results strongly suggest that the major Wolbachia surface protein molecule WSP is an important inducer of innate immune responses during filarial infections.

  1. Novel drug designing rationale againstBrugia malayi microfilariae using herbal extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SharmaRD; PetareS; ShindeGB; KalyanGoswami; ReddyMVR

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of herbal polyphenolics on filariasisin vitro.Methods: Two herbal extracts, methanolic extracts of roots ofVitex negundo Linn. (Nirgundi) and leaves ofAegle marmelos Juss. (Beal) in different concentrations ranging from40-80ng/mL were tested for their antifilarial activity either alone or in combination with diethyl carbonate (DEC)(300μg/mL) and/orH2O2 (0.5 mM).Results:Combination of DEC and each extract had significant anti-filarial effect. And fractions of both extracts were not effective as crude herbal extract.Conclusions:Such unique pharmacodynamics reported in this study might provide new drug development stratagem against filariasis.

  2. A multicenter evaluation of a new antibody test kit for lymphatic filariasis employing recombinant Brugia malayi antigen Bm-14

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, Gary J; Curtis, Kurt C.; Fischer, Peter U.; Kimberly Y Won; Lammie, Patrick J; Joseph, Hayley; Melrose, Wayne D; Brattig, Norbert W.

    2010-01-01

    Antibody tests are useful for mapping the distribution of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in countries and regions and for monitoring progress in elimination programs based on mass drug administration (MDA). Prior antibody tests have suffered from poor sensitivity and/or specificity or from a lack of standardization. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of a new commercial ELISA that detects IgG4 antibodies to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14. Four laboratories tested a shared panel of coded ...

  3. Effectiveness of two rounds of mass drug administration using DEC combined with albendazole on the prevalence of Brugia malayi

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso Santoso; Aprioza Yenni; Reni Oktarina; Tri Wurisastuti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Filariasis mass drug administration carried out for 5 consecutive years aims to reduce the prevalence rate of < 1%. Evaluation of treatment needs to be done, one of them with a finger blood survey. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of mass treatment and factors that influence. Methods:The study design was cross-sectional study. Blood sampling performed at night in four selected villages with a number of samples for blood tests as many as 1,209 people. Results:The numb...

  4. Effectiveness of two rounds of mass drug administration using DEC combined with albendazole on the prevalence of Brugia malayi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoso Santoso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Filariasis mass drug administration carried out for 5 consecutive years aims to reduce the prevalence rate of < 1%. Evaluation of treatment needs to be done, one of them with a finger blood survey. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of mass treatment and factors that influence. Methods:The study design was cross-sectional study. Blood sampling performed at night in four selected villages with a number of samples for blood tests as many as 1,209 people. Results:The number of microfilaria positive population of 10 people. The Village with the most number of cases (6 people with a microfilaria rate of 2.08% is Nibung Putih villages. History of fever, behavior taking medication, age and gender related to the incidence of filariasis. Regency East Tanjung Jabung is endemic filariasis because they found villages with Mf rate > 1%. Conclusions: Implementation of filariasis mass treatment was less effective because they can not derive filariasis endemicity. Recommendation: Implementation of filariasis mass treatment needs to be improved by increasing the participation of local community leaders in order to reach all levels of society, including isolated communities.

  5. L3 + Cosmics Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %RE4 %title\\\\ \\\\The L3+C experiment takes advantage of the unique properties of the L3 muon spectrometer to get an accurate measurement of cosmic ray muons 30 m underground. A new muon trigger, readout and DAQ system have been installed, as well as a scintillator array covering the upper surfaces of the L3 magnet for timing purposes. The acceptance amounts to 200 $m^2 sr$. The data are collected independently in parallel with L3 running. In spring 2000 a scintillator array will be installed on the roof of the SX hall in order to estimate the primary energy of air showers associated with events observed in L3+C.\\\\ \\\\The cosmic ray muon momentum spectrum, the zenith angular dependence and the charge ratio are measured with high accuracy between 20 and 2000 GeV/c. The results will provide new information about the primary composition, the shower development in the atmosphere, and the inclusive pion and kaon (production-) cross sections (specifically the "$\\pi$/K ratio") at high energies. These data will also hel...

  6. Brugia lepori sp. n. (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) from rabbits (Sylvilagus aquaticus, S. floridanus) in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, M L

    1984-08-01

    Brugia lepori sp. n., a filarial nematode from the abdominal lymphatics and subcutaneous tissues of rabbits (Sylvilagus aquaticus, S. floridanus), from St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, is described. Brugia lepori is of moderate size (males 12 to 19 mm, females 39 to 45 mm) and within the genus most closely resembles Brugia beaveri of the raccoon, from which it can be distinguished by its larger size, smaller spicules, and smaller microfilaria which has a shorter cephalic space. Brugia lepori is only the second species of Brugia described from North America and the third species reported from the Western Hemisphere. PMID:6502360

  7. L3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final article in the CERN Courier series marking a decade of the four big experiments - Aleph, Delphi, L3 and Opal - at CERN's LEP electron-positron collider. Data-taking started soon after LEP became operational in July 1989, followed by substantial runs in 1990 and 1991. Because of the long lead times involved in today's major physics undertakings, preparations for these four experiments got underway in the early 1980s

  8. L3 Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Falagan bobillo, M A; Chen, E F A; Prokofiev, D; Prokofiev, D; Shvorab, A; Galaktionov, Y; Kopal, M; Cotorobai, F; Le goff, J; Tully, C; Van hoek, W; Nozik, V Z; Nessi-tedaldi, F; De la cruz, B; Wadhwa, M; Chtcheguelski, V; Anderhub, H B; Guo, Y; Garcia-abia, P; Piroue, P; Della marina, R; Cerrada, M; Gailloud, M; Xia, L; Chaturvedi, U K; Pistolesi, E; Zhang, S

    2002-01-01

    % L3 \\\\ \\\\ The detector consists of a large volume low field solenoid magnet, a small central tracking system with very high spatial resolution, a high resolution electromagnetic calorimeter encapsulating the central detector, a hadron calorimeter acting also as a muon filter, and high precision muon tracking chambers. \\\\ \\\\The detector is designed to measure energy and position of leptons with the highest obtainable precision allowing a mass resolution $\\Delta$m/m smaller than 2\\% in dilepton final states. Hadronic energy flux is detected by a fine-grained calorimeter, which also serves as muon filter and tracking device. \\\\ \\\\The outer boundary of the detector is given by the iron return-yoke of a conventional magnet, using aluminium plates for the coil. The field is 0.5~T over a length of 12~m. This large volume allows a high precision muon momentum measurement, performed by three sets of drift chambers in the central detector region. From the multiple measurement of the coordinate in the bending plane a m...

  9. Immune response studies with Wuchereria bancrofti vespid allergen homologue (WbVAH) in human lymphatic filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, Setty Balakrishnan; Gnanasekar, Munirathinam; Thangadurai, Mani; Prabhu, Prince R.; Kaliraj, Perumal; RAMASWAMY, KALYANASUNDARAM

    2007-01-01

    A homologue of Brugia malayi venom allergen (BmVAH) was cloned from the infective stages (L3) of Wuchereria bancrofti. Sequence analysis showed 90% sequence identity between WbVAH and BmVAH. Recombinant WbVAH was then expressed and purified. VAH from other nematode parasites is being evaluated as potential vaccine candidates. Because W. bancrofti infections are more prevalent than B. malayi, it will significantly benefit using W. bancrofti antigens for vaccine development. In this study, we h...

  10. Possible implication of oxidative stress in anti filarial effect of certain traditionally used medicinal plants in vitro against Brugia malayi microfilariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R D Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tropical disease research scheme of World Health Organization has duly recognized traditional medicine as alternative for antifilarial drug development. Polyphenolic compounds present in traditionally used herbal medicines are natural antioxidants; however, paradoxically they may exert pro-oxidant effect. Popular drug diethyl carbamazine citrate harnesses the innate inflammatory response and the consequent oxidative assault to combat invading microbes. Methods: With this perspective, extracts of Vitex negundo L. (roots, Butea monosperma L. (leaves, Aegle marmelos Corr. (leaves, and Ricinus communis L. (leaves were selected to explore the possible role of oxidative rationale in the antifilarial effect in vitro. Results: Apart from the last, other three plant extracts were reported to have polyphenolic compounds. Dose-dependent increase was found in the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation for all the three plant extracts except Ricinus communis L. (leaves. Such increase in oxidative parameters also showed some degree of plant-specific predilection in terms of relatively higher level of particular oxidative parameter. High degree of correlation was observed between the antifilarial effect and the levels of corresponding oxidative stress parameters for these three plants. However, extracts of Ricinus communis L. (leaves which is relatively deficient in polyphenolic ingredients recorded maximum 30% loss of motility and also did not show any significant difference in various stress parameters from corresponding control levels. Conclusion: These results reveal that targeted oxidative stress might be crucial in the pharmacodynamics.

  11. The NASA L3 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Robin

    2016-01-01

    The Astrophysics Implementation Plan calls for a minority role in L3, planned for launch in 2034. L3 The third large mission in ESAs Cosmic Visions 2015-2025 Programme NASA and ESA have been discussing a collaboration for 2 years Gravitational Observatory Advisory Team (GOAT) ESA study evaluating and recommend scientific performance tradeoffs, detection technologies, technology development activities, data analysis capabilities, schedule and cost US representatives: Guido Mueller, Mark Kasevich, Bill Klipstein, RTS Started in October 2014, concluding with a final report in late Marchor early April 2016. ESA solicited interest from ESA Member States in November 2015 NASA is continuing technology development support. ESA is restarting technology development activities.

  12. The L3+Cosmics experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Le Coultre, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Thanks to the unique properties of the L3+C detector, muon research topics relevant to various current problems in cosmic ray and particle astrophysics can be studied. A short overview of the physics topics is presented as well as a description of the detector. (19 refs).

  13. Gene : CBRC-TTRU-01-0063 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AMILY PROTEIN [Brugia malayi] gb|EDP39170.1| PPE FAMILY PROTEIN, putative [Brugia malayi] 6e-73 33% METVHMVKVPRVTLPMVTVLMVT...MPMVMVLMVKLPIVTVPMVIVPVVTVLTVKVPMVTLPTVITLKVTELTVIVAMLTVPLLRVLMVILLTVTVPMVRVLMLRLLMMTTLMVAVPMVT...MLIVAVLMVIVLMLTVLPVTLSMVSVSMVTVLTMILLTVAVLLVTLLRVTVCTVPMVSVPTVTFPMVTVPTVTVSMVRVCMETVHIVTFPTVKMPMVT...VLTMTVPMVTVPMVTVPMVIVPMVTVLMVTVPMVRVLMVTVPMVTVTTVTMPMLTVLTIKMLIVTVPMVILPMGSVLTVKVPMVTLPTVIVHKVRVLTVLVPMVT...VPMVAVPMVTVPMVIVLMVIEPMVTVPMVAVPMVTMFTVSMPMVTLLMVTVLTVKVLTVLVLTVIVLMVIAPW ...

  14. Brugia timori INFECTION IN LEKEBAI, FLORES: clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbain Joesoef

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengamatan filariasis pada penduduk Nualolo-Lekebai, Pulau Flores telah dilakukan pada bulan Februari 1975. Kampung Nualolo-Lekebai berpenduduk 680 jiwa, pekerjaan bertani dan menganut agama Nasrani. Kebiasaan hidup di antara penduduk di daerah ini adalah menyerahkan pelaksanaan pekerjaan berat pada kaum wanita, baik di rumah ataupun di kebun. Dalam perjalanan jauh baik ke kebun atau ke pasar, kaum wanitanya selalu berjalan kaki sedangkan kaum prianya menunggang kuda. Sejumlah 80% dari penduduk kampung ini telah diperiksa terhadap infeksi parasit filaria dan terhadap gejala filariasis. Dari hasil yang ditemukan ternyata penduduk kampung ini menderita infeksi Brugia timori dengan angka derajat infeksi sebesar 7.0% dan angka derajat elephantiasis sebesar 10.3%. Hal yang menarik yang ditemukan dalam pengamatan ini adalah tingginya angka derajat elephantiasis pada kaum wanita dibandingkan dengan pada kaum pria. Fenomena ini mungkin disebabkan oleh kebiasaan hidup kaum wanita di daerah ini sehari-hari yang bekerja lebih berat dan berjalan kaki lebih sering dan lebih jauh dibandingkan kaum prianya.

  15. Effect of cyclophosphamide on the immune responsiveness of jirds infected with Brugia pahangi.

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, S P; Lammie, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro immune responsiveness of lymphocytes from Brugia pahangi-infected jirds was examined after serial administration of cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg). Cyclophosphamide had no effect on parasite burdens, anti-B. pahangi antibody titers, or suppressed spleen cell reactivity to B. pahangi antigens. Cyclophosphamide restored cellular responsiveness to the mitogens phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen.

  16. Single multivalent vaccination boosted by trickle larval infection confers protection against experimental lymphatic filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, SK; Ramaswamy, K.

    2013-01-01

    The multivalent vaccine BmHAT, consisting of the Brugia malayi infective larval (L3) antigens heat shock protein12.6 (HSP12.6), abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2) and tetraspanin large extra cellular loop (TSP-LEL), was shown to be protective in rodent models from our laboratory. We hypothesize that since these antigens were identified using protective antibodies from immune endemic normal individuals, the multivalent vaccine can be augmented by natural L3 infections providing protection to...

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on development of Brugia pahangi in a susceptible strain of Aedes aegypti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richey, T.J.; Rodriguez, P.H.

    1976-08-01

    Female mosquitoes were fed on an infected jird having a microfilarial density of 201 per mm/sup 3/ of blood. Mosquitoes were exposed to doses of 3,000 and 5,000 rads of gamma radiation before and after infection. Mosquitoes were dissected 8 to 10 days later and the number of active larvae was recorded. Results indicated that postinfection radiation affected the development of Brugia pahangi. (HLW)

  18. Brugia filariasis differentially modulates persistent Helicobacter pylori gastritis in the gerbil model

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Heather R.; Shakya, Krishna P.; MUTHUPALANI, SURESHKUMAR; Ge, Zhongming; Klei, Thomas R.; Whary, Mark T.; James G Fox

    2010-01-01

    In select Helicobacter pylori-infected populations with low gastric cancer, nematode coinfections are common and both helicobacter gastritis and filariasis are modeled in gerbils. We evaluated gastritis, worm counts, tissue cytokine gene expression levels and Th1/Th2-associated antibody responses in H. pylori and Brugia pahangi mono- and coinfected gerbils. H. pylori-associated gastritis indices were significantly lower 21 weeks post-infection in coinfected gerbils (p ≤ 0.05) and were inverse...

  19. L3+C air shower array

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Photo 01: a view of the L3+C air shower array; 50 scintillators on the roof of the SX-hall above L3. Photo 02: view of one of the detectors of the array.Photo 04: detectors seen against the background of the LEP Point 2 facilities.

  20. Cutting the L3 torque tube

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    Workers cut the torque tube, with a plasma-cutting device on the L3 experiment, which closed with the LEP accelerator in 2000. L3 was housed in a huge red solenoid, which will be taken over by the ALICE detector when the new LHC is completed.

  1. MICROEMULSIONS AND THE L3 PHASE

    OpenAIRE

    Cates, M.

    1990-01-01

    Microemulsions and the L3 phase provide two different examples of equilibrium random surface structures. In this paper we review recent progress toward understanding these materials on the basis of continuum elastic theory for two-dimensional fluid films.

  2. The Forward Muon Detector of L3

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, A; Alarcon, J; Alberdi, J; Alexandrov, V S; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Ariza, M; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bakker, F; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barcala, J M; Becker, U; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Betev, B L; Biland, A; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borisov, V S; Bosseler, K; Bouvier, P; Brambilla, Elena; Burger, J D; Burgos, C; Buskens, J; Carlier, J C; Carlino, G; Causaus, J; Cavallo, N; Cerjak, I; Cerrada-Canales, M; Chang, Y H; Chen, H S; Chendvankar, S R; Chvatchkine, V B; Daniel, M; De Asmundis, R; Decreuse, G; Deiters, K; Djambazov, L; Duraffourg, P; Erné, F C; Esser, H; Ezekiev, S; Faber, G; Fabre, M; Fernández, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Fritschi, M; García-Abia, P; González, A; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haller, C; Herold, W D; Herrmann, J M; Hervé, A; Hofer, H; Höfer, M; Hofer, T; Homma, J; Horisberger, Urs; Horváth, I L; Ingenito, P; Innocente, Vincenzo; Ioudine, I; Jaspers, M; de Jong, P; Kästli, W; Kaspar, H; Kitov, V; König, A C; Koutsenko, V F; Lanzano, S; Lapoint, C; Lebedev, A; Lecomte, P; Lista, L; Lübelsmeyer, K; Lustermann, W; Ma, J M; Milesi, M; Molinero, A; Montero, A; Moore, R; Nahn, S; Navarrete, J J; Okle, M; Orlinov, I; Ostojic, R; Pandoulas, D; Paolucci, P; Parascandolo, P; Passeggio, G; Patricelli, S; Peach, D; Piccolo, D; Pigni, L; Postema, H; Puras, C; Ren, D; Rewiersma, P A M; Rietmeyer, A; Riles, K; Risco, J; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Röser, U; Romero, L; Van Rossum, W; Rykaczewski, H; Sarakinos, M E; Sassowsky, M; Shchegelskii, V; Scholz, N; Schultze, K; Schuylenburg, H; Sciacca, C; Seiler, P G; Siedenburg, T; Siedling, R; Smith, B; Soulimov, V; Sadhakar, K; Syben, O; Tonutti, M; Udovcic, A; Ulbricht, J; Veillet, L; Vergain, M; Viertel, Gert M; Von Gunten, H P; Vorobyov, A A; Vrankovic, V; De Waard, A; Waldmeier-Wicki, S; Wallraff, W; Walter, H C; Wang, J C; Wei, Z L; Wetter, R; Willmott, C; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, R J; Yang, K S; Zhou, L; Zhou, Y; Zuang, H L

    1996-01-01

    The Forward-Backward muon detector of the L3 experiment is presented. Intended to be used for LEP 200 physics, it consists of 96 self-calibrating drift chambers of a new design enclosing the magnet pole pieces of the L3 solenoid. The pole pieces are toroidally magnetized to form two independent analyzing spectrometers. A novel trigger is provided by resistive plate counters attached to the drift chambers. Details about the design, construction and performance of the whole system are given together with results obtained during the 1995 running at LEP.

  3. LEP beam separator at L3

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    During injection and acceleration, separators like this were used to keep the electron and positron beams apart while they travelled in the vacuum chamber. When the beams reached maximum energy the separators at the experiments were turned off, allowing the beams to collide. This one was located near the L3 experiment, whose huge red solenoid magnet can be seen in the background.

  4. Assay strategies for the discovery and validation of therapeutics targeting Brugia pahangi Hsp90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Taldone

    Full Text Available The chemotherapy of lymphatic filariasis relies upon drugs such as diethylcarbamazine and ivermectin that largely target the microfilarial stages of the parasite, necessitating continued treatment over the long reproductive life span of the adult worm. The identification of compounds that target adult worms has been a long-term goal of WHO. Here we describe a fluorescence polarization assay for the identification of compounds that target Hsp90 in adult filarial worms. The assay was originally developed to identify inhibitors of Hsp90 in tumor cells, and relies upon the ability of small molecules to inhibit the binding of fluorescently labelled geldanamycin to Hsp90. We demonstrate that the assay works well with soluble extracts of Brugia, while extracts of the free-living nematode C. elegans fail to bind the probe, in agreement with data from other experiments. The assay was validated using known inhibitors of Hsp90 that compete with geldanamycin for binding to Hsp90, including members of the synthetic purine-scaffold series of compounds. The efficacy of some of these compounds against adult worms was confirmed in vitro. Moreover, the assay is sufficiently sensitive to differentiate between binding of purine-scaffold compounds to human and Brugia Hsp90. The assay is suitable for high-throughput screening and provides the first example of a format with the potential to identify novel inhibitors of Hsp90 in filarial worms and in other parasitic species where Hsp90 may be a target.

  5. Cognitive approaches to L3 acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Garcia Mayo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Multilingualism has established itself as an area of systematic research in linguistic studies over the last two decades. The multilingual phenomenon can be approached from different perspectives: educational, formal linguistic, neurolinguistic, psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic, among others. This article presents an overview of cognitive (psychological and formal linguistic approaches to third language (L3 acquisition where the assumption is that language acquisition is a complex multi-faceted process. After identifying what is meant by L3, the article briefly reviews the major issues addressed from both the psycholinguistic strand and the emerging L3 linguistic strand and concentrates on those aspects that are in need of further research in both.El plurilingüismo se ha ganado su propia área de investigación dentro de los estudios de lingüística en las últimas dos décadas. El fenómeno se puede abordar desde perspectivas diferentes: educativa, lingüística de carácter formal, neurolingüística, psicolingüística y sociolingüística, entre otras. Este artículo presenta una visión general de dos perspectivas cognitivas, la psicológica y la procedente de la lingüística formal, al tema de la adquisición de la tercera lengua (L3. Ambas perspectivas comparten la asunción de que la adquisición del lenguaje es un proceso complejo y con varias vertientes. Después de identificar lo que entendemos por L3, el artículo revisa de forma sucinta los principales temas que se han tratado tanto desde la perspectiva psicolingüística como desde la más emergente perspectiva lingüística en materia de L3 y se concentra en aquellos aspectos que consideramos que necesitan mayor investigación en ambas.

  6. GAMBARAN PERKEMBANGAN ANTIBODI TERHADAP KOMPONEN PROTEIN CACING MIKROFILARIA MALAYI DARI TRANSMIGRAN DI SULAWESI TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basundari Sri Utami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune response to microfilarial antigen in malayan filariasis was found more prominent in ami-crofilaremic individuals than in the micro filaremics. It has been shown that in amicrofilaremic individuals antibody plays a role in reducing micro filaremiae. The targets antigens of antibody (IgG were shown to be protein components of microfilariae with molecular weight of 75, 70 and 25 Kd. This prospective study was aimed at detecting IgG against microfilariae in transmigrats, who had settled into an filarial endemic area. Sera of 10 individuals at 8, 13, 26, 39 and 52 moths after settling, were examined by ELISA and Wes­tern Blott against microfilaria of B. malayi. Four out of 10 transmigrants showed IgG that recognized the protein components of 77, 70 and 31 Kd and were shown at 39, 52 and 8 months after settling respectively, The IgG against components of 77 and 70 Kd were revealed later than the one against 31 Kd.

  7. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF MALAYAN FILARIASIS IN PUDING VILLAGE, JAMBI PROVINCE (SUMATERA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudomo M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Beberapa daerah di Propinsi Jambi akan dikembangkan menjadi daerah transmigrasi, satu di antara­nya adalah daerah Kumpeh yang terletak berdekatan dengan daerah endemik filariasis malayi. Desa yang paling dekat dengan lokasi transmigrasi tersebut adalah desa Puding. Penelitian pendahuluan tentang penyakit filariasis telah dikerjakan di desa Puding untuk mengetahui tingkat endemisitas, periodisitas B. malayi, fauna nyamuk, jenis nyamuk yang potensial menjadi vektor filariasis, hospes reservoir dan keadaan sosial-ekonomi-budaya penduduk setempat. Mf rate pada penduduk desa Puding adalah 18,7% dan dari B. malayi jenis subperiodiknokturna. Nyamuk yang tertangkap terdiri dari enam genera yaitu genus Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Coquilletidia, Mansonia dan Tripteroides. Dari enam genera tersebut yang potensial untuk menjadi vektor filariasis adalah genus Mansonia dan ini didukung dengan diketemukannyd larva stadium L3 (infektif Brugia sp di tubuh nyamuk tersebut. Keadaan sosial-ekonomi-budaya, khususnya menyangkut adat istiadat dan kebiasaan penduduk setempat, telah dipelajari.

  8. The Effects of L2 Experience on L3 Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the influence of experience with a second language (L2) on the perception of phonological contrasts in a third language (L3). This study contributes to L3 phonology by examining the influence of L2 phonological perception abilities on the perception of an L3 at the beginner level. Participants were native speakers of Korean…

  9. Analysis list: L3MBTL2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L3MBTL2 Blood + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/L3MBTL2....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/L3MBTL2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.j...p/kyushu-u/hg19/target/L3MBTL2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/L3MBTL2.Blood.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml ...

  10. A member of the TGF-beta receptor gene family in the parasitic nematode Brugia pahangi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Escobar, N; van den Biggelaar, A; Maizels, R

    1997-10-15

    The full length cDNA sequence of a Type I transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor has been isolated from the filarial parasitic nematode Brugia pahangi. This new gene, designated Bp-trk-1, encodes a predicted 645 amino acid sequence with an N-terminal hydrophobic stretch which may act as a signal peptide. The extracellular portion (residues 15-187) is cysteine-rich and has three potential N-glycosylation sites. At positions 250-255 the protein contains the glycine-serine rich motif characteristic of Type I receptors. The closest homologue is a Caenorhabditis elegans gene (Q09488) in cosmid C32D5.2 which shares 67% amino acid identity with Bp-trk-1 in the most conserved kinase domain (aa 259-482). Other type I receptors such as C. elegans daf-1 and Drosophila tkv show 38-53% identity in the same region. Some residues conserved in Drosophila and vertebrates are not present in the B. pahangi sequence. RT-PCR amplification has been used to show that the transcript is expressed in the three main stages of the B. pahangi life cycle: microfilariae, infective larvae and adults. The ligand remains unknown at this time but is likely to be most similar to that for C. elegans Q09488. PMID:9358045

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0887 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0887 ref|XP_001902801.1| Transmembrane amino acid transporter protein ...[Brugia malayi] gb|EDP28347.1| Transmembrane amino acid transporter protein [Brugia malayi] XP_001902801.1 0.065 28% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1053 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1053 ref|XP_001901891.1| endoplasmic reticulum multispan transmembrane... protein [Brugia malayi] gb|EDP29450.1| endoplasmic reticulum multispan transmembrane protein, putative [Brugia malayi] XP_001901891.1 0.15 23% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1342 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1342 ref|YP_198592.1| Predicted permease [Wolbachia endosymbiont strai...n TRS of Brugia malayi] gb|AAW71350.1| Predicted permease [Wolbachia endosymbiont strain TRS of Brugia malayi] YP_198592.1 2e-05 25% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1234 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-1234 ref|YP_198404.1| 50S ribosomal protein L13 [Wolbachia endosymbion...t strain TRS of Brugia malayi] gb|AAW71162.1| Ribosomal protein L13 [Wolbachia endosymbiont strain TRS of Brugia malayi] YP_198404.1 3.4 26% ...

  15. Analysis list: l(3)mbt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l(3)mbt Cell line,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/targe...t/l(3)mbt.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/l(3)mbt.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscien...cedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/l(3)mbt.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/l(3)mbt.Cel...l_line.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/l(3)mbt.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscie...ncedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Cell_line.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  16. Macrofilaricidal and microfilaricidal effects of Neurolaena lobata, a Guatemalan medicinal plant, on Brugia pahangi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Y; Kamachi, T; Yanagi, T; Cáceres, A; Maki, J; Aoki, Y

    2005-03-01

    Twelve extracts of 11 Guatemalan medicinal plants were initially screened in vitro for potential macrofilaricidal activity against Brugia pahangi, a lymphatic dwelling filarial worm, using concentrations from 125 to 1000 microg ml(-1) of each extract that could be dissolved in the culture medium. Of 12 extracts used, the ethanol extract of leaves of Neurolaena lobata showed the strongest activity against the motility of adult worms. Subsequently, the extract of N. lobata was extensively examined in vitro for macro- and micro-filaricidal effects using a series of concentrations of 500, 250, 100, 50 and 10 microg ml(-1). The effects were assessed by worm motility, microfilarial release by female worms and a MTT assay. The effect on the motility of adult worms was observed in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The time required to stop motility of both sexes of adult worms was 6 h at 500 microg ml(-1), 24 h at 250 microg ml(-1), and 3 days for females and 4 days for males at 100 microg ml(-1). The movement of females ceased at 4 days at a concentration of 50 microg ml(-1) whereas the motility of males was only reduced. The loss of worm's viability was confirmed by the MTT assay and was similar to the motility results. These concentrations, including 10 microg ml(-1), prevented microfilarial release by females in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Concentrations higher than 100 microg ml(-1) even induced mortality of the microfilariae. The present study suggested that the ethanol extract of Neurolaena lobata has potential macro- and micro-filaricidal activities. PMID:15831109

  17. Last L3 section removed from iron yoke

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    The inner section of the L3 detector is removed from its iron yoke. L3 ran on the LEP collider at CERN between 1989 and 2000. This magnet return yoke will be reused by the ALICE exeriment when the LHC is constructed.

  18. Efficiency studies of the CMS L3 muon trigger

    CERN Document Server

    De Clerck, Marine

    2016-01-01

    The current muon L3 reconstruction algorithms are tested with various muon HLT paths in order to settle the basis for a comparison with the new L3 reconstruction algorithms. Efficiency and fake rate measurements have been performed for single and double muon paths.

  19. L3 English acquisition in Denmark and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spellerberg, Stine Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings of gender-related tendencies found in a study of factors influential in third language acquisition of English in Denmark and Greenland. A survey consisting of a questionnaire and an English test was carried out amongst pupils in their last year of compulsory schooling...... in Copenhagen, Denmark, and Nuuk, Greenland. In total, responses from 187 pupils were included, some of which were responses from pupils learning English as a second language; these respondents were included for comparisons (Copenhagen: L2 learners N =59, L3 learners N=32; Nuuk: L3 learners N=96; age: 14......–16 years). The results showed significant gender-related differences with different patterns between the three learner groups (L2 and L3 learners in Copenhagen, L3 learners in Nuuk) with regard to the level of English proficiency, the degree to which pupils like English as a school subject and the pupils...

  20. AFP-L3 — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    AFP-L3, also known as lectin-bound AFP, is an isoform of AFP, a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal life. Alpha-fetoprotein expression in adults is often associated with hepatoma or teratoma. The L3 isoform is specific to malignant tumors and its detected presence may serve to identify patients who could benefit from monitoring for the development of HCC in high risk populations (i.e. chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis).

  1. L3 acquisition: a focus on cognitive approaches

    OpenAIRE

    García Mayo, María D. Pilar; Gonzalez Alonso, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Interest in third language (L3) acquisition has increased exponentially in recent years, due to its potential to inform long-lasting debates in theoretical linguistics, language acquisition and psycholinguistics. Researchers investigating child and adult L3 acquisition have, from the very beginning, considered the many different cognitive factors that constrain and condition the initial state and development of newly acquired languages, and their models have duly evolved to incorporate insigh...

  2. First results from the L3+C experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Ladrón de Guevara, P

    2001-01-01

    The L3+C experiment combines the high precision spectrometer of the L3 detector at LEP, CERN, with a small air shower array. The momenta of the cosmic ray induced muons can be measured from 20 to 2000 GeV /c. During the 1999 data taking period 5 billion muon events were recorded in the spectrometer. From April to November, 2000, an additional 6.8 billion muon events have been recorded as well as 33 million air shower events. Here the first results on the muon momentum spectrum and charge ratio will be presented. (9 refs).

  3. The L3 vertex detector: Design and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The L3 vertex detector is comprised of the time expansion chamber (TEC), the Z-chamber and a layer of plastic scintillating fibers. The TEC has shown a high spatial resolution and an excellent multi-track reconstruction capability at LEP luminosity. The Z-chamber provides information about the z-coordinates of the tracks and the fibers are used for calibrating the drift velocity with a high precision. A description of the L3 vertex detector, its readout and data acquisition and its performance during the 1990 LEP running period is presented in this paper. (orig.)

  4. Search for exotic events from the L3+C data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Lin-Kai; HE Zuo-Xiu; HUO An-Xiang; JING Cai-Liu; KUANG Hao-Huai; LEI Yu; LI Li; MA Xin-Hua; MA Yu-Qian; QING Cheng-Rui; WANG Rui-Guang; YAO Zhi-Guo; YU Zhong-Qiang; ZHANG Chao; ZHANG Feng; ZHANG Jing; ZHU Qing-Qi

    2009-01-01

    An effort to search for Kolar-like events within the data set of the L3+C experiment is reported. From a total of 0.89×1010 triggered events there are no reliable two-prong Kolar-like events observed. The some reasonable assumptions.

  5. Language Switches in L3 Production: Implications for a Polyglot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sarah; Hammarberg, Bjorn

    1998-01-01

    Presents results from ongoing research about non-adapted language switches, highlighting a longitudinal study of an adult learner of third-language (L3) Swedish with first-language (L1) English and second-language (L2) German. The study is based on 844 non-adapted language switches. Researchers identified four types of switches. Results indicated…

  6. Appraisal Systems in L2 vs. L3 Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrys-Barker, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a comment on the ways multilingual language users perceive their L2 and L3 learning experiences at the level of appraisals, that is, variables that "assign value to current stimuli based on past experience". In the theoretical part of the article the concept of appraisals is introduced and briefly outlined from the different…

  7. L2-Accented Speech in L3 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrembel, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The paper is aimed at investigating the sources of cross-linguistic influence in the third language (L3) phonology, and, particularly, the impact of the second language (L2) on the phonological acquisition of another foreign language. The study consisted in foreign accent judgements performed by a group of expert judges who were presented with…

  8. STATUS OF BRUGIAN FILARIASIS RESEARCH IN INDONESIA AND FUTURE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boo Liat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penyebab penyakit filariasis di Indonesia adalah Brugia malayi dan B. timori. Penyebaran kedua jenis parasit tersebut, serta berbagai masalah perbedaan geografis dari B. malayi, baik pengobatannya dengan chemotherapy maupun immunodiagnosisnya telah diketahui. B. pahangi yang bersumber pada binatang juga telah dilaporkan. Nyamuk-nyamuk sebagai vector untuk B. malayi dan B. timori telah pula disebut. Binatang-binatang liar juga telah dilaporkan sebagai sumber penularan yang sangat potensial melalui subperiodic B. malayi.

  9. The muon spectrometer of the L3 detector at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the construction of the muon spectrometer of the L3 detector is described, one of the four detectors presently being prepared for experimentation at LEP. This accelerator is built at CERN, Geneva, and is due to start operation in July 1989. One of the unique features of the L3 experiment is the measurement of the momentum of the muons produced in the e+e- collisions iwht an independent muon spectrometer. This makes it possible to study final states involving muons, with high accuracy (δP/P = 2% at 45 GeV). The muon spectrometer consists of 80 large drift chambers, arranged in 16 modules or 'octants', that fill a cylindrical volume of 12 m in length, 5 m inner diameter and 12 m outer diameter. The design of the drift chambers, the construction, the alignment procedure and the test results for the complete octants are described. 51 refs.; 57 figs.; 16 tabs

  10. L3: Decay of Z0 to three jets

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    This track is an example of real data collected from the L3 detector on the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran between 1989 and 2000. A Z0 particle is produced in the electron-positron collision, which decays into a quark and an antiquark, one of which emits a gluon. Both quarks and gluons appear in the detector as jets of hadrons.

  11. Nitric Oxide Limits the Expansion of Antigen-Specific T Cells in Mice Infected with the Microfilariae of Brugia pahangi

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard A.; Devaney, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    Infection of BALB/c mice with the microfilariae (Mf) of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi results in an antigen-specific proliferative defect that is induced by high levels of NO. Using carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimydl ester and cell surface labeling, it was possible to identify a population of antigen-specific T cells from Mf-infected BALB/c mice that expressed particularly high levels of CD4 (CD4hi). These cells proliferated in culture only when inducible NO synthase was inhibited and accounted for almost all of the antigen-specific proliferative response under those conditions. CD4hi cells also expressed high levels of CD44, consistent with their status as activated T cells. A similar population of CD4hi cells was observed in cultures from Mf-infected gamma interferon receptor knockout (IFN-γR−/−) mice. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling staining revealed that the CD4+ T cells from Mf-infected wild-type mice were preferentially susceptible to apoptosis compared to CD4+ T cells from IFN-γR−/− mice. These studies suggest that the expansion of antigen-specific T cells in Mf-infected mice is limited by NO. PMID:12379675

  12. The uptake in vitro of dyes, monosaccharides and amino acids by the filarial worm Brugia pahangi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of D-glucose and L-leucine by B. pahangi was demonstrated using autoradiographic and scintillation counting techniques and incorporation into worm tissues was detected. Glucose was found to be readily incorporated in the apical, glycogen-rich areas of the myocytes of worms of all ages studied and in the uterine epithelium of the adult female. In contrast, a lower incorporation of D-glucose was found in the eggs, embryos and vas deferens and especially in the gut. The incorporation of L-leucine occurred throughout the tissue of the worms during a 30 min incubation. Labelling was also located over the surface of the cuticle of the worms, when incubated for a period of 15 to 60 min in L-[3H]leucine. Scintillation counting techniques demonstrated that there was no uptake of 14C-labelled L-glucose or sucrose by B. pahangi. The data presented on the uptake in vitro of nutrients or other compounds by infective larvae and adult stages of B. pahangi did not demonstrate an intestinal route of uptake but indicated that the transcuticular route of uptake may be employed. (author)

  13. A luminosity measurement at LEP using the L3 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffeman, E.N.

    1996-06-25

    To perform high precision measurements at particle colliders it is crucial to know the exact intensity of the colliding beams. In particle physics this quantity is generally referred to as the luminosity. The determination of the luminosity in one of the experiments (L3) is the topic of this thesis. The implementation and the use of a silicon strip detector in L3, will be described in detail. In chapter one the most important parameters measured at LEP are discussed, preceded by a short introduction to the Standard Model. The process generally used for luminosity measurements in electron positron colliders is small angle Bhabha scattering. This process is discussed at the end of chapter one. In chapter two the characteristics of the collider and the L3 experiment are given. Together with the signature of the small angle Bhabha scattering, these experimental conditions determine the specifications for the design of the luminosity monitor. The general features of silicon strip detectors for their application in high energy physics are presented in chapter three. Some special attention is given to the behaviour of the sensors used for the tracking detector in the luminosity monitor. The more specific design details of the luminosity monitor are constricted to chapter four. In chapter five the conversion from detector signals into ccordinates relevant for the analysis is explained. The selection of the small angle Bhabha scattering events and the subsequent determination of the luminosity, are presented in chapter six. Systematic uncertainties are carefully studied. Important for a good understanding of the Bhabha selection are the events where a photon is produced in the scattering process. These events are separately studied. In chapter seven a comparison is presented between the radiative events observed in the data and their modelling in the Bhlumi Monte Carlo programme. (orig.).

  14. A luminosity measurement at LEP using the L3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To perform high precision measurements at particle colliders it is crucial to know the exact intensity of the colliding beams. In particle physics this quantity is generally referred to as the luminosity. The determination of the luminosity in one of the experiments (L3) is the topic of this thesis. The implementation and the use of a silicon strip detector in L3, will be described in detail. In chapter one the most important parameters measured at LEP are discussed, preceded by a short introduction to the Standard Model. The process generally used for luminosity measurements in electron positron colliders is small angle Bhabha scattering. This process is discussed at the end of chapter one. In chapter two the characteristics of the collider and the L3 experiment are given. Together with the signature of the small angle Bhabha scattering, these experimental conditions determine the specifications for the design of the luminosity monitor. The general features of silicon strip detectors for their application in high energy physics are presented in chapter three. Some special attention is given to the behaviour of the sensors used for the tracking detector in the luminosity monitor. The more specific design details of the luminosity monitor are constricted to chapter four. In chapter five the conversion from detector signals into ccordinates relevant for the analysis is explained. The selection of the small angle Bhabha scattering events and the subsequent determination of the luminosity, are presented in chapter six. Systematic uncertainties are carefully studied. Important for a good understanding of the Bhabha selection are the events where a photon is produced in the scattering process. These events are separately studied. In chapter seven a comparison is presented between the radiative events observed in the data and their modelling in the Bhlumi Monte Carlo programme. (orig.)

  15. Experience with the L3 vertex drift chamber at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Anderhub, H; Betev, B L; Biland, A; Böhm, A; Bourilkov, D; Camps, C; Commichau, V; Djambazov, L; Göttlicher, P; Hangarter, K; Hofer, H; Holzner, A; Horisberger, Urs; Kopp, A; Leiste, R; Lohmann, W; Lustermann, W; Mnich, J; Paus, C; Pohl, M; Rahal, G; Röser, U; Sassowsky, M; Schäfer, C; Schmidt-Kärst, A S; Schmitz, P; Spickermann, T; Strässner, A; Suter, H; Szczesny, H; Viertel, G; Vogt, H; Von Gunten, H P; Waldmeier, S; Weber, M; Wienemann, P

    2003-01-01

    The vertex drift chamber of the L3 Experiment at LEP, based on the time expansion principle, was in operation from the start-up of LEP in 1989 until the shutdown of LEP in 2000. The gas mixture used was 80% CO//2 and 20% i-C//4H//1//0 at a pressure of 1200 mbar. We present the design of the chamber, the infrastructure and the performance during the 11 years of operation. The total radiation received on the anode wires was similar to 10**-**4 C/cm. No degradation of the anode pulse amplitude, wire efficiencies and resolution was observed for the whole running period.

  16. 21 CFR 866.6030 - AFP-L3% immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AFP-L3% immunological test system. 866.6030... Systems § 866.6030 AFP-L3% immunological test system. (a) Identification. An AFP-L3% immunological test... measure, by immunochemical techniques, AFP and AFP-L3 subfraction in human serum. The device is...

  17. Photon induced L3 vacancy alignment at tuned photon energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Himani; Kaur, Gurpreet; Tiwari, Manoj K.; Mittal, Raj

    2016-04-01

    Photon induced L3 X-ray measurements for Lα/Lℓ cross-section ratios in elements, 66 ⩽ Z ⩽ 83, at tuned photon energies on synchrotron Beamline-16 at Indus-2, India have been used to study the effect of Coster-Kronig (CK) transitions and photon energies on alignment of L3 vacancies. Certainty and reliability of the measurements were checked from comparison of measured Lα and Lℓ fluorescence cross-sections at E1 excitation with available theoretical/empirical/experimental values that required additional measurements for source, geometry and efficiency factor S0GɛLα/ℓ in the used set-up. Fall/rise trend of the ratios with energy for different Z's was found to resemble the off/on-set pattern of CK transitions as pointed out by Bambynek et al. and Campbell. Evaluated alignment parameter A2 values are very much within the limits, 0.05 Kronig corrected A2) variation with energy for Dy, W, Pt, Hg and Bi resembles our previously reported theoretical patterns that lends mutual support for both current measurements and earlier theoretical results.

  18. Diversity in parasitic nematode genomes: the microRNAs of Brugia pahangi and Haemonchus contortus are largely novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter Alan D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs play key roles in regulating post-transcriptional gene expression and are essential for development in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and in higher organisms. Whether microRNAs are involved in regulating developmental programs of parasitic nematodes is currently unknown. Here we describe the the miRNA repertoire of two important parasitic nematodes as an essential first step in addressing this question. Results The small RNAs from larval and adult stages of two parasitic species, Brugia pahangi and Haemonchus contortus, were identified using deep-sequencing and bioinformatic approaches. Comparative analysis to known miRNA sequences reveals that the majority of these miRNAs are novel. Some novel miRNAs are abundantly expressed and display developmental regulation, suggesting important functional roles. Despite the lack of conservation in the miRNA repertoire, genomic positioning of certain miRNAs within or close to specific coding genes is remarkably conserved across diverse species, indicating selection for these associations. Endogenous small-interfering RNAs and Piwi-interacting (piRNAs, which regulate gene and transposon expression, were also identified. piRNAs are expressed in adult stage H. contortus, supporting a conserved role in germline maintenance in some parasitic nematodes. Conclusions This in-depth comparative analysis of nematode miRNAs reveals the high level of divergence across species and identifies novel sequences potentially involved in development. Expression of novel miRNAs may reflect adaptations to different environments and lifestyles. Our findings provide a detailed foundation for further study of the evolution and function of miRNAs within nematodes and for identifying potential targets for intervention.

  19. Performance Evaluation of L3 Handover Latency in MIPv6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Kavitha,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent years in the field of mobile communications have brought two significant requirements – seamless service delivery and Quality of Service provisioning. Seamless mobility goes hand in hand withMobile IPv6 protocol and various handover schemes of this protocol are trying to solve the QoS issue. In this paper we are presenting a method for evaluation of the Layer 3 handover schemes from the handover latency point of view. A L3 handover procedure can be divided into four phases: Movement Detection, CoA Configuration, Home agent Registration and Route Optimization. We simulated the proposed protocol certificate based on Demand Approach in Route Optimization phase and compared it with the return routability procedure in Route Optimization phase of MIPv6 handover. The latencies in different handover phases have been measured in an operated wireless LAN (WLAN in order to determine the performance bottleneck of handover.

  20. Construction and performance of the L3 central tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The L3 central tracking detector has been in operation since the start-up of LEP (Large Electron Positron collider) in 1989. This detector consists of a Time Expansion Chamber (TEC), a layer of Plastic Scintillating Fibers and a Z-chamber. The TEC gives a high spatial resolution and an excellent multi-track reconstruction capability. The fibers are designed to calibrate the drift velocity with high precision. The Z-Chamber provides TEC with accurate information about the z-coordinates of the tracks. A description of the design and the infrastructure of these three detectors, including the readout and data acquisition system, is given. The performance of the detectors during the 1990 and 1991 LEP running periods is presented. (orig.)

  1. Bacterial endosymbionts of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several groups of bacteria have been reported as endosymbionts of various orders of nematodes including the filarial nematodes (Brugia malayi, Wucheria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus (Spiruida)), the entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp., and Heterorhabditis spp. (Rhabditida)), and plant-p...

  2. Mutations in the bacterial ribosomal protein l3 and their association with antibiotic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Rasmus N; Ntokou, Eleni; Nørgaard, Katrine;

    2015-01-01

    background. Ten plasmid-carried mutated L3 genes were constructed, and their effect on growth and antibiotic susceptibility was investigated. Additionally, computational modeling of the impact of L3 mutations in E. coli was used to assess changes in 50S structure and antibiotic binding. All mutations......-type genes with mutated L3 genes in a chromosomal L3 deletion strain. In this way, the essential L3 gene is available for the bacteria while allowing replacement of the wild type with mutated L3 genes. This enables investigation of the effect of single mutations in Escherichia coli without a wild-type L3...... are placed in the loops of L3 near the PTC. Growth data show that 9 of the 10 mutations were well accepted in E. coli, although some of them came with a fitness cost. Only one of the mutants exhibited reduced susceptibility to linezolid, while five exhibited reduced susceptibility to tiamulin....

  3. Repurposing auranofin as a lead candidate for treatment of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A Bulman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC, and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode.

  4. Repurposing auranofin as a lead candidate for treatment of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulman, Christina A; Bidlow, Chelsea M; Lustigman, Sara; Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Williams, David; Rascón, Alberto A; Tricoche, Nancy; Samje, Moses; Bell, Aaron; Suzuki, Brian; Lim, K C; Supakorndej, Nonglak; Supakorndej, Prasit; Wolfe, Alan R; Knudsen, Giselle M; Chen, Steven; Wilson, Chris; Ang, Kean-Hooi; Arkin, Michelle; Gut, Jiri; Franklin, Chris; Marcellino, Chris; McKerrow, James H; Debnath, Anjan; Sakanari, Judy A

    2015-02-01

    Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae) can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s) of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode. PMID:25700363

  5. Informing the Age-of-Acquisition Debate: L3 as a Litmus Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Following Cabrelli et al. (What the start of L3 tells us about the end of L2: N-drop in L2 and L3 Portuguese, BUCLD, 2008), Iverson (Competing SLA hypotheses assessed: Comparing heritage and successive Spanish bilinguals of L3 Brazilian Portuguese, Mouton de Gruyter, 2009) and others, I argue that the L3 initial state is an important tool in…

  6. L1 and L2 Distance Effects in Learning L3 Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens, Job J.; der Slik, Frans; Hout, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    Many people speak more than two languages. How do languages acquired earlier affect the learnability of additional languages? We show that linguistic distances between speakers' first (L1) and second (L2) languages and their third (L3) language play a role. Larger distances from the L1 to the L3 and from the L2 to the L3 correlate with lower…

  7. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-3 - Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... involving fast-pay stock. 1.7701(l)-3 Section 1.7701(l)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE....7701(l)-3 Recharacterizing financing arrangements involving fast-pay stock. (a) Purpose and scope. This... corporation has fast-pay stock outstanding for any part of its taxable year. (2) Fast-pay stock—(i)...

  8. The L3MBTL3 Methyl-Lysine Reader Domain Functions As a Dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Brandi M; Pattenden, Samantha G; Norris, Jacqueline L; James, Lindsey I; Frye, Stephen V

    2016-03-18

    L3MBTL3 recognizes mono- and dimethylated lysine residues on histone tails. The recently reported X-ray cocrystal structures of the chemical probe UNC1215 and inhibitor UNC2533 bound to the methyl-lysine reading MBT domains of L3MBTL3 demonstrate a unique and flexible 2:2 dimer mode of recognition. In this study, we describe our in vitro analysis of L3MBTL3 dimerization via its MBT domains and additionally show that this dimerization occurs within a cellular context in the absence of small molecule ligands. Furthermore, mutations to the first and second MBT domains abrogated L3MBTL3 dimerization both in vitro and in cells. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that L3MBTL3 engages methylated histone tails as a dimer while carrying out its normal function and provides an explanation for the presence of repeated MBT domains within L3MBTL3. PMID:26317848

  9. L2 and L3 Ultimate Attainment: An Investigation of Two Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermas, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the upper limit of ultimate attainment in the L2 French and L3 English of trilingual learners. The learners are native speakers of Moroccan Arabic who started learning L2 French at eight and L3 English at 16. They are advanced in both languages. Four constructions representing the verb movement and null subject parameter were…

  10. The Acquisition of L3 English Vowels by Infant German-Italian Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missaglia, Federica

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a specific case of L3 acquisition: the starting position for English vowel acquisition by infant German-Italian bilinguals will be investigated in light of prototype theory. The chosen example of triple language contact is characterised by consecutive bilingualism as the basis of L3 acquisition, where the learners' L2…

  11. Language Interference and Language Learning Techniques Transfer in L2 and L3 Immersion Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronin, Larissa; Toubkin, Lynne

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships between the first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) language in immersion programs for Russian-speaking students in Israel. Two parallel and similar immersion programs, which were carried out for the same population, but with different target languages (L2 Hebrew and L3 English), are described. Presents tentative…

  12. L3 physics at the Z resonance and a search for the Higgs particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coan, T.A.; Kinnison, W.W.; Kapustinsky, J.; Shukla, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Physics Div.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Electroweak interactions were studied using the L3 Detector on the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) at the European Center for Nuclear Study (CERN). The specific physics studied utilized the Silicon Microvertex Detector (SMD) of L3, which Los Alamos had previously played a major role in proposing, designing, constructing, and commissioning. This detector enabled L3 to investigate short-lived mesons containing b-quarks.

  13. L3MBTL1 Deficiency Directs the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Toward Trophectoderm

    OpenAIRE

    Hoya-Arias, Ruben; Tomishima, Mark; Perna, Fabiana; Voza, Francesca; Nimer, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be used to study the early events in human development and, hopefully, to understand how to differentiate human pluripotent cells for clinical use. To define how L3MBTL1, a chromatin-associated polycomb group protein with transcriptional repressive activities, regulates early events in embryonic cell differentiation, we created hESC lines that constitutively express shRNAs directed against L3MBTL1. The L3MBTL1 knockdown (KD) hESCs maintained normal morph...

  14. EX0909L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX0909L3: Mapping Field Trials - Hawaiian...

  15. EX1502L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1502L3: Caribbean Exploration (ROV)...

  16. EX1202L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L3: Gulf of Mexico Exploration...

  17. EX1004L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1004L3: Exploration Indonesia - Bitung...

  18. EX1504L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III: Main Hawaiian...

  19. EX1404L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1404L3: Northeast Seamounts and Canyons...

  20. EX1402L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1402L3: Gulf of Mexico Mapping and ROV...

  1. EX1504L3 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  2. EX1504L3 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  3. EX1605L3 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI & Mariana...

  4. EX1504L3 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  5. Computing models of the L3 magnet and the dipole magnet for the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Puzynin, I V; CERN. Geneva; Vodopyanov, A S; Yuldasheva, M B; Yuldashev, O I

    1996-01-01

    Computing models of a magnetic system for the ALICE experiment are considered. The 3D computational simulations of a magnetic field for the L3 magnet and the dipole magnet have been performed in the framework of the differential approach (MSFE3D code) and the integral approach (IAMAG3D code). Comparisons of numerical results with data of the L3 field map and results obtained by using the 3D code TOSCA are given. Deviations of Bz and Br field components for the L3 magnet in a working region are less than 1%. First preliminary computed results for the magnetic system consisting of the L3 magnet and the dipole magnet are presented.

  6. EX1504L3 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  7. EX1504L3 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  8. EX1504L3 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  9. Electroporation-mediated transfection of Acholeplasma laidlawii with mycoplasma virus L1 and L3 DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, A.; Just, W.; da Silva Cardoso, M; Klotz, G.

    1988-01-01

    In contrast to mycoplasma virus L1 and L2 circular DNA, mycoplasma virus L3 linear DNA is not biologically active in polyethylene glycol-mediated transfection. Electroporation of Acholeplasma laidlawii, however, leads to plaque formation after incubation with L3 DNA. The efficiency of electroporation-mediated transfection is 1/10 that of polyethylene glycol-mediated transfection as estimated with L1 DNA. Trypsin treatment of cells before DNA addition increases the efficiency of DNA uptake.

  10. L-3-n-butylphthalide protects against vascular dementia via activation of the Akt kinase pathway**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaping Huai; Yanhong Dong; Jing Xu; Nan Meng; Chunfeng Song; Wenbin Li; Peiyuan Lv

    2013-01-01

    As a neuroprotective drug for the treatment of ischemic stroke, 3-n-butylphthalide, a celery seed ex-tract, has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration of China as a clinical therapeutic drug for ischemic stroke patients. L-3-n-butylphthalide possesses significant efficacy in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The activated Akt kinase pathway can prevent the death of nerve cel s and exhibit neuroprotective effects in the brain after stroke. This study provides the hypothesis that l-3-n-butylphthalide has a certain therapeutic effect on vascular dementia, and its mechanism depends on the activation of the Akt kinase pathway. A vascular dementia mouse model was established by cere-bral repetitive ischemia/reperfusion, and intragastrical y administered l-3-n-butylphthalide daily for 28 consecutive days after ischemia/reperfusion, or 7 consecutive days before ischemia/reperfusion. The Morris water maze test showed significant impairment of spatial learning and memory at 4 weeks after operation, but intragastric administration of l-3-n-butylphthalide, especial y pretreatment with l-3-n-butylphthalide, significantly reversed these changes. Thionine staining and western blot analylsis showed that preventive and therapeutic application of l-3-n-butylphthalide can reduce loss of pyrami-dal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region and al eviate nerve damage in mice with vascular demen-tia. In addition, phosphorylated Akt expression in hippocampal tissue increased significantly after l-3-n-butylphthalide treatment. Experimental findings demonstrate that l-3-n-butylphthalide has preventive and therapeutic effects on vascular dementia, and its mechanism may be mediated by upregulation of phosphorylated Akt in the hippocampus.

  11. Search on charginos and neutralinos with the L3 detector at LEP; Recherche de charginos et de neutralinos avec le detecteur L3 au LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chereau, Xavier [Laboratoire d`Annecy-le-vieux de physique des particules, Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 Annecy (France)

    1998-04-30

    This work presents an experimental search for supersymmetric particles, the charginos and the neutralinos, at center of mass energies {radical} 161, 172 and 183 GeV, with the L3 detector at the e{sup +}e{sup -} collider LEP. Assuming R-parity conservation, SUSY events have a large missing energy, carried by the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), which allow us to distinguish them from standard events. Then, for all the studied final states and all the energies, we optimized the selections in order to have the best signal-to-noise ratio. No excess of events were observed with respect to the standard model predictions. We set upper limits on the chargino and neutralino production cross sections. In the frame of the constraint MSSM, these results were combined with the results from the L3 slepton analyses to set lower limits on the chargino and neutralino masses: particularly, we exclude a neutralino {chi}{sub 1}{sup 0} bar lighter than 25.9 GeV/c{sup 2} (95% C.L.). This result plays an important role for the interpretation of the dark matter in universe. The search for events with missing energy needs a detector with a good hermeticity. At the end of 1995, a new electromagnetic calorimeter was installed in the L3 experiment. Here we present the improvements of performances and the calibration of this detector composed of 48 bricks made with lead and scintillating fibers (SPACAL) 71 refs., 104 figs., 21 tabs.

  12. Genome Wide Association Study Identifies L3MBTL4 as a Novel Susceptibility Gene for Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Hu, Cheng; Bao, Minghui; Li, Jing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Tan, Xuerui; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Yequn; Wu, Shouling; Chen, Shuohua; Zhang, Rong; Jiang, Feng; Jia, Weiping; Wang, Xingyu; Yang, Xinchun; Cai, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major global health burden and a leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although its heritability has been documented previously, contributing loci identified to date account for only a small fraction of blood pressure (BP) variation, which strongly suggests the existence of undiscovered variants. To identify novel variants, we conducted a three staged genetic study in 21,990 hypertensive cases and normotensive controls. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at three new genes (L3MBTL4 rs403814, Pmeta = 6.128 × 10−9; LOC729251, and TCEANC) and seven SNPs at five previously reported genes were identified as being significantly associated with hypertension. Through functional analysis, we found that L3MBTL4 is predominantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and up-regulated in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Rats with ubiquitous over-expression of L3MBTL4 exhibited significantly elevated BP, increased thickness of the vascular media layer and cardiac hypertrophy. Mechanistically, L3MBTL4 over-expression could lead to down-regulation of latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein 1 (LTBP1), and phosphorylation activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway, which is known to trigger the pathological progression of vascular remodeling and BP elevation. These findings pinpointed L3MBTL4 as a critical contributor to the development and progression of hypertension and uncovers a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27480026

  13. Genome Wide Association Study Identifies L3MBTL4 as a Novel Susceptibility Gene for Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Hu, Cheng; Bao, Minghui; Li, Jing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Tan, Xuerui; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Yequn; Wu, Shouling; Chen, Shuohua; Zhang, Rong; Jiang, Feng; Jia, Weiping; Wang, Xingyu; Yang, Xinchun; Cai, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major global health burden and a leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although its heritability has been documented previously, contributing loci identified to date account for only a small fraction of blood pressure (BP) variation, which strongly suggests the existence of undiscovered variants. To identify novel variants, we conducted a three staged genetic study in 21,990 hypertensive cases and normotensive controls. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at three new genes (L3MBTL4 rs403814, Pmeta = 6.128 × 10(-9); LOC729251, and TCEANC) and seven SNPs at five previously reported genes were identified as being significantly associated with hypertension. Through functional analysis, we found that L3MBTL4 is predominantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and up-regulated in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Rats with ubiquitous over-expression of L3MBTL4 exhibited significantly elevated BP, increased thickness of the vascular media layer and cardiac hypertrophy. Mechanistically, L3MBTL4 over-expression could lead to down-regulation of latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein 1 (LTBP1), and phosphorylation activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway, which is known to trigger the pathological progression of vascular remodeling and BP elevation. These findings pinpointed L3MBTL4 as a critical contributor to the development and progression of hypertension and uncovers a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27480026

  14. File list: Oth.ALL.20.L3MBTL2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.20.L3MBTL2.AllCell hg19 TFs and others L3MBTL2 All cell types SRX059371,SRX...059372 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.ALL.20.L3MBTL2.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.ALL.10.L3MBTL2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.10.L3MBTL2.AllCell hg19 TFs and others L3MBTL2 All cell types SRX059372,SRX...059371 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.ALL.10.L3MBTL2.AllCell.bed ...

  16. Cosmic ray muon measurement by the L3 spectrometer at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Yuqian, Ma

    2001-01-01

    L3+C is a branch experiment on L3 magnet spectrometer, which is located on the ring of LEP accelerator at CERN. To take the advantage of L3 muon chambers in its low threshold, wide dynamic range and high resolution, the momentum of cosmic ray muons in the range of 15-2000 GeV/c at a shallow depth of 30 m of molasse can be measured precisely. Since 1998, a scintillator detector system, a new fast trigger and DAQ system, and a small air shower array had been established for study the CR muon events independently. Up to August 2000, 8 billion muons and 25 million air shower events had been recorded. The first results for CR muon spectrum and the charge ratio etc. had been obtained. (3 refs).

  17. Measurement of the masses of the electroweak gauge bosons at L3; Bestimmung der Massen der elektroschwachen Eichbosonen bei L3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbleck, C.

    2006-10-09

    This thesis presents the measurement of the masses of the carriers of the weak force in the Standard Model of Particle Physics, the gauge bosons W and Z. The masses are determined using the kinematics of the bosons' decay products. The data were collected by the L3 experiment at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) at centre-of-mass energies, {radical}(s), between 183 GeV and 209 GeV in the years 1997 to 2000. The Z-boson mass is determined to be m{sub Z}=91.272{+-}0.046 GeV. The second part of this analysis describes the measurement of the mass of the W-boson. The W-boson mass is determined to be m{sub W}=80.242{+-}0.057 GeV in this analysis. If combined with the L3 results at lower centre-of-mass energies, the final W boson mass value is m{sub W}=80.270{+-}0.055 GeV. The {rho} parameter is defined as {rho}=m{sup 2}{sub W}/(m{sup 2}{sub Z} . cos{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}). Using the value of m{sub Z} obtained in the Z resonance scan, the final value for m{sub W} and the value of {theta}{sub W}, {rho} is obtained to be {rho}=0.9937{+-}0.0024, yielding a 2.6{sigma} deviation from 1. Combining the L3 value for m{sub W} with the results of the LEP experiments ALEPH, DELPHI, and OPAL and the TEVATRON experiments CDF and DOe yields a W boson mass of m{sub W}=80.392{+-}0.029 GeV. Together with other measurements this determines the best value of the Higgs-boson mass to be m{sub H}=85{sub -28}{sup +39} GeV. (orig.)

  18. A reverse transcriptase-PCR assay for detecting filarial infective larvae in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J Laney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Existing molecular assays for filarial parasite DNA in mosquitoes cannot distinguish between infected mosquitoes that contain any stage of the parasite and infective mosquitoes that harbor third stage larvae (L3 capable of establishing new infections in humans. We now report development of a molecular L3-detection assay for Brugia malayi in vectors based on RT-PCR detection of an L3-activated gene transcript. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Candidate genes identified by bioinformatics analysis of EST datasets across the B. malayi life cycle were initially screened by PCR using cDNA libraries as templates. Stage-specificity was confirmed using RNA isolated from infected mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were collected daily for 14 days after feeding on microfilaremic cat blood. RT-PCR was performed with primer sets that were specific for individual candidate genes. Many promising candidates with strong expression in the L3 stage were excluded because of low-level transcription in less mature larvae. One transcript (TC8100, which encodes a particular form of collagen was only detected in mosquitoes that contained L3 larvae. This assay detects a single L3 in a pool of 25 mosquitoes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This L3-activated gene transcript, combined with a control transcript (tph-1, accession # U80971 that is constitutively expressed by all vector-stage filarial larvae, can be used to detect filarial infectivity in pools of mosquito vectors. This general approach (detection of stage-specific gene transcripts from eukaryotic pathogens may also be useful for detecting infective stages of other vector-borne parasites.

  19. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) L3-181 N basin cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of this Safety Analysis Report (SARP) is to authorize the onsite transfer of a Type B, Fissile Excepted, non-highway route controlled quantity in the L3-181 packaging from the N Basin to a storage/disposal facility within 200 West Area. This SARP provides the evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the L3-181 meets the requirements of the 'Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping', WHC- CM-2-14, by meeting the applicable performance requirements for normal conditions of transport

  20. Structure Identification of Euphorbia Factor L3 and Its Induction of Apoptosis through the Mitochondrial Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we have focused on the structure identification of Euphorbia factor L3 belonging to the lathyrane diterpenoids isolated from Caper Euphorbia Seed. Its anticancer activity in vitro against lung cancer A549 cells was also investigated and the IC50 values were 34.04 ± 3.99 μM. Furthermore, Euphorbia factor L3 could induce apoptosis in A549 cells via the mitochondrial pathway including loss of mitochondrial potential and release of cytochrome c.

  1. Single and coupled L3 photonic crystal cavities for cavity-QED experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Cristian; Hagemeier, Jenna; Gerace, Dario; Thon, Susanna M.; Kim, Hyochul; Beirne, Gareth; Bakker, Morten; Andreani, Lucio C.; Petroff, Pierre M.; van Exter, Martin P.; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2012-06-01

    Here we discuss the experimental characterization of the spatial far-field profiles for the confined modes in a photonic crystal cavity of the L3 type, finding a good agreement with FDTD simulations. We then link the far-field profiles to relevant features of the cavity mode near-fields, using a simple Fabry-Perot resonator model. Finally, we describe a technique for independent all-electrical control of the wavelength of quantum dots in separated L3 cavities, coupled by a waveguide, by electrical isolation via proton implantation

  2. L1/L2/L3 Writing Development: Longitudinal Case Study of a Japanese Multicompetent Writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal case study, supplemented by cross-sectional comparisons among five groups of writers with differing backgrounds, investigates how Natsu, a Japanese multilingual writer, developed her L1, L2 (English), and L3 (Chinese) writing competence over two and a half years. To create a comprehensive picture of this multilingual writer, the…

  3. L3 Acquisition of Simple and Present Progressive Tenses by Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Jabbari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate the role of transfer at the initial states of the third language (L3 acquisition. The following hypotheses were investigated in this study: (a the second language transfer hypothesis (“L2 Status Factor” proposing that L2 impedes transfer from L1 into L3; (b the Cumulative Enhancement Model (“CEM”, proposing selective transfer from the previously learned languages, here L1 and L2; and (c the Full Transfer/Full Access Hypothesis (FT/FA, suggesting that the Universal Grammar (UG is available in acquiring the succeeding languages. The data were elicited via two experimental groups: one, Persian learners of English as a second language, and the other, Turkmen learners of English as a third language who had already acquired Persian as a second one. The structures tested in this study were simple present and present progressive tenses across the languages mentioned above. The L2 and L3 learners were tested at the initial state of their English acquisition. Data were gathered through grammaticality judgment and translation tasks. The results demonstrated that there is a significant advantage of L1 transfer in L3 acquisition.

  4. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1RZ7L-3FCTA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1RZ7L-3FCTA 1RZ7 3FCT L A -IQMTQSPSSVSASVGDRVTITCRASQDISTWLAWYQQK...pdbChain>L 1RZ7L QQANS-FFTFG E - ATOM 659 CA GLN L 89 -0.807...Chain> 3FCT A 3FCT...A QQYSSYPLTFG ure>EE EE ure>

  5. Tumor imaging using L-3-[123I]iodo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Pieter Lowie

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis,a new tumor imaging tracer in nuclear medicine is studied. This tracer,L -3-[123l]odo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine(IMT) is an artificial amino acid suitable for SPECT imaging. The thesis starts with an overview of radiolabeled aminoa acids in general, continues with a method for the producti

  6. An automated synthesis module for preparation of L-3-[I-123]iodo-alpha-methyl tyrosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luurtsema, G; Jager, PL; Piers, A; de Hooge, MN

    2001-01-01

    L-3-[I-123]iodo-alpha-methyl tyrosine (IMT) is an artificial amino acid suitable for SPECT imaging of various tumours. Manual synthesis of this radiopharmaceutical is reliable, but time-consuming and may require handling of large quantities of radioactivity. We developed an automated IMT synthesis m

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Probiotic Enterococcus faecium Strain L-3

    OpenAIRE

    Karaseva, Alena; Tsapieva, Anna; Pachebat, Justin; SUVOROV, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the bacteriocin producer Enterococcus faecium strain L-3, isolated from a probiotic preparation, Laminolact, which is widely used in the Russian Federation. The draft genome sequence is composed of 74 contigs for a total of 2,643,001 bp, with 2,646 coding genes. Five clusters for bacteriocin production were found.

  8. Localized LoxL3-Dependent Fibronectin Oxidation Regulates Myofiber Stretch and Integrin-Mediated Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft-Sheleg, Ortal; Zaffryar-Eilot, Shelly; Genin, Olga; Yaseen, Wesal; Soueid-Baumgarten, Sharon; Kessler, Ofra; Smolkin, Tatyana; Akiri, Gal; Neufeld, Gera; Cinnamon, Yuval; Hasson, Peleg

    2016-03-01

    For muscles to function, myofibers have to stretch and anchor at the myotendinous junction (MTJ), a region rich in extracellular matrix (ECM). Integrin signaling is required for MTJ formation, and mutations affecting the cascade lead to muscular dystrophies in mice and humans. Underlying mechanisms for integrin activation at the MTJ and ECM modifications regulating its signaling are unclear. We show that lysyl oxidase-like 3 (LoxL3) is a key regulator of integrin signaling that ensures localized control of the cascade. In LoxL3 mutants, myofibers anchor prematurely or overshoot to adjacent somites, and are loose and lack tension. We find that LoxL3 complexes with and directly oxidizes Fibronectin (FN), an ECM scaffold protein and integrin ligand enriched at the MTJ. We identify a mechanism whereby localized LoxL3 secretion from myofiber termini oxidizes FN, enabling enhanced integrin activation at the tips of myofibers and ensuring correct positioning and anchoring of myofibers along the MTJ. PMID:26954549

  9. L3: Decay of Z0 to muon-antimuon pair

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    This track is an example of real data collected from the L3 detector on the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran between 1989 and 2000. A Z0 is produced in the electron-positron pair collision and quickly decays into a muon-antimuon pair. The muons pass through the entire detector without being absorbed.

  10. L2-L3 Coster-Kronig transition probability for Z = 54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total Coster-Kronig transition probability f/sub 23/ for the L2-L3 atomic transition was measured utilizing resolved L-K x-ray coincidence techniques for Z = 54 with radioactive sources of 9.69 day /sup 131/Cs. The value of f/sub 23/ is 0.148 +- 0.029

  11. Epb41l3 suppresses esophageal squamous cell carcinoma invasion and inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rong; Huang, Jun-Peng; Li, Xu Feng; Xiong, Wei-Bin; Wu, Gang; Jiang, Zhao-Jing; Song, Shu-Jie; Li, Ji-Qiang; Zheng, Yan-Fang; Zhang, Ji-Ren

    2016-04-01

    EPB41L3 may play a role as a metastasis suppressor by supporting regular arrangements of actin stress fibres and alleviating the increase in cell motility associated with enhanced metastatic potential. Downregulation of epb41l3 has been observed in many cancers, but the role of this gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear. Our study aimed to determine the effect of epb41l3 on ESCC cell migration and invasion. We investigated epb41l3 protein expression in tumour and non-tumour tissues by immunohistochemical staining. Expression in the non-neoplastic human esophageal cell line Het-1a and four ESCC cell lines - Kyse150, Kyse510, Kyse450 and Caes17 - was assessed by quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) and Western blotting. Furthermore, an EPB41L3 overexpression plasmid and EPB41L3-specific small interfering RNA were used to upregulate EPB41L3 expression in Kyse150 cells and to downregulate EPB41L3 expression in Kyse450 cells, respectively. Cell migration and invasion were evaluated by wound healing and transwell assays, respectively. The expression levels of p-AKT, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and MMP9 were evaluated. Expression of epb41l3 was significantly lower in tumour tissues than in non-tumour tissues and in ESCC cell lines compared with the Het-1a cell line. Kyse450 and Caes17 cells exhibited higher expression of epb41l3 than Kyse150 and Kyse510 cells. Overexpressing epb41l3 decreased Kyse150 cell migration and invasion, whereas EPB41L3-specific small interfering RNA silencing increased these functions in Kyse450 cells. Furthermore, overexpressing epb41l3 led to downregulation of MMP2 and MMP9 in Kyse150 and Kyse510 cells. Our findings reveal that EPB41L3 suppresses tumour cell invasion and inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 expression in ESCC cells.

  12. AFP-L3阳性肝癌患者肝动脉化疗栓塞术后碘油沉积与AFP-L3%下降相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤慧明; 赵念博; 陈祖华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨甲胎蛋白异质体L3(AFP-L3)阳性肝癌肝动脉化疗栓塞术(TACE)术后碘油沉积与AFP-L3占总AFP 的比例(AFP-L3%)下降的相关性。方法随机选择AFP-L3阳性(即≥10%)并行TACE治疗的肝癌68例,术前1周和术后4周分别行AFP-L3检测。根据术后4周CT碘油沉积比例进行分级,与AFP-L3%术后下降及转阴率行相关性分析。结果 CT碘油沉积比例分级及AFP-L3%转阴情况:Ⅰ级13例(19.1%),AFP-L3%转阴3例(23.1%,3/13);Ⅱ级19例(28.0%),AFP-L3%转阴11例(57.9%,11/19);Ⅲ级21例(30.9%),AFP-L3%转阴15例(71.4%,15/21);Ⅳ级15例(22.1%),AFP-L3%转阴14例(93.3%,14/15)。AFP-L3%总转阴43例(63.2%),各级别AFP-L3%转阴率比较差异有统计学意义。结论 AFP-L3阳性肝癌TACE术后碘油沉积比例越高,AFP-L3%下降率及转阴率越高。

  13. Kaon semileptonic decay (K_{l3}) form factors from the instanton vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, S; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Nam, Seung-il

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the kaon semileptonic decay (K_{l3}) form factors within the framework of the nonlocal chiral quark model from the instanton vacuum, taking into account the effects of flavor SU(3) symmetry breaking. We also consider the problem of gauge invariance arising from the momentum-dependent quark mass in the present work. All theoretical calculations are carried out without any adjustable parameter, the average instanton size (rho ~ 1/3 fm) and the inter-instanton distance (R ~ 1 fm) having been fixed. We also show that the present results satisfy the Callan-Treiman low-energy theorem as well as the Ademollo-Gatto theorem. Using the K_{l3} form factors, we evaluate relevant physical quantities. It turns out that the effects of flavor SU(3) symmetry breaking are essential in reproducing the kaon semileptonic form factors. The present results are in a good agreement with experiments, and are compatible with other model calculations.

  14. Revising the worksheet with L3: a language and environment foruser-script interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohn, Michael H.

    2008-01-22

    This paper describes a novel approach to the parameter anddata handling issues commonly found in experimental scientific computingand scripting in general. The approach is based on the familiarcombination of scripting language and user interface, but using alanguage expressly designed for user interaction and convenience. The L3language combines programming facilities of procedural and functionallanguages with the persistence and need-based evaluation of data flowlanguages. It is implemented in Python, has access to all Pythonlibraries, and retains almost complete source code compatibility to allowsimple movement of code between the languages. The worksheet interfaceuses metadata produced by L3 to provide selection of values through thescriptit self and allow users to dynamically evolve scripts withoutre-running the prior versions. Scripts can be edited via text editors ormanipulated as structures on a drawing canvas. Computed values are validscripts and can be used further in other scripts via simplecopy-and-paste operations. The implementation is freely available underan open-source license.

  15. L1, L2, and L3 subshell fluorescence yields: Updated database and new empirical values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahnoune, Y.; Kahoul, A.; Kasri, Y.; Deghfel, B.; Medjadi, D. E.; Khalfallah, F.; Daoudi, S.; Aylikçi, V.; Küp Aylikçi, N.; Nekkab, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a summary of experimental data published in the period of time between 1955 to february-2016 was presented in a tabular form for Li subshell fluorescence yields (ωL1 ,ωL2 andωL3) taken from different sources. First, a critical examination of these data using the weighted average valuesωLi-W was presented. Then, an interpolation using the famous analytical function (ωLi-W / (1 -ωLi-W)) 1 / 4 vs the atomic number Z was proformed to deduce a new empirical Li subshell fluorescence yields for elements in the range 40≤Z≤96 for ωL1 and ωL2 and 23≤Z≤96 for ωL3 . At last, our calculated empirical Li subshell fluorescence yields have been compared with other theoretical and empirical values reported in the literature.

  16. The new level-1 trigger for the forward tagger of the L3 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourquin, M.; Clerc, B.; Field, J.H.; Fredj, L.; Richeux, J.P.; Sciarrino, D.; Susinno, G.F. [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire

    1998-07-11

    A fast level-1 trigger processor for the active lead ring calorimeter (ALR) and for the very small angle tagger (VSAT) of the L3 detector has been constructed and implemented. The main application is the study of single tagged two-photon collision processes at LEP II. Particular care has been taken to preserve the timing characteristics of the signal in order to allow bunch tagging in the multi-bunch mode of LEP. (orig.)

  17. Monitoring and control of the muon detector in the L3 experiment at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the monitoring system of the muon spectrometer of the L3 detector in LEP at CERN is presented. The system is based on a network of VME's using the OS9 operating system. The design guiding lines and the present system configuration are described both from the hardware and the software point of view. In addition, the report contains the description of the monitored parameters showing typical data collected durintg the first months of LEP operation. (Author)

  18. Revising the worksheet with L3: a language and environment for user-script interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hohn, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to the parameter and data handling issues commonly found in experimental scientific computing and scripting in general. The approach is based on the familiar combination of scripting language and user interface, but using a language expressly designed for user interaction and convenience. The L3 language combines programming facilities of procedural and functional languages with the persistence and need-based evaluation of data flow languages. It is ...

  19. Probing magnetostructural correlations in multiferroic HoA l3(BO3) 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Yu, T.; Chen, Z.; Nelson, C. S.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Abeykoon, A. M. M.; Tyson, T. A.

    2015-09-01

    The system HoA l3(BO3) 4 has recently been found to exhibit a large magnetoelectric effect. To understand the mechanism, macroscopic and atomic level properties of HoA l3(BO3) 4 were explored by temperature and magnetic field dependent heat capacity measurements, pressure and temperature dependent x-ray diffraction measurements, as well as temperature and magnetic field dependent x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The experimental work was complemented by density functional theory calculations. An anomalous change in the structure is found in the temperature range where large magnetoelectric effects occur. No significant structural change or distortion of the Ho O6 polyhedra is seen to occur with magnetic field. However, the magnetic field dependent structural measurements reveal enhanced correlation between neighboring Ho O6 polyhedra. This observed response is seen to saturate near 3 T. A qualitative atomic level description of the mechanism behind the large electric polarization induced by magnetic fields in the general class of RA l3(BO3) 4 systems (R = rare earth) is developed.

  20. Diagnosis of Brugian Filariasis by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, Catherine B.; Tanner, Nathan A.; Zhang, Yinhua; Thomas C Evans; Carlow, Clotilde K. S.

    2012-01-01

    Author Summary Brugian filariasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the filarial parasites Brugia malayi or Brugia timori. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and produce large numbers of microfilariae that predominantly circulate in the blood at night. Bloodsucking mosquitoes spread the disease by ingesting microfilariae that develop into infective stage larvae in the insect. In rural areas, diagnosis still relies largely on microscopic examination of...

  1. Isolation of L-3-phenyllactyl-Phe-Lys-Ala-NH2 (Antho-KAamide), a novel neuropeptide from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nothacker, H P; Rinehart, K L; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1991-01-01

    We have isolated and sequenced the neuropeptide L-3-phenyllactyl-Phe-Lys-Ala-NH2 from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. This neuropeptide (named Antho-KAamide) has the unusual N-terminal L-3-phenyllactyl blocking group which has recently also been discovered in 2 other neuropeptides from...

  2. The Development of Suppletive and Affixal Tense and Agreement Morphemes in the L3 English of Basque-Spanish Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Mayo, Maria del Pilar; Villarreal Olaizola, Izaskun

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the third language (L3) developing morphology of 78 Basque-Spanish bilinguals following a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) program and a mainstream English as a foreign language (non-CLIL) program. The analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal oral data shows that (1) the omission of inflection in the L3

  3. Precise measurement of muon momenta at LEP using the L3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this PhD report the author presents the studies and methods developed to achieve the optimization of the resolution in the momentum measurement of the L3 moun detector. Chapters 1 and 2 show the motivations to build a precision muon detector for the LEP e+ e-collider. Special emphasis is applied to the study of the Higgs scalar boson search and identification and the guiding principles used to design the L3 muon detector are outlined. Chapter 3 is devoted to the description of the drift chambers. They are located in three concentric octagonal cylinders inside one solenoidal magnet, around the interaction point and coaxial with the beams. These chambers are the measuring elements of the detector. The chapter includes the description or the different tests applied to the chambers to obtain their resolution and calibration. In chapter 4 the alignment system of this chambers is described. This system is a key element to the precision of the detector, that being 12 meters long and of 12 meters of diameter has to measure the particles trajectories with precisions of just a few micrometers. Chapter 5 describes the third key piece for the detector precision, the monitoring and control system. It allows to know continually the precise values of the critical parameters of the detector. Finally in chapter 6 the author presents the results of the many test applied to the detector using cosmic rays, UV lasers and even the actual muons produced in the e+ e- interactions. These tests prove that the L3 muon detector is the most precise measuring system for muon momenta installed at present in one e+ e- collider ring. (Author)

  4. Test beam results from the prototype L3 Silicon Microvertex Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, A.; Adriani, O.; Ahlen, S.; Ambrosi, G.; Babucci, E.; Baksay, L.; Baschirotto, A.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Bencze, G.L.; Bertucci, B.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G.M.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bosetti, M.; Brooks, M.L.; Burger, W.J.; Busenitz, J.; Camps, C.; Caria, M.; Castellini, G.; Castello, R.; Checcucci, B.; Chen, A.; Coan, T.E.; Commichau, V.; DiBitonto, D.; Duinker, P.; Easo, S.; Extermann, P.; Fiandrini, E.; Gabbanini, A.; Gougas, A.; Hangarter, K.; Hauviller, C.; Herve, A.; Hu, G.; Josa, M.I.; Kapustinsky, J.S.; Kim, D.; Kinnison, W.W.; Kornis, J.; Krastev, V.R.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lee, D.M.; Leiste, R.; Lin, W.; Lohmann, W.; Marin, A.; Massetti, R.; Matay, G.; Mills, G.B.; Nowak, H.; Passaleva, G.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perrin, E.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rattaggi, M.; Rosch, A.; Santocchia, A.; Siedling, R.; Sachwitz, M.; Schmitz, P.; Schoeneich, B.; Servoli, L.; Susinno, G.F.; Terzi, G.; Tesi, M.; Tonisch, F.; Toth, J.; Trowitzsch, G.; Viertel, G.; Vogt, H.; Waldmeier, S.

    1994-05-15

    We report test beam results on the overall system performance of two modules of the L3 Silicon Microvertex Detector exposed to a 50 GeV pion beam. Each module consists of two AC coupled double-sided silicon strip detectors equipped with VLSI readout electronics. The associated data acquisition system comprises an 8 bit FADC, an optical data transmission circuit, a specialized data reduction processor and a synchronization module. A spatial resolution of 7.5 [mu]m and 14 [mu]m for the two coordinates and a detection efficiency in excess of 99% are measured. (orig.)

  5. Design and construction of double-sided silicon ladders for the L3 microvertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosi, G.; Babucci, E.; Battiston, R.; Biasini, M.; Easo, S.; Krastev, V.; Pauluzzi, M.; Santocchia, A.; Bay, A.; Burger, W.J.; Extermann, P.; Perrin, E.; Susinno, G.; Brooks, M.; Kapustinsky, J.S.; Kinnison, W.W.; Lee, D.M.; Mills, G.B.; Thompson, T.C.; DiBitonto, D.; Pennington, T.; Subhani, K.; Hauviller, C. (Univ. Degli Studi di Perugia (Italy) INFN, Perugia (Italy) Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland) Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States) Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States) European Lab. for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland))

    1994-04-21

    The techniques used in the construction of the double-sided ladders for the L3 Silicon Microvertex Detector (SMD) are presented. The detector consists of two cylindrical layers, each of 12 ladders, with double-sided silicon detectors which provide r-phi and z coordinates measurements. This description includes ladder mechanical design and the assembly. A novel solution to readout the z-coordinates is presented. It optimizes very effectively the removal of heat generated by the readout electronics and minimizes the radiation length in the central region. Some results from the survey of the individual ladders are also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Kaon semileptonic decay (K_{l3}) form factor in the nonlocal chiral quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, Seung-il

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the kaon semileptonic decay (K_{l3}) form factors within the framework of the nonlocal chiral quark model from the instanton vacuum, taking into account the effects of flavor SU(3) symmetry breaking. All theoretical calculations are carried out without any adjustable parameter. We also show that the present results satisfy the Callan-Treiman low-energy theorem as well as the Ademollo-Gatto theorem. It turns out that the effects of flavor SU(3) symmetry breaking are essential in reproducing the kaon semileptonic form factors. The present results are in a good agreement with experiments, and are compatible with other model calculations.

  7. Measurement of the photon structure function F2 gamma with the L3 detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kraber, M; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2005-01-01

    The e+e- -> e+e- hadrons reaction, where one of the two electrons is detected in a low polar-angle calorimeter, is analysed in order to measure the hadronic photon structure function F2gamma . The full high-energy and high-luminosity data set, collected with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies 189-209GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 608/pb is used. The Q^2 range 11-34GeV^2 and the x range 0.006-0.556 are considered. The data are compared with recent parton density functions.

  8. Measurement of hadronic final states with the L3 detector at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of σhad and Rb with the L3 detector at the LEP collider at centre-of-mass energies from 192 GeV to 207 GeV are presented. From the measurements are determined the vector and axial vector couplings of the Z boson to the bottom quarks. The vector and axial vector couplings probe the validity of the Standard Model of elementary particle physics. Deviations of the measurements from the Standard Model prediction are discussed in the framework of extended models. (orig.)

  9. Study of photon-induced L3 vacancy alignment for elements La to U

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ajay Sharma; Meenu Singh; Raj Mittal

    2006-06-01

    Alignment of photon-induced L3 vacancies is studied in rare earth and high elements at energies of experimental interest, near thresholds to 60 keV, under non-relativistic dipole approximation. Numerical calculations of the matrix element are undertaken to produce theoretical data for comparison with the experimental findings. The 2 values being > 0.1 at photoelectron energies <20 keV are certainly higher than 5–8% uncertainties quoted in experimental results. Present findings are from a very basic model, hydrogen-like and can further be treated as reference to observe the impact of screening, relativistic, multipole and retardation corrections to the model.

  10. T-odd correlations in radiative K_l3^+ decays and Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, E H; Meißner, Ulf G; Kubis, Bastian; Müller, Eike H; Mei{\\ss}ner, Ulf-G.

    2006-01-01

    The charged kaon decay channel K_l3gamma^+ allows for studies of direct CP violation, possibly due to non-standard mechanisms, with the help of T-odd correlation variables. In order to be able to extract a CP-violating signal from experiment, it is necessary to understand all possible Standard Model phases that also produce T-odd asymmetries. We complement earlier studies by considering strong interaction phases in hadronic structure functions that appear at higher orders in Chiral Perturbation Theory, and compare our findings to other potential sources of asymmetries.

  11. Immunization with Wuchereria bancrofti Glutathione-S-transferase Elicits a Mixed Th1/Th2 Type of Protective Immune Response Against Filarial Infection in Mastomys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andure, Dhananjay; Pote, Kiran; Khatri, Vishal; Amdare, Nitin; Padalkar, Ramchandra; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami

    2016-10-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito borne parasitic infection and can severely affect the normal working ability of an individual. Currently there is no vaccine available to prevent this infection and the development of a potential vaccine could effectively support the on-going mass drug administration program by World Health Organization (WHO). Filarial parasites have complex mechanisms to modulate the host immune responses against them. The glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are the important enzymes effectively involved to counteract the oxidative free radicals produced by the host. In the present study, we have shown that the mastomys which are fully permissible rodents for Brugia malayi when immunized with Wuchereria bancrofti recombinant GST (rWbGST) could induce 65.5 % in situ cytotoxicity against B. malayi infective (L3) larvae. There was a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response in the vaccinated animals, characterized by higher levels of WbGST-specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies and pronounced IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-4 cytokines production by the spleen cells. PMID:27605739

  12. The Solar Flare of the 14th of July 2000 (L3+C detector results)

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Van den Akker, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bähr, J; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, M; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chiarusi, T; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Dela Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; De Asmundis, R; Dglon, P; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Ding, L K; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Durán, I; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Faber, G; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, K; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grabosch, H J; Grimm, O; Groenstege, H; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Haller, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Herv, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, A; Hou, S R; Huo, A X; Ito, N; Jin, B N; Jindal, P; Jing, C L; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kantserov, V A; Kaur, M; Kawakami, S; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kok, E; Korn, A; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kraber, M; Kuang, H H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kuijpers, J; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Li, L; Li, Z C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Meng, X W; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Parriaud, J F; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, F; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Qing, C R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Ravindran, K C; Razis, P; Rembeczki, S; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Rewiersma, P A M; Riemann, S; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schöneich, B; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shen, C Q; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Trowitzsch, G; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Unger, M; Valente, E; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, G; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Van Wijk, R; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Y P; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yang, X F; Yao, Z G; Yeh, S C; Yu, Z Q; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, C; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z P

    2006-01-01

    Several experiments have reported observations on possible correlations between the flux of high energy muons and intense solar flares. If confirmed, these observations would have significant implications for acceleration processes in the heliosphere able to accelerate protons and other ions to energies of at least tens of GeV. The solar flare of the 14 July 2000 offers a unique opportunity for the L3+C experiment to search for a correlated enhancement in the flux of muons using the L3 precision muon spectrometer. Its capabilities for observing a directional excess in the flux of muons above 15 GeV (corresponding to primary proton energies above 40 GeV) are presented along with observations made on the 14th of July 2000. We report an excess which appeared at a time coincident with the peak increase of solar protons observed at lower energies. The probability that the excess is a background fluctuation is estimated to be 1%. No similar excess of the muon flux was observed up to 1.5 hours after the solar flare ...

  13. l3a81nc.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-3A-81-NC in Central Coast, Northern California from 04/16/1981 to 04/26/1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-3A-81-NC in Central Coast, Northern...

  14. Diagnosis value of AFP and AFP-L3 combined detection in hepatocellular carcinoma%血清 AFP、AFP-L3联合检测在原发性肝癌中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐恩君; 陈秋莉; 李涛; 郝丽; 肖春红; 徐元宏; 周敏; 徐胜前

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic value of alpha fetoprotein (AFP), alpha fetoprotein L3(AFP-L3) and ratio of AFP-L3 to AFP in hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC).Methods In 354 patients, 110 patients with hep-atocellular carcinoma(HCC) and 244 patients with benign liver disease (BLD)(including 94 patients with hepati-tis, 126 patients with liver cirrhosis and 24 patients with benign liver tumors).AFP and AFP-L3 which was separa-ted by affinity adsorption centrifugal tube were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassays , following cal-culation ratio of AFP-L3 to AFP.Results In 110 patients with HCC, the patients of AFP 200 ng /ml were 32 cases, 30 cases and 48 cases respectively.In 244 patients with BLD, the patients of AFP <20 ng/ml were 196 cases.Levels of AFP, AFP-L3 and ratio of AFP-L3 to AFP in patients with HCC were significantly higher than that in patients with BLD (P <0.01).According to ROC curve, areas under the curve(AUC) of AFP, AFP-L3 and ratio of AFP-L3 to AFP were 0.809, 0.819 and 0.800 respectively, and AUC of combination three markers was 0.829(P <0.01).When the cut-off values of ratio of AFP-L3 to AFP were 5%, 10% or 15%, the sensitivities were 59.1%, 50.9% or 40.9%, and the specificities were 86.1%, 94.7%or 98.4%.Conclusion Diagnostic value of combination AFP and AFP -L3 is higher than AFP in diagnosis of hepa-tocellular carcinoma.The best cut-off value of ratio of AFP-L3 to AFP is 5%.%目的探讨甲胎蛋白(AFP)、甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)以及 AFP-L3比率在原发性肝癌(HCC)中的诊断价值。方法选取患者共354例,原发性肝癌(HCC)110例,良性肝病(BLD)244例(其中肝炎94例,肝硬化126例,肝良性肿瘤24例),采用亲和吸附离心管分离 AFP-L3,用电化学发光法测定 AFP 和 AFP-L3含量,计算 AFP-L3比率。结果110例 HCC 患者中,有32例 AFP <20 ng/ml,30例 AFP 20~200 ng/ml,48例 AFP >200 ng/ml;244例 BLD 患者中,196例 AFP

  15. 2016 CSSE L3 Milestone: Deliver In Situ to XTD End Users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchett, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nouanesengsy, Boonthanome [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fasel, Patricia Kroll [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ahrens, James Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    This report summarizes the activities in FY16 toward satisfying the CSSE 2016 L3 milestone to deliver in situ to XTD end users of EAP codes. The Milestone was accomplished with ongoing work to ensure the capability is maintained and developed. Two XTD end users used the in situ capability in Rage. A production ParaView capability was created in the HPC and Desktop environment. Two new capabilities were added to ParaView in support of an EAP in situ workflow. We also worked with various support groups at the lab to deploy a production ParaView in the LANL environment for both desktop and HPC systems. . In addition, for this milestone, we moved two VTK based filters from research objects into the production ParaView code to support a variety of standard visualization pipelines for our EAP codes.

  16. Activity of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) essential oil against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rincón, Carlota; Langa, Elisa; Murillo, Paula; Valero, Marta Sofía; Berzosa, César; López, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Nematicidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, commonly known as tea tree oil (TTO), was assayed in vitro against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex. The results showed a mortality of 100% for concentrations between 7 and 10 μL/mL after 48 h of incubation, obtaining an LD50 value of 4.53 μL/mL after 24 hours and 4.27 μL/mL after 48 hours. Concentration-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was observed for tea tree essential oil showing inhibition values of 100% at 100 μL/mL. This fact suggests that TTO may act as an AChE inhibitor. Terpinen-4-ol was discarded as main larvicide compound as it did not show larvicidal or anticholinesterase activity. The data obtained suggest that the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia may have a great therapeutic potential for the treatment of human anisakiasis.

  17. Synthesis and Luminescence of Complexes EuxY1-x(phen)L3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永亮; 赵凤英

    2002-01-01

    A series of binuclear complexes with different molar ratio of europium to yttrium with cinnamic acid and o-phenanthroline were synthesized in anhydrous alcohol. Elemental analysis shows that the composition of the complexes are EuxY1-x(phen)L3 (L: C6H5CH=CHCOO, x=1.0, 0.7, 0.5, 0.3 and 0.1). The IR absorption spectra indicate that cinnamate is coordinated to the rare earth ions and chemical bonds are formed between rare earth ions and nitrogen atoms of o-phenanthroline. Fluorescent spectra show that the emission of Eu3+ ion can be greatly enhanced if some of europium ions in the complexes are substituted by yttrium ions.

  18. Standard Model Higgs Boson with the L3 Experiment at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Baarmand, M M; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; Dai, T S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Ewers, A; Extermann, Pierre; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S V; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, M; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zilizi, G; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2001-01-01

    Final results of the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson are presented for the data collected by the L3 detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies up to about 209 GeV. These data are compared with the expectations of Standard Model processes for Higgs boson masses up to 120 GeV. A lower limit on the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson of 112.0 GeV is set at the 95% confidence level. The most significant high mass candidate is a Hnn bar event. It has a reconstructed Higgs mass of 115 GeV and it was recorded at Square root of s =206.4 GeV.

  19. Synthesis and Characteristics of an Aspartame Analogue, L-Asparaginyl L-3-Phenyllactic Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu TAO; Da-Fu CUI; You-Shang ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    An aspartame analogue,L-asparaginyl L-3-phenyllactic acid methyl ester was synthesized with aspartic acid replaced by asparagine and peptide bond replaced by ester bond.The aspartic acid of aspartame could be replaced by asparagine as reported in the literature.In this analogue,the hydrogen ofamide group could still form a hydrogen bond with the oxygen of ester bond and the ester bond was isosteric with peptide bond.However,the product was not sweet,showing that the peptide bond could not be replaced by ester bond.The peptide C-N bond behaves as a double bond that is not free to rotate and the C,O,N and H atoms are in the same plane.The replacement of peptide bond by ester bond destroyed the unique conformation of peptide bond,resulting in the loss of sweet taste.

  20. Synthesis and characteristics of an aspartame analogue, L-asparaginyl L-3-phenyllactic acid methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hu; Cui, Da-Fu; Zhang, You-Shang

    2004-06-01

    An aspartame analogue, L-asparaginyl L-3-phenyllactic acid methyl ester was synthesized with aspartic acid replaced by asparagine and peptide bond replaced by ester bond. The aspartic acid of aspartame could be replaced by asparagine as reported in the literature. In this analogue, the hydrogen of amide group could still form a hydrogen bond with the oxygen of ester bond and the ester bond was isosteric with peptide bond. However, the product was not sweet, showing that the peptide bond could not be replaced by ester bond. The peptide C-N bond behaves as a double bond that is not free to rotate and the C, O, N and H atoms are in the same plane. The replacement of peptide bond by ester bond destroyed the unique conformation of peptide bond, resulting in the loss of sweet taste.

  1. Contribution to the elaboration and implementation of LEP-L3 second level microcoded Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is devoted to the elaboration of the L3 second level trigger which is based on the dedicated programmable XOP processor. This system will reduce the trigger rate by a factor of ten and will ensure that the hardwired level-one processors function correctly. The present document describes all developments that L.A.P.P. is engaged in from the system design up to the complete experimental set up, especially: - The hardware development of the fast input memories as well as the FASTBUS interface unit which allows the microprocessor XOP to run as a performant FASTBUS Master, - the associated software developments, - the implementation of a VME test system dedicated to all control tasks

  2. Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer identifies EPB41L3 as a functional suppressor of epithelial ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dafou, Dimitra; Grun, Barbara; Sinclair, John;

    2010-01-01

    lines. Using immunohistochemistry, 66% of 794 invasive ovarian tumors showed no EPB41L3 expression compared with only 24% of benign ovarian tumors and 0% of normal ovarian epithelial tissues. EPB41L3 was extensively methylated in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian tumors compared with normal...... (erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3, alternative names DAL-1 and 4.1B) was a candidate ovarian cancer-suppressor gene. Immunoblot analysis showed that EPB41L3 was activated in TOV21G(+18) hybrids, expressed in normal ovarian epithelial cell lines, but was absent in 15 (78%) of 19 ovarian cancer cell...... tissues (P = .00004), suggesting this may be the mechanism of gene inactivation in ovarian cancers. Constitutive reexpression of EPB41L3 in a three-dimensional multicellular spheroid model of ovarian cancer caused significant growth suppression and induced apoptosis. Transmission and scanning electron...

  3. Large extracellular loop of tetraspanin as a potential vaccine candidate for filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar; Stoicescu, Kristen; Reddy, Maryada Venkatarami; Kalyanasundaram, Ramaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis affects nearly 120 million people worldwide and mass preventive chemotherapy is currently used as a strategy to control this infection. This has substantially reduced the incidence of the infection in several parts of the world. However, a prophylactic vaccine would be more effective in preventing future infections and will supplement the mass chemotherapy efforts. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine available currently to prevent this infection. Molecules expressed on the surface of the parasite are potential candidates for vaccine development as they are exposed to the host immune system. In this study we show that the large extracellular loop of tetraspanin (TSP LEL), a protein expressed on the cuticle of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti is a potential vaccine candidate. Our results showed that BmTSP LEL is expressed on the surface of B. malayi infective third stage larvae (L3) and sera from human subjects who are putatively immune to lymphatic filariasis carry high titer of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies against BmTSP LEL and WbTSP LEL. We also showed that these antibodies in the sera of human subjects can participate in the killing of B. malayi L3 in an antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity mechanism. Vaccination trials in mice showed that close to 64% protection were achieved against challenge infections with B. malayi L3. Immunized animals showed high titer of anti-WbTSP LEL IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies in the sera and IFN-γ secreting cells in the spleen. Onchocerca volvulus another filarial parasite also expresses TSP LEL. Cross-reactivity studies showed that IgG1 antibody in the sera of endemic normal subjects, recognize OvTSP LEL. Similarly, anti-OvTSP LEL antibodies in the sera of subjects who are immune to O. volvulus were also shown to cross-react with rWbTSP LEL and rBmTSP LEL. These findings thus suggested that rTSP LEL can be developed as a potential vaccine candidate against multiple filarial infections

  4. Large extracellular loop of tetraspanin as a potential vaccine candidate for filariasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajalakshmi Dakshinamoorthy

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis affects nearly 120 million people worldwide and mass preventive chemotherapy is currently used as a strategy to control this infection. This has substantially reduced the incidence of the infection in several parts of the world. However, a prophylactic vaccine would be more effective in preventing future infections and will supplement the mass chemotherapy efforts. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine available currently to prevent this infection. Molecules expressed on the surface of the parasite are potential candidates for vaccine development as they are exposed to the host immune system. In this study we show that the large extracellular loop of tetraspanin (TSP LEL, a protein expressed on the cuticle of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti is a potential vaccine candidate. Our results showed that BmTSP LEL is expressed on the surface of B. malayi infective third stage larvae (L3 and sera from human subjects who are putatively immune to lymphatic filariasis carry high titer of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies against BmTSP LEL and WbTSP LEL. We also showed that these antibodies in the sera of human subjects can participate in the killing of B. malayi L3 in an antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity mechanism. Vaccination trials in mice showed that close to 64% protection were achieved against challenge infections with B. malayi L3. Immunized animals showed high titer of anti-WbTSP LEL IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies in the sera and IFN-γ secreting cells in the spleen. Onchocerca volvulus another filarial parasite also expresses TSP LEL. Cross-reactivity studies showed that IgG1 antibody in the sera of endemic normal subjects, recognize OvTSP LEL. Similarly, anti-OvTSP LEL antibodies in the sera of subjects who are immune to O. volvulus were also shown to cross-react with rWbTSP LEL and rBmTSP LEL. These findings thus suggested that rTSP LEL can be developed as a potential vaccine candidate against multiple

  5. Lack of effect of entorhinal kindling on L-[3H]glutamic acid presynaptic uptake and postsynaptic binding in hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium-independent L-[3H]glutamic acid binding and sodium-dependent L-[3H]glutamic acid high affinity uptake were measured in hippocampal membranes of rats administered electroshock seizures or kindled to class 5 seizures by entorhinal cortical stimulation. There were no differences in these glutamatergic synaptic markers among electroshocked, kindled, or surgical control animals. Entorhinal kindling is not a reflection of activity-regulated facilitation of perforant path glutamatergic neurotransmission

  6. Preparation and In Vitro Evaluation of Antitumor Activity of TGFαL3-SEB as a Ligand-Targeted Superantigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Fazlollah; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Aslani, Mohammad Mehdi; Amani, Jafar; Rad, Hamid Sedighian; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani

    2016-04-01

    Tumor-targeted superantigens (TTSs) have been used to treat a variety of tumors in preclinical studies. The TTS utilizes the powerful T-cell activation strategy by means of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) as superantigens (Sags) to target tumor cells. Monoclonal antibodies and tumor-related ligands have been used as targeting molecules of Sag. In this study, we assessed the antitumor potency of tumor-targeted superantigen (TTS) strategy to design and produce fusion protein as a new antitumor candidate. The third loop (L3) of transforming growth factor α (TGF-α) was genetically conjugated to staphylococcal enterotoxin type B (TGFαL3-SEB), and its in vitro antitumor activity against murine breast cancer cells (A431 cell line) was evaluated. We designed and prepared TGFαL3-SEB chimeric protein and evaluated superantigenic activity, binding property to cancer cells, overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and in vitro antitumor activities. Cloning of tgfαl3-seb was confirmed by colony-polymerase chain reaction, enzymatic digestion, and sequencing. The recombinant TGFαL3-SEB fusion protein with molecular weight of 31 kDa was expressed and confirmed by anti-His Western-blot analysis. The TGFαL3-SEB fusion protein attached to A431 cell line with proper affinity and induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity against EGFR-expressing cancer cells in vitro. The TGFαL3-SEB chimeric protein exhibited potent in vitro antitumor activity. Our findings indicated that TGFαL3-SEB may be a promising anticancer candidate in cancer immunotherapy, and further studies are required to explore its potential in vivo therapeutic applications. PMID:25759426

  7. AFP-L3和PIVKA-Ⅱ在肝细胞癌诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红霞; 郑国军; 史琼英; 樊燕; 王永忠

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨AFP-L3和PIVKA-Ⅱ在原发性肝癌(HCC)诊断中的价值。方法:应用微量离心柱法分离检测小扁豆凝集素结合型AFP_L3百分含量(AFP-L3%),PIVKA-Ⅱ用电化学发光免疫分析试剂盒检测。结果:肿瘤标志物的判断标准为:AFP-L3%≥10%为阳性,AFP>10ng/ml为阳性,PIVKA-Ⅱ>40mAU/ml为阳性。在慢性肝病组中,AFP》20ng/mL占10.2%,HCC组中则占64.8%。AFP、AFP-L3和PIVKA-Ⅱ在HCC组都明显高于慢性肝病组,差异存在统计学意义(P<0.001)。结论:联合测定AFP-L3和PIVKA-Ⅱ可有效提高HCC的诊断价值。

  8. Activity of Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil against L3 Larvae of Anisakis simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Gómez-Rincón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematicidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, commonly known as tea tree oil (TTO, was assayed in vitro against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex. The results showed a mortality of 100% for concentrations between 7 and 10 μL/mL after 48 h of incubation, obtaining an LD50 value of 4.53 μL/mL after 24 hours and 4.27 μL/mL after 48 hours. Concentration-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was observed for tea tree essential oil showing inhibition values of 100% at 100 μL/mL. This fact suggests that TTO may act as an AChE inhibitor. Terpinen-4-ol was discarded as main larvicide compound as it did not show larvicidal or anticholinesterase activity. The data obtained suggest that the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia may have a great therapeutic potential for the treatment of human anisakiasis.

  9. Valence determination of rare earth elements in lanthanide silicates by L 3-XANES spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, Antonina N.; Guda, Alexander A.; Goettlicher, Joerg; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Taroev, Vladimir K.; Kashaev, Anvar A.; Suvorova, Lyudmila F.; Tauson, Vladimir L.

    2016-05-01

    Lanthanide silicates have been hydrothermally synthesized using Cu and Ni containers. Chemical formulae of the synthesized compounds correspond to K3Eu[Si6O15] 2H2O, HK6Eu[Si10O25], K7Sm3[Si12O32], K2Sm[AlSi4O12] 0.375H2O, K4Yb2[Si8O21], K4Ce2[Al2Si8O24]. The oxidation state of lanthanides (Eu, Ce, Tb, Sm, Yb) in these silicates has been determined using XANES spectroscopy at the Eu, Ce, Tb, Sm, Yb, L 3- edges. The experimental XANES spectra were recorded using the synchrotron radiation source ANKA (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) and the X-ray laboratory spectrometer Rigaku R- XAS. By comparing the absorption edge energies and white line intensities of the silicates with the ones of reference spectra the oxidation state of lanthanides Eu, Ce, Tb, Sm, Yb has been found to be equal to +3 in all investigated silicates except of the Ce-containing silicate from the run in Cu container where the cerium oxidation state ranges from +3 (Ce in silicate apatite and in a KCe silicate with Si12O32 layers) to +4 (starting CeO2 or oxidized Ce2O3).

  10. Ultralow bias power all-optical photonic crystal memory realized with systematically tuned L3 nanocavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An InP photonic crystal nanocavity with an embedded InGaAsP active region is a unique technology that has realized an all-optical memory with a sub-micro-watt operating power and limitless storage time. In this study, we employed an L3 design with systematic multi-hole tuning, which realized a higher loaded Q factor (>40 000) and a lower mode volume (0.9 μm3) than a line-defect-based buried-heterostructure nanocavity (16 000 and 2.2 μm3). Excluding the active region realized a record loaded Q factor (210 000) in all for InP-based nanocavities. The minimum bias power for bistable memory operation was reduced to 2.3 ± 0.3 nW, which is about 1/10 of the previous record of 30 nW. This work further established the capability of a bistable nanocavity memory for use in future ultralow-power-consumption on-chip integrated photonics

  11. Small bowel entrapment and ureteropelvic junction disruption associated with L3 Chance fracture-dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenti, Sebastien; Blondel, Benjamin; Faure, Alice; Peltier, Emilie; Launay, Franck; Jouve, Jean-Luc

    2016-09-16

    Paediatric Chance fracture are rare lesions but often associated with abdominal injuries. We herein present the case of a seven years old patient who sustained an entrapment of small bowel and an ureteropelvic disruption associated with a Chance fracture and spine dislocation following a traffic accident. Initial X-rays and computed tomographic (CT) scan showed a Chance fracture with dislocation of L3 vertebra, with an incarceration of a small bowel loop in the spinal canal and a complete section of the left lumbar ureter. Paraplegia was noticed on the initial neurological examination. A posterior L2-L4 osteosynthesis was performed firstly. In a second time she underwent a sus umbilical laparotomy to release the incarcerated jejunum loop in the spinal canal. An end-to-end anastomosis was performed on a JJ probe to suture the left injured ureter. One month after the traumatism, she started to complain of severe headaches related to a leakage of cerebrospinalis fluid. Three months after the traumatism there was a clear regression of the leakage. One year after the trauma, an anterior intervertebral fusion was done. At final follow-up, no neurologic recovery was noticed. In case of Chance fracture, all physicians should think about abdominal injuries even if the patient is asymptomatic. Initial abdominal CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging provide in such case crucial info for management of the spine and the associated lesions. PMID:27672641

  12. A turn-key Concept for active cancellation of Global Positioning System L3 Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigra, Lou; Lewis, B. M.; Edgar, C. E.; Perillat, P.; Quintero, L.; Stanimirovic, S.; Gallagher, J. S., III

    2011-01-01

    We present a concept, developed at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC) at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, for suppression of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals in the 305 m dish radio receiver path prior to backend processing. The subsystem does not require an auxiliary antenna and is intended for easy integration with radio telescope systems with a goal of being a turnkey addition to virtually any facility. We have focused on detection and cancellation of the GPS L3 signal at 1381.05 MHz which, during periodic test modes and particularly during system-wide tests, interfere with observations of objects in a range of redshifts that includes the Coma supercluster, for example. The signal can dynamically change modulation modes and our scheme has demonstrated, through simulations using actual sampled telescope data, the ability to acquire and track these signals as well as detect the mode changes in order to apply cancellation or blanking, as appropriate. The subsystem can also be adapted to GPS L1 (1575.42 MHz), L2C (1227.6 MHz), and others. A follow-up is underway to develop a prototype to deploy and evaluate at NAIC.

  13. A turn-key Concept for active cancellation of Global Positioning System L3 Signal

    CERN Document Server

    Nigra, Lou; Edgar, Clyde; Perillat, Phil; Quintero, Luis; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Gallagher, J S

    2010-01-01

    We present a concept, developed at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC) at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, for active suppression of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals in the 305 m dish radio receiver path prior to backend processing. The subsystem does not require an auxiliary antenna and is intended for easy integration with radio telescope systems with a goal of being a turnkey addition to virtually any facility. Working with actual sampled signal data, we have focused on the detection and cancellation of the GPS L3 signal at 1381.05 MHz which, during periodic test modes and particularly during system-wide tests, interfere with observations of objects in a range of redshifts that includes the Coma supercluster, for example. This signal can dynamically change modulation modes and our scheme is capable of detecting these changes and applying cancellation or sending a blanking signal, as appropriate. The subsystem can also be adapted to GPS L1 (1575.42 MHz), L2C (1227.6 MHz), and others. A follow-up...

  14. MID TERM ASSESSMENT OF MASS DRUG ADMINISTRATION IN LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS ENDEMIC AREA OF DAMOH AND SAGAR DISTRICT OF MADHYA PRADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan; Yash; Ankur

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi is an important public health problem in India. Filariasis is a major social and the fourth most common cause of disability all over the globe. Filariasis is endemic in 17 States and six Union Territories, with about 553 million people at risk of infection...

  15. LINT, a novel dL(3mbt-containing complex, represses malignant brain tumour signature genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Meier

    Full Text Available Mutations in the l(3mbt tumour suppressor result in overproliferation of Drosophila larval brains. Recently, the derepression of different gene classes in l(3mbt mutants was shown to be causal for transformation. However, the molecular mechanisms of dL(3mbt-mediated gene repression are not understood. Here, we identify LINT, the major dL(3mbt complex of Drosophila. LINT has three core subunits-dL(3mbt, dCoREST, and dLint-1-and is expressed in cell lines, embryos, and larval brain. Using genome-wide ChIP-Seq analysis, we show that dLint-1 binds close to the TSS of tumour-relevant target genes. Depletion of the LINT core subunits results in derepression of these genes. By contrast, histone deacetylase, histone methylase, and histone demethylase activities are not required to maintain repression. Our results support a direct role of LINT in the repression of brain tumour-relevant target genes by restricting promoter access.

  16. Learning minimally different words in a third language: L2 proficiency as a crucial predictor of accuracy in an L3 word learning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Simon; P. Escudero; M. Broersma

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of proficiency in the L2 (English) and L3 (Dutch) on word learning in the L3. Learners were 92 L1 Spanish speakers with differing proficiencies in L2 and L3, and 20 native speakers of Dutch. The learners were divided into basic and advanced English and Dutch proficienc

  17. Contribution to the design and implementation of the trigger and acquisition system of the L3 experiment at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis is devoted to the trigger and data acquisition system of the L3 experiment at LEP. It is a large distributed system with multiple levels to trigger, collect and record events detected by the L3 detector. The three trigger levels are designed to reduce a possible first level trigger rate of 100 Hz to a few Hz. The readout and event building systems have intermediate buffering so that the only dead time is only introduced during digitization of the detector signals. The emphasis of this thesis is on the Hadron Calorimeter (one of the sub detectors) readout system, the L3 event building system and the upgraded level-3-trigger system. Both hardware and software are described. (author). 126 refs., 48 figs., 23 tabs

  18. 海洋细菌AiL3菌株防治香蕉枯萎病研究%Biological Control of Banana Fusarium Wilt by Marine Bacterium AiL3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萌; 唐桢强; 何红; 谢江辉

    2013-01-01

    The indoor experiment and field test of Marine bacterium AiL3 were carried out to study the effect on the suppression of the banana Fusarium-wilt disease and the growth of banana seedlings. The results showed that the number of leaves, the plant height, photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of the tested banana plants were promoted significantly after innoculated with strain AiL3 in indoor and field tests compared to the control treatment. The control efficacies of AiL3 against Fusarium Wilt was 100% with the test indoor for six months. The control efficacies were 72.71% and 46.32% after 8 months with the indoor test and field test, respectively. It was suggested that the bacterial strain AiL3 could control the banana Fusarium wilt and promote growth of banana.%采用室内盆栽和大田小区试验对海洋细菌AiL3菌株防治香蕉枯萎病作用及对香蕉的促生效果进行测定.结果表明:菌株处理后盆栽试验和大田试验中的香蕉苗叶片数、株高、光合速率和蒸腾速率等均明显高于对照;AiL3菌株盆栽试验处理6个月后对香蕉枯萎病的防治效果达100%,大田小区试验菌株处理8个月后对香蕉枯萎病的防治效果分别为72.71%和46.32%.表明AiL3菌株对香蕉植株有一定的防病促生作用.

  19. Whole-body kinetics and dosimetry of l-3-[123I]iodo-α-methyltyrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthetic amino acid l-3-[123I]iodo-α-methyltyrosine (IMT) is currently under clinical evaluation as a single-photon emission tomography (SPET) tracer of amino acid uptake in brain tumours. So far, dosimetric data in respect of IMT are not available. Therefore we investigated the whole-body distribution of IMT in six patients with cerebral gliomas and the radiation doses were estimated. Whole-body scans were acquired at 1.5, 3 and 5 h after i.v. injection of 370-550 MBq IMT. The bladder was voided prior to each scan and the radioactivity excreted in the urine was measured. Based on the MIRD-11 method and the updated MIRDOSE3, the mean absorbed doses for various organs and the effective dose were calculated from geometric means of the anterior and posterior whole-body scans using seven source organs and the residence time. IMT was predominantly excreted by the kidneys (52.8%±11.5% at 1.5 h p.i., 63.0%±15.7% at 3 h p.i. and 74.6%±9.8% at 5 h p.i.). No organ system other than the urinary tract showed significant retention of the tracer. Early whole-body scans revealed slightly increased tracer uptake in the liver and in the bowel. Highest absorbed doses were found for the urinary bladder wall (0.047 mGy/MBq), the kidneys (0.010 mGy/MBq), the lower large intestinal wall (0.011 mGy/MBq) and the upper large intestinal wall (0.008 mGy/MBq). The effective dose according to ICRP 60 was estimated to be 0.0073 mSv/MBq for adults. This leads to an effective dose of 3.65 mSv in a typical brain SPET study using 500 MBq IMT. The MIRDOSE3 scheme yielded similar results. Thus, in spite of the relatively high tracer dose required for optimal brain scanning, radiation exposure in SPET studies with IMT is in the normal range of routine nuclear medicine investigations. (orig.). With 1 fig., 4 tabs

  20. Neutral current physics with τleptons using the L3 detector at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the analysis of the neutral current process e+e-→τ+τ- has been discussed. Results on measurements of the total cross section, the forward-backward asymmetry, the polarization asymmetry and the forward-backward polarization asymmetry have been presented using the data which were collected with the L3 detector from 1990 to 1992. Special emphasis was given to the measurement of the polarization asymmetry and forward-backward polarization asymmetry. Combining these two measurements Ae and Aτ can be extracted. The results are: Ae=0.125±0.022(stat.)±0.013(sys.), Aτ=0.171±0.016(stat.)±0.014(sys.). In addition to these results also the measurements of the total cross section and the forward-backward asymmetry in the channels e+e-→e+e-, e+e-→μ+μ-, e+e-→τ+τ- and of the total cross section in the channel e+e-→q anti q are used to determine the properties of the Z boson. The data are interpreted in the frame work of the Standard Model and of the following model independent ansatzes: the S-matrix, effective couplings and partial width approach. Using exclusively results from the channel e+e-→τ+τ-, the mass and width of the Z boson are measured to be: mZ=91.189±0.036 GeV, Γz=2.502±0.061 GeV. The effective couplings of τ to the Z boson are determined to be: gVτ=-0.0454±0.0053, gAτ=0.4993±0.0042. The effective weak mixing angle is derived: sin2 ΘW = 0.2273±0.0027. The partial decay which of the Z boson into τ+τ- pairs is measured to be: Γτ=83.97±0.99 MeV. All measurements are in good agreement with the predictions of the Standard Model. The hypothesis of lepton universality is confirmed. (orig.)

  1. MODIS/COMBINED MCD12C1 Land Cover Type Yearly L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS/Terra+Aqua Land Cover Type Yearly L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG The Land Cover Type Yearly Climate Modeling Grid (CMG) is a lower spatial resolution (0.05?) product,...

  2. The HADHSC gene encoding short-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) and type 2 diabetes susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hove, Els C; Hansen, Torben; Dekker, Jacqueline M;

    2006-01-01

    The short-chain l-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) protein is involved in the penultimate step of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Previously, it has been shown that mutations in the corresponding gene (HADHSC) are associated with hyperinsulinism in infancy. The presumed function...

  3. Feasibility of tumor imaging using L-3-[iodine-123]-iodo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine in extracranial tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, PL; Franssen, EJF; Kool, W; Szabo, BG; Hoekstra, HJ; Groen, HJM; de Vries, EGE; van Imhoff, GW; Vaalburg, W; Piers, DA

    1998-01-01

    L-3-[I-123]-lodo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine (IMT) is a modified amino acid. It is reported to be avidly taken up in brain tumors, reflecting amino acid transport and is suitable for SPECT. Methods: To determine whether tumors outside the brain can also accumulate this tracer, we injected 300-450 MBq IMT

  4. MODIS/COMBINED MCD12Q2 Land Cover Dynamics Yearly L3 Global 500 m SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS/Terra+Aqua Land Cover Type Yearly L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG The Land Cover Type Yearly Climate Modeling Grid (CMG) is a lower spatial resolution (0.05?) product,...

  5. L-3-[I-123]iodo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine SPECT in non-small cell lung cancer : Preliminary observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, PL; Groen, HJM; van der Leest, A; van Putten, JWG; Pieterman, RM; de Vries, EGE; Piers, DA

    2001-01-01

    L-3-[(123)]iodo-alpha -methyl-tyrosine (IMT) is a modified amino acid that is avidly taken up by many tumors. Uptake is based on the increased transmembrane transport of amino acids in malignancies. IMT is the only amino acid tracer suitable for SPECT. The aim of this study was to determine the feas

  6. MODIS/COMBINED MCD12Q1 Land Cover Type Yearly L3 Global 500 m SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS/Terra+Aqua Land Cover Type Yearly L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG The Land Cover Type Yearly Climate Modeling Grid (CMG) is a lower spatial resolution (0.05?) product,...

  7. AVHRR Pathfinder version 5.3 level 3 collated (L3C) global 4km sea surface temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.3 (PFV53) L3C Sea Surface Temperature data set is a collection of global, twice-daily (Day and Night) 4km sea surface temperature...

  8. LNO3 AND L3 Are Associated With Antiproliferative And Pro-Apoptotic Action In Hepatoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Campos Zanelatto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of antitumoral substances is the focus of intense biomedical research. Two structural analogues of thalidomide, LNO3 and L3, are two synthetic compounds that might possess such antitumor properties. We evaluated the toxicological effects of these substances, including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in HTC cells. Additionally, the production of free radicals (nitric oxide and superoxide was investigated, and the expression of caspases genes 3, 8, and 9 were determined by RT-qPCR. The compounds exhibited cytotoxic effects that resulted in inhibited cell proliferation. LNO3 showed to be more effective and toxic than L3 in all assays. LNO3 stimulated the release of NO and superoxide, which was accompanied by the formation of peroxynitrite. Apoptosis was induced in a dose-dependent manner by both compounds; however, the expression of caspases 3, 8 and 9 was unchanged. These results suggested that L3 and LNO3 possess antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in HTC cells. Additionally, although they exhibited cytotoxicity, L3 and LNO3 might be useful coadjuvants in tumor treatment studies.

  9. Application of RELAP5/MOD3.1 code to the LOFT test L3-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pylev, S.S.; Roginskaja, V.L.

    1998-02-01

    A calculation of LOFT Experiment L3-6, a small break equivalent to a 4-in diameter rupture in the cold leg of a four-loop commercial pressurized water reactor, has been performed to help validate RELAP5/MOD3.1 for this application. The version of the code to be used is SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.1.8d0. Three calculations were carried out in order to study the sensitivity to change break nozzle superheated discharge coefficient. Conducted comparative analysis of the LOFT L3-6 experiment shows on the whole a reasonable agreement between calculated data. Some discrepancies in the system pressure do not distort a picture of the transient. 6 refs.

  10. Loss of l(3)mbt leads to acquisition of the ping-pong cycle in Drosophila ovarian somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Tetsutaro; Sato, Kaoru; Yamamoto, Hitomi; Iwasaki, Yuka W; Siomi, Haruhiko; Siomi, Mikiko C

    2016-07-15

    In Drosophila germ cells, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are amplified through a PIWI slicer-dependent feed-forward loop termed the ping-pong cycle, yielding secondary piRNAs. However, the detailed mechanism remains poorly understood, largely because an ex vivo model system amenable to biochemical analyses has not been available. Here, we show that CRISPR-mediated loss of function of lethal (3) malignant brain tumor [l(3)mbt] leads to ectopic activation of the germ-specific ping-pong cycle in ovarian somatic cells. Perinuclear foci resembling nuage, the ping-pong center, appeared following l(3)mbt mutation. This activation of the ping-pong machinery in cultured cells will greatly facilitate elucidation of the mechanism underlying secondary piRNA biogenesis in Drosophila. PMID:27474440

  11. The multilingual reader : advantages in understanding/decoding German sentence structure when reading German as an L3

    OpenAIRE

    Peyer, Elisabeth; Kaiser, Irmtraud; Berthele, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates Italian and French students' grammatical problems while reading in German as an L3 or L4. To achieve this aim, we developed a reading test which consists of encyclopaedia articles on imaginary animals. By way of these articles various grammatical structures were tested for their receptive difficulty. In this paper, the relationship between students' reading competence in their other foreign languages (mostly English, French/Italian or Spanish) and their results on our...

  12. Experience with the SVX-H chip in the construction of the L3 silicon microvertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiston, R. (INFN-Sezione di Perugia (Italy) Univ. degli Studi di Perugia (Italy)); Bertucci, B. (INFN-Sezione di Perugia (Italy) Univ. degli Studi di Perugia (Italy)); Bilei, G. (INFN-Sezione di Perugia (Italy) Univ. degli Studi di Perugia (Italy)); Checcucci, B. (INFN-Sezione di Perugia (Italy) Univ. degli Studi di Perugia (Italy)); Servoli, L. (INFN-Sezione di Perugia (Italy) Univ. degli Studi di Perugia (Italy)); Wang, S.J. (INFN-Sezione di Perugia (Italy) Univ. degli Studi di Perugia (Italy)); Passaleva, G. (INFN-Sezione di Firenze (Italy) Univ. degli Studi di Perugia (Italy)); Bay, A. (Univ. of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)); Burger, W.J. (Univ. of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)); Extermann, P. (Univ. of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)); Susinno, G. (Univ. of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)); Brooks, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Kapustinsky, J.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Kinnison, W.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United State

    1994-04-21

    The SVX is a charge preamplifier with a sample and hold stage and sparse readout capability developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The SVX radiation hard version has been used by the SMD collaboration to build the L3 Silicon Microvertex Detector where double-sided AC coupled silicon sensors are read out. The SVX-H test procedure in the SMD detector assembly phase will be described as well as the obtained results. (orig.)

  13. The design and construction of a double-sided Silicon Microvertex Detector for the L3 experiment at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, A. [Technical Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Physical Inst.; Ahlen, S.; Marin, A.; Zhou, B. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Ambrosi, G.; Babucci, E.; Bertucci, B.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G.M.; Caria, M.; Checcucci, B.; Easo, S.; Fiandrini, E.; Krastev, V.R.; Massetti, R.; Pauluzzi, M.; Santocchia, A.; Servoli, L. [INFN/Universita di Perugia (Italy); Baschirotto, A.; Bosetti, M.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rattaggi, M.; Terzi, G. [INFN/Universita di Milano (Italy); Battiston, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[INFN/Universita di Perugia (Italy); Bay, A.; Burger, W.J.; Extermann, P.; Perrin, E.; Susinno, G.F. [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland); Bencze, G.Y.L.; Kornis, J.; Toth, J. [KFKI/Research Inst. for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Bobbink, G.J.; Duinker, P. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brooks, M.L.; Coan, T.E.; Kapustinsky, J.S.; Kinnison, W.W.; Lee, D.M.; Mills, G.B.; Thompson, T.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Busenitz, J.; DiBitonto, D. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Camps, C.; Commichau, V.; Hangartner, K.; Schmitz, P. [RWTH, Aachen (Germany). 3. Physikalisches Institut; Castellini, G. [INFN/IROE, Firenze (Italy); Chen, A.; Hou, S.; Lin, W.T. [NCU, Chung/Li (Taiwan, Province of China); Gougas, A.; Kim, D.; Paul, T. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Hauviller, C.; Herve, A.; Josa, I. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Landi, G. [INFN/Universita di Firenze (Italy); Lebeau, M. [LAPP, Annecy (France); Lecomte, P.; Viertel, G.M.; Waldmeier, S. [ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Leiste, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[DESY-IFH, Zeuthen (Germany); Lejeune, E.; Weill, R. [Univ. of Lausanne (Switzerland); Lohmann, W.; Nowak, H.; Sachwitz, M.; Schoeniech, B.; Tonisch, F.; Trowitzsch, G.; Vogt, H. [DESY-IFH, Zeuthen (Germany); Passaleva, G. [INFN/Universita di Firenze (Italy)]|[INFN/Universita di Perugia (Italy); Yeh, S.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    1993-12-01

    A Silicon Microvertex Detector (SMD) has been commissioned for the L3 experiment at the Large Electron-Positron colliding-beam accelerator (LEP) at the European Center for Nuclear Physics, (CERN). The SMD is a 72,672 channel, two layer barrel tracker that is comprised of 96 ac-coupled, double-sided silicon detectors. Details of the design and construction are presented.

  14. The design and construction of a double-sided Silicon Microvertex Detector for the L3 experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Silicon Microvertex Detector (SMD) has been commissioned for the L3 experiment at the Large Electron-Positron colliding-beam accelerator (LEP) at the European Center for Nuclear Physics, (CERN). The SMD is a 72,672 channel, two layer barrel tracker that is comprised of 96 ac-coupled, double-sided silicon detectors. Details of the design and construction are presented

  15. Intraspecific epitopic variation in a carbohydrate antigen exposed on the surface of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infective L3 larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Maass

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The carbohydrate larval antigen, CarLA, is present on the exposed surface of all strongylid nematode infective L3 larvae tested, and antibodies against CarLA can promote rapid immune rejection of incoming Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae in sheep. A library of ovine recombinant single chain Fv (scFv antibody fragments, displayed on phage, was prepared from B cell mRNA of field-immune sheep. Phage displaying scFvs that bind to the surface of living exsheathed T. colubriformis L3 larvae were identified, and the majority of worm-binding scFvs recognized CarLA. Characterization of greater than 500 worm surface binding phage resulted in the identification of nine different anti-CarLA scFvs that recognized three distinct T. colubriformis CarLA epitopes based on blocking and additive ELISA. All anti-CarLA scFvs were specific to the T. colubriformis species of nematode. Each of the three scFv epitope classes displayed identical Western blot recognition patterns and recognized the exposed surface of living T. colubriformis exsheathed L3 larvae. Surprisingly, each of the anti-CarLA scFvs was able to bind to only a subset of worms. Double-labelling indirect immunofluorescence revealed that the three classes of anti-CarLA scFvs recognize distinct, non-overlapping, T. colubriformis sub-populations. These results demonstrate that individual T. colubriformis L3 larvae display only one of at least three distinct antigenic forms of CarLA on their surface at any given time, and suggest that antigenic variation within CarLA is likely a mechanism of immune evasion in strongylid nematodes.

  16. A novel biosurfactant produced by Aureobasidium pullulans L3-GPY from a tiger lily wild flower, Lilium lancifolium Thunb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Shik Kim

    Full Text Available Yeast biosurfactants are important biotechnological products in the food industry, and they have medical and cosmeceutical applications owing to their specific modes of action, low toxicity, and applicability. Thus, we have isolated and examined biosurfactant-producing yeast for various industrial and medical applications. A rapid and simple method was developed to screen biosurfactant-producing yeasts for high production of eco-friendly biosurfactants. Using this method, several potential niches of biosurfactant-producing yeasts, such as wild flowers, were investigated. We successfully selected a yeast strain, L3-GPY, with potent surfactant activity from a tiger lily, Lilium lancifolium Thunb. Here, we report the first identification of strain L3-GPY as the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans. In addition, we isolated a new low-surface-tension chemical, designated glycerol-liamocin, from the culture supernatant of strain L3-GPY through consecutive chromatography steps, involving an ODS column, solvent partition, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and an ODS Sep-Pak cartridge column. The chemical structure of glycerol-liamocin, determined by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, indicates that it is a novel compound with the molecular formula C33H62O12. Furthermore, glycerol-liamocin exhibited potent biosurfactant activity (31 mN/m. These results suggest that glycerol-liamocin is a potential novel biosurfactantfor use in various industrial applications.

  17. Alignment Studies for Tungsten Near L3 Sub-Shell Threshold Via Theoretical, Experimental and Empirical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Sharma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alignment studies are made for tungsten near L3 sub-shell threshold using theoretical, experimental and empirical approaches. Experimentally to measure alignment parameter, the angular distribution of L x-rays of tungsten (W-74 is measured in the angular range 0° to 120°, where maximum anisotropy is expected. The experimental measurements are performed in XRF laboratories of Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology (RRCAT, Indore, India using a three-dimensional double reflection set-up. The weighted average of alignment values with 10% error comes 0.155 ± 0.009. Theoretically, the value of alignment parameter A20 is calculated using non-relativistic dipole approximation in a point Coulomb potential and is found 0.151 at L3 threshold energy (10.676 keV. For empirical A20 evaluations, IGELCS interpolated experimental LXRF cross-section σ*Lg (g = α,  values of Mann et al with 8% reported errors are used along with the radiative decay rates. The comparison among theoretical, experimental and empirical values are similar and values being >0.1 at L3 threshold energy are certainly higher than the 5 to 8 percent uncertainties quoted in earlier experimental results.

  18. Evaluation of a Multivalent Vaccine against Lymphatic Filariasis in Rhesus macaque Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; von Gegerfelt, Agneta; Andersen, Hanne; Lewis, Mark; Kalyanasundaram, Ramaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis affects 120 million people worldwide and another 1.2 billion people are at risk of acquiring the infection. Chemotherapy with mass drug administration is substantially reducing the incidence of the infection. Nevertheless, an effective vaccine is needed to prevent the infection and eradicate the disease. Previously we reported that a multivalent fusion protein vaccine (rBmHAT) composed of small heat shock proteins 12.6 (HSP12.6), abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2) and large extracellular domain of tetraspanin (TSP LEL) could confer >95% protection against the challenge infection with Brugia malayi infective larvae (L3) in mouse and gerbil models. In this study we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of rBmHAT fusion protein vaccine in a rhesus macaque model. Our results show that rBmHAT is highly immunogenic in rhesus macaques. All the vaccinated monkeys developed significant titers of antigen-specific IgG antibodies against each of the component antigens (16,000 for rBmHSP12.6), (24,000 for rBmALT-2) and (16,000 for rBmTSP-LEL). An in vitro antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay performed using the sera samples from vaccinated monkeys showed that the anti-rBmHAT antibodies are functional with 35% killing of B. malayi L3s. Vaccinated monkeys also had antigen responding cells in the peripheral blood. Vaccine-induced protection was determined after challenging the monkeys with 500 B. malayi L3. Following challenge infection, 3 out of 5 vaccinated macaques failed to develop the infection. These three protected macaques had high titers of IgG1 antibodies and their PBMC secreted significantly high levels of IFN-γ in response to the vaccine antigens. The two vaccinated macaques that picked the infection had slightly low titers of antibodies and their PBMC secreted high levels of IL-10. Based on these findings we conclude that the rBmHAT vaccine is highly immunogenic and safe and can confer significant protection against

  19. Transfer Trajectories to L3 Libration Point of Sun-Earth System%基于准流形方法日地系L3点转移轨道设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘迅; 泮斌峰

    2015-01-01

    针对深空探测中轨道转移时间长且能量消耗较大的问题,提出基于准流形实现从地球停泊轨道到日地系L3点转移轨道的设计方法.在日地限制性三体问题模型下,在L1点或L2点Halo轨道上施加扰动推力,构造准流形,利用其非线性三体动力学特性,通过霍曼转移轨道与近地轨道进行拼接,使航天器进入准流形后能够无动力滑行到L3点附近区域.在准流形与L3点周期轨道交点,施加速度脉冲,使航天器进入相应周期轨道,从而完成轨道转移.仿真结果表明,利用该方法所得结果与基于不变流形的转移轨道相比,能将速度增量从4 398 m/s减少为4 014 m/s,并将转移时间从9年以上缩短到7.3年以内,有效地提高了航天器的工作效率.

  20. Search for supersymmetry in 2 different topologies with the L3 detector at Lep; Recherche de supersymetrie dans les canaux avec un ou deux leptons avec le detecteur L3 a LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balandras, A

    2000-11-13

    The present thesis presents two different aspects of my work in the L3 experiment, which are on one side the search for supersymmetric particles, the scalar leptons, in two different topologies 'electron + X + E' and '2 leptons + 2 photons + E', each of them being related to two theoretical SUSY models, m-SUGRA and GMSB. On the other side my work has been completed by the study of the BGO crystal electromagnetic calorimeter of L3, and the calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter EGAP. After the essential motivations being reviewed, the production and disintegration modes are detailed concerning the scalar lepton sector at LEP. Then one presents the analysis techniques which I used to perform my selection, and also the results obtained from the data collected by L3 for center of mass energies between {radical} S =183 GeV and 202 GeV. The selection criteria that allow to isolate the events I looked for, including efficiencies but also the background rate coming from Standard Model that one can expect are presented. The final interpretations of those results in both frameworks of m-SUGRA and GMSB are detailed at the end of this thesis. I took benefit of those results to derive some limits on the masses of the scalar leptons that do not depend on the free parameters of the SUSY models, especially on the selectron mass in the framework of m-SUGRA: M{sub e}-tilde{sub R} > 71.2 GeV. (authors)

  1. Tandem antioxidant enzymes confer synergistic protective responses in experimental filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, P R; Madhumathi, J; Anugraha, G; Jeyaprita, P J; Reddy, M V R; Kaliraj, P

    2014-12-01

    Helminth parasites use antioxidant defence strategies for survival during oxidative stress due to free radicals in the host. Accordingly, tissue-dwelling filarial parasites counteract host responses by releasing a number of antioxidants. Targeting these redox regulation proteins together, would facilitate effective parasite clearance. Here, we report the combined effect of protective immune responses trigged by recombinant Wuchereria bancrofti thioredoxin (WbTRX) and thioredoxin peroxidase (WbTPX) in an experimental filarial model. The expression of WbTRX and WbTPX in different stages of the parasite and their cross-reactivity were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The immunogenicity of recombinant proteins and their protective efficacy were studied in animal models when immunized in single or cocktail mode. The antigens showed cross-reactive epitopes and induced high humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. Further, parasite challenge against Brugia malayi L3 larvae in Mastomys coucha conferred significant protection of 57% and 62% against WbTRX and WbTPX respectively. The efficacy of L3 clearance was significantly higher (71%) (P filariasis.

  2. Roles of linguistic knowledge, metacognitive knowledge and processing speed in L3, L2 and L1 reading comprehension: a structural equation modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Gelderen; R. Schoonen; K. de Glopper; J. Hulstijn; P. Snellings; A. Simis; M. Stevenson

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present an analysis of the relationship between L3 reading comprehension and its constituent skills for bilingual Dutch students for whom English is a third language(L3) compared to monolingual Dutch students for whom English is a second language(L2). An analogous analysis is made

  3. On L3 Acquisition and Phonological Permeability: A New Test Case for Debates on the Mental Representation of Non-Native Phonological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Jennifer Cabrelli; Rothman, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to make an epistemological and theoretical contribution to the nascent field of third language (L3) acquisition and show how examining L3 development can offer a unique view into longstanding debates within L2 acquisition theory. We offer the Phonological Permeability Hypothesis (PPH), which maintains that examining the…

  4. Function and antigen recognition pattern of L3T4+ T-cell clones from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-immune mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, S H; Flesch, I

    1986-01-01

    T-cell clones were established from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-immunized mice. These clones had the phenotype Thy-1+ L3T4+ Lyt-2- and were restricted by the H-2I-A locus. After antigen stimulation, the T-cell clones secreted interleukin-2 and gamma interferon. Factors produced by these T-cell clones activated normal bone marrow macrophages for antimycobacterial activity in vitro. Furthermore, the T-cell clones could adoptively confer delayed-type hypersensitivity on normal recipient mice. The...

  5. Differential requirements for the induction of interleukin 2 responsiveness in L3T4+ and Lyt-2+ T cell subsets

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Minimal requirements for the induction of interleukin 2 (IL-2) responsiveness in purified subsets of murine T lymphocytes have been investigated. Whereas Lyt-2+ cells could be induced to IL-2-dependent growth by lectin, phorbol ester, or calcium ionophore, none of these stimuli was by itself sufficient for L3T4+ cells. The latter cells could, however, be induced to respond to IL-2 by combinations of lectin plus phorbol ester or ionophore plus phorbol ester (but not lectin plus ionophore). Und...

  6. Interpretation of the U L3-edge EXAFS in uranium dioxide using molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, Dmitry; Chollet, Melanie; Krack, Matthias; Bertsch, Johannes; Grolimund, Daniel; Martin, Matthias; Kuzmin, Alexei; Purans, Juris; Kotomin, Eugene

    2016-05-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is employed to study the local structure of pure and Cr-doped UO2 at 300 K. The U L3-edge EXAFS spectrum is interpreted within the multiplescattering (MS) theory using the results of the classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, allowing us to validate the accuracy of theoretical models. The Cr K-edge XANES is simulated within the full-multiple-scattering formalism considering a substitutional model (Cr at U site). It is shown that both unrelaxed and relaxed structures, produced by ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations, fail to describe the experiment.

  7. A search for flaring Very-High-Energy cosmic-ray sources with the L3+C muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Van den Akker, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bähr, J; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, M; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiarusi, T; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; De Asmundis, R; Dglon, P; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Ding, L K; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Durán, I; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Faber, G; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, K; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, H; Grabosch, G; Grimm, O; Groenstege, H; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Haller, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Huo, A X; Ito, N; Jin, B N; Jindal, P; Jing, C L; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberría, M I; Kantserov, V A; Kaur, i; Kawakami, S; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kok, E; Korn, A; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M; Kuang, H H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kuijpers, J; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Li, L; Li, Z C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Meng, X W; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Parriaud, J F; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, F; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Qing, C R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Ravindran, K C; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Rewiersma, P A M; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saidi, R; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmitt, V; Schöneich, B; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shen, C Q; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sulanke, H; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Trowitzsch, G; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Unger, M; Valente, E; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, G; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, R G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Van Wijk, R F; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L

    2006-01-01

    The L3+C muon detector at the Cern electron-position collider, LEP, is used for the detection of very-high-energy cosmic \\gamma-ray sources through the observation of muons of energies above 20, 30, 50 and 100 GeV. Daily or monthly excesses in the rate of single-muon events pointing to some particular direction in the sky are searched for. The periods from mid July to November 1999, and April to November 2000 are considered. Special attention is also given to a selection of known \\gamma-ray sources. No statistically significant excess is observed for any direction or any particular source.

  8. Observation of a VHE Cosmic-Ray Flare-Signal with the L3+C Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O; Aziz, T; Bähr, J; Banerjee, S; Becattini, F; Bellucci, L; Betev, B L; Blaising, J J; Bobbink, G J; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Cartacci, A; Chemarin, M; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chiarusi, T; Coignet, G; Ding, L K; Duran, I; Eline, A; El Mamouni, H; Faber, G; Fay, J; Filthaut, F; Ganguli, S N; Gong, Z F; Grabosch, H J; Groenstege, H; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S; Gurtu, A; Haller, Ch; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Herve, A; Hofer, H; Hoferjun, H; Huo, A X; Ito, N; Jing, C L; Jones, L W; Kantserov, V; Kawakami, S; Kittel, W; König, A C; Kok, E; Kuang, H H; Kuijpers, J; Ladron de Guevara, P; Le Coultre, P; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Li, L; Li, Z C; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Lu, Y S; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Mele, S; Meng, X W; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Nowak, H; Parriaud, J -F; Pauss, F; Petersen, B; Pieri, M; Pohl, M; Pojidaev, V; Qing, C R; Ramelli, R; Ranieri, R; Ravindran, K C; Rewiersma, P; Riemann, S; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Schmitt, V; Schoeneich, B; Schotanus, D J; Shen, C Q; Spillantini, P; Sulanke, H; Tang, X W; Timmermans, C; Tonwar, S C; Trowitzsch, G; Unger, M; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vogt, H; Wang, R G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Wijk, R van; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Xu, Y P; Xu, J S; Xu, Z Z; Yang, C G; Yang, X F; Yao, Z G; Yu, Z Q; Zhang, C; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhou, S J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, Q Q; Zhuang, H L; Zwart, A N M

    2010-01-01

    The data collected by the L3+C muon spectrometer at the CERN Large Electron-Positron collider, LEP, have been used to search for short duration signals emitted by cosmic point sources. A sky survey performed from July to November 1999 and from April to November 2000 has revealed one single flux enhancement (chance probability = 2.6X10^{-3}) between the 17th and 20th of August 2000 from a direction with a galactic longitude of (265.02+-0.42)^° and latitude of (55.58+-0.24)^°. The energy of the detected muons was above 15 GeV.

  9. Genomic characterization of Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3, a key hydrolytic bacterium in a thermophilic biogas plant and its abundance as determined by metagenome fragment recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Irena; Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Bremges, Andreas; Stolze, Yvonne; Wibberg, Daniel; Tomazetto, Geizecler; Blom, Jochen; Sczyrba, Alexander; König, Helmut; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2016-08-20

    The genome sequence of Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3 originating from a thermophilic biogas-production plant was established and recently published as Genome Announcement by our group. The circular chromosome of D. tunisiensis L3 has a size of 2,053,097bp and a mean GC content of 31.38%. To analyze the D. tunisiensis L3 genome sequence in more detail, a phylogenetic analysis of completely sequenced Thermotogae strains based on shared core genes was performed. It appeared that Petrotoga mobilis DSM 10674(T), originally isolated from a North Sea oil-production well, is the closest relative of D. tunisiensis L3. Comparative genome analyses of P. mobilis DSM 10674(T) and D. tunisiensis L3 showed moderate similarities regarding occurrence of orthologous genes. Both genomes share a common set of 1351 core genes. Reconstruction of metabolic pathways important for the biogas production process revealed that the D. tunisiensis L3 genome encodes a large set of genes predicted to facilitate utilization of a variety of complex polysaccharides including cellulose, chitin and xylan. Ethanol, acetate, hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were found as possible end-products of the fermentation process. The latter three metabolites are considered to represent substrates for methanogenic Archaea, the key organisms in the final step of the anaerobic digestion process. To determine the degree of relatedness between D. tunisiensis L3 and dominant biogas community members within the thermophilic biogas-production plant, metagenome sequences obtained from the corresponding microbial community were mapped onto the L3 genome sequence. This fragment recruitment revealed that the D. tunisiensis L3 genome is almost completely covered with metagenome sequences featuring high matching accuracy. This result indicates that strains highly related or even identical to the reference strain D. tunisiensis L3 play a dominant role within the community of the thermophilic biogas-production plant. PMID

  10. Single mutations introduced in the essential ribosomal proteins L3 and S10 cause a sporulation defect in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanuma, Genki; Suzuki, Shota; Yano, Koichi; Nanamiya, Hideaki; Natori, Yousuke; Namba, Eri; Watanabe, Kazuya; Tagami, Kazumi; Takeda, Takuya; Iizuka, Yuka; Kobayashi, Ako; Ishizuka, Morio; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Fujio

    2013-01-01

    We introduced single mutations into the rplC and rpsJ genes, which encode the essential ribosomal proteins L3 (RplC) and S10 (RpsJ), respectively, and are located in the S10 gene cluster of the gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis, and examined whether these mutations affected their growth rate, sporulation, competence development and 70S ribosome formation. Mutant cells harboring the G52D mutation in the L3 ribosomal protein, which is located at the peptidyl transferase center of 50S, accumulated 30S subunit at 45°C, probably due to a defect in 50S formation, and exhibited a reduction in the sporulation frequency at high temperature. On the other hand, mutant cells harboring the H56R mutation in the S10 protein, which is located near the aminoacyl-tRNA site of 30S, showed severe growth defect and deficiency in spore formation, and also exhibited significant delay in competence development.

  11. Examining teachers’ views on the implementation of English as L3 into primary schools: A case of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhytgul ZHETPİSBAYEVA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan changed the State Educational Program for primary education and the curriculum for teaching English as a third language (L3 to grades 1-4in 2013. As with many changes in the curriculum, English language teaching has also been changed and the starting age for learning of English language has been lowered to 6-7 years of age (Grade 1. However, implementation of the curriculum requires readiness on the part of the teachers and teachers' views about teaching English in primary school is important for successful implementation of English language policy. Thus, this research aims to investigate the teachers’ views about the starting age for L3 learning, teachers' professional development, teaching materials and problems of implementation of a language policy in primary schools in Kazakhstan. The data for the study was gathered from 105 English teachers working in different primary schools. The study revealed that most have not yet made a transition to the organized system of teaching English languages in primary school.

  12. Constraining the Kpi vector form factor by tau---> K pi nu_tau and K_l3 decay data

    CERN Document Server

    Boito, Diogo R; Jamin, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    A subtracted dispersive representation of the $K\\pi$ vector form factor, $F_+^{K\\pi}$, is used to fit the Belle spectrum of $\\tauKpi$ decays incorporating constraints from results on $K_{l3}$ decays. Through the use of three subtractions, the slope and curvature of $F_+^{K\\pi}$ are obtained directly from the data yielding $\\lambda_+'=(25.49 \\pm 0.31) \\times 10^{-3}$ and $\\lambda_+"= (12.22 \\pm 0.14) \\times 10^{-4}$. The phase-space integrals relevant for $K_{l3}$ analyses are calculated. Additionally, from the pole position on the second Riemann sheet the mass and width of the $K^*(892)^\\pm$ are found to be $m_{K^*(892)^\\pm}= 892.0\\pm 0.5$ MeV and $\\Gamma_{K^*(892)^\\pm}= 46.5 \\pm 1.1$ MeV. Finally, we study the $P$-wave isospin-1/2 $K\\pi$ phase-shift and its threshold parameters.

  13. New [Mo(eta3-allyl)(CO)2L3]+ complexes with monodentate or tridentate nitrogen-donor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Julio; Morales, Dolores; Nieto, Sonia; Riera, Lucía; Riera, Víctor; Miguel, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Cationic complexes [Mo(eta(3)-allyl)(CO)2L3]+ (L3 = either nitrogen-donor tridentate ligand or three monodentate ligands) were prepared in high yield and under mild conditions using as precursors either the triflato complex [Mo(eta(3)-allyl)(OTf)(CO)2(NCMe)2] or the combination of the chloro complex [Mo(eta(3)-allyl)Cl(CO)2(NCMe)2] and the salt NaBAr'(4)(Ar'= 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl). The tridentate ligands employed were 2,2':6',2'-terpyridine (terpy) and cis,cis-1,3,5-cyclohexanetriamine (CHTA), whereas the monodentate ligands imidazole (im) and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (dmpz) were chosen. In order to stabilize the labile intermediates, an excess of acetonitrile was used in most of the syntheses. However, the pyrazole complex was prepared through a nitrile-free route to avoid reactions at the coordinated nitrile. The solid state structures of [Mo(eta(3)-methallyl)(CO)2(terpy)]OTf (2), [Mo(eta(3)-methallyl)(CO)2(CHTA)]BAr'4 (3), [Mo(eta(3)-methallyl)(CO)2(NCMe)3]BAr'4 (4), [Mo(eta(3)-allyl)(CO)2(im)3]OTf (5) and [Mo(eta(3)-allyl)(CO)2(dmpz)3]BAr'4 (6) were determined by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. PMID:15726140

  14. Prolonged response to calling songs by the L3 auditory interneuron in female crickets (Acheta domesticus): intracellular evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Benjamin; Stout, John; Atkins, Gordon

    2003-03-01

    The L3 auditory interneuron in female Acheta domesticus, produces two different responses to the male calling song: an immediate response and a prolonged response. The prolonged response exhibited spiking activity and a correlated prolonged depolarization, both of which are clearly seen in intracellular recordings. The morphology revealed by intracellular staining was clearly the L3 neuron. The amplitude of the prolonged depolarization associated with the prolonged response increased with increases in sound intensity, resulting in increased spiking rates. Both depolarization and sound presentation increased the spiking rate and the slope of pre-potentials (thus leading to spiking threshold more quickly). Injecting hyperpolarizing current had the expected opposite effect. The effects of positive current injection and sound presentation were additive, resulting in spiking rates that were approximately double the rates in response to sound alone. Short postsynaptic potentials (PSPs), whose duration ranged from 15-60 ms, which may lead to action potentials were also observed in all recordings and summated with the prolonged depolarization, increasing the probability of spiking.

  15. AFP-L3在肝细胞癌诊断中的临床价值%Diagnostic role of alpha-fetoprotein variants in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩鹏; 褚瑞海; 张彩彩; 郭欣

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨血清中AFP-L3含量对肝细胞癌诊断的临床意义.方法 利用微量离心柱法分离得到AFP-L3,采用化学发光法分别检测总AFP与AFP-L3含量,进而计算AFP-L3与总AFP的比值.结果 肝细胞癌患者血清中AFP及AFP-L3的水平均显著高于其他各组,而不同AFP浓度的肝细胞癌患者组AFP-L3的阳性率无明显差异.结论 AFP-L3作为肿瘤标志物对肝细胞癌的早期诊断及良、恶性肝病的鉴别有一定的临床价值.

  16. Perfil protéico e reconhecimento antigênico de extratos de larvas infectantes (L3) de Wuchereria bancrofti Proteic profile and antigenic recognition of extracts from Wuchereria bancrofti L3 infective larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Janaina Miranda; Amélia Maciel; Renata Maria Costa Souza; André Freire Furtado; Elizabeth Malagueno

    2005-01-01

    A caracterização protéica dos extratos de larvas infectantes (L3) de Wuchereria bancrofti foi realizada por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida, em presença de dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE) e o reconhecimento antigênico das proteínas por Western-blot. O maior número de bandas protéicas reconhecidas foi evidenciado nos extratos AgSE (105, 100, 76, 55, 49, 39 e 32 kDa) e AgS (100, 76, 55, e 49 kDa) na presença de soros de indivíduos endêmicos normais. As bandas de 49 e 55 kDa foram reco...

  17. Human rpL3 plays a crucial role in cell response to nucleolar stress induced by 5-FU and L-OHP

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, Davide; Crescenzi, Elvira; Sagar, Vinay; Loreni, Fabrizio; Russo, Annapina; Russo, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence showed that a variety of DNA damaging agents including 5-FU and L-OHP impairs ribosomal biogenesis activating a ribosomal stress pathway. Here, we demonstrate that in lung and colon cancer cell lines devoid of p53, the efficacy of 5-FU and L-OHP chemotherapy depends on rpL3 status. Specifically, we demonstrate that ribosomal stress induced by 5-FU and L-OHP is associated to up-regulation of rpL3 and its accumulation as ribosome-free form. We show that rpL3 participates in the ...

  18. 甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)检测的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩丽颖; 李光; 卢燕平

    2013-01-01

    根据亲和力不同,AFP被分为三类:AFP-L1、AFP-L2和 AFP-L3。 AFP-L3为肝癌细胞所特有,其占总AFP含量的比值(AFP-L3%)不但可以作为检测原发性肝细胞癌(HCC)的恶性检测指标,也可以作为肝癌手术疗效的评价指标,其临床应用较总AFP准确率高。

  19. Utilization of computer processed high definition video imaging for measuring motility of microscopic nematode stages on a quantitative scale: “The Worminator”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Storey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A major hindrance to evaluating nematode populations for anthelmintic resistance, as well as for screening existing drugs, new compounds, or bioactive plant extracts for anthelmintic properties, is the lack of an efficient, objective, and reproducible in vitro assay that is adaptable to multiple life stages and parasite genera. To address this need we have developed the “Worminator” system, which objectively and quantitatively measures the motility of microscopic stages of parasitic nematodes. The system is built around the computer application “WormAssay”, developed at the Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases at the University of California, San Francisco. WormAssay was designed to assess motility of macroscopic parasites for the purpose of high throughput screening of potential anthelmintic compounds, utilizing high definition video as an input to assess motion of adult stage (macroscopic parasites (e.g. Brugia malayi. We adapted this assay for use with microscopic parasites by modifying the software to support a full frame analysis mode that applies the motion algorithm to the entire video frame. Thus, the motility of all parasites in a given well are recorded and measured simultaneously. Assays performed on third-stage larvae (L3 of the bovine intestinal nematode Cooperia spp., as well as microfilariae (mf of the filarioid nematodes B. malayi and Dirofilaria immitis, yielded reproducible dose responses using the macrocyclic lactones ivermectin, doramectin, and moxidectin, as well as the nicotinic agonists, pyrantel, oxantel, morantel, and tribendimidine. This new computer based-assay is simple to use, requires minimal new investment in equipment, is robust across nematode genera and developmental stage, and does not require subjective scoring of motility by an observer. Thus, the “Worminator” provides a relatively low-cost platform for developing genera- and stage-specific assays with high efficiency and

  20. ROV Dive Products Dataset for EX1502L3: Caribbean Exploration (ROV) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between 20150409 and 20150430

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dataset of folders containing ROV dive products for each ROV dive performed during EX1502L3. The files within the folder are text, image, graph, comma-separated...

  1. Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Local Satellite Time) Daily L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Local Satellite Time) Daily L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones data product (MSLERLSTL3zm) is derived from...

  2. TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  3. TOMS/Earth Probe UV Reflectivity Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV Reflectivity Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this...

  4. "Filarial dance sign" real-time ultrasound diagnosis of filarial oophoritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panditi, Surekha; Shelke, Ashwini G; Thummalakunta, Laxmi Narasimha Praveen

    2016-10-01

    Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by Filarial nematodes (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori) that commonly causes lymphatic obstruction resulting in edema and increase in the size of the affected organ. Filariasis is diagnosed by identifying microfilariae on Giemsa stain. The immunochromatographic card test is diagnostic. Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice for detecting adult filarial worms/microfilaria in the lymphatic system, which are responsible for the classic "filarial dance sign" caused by twirling movements of the microfilariae. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:500-501, 2016. PMID:27130361

  5. In vitro anthelmintic effect of Acacia gaumeri, Havardia albicans and Quebracho tannin extracts on a mexican strain of Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae

    OpenAIRE

    G. Hernández Orduño; J.F.J. Torres Acosta; C. A. Sandoval Castro; A.J. Aguilar Caballero; R.R. Reyes Ramirez; H Hoste; J.A. Calderón Quintana

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro anthelmintic (AH) effect of Acacia gaumeri (AG), Havardia albicans (HA) and Quebracho tannin extracts on a Mexican strain of Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae was evaluated. Water/acetone extracts of two tropical plants (AG and HA) and a commercial tannin preparation (Schinopsis sp, Quebracho) were screened to evaluate the in vitro AH effect using the larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. The Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae originated from a donor sheep (FES-Cuautitlán, UNAM). The...

  6. On the Typological Economy of Syntactic Transfer: Word Order and Relative Clause High/Low Attachment Preference in L3 Brazilian Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jason

    2010-01-01

    One central question in the formal linguistic study of adult multilingual morphosyntax (i.e., L3/Ln acquisition) involves determining the role(s) the L1 and/or the L2 play(s) at the L3 initial state (e.g., Bardel & Falk, Second Language Research 23: 459-484, 2007; Falk & Bardel, Second Language Research: forthcoming; Flynn et al., The…

  7. Delocalization and occupancy effects of 5f orbitals in plutonium intermetallics using L3-edge resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Although actinide (An) L3 -edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been very effective in determining An oxidation states in insulating, ionically bonded materials, such as in certain coordination compounds and mineral systems, the technique fails in systems featuring more delocalized 5f orbitals, especially in metals. Recently, actinide L3-edge resonant X-ray emission spec- troscopy (RXES) has been shown to be an effective alternative. This technique is further dem...

  8. In vivo effects of monoclonal anti-L3T4 antibody on immune responsiveness of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Reduction of irradiated cercariae-induced resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, E.A.; Colley, D.G.

    1988-04-15

    Mice can be partially protected against challenge infections of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae by either single or multiple exposure to irradiated cercariae (x-cerc). The participation of L3T4+ lymphocytes on this resistance phenomenon was evaluated by selectively depleting this cell population through in vivo administration of mAb anti-L3T4 at three different times in relationship to the challenge infections. Treatment with anti-L3T4 before challenge such that depletion was effective during the time of cercarial skin penetration and dermal/s.c. residence significantly reduced the level of resistance induced by x-cerc sensitization. When treatment was delayed until after challenge, depletion of L3T4+ cells coincided with either the lung or post-lung/liver phases of schistosomular migration, and normal levels of x-cerc-induced resistance were induced. In contrast to once-immunized mice, mice hyperimmunized by five exposures to x-cerc and then depleted of L3T4+ cells at the time of challenge still expressed resistance to the challenge. These data suggest that when mice are sensitized only once with x-cerc the challenge infection provides a necessary immunologic boost which requires L3T4+ cells for effective expression of resistance. The requirement for this anamnestic effect by the challenge infection can be circumvented by hyperimmunization. Evaluation of the immune response of one-time sensitized or hyperimmunized mice demonstrated that cellular Ag-specific proliferative responses and mitogen-induced lymphokine production were abrogated after any of the various in vivo regimens of anti-L3T4 antibody. In contrast, immunoblot analysis of humoral responsiveness revealed a correlation between the expression of resistance and the ability of sera from immunized and anti-L3T4 treated mice to recognize a 75-kDa parasite antigenic component.

  9. Simulating Ru L3-Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Model Complexes and Electron Localization in Mixed-Valence Metal Dimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiken, Benjamin E. Van; Valiev, Marat; Daifuku, Stephanie L.; Bannan, Caitlin; Strader, Matthew L.; Cho, Hana; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Govind, Niranjan; Khalil, Munira

    2013-04-26

    Ruthenium L3-edge X-ray absorption (XA) spectroscopy probes unoccupied 4d orbitals of the metal atom and is increasingly being used to investigate the local electronic structure in ground and excited electronic states of Ru complexes. The simultaneous development of computational tools for simulating Ru L3-edge spectra is crucial for interpreting the spectral features at a molecular level. This study demonstrates that time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is a viable and predictive tool for simulating ruthenium L3-edge XA spectroscopy. We systematically investigate the effects of exchange correlation functional and implicit and explicit solvent interactions on a series of RuII and RuIII complexes in their ground and electronic excited states. The TDDFT simulations reproduce all of the experimentally observed features in Ru L3-edge XA spectra within the experimental resolution (0.4 eV). Our simulations identify ligand-specific charge transfer features in complicated Ru L3-edge spectra of [Ru(CN)6]4- and RuII polypyridyl complexes illustrating the advantage of using TDDFT in complex systems. We conclude that the B3LYP functional most accurately predicts the transition energies of charge transfer features in these systems. We use our TDDFT approach to simulate experimental Ru L3-edge XA spectra of transition metal mixed-valence dimers of the form [(NC)5MII-CN-RuIII(NH3)5] (where M = Fe or Ru) dissolved in water. Our study determines the spectral signatures of electron delocalization in Ru L3-edge XA spectra. We find that the inclusion of explicit solvent molecules is necessary for reproducing the spectral features and the experimentally determined valencies in these mixed-valence complexes. This study validates the use of TDDFT for simulating Ru 2p excitations using popular quantum chemistry codes and providing a powerful interpretive tool for equilibrium and ultrafast Ru L3-edge XA spectroscopy.

  10. Hyperlipidemia and hepatitis in liver-specific CREB3L3 knockout mice generated using a one-step CRISPR/Cas9 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Oikawa, Fusaka; Mizuno, Seiya; Ohno, Hiroshi; Yagishita, Yuka; Satoh, Aoi; Osaki, Yoshinori; Takei, Kenta; Kikuchi, Takuya; Han, Song-iee; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yatoh, Shigeru; Yahagi, Naoya; Isaka, Masaaki; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Sone, Hirohito; Takahashi, Satoru; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 3 (CREB3L3), a transcription factor expressed in the liver and small intestine, governs fasting-response energy homeostasis. Tissue-specific CREB3L3 knockout mice have not been generated till date. To our knowledge, this is the first study using the one-step CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate CREB3L3 floxed mice and subsequently obtain liver- and small intestine-specific Creb3l3 knockout (LKO and IKO, respectively) mice. While LKO mice as well as global KO mice developed hypertriglyceridemia, LKO mice exhibited hypercholesterolemia in contrast to hypocholesterolemia in global KO mice. LKO mice demonstrated up-regulation of hepatic Srebf2 and its corresponding target genes. No phenotypic differences were observed between IKO and floxed mice. Severe liver injury was observed in LKO mice fed a methionine-choline deficient diet, a model for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. These results provide new evidence regarding the hepatic CREB3L3 role in plasma triglyceride metabolism and hepatic and intestinal CREB3L3 contributions to cholesterol metabolism. PMID:27291420

  11. Hyperlipidemia and hepatitis in liver-specific CREB3L3 knockout mice generated using a one-step CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Oikawa, Fusaka; Mizuno, Seiya; Ohno, Hiroshi; Yagishita, Yuka; Satoh, Aoi; Osaki, Yoshinori; Takei, Kenta; Kikuchi, Takuya; Han, Song-Iee; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yatoh, Shigeru; Yahagi, Naoya; Isaka, Masaaki; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Sone, Hirohito; Takahashi, Satoru; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 3 (CREB3L3), a transcription factor expressed in the liver and small intestine, governs fasting-response energy homeostasis. Tissue-specific CREB3L3 knockout mice have not been generated till date. To our knowledge, this is the first study using the one-step CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate CREB3L3 floxed mice and subsequently obtain liver- and small intestine-specific Creb3l3 knockout (LKO and IKO, respectively) mice. While LKO mice as well as global KO mice developed hypertriglyceridemia, LKO mice exhibited hypercholesterolemia in contrast to hypocholesterolemia in global KO mice. LKO mice demonstrated up-regulation of hepatic Srebf2 and its corresponding target genes. No phenotypic differences were observed between IKO and floxed mice. Severe liver injury was observed in LKO mice fed a methionine-choline deficient diet, a model for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. These results provide new evidence regarding the hepatic CREB3L3 role in plasma triglyceride metabolism and hepatic and intestinal CREB3L3 contributions to cholesterol metabolism. PMID:27291420

  12. 甲胎蛋白异质体L3预警原发性肝癌的研究%The studies on early warning of Lens culinaris-reactive α-Fetoprotein (AFP-L3) detecting in primary hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永利; 马洪滨; 郭静霞; 史佳彬; 徐军; 刘爱霞; 杨丽华; 李伯安; 毛远丽

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of Lens culinaris-reactive α-Fetoprotein (AFP-L3) detection in primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods AFP-L3 was isolated by using microspincolumn coupled with lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA), AFP and AFP-L3 were detected with chemiluminescent immunoassay, the propertion of AFP L3 levels were calculated, and the relationship between the elevated AFP-L3 (%) levels and benign and malignant liver disease was analyzed. Results There were significant differences in positive rate between the patients of HCC, suspected HCC and other liver disease (81.80%, 73.68%, 11.80%, respectively, P < 0.05). Among the undetermined HCC (suspected HCC, liver disease) patients, 12 out of 21 cases of AFP-13 positive were diagnosed to be HCC within 6 months, and 6 of them were diagnosed to be the single small HCC at the early stage through B-Ultrasonic Diagnosis or CT. Among 62 cases of AFP-L3 negative, 3 cases were diagnosed to be HCC within 6 months and the risk of occurrence of HCC for AFP-L3 positive increased 11.9 times. Conclusion AFP-L3 has no correlation with AFP value, and it can be used as an independent HCC diagnosis factor. The detection of AFP-L3 has a significant implication for the identification of benign or malignant liver disease and the early stage predictive diagnosis of HCC while AFP increases%目的 探讨甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)的检测在预警原发性肝癌中的作用.方法 对100例AFP升高肝病患者血清,应用甲胎异质体微量离心柱分离并洗脱获得AFP-L3,再同时检测原始血清中的AFP以及AFP-L3含量,计算AFP-L3在AFP中的比例,对AFP-L3异常升高者、正常者进行跟踪,结合6个月后临床诊断结果 ,分析AFP-L3升高在鉴别良性肝脏病变与预警肝癌中的作用.结果 肝癌、疑似肝癌患者与良性肝病患者中的AFP-L3阳性率差异有统计学意义(分别为81.80%、73.68%、11.80%,P<0.05).未确诊肝癌(疑似HCC、肝病)的患者中,AFP-L3

  13. API RP 5 L3-2014输送钢管落锤撕裂试验推荐做法简介%Introduction of Drop-Weight Tear Tests on Line Pipe Recommended Practice API RP 5 L3-2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宏

    2016-01-01

    介绍了新版的落锤撕裂试验(DWTT)的试验标准API RP 5L3-2014《输送钢管落锤撕裂试验推荐做法》,并与以前的版本API RP 5L3-1996进行了比较。对比发现新版的API RP 5L3-2014《输送钢管落锤撕裂试验推荐做法》仍然延续了API RP 5L3-1996的主要技术内容,并与国内的常用的SY/T 6476-2013和GB/T8363-2007仍然有一定差异。%The latest edition of Drop-Weight Tear Tests on Line Pipe Recommended Practice API RP 5L3-2014 was introduced compared with the last edition API RP 5L3-1996. It is found that the latest edition of API RP 5L3 still continues containing more technical content in the API RP 5L3-1996, but it is apparently different with SY/T 6476-2013 and GB/T 8363-2007, which are mainly used domestically.

  14. The LIVE-L1 and LIVE-L3 experiments on melt behaviour in RPV lower head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluhrer, B.; Miassoedov, A.; Cron, T.; Foit, J.; Gaus-Liu, X.; Schmidt-Stiefel, S.; Wenz, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kern- und Energietechnik, Programm Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung; Ivanov, I. [Technical Univ., Sofia (Bulgaria); Popov, D. [Kozloduy NPP (Bulgaria)

    2008-09-15

    The sequence of a postulated core melt down accident in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of a pressurised water reactor (PWR) involves a large number of complex physical and chemical phenomena. To improve the understanding of possible scenarios of core melt down accidents with core degradation, melt pool formation and relocation in the RPV, possible melt dispersion to the reactor cavity and finally corium concrete interaction and corium coolability in the reactor cavity, the LACOMERA project at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe was started in September 2002. The LACOMERA project was a four year action within the 5th Framework programme of the EU and offered research institutions from the EU member Countries and Associated States access to the four large-scale experimental facilities QUENCH, LIVE, DISCO and COMET at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Within the LIVE experimental programme two experiments (LIVE-L1 and LIVE-L2) have been performed within the LACOMERA project. The experiment LIVE-L1 is part of this report and was planned and performed in close co-operation with the Technical University Sofia, Bulgaria and the Kozloduy NPP, Bulgaria. The main objective of the LIVE program is to study the core melt phenomena during the late phase of core melt progression in the RPV both experimentally in large-scale 3D geometry and in supporting separate-effects tests, and analytically using CFD codes in order to provide a reasonable estimate of the remaining uncertainty band under the aspect of safety assessment. The experiments LIVE-L1 and LIVE-L3 are aimed at investigating the melt pool and crust behaviour during the stages of air circulation at the outer RPV surface with subsequent flooding of the lower head. The initial and boundary conditions in both tests were almost the same except of the pouring position of the melt into the test vessel. In LIVE-L1 the melt was poured in central position and in LIVE-L3 the melt was poured near to the wall of the test vessel. The

  15. Search for Exclusive B Decays to J and $\\eta$ or $\\pi^{0}$ with the L3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alpat, B; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Antreasyan, D; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Buytenhuijs, A O; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Caria, M; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chan, A; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Choi, M T; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; De Boeck, H; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Fernández, D; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee Jae Sik; Lee, K Y; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lieb, E H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Nagy, E; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riemers, B C; Riles, K; Rind, O; Ro, S; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Santocchia, A; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Schöneich, B; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Sens, Johannes C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    A search for exclusive decays of $\\ensuremath{\\mathrm{B_d^0}}$ and $\\ensuremath{\\mathrm{B_s^0}}$ mesons has been performed in the channels $\\ensuremath{\\mathrm{B_d^0}\\rightarrow\\mathrm{J}\\eta}$,\\,\\, $\\ensuremath{\\mathrm{B_s^0}\\rightarrow\\mathrm{J}\\eta}$,\\,\\, $\\ensuremath{\\mathrm{B_d^0}\\rightarrow\\mathrm{J}\\pi^0}$ and $\\ensuremath{\\mathrm{B_s^0}\\rightarrow\\mathrm{J}\\pi^0}$. The data sample consisted of more than three and half million hadronic $\\ensuremath{\\mathrm {Z}}$ decays collected by the L3 experiment at LEP from 1991 through 1995. No candidate events have been observed for any of the modes thus determining upper limits at 90\\% confidence level: $3.2\\times 10^{-4}$ on $\\mathrm{Br}(\\ensuremath{\\mathrm{B_d^0}\\ rightarrow\\mathrm{J}\\pi^0)}$ and the first experimental limits: \\begin{eqnarray*} \\mathrm{Br}(\\ensuremath{\\mathrm{B_d^0}\\rightarrow \\mathrm{J}\\eta}) & < & 1.2\\times 10^{-3},\\\\ \\mathrm{Br}(\\ensuremath{\\m athrm{B_s^0}\\rightarrow\\mathrm{J}\\eta}) & < & 3.8\\times 10^{-3},\\\\ \\mathrm{B...

  16. A mathematical model of the Earth's plasmasphere and its application in a study of He+ at L = 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fully time-dependent mathematical model of the Earth's plasmasphere is presented. In the model coupled time-dependent equations of continuity, momentum and energy balance for the O+, H+, He+, N2+, O2+ and NO+ ions, and the electrons, are solved along centred-dipole magnetic field lines. The model is used in a study of the distribution of He+ in the topside ionosphere at L = 3 during solar maximum and solar minimum. The modelled ion concentrations for winter solstice and equinox during solar maximum show altitude regions in the nighttime topside ionosphere where He+ is the dominant ion. Such regions, which arise from the nighttime decrease in O+ concentration combined with the nighttime maintenance of He+, are most pronounced in the results for winter solstice when the high value of n(He) associated with the winter helium bulge lead to enhanced He+ concentrations. There is no indication in the results to suggest that He+ could become the dominant ion during summer at solar maximum or at any time during solar minimum

  17. A Back-to-Back 2L-3L Grid Integration of a Marine Current Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senad Apelfröjd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a back-to-back 2L-3L grid connection topology for a marine current energy converter. A prototype marine current energy converter has been deployed by a research group at Uppsala University. The concept behind the prototype revolves around a fixed pitch vertical axis turbine directly connected to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. The proposed grid connection system utilizes a well known and proven two level voltage source converter generator-side combined with a three-level cascaded H-bridge (CHB multilevel converter grid-side. The multilevel converter brings benefits in terms of efficiency, power quality and DC-link utilization. The system is here presented for a single marine current energy converter but can easily be scaled up for clusters of marine current energy converters. Control schemes for both grid-side and generator-side voltage source converters are presented. The start-up, steady state and dynamic performance of the marine current energy converter are investigated and simulation results are presented in this paper.

  18. Superchiral Pd3 L6 Coordination Complex and Its Reversible Structural Conversion into Pd3 L3 Cl6 Metallocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurček, Ondřej; Bonakdarzadeh, Pia; Kalenius, Elina; Linnanto, Juha Matti; Groessl, Michael; Knochenmuss, Richard; Ihalainen, Janne A; Rissanen, Kari

    2015-12-14

    Large, non-symmetrical, inherently chiral bispyridyl ligand L derived from natural ursodeoxycholic bile acid was used for square-planar coordination of tetravalent Pd(II) , yielding the cationic single enantiomer of superchiral coordination complex 1 Pd3 L6 containing 60 well-defined chiral centers in its flower-like structure. Complex 1 can readily be transformed by addition of chloride into a smaller enantiomerically pure cyclic trimer 2 Pd3 L3 Cl6 containing 30 chiral centers. This transformation is reversible and can be restored by the addition of silver cations. Furthermore, a mixture of two constitutional isomers of trimer, 2 and 2', and dimer, 3 and 3', can be obtained directly from L by its coordination to trans- or cis-N-pyridyl-coordinating Pd(II) . These intriguing, water-resistant, stable supramolecular assemblies have been thoroughly described by (1) H DOSY NMR, mass spectrometry, circular dichroism, molecular modelling, and drift tube ion-mobility mass spectrometry.

  19. Inter-string Bose-Einstein correlations in hadronic Z decays using the L3 detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qin

    2008-01-01

    Bose-Einstein Correlations (BEC) of identical bosons can be used for the femtoscopy of the pro- duction properties of bosons in high energy particle collisions. This quantum mechanical BEC effect is a direct consequence of the symmetrization of the wave function of a boson system and is frequently used on photons in Astophysics to measure the angular size and other properties of distant stars. In particle collisions, the effect can be observed experimentally as an enhancement of the production of identical bosons with small four-momentum difference Q relative to a production that would occur in a world without Bose-Einstein statistics. In this thesis, BEC are studied between identical pions produced in electron-positron collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 91 GeV in the LEP e+ e− Collider of CERN, near Geneva. The final-state particles of these collisions are detected in the detector of the L3 experiment, which is positioned at one of the four intersections of LEP. According to the present picture of bo...

  20. Ligand binding studies in the mouse olfactory bulb: identification and characterisation of a L-[3H]carnosine binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binding sites for the dipeptide L-carnosine (β-alanyl-t-histidine) have been detected in membranes prepared from mouse olfactory bulbs. The binding of L-[3H]- carnosine was saturable, reversible and stereospecific and had a Ksub(d) of about 770 nM. The stereospecific binding of L-carnosine represented about 30% of the totoal binding at pH 6.8, and decreased markedly with increasing pH. Binding was stimulated by calcium, unaffected by zinc, magnesium or manganese and inhibted by sodium and potassium. Carnosine binding was sensitive to trypsin and phospholipases A and C, but not to neuraminidase. Nystatin and filipin, which interact with membrane lipids, also interfered with binding. Some peptide analogues of carnosine were potent inhibitors of binding, but a variety of drugs serving as potent inhibitors in other binding systems had no effect on carnosine binding. Carnosine binding to mouse olfactory bulb membranes was 15-fold higher than that seen in membranes prepared from cerebral hemispheres, 5-fold higher than in cerebellum membranes and 3-fold higher than in membranes from spinal medulla and the olfactory tubercle-lateral olfactory tract area. (Auth.)

  1. Testing the electroweak model using semileptonic decays of b quarks in the L3 detector at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The partial decay width Γbbarb for Z0 → b bar b, the forward-backward asymmetry Abbarb, and the B0-bar B0 mixing parameter χB are determined using a sample of 430K hadronic Z0 decay events collected by the L3 detector at LEP during 1990 and 1991. The partial width Γcbarc and asymmetry Acbarc for charm are also determined. Heavy quarks are tagged via their semileptonic decays into high momentum and high pperpendicular muons or electrons. The decay lepton's charge is used to determine the charge of the parent quark. An unbinned, maximum-likelihood fit to the two-dimensional p and pperpendicular distributions in single-lepton events and the four-dimensional p and pperpendicular distributions for dilepton events yields the values Γbbarb = 382 ± 3 (stat) ± (sys) GeV; Γcbarc = 293 ± 10 (stat) ± 98 (sys) GeV Abbarb = 0.090 ± 0.015 (stat) ± 0.007 (sys); Acbarc = 0.083 ± 0.038 (stat) ± 0.027 (sys) and χB = 0.124 ± 0.017 (stat) ± 0.010 (sys). All of these values are seen to be consistent with Standard Model expectations

  2. Plankton diversity and aquatic ecology of a freshwater lake (L3 at Bharti Island, Larsemann Hills, east Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan K. Bharti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Larsemann Hills range is an ice-free oasis on the Ingrid Christensen Coast of Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica, which includes Bharti Island, Fisher Island, McLeod Island, Broknes Peninsula, Stornes Peninsula, and several other islands, promontories, and nunataks. The Larsemann Hills is an ice-free area of approximately 50 km2, located halfway between the Vestfold Hills and the Amery Ice Shelf on the south-eastern coast of Prydz Bay, Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica. The ice-free area consists of two major peninsulas (Stornes and Broknes, four minor peninsulas, and approximately 130 near shore islands. The Larsemann Hills area contains more than 150 lakes at different Islands and peninsulas. Bharti Island of Larsemann Hills in east Antarctica was selected as a sampling site for the present study. Water sample was collected from a freshwater lake during XXXth Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA and analyzed for the physico-chemical parameters, major elements, trace metals and major plankton diversity in surface lake water by following standard methodology. The concentrations of metals Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cr were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were also assessed in the aquatic ecosystem of Lake L3 at Bharti Island, Larsemann Hills over east Antarctica. Psychrophillic bacteria were found 71 cfu in lake water, while total bacterial count was found to be 5.4 × 102cfu.

  3. AFP-L3和AFP联合检测在原发性肝癌诊断价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡善雷; 任娜

    2014-01-01

    目的:联合检测不同人群异质体3( AFP- L3)和甲胎蛋白(AFP)的水平,并探讨其对于原发性肝癌的诊断意义。方法采用双抗体夹心酶联免疫法分别检测65例原发性肝癌患者(原发性肝癌组)、65例肝硬化患者(肝硬化组)和65例病毒性肝炎患者(病毒性肝炎组)患者血清中AFP- L3和AFP的表达水平,并选择同期65例健康普查者作为正常对照组。检测各组血清中AFP- L3和AFP的表达水平,并比较AFP- L3、AFP单一检测与AFP- L3和AFP联合检测在原发性肝癌诊断中的阳性率。结果原发性肝癌组患者血清中AFP- L3和AFP水平明显高于肝硬化组和病毒性肝炎组(P<0.05)。原发性肝癌组患者AFP- L3检测阳性率(70.8%)明显高于AFP检测阳性率(64.6%)(P<0.05),AFP- L3和AFP联合检测可提高阳性率(86.2%)(P<0.05)。结论联合检测血清AFP- L3和AFP的水平可提高原发性肝癌诊断的敏感性和特异性,具有重要的临床意义。

  4. AFP-L3和AFP联合检测在原发性肝癌诊断价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡善雷; 任娜

    2014-01-01

    目的:联合检测不同人群异质体3( AFP- L3)和甲胎蛋白(AFP)的水平,并探讨其对于原发性肝癌的诊断意义。方法采用双抗体夹心酶联免疫法分别检测65例原发性肝癌患者(原发性肝癌组)、65例肝硬化患者(肝硬化组)和65例病毒性肝炎患者(病毒性肝炎组)患者血清中AFP- L3和AFP的表达水平,并选择同期65例健康普查者作为正常对照组。检测各组血清中AFP- L3和AFP的表达水平,并比较AFP- L3、AFP单一检测与AFP- L3和AFP联合检测在原发性肝癌诊断中的阳性率。结果原发性肝癌组患者血清中AFP- L3和AFP水平明显高于肝硬化组和病毒性肝炎组(P<0.05)。原发性肝癌组患者AFP- L3检测阳性率(70.8%)明显高于AFP检测阳性率(64.6%)(P<0.05),AFP- L3和AFP联合检测可提高阳性率(86.2%)(P<0.05)。结论联合检测血清AFP- L3和AFP的水平可提高原发性肝癌诊断的敏感性和特异性,具有重要的临床意义。

  5. Alpha-fetoprotein-L3 and Golgi protein 73 may serve as candidate biomarkers for diagnosing alpha-fetoprotein-negative hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang ZG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zhiguo Zhang,1 Yanying Zhang,2 Yeying Wang,1 Lingling Xu,3 Wanju Xu3 1Department of Clinical Laboratory, Zhangqiu Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Zhangqiu, 2Department of Clinical Laboratory, Zaozhuang City Wangkai Infection Hospital, Zaozhuang, 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Currently, there is no reliable biomarker for use in diagnosing alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Such a biomarker would aid in making an early diagnosis of AFP-negative HCC, ensuring the timely initiation of treatment. This study examined AFP-L3 and Golgi protein 73 (GP73 as candidate biomarkers for AFP-negative HCC. The affinity adsorption method and enzyme-linked immunoassays were separately used to determine serum levels of AFP-L3 and GP73 in 50 patients with AFP-negative HCC, 30 non-HCC patients, and 50 healthy subjects. Fifty percent of patients with AFP-negative HCC tested positive for AFP-L3, while 3.33% of non-HCC patients and 2.00% of healthy subjects were AFP-L3 positive. Patients with AFP-negative HCC had significantly higher serum levels of AFP-L3 compared to non-HCC patients and healthy individuals; however, there was no significant difference in the AFP-L3 levels of non-HCC patients and healthy subjects. Sixty-six percent of patients with AFP-negative HCC tested positive for GP73, while 10% of non-HCC patients and 0% of healthy subjects were GP73-positive. Patients with AFP-negative HCC had significantly higher serum levels of GP73 compared to non-HCC patients and healthy subjects, but there was no significant difference between the GP73 levels of non-HCC patients and healthy individuals. Moreover, 20 patients with AFP-negative HCC were both AFP-L3- and GP73-positive, while no non-HCC patients or healthy subjects tested positive for both markers. Either AFP-L3 or GP73 may be used as a biomarker for diagnosing AFP-negative HCC, while their combined use

  6. RT-PCR assay for the detection of infective (L3 larvae of lymphatic filarial parasite, Wuchereria bancrofti, in vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Patra

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Periodic monitoring of vector population for infection and infectivity rates is central to the evaluation of the filariasis elimination strategies in endemic areas to monitor the success of MDA and also to establish endpoints for intervention. The main objective of this study was to develop a RT-PCR assay, based on L3 stage-specific primers to detect the presence of infective stage larvae of filarial parasite, Wuchereria bancrofti in the vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Material & Methods: Subtracted probe development technique was employed for the identification of infective stage (L3 specific genes. The subtracted cDNA was labeled by non-radioisotopic method and used for screening cDNA library of L3 stage larvae of W. bancrofti constructed in UniZap XR. Recombinants were probed and identified from the library. The inserts of the recombinant clones were purified and sequenced. Primers were designed based on the sequence information of three recombinant clones for detecting L3 larvae of W. bancrofti in the vector by RT-PCR assay. Preliminary laboratory evaluation was carried out to assess the sensitivity and specificity of WbL31 RT-PCR assay.Results: cDNA library of L3 stage of W. bancrofti constructed in UniZap XR vector, constituted 5×105 phages with 80–90% recombinant phages and the size of inserts varied from 0.1 to 1.0 kb. When subtracted cDNA was random prime labeled and used for screening cDNA library of L3 stage of W. bancrofti constructed in UniZap XR, 18 clones were identified from the library. Three genes were found up-regulated in the L3 stage, out of which WbL31 (cuticular collagen was found to be useful in detecting L3 larvae of W. bancrofti in the vector by RT-PCR assay with high specificity and sensitivity (98–100% . Conclusion: Present paper marks first report on the development of an infective stage-specific RT-PCR assay (WbL31 RT-PCR assay to detect L3 stage W. bancrofti in the vector. This assay

  7. ASPEK ZOONOTIK PARASIT NEMATODA PADA KERA DAN BINATANG MENGERAT DI BENGKULU, SUMATERA. INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untung S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twentyfive monkeys and 481 rats were examined for parasitic nematodes in Bengkulu, nine species of nematode were found infecting these animals. Five of filarían nematodes, i.e. Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria magnilarvatum and Edesonfilaria malayensis were infecting monkeys and one speciesTBreinlia booliati, was found infecting rats. Three species of gastrointestinal helminths, i.e. Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Oestophagomomum spp were found in monkeys; a lung worm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was found in rats. The most important nematode species is B. malayi, which was found in Presbytis cristatus (36.8 % and in Macaca fascicularis (20.0 %. T. trichiura was found in R. cristatus (47.9 % and A. cantonensis in Rattus argentiventer (4.0 % and Rattus tiomanicus (2.9%.

  8. Longitudinal monitoring of the development of antifilarial antibodies and acquisition of Wuchereria bancrofti in a highly endemic area of Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy L Hamlin

    Full Text Available Antifilarial antibody testing has been established as a sensitive and specific method of diagnosing lymphatic filariasis. However, the development of serological responses to specific filarial antigens and their relationship to acquisition of infection is poorly understood. In order to evaluate whether the development of antigen specific antifilarial antibodies precedes microfilaremia and antigenemia, we compared the antibody responses of serum samples collected between 1990 and 1999 from a cohort of 142 Haitian children followed longitudinally. Antigen status was determined using the Og4C3 ELISA and the presence of microfilaremia was detected using microscopy. Antibody responses to Wb123, a Wuchereria bancrofti L3 antigen, were measured using a Luciferase Immunoprecipitation System (LIPS assay. Antibody responses to Bm14 and Bm33, Brugia malayi antigens and to a major surface protein (WSP from Wolbachia were analyzed using a multiplex bead assay. Over follow-up, 80 (56% of the children became antigen-positive and 30 (21% developed microfilaremia. Detectable antibody responses to Bm14, Bm33, Wb123, and WSP developed in 95%, 100%, 92%, and 29% of children, respectively. With the exception of WSP, the development of antibody responses generally preceded detection of filarial antigen. Our results show that antifilarial antibody responses can serve as an important epidemiological indicator in a sentinel population of young children and thus, may be valuable as tool for surveillance in the context of lymphatic filariasis elimination programs.

  9. RECOMBINANT PROTEIN PRODUCTION OF ABUNDANT LARVAL TRANSCRIPT (ALT-2 IN ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ashraf

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is a major tropical disease caused by mosquito born nematodes Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti. Vaccine against filariasis must generate immunity to infective mosquito derived L3 stage. Two highly expressed genes designated abundant larval transcript-1 and -2 (alt-1 and alt-2. ALT-1 and ALT-2 represent closely related protein (79% it. Now, expression of this alt gene in E. coli BL21plysS for the production of vaccine is major challenge as no vaccine is available against this disease. Work was carried out to express this protein at laboratory scale bioreactor. At first optimization of different parameter like suitability of media, inducer concentration, induction time was done for getting maximum amount of recombinant protein. In shake flask studies, after induction (max cell density and max specific growth rate stage good expression of ALT-2 protein was found. However, at laboratory scale production done in bioreactor, expression level drastically decreased. Plasmid stability analysis was done in reactor and was found to be cause for decreased productivity. The stability was improved by increasing antibiotic concentration in the medium and also by pulsing antibiotic during induction. This led to better plasmid stability and increased expression levels in reactor similar to expression levels in shake flask studies.

  10. Chimeric Epitope Vaccine from Multistage Antigens for Lymphatic Filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugraha, G; Madhumathi, J; Prince, P R; Prita, P J Jeya; Khatri, V K; Amdare, N P; Reddy, M V R; Kaliraj, P

    2015-10-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne parasitic disease, affects more than 120 million people worldwide. Vaccination for filariasis by targeting different stages of the parasite will be a boon to the existing MDA efforts of WHO which required repeated administration of the drug to reduce the infection level and sustained transmission. Onset of a filaria-specific immune response achieved through antigen vaccines can act synergistically with these drugs to enhance the parasite killing. Multi-epitope vaccine approach has been proved to be successful against several parasitic diseases as it overcomes the limitations associated with the whole antigen vaccines. Earlier results from our group suggested the protective efficacy of multi-epitope vaccine comprising two immunodominant epitopes from Brugia malayi antioxidant thioredoxin (TRX), several epitopes from transglutaminase (TGA) and abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2). In this study, the prophylactic efficacy of the filarial epitope protein (FEP), a chimera of selective epitopes identified from our earlier study, was tested in a murine model (jird) of filariasis with L3 larvae. FEP conferred a significantly (P < 0.0001) high protection (69.5%) over the control in jirds. We also observed that the multi-epitope recombinant construct (FEP) induces multiple types of protective immune responses, thus ensuring the successful elimination of the parasite; this poses FEP as a potential vaccine candidate.

  11. Evaluation of immune response elicited by inulin as an adjuvant with filarial antigens in mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi, N; Aparnaa, R; Kaliraj, P

    2014-10-01

    Filariasis caused by infectious parasitic nematodes has been identified as the second leading source of permanent and long-term disability in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Several vaccine candidates were identified from infective third-stage larvae (L3) which involves in the critical transition from arthropod to human. Hitherto studies of these antigens in combination with alum adjuvant have shown to elicit its characteristic Th2 responses. Inulin is a safe, non-toxic adjuvant that principally stimulates the innate immune response through the alternative complement pathway. In the present study, the immune response elicited by inulin and alum as adjuvants were compared with filarial antigens from different aetiological agents: secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) from Onchocerca volvulus and venom allergen homologue (VAH) from Brugia malayi as single or as cocktail vaccines in mice model. The study revealed that inulin can induce better humoral response against these antigens than alum adjuvant. Antibody isotyping disclosed inulin's ability to elevate the levels of IgG2a and IgG3 antibodies which mediates in complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively, in mice. Splenocyte analysis showed that T cells prestimulated with inulin have higher stimulation index (P inulin formulation had induced higher cytotoxicity with filarial antigens (as single P inulin to deplete the levels of Treg and brought a balance in Th1/Th2 arms against filarial antigens in mice.

  12. Chimeric Epitope Vaccine from Multistage Antigens for Lymphatic Filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugraha, G; Madhumathi, J; Prince, P R; Prita, P J Jeya; Khatri, V K; Amdare, N P; Reddy, M V R; Kaliraj, P

    2015-10-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne parasitic disease, affects more than 120 million people worldwide. Vaccination for filariasis by targeting different stages of the parasite will be a boon to the existing MDA efforts of WHO which required repeated administration of the drug to reduce the infection level and sustained transmission. Onset of a filaria-specific immune response achieved through antigen vaccines can act synergistically with these drugs to enhance the parasite killing. Multi-epitope vaccine approach has been proved to be successful against several parasitic diseases as it overcomes the limitations associated with the whole antigen vaccines. Earlier results from our group suggested the protective efficacy of multi-epitope vaccine comprising two immunodominant epitopes from Brugia malayi antioxidant thioredoxin (TRX), several epitopes from transglutaminase (TGA) and abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2). In this study, the prophylactic efficacy of the filarial epitope protein (FEP), a chimera of selective epitopes identified from our earlier study, was tested in a murine model (jird) of filariasis with L3 larvae. FEP conferred a significantly (P < 0.0001) high protection (69.5%) over the control in jirds. We also observed that the multi-epitope recombinant construct (FEP) induces multiple types of protective immune responses, thus ensuring the successful elimination of the parasite; this poses FEP as a potential vaccine candidate. PMID:26179420

  13. 甲胎蛋白及甲胎蛋白异质体L3在肝癌患者肝移植手术前后的变化%The content change of AFP and AFP-L3 pre-and post-liver transplantation operation for liver cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭宗宪; 侯俊; 朱安琪; 李伯安

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨甲胎蛋白(AFP)及甲胎蛋白异质体L3(AFP-L3)在肝癌患者肝移植手术前后的变化情况.方法 对12例确诊为肝癌并进行肝移植手术患者的连贯血清(术前1份,术后连续留取),应用甲胎蛋白异质体微量离心柱分离并洗脱获得AFP-L3,再同时检测原始血清中AFP及AFP-L3含量,计算AFP-L3在AFP中比例(AFP-L3%),对比手术前后AFP含量及AFP-L3%的变化情况.结果 AFP除5例转阴外,其余患者在AFP-L3%转阴后,AFP仍持续阳性,个别患者AFP含量还持续高水平.2例患者术后AFP-L3立即转阴,其他患者在肝移植术后AFP-L3含量逐步下降,并趋于阴性(AFP-L3%<10%).AFP半衰期与AFP-L3%半衰期之间差异无统计学意义.结论 肝癌经根治性切除或移植后,AFP-L3%一般在较短时间内(约1~20 d)转阴,AFP-L3占AFP百分含量占10%以下,提示手术可能较为彻底,但余肝尚存在肝炎或肝硬化.如AFP-L3含量持续不降低提示手术未彻底清除病灶.%Objective To explore the content change of Alpha Fetal Protein(AFP) and Alpha Fetal Protein Variants(AFP-L3) pre-and post-liver transplantation operation for liver cancer patients.Methods AFP-L3 was de-termined by micro centrifugal column from twelve cases of successive sera(For each case,one original shale pre-oper-ation,and mole shares post-operation successively),and preserved from patients who were diagnosed as fiver cancer and completed fiver transplantation operation.simultaneously the content of AFP and AFP-L3 in the original serum were also determined.and the ratio of AFP-L3 in AFP was calculated in order to compare the content change of AFP and the ratio of AFP-L3 pre-and post-liver transplantation operation.Results Compared with twelve cases of pre-and post-operation,the AFP in only five cases turned tO negative;The AFP in other cases keeped positive though AFP-L3%tumde to negative.and the content of AFP in some specific cases still keeped in a high level.Regarding AFP-L3

  14. The Polycomb Group Protein L3MBTL1 Represses a SMAD5-Mediated Hematopoietic Transcriptional Program in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Fabiana; Vu, Ly P.; Themeli, Maria; Kriks, Sonja; Hoya-Arias, Ruben; Khanin, Raya; Hricik, Todd; Mansilla-Soto, Jorge; Papapetrou, Eirini P.; Levine, Ross L.; Studer, Lorenz; Sadelain, Michel; Nimer, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Epigenetic regulation of key transcriptional programs is a critical mechanism that controls hematopoietic development, and, thus, aberrant expression patterns or mutations in epigenetic regulators occur frequently in hematologic malignancies. We demonstrate that the Polycomb protein L3MBTL1, which is monoallelically deleted in 20q- myeloid malignancies, represses the ability of stem cells to drive hematopoietic-specific transcriptional programs by regulating the expression of SMAD5 and impairing its recruitment to target regulatory regions. Indeed, knockdown of L3MBTL1 promotes the development of hematopoiesis and impairs neural cell fate in human pluripotent stem cells. We also found a role for L3MBTL1 in regulating SMAD5 target gene expression in mature hematopoietic cell populations, thereby affecting erythroid differentiation. Taken together, we have identified epigenetic priming of hematopoietic-specific transcriptional networks, which may assist in the development of therapeutic approaches for patients with anemia. PMID:25754204

  15. The Polycomb Group Protein L3MBTL1 Represses a SMAD5-Mediated Hematopoietic Transcriptional Program in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Perna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic regulation of key transcriptional programs is a critical mechanism that controls hematopoietic development, and, thus, aberrant expression patterns or mutations in epigenetic regulators occur frequently in hematologic malignancies. We demonstrate that the Polycomb protein L3MBTL1, which is monoallelically deleted in 20q- myeloid malignancies, represses the ability of stem cells to drive hematopoietic-specific transcriptional programs by regulating the expression of SMAD5 and impairing its recruitment to target regulatory regions. Indeed, knockdown of L3MBTL1 promotes the development of hematopoiesis and impairs neural cell fate in human pluripotent stem cells. We also found a role for L3MBTL1 in regulating SMAD5 target gene expression in mature hematopoietic cell populations, thereby affecting erythroid differentiation. Taken together, we have identified epigenetic priming of hematopoietic-specific transcriptional networks, which may assist in the development of therapeutic approaches for patients with anemia.

  16. ROLE OF FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY (FNAC) IN DIAGNOSIS OF ASYMPTOMATIC MICROFILARIASIS

    OpenAIRE

    Reena; Rajesh; Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis is a tropical and subtropical disease caused by Wuchereria Bancrofti and Brugia Malayi and transmitted by Culex mosquito. Lymphatic Filariasis is a major health problem in countries like India, China, Indonesia, and Africa. Diagnosis of Filari a is done by conventional methods like peripheral blood smear examination, Fluorescent capillary method and filarial antigen detection by Rapid card method. Here we present four unusual cases with swellings presented in surg...

  17. A review of the complexity of biology of lymphatic filarial parasites

    OpenAIRE

    K. P. Paily; Hoti, S. L.; Das, P K

    2009-01-01

    There are about five more common, including Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, and four less common filarial parasites infecting human. Genetic analysis of W. bancrofti populations in India showed that two strains of the species are prevalent in the country. The adult filarial parasites are tissue specific in the human host and their embryonic stage, called microfilariae (mf), are found in the blood or skin of the host, depending upon the species of the parasite. Three genetically determ...

  18. Multiplex Bead Assay for Serum Samples from Children in Haiti Enrolled in a Drug Study for the Treatment of Lymphatic Filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Delynn M.; Priest, Jeffrey W.; Boyd, Alexis; Weinkopff, Tiffany; Kucerova, Zuzana; Beach, Michael J.; Lammie, Patrick J

    2011-01-01

    A multiplex bead assay (MBA) was used to analyze serum samples collected longitudinally from children enrolled in a drug trial for treatment of filariasis in Leogane, Haiti. Recombinant antigens Bm14 and Bm33 from Brugia malayi, third polar tube protein (PTP3) from Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and merozoite surface protein-119 (MSP-119) from Plasmodium falciparum were coupled to carboxylated polystyrene microspheres. IgG responses to PTP3 and MSP-119 were not affected by albendazole (ALB), dieth...

  19. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for differentiation between Thai and Myanmar strains of Wuchereria bancrofti

    OpenAIRE

    Nuchprayoon, Surang; Junpee, Alisa; Poovorawan, Yong

    2007-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito-borne disease caused by mosquito-transmitted filarial nematodes, including Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. The Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Program in Thailand has reduced the prevalence of nocturnally subperiodic W. bancrofti (Thai strain), mainly transmitted by the Ochlerotatus (Aedes) niveus group in Thailand to 0.57/100,000 population. However, it is estimated that more than one million Myanmar migrants with high prevalence of...

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti from three geographic isolates provides evidence of complex demographic history

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Akshaya; Small, Scott T; Kloos, Zachary A.; Kazura, James W; Nutman, Thomas B.; Serre, David; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences have enabled comparison of population genetics and evolution for numerous free-living and parasitic nematodes. Here we define the complete mt genome of Wuchereria bancrofti through analysis of isolates from Papua New Guinea, India and West Africa. Sequences were assembled for each isolate and annotated with reference to the mt genome sequence for Brugia malayi. The length of the W. bancrofti mt genome is approximately 13,637 nucleotides, contains 2 ribosoma...

  1. Presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) from different geographical regions in India

    OpenAIRE

    Hoti SL; Sridhar A.; PK Das

    2003-01-01

    In view of the recent discovery of rickettsial endosymbionts, Wolbachia in lymphatic filarial parasites, Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi and subsequently of their vital role in the survival and development of the latter, antibiotics such as tetracycline are being suggested for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis, by way of eliminating the endosymbiont. But, it is essential to assess their presence in parasites from areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis before such a new control tool...

  2. Plasmodium knowlesi and Wuchereria bancrofti: Their Vectors and Challenges for the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Vythilingam, Indra

    2012-01-01

    Malaria and filariasis still continue to pose public health problems in developing countries of the tropics. Although plans are in progress for the elimination of both these parasitic vector borne diseases, we are now faced with a daunting challenge as we have a fifth species, Plasmodium knowlesi a simian malaria parasite affecting humans. Similarly in peninsular Malaysia, filariasis was mainly due to Brugia malayi. However, we now see cases of Wuchereria bancrofti in immigrant workers coming...

  3. Host protective immunity and vaccine development studies in lymphatic filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, M. V. R.; Alli, R.; Harinath, B. C.

    2000-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis caused mainly by infection fromWuchereria bancrofti andBrugia malayi remains as the major cause of clinical morbidity in tropical and subtropical countries. Development of vaccine against filarial infection can act as additional measure to the existing therapeutic and vector control methods in the control of this disease. The main hurdles in the development of anti-filarial vaccine are the strict primate specificity ofWuchereria bancrofti, the paucity of parasite material...

  4. Repurposing Auranofin as a Lead Candidate for Treatment of Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis

    OpenAIRE

    Bulman, Christina A.; Bidlow, Chelsea M.; Sara Lustigman; Fidelis Cho-Ngwa; David Williams; Rascón, Alberto A; Nancy Tricoche; Moses Samje; Aaron Bell; Brian Suzuki; K C Lim; Nonglak Supakorndej; Prasit Supakorndej; Wolfe, Alan R.; Knudsen, Giselle M.

    2015-01-01

    Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae) can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infe...

  5. Genomics of Loa loa, a Wolbachia-free filarial parasite of humans

    OpenAIRE

    Desjardins, Christopher A.; Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Hotopp, Julie C Dunning; Haas, Brian J.; Zucker, Jeremy; Ribeiro, Jose’ M.C.; Saif, Sakina; Levin, Joshua Z.; Fan, Lin; Zeng, Qiandong; Russ, Carsten; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Fink, Doran L.; Birren, Bruce W.

    2014-01-01

    Loa loa, the African eyeworm, is a major filarial pathogen of humans. Unlike most filariae, Loa loa does not contain the obligate intracellular Wolbachia endosymbiont. We describe the 91.4 Mb genome of Loa loa, and the genome of the related filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti, and predict 14,907 Loa loa genes based on microfilarial RNA sequencing. By comparing these genomes to that of another filarial parasite, Brugia malayi, and to several other nematode genomes, we demonstrate synteny am...

  6. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosing filarial arm cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, Nishi; Bansal, Cherry; Sharma, Richa; Irfan, Sumaiya

    2013-01-01

    Filariasis is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas and is endemic in regions of India. Lymphatic filariasis in India is caused mainly by two species of nematodes: Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, which invade the human lymphatic system. We report two cases of superficial cystic lesions of the upper limb revealed on fine needle aspiration (FNA) to be clinically unsuspected filariasis. Despite similar aetiologies, both cases revealed variations in aspirate nature, smear morphology...

  7. Characterizing Ancylostoma caninum transcriptome and exploring nematode parasitic adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Hawdon John; Wilson Richard K; Martin John; Abubucker Sahar; Wang Zhengyuan; Mitreva Makedonka

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Hookworm infection is one of the most important neglected diseases in developing countries, with approximately 1 billion people infected worldwide. To better understand hookworm biology and nematode parasitism, the present study generated a near complete transcriptome of the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum to a very high coverage using high throughput technology, and compared it to those of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasite Brugia malayi....

  8. 肝病患者AFP、GP73、AFP-L3和AFU的表达及其相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧桂珍; 李丹; 丁艳

    2015-01-01

    目的 通过测定血清中甲胎蛋白(AFP)、甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)、高尔基体蛋白73(GP73)和α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)的水平,比较它们在不同肝脏疾病中的意义,原发性肝癌(PHC)患者中不同水平AFP值与AFP-L3、GP73和AFU三者异常率的相关性.方法 将734例肝病患者分为PHC组(A组)271例;慢性肝炎组(B组)254例;肝硬化组(C组)209例,另选208例健康体检者(D组),测定血清中的GP73、AFP-L3、AFP和AFU水平.结果 三组患者的GP73、AFP-L3和AFP水平及异常率较D组增高(P<0.05);A组和B组的GP73水平及异常率较C组低(P<0.05);B组和C组AFP-L3和AFP水平及异常率低于A组(P<0.05);在A组中,AFP-L3的异常率与AFP呈正相关(r=0.81),AFU的异常率与AFP呈正相关(r=0.83),但GP73的异常率与AFP无明显相关性.结论 GP73更适用于肝硬化鉴别诊断;AFP-L3在诊断PHC中有较高的价值;当AFP值>100 ng/ml时,AFP-L3异常率维持在较高水平.

  9. Traumatic extradural lumbar haematoma due to a pathological metastatic vertebral body fracture L3. Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasa Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural haematoma (SEH is a rare entity. We present the case of a 45 years old patient with lumbar epidural hematoma produced by a L3 vertebral tumoral (metastatic fracture. Neurological status: cauda equina syndrome with sphincterian deficits, incomplete paraplegia (Frankel C, with neurological level L1. Emergency surgery was performed (L3-L2-bilateral laminectomy, L1 left laminectomy, posterior stabilization L2-L4 by titan screws offering the possibility to progressive motor, sensitive and sphincterian deficites recovery.

  10. Influence of the geometric structure on the V L3 near edge X-ray absorption fine structure from vanadium phosphorus oxide catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Hävecker, Michael; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Mayer, Ralf W.; Fait, Martin; Bluhm, Hendrik; Schlögl, Robert

    2002-01-01

    We present the V L3 near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of a vanadium phosphorus oxide (VPO) catalyst. The spectrum is related to the V3d-O2p hybridised unoccupied states. The overall peak position at the V L3-absorption edge is determined by the formal oxidation state of the absorbing vanadium atom. Details of the absorption fine structure are influenced by the geometric structure of the compound. Empirically we found a linear relationship between the energy position of severa...

  11. Diagnostic value of Joint Detection of GP73 and AFP-L3 in Primary Hepatic Carcinoma with Low Concentration of AFP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei CAI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the applicative value of serum Golgi protein (GP73 and alpha-proteinvariant (AFP-L3 in the diagnosis of patients with primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC. Methods:Totally 110 patients were enrolled, including 60 PHC patients with low concentration of AFP ((1.1-108.0 μg/L and 50 patients with non-PHC digestive system diseases (20 cases of patients with chronic hepatitis, 15 patients with liver cirrhosis, 4 patients with bile duct cancer, 4 patients with gastric cancer, 4 patients with rectal cancer and 3 patients with colon cancer. In addition, 42 healthy people were selected as control group. GP73 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA trace centrifugal column method was adopted for separation of AFP-L3. Luo's chemiluminescence method was used to determine the total content of AFP and AFP-L3 in eluent for calculating the ratio of AFP-L3/ AFP. Results: The levels of serum GP73 and AFP-L3(% in PHC group were significantly higher than the other 2 groups (P<0.01 and the level of serum GP73 and AFP-L3 (% in Non-PHC group were higher than those in healthy group (P<0.01. ROC analysis showed that the area under ROC curve of single GP73 and AFP-L3(% in diagnosis of PHC and non-PHC were 0.887 and 0.860, respectively. Additionally, the ROC analysis also showed that critical value of GP73 and AFP-L3 for the diagnosis of HPC were 83.78 μg/L and 13.87%, respectively. The sensitivity of joint detection of serum GP73 or AFP-L3 was higher than detection of them alone (90.0 vs. 71.7 and 60.0, P<0.05 but the specificity was similar between single detection and joint detection (P>0.05. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of joint detection of them was higher than single detections of them and there was significant differences in negative predictive value (P<0.05 but no difference in positive predictive value (P>0.05. The overall response rate of joint detection of GP73 and AFP-L3 was higher

  12. 甲胎蛋白异质体L3对低浓度甲胎蛋白肝癌诊断的临床意义%The diagnostic value of hepatocellular carcinoma by AFP-L3 variant determined in AFP low concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鲁平; 谷海峰; 陈霖; 刘爱霞; 刘佳; 徐军; 张健; 郭静霞; 赵静

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of alpha-fetoprotein variant (AFP-L3) percentage in the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the operation evaluation in the patients with low serum AFP level.Methods AFP-L3 variants from 245 patients (including 100 cases of cirrhosis and 145 cases of HCC) with low serum AFP level(5-40 ng/ml) were isolated and the contents of AFP-L3 variant and total serum AFP were measured to get AFP-L3% (the ratio of AFP-L3 to total AFP).The follow-up of 3 months for 100 cirrhosis patients and 12 months for 20 HCC patients who underwent operation were performed.Results Using AFP-L3% ≥ 10% as a positive criterion,there was a positive rate of 23% with AFP-L3% in 100 cases of cirrhosis,and 8 out of 23 cases of AFP-L3 positive were diagnosed to be HCC after 3 months.There was a positive rate of 46.2% with AFP-L3% in 145 cases of HCC with low serum AFP level.AFP-L3% level was significantly higher in HCC than those in cirrhosis (t =7.318,P =0.001 < 0.01).The results of AFP-L3% of 20 HCC patients who underwent operation and therapy showed that the survival rates of AFP-L3% positive cases at 12 months was 0,and the survival rates of AFP-L3% negtive cases at 12 months was 15/15.Conclusion The percentage of AFP-L3 has significant clinical values for the early diagnosis of HCC and the operation evaluation of hepatic resection in the patients with low serum AFP level.%目的 探讨在低浓度甲胎蛋白(AFP)肝病患者中,甲胎蛋白异质体L3(AFP-L3)的百分含量(AFP-L3%)对肝癌的早期诊断和疗效评估的临床意义.方法 收集245例血清低AFP含量(5 ~40 ng/ml)的肝病患者样本(其中肝硬化患者100例、肝癌患者145例),检测AFP-L3%,并对其中100例肝硬化患者和20例肝癌术后患者分别进行3个月和12个月的随访.结果 以AFP-L3%≥10%作为阳性判断标准,100例肝硬化患者中阳性为23例,经3个月随访后其中8例诊断为肝癌;145份肝癌患者血清AFP-L

  13. Source(s) of Syntactic Cross-Linguistic Influence (CLI): The Case of L3 Acquisition of English Possessives by Mazandarani-Persian Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Nader; Jabbari, Ali Akbar; Fazilatfar, Ali Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the role of previously acquired linguistic systems, Mazandarani and Persian, in the acquisition of third language (L3) English at the initial stages. The data have been obtained from 31 students (age 13-14 years), testing the placement of attributive possessives in a grammaticality judgment task, an element rearrangement…

  14. An Attempt towards Learner Autonomy in L2 (English) an L3 (Arabic) Reading through Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategy Instruction (CMRSI) in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Seyed Hassan

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study was intended to raise learner autonomy among Iranian native speakers of Persian in their L2 (English) and L3 (Arabic) reading comprehension through cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies instruction (CMRSI). The subjects of the study were divided into intermediate and advanced English language proficiency levels and…

  15. Changes in Lipids Utilisation During Moisture and Temperature Stress of Infective (L3 and its Implication on the Epidemiology of Haemonchus contortus in Arid and Semi Arid Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Siamba

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to establish the pattern and level of lipid utilization in third stage infective larvae (L3 of Haemonchus contortus under temperature and moisture stress conditions. The stress factors were representative of an arid and semi arid site in Kenya. The L3 were subjected to gradual increase and reduction in temperature and moisture, respectively, using a programmable cold/heat testing chamber. Optical density per area (Corrected average pixels derived from image analysis of individual stained larvae using an image analysis software (UN SCAN IT gel(r, were used to estimate the lipid content of larvae subjected to different stress treatments. It was observed that lipid content of the L3 declined and was negatively correlated with duration of exposure with significantly (p = 0.012 lower rates in moisture compared to temperature stressed L3. It was also observed that the decline occurred in phases signifying possible adaptive physiological process aimed at preserving lipid reserves and viability. During revival, there was a drastic decline in lipid reserves probably as a result of increased lipid utilisation by the reviving larvae. The epidemiological significance of these findings in field larvae is discussed.

  16. MODIS/TERRA MOD44W Land Water Mask Derived from MODIS and SRTM L3 Global 250m SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Land Water Mask Derived from MODIS and SRTM L3 Global 250m SIN Grid MOD44W The new MODIS 250 m land-water mask (Short Name: MOD44W) is an improvement over the...

  17. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(3)-1 - Termination of agreement by domestic corporation or by reason of change in stock ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE CONTRACT COVERAGE OF EMPLOYEES OF FOREIGN SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(3)-1...)(1) with respect to one or more of its foreign subsidiaries may terminate such agreement in part or... whom the agreement was entered into, (iv) the name and address of each foreign subsidiary with...

  18. L-3-[I-123]iodo-alpha-methyltyrosine scintigraphy in carcinoid tumors : Correlation with biochemical activity and comparison with [In-111-DTPA-D-Phe(1)]-octreotide imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, PL; Meijer, WG; Kema, IP; Willemse, PHB; Piers, DA; de Vries, EGE

    2000-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors can produce serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and catecholamines from the precursors tryptophan and tyrosine. Our aim was to evaluate the tyrosine analog L-3-[I-123]iodo-alpha -methyltyrosine (IMT) in the detection and the determination of biochemical activity of these tumors in compa

  19. The histone H4 lysine 20 monomethyl mark, set by PR-Set7 and stabilized by L(3mbt, is necessary for proper interphase chromatin organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Sakaguchi

    Full Text Available Drosophila PR-Set7 or SET8 is a histone methyltransferase that specifically monomethylates histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20. L(3MBT has been identified as a reader of methylated H4K20. It contains several conserved domains including three MBT repeats binding mono- and dimethylated H4K20 peptides. We find that the depletion of PR-Set7 blocks de novo H4K20me1 resulting in the immediate activation of the DNA damage checkpoint, an increase in the size of interphase nuclei, and drastic reduction of cell viability. L(3mbt on the other hand stabilizes the monomethyl mark, as L(3mbt-depleted S2 cells show a reduction of more than 60% of bulk monomethylated H4K20 (H4K20me1 while viability is barely affected. Ploidy and basic chromatin structure show only small changes in PR-Set7-depleted cells, but higher order interphase chromatin organization is significantly affected presumably resulting in the activation of the DNA damage checkpoint. In the absence of any other known functions of PR-Set7, the setting of the de novo monomethyl mark appears essential for cell viability in the presence or absence of the DNA damage checkpoint, but once newly assembled chromatin is established the monomethyl mark, protected by L(3mbt, is dispensable.

  20. Prolonged response to calling songs by the L3 auditory interneuron in female crickets (Acheta domesticus): possible roles in regulating phonotactic threshold and selectiveness for call carrier frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsert, Michael; Bingol, Hilary; Atkins, Gordon; Stout, John

    2003-03-01

    L3, an auditory interneuron in the prothoracic ganglion of female crickets (Acheta domesticus) exhibited two kinds of responses to models of the male's calling song (CS): a previously described, phasically encoded immediate response; a more tonically encoded prolonged response. The onset of the prolonged response required 3-8 sec of stimulation to reach its maximum spiking rate and 6-20 sec to decay once the calling song ceased. It did not encode the syllables of the chirp. The prolonged response was sharply selective for the 4-5 kHz carrier frequency of the male's calling songs and its threshold tuning matched the threshold tuning of phonotaxis, while the immediate response of the same neuron was broadly tuned to a wide range of carrier frequencies. The thresholds for the prolonged response covaried with the changing phonotactic thresholds of 2- and 5-day-old females. Treatment of females with juvenile hormone reduced the thresholds for both phonotaxis and the prolonged response by equivalent amounts. Of the 3 types of responses to CSs provided by the ascending L1 and L3 auditory interneurons, the threshold for L3's prolonged response, on average, best matched the same females phonotactic threshold. The prolonged response was stimulated by inputs from both ears while L3's immediate response was driven only from its axon-ipsilateral ear. The prolonged response was not selective for either the CS's syllable period or chirp rate.

  1. Migration of Chadic speaking pastoralists within Africa based on population structure of Chad Basin and phylogeography of mitochondrial L3f haplogroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulligan Connie J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chad Basin, lying within the bidirectional corridor of African Sahel, is one of the most populated places in Sub-Saharan Africa today. The origin of its settlement appears connected with Holocene climatic ameliorations (aquatic resources that started ~10,000 years before present (YBP. Although both Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo language families are encountered here, the most diversified group is the Chadic branch belonging to the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. In this article, we investigate the proposed ancient migration of Chadic pastoralists from Eastern Africa based on linguistic data and test for genetic traces of this migration in extant Chadic speaking populations. Results We performed whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of 16 L3f haplotypes, focused on clade L3f3 that occurs almost exclusively in Chadic speaking people living in the Chad Basin. These data supported the reconstruction of a L3f phylogenetic tree and calculation of times to the most recent common ancestor for all internal clades. A date ~8,000 YBP was estimated for the L3f3 sub-haplogroup, which is in good agreement with the supposed migration of Chadic speaking pastoralists and their linguistic differentiation from other Afro-Asiatic groups of East Africa. As a whole, the Afro-Asiatic language family presents low population structure, as 92.4% of mtDNA variation is found within populations and only 3.4% of variation can be attributed to diversity among language branches. The Chadic speaking populations form a relatively homogenous cluster, exhibiting lower diversification than the other Afro-Asiatic branches (Berber, Semitic and Cushitic. Conclusion The results of our study support an East African origin of mitochondrial L3f3 clade that is present almost exclusively within Chadic speaking people living in Chad Basin. Whole genome sequence-based dates show that the ancestral haplogroup L3f must have emerged soon after the Out-of-Africa migration (around

  2. Diagnosis of brugian filariasis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine B Poole

    Full Text Available In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis.

  3. Diagnosis of brugian filariasis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Catherine B; Tanner, Nathan A; Zhang, Yinhua; Evans, Thomas C; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2012-01-01

    In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis.

  4. Diagnosis of brugian filariasis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Catherine B; Tanner, Nathan A; Zhang, Yinhua; Evans, Thomas C; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2012-01-01

    In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis. PMID:23272258

  5. AFP、AFP-L3、GP73联合检测对原发性肝癌的诊断价值%Application of Combined Detection of AFP,AFP-L3,GP73 in the Diagnosis of Primary Hepatocellular Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵树艳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨甲胎蛋白(AFP)、甲胎蛋白异质体-L3(AFP-L3)、高尔基体蛋白73(GP73)在原发性肝癌的诊断价值。方法采用酶联免疫吸附法和电化学发光法检测68例原发性肝癌、49例良性肝病及68例健康体检者血清中 AFP、AFP-L3、GP73的含量,并进行比较。结果原发性肝癌患者组血清 AFP、AFP-L3、GP73含量明显高于良性肝病及健康对照组(P <0.05和 P <0.01);三者联合检测的特异度和敏感度优于单独检测,所得数据有统计学意义。结论AFP、AFP-L3、GP73联合检测可明显提高原发性肝癌诊断的敏感性和特异性。%Objective To investigate the application value of detection AFP,AFP-L3 and GP73 in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)was adopted to detect AFP、AFP-L3 and GP73 level of senum in hepatocellular carcinoma patients(68cases),benign liver disease (49 cases)and healthy people (68cases),and comparison was done.Results the Serum AFP,AFP-L3 and GP73 level in hepatocellular carci-noma were significantly higher than those of patients with benign liver diseases and control group (P < 0.05,P <0.01).The specificity and sensitivity of the combined detection of the three was better than that of the individual test, and the difference was statistically significant.Conclusion Combination test of serum AFP,AFP-L3 and GP73 has good diagrnosis value for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  6. 肝细胞癌合并门静脉癌栓与 AFP-L3% 相关性研究%Correlation between Lens Culinaris Agglutlnin -reactive A -Fetoprotein( AFP -L3 % ) with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombosis in Hepatocellnlar Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈祖华; 陈瑶; 高智峰; 徐爱芳; 李运江

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨肝细胞肝癌(hepatocellular carcinoma,HCC)伴门静脉癌栓(portal vein tumor thrombosis,PVTT)与AFP-L3%相关性.方法 将治疗前15天内完成多排螺旋CT(MSCT)检查和AFP-L3%检测的HCC患者100例作为研究对象.根据AFP - L3%检测结果,分为阳性组(≥10%)和阴性组(<10%).PVTT诊断和累及范围通过多排螺旋CT增强3期检查.根据PVTT累及范围分为Ⅳ级:Ⅰ级为门静脉一级分支,即门静脉左或右干(LPV、RPV)有瘤栓;Ⅱ级LPV或RPV加门静脉主干(TPV)被侵犯;Ⅲ级LPV、RPV和TPV均受累;Ⅳ级PVTT加脾静脉或肠系膜上静脉被累及,合并肝外转移;并计算各级癌栓AFP-L3%均值.AFP - L3采用装有偶联了小扁豆凝集素(LCA)的微量离心柱分离甲胎蛋白,利用化学发光法检测AFP和AFP -L3,并计算AFP -L3占AFP含量的百分比.采用SPSS17.0软件进行统计学分析.结果 在100例HCC患者中,阳性组71例(71%),其中合并PVTT 41例(57.7%);阴性组29例(29%),合并PVTT8例(27.6%).阳性组较阴性组易侵犯门静脉形成PVTT(P <0.01).根据PVTT累及范围分级,Ⅰ级16例、Ⅱ级13例、Ⅲ级11例及Ⅳ级9例.Ⅰ~Ⅳ级AFP - L3%均值分别为14.5、18.3、20.1、26.3.PVTT各级间的AFP - L3%均值有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 AFP - L3%阳性HCC患者易侵犯门静脉形成PVTT,并且AFP - L3%越高PVTT累及范围越广.%To investigate correlation between Lens culinaris agglutinin - reactive a - Fetoprotein( AFP - 13% ) and portal vein tumor thrombosis ( PVTT) in hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) . Methods A total of 100 patients with HCC who were examinated AFP - L3% and multidetector CT( MDCT) in 15 days before treatment were regarded as research object. AFP - L3 of 10% or higher was judged to the positive group,otherwise, to the negative group. AFP -L3% were acquired by lectin - affinity electrophoresis coupled with antibody - affinity blotting, and expressed as AFP - 1.3 percentage of total

  7. Chemical shift of U L3 edges in different uranium compounds obtained by X-ray absorption spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Joseph; C Nayak; P Venu Babu; S N Jha; D Bhattacharyya

    2014-05-01

    Uranium L3 X-ray absorption edge was measured in various compounds containing uranium in U4+, U5+ and U6+ oxidation states. The measurements have been carried out at the Energy Dispersive EXAFS beamline (BL-08) at INDUS-2 synchrotron radiation source at RRCAT, Indore. Energy shifts of ∼ 2–3 eV were observed for U L3 edge in the U-compounds compared to their value in elemental U. The different chemical shifts observed for the compounds having the same oxidation state of the cation but different anions or ligands show the effect of different chemical environments surrounding the cations in determining their X-ray absorption edges in the above compounds. The above chemical effect has been quantitatively described by determining the effective charges on U cation in the above compounds.

  8. Delocalization and occupancy effects of 5f orbitals in plutonium intermetallics using L3-edge resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, C. H.; Medling, S. A.; Jiang, Yu; Bauer, E. D.; Tobash, P. H.; Mitchell, J. N.; Veirs, D. K.; Wall, M. A.; Allen, P. G.; Kas, J. J.; Sokaras, D.; Nordlund, D.; Weng, T. -C.

    2014-06-24

    Although actinide (An) L3 -edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been very effective in determining An oxidation states in insulating, ionically bonded materials, such as in certain coordination compounds and mineral systems, the technique fails in systems featuring more delocalized 5f orbitals, especially in metals. Recently, actinide L3-edge resonant X-ray emission spec- troscopy (RXES) has been shown to be an effective alternative. This technique is further demonstrated here using a parameterized partial unoccupied density of states method to quantify both occupancy and delocalization of the 5f orbital in ?-Pu, ?-Pu, PuCoGa5 , PuCoIn5 , and PuSb2. These new results, supported by FEFF calculations, highlight the effects of strong correlations on RXES spectra and the technique?s ability to differentiate between f-orbital occupation and delocalization.

  9. RE L(3) x-ray absorption study of REO(1-x)F(x)FeAs (RE = La, Pr, Nd, Sm) oxypnictides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, B; Iadecola, A; Fratini, M; Bianconi, A; Marcelli, A; Saini, N L

    2009-10-28

    Rare earth L(3)-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been used to study REOFeAs (RE = La, Pr, Nd, Sm) oxypnictides. The Nd L(3) XANES due to the [Formula: see text] transition shows a substantial change in both white line (WL) spectral weight and the higher energy multiple scattering resonances with the partial substitution of O by F. A systematic change in the XANES features is seen due to varying lattice parameters with ionic radius of the rare earth. On the other hand, we hardly see any change across the structural phase transition. The results provide timely information on the local atomic correlations showing the importance of the local structural chemistry of the REO spacer layer and interlayer coupling in the competing superconductivity and itinerant striped magnetic phase of the oxypnictides.

  10. Lathyrol diterpenes as modulators of P-glycoprotein dependent multidrug resistance: structure-activity relationship studies on Euphorbia factor L3 derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wei; Wan, Zhongmin; Chen, Shuang; Lu, Runhua; Chen, Xiaozhen; Fang, Dongmei; Wang, Jiufeng; Pu, Shengcai; Huang, Xin; Gao, Haixiang; Shao, Huawu

    2015-05-14

    Five series of 37 new acylate and epoxide derivatives (3-39) of Euphorbia factor L3, a lathyrol diterpene isolated from Euphorbia lathyris, were designed by modifying the hydroxyl moiety of C-3, C-5, or C-15. Chemoreversal effects of the acylates on multidrug resistance (MDR) were evaluated in breast cancer multidrug-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells that overexpress P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Eight derivatives exhibited greater chemoreversal ability than verapamil (VRP) against adriamycin (ADR) resistance. Compounds 19 and 25 exhibited 4.8 and 4.0 times, respectively, more effective reversal ability than VRP against ADR resistance. To determine the key characteristics of Euphorbia factor L3 derivatives that contribute to MDR reversal, we conducted a structure-activity relationship study of these compounds. The simulation studies indicated different possible mechanisms and revealed the important influence of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds in the flexible cavity of P-gp.

  11. RT-PCR assay for the detection of infective (L3) larvae of lymphatic filarial parasite, Wuchereria bancrofti, in vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    K.P. Patra; Hoti, S.L.; V. Vasuki

    2008-01-01

    Background & objectives: Periodic monitoring of vector population for infection and infectivity rates is central to the evaluation of the filariasis elimination strategies in endemic areas to monitor the success of MDA and also to establish endpoints for intervention. The main objective of this study was to develop a RT-PCR assay, based on L3 stage-specific primers to detect the presence of infective stage larvae of filarial parasite, Wuchereria bancrofti in the vector Culex quinquefasciatus....

  12. Suche nach dem Higgs-Boson in hadronischen Endzuständen mit fehlender Energie am L3-Experiment bei LEP

    OpenAIRE

    Zöller, Marc Henning

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents searches for the Higgs boson, which is predicted by the Standard Model of Particle Physics and its extensions in order to endow fermions and bosons with their observed masses. While the Standard Model predicts only one Higgs boson "H", the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension contains five Higgs bosons. This analysis refers to the light neutral "h", which has nearly the same properties as the Standard Model Higgs boson. The analyses are based on data taken by the L3 experimen...

  13. Relativistic Energy of Highly Triply Excited 3l3l′nl″ 2p°(m) (m = 1-5) States of Lithium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; GOU Bing-Cong; YU Kai-Zhi; ZHANG Meng

    2004-01-01

    @@ The high-lying triply excited 3l3l′nl″ 2po (n ≥ 3) states of the double hollow lithium atom are studied by using the saddle-point variational method. Relativistic corrections are evaluated with the first-order perturbation theory, and the mass polarization effect is also included. The dominant configuration mixtures of these triply excited states are given. The results are compared with other theoretical and experimental data in the literature.

  14. 不同 AFP 浓度下 AFP-L3与 GPC-3在原发性肝癌中的表达分析%Analysis of the expression of AFP-L3 and GPC-3 in primary hepatic carcinoma with different concentration of AFP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦文燕; 陈博; 李自生; 佘有清

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析在不同甲胎蛋白(AFP)浓度下,甲胎蛋白异质体3(AFP-L3)、磷脂酰蛋白聚糖-3(GPC-3)在原发性肝癌(PHC)诊断中的表达,为 PHC 的诊断提供参考。方法以240例门诊、住院患者及体检者为研究对象,检测其血清 AFP、AFP-L3及 GPC-3水平;根据血清 AFP 水平分为阴性组(0≤AFP<20 ng/mL)、低浓度组(20≤AFP<400 ng/mL)和高浓度组(AFP≥400 ng/mL),比较3组 AFP-L3和 GPC-3水平,以及 AFP-L3、GPC-3单独与联合检测对 PHC 的诊断效能。结果低浓度组、高浓度组血清 AFP-L3与 GPC-3水平均高于阴性组,且高浓度组血清 AFP-L3与 GPC-3水平高于低浓度组,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。AFP-L3与 GPC-3联合检测诊断 PHC 的灵敏度、特异度和准确度分别为84.4%、95.9%、93.8%,均高于 AFP-L3、GPC-3单独检测。结论联合检测 AFP-L3和 GPC-3可提高对 PHC 的诊断灵敏度、特异度和准确度,对 PHC 诊断具有重要的临床意义。%Objective To analyse the expression of alpha-fetoprotein variant-L3(AFP-L3)and glypican-3(GPC-3)in primary he-patic carcinoma(PHC)with different concentration of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP),so as to provide references for the diagnosis of PHC.Methods 240 cases of outpatients,inpatients and individuals on physical examination were selected as subjects and serum levels of AFP-L3 and GPC-3 were detected.All of the subjects were divided into negative group(0≤AFP<20 ng/mL),low concen-tration group(20≤AFP<400 ng/mL)and high concentration group(AFP≥400 ng/mL)according to the serum levels of AFP.Ser-um levels of AFP-L3 and GPC-3 were compared among the three groups.And the sensitivity,specificity and accuracy of single de-tection of AFP-L3 or GPC-3 and those of combined detection of AFP-L3 and GPC-3 were compared as well.Results The serum levels of AFP-L3 and GPC-3 in the low concentration group and high concentration group were both higher than those in the nega-tive group,and those

  15. Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma may impair the performance of biomarkers: a comparison of AFP, DCP, and AFP-L3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Michael L; Hernandez, Jose C; Su, Grace L; Lok, Anna S; Marrero, Jorge A

    2007-01-01

    Current surveillance strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are applied uniformly in patients with cirrhosis, regardless of their cancer risk. The aim of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of the biomarkers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), des-gamma carboxyprothrombin (DCP), and lectin-bound AFP (AFP-L3) in the diagnosis of HCC, and to determine the effect of risk factors for HCC on test performance. Eighty-four patients with HCC and 169 patients with cirrhosis were enrolled and their serum analyzed for total AFP, AFP-L3 and DCP. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the performance characteristics. DCP was significantly better than total AFP or AFP-L3 in differentiating HCC from cirrhosis, with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 93%. When subjects were divided into two groups by their risk for HCC, all 3 markers had a lower sensitivity and area under the ROC curve in the high-risk group compared to the low-risk group. In conclusion, DCP has the best performance characteristics of all 3 serum markers for the diagnosis of HCC. Serum biomarkers may be less sensitive and specific in the highest risk patients. PMID:17522429

  16. Measurement of the radiative L3-M vacancy transfer probabilities of some 4f elements and compounds using Indus-2 synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnananda; Mirji, Santosh; Badiger, N. M.; Tiwari, M. K.

    2016-08-01

    The L X-ray intensity ratios (ILα/ILl, ILα/ILβ, ILα/ILγ) and the radiative L3-M vacancy transfer probabilities (ηL3-M) of some 4f elements such as Gd, Tb, Ho and compounds; Pr2O3, Pr2(CO3)3·8H2O, Nd2O3, Sm2O3, Sm2(CO3)3·2.85H2O, Sm2(SO4)3·8H2O, Gd2(CO3)3, Tb2O3, Dy2(SO4)3, Ho2O3 and HoF3 have been measured using Indus-2 synchrotron radiation. The elements and compounds are excited by synchrotron radiation and the emitted characteristic L X-ray photons are measured with high resolution silicon drift detector. The measured intensity ratios of compounds are not influenced by the chemical environment. However, the ηL3-M values of compound targets indicate the effect of crystal structure.

  17. Inactivation of Anisakis simplex L3 in the flesh of white spotted conger (Conger myriaster) by high hydrostatic pressure and its effect on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hoon; Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2016-06-01

    Koreans consume much seafood; the country is surrounded on the east, west and south by the sea. Koreans have eaten raw sashimi for a long time. However, a concern in the raw sea food industry is that the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex L3 occurs naturally in marine fish. Thus, the fishery industry needs a non-thermal processing method. High hydrostatic pressure (HPP) has been demonstrated to be effective. White spotted conger flesh containing 20 live larvae was exposed to different pressures (150 and 200 MPa for 1 and 5 min; 250 and 300 MPa each for 1 min). The viability of A. simplex L3 was significantly (p  0.05) in any of the Hunter colour ('L', 'a' and 'b') values were found after HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min. The fresh treated at 300 MPa for 1 min scored sensory evaluation using a seven-point hedonic scale. However, the flesh treated at 200 MPa for 5 min scored > 5.0 ('like') for all sensory parameters. This study suggested that HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min could potentially be used for the inactivation of A. simplex L3 in raw fishery food products without any concomitant changes in their colour or sensory qualities. PMID:27117731

  18. Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma may impair the performance of biomarkers: a comparison of AFP, DCP, and AFP-L3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Michael L; Hernandez, Jose C; Su, Grace L; Lok, Anna S; Marrero, Jorge A

    2007-01-01

    Current surveillance strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are applied uniformly in patients with cirrhosis, regardless of their cancer risk. The aim of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of the biomarkers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), des-gamma carboxyprothrombin (DCP), and lectin-bound AFP (AFP-L3) in the diagnosis of HCC, and to determine the effect of risk factors for HCC on test performance. Eighty-four patients with HCC and 169 patients with cirrhosis were enrolled and their serum analyzed for total AFP, AFP-L3 and DCP. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the performance characteristics. DCP was significantly better than total AFP or AFP-L3 in differentiating HCC from cirrhosis, with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 93%. When subjects were divided into two groups by their risk for HCC, all 3 markers had a lower sensitivity and area under the ROC curve in the high-risk group compared to the low-risk group. In conclusion, DCP has the best performance characteristics of all 3 serum markers for the diagnosis of HCC. Serum biomarkers may be less sensitive and specific in the highest risk patients.

  19. Retarded Onchocerca volvulus L1 to L3 larval development in the Simulium damnosum vector after anti-wolbachial treatment of the human host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albers Anna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human parasite Onchocerca volvulus harbours Wolbachia endosymbionts essential for worm embryogenesis, larval development and adult survival. In this study, the development of Wolbachia-depleted microfilariae (first stage larvae to infective third stage larvae (L3 in the insect vector Simulium damnosum was analysed. Methods Infected volunteers in Cameroon were randomly and blindly allocated into doxycycline (200 mg/day for 6 weeks or placebo treatment groups. After treatment, blackflies were allowed to take a blood meal on the volunteers, captured and dissected for larval counting and DNA extraction for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Results PCR results showed a clear reduction in Wolbachia DNA after doxycycline treatment in microfilariae from human skin biopsies with > 50% reduction at one month post-treatment, eventually reaching a reduction of > 80%. Larval stages recovered from the insect vector had similar levels of reduction of endosymbiotic bacteria. Larval recoveries were analysed longitudinally after treatment to follow the kinetics of larval development. Beginning at three months post-treatment, significantly fewer L3 were seen in the blackflies that had fed on doxycycline treated volunteers. Concomitant with this, the proportion of second stage larvae (L2 was significantly increased in this group. Conclusions Doxycycline treatment and the resulting decline of Wolbachia endobacteria from the microfilaria resulted in retarded development of larvae in the insect vector. Thus, anti-wolbachial treatment could have an additive effect for interrupting transmission by reducing the number of L3 that can be transmitted by blackflies.

  20. Inactivation of Anisakis simplex L3 in the flesh of white spotted conger (Conger myriaster) by high hydrostatic pressure and its effect on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hoon; Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2016-06-01

    Koreans consume much seafood; the country is surrounded on the east, west and south by the sea. Koreans have eaten raw sashimi for a long time. However, a concern in the raw sea food industry is that the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex L3 occurs naturally in marine fish. Thus, the fishery industry needs a non-thermal processing method. High hydrostatic pressure (HPP) has been demonstrated to be effective. White spotted conger flesh containing 20 live larvae was exposed to different pressures (150 and 200 MPa for 1 and 5 min; 250 and 300 MPa each for 1 min). The viability of A. simplex L3 was significantly (p  0.05) in any of the Hunter colour ('L', 'a' and 'b') values were found after HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min. The fresh treated at 300 MPa for 1 min scored 4.0 (the defect limit of quality) of flavour, texture and overall acceptability in untrained sensory evaluation using a seven-point hedonic scale. However, the flesh treated at 200 MPa for 5 min scored > 5.0 ('like') for all sensory parameters. This study suggested that HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min could potentially be used for the inactivation of A. simplex L3 in raw fishery food products without any concomitant changes in their colour or sensory qualities.

  1. Contribution to the design and implementation of the trigger and acquisition system of the L3 experiment at LEP; Contribution a l`elaboration et a la mise en oeuvre du systeme de declenchement et d`acquisition de l`experience L3 au LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, X.

    1994-10-01

    The thesis is devoted to the trigger and data acquisition system of the L3 experiment at LEP. It is a large distributed system with multiple levels to trigger, collect and record events detected by the L3 detector. The three trigger levels are designed to reduce a possible first level trigger rate of 100 Hz to a few Hz. The readout and event building systems have intermediate buffering so that the only dead time is only introduced during digitization of the detector signals. The emphasis of this thesis is on the Hadron Calorimeter (one of the sub detectors) readout system, the L3 event building system and the upgraded level-3-trigger system. Both hardware and software are described. (author). 126 refs., 48 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. AFU、AFP-L3、HCY联合检测对原发性肝癌早期诊断临床价值的研究%The clinical value of the combined detection of AFU,AFP-L3 and HCY in the diagnosis of primary hepatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董怀平; 王力; 赵岐刚; 张延强; 李庆敏

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨3种血清肿瘤标志物a-L岩藻糖苷酶(α-L-fucosidase,AFU)、AFP异质体(6alpha-fetoprotein variant,AFP-L3)及同型半胱氨酸(Hyperhomocysteinemia,Hcy)联合检测原发性肝癌(primary hepatic cancer,PHC)的早期诊断价值及临床界值.方法 对我院2004年11月-2005年12月收治的640例肝病患者,其中经手术和病理诊断确诊为PHC者84例,非PHC者556例.对640例肝病患者的血清联合检测AFU、AFP-L3及HCY.采用速率法测定AFU水平,电泳亲和印迹法测定AFP-L3,采用IMx同型半胱氨酸专用试剂包测定HCY.结果 PHC组血清AFU、AFP-L3及HCY水平分别为(40±18.5)U/L、(30±16.4)%、(18.9±9.7)μmol/L;非PHC患者血清AFU、AFP-L3及HCY水平分别为(16.4±9.8)U/L、(15.2±4.2)%、(9.4±4.9)μmol/L,二者相比有统计学意义(P<0.01);PHC组AFU、AFP-L3及HCY在ROC曲线下的面积(AUC)分别0.464、0.854、0.881,而三者联合检测的AUC为0.936.经ROC曲线分析,AFU40 U/L、AFP-L3%、HCY18.9μmol/L联合应用的临界值,敏感度和特异度均可达85%,阳性似然比为5.12,阴性似然比为0.17.结论 联合检测AFU、AFP-L3及HCY3项指标对HPC的早期诊断有一定的指导意义.

  3. Analysis of relationship between serum AFP,AFP-L3 expression levels and CT images in primary hepatic carcinoma patients%原发性肝癌血清 AFP、AFP-L3表达与 CT 影像的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭娟; 马刚

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨原发性肝癌患者血清甲胎蛋白(AFP)、甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)与 CT 征象的相关性。方法选择2012年2月至2015年3月本院收治的64例原发性肝癌患者作为研究对象,均经手术切除且病理证实,另外选取医院同期确诊的肝硬化患者60例,患者均行多层 CT 常规与增强扫描,ELISA 法测定血清 AFP、AFP-L3,分析 CT 扫描联合 AFP、AFP-L3在原发性肝癌诊断中价值,AFP、AFP-L3表达水平与 CT 征象的相关性。结果 AFP、AFP-L3阳性表达在包膜不完整情况下明显高于包膜完整情况(P <0.05);肿瘤临床分期越晚 AFP、AFP-L3阳性表达率越高(P <0.05),肝细胞癌中 AFP、AFP-L3阳性表达率高于胆管细胞癌(P <0.05),有转移患者AFP、AFP-L3阳性表达率高于非转移者(P <0.05)。结论检测血清 AFP、AFP-L3联合 CT 扫描在诊断原发性肝癌方面有重要意义,血清 AFP、AFP-L3表达与原发性肝癌 CT 影像中肿瘤大小及包膜情况、肿瘤临床分期、病理类型、转移有一定相关性。%Objective This paper was to investigate the relationship between serum AFP,AFP-L3 expression levels and CT images in primary hepatic carcinoma patients.Methods A total of 64 patients with primary liver cancer from February 2012 to March 2015 in hospital were selected,and they were confirmed by surgery and pathology.A total of 60 patients with cirrhosis in the same period were selected.The patients were underwent multisided CT con-ventional and enhanced scan,serum AFP,AFP-L3 was detected by ELISA assay,the value of CT scans combined with AFP,AFP-L3 in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer was analyzed.The relationship between serum AFP, AFP-L3 expression levels and CT images were analyzed.Results The positive expression of AFP-L3 and AFP was significantly higher than that in the whole envelope (P <0.05).The positive expression rates of AFP,AFP-L3 in later clinical

  4. Diagnosis value of combined detection of AFP,AFP-L3,DKK1 in primary hepatic carcinoma%AFP、AFP-L3、DKK1联合检测对原发性肝癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄维波; 秦继宝

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical significance of the single detection or the combination detection of 3 kinds of tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein(AFP),alpha-fetoprotein-L3(AFP-L3)and DKK1 for the diagnosis of primary hepatic carcinoma(PHC). Methods AFP,AFP-L3 and DKK1 in the PHC group,benign hepatic diseases group and control group were detected by adopting the ECLIA,affinity adsorption chromatography and ELISA methods respectively.The ratio of AFP-L3 in AFP was calculated.Re-sults In the single detection,the sensitivity of AFP,AFP-L3 and DKK1 was 60.9%,76.8% and 69.6% respectively and the speci-ficity was 88.7%,91.5% and 95.8% respectively.In the combination detection,the sensitivity and specificity were 91.3% and 87.3% respectively,the differences between the single detection and the combination detection had statistical significance (P <0. 05).Conclusion The combined examination of serum AFP,AFP-L3 and DKK1 can elevate the sensitivity and specificity,which is much better and more accurate for diagnosing PHC than most of traditional combination detection at present.%目的:分析3种肿瘤标志物甲胎蛋白(AFP)、甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)、分泌型蛋白Dickkopf-1(DKK1)单独或联合检测原发性肝癌(PHC)的临床意义。方法采用电化学发光法检测 PHC 组、良性肝病组和健康对照组血清 AFP 水平;采用亲和吸附层析法检测 AFP-L3水平,计算 AFP-L3在 AFP 中比例;采用 ELISA 试剂盒检测血清标本中 DKK1水平。结果单独检测 PHC 患者的3种肿瘤标志物,AFP、AFP-L3、DKK1灵敏度分别为60.9%、76.8%、69.6%,特异度分别为88.7%、91.5%、95.8%。3项指标联合检测的灵敏度是91.3%,特异度是87.3%,与单项指标检测相比差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论AFP 、AFP-L3、DKK1的联合检测能提高 PHC 血清学检测的灵敏度和特异度,在 PHC 诊断方面比目前大多数传统的组合方法更准确。

  5. AFP、AFP-L3、GP73联合检测在肝癌诊断中的应用%The application of combine detection of AFP、AFP-L3 and GP73 in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向臣; 曲建香; 鹿理友; 于传亭; 林青

    2011-01-01

    目的 检测不同患者样本中甲胎蛋白(AFP)、甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)以及高尔基体蛋白73(GP73)的含量,研究AFP、AFP-L3、GP73在肝癌诊断中的应用.方法 收集肝癌患者样本、肝炎肝硬化样本以及正常健康人员样本,用电化学发光法检测AFP、AFP-L3及用ELISA法检测GP73含量.结果 1.本研究显示:AFP-L3%>10%对肝癌诊断敏感度为89.1%;诊断特异度为94.4%[1];2.在101例肝癌标本中,GP73的阳性率为72.28%,AFP的阳性率37.62%,经过卡方检验,两者具有显著性差异(χ2=18.86,p<0.01);3.在所有非肝癌患者中,GP73的诊断特异性为93.44%;AFP的诊断特异性为86.48%.结论 AFP-L3、GP73 用于诊断肝癌效果明显优于AFP,可以显著提高对肝癌诊断的灵敏度和特异性,而且AFP-L3、GP73 相比AFP更不容易受到肝部炎症和其他部位肿瘤的影响.结合本人早期研究结果,将GP73、AFP-L3、AFP联合起来检测,能更好更快的对肝癌做出早期诊断.

  6. 微量离心柱法分离检测甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)在肝癌诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小壮; 刘庆丰

    2012-01-01

      目的:应用微量离心柱法检测甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3),探讨AFP-L3在肝癌鉴别诊断中的意义.方法:应用预装有偶联小扁豆凝集素(LCA)的琼脂糖微量离心柱分离AFP-L3,采用时间分辨免疫荧光法检测AFP和AFP-L3,并计算AFP-L3值.以AFP〉20ng/L,AFP-L3〉10%作为阳性判断标准.结果:肝细胞癌患者血清中AFP、AFP-L3水平及阳性率明显高于其他肝病患者(P〈0.01).结论:微量离心柱法测定AFP-L3(%)在AFP阳性时的良、恶性肝病的鉴别及肝癌的早期诊断具有重要意义.

  7. Value of GPC3, GP73, AFP-L3 and AFP detection in the diagnosis of primary hepatic carcinoma%血清GPC3、GP73、AFP-L3和AFP检测对原发性肝癌诊断的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙璐; 陈贞; 王堃; 陶亚; 易斌

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨血清磷脂酰肌醇蛋白多糖-3(glypican-3,GPC3)、高尔基体蛋白73(Golgi protein-73,GP73)、甲胎蛋白异质体AFP-L3以及AFP单独及联合检测在原发性肝癌(primary hepatic carcinoma,PHC)中的诊断价值.方法 GPC3、GP73、AFP-L3检测采用ELISA法,AFP检测采用化学发光法,分别检测原发性肝癌组(43例)、肝硬化组(43例)、慢性肝炎组(43例)、和健康对照组(43例)血清GPC3、GP73、AFP-L3、AFP水平,应用SPSS统计软件对结果进行统计学分析.结果 PHC组GP73、AFP-L3和AFP水平高于其他各组,差异均有显著性(P =0.000).GPC3、GP73、AFP-L3和AFP的ROC曲线下面积(AUCROC)分别为0.744、0.910、0.903、0.867,灵敏度分别为53.5%、86.0%、81.4%、76.7%,特异度分别为94.6%、93.8%、95.3%、86.0%.系列试验以GP73+AFP-L3为最佳组合,灵敏度和特异度分别为70.0%和99.7%,平行试验以AFP/AFP-L3/GP73为最佳组合,灵敏度特异度分别为99.4%和76.9%.结论 GP73和AFP-L3有望成为新的诊断原发性肝癌的血清标志物.临床应用中,可用GP73+AFP-L3作为诊断PHC的最佳组合,GP73/AFP-L3/AFP作为排除PHC较好的组合.

  8. Isolation of L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2 (Antho-RNamide), a sea anemone neuropeptide containing an unusual amino-terminal blocking group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Rinehart, K L; Jacob, E;

    1990-01-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay for the carboxyl-terminal sequence Arg-Asn-NH2, we have purified a peptide from acetic acid extracts of the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. By classical amino acid analyses, mass spectrometry, and 1H NMR spectroscopy, the structure of this peptide was determined as 3......-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2. By using reversed-phase HPLC and a chiral mobile phase, it was shown that the 3-phenyllactyl group had the L configuration. Immunocytochemical staining with antiserum against Arg-Asn-NH2 showed that L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2 (Antho-RNamide) was localized in neurons of sea...

  9. Study of ZZ production in $e^{+}e^{-}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 189 GeV with the L3 detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Falagán, M A

    2000-01-01

    A study of ZZ production using the 176 pb/sup -1/ of integrated luminosity collected by the L3 detector at LEP at the center of mass energy of 188.66 GeV is performed. The ZZ production cross section is measured to be sigma /sub ZZ/=0.54/sub -0.14//sup +0.16/ pb, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation. No evidence for the existence of anomalous triple gauge boson ZZZ and ZZ gamma couplings is found and limits on these couplings are set. All the presented results are preliminary. (11 refs).

  10. Representaciones de estudiantes adultos de español como L3 en Grecia. Qué piensan de la lengua y de su aprendizaje

    OpenAIRE

    Alfa, Nafsiká

    2011-01-01

    En esta tesis se investigan las representaciones de aprendices adultos, que estudian español como L3 o lengua adicional en Grecia, acerca de algunos aspectos sobre la lengua y su aprendizaje. Los participantes en la investigación son estudiantes griegos que acuden al Instituto Cervantes de Atenas para aprender el idioma español una vez finalizada la escuela obligatoria. Por un lado, partimos de la idea que los sistemas de representaciones forman parte de las variables individuales del apr...

  11. Studies of Hadronic Event Structure in $e^+ e^-$ Annihilation from 30 GeV to 209 GeV with the L3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2004-01-01

    In this Report, QCD results obtained from a study of hadronic event structure in high energy e^+e^- interactions with the L3 detector are presented. The operation of the LEP collider at many different collision energies from 91 GeV to 209 GeV offers a unique opportunity to test QCD by measuring the energy dependence of different observables. The main results concern the measurement of the strong coupling constant, \\alpha_s, from hadronic event shapes and the study of effects of soft gluon coherence through charged particle multiplicity and momentum distributions.

  12. Clock generation and distribution for the 130-nm Itanium$^{R}$ 2 processor with 6-MB on-die L3 cache

    CERN Document Server

    Tam, S; Limaye, R D

    2004-01-01

    The clock generation and distribution system for the 130-nm Itanium 2 processor operates at 1.5 GHz with a skew of 24 ps. The Itanium 2 processor features 6 MB of on-die L3 cache and has a die size of 374 mm/sup 2/. Fuse-based clock de-skew enables post-silicon clock optimization to gain higher frequency. This paper describes the clock generation, global clock distribution, local clocking, and the clock skew optimization feature.

  13. Expression and differential diagnostic value of serum AFP,AFP-L3% and GP73 in patients with liver cirrhosis%AFP、AFP-L3%、GP73在肝硬化、肝癌患者血清中的表达及鉴别诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松; 袁春蓓; 俞海英; 潘剑; 杨永峰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨不同血清肿瘤标志物在肝硬化和肝癌的鉴别诊断中的临床价值。方法回顾性分析146例肝硬化患者、50例原发性肝癌患者的临床资料,并选取50例健康体检者作为对照,分别检测血清AFP、甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)和高尔基体糖蛋白73(GP73)含量,并计算 AFP-L3%。结果146例肝硬化患者的 AFP 阳性率为平均25.3%,低于肝癌组的72%(χ2=34.69,P<0.01);AFP-L3%在不同病因肝硬化组中阳性率均较低,平均8.9%,低于肝癌组的58%(χ2=53.32,P<0.01),也低于肝硬化组中AFP 的阳性率(χ2=13.90,P=0.0002);GP73在不同病因肝硬化组、肝癌组阳性率均较高,在肝硬化组中平均阳性率为74.7%,高于AFP 及AFP-L3%在肝硬化组中的阳性率(χ2=71.01,P<0.01),与GP73在肝癌组中的阳性率比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.84,P=0.36)。AFP、AFP-L3%的敏感性、特异性均较GP73好,联合诊断不能提高鉴别准确性。结论血清肿瘤标志物AFP 在乙型肝炎肝硬化及隐源性肝硬化患者中阳性率较高,AFP-L3%在各种病因肝硬化患者中均较低,AFP、AFP-L3%可有效区分肝癌和肝硬化;GP73在不同病因肝硬化组中均高,不能用于区分肝硬化和肝癌。%Objective To investigate the difference of serum AFP,AFP-L3% and GP73in different types of liver cirrhosis and their differential diagnostic value between liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Methods One hundred and forty-six cases of liver cirrhosis patients from August 2012 to August 2013 were analyzed,while 50 primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC)and 50 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum AFP,AFP-L3 and GP73 were measured respectively and AFP-L3% was calculated. Results The top three causes of liver cirrhosis were hepatitis B virus, cryptogenic and autoimmunity. The positive rate of AFP in hepatitis virus groups and

  14. 血清AFP、AFP-L3及GP73三者联合检测在原发性肝癌诊断中的应用探究%Diagnostic Value of The Combination With Detection of AFP, AFP-L3 and GP73 in Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明浩; 姚丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the application value of combined detection of serum alpha (AFP), alpha fetal protein (AFP-L3) and Golgi protein (GP73) in the diagnosis of primary hepatic cancer.Methods We Selected 40 cases of HCC patients (group A), 40 cases of benign liver disease patients(group B)and 40 cases of healthy volunteers (group C) as the research object. The serum levels of AFP, AFP-L3 and GP73 were detected by electrochemical luminescence, micro column and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results AFP, AFP-L3, GP73 were not detected in the serum of patients with C group.But group A and B were signiifcantly higher than those in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The positive rates of AFP-L3, GP73 in group A were 70%and 77.5%. Compared with the positive rate of AFP serum detection, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05). But significantly lower than the positive rate of AFP,AFP-L3 and GP73,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of the combined detection of AFP,AFP-L3 and GP73 were 96.4%,88.4%,they were better than those of the above indexes,the difference was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05). Conclusion The combined detection of AFP,AFP-L3 and GP73 had important significance in the diagnosis of primary hepatic cancer, which could signiifcantly improve the patient positive test results, while ensure a better sensitivity and speciifcity.%目的:探讨和分析血清甲胎蛋白(AFP)、甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)、高尔基体蛋白(GP73)三者联合检测在原发性肝癌诊断中的应用价值。方法选取40例肝癌患者(A组)、40例肝脏良性疾病患者(B组)和40例健康志愿者(C组)作为此次研究的对象,分别采用电化学发光法、微量离心柱法和酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)对上述对象血清中AFP、AFP-L3及GP73进行检测。结果 C组血清均未检出AFP、AFP-L

  15. Influx-Operated Ca2+ Entry via PKD2-L1 and PKD1-L3 Channels Facilitates Sensory Responses to Polymodal Transient Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Hu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The polycystic TRP subfamily member PKD2-L1, in complex with PKD1-L3, is involved in physiological responses to diverse stimuli. A major challenge to understanding whether and how PKD2-L1/PKD1-L3 acts as a bona fide molecular transducer is that recombinant channels usually respond with small or undetectable currents. Here, we discover a type of Ca2+ influx-operated Ca2+ entry (ICE that generates pronounced Ca2+ spikes. Triggered by rapid onset/offset of Ca2+, voltage, or acid stimuli, Ca2+-dependent activation amplifies a small Ca2+ influx via the channel. Ca2+ concurrently drives a self-limiting negative feedback (Ca2+-dependent inactivation that is regulated by the Ca2+-binding EF hands of PKD2-L1. Our results suggest a biphasic ICE with opposite Ca2+ feedback regulation that facilitates sensory responses to multimodal transient stimuli. We suggest that such a mechanism may also occur for other sensory modalities and other Ca2+ channels.

  16. AFP、APF-L3、GP73、AFP-mRNA联合检测在肝细胞癌诊断中的应用价值%The application value of combined detection for serum alpha-fetoprotein, alpha-fetoprotein-L3, Golgi protein 73 and AFP-mRNA in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永勤; 陈浩; 耿坤静; 杜博勋; 裘银久

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application value of combined detection for alpha fetoprotein (AFP), alpha-fetoprotein-L3 ( AFP-L3 ) , Golgi protein 73 ( GP73 ) and AFP-mRNA in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma ( HCC). Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) was used to detect the serum levels of GP73 in 73 cases of HCC,41 cases of liver cirrhosis,36 cases of chronic hepatitis B and 25 healthy subjects. AFP was detected by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and AFP-L3 was determined by adsorption centrifuging. AFP-mRNA was tested by fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR. Results There were significant differences in the levels of AFP, AFP-L3, GP73, AFP-mRNA between HCC group and cirrhosis group, normal control group ( P <0.01). The areas evaluated according to ROC curves were 0.691 ( AFP) ,0.859 ( APF-L3), 0.816 (GP73),0.762 (AFP-mRNA) respectively in HCC group,and the sensitivities were 54. 79% ,76. 71% , 80.82% ,53. 42%, respectively, and specificities were 79. 41% ,95. 10% ,82. 35% ,99. 02% , respectively. The areas under ROC curves for the four tumor-related markers were 0.958 by combined detection. The sensitivity of combined detection was significantly increased, which reached 95. 8% , and its specificity was 95. 0% in the diagnosis of HCC. Conclusion The combination detection for AFP, AFP-L3 ,GP73 and AFP-mRNA can obviously enhance the sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of HCC,which is superior to individual detection of AFP, AFP-L3.GP73 or AFP-mRNA.%目的 探讨甲胎蛋白(AFP)、甲胎蛋白异质体( AFP-L3)、高尔基体蛋白(GP73)及AFP-mR-NA联合检测在HCC诊断中的价值.方法 收集175例血清、其中肝细胞癌患者73例(HCC组)、肝硬化患者41例(肝硬化组)、慢乙肝患者36例(慢性肝炎组)、正常人25例(正常人组),采用酶联免疫法检测GP73,用化学发光法检测AFP,用亲和吸附离心法检测AFP-L3,采用荧光定量逆转录聚合酶链反应(RTPCR)法检测患者AFP

  17. C2-3、T10-11和L3-4椎间盘段弯曲力学特性%The Bending (Extension Bit) Mechanical Properties of C2 - 3, T10 - 11, L3 - 4 Intervertebral Disc and Adjacent Vertebral Bod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建军; 王溪原; 赵宝林; 马洪顺

    2011-01-01

    It is necessary to realize the mechanical properties of the C2 -3 、T10 - 11、 L3 -4 in order to prevent and treat the herniated disk. So we test the bent experiment of the C2 -3、T10 -11、L3 -4 taken from the fresh dead bodies and provide biological mechanical data for clinic. The experimental specimens are taken from male fresh corpses of normal people, 20 -30 years old respectively. The C1 - S1 spine specimens are taken from the bodies within one hour after death, and the C2 -3 、T10 - 11 、L3 -4 intervertebral discs and vertebral bodies are cut by line cutting, each thirteen samples. Do the test on the Japanese shimadzu electronic universal testing aircraft, the experimental speed is 5mm/min, obtain the bending mechanics performance index of maximum load、 maximum bending moment、 maximum stress of the C2 - 3、 T10 - 11、 L3 - 4 groups. The maximum load and maximum bending moment of C2- 3group is less than the T10 - 11 group and the L3 -4 group with a significant difference (p < 0.05 ). The maximum stress of C2 - 3 group is less than T10 - 11 group, with a significant difference (p < 0.05 ). The maximum stress of L3 -4 group is greater than the T10- 11 group and the C2- 3 group with a significant difference (p < 0.05 ).%预防和治疗椎间盘脱出等退行性改变需要了解C2-3、T10-11、L3-4椎间盘与相邻椎体的弯曲力学特性,本文对人体C2-3、T10-11、L3-4椎间盘与相邻椎体进行弯曲试验,为临床提供生物力学参数.实验标本取自正常人新鲜尸体脊柱标本,男性,年龄20~30岁,人死后1h内解剖尸体取出C1-S1脊柱标本,以线锯切取C2-3、T10-11、L3-4椎间盘与相邻椎体各13个标本,在日本岛津电子万能测试机上以5 mm/min的实验速度进行弯曲实验,得出C2-3、T10-11、L3-4组标本的最大载荷、最大弯矩、最大应力等力学参数.实验结果得出,C2-3组标本最大载荷、最大弯矩小于T10-11组和L3-4组,有显著性差异(p<0.05);C2-3组

  18. The expressions of serum tumor biomakers DCP,AFP-L3 and AFP in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and its clinical significance%肝细胞癌血清肿瘤标志物DCP、AFP-L3和AFP的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘传苗; 徐静

    2012-01-01

    目的:分析肝细胞癌(HCC)的3种肿瘤标志物脱-γ-异常凝血酶原(DCP)、甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)和甲胎蛋白(AFP)单独或联合检测,诊断HCC的临床意义.方法:分别用酶联免疫吸附试验检测HCC组、肝硬化组和慢性乙型肝炎(慢乙肝)组患者血清DCP、AFP-L3%和AFP水平,并比较3组患者肿瘤标志物水平的差异;利用诊断试验评价分析3种肿瘤标志物单独或联合检测诊断HCC的敏感性、特异性、曲线下面积及Youden指数.结果:HCC组患者血清DCP、AFP-L3%和AFP水平均高于肝硬化和慢乙肝组患者(P<0.01).在40 mAU/ml的临界值下,DCP诊断HCC的敏感性和特异性为87.88%和95.00%;在10%的临界值下,AFP-L3%诊断HCC的敏感性和特异性分别为57.58%和90.00%;在20 ng/ml的临界值下,AFP诊断HCC的敏感性和特异性分别为75.76%和63.33%;2种或3种标志物联合检测诊断HCC的敏感性和特异性均未高于DCP单独检测.结论:无论是DCP、AFP-L3%和AFP单独检测还是联合检测,DCP均具有最好的敏感性和特异性,或许可以作为发现HCC的主要血清标志物.%Objective: To analyze the clinical significance of detection of des-γ-carboxyprohrombin ( DCP) , α-fetoprotein-L3 ( AFP-L3% ) and α-fetoprotein(AFP) alone or in combination for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma( HCC). Methods: The serum levels of those three biomarkers were detected by ELISA in patients with HCC, cirrhosis and chronic hepatis B and compared with each other. The diagnostic evaluation of the three tumor biomarkers alone or combined detection was used to analyze the sensitivity, specificity, the area under the curve and Youden index in the diagnosis of HCC. Results:The value of the three biomarkers in HCC patients were higher than those in cirrhosis and chronic hepatis B patients ( P < 0. 01) . In the cut-off value of 40 mAU/ml, 10% and 20 ng/ml for DCP, AFP-L3% and AFP,the sensitivity and specificity were 87. 88% and 95. 00% ,57. 58% and 90. 00

  19. Participation of L3T4 in T cell activation in the absence of class II major histocompatibility complex antigens. Inhibition by anti-L3T4 antibodies is a function both of epitope density and mode of presentation of anti-receptor antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Fazekas de St Groth, B

    1987-01-01

    The recognition of many class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-associated antigens by T cells requires the participation of the L3T4 molecule. It has been proposed that this molecule acts to stabilize low affinity binding to antigen in association with MHC and thereby increases the avidity...... two monoclonal antibodies, KJ16-133.18 and F23.1, that recognize a determinant encoded by the T cell receptor V beta 8 gene family. These antibodies were used to select two clones of T cells with surface phenotype Thy-1.2+, L3T4+, Lyt-2-, KJ16-133.18+, F23.1+, IA-, IE-. One of these clones (E9.D4...... the formation of TCR complexes and so prevent activation. However, by increasing the epitope density of the activating ligand, the avidity of the T cell/ligand interaction can be increased sufficiently to prevent this disruption.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  20. 关于L_3(q)(q≤8)和U_3(q)(q≤11)的新刻画%A New Characterization of L_3(q)(q≤8) and U_3(q)(q≤11)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何立官; 陈贵云

    2011-01-01

    用群的阶和最高阶元素的阶以及次高阶元素的阶给出了李单群L3(q)(q≤8)和U3(q)(q≤11)的新刻画,其中q为素数的方幂.%By using the order of a group,the orders of the largest element and the second largest element,Lie-type simple groups L3(q)(q≤8) and U3(q)(q≤11) are characterized,where q are some special powers of primes.

  1. Cross-protective effect of a combined L5 plus L3 Leishmania major ribosomal protein based vaccine combined with a Th1 adjuvant in murine cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Laura; Corvo, Laura; Duarte, Mariana C; Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli; Diogo G Valadares; Santos, Diego M.; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Escutia, Marta R; Alonso, Carlos; Bonay, Pedro; Carlos A. P. Tavares; Coelho, Eduardo A. F.; Soto, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Two Leishmania major ribosomal proteins L3 (LmL3) and L5 (LmL5) have been described as protective molecules against cutaneous leishmaniasis due to infection with L. major and Leishmania braziliensis in BALB/c mice when immunized with a Th1 adjuvant (non-methylated CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides; CpG-ODN). In the present study we analyzed the cross-protective efficacy of an LmL3-LmL5-CpG ODN combined vaccine against infection with Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania chagasi (s...

  2. Lernstrategien und -techniken im Kontext des Tertiärsprachenunterrichts. Eine empirische Studie zu Deutsch als L3 nach Englisch als L2 // Learning Strategies and Techniques in the Context of Tertiary Language Teaching. An Empirical Study of German as an L3 Language after English as an L2 Language

    OpenAIRE

    Petravić, Ana; Horvatić Čajko, Irena

    2015-01-01

    In diesem Beitrag wird die Förderung der lernstrategischen Kompetenz im Tertiärsprachenunterricht untersucht. Ausgehend von der tertiärsprachendidaktischen Verortung von Lernstrategien im Spannungsfeld von Sprachbewusstheit und Sprachlernbewusstheit und vor dem Hintergrund der Lernstrategiedebatte werden die Ergebnisse der ersten empirischen Untersuchung in Kroatien zur Nutzung von Lernstrategien und -techniken im L3-Unterricht Deutsch nach Englisch bei jugendlichen DaF-Anfängern präsentiert....

  3. Mosquito infection responses to developing filarial worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Erickson

    Full Text Available Human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. In order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in Aedes aegypti at various times during B. malayi development. Changes in transcript abundance in response to the different stages of B. malayi infection were diverse. At the early stages of midgut and thoracic muscle cell penetration, a greater number of genes were repressed compared to those that were induced (20 vs. 8. The non-feeding, intracellular first-stage larvae elicited few differences, with 4 transcripts showing an increased and 9 a decreased abundance relative to controls. Several cecropin transcripts increased in abundance after parasites molted to second-stage larvae. However, the greatest number of transcripts changed in abundance after larvae molted to third-stage larvae and migrated to the head and proboscis (120 induced, 38 repressed, including a large number of putative, immunity-related genes (approximately 13% of genes with predicted functions. To test whether the innate immune system of mosquitoes was capable of modulating permissiveness to the parasite, we activated the Toll and Imd pathway controlled rel family transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2 (by RNA interference knockdown of the pathway's negative regulators Cactus and Caspar during the early stages of infection with B. malayi. The activation of either of these immune signaling pathways, or knockdown of the Toll pathway, did not affect B. malayi in Ae. aegypti. The possibility of LF parasites evading mosquito immune responses during successful development is discussed.

  4. L3 detector: BGO assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    1989-01-01

    Explanation and presentation of its construction ( Feb-March 1989). The detector is a multi-layered cylindrical set of different devices, each of them measuring physical quantities relevant to the reconstruction of the collision under study. The three main outer layers are the electro-magnetic calorimeter (also called BGO because it's made of Bismuth Germanium Oxide), the hadronic calorimeter (HCAL) and the muon detector.

  5. The Value of Combined Serum Alpha-fetoprotein Heteroplasmon-L3 Concentration and AFP-L3/Alpha-fetoprotein Ratio Detection in the Early Diagnosis of Primary Liver Cancer%联合检测血清甲胎蛋白异质体浓度与甲胎蛋白异质体百分含量在原发性肝癌诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彩云; 韩素桂; 贾红莲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of combined serum alpha-fetoprotein inform (AFP-L3) and AFP-L3/AFP as biomarkers in the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Methods A total of 137 patients from the People's Hospital of Tangshan of Hebei Union University were included in our study.They were treated in hospital from March to November 201 1.All the patients were at the age of 28 to 77 years old,and 98 of them were men,and 39 were women.According to the pathological diagnosis,patients were divided into two groups.HCC group had 92 patients,and benign liver disease group had 45 patients including 37 with liver cirrhosis and 8 with chronic hepatitis.ELISA method was used to test the serum AFP-L3 level.At the same time,microcentrifugal column method was adopted to separate AFP-L3 from the patients' serum,and electrochemical luminescence method was used to detect the separated AFP-L3 and total AFP levels.Then,we calculated the ratio of AFP-L3/AFP.We also calculated the statistical indexes of AFP-L3 level and AFP-L3/AFP ratio in the diagnosis of HCC,such as sensitivity,specificity and Youden index.The above indexes of combined AFP-L3 level and AFP-L3/AFP ratio were also detected to evaluated its diagnostic value.Results HCC group AFP-L3 level (109.04 ± 62.51) ng/mL was significantly higher than that of the benign liver disease group [(25.96 ± 49.43) ng/mL; t=8.28,P < 0.001].HCC group serum AFP-L3/AFP ratio (17.35% ± 14.48%) was significantly higher than that of the benign liver disease group (5.62% ± 6.38%,t=6.545,P < 0.000 1).With serum AFP-L3 level > 38.0 ng/mL as a critical value of primary liver cancer diagnosis,the sensitivity was 83.69%,and the specificity was 88.88%.For AFP-L3/AFP ratio > 10% as a critical value in primary liver cancer diagnosis,the sensitivity was 83.69%,and the specificity was 95.55%.When serum AFP-L3 level > 38.0 ng/mL and AFP-L3/AFP ratio > 7.5% were combined in primary liver cancer diagnosis

  6. Detailed L3 measurements of Bose-Einstein correlations and a region of anti-correlations in hadronic $Z^0$ decays at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Csörgö, T; Kittel, W; Novak, T

    2010-01-01

    L3 preliminary data of two-particle Bose-Einstein correlations are reported for hadronic Z^0 decays in e+e- annihilation at LEP. The invariant relative momentum Q is identified as the eigenvariable of the measured correlation function. Significant anti-correlations are observed in the Bose-Einstein correlation function in a broad region of 0.5 - 1.6 GeV with a minimum at Q close to 0.8 GeV. Absence of Bose-Einstein correlations is demonstrated in the region above Q >= 1.6 GeV. The effective source size is found to decrease with increasing value of the transverse mass of the pair, similarly to hadron-hadron and heavy ion reactions. These feautes and our data are described well by the non-thermal tau-model, which is based on strong space-time momentum-correlations.

  7. Studies on the 4-carbon precursor in the biosynthesis of riboflavin. Purification and properties of L-3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, R; Bacher, A

    1990-11-15

    The formation of the riboflavin precursor, 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine, from 5-amino-6-ribitylamino-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione requires a phosphorylated 4-carbon intermediate which has been designated as Compound X (Neuberger, G., and Bacher, A. (1985) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 127, 175-181). The enzyme catalyzing the formation of Compound X has been purified about 600-fold from the cell extract of the flavinogenic yeast Candida guilliermondii by chromatographic procedures. The purified protein appeared homogeneous as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and consisted of a single polypeptide of 24 kDa. The committed substrate of the enzyme was identified as D-ribulose 5-phosphate. The enzyme yields two products which were identified as L-3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate and formate by NMR and CD spectroscopy. Mg2+ is required for activity. PMID:2246238

  8. Study of the Solar Anisotropy for Cosmic Ray Primaries of about 200 GeV Energy with the L3+C Muon Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benitez, M; van den Akker, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, J; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, Valery P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bahr, J; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillere, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Bohm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, M; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo, M; Chiarusi, T; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J; de Asmundis, R; Deglon, P; Debreczeni, J; Degre, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; DeNotaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Ding, L K; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Duran, I; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El Hage, A; El Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Faber, G; Falagan, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, K; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S N; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grabosch, H J; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Groenstege, H; Gruenewald, M W; Guida, M; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Haller, Ch; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Huo, A X; Hu, Y; Ito, N; Jin, B N; Jing, C L; Jones, Lawrence W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kantserov, V; Kaur, M; Kawakami, S; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W; Klimentov, A; Konig, A C; Kok, E; Korn, A; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V; Kraber, M; Kuang, H H; Kraemer, R W; Kruger, A; Kuijpers, J; Kunin, A; Ladron de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levtchenko, P; Li, C; Li, L; Li, Z C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, F L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Mana, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Meng, X W; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Muanza, y G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novak, T; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Parriaud, J -F; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, F; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Pioppi, M; Piroue, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pojidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Qing, C R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A; Ravindran, K C; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Rewiersma, P; Riemann, y S; Riles, Keith; Roe, B P; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saidi, R; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sanchez, E; Schafer, C; Schegelsky, V; Schmitt, V; Schoeneich, B; Schopper, H; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shen, C Q; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Straessner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sulanke, H; Sultanov, G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillasi, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Toth, J; Trowitzsch, G; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Unger, M; Valente, E; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vasquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitsky, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, G; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopianov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, R G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; van Wijk, R; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Y P; Xu, J S

    2008-01-01

    Primary cosmic rays experience multiple deflections in the nonuniform galactic and heliospheric magnetic fields which may generate anisotropies. A study of anisotropies in the energy range between 100 and 500 GeV is performed. This energy range is not yet well explored. The L3 detector at the CERN electron-positron collider, LEP, is used for a study of the angular distribution of atmospheric muons with energies above 20 GeV. This distribution is used to investigate the isotropy of the time-dependent intensity of the primary cosmic-ray flux with a Fourier analysis. A small deviation from isotropy at energies around 200 GeV is observed for the second harmonics at the solar frequency. No sidereal anisotropy is found at a level above 10^-4. The measurements have been performed in the years 1999 and 2000.

  9. Midgut barrier imparts selective resistance to filarial worm infection in Culex pipiens pipiens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Michalski

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex thrive in temperate and tropical regions worldwide, and serve as efficient vectors of Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis (LF caused by Wuchereria bancrofti in Asia, Africa, the West Indies, South America, and Micronesia. However, members of this mosquito complex do not act as natural vectors for Brugian LF caused by Brugia malayi, or for the cat parasite B. pahangi, despite their presence in South Asia where these parasites are endemic. Previous work with the Iowa strain of Culex pipiens pipiens demonstrates that it is equally susceptible to W. bancrofti as is the natural Cx. p. pipiens vector in the Nile Delta, however it is refractory to infection with Brugia spp. Here we report that the infectivity barrier for Brugia spp. in Cx. p. pipiens is the mosquito midgut, which inflicts internal and lethal damage to ingested microfilariae. Following per os Brugia exposures, the prevalence of infection is significantly lower in Cx. p. pipiens compared to susceptible mosquito controls, and differs between parasite species with <50% and <5% of Cx. p. pipiens becoming infected with B. pahangi and B. malayi, respectively. When Brugia spp. mf were inoculated intrathoracically to bypass the midgut, larvae developed equally well as in controls, indicating that, beyond the midgut, Cx. p. pipiens is physiologically compatible with Brugia spp. Mf isolated from Cx. p. pipiens midguts exhibited compromised motility, and unlike mf derived from blood or isolated from the midguts of Ae. aegypti, failed to develop when inoculated intrathoracically into susceptible mosquitoes. Together these data strongly support the role of the midgut as the primary infection barrier for Brugia spp. in Cx. p. pipiens. Examination of parasites recovered from the Cx. p. pipiens midgut by vital staining, and those exsheathed with papain, suggest that the damage inflicted by the midgut is subcuticular and disrupts internal tissues. Microscopic studies

  10. l382nc.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-3-82-NC in Off San Mateo County, Northern California from 02/27/1982 to 03/01/1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-3-82-NC in Off San Mateo County,...

  11. l376wo.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-3-76-WO in Washington to Vancouver Island, British Columbia from 06/11/1976 to 06/20/1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-3-76-WO in Washington to Vancouver...

  12. GHRSST L3C global sub-skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on Metop satellites (currently Metop-B) (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 3 Collated (L3C) dataset derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)...

  13. l384sp.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-3-84-SP in Tonga, Southern Pacific from 04/02/1984 to 05/01/1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-3-84-SP in Tonga, Southern Pacific from...

  14. Diagnostic Value of Des-gamma Carboxyprothrombin(DCP), Lectin-bound AFP(AFP-L3) and Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Expression in Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma%DCP、AFP-L3和AFP在原发性肝细胞癌诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付水; 齐娟飞; 朱海燕; 祁志荣; 陈红艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the alone and joint diagnostic value of des-gamma carboxyprothrombin (DCP) , lectin-bound AFP(AFP-13) and alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) in primary hepatocellular carcinoma, and provide a novel method for diagnosis for PHC and screening for high risk population. Methods The levels of serum DCP,AFP-L3 and AFP were measured in 53 patients with hepa-tocellular carcinoma, 51 cases of cirrhosis, 60 cases of chronic hepatitis, 52 normal healthy subjects established as control group, and analyse the result statistically. Results The levels of serum DCP,AFP-L3 and AFP were significantly higher in the hepatocellular carcinoma than those in other groups. The diagnostic sensitivities of DCP,AFP-I3 and AFP to hepatocellular carcinoma were 77.36% , 69.81% and 60.38% respectively, the specificity were 89.57% , 88.34% and 77.91% , individually. The joint detection could improve sensitivity up to 94.34%. Conclusion DCP was a high sensitivity and specificity marker for diagnosis of PHC. The combined assay of serum tumor markers possess more value in the diagnosis of PHC, especially in AFP negative patients.%目的:探讨血清中脱γ一羧基凝血酶原(DCP)、甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)和甲胎蛋白(AFP)对原发性肝细胞癌(PHC)单独和联合诊断的意义,为PHC诊治提供一种新方法,以及对高危人群作筛选.方法:采集 53 例PHC、51 例肝硬化、60 例慢性肝炎和 52 例健康对照者的血清分别检测 DCP、AFP-L3 和 AFP,并对其统计分析.结果:PHC患者的 DCP、AFP-L3 和 AFP 均显著高于肝硬化、慢性肝炎和健康对照者,DCP、AFP-L3 和 AFP在PHC组中的灵敏度分别为 77.36 %、69.8 1% 和60.38 %,特异性分别为89.57 %、88.34 % 和 77.91 %.三者联检时,其诊断的敏感度可提高至 94.34 %.结论:DCP 对PHC诊断具有较好的敏感度和特异性,联检DCP、AFP-L3和AFP可有效提高PHC尤其是AFP阴性PHC的诊断效率,对PHC的早期诊治具有一定指导意义.

  15. Water Soluble Gold(I)-diacetyl-l,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadaman-tane-arylazoimidazole Complexes: Synthesis and Spectroscopic Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BYABARTTA Prithwiraj

    2008-01-01

    Reaction of [Au(DAPTA)(Cl)] with RaaiR' in CH2Cl2 medium following ligand addition leads to[Au(DAPTA)(RaaiR')](Cl) [DAPTA = diacetyl-l,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane, RaaiR' = p-R-C6H4-N = N-C3H2-NN-1-R', (1-3), abbreviated as N,N'-chelator, where N(imidazole) and N(azo) represent N and N', respec-tively; R=H (a), Me (b), Cl (c) and R'=Me (1), CH2CH3 (2), CH2Ph (3)]. The 1H NMR spectral measurements in D2O suggest methylene, CH2, in RaaiEt gives a complex AB type multiplet while in RaaiCH2Ph it shows AB type quartets. 13C NMR spectrum in D2O suggest the molecular skeleton. The 1H-1H COSY spectrum in D2O as well as contour peaks in the 1H-13C HMQC spectrum in D2O assign the solution structure.

  16. Suche nach dem Higgs-Boson in hadronischen Endzuständen mit fehlender Energie am L3-Experiment bei LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Zöller, Marc Henning

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents searches for the Higgs boson, which is predicted by the Standard Model of Particle Physics and its extensions in order to endow fermions and bosons with their observed masses. While the Standard Model predicts only one Higgs boson »H«, the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension contains five Higgs bosons. This analysis refers to the light neutral »h«, which has nearly the same properties as the Standard Model Higgs boson. The analyses are based on data taken by the L3 experiment at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) near Geneva during the years 1998 until 2000, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 629.7 pb−1 and which were collected in a center-of-mass energy range from 189 GeV to 209 GeV. The Higgs boson searches presented here analyse the data with regard to hadronic events with missing energy, since the visible energy is reduced compared to the total energy given by the LEP collider. According to theoretical prediction these final states can be produced via the Higg...

  17. Static quantities of the W boson in the SU_L(3) X U_X(1) model with right-handed neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    García-Luna, J L; Toscano, J J

    2003-01-01

    The static electromagnetic properties of the $W$ boson are calculated in the $SU_L(3)\\times U_X(1)$ model with right--handed neutrinos. In the gauge sector this model contributes to the $WW\\gamma$ vertex via a complex neutral gauge boson $Y^0$ and a singly--charged gauge boson $Y^+$, called bileptons, whose mass is expected to be in the range of a few hundreds of GeV according to the current bounds from experimental data. It is found that when the mass of the bileptons is of the order of 200 GeV, the size of their contribution is similar to the one obtained in other weakly coupled theories, though the $W$ form factors decrease very quickly for heavier bileptons. When the bileptons are degenerate the size of the form factors gets considerably reduced. Due to the symmetry breaking hierarchy, in this model the bileptons are almost degenerate if they are much heavier than the $W$ boson.

  18. Interactions of L-3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine [corrected], Allopregnanolone, and Ivermectin with the GABAA Receptor: Evidence for Overlapping Intersubunit Binding Modes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Westergard

    Full Text Available Structural mechanisms of modulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA type A receptors by neurosteroids and hormones remain unclear. The thyroid hormone L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3 inhibits GABAA receptors at micromolar concentrations and has common features with neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone (ALLOP. Here we use functional experiments on α2β1γ2 GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes to detect competitive interactions between T3 and an agonist (ivermectin, IVM with a crystallographically determined binding site at subunit interfaces in the transmembrane domain of a homologous receptor (glutamate-gated chloride channel, GluCl. T3 and ALLOP also show competitive effects, supporting the presence of both a T3 and ALLOP binding site at one or more subunit interfaces. Molecular dynamics (MD simulations over 200 ns are used to investigate the dynamics and energetics of T3 in the identified intersubunit sites. In these simulations, T3 molecules occupying all intersubunit sites (with the exception of the α-β interface display numerous energetically favorable conformations with multiple hydrogen bonding partners, including previously implicated polar/acidic sidechains and a structurally conserved deformation in the M1 backbone.

  19. Indole-2-carboxamide-based MmpL3 Inhibitors Show Exceptional Antitubercular Activity in an Animal Model of Tuberculosis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, Jozef; Onajole, Oluseye K; Lun, Shichun; Guo, Haidan; Merenbloom, Benjamin; Vistoli, Giulio; Bishai, William R; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2016-07-14

    Our team had previously identified certain indolecarboxamides that represented a new chemical scaffold that showed promising anti-TB activity at both an in vitro and in vivo level. Based on mutational analysis using bacteria found resistant to one of these indolecarboxamides, we identified the trehalose monomycolate transporter MmpL3 as the likely target of these compounds. In the present work, we now further elaborate on the SAR of these compounds, which has led in turn to the identification of a new analog, 4,6-difluoro-N-((1R,2R,3R,5S)-2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl)-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (26), that shows excellent activity against drug-sensitive (MIC = 0.012 μM; SI ≥ 16000), multidrug-resistant (MDR), and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, has superior ADMET properties, and shows excellent activity in the TB aerosol lung infection model. Compound 26 is also shown to work in synergy with rifampin. Because of these properties, we believe that indolecarboxamide 26 is a possible candidate for advancement to human clinical trials. PMID:27275668

  20. Brain and brain tumor uptake of L-3-[123I]iodo-alpha-methyl tyrosine: competition with natural L-amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPECT studies with L-3-[123I]iodo-alpha-methyl tyrosine (IMT) were carried out in 10 patients with different types of brain tumors--first under fasting conditions (basal) and a week later during intravenous infusion of a mixture of naturally-occurring L-amino acids (AA load). An uptake index (UI) was calculated by dividing tissue count rates by the integral of plasma count rates. The UI decreased by 45.6% ± 15.4% (n = 10, p less than 0.001) for normal brain and by 53.2% ± 14.1% for gliomas (n = 5, p less than 0.01) during AA load compared to basal conditions, while two meningiomas and a metastasis showed only a minor decrease (23.9 ± 5.7%, n.s.). Two pituitary adenomas could not be delineated on the SPECT scans. These data indicate that IMT competes with naturally-occurring L-amino acids for transport into normal brain and gliomas. Transport characteristics of IMT into tumors of nonglial origin appear to be different from those of gliomas. For both types of tumors, it is advisable to perform IMT-SPECT under fasting conditions

  1. Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils.

  2. Contribution of the 1s2l3l' Dielectronic Recombination in Li-Like Ar to the Hypothesized Dark Matter Related Faint Feature in Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Amy; Silwal, Roshani; Dreiling, Joan; Ajello, Marco; Gillaspy, John; Kilgore, Ethan; Ralchenko, Yuri; Takacs, Endre

    2016-05-01

    Driven by the recent detection of an unidentified emission line previously reported at 3.55-3.57 keV in a stacked spectrum of galaxy clusters, we investigate the resonant DR process in Li-like Ar as a possible source of or contributor to the emission line. We are particularly interested in the Li-like transition 1 s22l-1s2l3l', which produces a 3.62 keV photon near the unidentified line at 3.57 keV. The Electron Beam Ion Trap at NIST was used to produce and trap the highly-charged ions of argon. The energy of the quasi-monoenergetic electron beam, set to a current of 60 mA, was incremented in steps of 15 eV to scan over all of the Li-like Ar DR resonances, including the resonance peak of interest. A solid-state germanium detector was used to take x-ray measurements perpendicular to the trap region. The DR cross section was measured and normalized to the well-known photoionization cross sections using radiative recombination peaks in the measured spectra. Our measurements are compared to the AtomDB emission lines used to fit the spectra containing the unidentified line, and conclusions are presented.

  3. Evaluation of immune response elicited by inulin as an adjuvant with filarial antigens in mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi, N; Aparnaa, R; Kaliraj, P

    2014-10-01

    Filariasis caused by infectious parasitic nematodes has been identified as the second leading source of permanent and long-term disability in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Several vaccine candidates were identified from infective third-stage larvae (L3) which involves in the critical transition from arthropod to human. Hitherto studies of these antigens in combination with alum adjuvant have shown to elicit its characteristic Th2 responses. Inulin is a safe, non-toxic adjuvant that principally stimulates the innate immune response through the alternative complement pathway. In the present study, the immune response elicited by inulin and alum as adjuvants were compared with filarial antigens from different aetiological agents: secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) from Onchocerca volvulus and venom allergen homologue (VAH) from Brugia malayi as single or as cocktail vaccines in mice model. The study revealed that inulin can induce better humoral response against these antigens than alum adjuvant. Antibody isotyping disclosed inulin's ability to elevate the levels of IgG2a and IgG3 antibodies which mediates in complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively, in mice. Splenocyte analysis showed that T cells prestimulated with inulin have higher stimulation index (P < 0.05) than alum except for BmVAH antigen. In vitro ADCC assay showed that inulin formulation had induced higher cytotoxicity with filarial antigens (as single P < 0.01 and as cocktail P < 0.05, respectively) than alum. The results had confirmed the capability of inulin to deplete the levels of Treg and brought a balance in Th1/Th2 arms against filarial antigens in mice. PMID:25041426

  4. Determination of a limit on the branching ratio of the rare process b → s γ with the L3 detector at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is dedicated to the determination of a limit on the branching ratio of the rare process b -> Sγ, from Z -> bb-bar events collected at LEP with the L3 detector during collisions at √S ∼ MZ, MZ ± 2 GeV. The rare decay of the b quark, b -> sγ, is forbidden at tree level and occurs, in the Standard Model, through one loop diagram (called penguin diagram) which makes it sensitive to contributions of new particles such as charged Higgs bosons or supersymmetric particles. The theoretical branching ratio is given in Standard Model by Br(b->Sγ) (2.55 ± 0.58) x 10-4. The aim of this study was to observe, in the inclusive mode, a possible excess of the rate of the b -> sγ transition, compare to the expected value. The selection of b hadrons from Z hadronic decays is achieved by the use of both an algorithm based on a multidimensional analysis of the event shape and an algorithm based on the impact parameter of the tracks. The energetic photon is selected by using a π0/γ discriminator based on the transverse shape of its electromagnetic shower. The s-jet reconstruction is achieved by the use of an iterative method with search of the minimum invariant mass. It allows the determination of the b hadron rest frame, which picks near 2.5 GeV, is used in a new method of signal events simulation. No excess of event is observed in the data after the analysis of 1.5 million of Z decays. The limit obtained, when the systematic errors are included, is: Br(b -> sγ) ≤9.2 x 104 at 90% confidence level. This result is consistent with the Standard Model expectation. (author)

  5. The L3-6 chondritic regolith breccia Northwest Africa (NWA) 869: (I) Petrology, chemistry, oxygen isotopes, and Ar-Ar age determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Knut; Bischoff, Addi; Greenwood, Richard C.; Palme, Herbert; Gellissen, Marko; Hopp, Jens; Franchi, Ian A.; Trieloff, Mario

    2011-05-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 869 consists of thousands of individual stones with an estimated total weight of about 7 metric tons. It is an L3-6 chondrite and probably represents the largest sample of the rare regolith breccias from the L-chondrite asteroid. It contains unequilibrated and equilibrated chondrite clasts, some of which display shock-darkening. Impact melt rocks (IMRs), both clast-free and clast-poor, are strongly depleted in Fe,Ni metal, and sulfides. An unequilibrated microbreccia, two different light inclusions and two different SiO2-bearing objects were found. Although the matrix of this breccia appears partly clastic, it is not a simple mixture of fine-grained debris formed from the above lithologies, but mainly represents an additional specific lithology of low petrologic type. We speculate that this material stems from a region of the parent body that was only weakly consolidated. One IMR clast and one SiO2-bearing object show Δ17O values similar to bulk NWA 869, suggesting that both are related to the host rock. In contrast, one light inclusion and one IMR clast appear to be unrelated to NWA 869, suggesting that the IMR clast is contaminated with impactor material. 40Ar-39Ar analyses of a type 4 chondrite clast yield a plateau age of 4402 ± 7 Ma, which is interpreted to be the result of impact heating. Other impact events are recorded by an IMR clast at 1790 ± 36 Ma and a shock-darkened clast at 2216 ± 40 Ma, demonstrating that NWA 869 escaped major reset in the course of the event at approximately 470 Ma that affected many L-chondrites.

  6. Enhancement of L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels by pantethine. Relevance to dopaminergic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Reggi Max

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The administration of the ketone bodies hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate is known to exert a protective effect against metabolic disorders associated with cerebral pathologies. This suggests that the enhancement of their endogenous production might be a rational therapeutic approach. Ketone bodies are generated by fatty acid beta-oxidation, a process involving a mitochondrial oxido-reductase superfamily, with fatty acid-CoA thioesters as substrates. In this report, emphasis is on the penultimate step of the process, i.e. L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. We determined changes in enzyme activity and in circulating ketone body levels in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Since the active moiety of CoA is pantetheine, mice were treated with pantethine, its naturally-occurring form. Pantethine has the advantage of being known as an anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic agent with very few side effects. Results We found that dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels were drastically reduced by the neurotoxin MPTP, whereas treatment with pantethine overcame these adverse effects. Pantethine prevented dopaminergic neuron loss and motility disorders. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that the protection was associated with enhancement of glutathione (GSH production as well as restoration of respiratory chain complex I activity and mitochondrial ATP levels. Remarkably, pantethine treatment boosted the circulating ketone body levels in MPTP-intoxicated mice, but not in normal animals. Conclusions These finding demonstrate the feasibility of the enhancement of endogenous ketone body production and provide a promising therapeutic approach to Parkinson's disease as well as, conceivably, to other neurodegenerative disorders.

  7. Evidence of Metasomatism in the Lowest Petrographic Types Inferred from A Na(-), K, Rich Rim Around A LEW 86018 (L3.1) Chondrule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Marhas, Kuljeet Kaur; Simon, Justin I.; Ross, Daniel Kent

    2015-01-01

    Ordinary chondrites (OCs) represent the most abundant extraterrestrial materials and also record the widest range of alteration of primary, pristine minerals of early Solar system material available for study. Relatively few investigations, however, address: (1) the role of fluid alteration, and (2) the relationship between thermal metamorphism and metasomatism in OCs, issues that have been extensively studied in many other meteorite groups e.g., CV, CO, CR, and enstatite chondrites. Detailed elemental abundances profiles across individual chondrules, and mineralogical studies of Lewis Hills (LEW) 86018 (L3.1), an unequilibrated ordinary chondrite (UOC) of low petrographic type of 3.1 returned from Antarctica, provide evidence of extensive alteration of primary minerals. Some chondrules have Na(-), K(-), rich rims surrounded by nepheline, albite, and sodalite-like Na(-), Cl(-), Al-rich secondary minerals in the near vicinity within the matrices. Although, limited evidences of low temperature (approximately 250 C) fluid-assisted alteration of primary minerals to phyllosilicates, ferroanolivine, magnetite, and scapolite have been reported in the lowest grades (less than 3.2) Semarkona (LL3.00) and Bishunpur (LL3.10), alkali-rich secondary mineralization has previously only been seen in higher grade greater than 3.4 UOCs. This preliminary result suggests highly localized metamorphism in UOCs and widens the range of alteration in UOCs and complicates classification of petrographic type and extent of thermal metamorphism or metasomatism. The work in progress will document the micro-textures, geochemistry (Ba, Ca, REE), and isotopic composition (oxygen, Al(-)- 26 Mg-26) of mineral phases in chondrules and adjoining objects to help us understand the formation scenario and delineate possible modes of metamorphism in UOCs.

  8. WEATHER ON OTHER WORLDS. I. DETECTION OF PERIODIC VARIABILITY IN THE L3 DWARF DENIS-P J1058.7-1548 WITH PRECISE MULTI-WAVELENGTH PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photometric monitoring from warm Spitzer reveals that the L3 dwarf DENIS-P J1058.7-1548 varies sinusoidally in brightness with a period of 4.25+0.26-0.16 hr and an amplitude of 0.388% ± 0.043% (peak-to-valley) in the 3.6 μm band, confirming the reality of a 4.31 ± 0.31 hr periodicity detected in J-band photometry from the SOAR telescope. The J-band variations are a factor of 2.17 ± 0.35 larger in amplitude than those at 3.6 μm, while 4.5 μm Spitzer observations yield a 4.5 μm/3.6 μm amplitude ratio of only 0.23 ± 0.15, consistent with zero 4.5 μm variability. This wide range in amplitudes indicates rotationally modulated variability due to magnetic phenomena and/or inhomogeneous cloud cover. Weak Hα emission indicates some magnetic activity, but it is difficult to explain the observed amplitudes by magnetic phenomena unless they are combined with cloud inhomogeneities (which might have a magnetic cause). However, inhomogeneous cloud cover alone can explain all our observations, and our data align with theory in requiring that the regions with the thickest clouds also have the lowest effective temperature. Combined with published vsin (i) results, our rotation period yields a 95% confidence lower limit of R* ≥ 0.111 R☉, suggesting upper limits of 320 Myr and 0.055 M☉ on the age and mass. These limits should be regarded cautiously because of ∼3σ inconsistencies with other data; however, a lower limit of 45° on the inclination is more secure. DENIS-P J1058.7-1548 is only the first of nearly two dozen low-amplitude variables discovered and analyzed by the Weather on Other Worlds project.

  9. 4-Component relativistic calculations of L3 ionization and excitations for the isoelectronic species UO2(2+), OUN(+) and UN2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Christopher; Shee, Avijit; Mukherjee, Debashis; Wilson, Angela K; Saue, Trond

    2016-08-01

    We present a 4-component relativistic study of uranium 2p3/2 ionization and excitation in the isoelectronic series UO2(2+), OUN(+) and UN2. We calculate ionization energies by ΔSCF at the Hartree-Fock (HF) and Kohn-Sham (KS) level of theory. At the ΔHF level we observe a perfectly linear chemical shift of ionization energies with respect to uranium atomic charges obtained from projection analysis. We have also developed a non-canonical 2nd-order Møller-Plesset code for wave function based correlation studies. We observe the well-known failure of Koopmans' theorem for core ionization due to the dominance of orbital relaxation over electron correlation effects. More unexpectedly, we find that the correlation contribution has the same sign as the relaxation contribution and show that this is due to a strong coupling of relaxation and correlation. We simulate uranium L3 XANES spectra, dominated by 2p3/2 → U6d transitions, by restricted excitation window time-dependent density functional theory (REW-TDDFT) and the complex polarization propagator (CPP) approach and demonstrate that they give identical spectra when the same Lorentz broadening is chosen. We also simulate XANES spectra by the Hartree-Fock based static exchange (STEX) method and show how STEX excitation energies can be reproduced by time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. We furthermore show that Koopmans' theorem provide a correct approximation of ionization energies in the linear response regime and use this observation to align REW-TDDFT and CPP spectra with STEX ones. We point out that the STEX method affords the most detailed assignment of spectra since it employs virtual orbitals optimized for the selected core ionization. The calculated XANES spectra reflect the loss of bound virtual orbitals as the molecular charge is reduced along the isoelectronic series. PMID:26878601

  10. 一语、二语迁移对三语写作的影响%The Effects of L1 and L2 Transfer on L3 Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲玉; 孔德明

    2014-01-01

    从一语作文水平、二语作文水平、一语译三语能力、二语译三语能力四个方面考察一语、二语迁移对三语写作的影响,利用单因素方差分析比较发现,一语作文水平、一、二语译三语水平对三语作文水平的影响存在阀限,超过一定的阀限则影响不明显,而二语写作对三语写作的影响是持久性的。需要保持一定的一语写作水平和翻译能力,发展二语写作能力,力求三语写作能力的提高。%By One-way ANOVAs, this study explores the influential factors on L3 writing including L1 and L2 writing proficiency as well as translation ability from L1 to L3 and from L2 to L3. It is found that there is threshold influencing L3 writing by L1 writing and L1and L2 to L3 translation, though the influence is dimin-ishing if the threshold surpasses a certain level. It is also revealed that L2 writing exerts lasting effect on L3 writing. This paper suggests that L1 writing and translation as well as L2 writing are key to the improvement of writing proficiency using 3 different languages.

  11. Role of the Ce valence in the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism of CeO$_{1-x}$F$_{x}$BiS$_{2}$ revealed by Ce $L_3$-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Takuya; Joseph, Boby; Paris, Eugenio; Iadecola, Antenolla; Mizokawa, Takashi; Demura, Satoshi; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu; Takano, Yoshihiko; Saini, Naurang L.

    2014-01-01

    We have performed Ce $L_3$-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements on CeO$_{1-x}$F$_x$BiS$_2$, in which the superconductivity of the BiS$_2$ layer and the ferromagnetism of the CeO$_{1-x}$F$_x$ layer are induced by the F-doping, in order to investigate the impact of the F-doping on the local electronic and lattice structures. The Ce $L_3$-edge XAS spectrum of CeOBiS$_2$ exhibits coexistence of $4f^1$ (Ce$^{3+}$) and $4f^0$ (Ce$^{4+}$) state transitions revealing Ce mixed valency...

  12. Search for baryon number violating decays of supersymmetric particles e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions produced in the L3 detector at LEP; Recherche de particules supersymetriques se desintegrant avec violation du nombre baryonique dans les collisions e{sup +}e{sup -} produites dans le detecteur L3 a LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brochu, F

    2000-04-01

    This thesis is based on baryon number and then R-Parity (R{sub p}) violation, both allowed in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) framework. This hypothesis leads to supersymmetric particles' decay topologies significantly different from those ever studied and opens new possibilities on searches for supersymmetry. We will detail throughout this work the phenomenological consequences of the baryon number violation hypothesis, the resulting decay signatures in an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider and the analysis setup developed to isolate these decays in the data collected by the L3 experiment at LEP between 1997 and 2000. In order to validate the search methods developed, we also measured the cross-section of the process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} ZZ {yields} qq-bar q'q'-bar. (author)

  13. 2 case of lymphatico-calyceal fistula causing chyluria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seoung Oh; Hong, Seung Mo; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    After advent of lymphangiographic technique, the causes of chyluria can be evaluated by lymphangiography. The most common etiology known until today is parasitic origin, especially filariasis. In Korea, established organism of filariasis is Brugia malayi. And other nonparasitic etiologies such as retroperitoneal malignancy, chronic inflammatory diseases, trauma, pregnancy, aneurysm are very rate. The authors experienced two cases of lymphatico-calyceal fistulas causing chyluria demonstrated by lymphangiography. The etiology of these two cases were unknown exactly, but the clinical diagnosis were filariasis. These cases are reported with emphasis on the lymphangiographic findings of chyluria.

  14. A case report of Brugian filariasis outside an endemic area in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokmek, S; Warunyuwong, W; Rojanapanus, S; Jiraamornimit, C; Boitano, J J; Wongkamchai, S

    2013-12-01

    A 2-year-old boy living outside the endemic area of lymphatic filariasis in Surat Thani Province, Thailand, developed a high fever. To investigate the cause of his presenting symptoms, blood was collected and microfilariae were detected and identified as Brugia malayi using thick blood smear staining. The sources of the infection were investigated. Microfilariae from two domestic cats residing in the boy's village were detected and identified as B. pahangi using a high-resolution melting real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The possible sources of this cryptic infection are discussed.

  15. ROLE OF FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY (FNAC IN DIAGNOSIS OF ASYMPTOMATIC MICROFILARIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis is a tropical and subtropical disease caused by Wuchereria Bancrofti and Brugia Malayi and transmitted by Culex mosquito. Lymphatic Filariasis is a major health problem in countries like India, China, Indonesia, and Africa. Diagnosis of Filari a is done by conventional methods like peripheral blood smear examination, Fluorescent capillary method and filarial antigen detection by Rapid card method. Here we present four unusual cases with swellings presented in surgical outdoor and referred for FN AC. Our aim is to evaluate and emphasize the utility and importance of Fine Needle Aspiration in diagnosing Microfilarasis in clinically unsuspected cases.

  16. l380np.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data field activity L-3-80-NP in North Pacific from 05/22/1980 to 06/04/1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry and magnetics data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-3-80-NP in North Pacific from 05/22/1980 to...

  17. Imaging of soft-tissue tumors using L-3-[iodine-123]iodo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine single photon emission computed tomography : Comparison with proliferative and mitotic activity, cellularity, and vascularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, PL; Plaat, BEC; de Vries, EGE; Molenaar, WM; Vaalburg, W; Piers, DA; Hoekstra, HJ

    2000-01-01

    The radiolabeled amino acid L-3.[I-123]-iodo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine (IMT) is a new tumor tracer that accumulates in many tumors and is suitable for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Using IMT SPECT, we studied 32 patients with a soft-tissue tumor suspected to be a soft-tissu

  18. Imaging of soft-tissue tumors using L-3-[iodine-123]iodo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine single photon emission computed tomography: comparison with proliferative and mitotic activity, cellularity, and vascularity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, P L; Plaat, B E; Vries, E G de; Molenaar, W M; Vaalburg, W; Piers, D A; Hoekstra, H J

    2000-01-01

    The radiolabeled amino acid L-3-[123I]-iodo-alpha-methyltyrosine (IMT) is a new tumor tracer that accumulates in many tumors and is suitable for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Using IMT SPECT, we studied 32 patients with a soft-tissue tumor suspected to be a soft-tissue

  19. Uptake mechanisms of L-3-[I-125]iodo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine in a human small-cell lung cancer cell line : comparison with L-1-[C-14]tyrosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, PL; De Vries, EGE; Piers, DA; Timmer-Bosscha, H

    2001-01-01

    The radiolabelled amino acid analogue L-3-[I-125]iodo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine (IMT) is under evaluation in brain tumours, where it reflects amino acid transport activity, but is also taken up in many other tumour types. This study investigated the uptake mechanism of IMT in tumour cells not derived fr

  20. l378eg.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-3-78-EG in Eastern Gulf of Alaska from 06/22/1978 to 07/04/1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-3-78-EG in Eastern Gulf of Alaska from...

  1. l383wf.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-3-83-WF in Juan de Fuca from 08/19/1983 to 09/01/1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry and gravity data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-3-83-WF in Juan de Fuca from 08/19/1983 to...

  2. Evaluation of immune responses and analysis of the effect of vaccination of the Leishmania major recombinant ribosomal proteins L3 or L5 in two different murine models of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Laura; Santos, Diego M; Souza, Ana P; Coelho, Eduardo A F; Barral, Aldina; Alonso, Carlos; Escutia, Marta R; Bonay, Pedro; de Oliveira, Camila I; Soto, Manuel

    2013-02-18

    Four new antigenic proteins located in Leishmania ribosomes have been characterized: S4, S6, L3 and L5. Recombinant versions of the four ribosomal proteins from Leishmania major were recognized by sera from human and canine patients suffering different clinical forms of leishmaniasis. The prophylactic properties of these proteins were first studied in the experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major inoculation into BALB/c mice. The administration of two of them, LmL3 or LmL5 combined with CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) was able to protect BALB/c mice against L. major infection. Vaccinated mice showed smaller lesions and parasite burden compared to mice inoculated with vaccine diluent or vaccine adjuvant. Protection was correlated with an antigen-specific increased production of IFN-γ paralleled by a decrease of the antigen-specific IL-10 mediated response in protected mice relative to non-protected controls. Further, it was demonstrated that BALB/c mice vaccinated with recombinant LmL3 or LmL5 plus CpG-ODN were also protected against the development of cutaneous lesions following inoculation of L. braziliensis. Together, data presented here indicate that LmL3 or LmL5 ribosomal proteins combined with Th1 inducing adjuvants, may be relevant components of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by distinct species.

  3. [European particle accelerator conference, Rome, Italy, and visit to the LEP storage ring and LEP detectors L3 and ALEPH at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, June 5-16, 1988]: Foreign trip report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selection of papers presented at the EPAC Conference relating to accelerator technology, facilities proposed, planned or under construction, and operating machines are discussed. Also noted are discussions at CERN with personnel from the LEP superconducting RF, the LEP L3 and ALEPH detectors, and the LHC superconducting magnet groups

  4. l385nc.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-3-85-NC in Northern California from 07/15/1985 to 07/17/1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-3-85-NC in Northern California from 07/15/1985 to 07/17/1985,...

  5. 甲胎蛋白异质体3及其比值对原发性肝癌和肝硬化的鉴别诊断价值研究%Value of Serum Alpha-fetoprotein Invariant AFP-L3 Assay in the Differential Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建伟; 曹薇薇; 李静; 何建国; 程江

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of serum alphafetoprotein variant ( AFP - L3 ) assay in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma ( HCC ) and cirrhostic diseases. Methods AFP - L3 was separated from sera of AFP -positive patients ( 45 HCC patients and 60 cirrhotic patients ) by micro - spin columns coupled with lens culinaris agglutinin ( LCA ). AFP was detected using electrochemiluminescence analysis to determine the amount of AFP - L3 and AFP - L3% ( the ratio of AFP - L3 to total AFP ). Results The AFP - L3% in HCC patients was significantly higher than that in patients with cirrhosis diseases ( F - 57. 433 , P = 0. 000 ). The area under curve of Receiver Operating Characteristic of AFP - 13 % was the highest ( 0. 916 ). The sensitivity and specificity of AFP - L3 for HCC patients was 92. 5 % and 84. 6 % respectively, with AFP -13% ≥15% being the optimal diagnostic threshold. Conclusion AFP - L3 ( % ) is more sensitive than the amounts of AFP and AFP - L3 in the diagnosis of HCC, and shows certain value in the differential diagnosis of HCC and cirrhosis diseases.%目的 探讨甲胎蛋白异质体3(AFP-L3)及其比值对原发性肝癌(HCC)和肝硬化的鉴别诊断价值及诊断界值.方法 应用AFP-L3快速分离微量离心柱分离40例HCC患者和65例肝硬化患者的AFP-L3,电化学发光免疫分析夹心法检测血清AFP水平,计算AFP-L3比值,即AFP-L3绝对值占血清AFP总量的百分比.结果 HCC患者AFP-L3比值大于肝硬化患者,差异有统计学意义(F=57.433,P=0.000);AFP -L3比值诊断HCC的受试者工作特征曲线(ROC曲线)下面积最大,为0.916;AFP-L3比值≥15%时诊断HCC的敏感度和特异度之和最大,为177.1%.结论 AFP-L3比值对HCC的诊断效能优于AFP和AFP-L3,对肝硬化和HCC的鉴别诊断具有重要临床意义.

  6. AFP-L3和AFP mRNA联合检测在肝癌治疗疗效观察和预后中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱大鹏; 韩风; 聂常富; 周进学; 蒙博

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨甲胎蛋白(AFP)异质体(AFP-L3)和AFP mRNA联合检测在肝癌(HCC)治疗疗效观察和预后中的作用。方法联合检测AFP-L3、AFPmRNA在HCC患者中表达情况。结果 HCC患者的AFP mRNA(368.65±5.28)和AFP-L3(195.84±3.31)蛋白表达量均明显高于肝硬化组和肝良性病变组(t=23.32、30.15、30.21、25.46,均P<0.01)。另外,HCC患者的AFP阳性率(69.35%)和AFP-L3阳性率(79.03%)明显高于肝硬化组和肝良性病变组(χ2=5.78、10.98、14.52、26.23,均P<0.05)。62例HCC患者中,术后AFP转阴48例,其中 AFP-L3仍为阳性18例,其1、2、3年生存率分别为72.22%(13/18)、44.44%(8/18)、22.22%(4/18);另外30例患者AFP和AFP-L3均为阴性,其1、2、3年生存率分别为80.00%(24/30)、53.33%(16/30)、50.00%(15/30);AFP和AFP-L3均转阴者的3年生存率明显高于AFP转阴而AFP-L3未阴者(χ2=3.98,P<0.05)。结论:测定患者AFP mRNA 和AFP-L3蛋白水平可以鉴定良、恶性肝病,对于HCC 的早期诊断及预后判断有重要的临床意义。

  7. Meta-analysis of expression of l(3)mbt tumor-associated germline genes supports the model that a soma-to-germline transition is a hallmark of human cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Feichtinger, Julia; Larcombe, Lee; McFarlane, Ramsay J.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is starting to emerge indicating that tumorigenesis in metazoans involves a soma-to-germline transition, which may contribute to the acquisition of neoplastic characteristics. Here, we have meta-analyzed gene expression profiles of the human orthologs of Drosophila melanogaster germline genes that are ectopically expressed in l(3)mbt brain tumors using gene expression datasets derived from a large cohort of human tumors. We find these germline genes, some of which drive oncogenesis i...

  8. In search of a potential diagnostic tool for molecular characterization of lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Mohd; Adnan, Mohd; Khan, Saif; Al-Shammari, Eyad; Mustafa, Huma

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a chronic disease and is caused by the parasites Wuchereria bancrofti (W. bancrofti), Brugia malayi (B. malayi) and Brugia timori (B. timori). In the present study, Setaria cervi (S. cervi), a bovine filarial parasite has been used. Previously, it has been reported that the S. cervi shares some common proteins and antigenic determinants with that of human filarial parasite. The larval stages of filarial species usually cannot be identified by classical morphology. Hence, molecular characterization allows the identification of the parasites throughout all their developmental stages. The genomic DNA of S. cervi adult were isolated and estimated spectrophotometrically for the quantitative presence of DNA content. Screening of DNA sequences from filarial DNA GenBank and Expressed Sequence Tags (EST's) were performed for homologous sequences and then multiple sequence alignment was executed. The conserved sequences from multiple sequence alignment were used for In Silico primer designing. The successfully designed primers were used further in PCR amplifications. Therefore, in search of a promising diagnostic tool few genes were identified to be conserved in the human and bovine filariasis and these novel primers deigned may help to develop a promising diagnostic tool for identification of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:26751881

  9. A new method of directly determining the core-hole effect in the Ce L3 XAS of mixed valence Ce compounds-An application of resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Core-hole effect often plays a key role in Ce L3 XAS of mixed valence Ce compounds. →We propose a new powerful method to directly determine the core-hole effect by applying resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy. → With CeO2 as an example, theoretical and experimental demonstrations are presented. → It is desirable to apply this method to some Ce compounds where the core-hole effect is controversial. - Abstract: Using a simplified model, we calculate resonant X-ray emission (RXE) spectra with Ce 2p to 5d excitation and Ce nl to 2p de-excitation for mixed valence Ce compounds, where nl is 3d or valence states. If the core-hole effect is large to play an important role in the Ce L3 XAS, the RXE spectral features for nl = 3d and valence states are significantly different, but if it is negligibly small, they are essentially the same. Therefore, these RXE spectra are useful as a new powerful method of directly determining the core-hole effect in the L3 XAS. More detailed theoretical calculations of these RXE spectra are made for CeO2, and compared with new experimental data, indicating the importance of the core-hole effect. Similar investigations are desirable for some metallic mixed valence Ce compounds in which the core-hole effect is controversial. Finally, we point out that for nl = 5d we can observe the resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectra corresponding to the charge-transfer excitations or Kondo resonance excitations.

  10. Evaluación del efecto de las artemisininas provenientes del extracto etanólico de Artemisia cina sobre L3 de Haemonchus contortus en una técnica de explantes abomasales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isabel Higuera-Piedrahita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo enfoque de control integrado de parásitos obliga a buscar alternativas que consideren el medioambiente, es decir, sostenibles y sustentables. El objetivo de este trabajo fue fraccionar el extracto etanólico de la planta Artemisia cina, obtener artemisininas y conocer el efecto de estas sobre la capacidad de asociación de las L3 de Haemonchus contortus en explantes abomasales. El extracto etanólico se fraccionó por medio de la metodología establecida para Artemisia japónica, y se identificaron las artemisininas por medio de cromatografía en capa fina, teniendo como referencia artemisininas comerciales. Las artemisininas se utilizaron sobre L3 desenvainada, se realizó la técnica de explantes abomasales por triplicado y se compararon así: levamisol (7.5 mg/ml, artemisinina comercial (1 mg/ml, agua y seis diferentes fracciones de A. cina a dosis de 1 mg/ml: Ac3k, Ac3b, Ac3a, Ac3h, Ac3i, Ac4b. No se obtuvieron diferencias significativas entre las fracciones de A. cina y artemisinina comercial (p>0.05. Se concluye que no existió efecto de las artemisininas obtenidas del extracto etanólico de A. cina sobre la capacidad de asociación de las L3 de H. contortus al tejido abomasal. Es importante continuar con más estudios de la artemisinina para determinar sobre qué fase del parásito afecta su viabilidad.

  11. Molecular cloning and analysis of Ancylostoma ceylanicum glutamate-cysteine ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Marcin; Lapiński, Maciej; Zdziarska, Anna; Długosz, Ewa; Bąska, Piotr

    2014-08-01

    Glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) is a heterodimer enzyme composed of a catalytic subunit (GCLC) and a modifier subunit (GCLM). This enzyme catalyses the synthesis of γ-glutamylcysteine, a precursor of glutathione. cDNAs of the putative glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (Ace-GCLC) and modifier subunits (Ace-GCLM) of Ancylostoma ceylanicum were cloned using the RACE-PCR amplification method. The Ace-gclc and Ace-gclm cDNAs encode proteins with 655 and 254 amino acids and calculated molecular masses of 74.76 and 28.51kDa, respectively. The Ace-GCLC amino acid sequence shares about 70% identity and 80% sequence similarity with orthologs in Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Brugia malayi, and Ascaris suum, whereas the Ace-GCLM amino acid sequence has only about 30% sequence identity and 50% similarity to homologous proteins in those species. Real-time PCR analysis of mRNA expression in L3, serum stimulated L3 and adult stages of A. ceylanicum showed the highest level of Ace-GCLC and Ace-GCLM expression occurred in adult worms. No differences were detected among adult hookworms harvested 21 and 35dpi indicating expression of Ace-gclc and Ace-gclm in adult worms is constant during the course of infection. Positive interaction between two subunits of glutamate-cysteine ligase was detected using the yeast two-hybrid system, and by specific enzymatic reaction. Ace-GCL is an intracellular enzyme and is not exposed to the host immune system. Thus, as expected, we did not detect IgG antibodies against Ace-GCLC or Ace-GCLM on days 21, 60 and 120 of A. ceylanicum infection in hamsters. Furthermore, vaccination with one or both antigens did not reduce worm burdens, and resulted in no improvement of clinical parameters (hematocrit and hemoglobin) of infected hamsters. Therefore, due to the significant role of the enzyme in parasite metabolism, our analyses raises hope for the development of a successful new drug against ancylostomiasis based on the specific GCL inhibitor. PMID

  12. 肝癌和肝病患者血清甲胎蛋白异质体的检测及临床意义%The Significance of Measurement of AFP-L3 Variant in Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and liver diseas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴亚新; 张时良; 裴豪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of scrum AFP hctcrogcncity(AFP-L3) assay in patients with hcpatoccllular carcinoma. Methods Lentil lcctin-binding scrum AFP-L3 variants were separated by microccntrifu-gal column,and the content percentage of AFP-L3(AFP-L3%) variants and total scrum AFP was detected by chcmilu-mincsccncc analysi. Results When AFP-L3%>10% was used as a positive criterion,there was a positive rate of 70% in 27 cases of hcpatoccllular carcinoma(HCC) , which in cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis were 10% and 9. 6%rcspcctivc-ly. AFP-L3% levels were the highest in hcpatoccllular carcinoma than those in cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis (P25 μg/L was used as a positive criterion, the AFP positive rates were 78%, 60% and 55%, in HCC,cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis respectively. The sensitivity of AFP and AFP-L3 was 78% ,70% ,thc speciality of AFP ang AFP-L3 was 43% ,90% ,in HCC respectively. Conclusion AFP-L3 is very useful in the differential diagnosis of hcpatoccllular carcinoma.%目的 探讨甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)检测在肝癌鉴别诊断中的意义.方法 应用微量离心柱法分离检测小扁豆凝集素结合型AFP-L3的含量,同时检测血清中AFP总含量,由此得出AFP-L3的百分含量(AFP-L3%).结果 以AFP-L3%>10%作为阳性判断标准,27例肝癌患者血清AFP-L3阳性率为70%,肝硬化和慢性肝炎AFP-L3%分别为10%和9.6%,肝癌AFP-L3%水平明显高于肝硬化和慢性肝炎(P<0.01);以AFP>25 ng/ml作为阳性判断标准,肝癌、肝硬化和慢性肝炎患者血清中AFP阳性率分别为78%、60%和55%;以AFP、AFP-L3%作为诊断肝癌指标的灵敏度分别是78%、70%,特异度分别是43%、90%.结论 AFP-L3%能有效区分肝癌和慢性肝病,弥补肝癌诊断的不足,具有一定的临床实用价值.

  13. [Fe2L3]4+ Cylinders Derived from Bis(bidentate 2-Pyridyl-1,2,3-triazole “Click” Ligands: Synthesis, Structures and Exploration of Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Crowley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of metallosupramolecular [Fe2L3](BF44 “click” cylinders have been synthesized in excellent yields (90%–95% from [Fe(H2O6](BF42 and bis(bidentate pyridyl-1,2,3-triazole ligands. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-vis, 1H-, 13C- and DOSY-NMR spectroscopies and, in four cases, the structures confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Molecular modeling indicated that some of these “click” complexes were of similar size and shape to related biologically active pyridylimine-based iron(II helicates and suggested that the “click” complexes may bind both duplex and triplex DNA. Cell-based agarose diffusion assays showed that the metallosupramolecular [Fe2L3](BF44 “click” cylinders display no antifungal activity against S. cerevisiae. This observed lack of antifungal activity appears to be due to the poor stability of the “click” complexes in DMSO and biological media.

  14. Study of the $K^{0}_{S}K^{0}_{S}$ Final State and the $K^{0}_{S}$ Inclusive Production in Two-Photon Collisions with the L3 Detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Braccini, S

    2001-01-01

    The K$^0_s$K$^0_s$ final state in two-photon collisions is studied with the L3 detector at LEP using data collected at centre of mass energies from 91 GeV to 202 GeV. The mass spectrum is dominated by the formation of the f$'_2$(1525) tensor meson in helicity two state. Clear evidence for destructive f$_2$-a$_2$ interference is observed. The first study of the f$_J$(1710) in two-photon collisions is presented. No signal has been observed in the region around 2.2 GeV and an upper limit for the two-photon partial width of the $\\xi$(2220) glueball candidate is derived. In the reaction $\\epem\\rightarrow\\epem$hadrons the inclusive production of $\\kos$ mesons is studied using data collected by the L3 detector at LEP centre of mass energies from 189 to 202 GeV. The differential production cross sections as a function of the transverse momentum and of the pseudorapidity are measured and a reasonable agreement is found between our measurement and the Next-to-Leading order QCD predictions.

  15. MALAYAN FILARIASIS STUDIES IN KENDARI REGENCY, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI, INDONESIA I: Parasitological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbain Joesoef

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Observasi penyakit filaría telah dilakukan pada penduduk di desa-desa Teteona, Lalohao, Pondi-daha dan Wawolemo, Kecamatan Wawotobi, Kabupaten Kendari, Sulawesi Tenggara antara bulan No­vember 1980 dan Oktober 1982. Sejumlah 3,499 jiwa atau antara 71.2% sampai 83.8% dari penduduk di desa-desa ini telah diperiksa darah jarinya masing-masing sebanyak 20 cumm terhadap adanya parasit filaría. Morphologi dan periodisitas dari embrio parasit yang ditemukan di dalam darah penduduk di­periksa dan begitu pula gejala-gejala klinis yang disebabkannya. Nyamuk penular dari parasit di desa-desa ini ditentukan pula. Adanya jenis parasit yang sama pada binatang di sekitar kampung dipelajari dan diteliti lebih lanjut dengan percobaan eksperimental di laboratorium menggunakan hewan percobaan. Dari hasil observasi ini ditemukan bahwa penduduk desa-desa ini telah diserang parasit filaría, masing-masing dengan derajad infeksi sebesar 9.6%, 15.8%, 9.3% dan 19.7% Parasit yang ditemukan adalah dari jenis Brugia malayi dengan tipe mikrofilaria yang periodik nokturna. Sekitar 57.3% dari microfilaria ini melepaskan diri dari selubungnya. Gejala klinis berupa adenolymphangitis, lymphade-nopathy, lymphscars, dan lymphedema pada penduduk masing-masing desa adalah 15.8%, 30.8%, 35.0% dan 52.0%. Gejala elephantiasis ditemukan pada tiga desa kecuali pada desa Teteona Nyamuk dari jenis Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles nigerrimus, Mansonia uniformis dan Mansonia indiana merupakan nyamuk penular alamiah dari parasit ini. Pada pemeriksaan darah kucing di sekitar kampung ini ditemukan pula embrio parasit: microfilaria yang menyerupai microfilaria malayi pada darah pendu­duk namun pada penelitian lebih lanjut dengan percobaan eksperimental menggunakan hewan percobaan belum dapat dipastikan jenis mikrofilaria dari kucing ini berasal dari Brugia malayi. Penelitian lebih lan­jut dari parasit filaría pada binatang seperti kucing dan kera di desa-desa ini masih perlu dilanjutkan.

  16. L3 experiment's detector : BGO assembly hall

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    1987-01-01

    The detector is a multi-layered cylindrical set of different devices, each of them measuring physical quantities relevant to the reconstruction of the collision under study. The three main outer layers are the electro-magnetic calorimeter (also called BGO because it's made of Bismuth Germanium Oxide), the hadronic calorimeter (HCAL) and the muon detector.

  17. Practical Aspects in L3 Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkkunen, Anu

    A discussion of issues in third-language instruction and language teacher training focuses on the situation in Finland, where a second and third language is required of all students and it is possible to study as many as six languages in addition to the native language. The Finnish school system is explained, noting that second and third languages…

  18. L2 and L3 integrated learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer; Wagner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This study offers an empirical account of the use of English in Danish-as-a-foreign-language classroom settings. We will refer to English as the lingua franca - which in itself is a second language for the majority of the participants in the data - and to Danish as the target language. We consider...... implications of lingua franca interaction in target language classroom interactions, and show how in sequences where participants orient to linguistic issues in the target language, for example grammatical forms or lexical items, they often do this with reference to the lingua franca....

  19. Cognitive Approaches to L3 Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mayo, Maria del Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Multilingualism has established itself as an area of systematic research in linguistic studies over the last two decades. The multilingual phenomenon can be approached from different perspectives: educational, formal linguistic, neurolinguistic, psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic, among others. This article presents an overview of cognitive…

  20. Characterization of cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase isoform-1 (Wb-iPGM) gene: a drug and diagnostic target from human lymphatic filarial parasite, Wuchereria bancrofti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodharan, R; Hoti, S L; Sankari, T

    2012-07-01

    The inter-conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate and 2-phosphoglycerate during glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in filarial nematodes, is catalyzed by a co-factor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (iPGM). The gene encoding iPGM isoform-1 was amplified from Wuchereria bancrofti, the major causative agent of human lymphatic filariasis. Partial genomic DNA (gDNA) fragment of the gene was also amplified from periodic and sub-periodic forms of W. bancrofti and Brugia malayi and sequenced. The Wb-iPGM isoform-1 gene encodes an ORF of 515 amino acids and is found to share 99.4%, 96.0%, and 64.0% amino acid sequence identity with iPGM of B. malayi, Onchocerca volvulus, and Caenorhabditis elegans, respectively. Serine and all the other 13 amino acid residues involved in the catalytic function of iPGM are highly conserved. Further comparison of iPGM nucleotide and amino acid sequences of Wolbachia of B. malayi with Wb-iPGM showed 41% and 54.4% similarity, respectively. The analysis of partial genomic and amino acid sequences and phylogenetic tree of Wb-iPGM indicated that this gene, apart from being a potential drug target, could provide diagnostic, taxonomical, and evolutionary markers. This is the first report of the characterization of iPGM gene from W. bancrofti. PMID:22386851

  1. Targeting the Wolbachia cell division protein FtsZ as a new approach for antifilarial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiru; Garner, Amanda L; Gloeckner, Christian; Janda, Kim D; Carlow, Clotilde K

    2011-11-01

    The use of antibiotics targeting the obligate bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia of filarial parasites has been validated as an approach for controlling filarial infection in animals and humans. Availability of genomic sequences for the Wolbachia (wBm) present in the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi has enabled genome-wide searching for new potential drug targets. In the present study, we investigated the cell division machinery of wBm and determined that it possesses the essential cell division gene ftsZ which was expressed in all developmental stages of B. malayi examined. FtsZ is a GTPase thereby making the protein an attractive Wolbachia drug target. We described the molecular characterization and catalytic properties of Wolbachia FtsZ. We also demonstrated that the GTPase activity was inhibited by the natural product, berberine, and small molecule inhibitors identified from a high-throughput screen. Furthermore, berberine was also effective in reducing motility and reproduction in B. malayi parasites in vitro. Our results should facilitate the discovery of selective inhibitors of FtsZ as a novel anti-symbiotic approach for controlling filarial infection. NOTE: The nucleotide sequences reported in this paper are available in GenBank™ Data Bank under the accession number wAlB-FtsZ (JN616286).

  2. Targeting the Wolbachia cell division protein FtsZ as a new approach for antifilarial therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiru Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics targeting the obligate bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia of filarial parasites has been validated as an approach for controlling filarial infection in animals and humans. Availability of genomic sequences for the Wolbachia (wBm present in the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi has enabled genome-wide searching for new potential drug targets. In the present study, we investigated the cell division machinery of wBm and determined that it possesses the essential cell division gene ftsZ which was expressed in all developmental stages of B. malayi examined. FtsZ is a GTPase thereby making the protein an attractive Wolbachia drug target. We described the molecular characterization and catalytic properties of Wolbachia FtsZ. We also demonstrated that the GTPase activity was inhibited by the natural product, berberine, and small molecule inhibitors identified from a high-throughput screen. Furthermore, berberine was also effective in reducing motility and reproduction in B. malayi parasites in vitro. Our results should facilitate the discovery of selective inhibitors of FtsZ as a novel anti-symbiotic approach for controlling filarial infection. NOTE: The nucleotide sequences reported in this paper are available in GenBank™ Data Bank under the accession number wAlB-FtsZ (JN616286.

  3. Antifilarial Lead Molecules Isolated from Trachyspermum ammi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyanasundaram Muthuswamy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is caused by infection with the parasitic filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori, transmitted by mosquitoes. The lack of an adulticidal drug poses a challenge to filariasis elimination, hence it is essential to develop an effective antifilarial drug which could either kill or permanently sterilize the adult worms. In the reported work the in vitro activity of a methanolic extract of fruits of Trachyspermum ammi (Apiaceae against adult bovine filarial Setaria digitata worms has been investigated. A bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out by subjecting the crude extract to flash chromatography. HPLC analysis was done for the crude extract and active fraction. The crude extract and the active fraction showed significant activity against the adult S. digitata by both a worm motility and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] reduction assays. The isolated active principle was chemically characterized by IR, 1H-NMR and MS analysis and identified as a phenolic monoterpene. It was screened for in vivo antifilarial activity against the human filarial worm B. malayi in Mastomys coucha, showing macrofilaricidal activity and female worm sterility in vivo against B. malayi. The findings thus provide a new lead for development of a macrofilaricidal drug from natural products

  4. Precursor B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma with L3 Morphology, Philadelphia Chromosome, MYC Gene Translocation, and Coexpression of TdT and Surface Light Chains: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Hirzel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is predominantly found in children. It is a neoplasm of precursor cells or lymphoblasts committed to either a B- or T-cell lineage. The immature cells in B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma can be small or medium sized with scant or moderate cytoplasm and typically express B-cell markers such as CD19, cytoplasmic CD79a, and TdT without surface light chains. These markers, along with cytogenetic studies, are vital to the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of these neoplasms. We present an unusual case of a precursor B-cell ALL, in an 82-year-old woman, who presented with pancytopenia and widespread lymphadenopathy. The cells show L3 morphology (Burkitt-like lymphoma with coexpression of TdT and surface light chains in addition to an MYC gene translocation and Philadelphia chromosome.

  5. Ion Channel Behavior of a Supported Bilayer Lipid Membrane Composed of 5,5-Ditetradecyl-2- (2-trimethyl-ammonioethyl)-l, 3-dioxane Bromide Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚静鸣; 林祥钦

    2003-01-01

    A synthetic cationic surfactant, 5,5-ditetradecyl-2-(2-trimethyl-ammonioethyl)-l,3-dioxane bromide (DTDB), was used to construct a supported bilayer lipid membrane (s-BLM) coatedon an underlying glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD) and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the s-BLM. Both EIS and SAXD data indicated that the synthetic lipid exists as a well-oriented bilayer in the membrane.The voltammetric study showed that the lipid membrane can open ion channels in the presence of ClO4- stimulant with Ru(bpy)32+ as marker ions and give distinct channel currents.The channels can be dosed and open up again many times by removing or introducing ClO4- anions.

  6. Pathomorphology observation on nude mice immunized and challenged with third-stage infective hook worm (Ancylostoma caninum) larvae%犬钩虫第三期钩蚴免疫裸鼠再感染AcL3的组织病理学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俭; 吴嘉形; 杨元清; 薛剑; 强慧琴; 肖树华

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the inflammatory responses and morphology changes in the lung and skin of nude mice immunized and challenged with third stage hookworm larvae of Ancylostoma caninum (AcL3),and then,to investigate the feasibility of nude mice as vaccine screening animal model.Methods Nude mice BALB/c-nu/nu were immunized subcutaneously with three doses of 500 AcL3 at 2-week intervals,and then challenged percutaneously with 500 AcL3.Lungs and skins were excised from post-challenged nude mice after 6,24,72 h and 7 d,and then examined by light microscopy.Non-immunized nude mice served as negative controls.Results In both non-immunized mice and majority of immunized mice,the AcL3 exhibited no structural damage and infiltrating inflammatory cells were absent at the surrounding tissues.There were no changes in the architecture of skin and lung tissues.However.about 0.5%-2.2% AcL3 in the skin of immunized mice exhibited euticular swelling,damage and even death,and the surrounding tissue was infihrated by polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells.From 24 h to 72 h post-challenge,granulomata were observed surrounding the dead AcL3.ConchLsion Weak post-vaccination host immune response against challenged AcL3 was seen in nude mice,indicating that it was unsuitable to be used as vaccine screening animal model.%目的 观察裸鼠经犬钩虫第三期钩蚴(AcL3)免疫后,其皮肤和肺内AcL3的形态变化及宿主的组织细胞反应,评价其作为疫苗筛选动物模型的可能性. 方法取BALB/c-nu/nu 小鼠,每两周由皮下免疫接种活的AcL3 500条,共3次,并丁末次免疫后1周由皮肤攻击感染AcL3 500条.用未免疫的感染AcL3 裸鼠作对照,攻击感染后不同时间取感染部位皮肤和肺脏,观察宿卡皮肤和肺内AcL3的组织病理学变化. 结果攻击感染后6、24、72 h及7 d,皮肤内的绝人部分虫体切面形态和组织结构与感染对照裸鼠皮肤内的相似,仪0.5%~2.2%的虫体切而示有变性、死亡,偶见

  7. Diagnostic value of combined detection of soluble human leukocyte antigen-G, alpha fetoprotein and alpha fetoprotein-L3 in primary hepatocellular carcinoma%甲胎蛋白异质体联合检测对原发性肝癌的诊断价值血清可溶性人类白细胞抗原G和甲胎蛋白

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨收平; 李海英; 张丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨可溶性人类白细胞抗原 G(HLA-G)在原发性肝癌(PHC)患者血清中的表达水平及其与甲胎蛋白(AFP)、甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)联合检测对 PHC 诊断价值。方法选择45例 PHC 患者、34例肝硬化患者和43例健康体检者。采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)测定 HLA-G 水平,应用预装有耦联小扁豆凝集素(LCA)的琼脂糖微量离心柱分离 AFP-L3,采用化学发光法测定 AFP 和 AFP-L3,并计算 AFP-L3/AFP 值(AFP-L3%),以 AFP>20μg/L,AFP-L3%>10%为阳性判断标准。并对3组 HLA-G、AFP、AFP-L3水平进行统计学分析。结果 PHC组、肝硬化组 HLA-G、AFP、AFP-L3水平与健康组比较差异有统计学意义(P 20 μg/L and AFP-L3% > 10% .Statistical analysis was used for HLA-G,AFP,AFP-L3 in three groups.Results There were significant significance in HLA-G,AFP and AFP-L3 levels among PHC group,liver cirrhosis group and health group (P <0.01 ),and between PHC group and liver cirrhosis group (P < 0.01 ).As for PHC diagnosis,the sensitivity of AFP was 48.9%,and the specificity 58.4%;the sensitivity of AFP-L3 66.7%,and the specificity 64.9%;the sensitivity of HLA-G was 80.0%,and the specificity 75.3%.Compared with AFP and AFP-L3,HLA-G was more sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of PHC (P <0.05).The combined detection of three markers in the diagnosis of HCC showed the sensitivity 91.1%,and specificity 84.4%.Compared the sensitivity of combined detection with single usage of HLA-G,AFP or AFP-L3,the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05).Conclusion The combined detection of HLA-G,AFP and AFP-L3 has important clinical significance for the early diagnosis and treatment of HCC.

  8. Prognostic value of the content of lentil lectin-rcactive alpha-fetoprotein-L3 in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma%甲胎蛋白异质体3含量对早期肝癌的预后价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯凯; 马宽生; 高峻; 刘念洲; 王曙光

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨甲胎蛋白异质体3(lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein-L3,AFP-L3)的含量对早期肝癌的预后价值.方法 97例早期肝癌患者根据术前AFP和AFP-13的含量分为:(1)AFP阳性、AFP-L3阴性组(29例):AFP>20 μg/L & AFP-13<15%;(2)AFP-L3、AFP均低含量组(16例):15%≤AFP-L3≤50% & 20 μg/L≤AFP≤200 μg/L;(3)AFP-L3、AFP均高含量组(13例):AFP-L3>50% & AFP>200 μg/L;(4)AFP-L3高含量、AFP低含量组(24例):AFP-13>50%& 20 μg/L≤AFP≤200 μg/L;(5)AFP-L3低含量、AFP高含量组(15例):15%≤AFP-L3≤50% & AFP>200 μg/L.对各组患者的肿瘤分化程度、术后1、2、3年生存率和无瘤生存率进行分析.结果 AFP-13阴性患者的肿瘤分化程度、术后3年生存率和无瘤牛存率明显优于AFP-L3阳性患者(χ2=21.051,10.043,4.450,6.977,25.566,P<0.05).AFP-L3高含量组患者的肿瘤分化程度、术后1、2、3年生存率和无瘤生存率明显低于低含量组(χ2=7.938,3.488,9.085,P<0.05).结论 AFP-L3含量的增高提示肿瘤恶性程度高,预后不良,尤其是AFP水平低时.手术前后检测AFP-L3含量对于患者预后的评价具有指导意义.%Objective To explore the prognostic value of the content of lentil lectin-reactive alphafetoprotein-L3(AFP-L3)in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC).Methods According to the content of alpha.fetoprotein(AFP)and AFP-L3 before the treatment,97 patients with early-stage HCC were divided into group A(AFP>20 μg/L & AFP-L3<15%,n=29),group B(15%≤AFP-13≤50% & 20 μg/L≤AFP≤200 μg/L,n=16),group C(AFP-13>50%& AFP>200 μg/L,n=13),group D(AFP-L3>50% & 20 μg/L≤AFP≤200 μg/L,n=24)and group E(15%≤AFP-L3≤50%& AFP>200 μg/L,n=15).The degree of tumor differentiation,the 1-,2-,3-year survival rates and tumor-free survival rates of the patients were analyzed.Results The degree of tumor differentiation.3-year survival rate and tumor-free survival rate of patients in group A were significantly higher than

  9. 甲胎蛋白异质体与甲胎蛋白比值在肝癌诊断中的意义%Significance of ratio for α-fetoprotein-L3 and α-fetoprotein in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 李代红; 刘纯

    2011-01-01

    目的 对甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)与甲胎蛋白(AFP)比值在肝脏良恶性疾病鉴别诊断中的性能及意义进行探讨.方法 采用微量离心柱法对146例肝病患者(肝癌76例,良性肝病70例)血清分离AFP-L3,采用电化学发光法检测AFP及AFP-L3水平,计算AFP-L3在AFP比例(AFP-L3%).结果 两组中AFP、AFP-L3%水平差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).AFP及AFP-L3%受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线下面积分别为0.819、0.907.根据二者ROC曲线,得出鉴别肝脏疾病临界值(cut-off)AFP=400 pg/L(敏感度63.1%、特异度81.4%、阳性预测值76.7%,阳性似然比3.16);AFP-L3%=13%(敏感度94.7%、特异度88.6%、阳性预测值90.0%、阳性似然比8.29).当AFP<100μg/L及AFP>500/μg/L时,良恶性肝病检出率差异有统计学意义,当AFP在100~500 μg/L之间时,良恶性肝病检出率差异无统计学意义.结论 AFP-L3%指标对肝脏疾病诊断性能优于AFP.特别当AFP水平在100~500 μg/L之间时,肝脏良恶性疾病难以区分.同时测定AFP、AFp-L3,计算其比值,可以提高肝脏良恶性疾病鉴别诊断性能.%Objective To explore the significance and characters using ratio of α-fetoprotein isoform(AFP-L3)and α-fetoprotein in differentiating benign and malignant hepatocellular carcinoma.Methods Serum samples were collected from 146 patients, 76 diagnosed with hepatcellular carcinoma and 70 with benign liver diseases.AFP-L3 was isolated by using microspincolumn coupled with lens culinaris agglutinin.The levels of AFP and AFP-L3 were detected by electrochemiluminesent method.The ratio of AFP-L3 and total AFP(AFP-L3%) was calculated.Results The levels of AFP and AFP-L3 % between two groups had statistic significance( P <0.01).The area under the receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve of AFP and AFP-L3 were 0.819,0.907, respectively.According to the two curves, the cut-off value for differentiating liver disease was AFP = 400 μg/L (sensitivity, specificity, positive

  10. Long-term, Multiwavelength Light Curves of Ultra-cool Dwarfs: I. An Interplay of Starspots & Clouds Likely Drive the Variability of the L3.5 dwarf 2MASS 0036+18

    CERN Document Server

    Croll, Bryce; Han, Eunkyu; Dalba, Paul A; Radigan, Jacqueline; Morley, Caroline V; Lazarevic, Marko; Taylor, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We present multi-telescope, ground-based, multiwavelength optical and near-infrared photometry of the variable L3.5 ultra-cool dwarf 2MASSW J0036159+182110. We present 22 nights of photometry of 2MASSW J0036159+182110, including 7 nights of simultaneous, multiwavelength photometry, spread over ~120 days allowing us to determine the rotation period of this ultra-cool dwarf to be 3.080 +/- 0.001 hr. Our many nights of multiwavelength photometry allow us to observe the evolution, or more specifically the lack thereof, of the light curve over a great many rotation periods. The lack of discernible phase shifts in our multiwavelength photometry, and that the amplitude of variability generally decreases as one moves to longer wavelengths for 2MASSW J0036159+182110, is generally consistent with starspots driving the variability on this ultra-cool dwarf, with starspots that are ~100 degrees K hotter or cooler than the ~1700 K photosphere. Also, reasonably thick clouds are required to fit the spectra of 2MASSW J0036159...

  11. Inhibition of Anchorage-Independent Proliferation and G0/G1 Cell-Cycle Regulation in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells by 4,7-Dimethoxy-5-Methyl-l,3-Benzodioxole Isolated from the Fruiting Body of Antrodia camphorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Man Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-l,3-benzodioxole (SY-1 was isolated from three different sources of dried fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorate (AC. AC is a medicinal mushroom that grows on the inner heartwood wall of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hay (Lauraceae, an endemic species that is used in Chinese medicine for its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we demonstrated that SY-1 profoundly decreased the proliferation of human colon cancer cells (COLO 205 through G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest (50–150 μM and induction of apoptosis (>150 μM. Cell-cycle arrest induced by SY-1 was associated with a significant increase in levels of p53, p21/Cip1 and p27/Kip1, and a decrease in cyclins D1, D3 and A. In contrast, SY-1 treatment did not induce significant changes in G0/G1 phase cell-cycle regulatory proteins in normal human colonic epithelial cells (FHC. The cells were cultured in soft agar to evaluate anchorage-independent colony formation, and we found that the number of transformed colonies was significantly reduced in the SY-1-treated COLO 205 cells. These findings demonstrate for the first time that SY-1 inhibits human colon cancer cell proliferation through inhibition of cell growth and anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar. However, the detailed mechanisms of these processes remain unclear and will require further investigation.

  12. Value of detection of serum AFP, AFU and CEA in diagnosis of primary hepatic cancer%血清GGT、AFP和AFP-L3联合检测对原发性肝癌诊断的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉柱; 张玉敏; 寇永妹; 陈晖; 韩龙才

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨r-谷氨酰转移酶(GGT)、血清甲胎蛋白(AFP)、甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)联合检测对原发性肝癌诊断的诊断价值.方法 正常健康对照组84例,原发性肝癌组92例,良性肝病组45例,均同时检测血清GGT、AFP、AFP-L3.结果 原发性肝癌组血清GGT、AFP、AFP-L3与良性肝病组、正常健康对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).原发性肝癌组血清GGT、AFP、AFP-L3单独检测时的敏感性分别75.5%、71.0%和83.7%,联合检测GGT和AFP或AFP-L3可使检测敏感性提高到79.3%和88.7%,三者联合检测敏感性为93.1%.结论 联合检测GGT、AFP、AFP-L3 3项指标可以大大提高原发性肝癌的诊断率.%Objective To evaluate the value of detection of serum GGT,AFP and AFP-L3 in diagnosis of primary hepatic cancer(PHC).Methods The serum levels of GGT,AFP and AFP-L3 in 92 patients with PHC,84 patients with liver cirrhosis,and 45control subjects were determined and analyzed.Results Serum levels of GGT,AFP and AFP-L3 in patients with PHC were all significantly higher than the control subjects and the patients with liver cirrhosis (P<0.01).The sensitivity of diagnosis of PHC was 75.5%,71.0%,and 83.7%,respectively,when GGT,AFP,and AFP-L3 were individually detected.The accuracy could be increased to 79.3% (combined detection of GGT and AFP) and 88.7% (combined detection of GGT and AFP-L3).The accuracy was further increased to 93.1% when all GGT,AFP and AFP-L3 were detected.Conclusion Combined detection of serum GGT,AFP and AFP-L3 is greatly enhance the sensitivity in diagnosis of PHC,especially in AFP negative patients.

  13. Gender-associated genes in filarial nematodes are important for reproduction and potential intervention targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Wen Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A better understanding of reproductive processes in parasitic nematodes may lead to development of new anthelmintics and control strategies for combating disabling and disfiguring neglected tropical diseases such as lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Transcriptomatic analysis has provided important new insights into mechanisms of reproduction and development in other invertebrates. We have performed the first genome-wide analysis of gender-associated (GA gene expression in a filarial nematode to improve understanding of key reproductive processes in these parasites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Version 2 Filarial Microarray with 18,104 elements representing ∼85% of the filarial genome was used to identify GA gene transcripts in adult Brugia malayi worms. Approximately 19% of 14,293 genes were identified as GA genes. Many GA genes have potential Caenorhabditis elegans homologues annotated as germline-, oogenesis-, spermatogenesis-, and early embryogenesis- enriched. The potential C. elegans homologues of the filarial GA genes have a higher frequency of severe RNAi phenotypes (such as lethal and sterility than other C. elegans genes. Molecular functions and biological processes associated with GA genes were gender-segregated. Peptidase, ligase, transferase, regulator activity for kinase and transcription, and rRNA and lipid binding were associated with female GA genes. In contrast, catalytic activity from kinase, ATP, and carbohydrate binding were associated with male GA genes. Cell cycle, transcription, translation, and biological regulation were increased in females, whereas metabolic processes of phosphate and carbohydrate metabolism, energy generation, and cell communication were increased in males. Significantly enriched pathways in females were associated with cell growth and protein synthesis, whereas metabolic pathways such as pentose phosphate and energy production pathways were enriched in males. There were

  14. Effects of L-3-n-butylphthalide on caspase-3 and nuclear factor kappa-B expression in primary basal forebrain and hippocampal cultures after beta-amyloid peptide 1-42 treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruixia Wang; Yong Zhang; Liangliang Jiang; Guozhao Ma; Qingxi Fu; Jialong Li; Peng Yan; Lunqian Shen; Yabo Feng; Chunxia Li; Zaiying Pang; Yuanxiao Cui; Chunfu Chen; Yifeng Du; Zhaokong Liu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: L-3-n-butylphthalide (L-NBP) can inhibit phosphorylation of tau protein and reduce the neurotoxicity of beta-amyloid peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42).OBJECTIVE: To observe the neuroprotective effects of L-NBP on caspase-3 and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-кB) expression in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A cell experiment was performed at the Central Laboratory of Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University between January 2008 and August 2008.MATERIALS: L-NBP (purity>98%) was provided by Shijiazhuang Pharma Group NBP Pharmaceutical Company Limited. Aβ1-42, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazolo-2]-2,5 iphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and rabbit anti-Caspase-3 polyclonal antibody were provided by Cell Signaling, METHODS: Primary cultures were generated from rat basal forebrain and hippocampal neurons at 17 or 19 days of gestation. The cells were assigned into five groups: the control group, the Aβ1-42 group (2μmol/L), the Aβ1-42+0.1μmol/L L-NBP group, the Aβ1-42+1 μmol/L L-NBP group, and the Aβ1-42 + 10μmol/L L-NBP group. The neurons were treated with Aβ1-42 (2 μmol/L) alone or in combination with L-NBP (0.1, 1, 10μmol/L) for 48 hours. Cells in the control group were incubated in PBS.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Morphologic changes were evaluated using inverted microscopy, Western blot.RESULTS: Induction with Aβ1-42 for 48 hours caused cell death and soma atrophy, and increased the high dose (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Aβ1-42 is toxic to basal forebrain and hippocampal primary neurons; L-NBP protects against this toxicity and inhibits the induction of caspase-3 and NF-κB expression.

  15. Contribution to the search for the non-minimal standard Higgs boson through the H{sup 0} e{sup +}e{sup -} and H{sup 0} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} channels in the L3 experiment at LEP; Contribution a la recherche du boson de Higgs standard et non minimal par les canaux H{sup 0} e{sup +}e{sup -} et H{sup 0} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} dans l`experience L3 a LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernenwein, J.P.

    1997-01-14

    This works concerns the search for Higgs boson with the detector L3 which is one of the four experimental facilities at LEP. The preferential coupling of Higgs boson to high mass particles allows the Higgs-strahlung process to be a interesting way to produce Higgs bosons. The high detection capacity for electrons and muons of L3 allows the author to search for Higgs boson through the decay channels Z{sup 0} {yields} H ee and Z{sup 0} {yields} H {mu} {mu}. The first chapter of the thesis is devoted to the description of the detector L3 and especially to its detection performances for leptons. The second chapter concerns the characteristics of the standard Higgs sector. The most probable values for the Higgs boson mass are presented and the effects of the supersymmetric extension of the standard model considered. The four-fermion final state process is presented. The analytical part of the work is presented in the third chapter. It includes the identification of muons and leptons, the sequential selections in two mass domains (2, 30 GeV and 30, 70 GeV). A special analysis of the invisible decay of Higgs boson (through the h ee channel) is finally presented as well as an interpretation of the results in the frame of the MSSM. The end of the thesis is devoted to the search for Higgs boson at LEP2. (N.T.).

  16. Lesión neurológica incompleta ASIA B secundario a fractura luxación de L3-L4 por traumatismo de alta energía en región lumbar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caldera Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En las fracturas luxaciones de la región lumbar, dos hechos anatómicos pueden ayudar al paciente a presentar un daño neurológico menor en comparación con los traumatismos en la región cervical o torácica, en primer lugar, la médula espinal en el adulto se extiende solo hasta el nivel del borde inferior de la primera vértebra lumbar, en segundo lugar, el gran tamaño del agujero vertebral en esta región da amplio espacio a las raíces de la cola de caballo, por lo tanto, la lesión nerviosa puede ser mínima en esta región, ya que en esta área se alojan raíces nerviosas con un gran espacio, menor contenido y mayor continente. En este estudio se presenta el caso de un hombre de 48 años de edad, trabajador de la construcción, el cual sufrió caída de una altura aproximada de 15 metros, golpeándose directamente sobre la región lumbar contra una viga, presentó dolor e incapacidad para movilizar las piernas; llevado con urgencia, una hora después del accidente, se analizó clínicamente. Se tomaron radiografías y tomografía, y se diagnosticó como fractura luxación L3-L4 con ASIA B. Intervenido tres horas después del accidente con reducción vía posterior y fijación transpedicular. Una semana después se realizó abordaje anterior. Progreso hacia ASIA C, 24 horas después de la primera cirugía. Tres meses después, paciente funcional con ASIA D y control de esfínteres. El propósito del autor es mostrar los resultados obtenidos mediante una intervención en las primeras horas del traumatismo, la cual ayudó a pasar de una lesión no funcional a una lesión funcional, casi con recuperación total.

  17. Measurement of the 1s2l3l’ Dielectronic Recombination Emission Line in Li-Like Ar and Its Contribution to the Faint X-Ray Feature Found in the Stacked Spectrum of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Amy Christina; Silwal, Roshani; Dreiling, Joan; Borovik, Alexander; Ajello, Marco; Gillaspy, John; Kilgore, Ethan; Ralchenko, Yuri; Takacs, Endre

    2016-06-01

    Driven by the recent detection of an unidentified emission line previously reported at 3.55-3.57 keV in a stacked spectrum of galaxy clusters, we investigated the resonant DR process in Li-like Ar as a possible source of, or contributor to, the emission line. The Li-like transition 1s22l-1s2l3l’ was suggested to produce a 3.62 keV photon [1] near the unidentified line at 3.57 keV and was the primary focus of our investigation. Apart from the mentioned transitions, we have found other features that can be possible contributors to the emission in this region. The Electron Beam Ion Trap at NIST was used to produce and trap the highly-charged ions of argon. The energy of the quasi-monoenergetic electron beam was incremented in steps of 15 eV to scan over all of the Li-like Ar DR resonances. A Johann-type crystal spectrometer and a solid-state germanium detector were used to take x-ray measurements perpendicular to the electron beam. The DR cross sections were measured and normalized to the well-known photoionization cross sections using radiative recombination peaks in the measured spectra. Corrections for different instrument and method related effects such as charge state balance, electron beam space charge, and charge exchange have been considered. Our high-resolution crystal spectra allowed the experimental separation of features that are less than 2 eV apart. We have used a collisional radiative model NOMAD [2] aided by atomic data calculations by FAC [3] to interpret our observations and account for the corrections and uncertainties. Experimental results were compared to the AtomDB theoretical emission lines used to fit the galaxy cluster spectra containing the unidentified 3.57 keV line. These data points can be added benchmarks in the database and used to accurately interpret spectra from current x-ray satellites, including Hitomi, Chandra, and XMM-Newton x-ray observatories.[1] Bulbul E. et al., 2014, ApJ, 789, 13[2] Ralchenko Yu. et al., 2014, JQSRT, 71

  18. Algorithmes de reconstruction pour le filtrage en ligne et application à la mesure de la section efficace de la collision $e^{+}e^{-} \\to (e^{+}e^{-})\\eta$ c avec le système de digitalisation rapide pour la chambre à vertex de l'expérience L3

    CERN Document Server

    Forconi, G

    1993-01-01

    Algorithmes de reconstruction pour le filtrage en ligne et application à la mesure de la section efficace de la collision $e^{+}e^{-} \\to (e^{+}e^{-})\\eta$ c avec le système de digitalisation rapide pour la chambre à vertex de l'expérience L3

  19. Et. réact. $e^{+} e^{-} \\to e^{+} e^{-} \\gamma$, $e^{+} e^{-} \\to e^{+} e^{-} e^{+} e^{-}$ et $e^{+} e^{-} \\to e^{+} e ^{-} \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ pour la calibrat. cristaux BGO calorim. électromagn. L3,, CERN, mesure luminosité LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Rayo, F

    1989-01-01

    Et. réact. $e^{+} e^{-} \\to e^{+} e^{-} \\gamma$, $e^{+} e^{-} \\to e^{+} e^{-} e^{+} e^{-}$ et $e^{+} e^{-} \\to e^{+} e ^{-} \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ pour la calibrat. cristaux BGO calorim. électromagn. L3,, CERN, mesure luminosité LEP

  20. Clinical evaluation of three tumor markers in hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis: alpha-fetoprotein-L3, des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin and alpha-fetoprotein%甲胎蛋白异质体3、异常凝血酶原、甲胎蛋白检测肝细胞癌的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝妙欢; 欧阳文婷; 林建华; 吴兴平

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析3种肿瘤标志物甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)、异常凝血酶原(DCP)、甲胎蛋白(AFP)单独或联合检测肝细胞癌(HCC)的临床意义.方法 分别用电化学发光法检测AFP,ELISA法检测AFP-L3、DCP,利用受试者工作特征曲线(ROC曲线)分析3种标志物单独和联合检测肝细胞癌(随机组和AFP阴性组)的敏感性、特异性、曲线下面积、阳性预测值和阴性预测值.比较肝细胞癌组与健康对照组和疾病对照组的AFP-L3、DCP、AFP水平的差异.分析治疗前AFP阴性肝细胞癌病例联合检测AFP-L3、DCP的意义.结果 ①单独检测肝细胞癌病例的3种肿瘤标志物.AFP-L3的敏感性、特异性分别是48.7%、97.7%;DCP的敏感性、特异性分别是42.5%、98.4%;AFP的敏感性、特异性分别是68.7%、94.6%.联合检测AFP-L3、DCP和AFP,敏感性、特异性分别是87.5%、92.2%.②肝细胞癌随机组的AFP-L3、DCP、AFP水平与健康对照组和疾病组比较差异有高度统计学意义(P<0.01).⑨AFP阴性肝细胞癌组的AFP和AFP-L3水平与肝良性疾病组比较差异无统计学意义.但DCP水平差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 AFP-L3、DCP与AFP单独检测时AFP的敏感性最高,而DCP的特异性最高,是区分肝硬化与AFP阴性的肝细胞癌血清学的良好指标.AFP-L3、DCP与AFP的联合检测能提高肝细胞癌血清学检测的敏感性和特异性,在肝细胞癌诊断方面比目前大多数传统的组合方法更优胜、更准确.

  1. The diagnostic value of combined detection of alpha-fetoprotein, AFP, lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein(AFP-L3) and alpha L fucosidase (AFU) level for the patients with primary liver cancer in early stage%联合检测血清AFP、AFP异质体和AFU对早期肝癌诊断价值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰; 赵业民; 陈增银; 史光军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic value of combined detection of serum alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP), lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein( AFP-L3 ) and alpha L fucosidase ( AFU ) level for the patients with primary liver cancer in early stage. Methods The serum level of AFP, AFP-L3 and AFU were detected in 56 patients with primary liver cancer (PLC), 158 patients with benign liver disease, 40 patients with other malignant tumor without PLC and 40 healthy persons.Results The positive rate of AFP, AFP-L3 and AFU in the group of PLC were signiifcantly higher than that of in the group of benign liver diseases and in the group of other malignant tumor without PLC ( P<0.01 ). Combined detection have a complementary function for the diagnosis of patients PLC in early stage and the sensitivity rate was 94.60%. The sensitivity in the group of combined detection is higher than that of in the group of single detection ( P<0.05 ). Conclusion The sensitivity rate of single detection for AFP, AFP-L3 and AFU for the diagnosis of PLC in the early stage is similar and combined detection could signiifcantly improve the sensitivity rate for the diagnosis of PLC in the early stage and decrease the misdiagnosis rate. The combined detection of AFP, AFP-L3 and AFU can be used as a newly routine detection method for the high population of the patients with PLC in the early stage especially.%目的:探讨血清甲胎蛋白(alpha-fetoprotein ,AFP)、扁豆凝集素亲和型甲胎蛋白异质体(lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein, AFP-L3)、α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(alpha L fucosidase, AFU)水平联合检测对原发性肝癌(primary liver cancer, PLC)的诊断价值。方法对56例PLC、158例良性肝病患者、40例非PLC恶性肿瘤患者以及40例健康查体者进行AFP、AFP-L3和AFU进行联合检测。结果 PLC组的AFP、AFP-L3、AFU的阳性率明显高于良性肝病和非PLC恶性肿瘤组( P<0.01),PLC患者血清AFP、AFP-L3、AFU三者之间无相关性,联

  2. Diagnostic value of serum Fer, AFP and AFP-L3 combined detection in primary hepatic cancer%血清铁蛋白、甲胎蛋白和甲胎蛋白异质体联合检测对原发性肝癌诊断的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉柱; 张玉敏

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨血清铁蛋白(Fer)、甲胎蛋白(AFP)、甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)联合检测对原发性肝癌的诊断价值.方法 健康对照组84名、原发性肝癌组92例、良性肝病组45例均同时检测血清Fer、AFP、AFP-L3.结果 原发性肝癌组血清Fer检测结果为(819.4±616.8)μg/L,AFP为(556.9±451.5)μg/L,AFP-L3为(109.0±62.5) μg/L,良性肝病组Fer检测结果为(229.3±155.5) μg/L,AFP为(6.0±4.2) μg/L,AFP-L3为(26.0±49.4) μg/L,健康对照组Fer检测结果为(125.6±110.5)μg/L,AFP为(2.8±0.8) μg/L,AFP-L3为(7.0± 1.8)μg/L,三者差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01).原发性肝癌组单独检测血清Fer的敏感度为85.9%,AFP的敏感度为71.0%,AFP-L3的敏感度为83.7%,联合检测Fer和AFP或AFP-L3可使检测敏感度提高到90.2%和95.7%,三者联合检测敏感度为98.9%.结论 联合检测血清Fer、AFP、AFP-L3三项指标可以提高原发性肝癌的诊断准确率.%Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of the combined detection of serum Fer,AFP and AFP-L3 in patients with primary hepatic cancer (PHC).Methods The serum levels of Fer,AFP and AFP-L3 were determined in 92 patients with PHC,84 patients with benign liver disease,and 45 control subjects.Results The PHC group serum Fer was (819.4±616.8) μg/L,AFP was (556.9±451.5) μg/L,AFP-L3 was (109.0±62.5) μg/L.The benign liver disease group Fer was (229.3±155.5) μg/L,AFP was (6.0±4.2) μg/L,AFP-L3 was (26.0±49.4) μg/L.The healthy control group Fer was (125.6±110.5) μg/L,AFP was (2.8±0.8) μg/L,AFP-L was (7.0±1.8) μg/L,there was significant difference between the three groups (all P < 0.01).The sensitivity of PHC group alone in detection of serum Fer was 85.9 %,the sensitivity of AFP was 71.0 %,the sensitivity of AFP-L3 was 83.7 %,the combined detection of Fer and AFP or AFP-L3 improved the sensitivity of the test to 90.2 % and 95.7 %,the three combined detection sensitivity was 98.9 %.Conclusion Combined

  3. Presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti (Spirurida: Onchocercidae from different geographical regions in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoti SL

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the recent discovery of rickettsial endosymbionts, Wolbachia in lymphatic filarial parasites, Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi and subsequently of their vital role in the survival and development of the latter, antibiotics such as tetracycline are being suggested for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis, by way of eliminating the endosymbiont. But, it is essential to assess their presence in parasites from areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis before such a new control tool is employed. In the present communication, we report the detection of Wolbachia endosymbionts in microfilariae of W. bancrofti parasites collected from geographically distant locations of India, such as Pondicherry (Union Territory, Calicut (Kerala, Jagadalpur (Madhya Pradesh, Thirukoilur (TamilNadu, Chinnanergunam (TamilNadu, Rajahmundry (Andhra Pradesh, and Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh, using Wolbachia specific 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction.

  4. Subperiodic, asymptomatic microfilaremia in an adult male from Mysore: A nonendemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumana M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wuchereria bancrofti is found throughout tropics and subtropics like Asia, Pacific islands, Africa, areas of South America and Caribbean basin. In all these areas, except Pacific islands, microfilaria occurs in the periodic form, in which case the microfilaria are found in large numbers in the peripheral blood during night. In the Pacific islands, they occur in the subperiodic form, i.e., microfilaria are present in the peripheral blood at all times and reach the maximum level of parasitemia in the afternoon. Microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi occurring in India displays a nocturnal periodicity, appearing in large numbers at night. This is the biological adaptation to the nocturnal biting habits of the vector mosquitoes. The maximum density in blood is reported between 10 PM and 2 AM. Here is a case report of asymptomatic microfilaremia showing subperiodicity, which is very unusual in India.

  5. Filariose linfática: doença potencialmente eliminável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyer Gerusa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Os resultados obtidos com o uso de esquemas terapêuticos simples, como dose única anual ou bianual de Ivermectina (IV, Dietilcarbamazina (DEC sozinhas ou combinadas, têm sido surpreendentemente promissores na redução da infecção linfática causada pela Wuchereria bancrofti e Brugia malayi. Assim, perspectivas existem de eliminar a doença dos países endêmicos, se programas de controle forem empregados usando-se o tratamento em massa, complementado ou não pelo controle do vetor. Uma breve revisão é feita sobre cada droga em relação à eficácia e às reações adversas causadas pela morte dos diversos estágios do parasita no homem infectado.

  6. Lymphatic filariasis in India: Epidemiology and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabesan S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi is an important public health problem in India. Both parasites produce essentially similar clinical presentations in man, related mainly to the pathology of the lymphatic system. Filariasis is endemic in 17 States and six Union Territories, with about 553 million people at risk of infection. The Government of India has accorded a high priority for elimination of this infection through mass chemotherapy programme (annual, single dose of Diethylcarbamazine citrate, i.e. DEC - 6 mg/kg of bodyweight, plus Albendazole repeated four to six times. This campaign has become a part of the National Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme in 2003 under the National Health Policy 2002 and aims to eliminate filariasis by 2015. We discuss here the epidemiology and current control strategy for filariasis; highlighting key issues, challenges and options in the implementation of the programme, and suggesting measures for mid-course corrections in the elimination strategy.

  7. Filariose linfática: doença potencialmente eliminável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Dreyer

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Os resultados obtidos com o uso de esquemas terapêuticos simples, como dose única anual ou bianual de Ivermectina (IV, Dietilcarbamazina (DEC sozinhas ou combinadas, têm sido surpreendentemente promissores na redução da infecção linfática causada pela Wuchereria bancrofti e Brugia malayi. Assim, perspectivas existem de eliminar a doença dos países endêmicos, se programas de controle forem empregados usando-se o tratamento em massa, complementado ou não pelo controle do vetor. Uma breve revisão é feita sobre cada droga em relação à eficácia e às reações adversas causadas pela morte dos diversos estágios do parasita no homem infectado.

  8. Plasmodium knowlesi and Wucheriria bancrofti: Their vectors and challenges for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra eVythilingam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and filariasis still continue to pose public health problems in developing countries of the tropics. Although plans are ongoing for the elimination of both these parasitic vector borne diseases, we are now faced with a daunting challenge as we have a fifth species, Plasmodium knowlesi a simian malaria parasite affecting humans. Similarly in peninsular Malaysia, filariasis was mainly due to Brugia malayi, however, we now see cases of W. bancrofti in immigrant workers coming into the country. Work is on going to eliminate malaria and filariasis from the country. In order to be successful we need to revamp our control measures. Thus this paper attempts to review the vectors of malaria and filariasis in Southeast Asia with special emphasis on P. knowlesi and W. bancrofti and their control strategies.

  9. Subtilisin-like proteases in nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Catherine B; Jin, Jingmin; McReynolds, Larry A

    2007-09-01

    Cleavage by subtilisin-like proteases (subtilases) is an essential step in post-translational processing of proteins found in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Our knowledge of the diversity of this protease family in nematodes is aided by the rapid increase in sequence information, especially from the Brugia malayi genome project. Genetic studies of the subtilases in Caenorhabitis elegans give valuable insight into the biological function of these proteases in other nematode species. In this review, we focus on the subtilases in filarial nematodes as well as other parasitic and free-living nematodes in comparison to what is known in C. elegans. Topics to be addressed include expansion and diversity of the subtilase gene family during evolution, enhanced complexity created by alternative RNA splicing, molecular and biochemical characterization of the different subtilases and the challenges of designing subtilase-specific inhibitors for parasitic nematodes. PMID:17570539

  10. Les filarioses humaines sur le territoire français

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    1. La filariose lymphatique 1.1. Cycle de la maladie 1.1.1. Agent Sur les territoires français, l’agent est le nématode Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocercidae, Filarioidea. Mais deux autres espèces de filaires provoquent des filarioses lymphatiques similaires : Brugia malayi, dont l'aire d'extension va de l'Inde et du Sud-Est asiatique à la Corée, et B. timori, limité à quelques îles d'Indonésie. Les filaires mâles de W. bancrofti sont longues de 40 mm et larges de 0,1 mm, les femelles de 80-100...

  11. STUDI ENDEMISITAS FILARIASIS DI WILAYAH KECAMATAN PEMAYUNG, KABUPATEN BATANGHARI PASCA PENGOBATAN MASSAL TAHAP III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Yahya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Filariasis endemicity research in District Pemayung, Batanghari Regency Post-Mass Drug Administration Phase III has been implemented. The study aims to determine the prevalence of filariasis, microfilaria worm species, the periodicity, reservoir determination and evaluate the results of mass treatment activities that have been 3 times. The number of people who checked their blood preparation for the examination as many as 538. Blood sampling for the periodicity of the parasite examinations performed on 4 persons, each carried out blood sampling every 2 hours for 24 hours. People microfilariae with microfilariae positive number as many as 8 people to rate microfilariae (Mf rate 1.5%.. The highest parasite density of 17.493 per 20 cu mm of blood occurred at 1:00 am and decresing to 0,415 per 20 cu mm of blood at 07.00 am. The parasite was found in sub periodic nokturna 3 subjects and 1 subject was found only be found in the morning and afternoon. The results of examination of 12 cats and two monkeys were found two positive cats with Brugia malayi microfilariae. Cats that were examined and the positive was one house cat and one stray cat. The conclusion from this study showed that filariasis was still endemic with periodicity of microfilariae was sub periodic nokturna and was zoonotic. Recommendations of this study was that mass treatment  was done by giving the drug directly and took medicine in front of the officers, examination and treatment of microfilariae positive cats. Key words: microfilariae rate, periodicity, Brugia malayi, reservoir. Abstrak  Submit : 28-03-2012  Review : 04-04-2012 Review : 11-06-2012 revisi : 29–08-2012Penelitian untuk menentukan tingkat endemisitas filariasis di wilayah Kecamatan Pemayung, Kabupaten Batanghari Pasca Pengobatan Massal Tahap III telah dilaksanakan. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi filariasis, mengetahui spesies cacing mikrofilaria, periodisitas mikrofilaria dan pemeriksaan

  12. Interdomain lateral gene transfer of an essential ferrochelatase gene in human parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Novelli, Jacopo; Jiang, Daojun; Dailey, Harry A; Landmann, Frédéric; Ford, Louise; Taylor, Mark J; Carlow, Clotilde K S; Kumar, Sanjay; Foster, Jeremy M; Slatko, Barton E

    2013-05-01

    Lateral gene transfer events between bacteria and animals highlight an avenue for evolutionary genomic loss/gain of function. Herein, we report functional lateral gene transfer in animal parasitic nematodes. Members of the Nematoda are heme auxotrophs, lacking the ability to synthesize heme; however, the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi has acquired a bacterial gene encoding ferrochelatase (BmFeCH), the terminal step in heme biosynthesis. BmFeCH, encoded by a 9-exon gene, is a mitochondrial-targeted, functional ferrochelatase based on enzyme assays, complementation, and inhibitor studies. Homologs have been identified in several filariae and a nonfilarial nematode. RNAi and ex vivo inhibitor experiments indicate that BmFeCH is essential for viability, validating it as a potential target for filariasis control.

  13. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in human blood and vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hidekazu; Itoh, Makoto; Kasai, Shinji; Yahathugoda, Thishan C; Weerasooriya, Mirani V; Kimura, Eisaku

    2011-12-01

    We have developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. The sensitivity and specificity of LAMP method were equivalent to those of PCR method which detects SspI repeat sequence in W. bancrofti genomic DNA: both methods detected one thousandth of W. bancrofti DNA from one microfilaria (Mf), and did not cross-react with DNAs of Brugia malayi, B. pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, human and Culex quinquefasciatus. We also examined the sensitivity of LAMP using the mimic samples of patient's blood or blood-fed mosquitoes containing one W. bancrofti Mf per sample. The LAMP method was able to detect W. bancrofti DNA in 1000 μl of blood or in a pool of 60 mosquitoes, indicating its usefulness in detecting/monitoring W. bancrofti infection in humans and vector mosquitoes in endemic areas. PMID:21930238

  14. Long-term follow-up of treatment with diethylcarbamazine on anti-filarial IgG4: dosage, compliance, and differential patterns in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhell, A J; Haarbrink, M; van den Biggelaar, A; Mangali, A; Sartono, E; Yazdanbakhsh, M

    2003-01-01

    We have followed a population in an area endemic for Brugia malayi for three years after intensive treatment with diethylcarbamazine (DEC). Microfilariae were cleared from the circulation within four months in all eligible study participants (n = 60). There appeared to be a strong correlation between the maximum reduction in specific IgG4 and the number of days drug was taken under supervision (p = 0.41, P or = 15 years old) showed a gradual decrease in anti-filarial IgG4; 53% of these showed complete clearance of worm burden by the end of the study. In contrast, another group of male IgG4+ adults showed IgG4 patterns that started to increase between nine months and two years after treatment, indicating either a partial efficacy of DEC that allowed recovery of resident adult worms or reinfection. PMID:12556144

  15. Cystatin F Ensures Eosinophil Survival by Regulating Granule Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen P; McMillan, Sarah J; Colbert, Jeff D; Lawrence, Rachel A; Watts, Colin

    2016-04-19

    Eosinophils are now recognized as multifunctional leukocytes that provide critical homeostatic signals to maintain other immune cells and aid tissue repair. Paradoxically, eosinophils also express an armory of granule-localized toxins and hydrolases believed to contribute to pathology in inflammatory disease. How eosinophils deliver their supporting functions while avoiding self-inflicted injury is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that cystatin F (CF) is a critical survival factor for eosinophils. Eosinophils from CF null mice had reduced lifespan, reduced granularity, and disturbed granule morphology. In vitro, cysteine protease inhibitors restored granularity, demonstrating that control of cysteine protease activity by CF is critical for normal eosinophil development. CF null mice showed reduced pulmonary pathology in a model of allergic lung inflammation but also reduced ability to combat infection by the nematode Brugia malayi. These data identify CF as a "cytoprotectant" that promotes eosinophil survival and function by ensuring granule integrity. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27067058

  16. Cystatin F Ensures Eosinophil Survival by Regulating Granule Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen P; McMillan, Sarah J; Colbert, Jeff D; Lawrence, Rachel A; Watts, Colin

    2016-04-19

    Eosinophils are now recognized as multifunctional leukocytes that provide critical homeostatic signals to maintain other immune cells and aid tissue repair. Paradoxically, eosinophils also express an armory of granule-localized toxins and hydrolases believed to contribute to pathology in inflammatory disease. How eosinophils deliver their supporting functions while avoiding self-inflicted injury is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that cystatin F (CF) is a critical survival factor for eosinophils. Eosinophils from CF null mice had reduced lifespan, reduced granularity, and disturbed granule morphology. In vitro, cysteine protease inhibitors restored granularity, demonstrating that control of cysteine protease activity by CF is critical for normal eosinophil development. CF null mice showed reduced pulmonary pathology in a model of allergic lung inflammation but also reduced ability to combat infection by the nematode Brugia malayi. These data identify CF as a "cytoprotectant" that promotes eosinophil survival and function by ensuring granule integrity. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  17. HUMAN PARASITE SURVEY ON NASI AND BERAS ISLANDS ACEH PROVINCE, SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Stafford

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey parasit usus dan darah manusia terhadap penduduk pulau-pulau Nasi/Beras Propinsi Aceh, Sumatra, telah diadakan dihulan Januari, 1975. Sebanyak 83 pulasan darah dari 67 pria dan 16 wanita, serta 87 contoh tinja diperoleh dari 52 pria dan 35 wanita. Brugia malayi microfilaria ditemukan dalam 3 atau 3 persen dari darah yang diperiksa dan juga parasitemia yang disebabkan oleh Plasmodium malariae 1 atau 1 persen dan P. falciparum 2 atau 2 persen. Trichuris trichiura (86 persen , merupakan parasit usus yang paling banyak ditemukan, diikuti oleh cacing tambang (77 persen, Ascaris lumbricoides (60 persen, Entamoeba histolyrica (11 per sen, H. coli (10 persen . Endolimax nana hanya 5 atau 6 persen dan Iodamoeba butschlii dan Giardia lamblia, masing-masing 3 persen. Tidak ada ditemukan Schistosoma japonicum atau pun ova cestoda diantara penduduk yang diperiksa.

  18. Serine proteases of parasitic helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2015-02-01

    Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we described the serine proteases that have been identified in parasitic helminths, including nematodes (Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, Trichuris muris, Anisakis simplex, Ascaris suum, Onchocerca volvulus, O. lienalis, Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum, and Steinernema carpocapsae), cestodes (Spirometra mansoni, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistocephalus solidus), and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, and Schistosoma mansoni). Moreover, the possible biological functions of these serine proteases in the endogenous biological phenomena of these parasites and in the host-parasite interaction were also discussed. PMID:25748703

  19. Evidence for Wolbachia symbiosis in microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti from West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prajna Gayen; Sudipta Maitra; Sutapa Datta; Santi P Sinha Babu

    2010-03-01

    Wolbachia are symbiotic endobacteria that infect the majority of filarial nematodes, including Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus. Recent studies have suggested that Wolbachia are necessary for the reproduction and survival of filarial nematodes and have highlighted the use of antibiotic therapy such as tetracycline/doxycycline as a novel method of treatment for infections caused by these organisms. Before such therapy is conceived and implemented on a large scale, it is necessary to assess the prevalence of the endosymbiont in W. bancrofti from different geographical locations. We present data from molecular and electron microscopic studies to provide evidence for Wolbachia symbiosis in W. bancrofti microfilariae collected from two districts (Bankura and Birbhum) of West Bengal, India.

  20. Filariose linfática: doença potencialmente eliminável Lymphatic filariasis: a potentially eradicable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Dreyer

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Os resultados obtidos com o uso de esquemas terapêuticos simples, como dose única anual ou bianual de Ivermectina (IV, Dietilcarbamazina (DEC sozinhas ou combinadas, têm sido surpreendentemente promissores na redução da infecção linfática causada pela Wuchereria bancrofti e Brugia malayi. Assim, perspectivas existem de eliminar a doença dos países endêmicos, se programas de controle forem empregados usando-se o tratamento em massa, complementado ou não pelo controle do vetor. Uma breve revisão é feita sobre cada droga em relação à eficácia e às reações adversas causadas pela morte dos diversos estágios do parasita no homem infectado.The recent demonstration that single-dose ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, or a combination of these drugs can profoundly suppress Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi microfilaremia for periods of six months to two years has led to renewed hope that transmission can be interrupted and lymphatic filariasis eradicated. Based in part on the availability of these new chemotherapeutic tools, the International Task Force for Disease Eradication recently identified lymphatic filariasis as one of the few diseases that could potentially be eradicated. Thus, control programs based on mass treatment (whether supplemented or not by vector control have begun to be implemented in some endemic areas. We provide a brief review of available anti-filarial drugs for use in humans, including their tolerance and efficacy.

  1. The in vivo antitumor effects on human COLO 205 cancer cells of the 4,7-dimethoxy-5-(2-propen-1-yl)-1,3-benzodioxole (apiole) derivative of 5-substituted 4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-l,3-benzodioxole (SY-1) isolated from the fruiting body of Antrodia camphorate

    OpenAIRE

    Po-Li Wei; Shih-Hsin Tu; Hsiu-Man Lien; Li-Ching Chen; Ching-Shyang Chen; Chih-Hsiung Wu; Ching-Shui Huang; Hui-Wen Chang; Chien-Hsi Chang; How Tseng; Yuan-Soon Ho

    2012-01-01

    Context: The compound 4,7-dimethoxy-5-(2-propen-1-yl)-1,3-benzodioxole (apiole) has been isolated from several different plant species, including Petroselinum sativum. Our recent study found that apiole is a chemical derivative of 4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-l,3-benzodioxole (SY-1), which has been isolated from dried Antrodia camphorata (AC ) fruiting bodies, a traditional Chinese medicine with antitumor properties. Aims: Our previous in vitro study demonstrated that apiole inhibits the growth ...

  2. Hydrothermal Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Thermal Analyses of Pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic Acid Bridged Co(II) Coordination Polymer of 2∞[Co(phen) (μ-L)3/3]·H2O (H2L = Pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic Acid)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bi-Song

    2005-01-01

    A novel pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid bridged Co(II) phen complex2∞[Co- (phen)(μ-L)3/3]·H2O (H2L = pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid) has been hydrothermally synthesized, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis shows that it crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/n with a = 11.480(2), b = 11.885(2), c = 12.939(3) (A), β = 110.55(3)°, V = 1653.1(6) (A)3, Mr = 423.25, Dc = 0.425 g/cm3, Z = 4, R = 0.0361 and wR = 0.1011. The title complex consists of 2D 2∞ [Co(phen)(μ-L)3/3] layers and crystal water molecules. Each Co atom is octahedrally coordinated by three N atoms and three O atoms to form 2D 2∞[Co(phen)(μ-L)3/3] polymeric layers. Furthermore, such 2D layers are stacked into 3D supramolecular frameworks via Van der Waals' intermolecular forces, strong and weak hydrogen-bond interactions. The coordination phen and crystal water molecules are resided into cavities of the frameworks.

  3. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil C Devoe

    Full Text Available The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2 protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a to synonymous (K(s mutation frequencies (ω were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001 diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa indicated significant (P<0

  4. Immunoadjuvant effect of diethylcarbamazine in experimental filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasurama Jawaharlal, Jeya Prita; Rajaiah Prabhu, Prince; Gandhirajan, Anugraha; Krishnan, Nithya; Perumal, Kaliraj

    2015-02-01

    Lymphatic filariasis caused by tissue dwelling nematodes is endemic in 73 countries and drugs have been administered to control or stop the infection. Resurgence of the infection after mass drug administration necessitates the study of several parasite antigens or adjuvants for vaccine developments. In this study, diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was evaluated for its efficacy as adjuvant against the filarial parasite; Brugia malayi microfilariae (mf) by combining with the Escherichia coli expressed recombinant BmShp-1 protein. Shp-1 is one of the sheath proteins expressed by adult female and microfilarial stage of the filarial parasite. Hence, immunoprophylactic efficacy of Shp-1 using DEC and alum adjuvants was compared in BALB/c mice model by an in situ micropore chamber method. Shp-1 antibody titre was high when the mice were immunized with Shp-1 along with DEC and they exhibited balanced Th1/Th2 profile. DEC also induced significantly high T-cell proliferation (P<0.001) when stimulated with Shp-1 compared to alum. Significantly high percentage protection against B. malayi microfilariae was observed in Shp-1+DEC immunized mice groups (P<0.05) and hence it is concluded that the need of repeated drug administration can be controlled when there is a possibility of developing protective immunity in the host against mf by vaccination.

  5. Therapeutic efficacy of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles encapsulated ivermectin (nano-ivermectin) against brugian filariasis in experimental rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Afzal, Mohammad; Verma, Meenakshi; Bhattacharya, Shailja Misra; Ahmad, F J; Samim, Mohammad; Abidin, M Z; Dinda, A K

    2014-02-01

    The present study reports on the antifilarial activity of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles encapsulated ivermectin (nano-IVM) against human lymphatic filariid Brugia malayi in rodent host Mastomys coucha. Nano-IVM was prepared and optimized by nanoprecipitation method. The selected nano-IVM (F5) showed a uniform spherical shape with 96 nm diameter and 74.12 % entrapment efficiency, and when used at a suboptimal dose of 100 μg/kg body weight, completely eliminated filarial parasites from systemic circulation on 60 days post-infection in animals inflicted with B. malayi. In contrast, the coadministration of nano-IVM (F5) along with standard filaricide diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was found to be competent enough to suppress microfilarial stage of parasites and successfully eliminated microfilaria at 45 days posttreatment. However, the free form of both the drugs alone or in combination was unable to impart such suppression and followed by recurrence of the infection. Interestingly, nano-IVM (F5) was also found to be effective against adult stage parasites causing 36.67 % worm mortality and 75.89 % in combination with DEC; however, female sterilization remain almost similar. Thus, the combination of entrapped IVM with DEC exhibited enhanced microfilaricidal and marginally better macrofilaricidal efficacy than any of the single formulation or drugs combination.

  6. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Binnebose

    Full Text Available Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment.

  7. Towards novel antifilarial drugs: challenges and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Ajay, Arya; Kushwaha, Susheela; Tripathi, Rama Pati; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2010-02-01

    Filariasis is caused by thread-like nematode worms, classified according to their presence in the vertebrate host. The cutaneous group includes Onchocerca volvulus, Loa loa and Mansonella streptocerca; the lymphatic group includes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori and the body cavity group includes Mansonella perstans and Mansonella ozzardi. Lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne disease, is one of the most prevalent diseases in tropical and subtropical countries and is accompanied by a number of pathological conditions. In recent years, there has been rapid progress in filariasis research, which has provided new insights into the pathogenesis of filarial disease, diagnosis, chemotherapy, the host-parasite relationship and the genomics of the parasite. Together, these insights are assisting the identification of novel drug targets and the discovery of antifilarial agents and candidate vaccine molecules. This review discusses the antifilarial activity of various chemical entities, the merits and demerits of antifilarial drugs currently in use, their mechanisms of action, in addition to antifilarial drug targets and their validation. PMID:21426193

  8. A target repurposing approach identifies N-myristoyltransferase as a new candidate drug target in filarial nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan D Galvin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Myristoylation is a lipid modification involving the addition of a 14-carbon unsaturated fatty acid, myristic acid, to the N-terminal glycine of a subset of proteins, a modification that promotes their binding to cell membranes for varied biological functions. The process is catalyzed by myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase (NMT, an enzyme which has been validated as a drug target in human cancers, and for infectious diseases caused by fungi, viruses and protozoan parasites. We purified Caenorhabditis elegans and Brugia malayi NMTs as active recombinant proteins and carried out kinetic analyses with their essential fatty acid donor, myristoyl-CoA and peptide substrates. Biochemical and structural analyses both revealed that the nematode enzymes are canonical NMTs, sharing a high degree of conservation with protozoan NMT enzymes. Inhibitory compounds that target NMT in protozoan species inhibited the nematode NMTs with IC50 values of 2.5-10 nM, and were active against B. malayi microfilariae and adult worms at 12.5 µM and 50 µM respectively, and C. elegans (25 µM in culture. RNA interference and gene deletion in C. elegans further showed that NMT is essential for nematode viability. The effects observed are likely due to disruption of the function of several downstream target proteins. Potential substrates of NMT in B. malayi are predicted using bioinformatic analysis. Our genetic and chemical studies highlight the importance of myristoylation in the synthesis of functional proteins in nematodes and have shown for the first time that NMT is required for viability in parasitic nematodes. These results suggest that targeting NMT could be a valid approach for the development of chemotherapeutic agents against nematode diseases including filariasis.

  9. Cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase from nematodes has limited druggability, as revealed by two high-throughput screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Gregory J; Booker, Michael L; He, Min; Li, Ting; Raverdy, Sylvine; Novelli, Jacopo F; He, Panqing; Dale, Natalie R G; Fife, Amy M; Barker, Robert H; Kramer, Martin L; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Carlow, Clotilde K S; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (iPGAM) is essential for the growth of C. elegans but is absent from humans, suggesting its potential as a drug target in parasitic nematodes such as Brugia malayi, a cause of lymphatic filariasis (LF). iPGAM's active site is small and hydrophilic, implying that it may not be druggable, but another binding site might permit allosteric inhibition. As a comprehensive assessment of iPGAM's druggability, high-throughput screening (HTS) was conducted at two different locations: ∼220,000 compounds were tested against the C. elegans iPGAM by Genzyme Corporation, and ∼160,000 compounds were screened against the B. malayi iPGAM at the National Center for Drug Screening in Shanghai. iPGAM's catalytic activity was coupled to downstream glycolytic enzymes, resulting in NADH consumption, as monitored by a decline in visible-light absorbance at 340 nm. This assay performed well in both screens (Z'-factor >0.50) and identified two novel inhibitors that may be useful as chemical probes. However, these compounds have very modest potency against the B. malayi iPGAM (IC50 >10 µM) and represent isolated singleton hits rather than members of a common scaffold. Thus, despite the other appealing properties of the nematode iPGAMs, their low druggability makes them challenging to pursue as drug targets. This study illustrates a "druggability paradox" of target-based drug discovery: proteins are generally unsuitable for resource-intensive HTS unless they are considered druggable, yet druggability is often difficult to predict in the absence of HTS data.

  10. A target repurposing approach identifies N-myristoyltransferase as a new candidate drug target in filarial nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Brendan D; Li, Zhiru; Villemaine, Estelle; Poole, Catherine B; Chapman, Melissa S; Pollastri, Michael P; Wyatt, Paul G; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2014-09-01

    Myristoylation is a lipid modification involving the addition of a 14-carbon unsaturated fatty acid, myristic acid, to the N-terminal glycine of a subset of proteins, a modification that promotes their binding to cell membranes for varied biological functions. The process is catalyzed by myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase (NMT), an enzyme which has been validated as a drug target in human cancers, and for infectious diseases caused by fungi, viruses and protozoan parasites. We purified Caenorhabditis elegans and Brugia malayi NMTs as active recombinant proteins and carried out kinetic analyses with their essential fatty acid donor, myristoyl-CoA and peptide substrates. Biochemical and structural analyses both revealed that the nematode enzymes are canonical NMTs, sharing a high degree of conservation with protozoan NMT enzymes. Inhibitory compounds that target NMT in protozoan species inhibited the nematode NMTs with IC50 values of 2.5-10 nM, and were active against B. malayi microfilariae and adult worms at 12.5 µM and 50 µM respectively, and C. elegans (25 µM) in culture. RNA interference and gene deletion in C. elegans further showed that NMT is essential for nematode viability. The effects observed are likely due to disruption of the function of several downstream target proteins. Potential substrates of NMT in B. malayi are predicted using bioinformatic analysis. Our genetic and chemical studies highlight the importance of myristoylation in the synthesis of functional proteins in nematodes and have shown for the first time that NMT is required for viability in parasitic nematodes. These results suggest that targeting NMT could be a valid approach for the development of chemotherapeutic agents against nematode diseases including filariasis.

  11. Cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase from nematodes has limited druggability, as revealed by two high-throughput screens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Crowther

    Full Text Available Cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (iPGAM is essential for the growth of C. elegans but is absent from humans, suggesting its potential as a drug target in parasitic nematodes such as Brugia malayi, a cause of lymphatic filariasis (LF. iPGAM's active site is small and hydrophilic, implying that it may not be druggable, but another binding site might permit allosteric inhibition. As a comprehensive assessment of iPGAM's druggability, high-throughput screening (HTS was conducted at two different locations: ∼220,000 compounds were tested against the C. elegans iPGAM by Genzyme Corporation, and ∼160,000 compounds were screened against the B. malayi iPGAM at the National Center for Drug Screening in Shanghai. iPGAM's catalytic activity was coupled to downstream glycolytic enzymes, resulting in NADH consumption, as monitored by a decline in visible-light absorbance at 340 nm. This assay performed well in both screens (Z'-factor >0.50 and identified two novel inhibitors that may be useful as chemical probes. However, these compounds have very modest potency against the B. malayi iPGAM (IC50 >10 µM and represent isolated singleton hits rather than members of a common scaffold. Thus, despite the other appealing properties of the nematode iPGAMs, their low druggability makes them challenging to pursue as drug targets. This study illustrates a "druggability paradox" of target-based drug discovery: proteins are generally unsuitable for resource-intensive HTS unless they are considered druggable, yet druggability is often difficult to predict in the absence of HTS data.

  12. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria

  13. Baker's yeast: production of D- and L-3-hydroxy esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Allan Carsten; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard

    1998-01-01

    Baker's yeast grown under oxygen limited conditions and used in the reduction of 3-oxo esters results in a shift of the stereoselectivity of the yeast towards D-hydroxy esters as compared with ordinary baker's yeast. The highest degree of stereoselectivity was obtained with growing yeast or yeast...... harvested while growing. In contrast, the stereoselectivity was shifted towards L-hydroxy esters when the oxo esters were added slowly to ordinary baker's yeast supplied with gluconolactone as co-substrate. The reduction rate with gluconolactone was increased by active aeration. Ethyl L-(S)-3......-hydroxybutanoate was afforded in >99% ee. Both enantiomers of ethyl 3-hydroxypentanoate, D-(R) in 96% ee and L-(S) in 93% ee, and of ethyl 4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate, D-(S) in 98% ee and L-(R) in 94% ee, were obtained. The results demonstrate that the stereoselectivity of baker's yeast can be controlled...

  14. Okeanos Explorer (EX1404L3): Northeast Seamounts and Canyons

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution mapping data from vessel multibeam and submersible sonar systems; singlebeam and sub-botoom profile data; periodic CTD casts; submersible CTD data;...

  15. EX1404L3 Seafloor Mapping Products Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of multibeam survey mapping products generated by the Okeanos Explorer seafloor mapping team on data collected on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during...

  16. Partial core hole screening in the Cu $L_{3}$ edge

    CERN Document Server

    Luitz, J; Hetbert, C; Schattschneider, P; Blaha, P; Schwarz, K; Jouffrey, B

    2001-01-01

    The fine structure of the copper L/sub 3/ edge in fcc Cu was simulated using a full potential linearised augmented plane wave method (WIEN97). The computations were based on a single cell-model by introducing a partial core hole and on a 2*2*1 super-cell-model with one full core hole. No difference between the single cell with a full core hole and the 16 atoms supercell with one core hole could be observed. Comparison with experimental spectra of two Cu specimens prepared by different methods showed that after removing the Cu/sub 2 /O contribution to the spectrum the best fit was obtained for half a core hole. This shows that the core hole in Cu metal is only partially screened by the valence electrons. (22 refs).

  17. EX1605L3 Seafloor Mapping Products Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of multibeam survey mapping products generated by the Okeanos Explorer seafloor mapping team on data collected on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during...

  18. EX1502L3 Seafloor Mapping Products Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of multibeam survey mapping products generated by the Okeanos Explorer seafloor mapping team on data collected on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during...

  19. EX1202L3 Seafloor Mapping Products Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of multibeam survey mapping products generated by the Okeanos Explorer seafloor mapping team on data collected on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during...

  20. CALIPSO Combined Lidar L3 Data V1-30

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) was launched on April 28, 2006 to study the impact of clouds and aerosols on the...