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Sample records for brucellosis

  1. Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000597.htm Brucellosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Brucellosis is an infectious disease that occurs from contact ...

  2. Human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, María Pía; Mulder, Maximilian; Gilman, Robert H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    Human brucellosis still presents scientists and clinicians with several challenges, such as the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of Brucella spp, the identification of markers for disease severity, progression, and treatment response, and the development of improved treatment regimens.

  3. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  4. Spinal brucellosis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelli Bouaziz, Mouna; Ladeb, Mohamed Fethi; Chakroun, Mohamed; Chaabane, Skander [Institut M T Kassab d' orthopedie, Department of Radiology, Ksar Said (Tunisia)

    2008-09-15

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, relatively frequent in Mediterranean countries and in the Middle East. It is a systemic infection, caused by facultative intra-cellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, that can involve many organs and tissues. The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement, followed by the sacroiliac joints. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and imaging features of spinal brucellosis. (orig.)

  5. Brucellosis in terrestrial wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, J; Garin-Bastuji, B; Saegerman, C; Blasco, J M

    2013-04-01

    The epidemiological link between brucellosis in wildlife and brucellosis in livestock and people is widely recognised. When studying brucellosis in wildlife, three questions arise: (i) Is this the result of a spillover from livestock or a sustainable infection in one or more host species of wildlife? (ii) Does wildlife brucellosis represent a reservoir of Brucella strains for livestock? (iii) Is it of zoonotic concern? Despite their different host preferences, B. abortus and B. suis have been isolated from a variety of wildlife species, whereas B. melitensis is rarely reported in wildlife. The pathogenesis of Brucella spp. in wildlife reservoirs is not yet fully defined. The prevalence of brucellosis in some wildlife species is very low and thus the behaviour of individual animals, and interactions between wildlife and livestock, may be the most important drivers for transmission. Since signs of the disease are non-pathognomonic, definitive diagnosis depends on laboratory testing, including indirect tests that can be applied to blood or milk, as well as direct tests (classical bacteriology and methods based on the polymerase chain reaction [PCR]). However, serological tests cannot determine which Brucella species has induced anti-Brucella antibodies in the host. Only the isolation of Brucella spp. (or specific DNA detection by PCR) allows a definitive diagnosis, using classical or molecular techniques to identify and type specific strains. There is as yet no brucellosis vaccine that demonstrates satisfactory safety and efficacy in wildlife. Therefore, controlling brucellosis in wildlife should be based on good management practices. At present, transmission of Brucella spp. from wildlife to humans seems to be linked to the butchering of meat and dressing of infected wild or feral pig carcasses in thedeveloped world, and infected African buffalo in the developing world. In the Arctic, the traditional consumption of raw bone marrow and the internal organs of freshly

  6. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  7. Brucellosis vaccines for livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Zakia I; Pascual, David W

    2016-11-15

    Brucellosis is a livestock disease responsible for fetal loss due to abortions. Worldwide, this disease has profound economic and social impact by reducing the ability of livestock producers to provide an adequate supply of disease-free meat and dairy products. In addition to its presence in domesticated animals, brucellosis is harbored in a number of wildlife species creating new disease reservoirs, which adds to the difficulty of eradicating this disease. Broad and consistent use of the available vaccines would contribute in reducing the incidence of brucellosis. Unfortunately, this practice is not common. In addition, the current brucellosis vaccines cannot provide sterilizing immunity, and in certain circumstances, vaccinated livestock are not protected against co-mingling Brucella-infected wildlife. Given that these vaccines are inadequate for conferring complete protection for some vaccinated livestock, alternatives are being sought, and these include genetic modifications of current vaccines or their reformulations. Alternatively, many groups have sought to develop new vaccines. Subunit vaccines, delivered as a combination of soluble vaccine plus adjuvant or the heterologous expression of Brucella epitopes by different vaccine vectors are currently being tested. New live attenuated Brucella vaccines are also being developed and tested in their natural hosts. Yet, what is rarely considered is the route of vaccination which could improve vaccine efficacy. Since Brucella infections are mostly transmitted mucosally, mucosal delivery of a vaccine has the potential of eliciting a more robust protective immune response for improved efficacy. Hence, this review will examine these questions and provide the status of new vaccines for livestock brucellosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Brucellosis in water buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina G.S. Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The domestication of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis originated in India and China and spread throughout the world and represents an important source of food of high biological value. Given the importance and relevance of brucellosis for buffalo production, this article reviews the history, etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical signs, anatomopathological findings, diagnosis and control of the disease, focusing on data from studies on water buffaloes performed in different countries and the Brazilian Amazon biome.

  9. Brucellosis: a political disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.; Roffe, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    With the challenges confronting North America's elk herds today, a bacteria that causes a nonfatal disease in a few elk herds seems an unlikely addition to the list. Fragmentation of habitat, dwindling bull-cow ratios, grazing competition from livestock on public rangelands, or the crowding of favorite hunting spots all seem like far more urgent matters to elk junkies. But a twist of fate an a national campaign to eradicate this seemingly innocuous bacterium have put brucellosis on the front burner.

  10. Brucellosis - diagnostic dilemma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of a 20-year old student from Belgrade, who was admitted to the Institute of Infectious Diseases with fever, muscle and spine pains, strong headacke and malice. During the clinical examination bilateral sacroileitis was found. Serological analyses confirmed brucellosis. Epidemiological data showed that she lived in Kosovo and Metohia in 1997, where she consumed diary products from domestic animals this might be the reason of the acquired infection. With appropriate antibiotic therapy (aminoglycoside, doxicyclin, rifampicin, symptomatic therapy and rehabilitation the disease had favorable outcome; there was no recidive. The authors point out the importance of specific microbiological examinations of patients with fever of unknown origin, especially if the patient has the symptoms that are compatible with brucellosis. In our case it was sacroileitis, as a characteristic complication. As brucellosis is endemic in some parts of our country, there is always a possibility of brucellosis in general medical practice.

  11. Brucellosis - regionally emerging zoonotic disease?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gwida, Mayada; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Melzer, Falk; Rösler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich; Tomaso, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    To gain deeper insight into the seroprevalence of brucellosis, which remains a zoonotic disease of worldwide public health concern, by reviewing studies from countries including North Africa, the Middle East, and India...

  12. 76 FR 28885 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the brucellosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of swine by adding Texas to the list of validated brucellosis-free States. We have determined that Texas meets...

  13. Diagnostic Tests in Human Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Nouri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Brucellosis represents a zoonotic bacterial disease, caused by a gram negative bacterium called Brucella. Between the diverses pecies of this bacteria, B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis and B. canis consist the main causes of the disease in humans.More than half a million new cases of Brucellosis are reported annually. Consequently, brucellosis is a remarkable threat for the health of society. Because of the multiple nonspecific clinical signs of this infection, such as fever (60% of cases, night sweating, insomnia and anorexia, which are similar to other diseases, the detection of brucellosis is time-consuming and needs more scrutiny. Evidence Acquisition: Blood culture is considered the gold standard for the detection of brucellosis and the sensitivity of this test in the acute form is high. However, for the chronic type of disease, it is remarkably low, in addition, in some cases, it needs long reaction times. Nevertheless, today, some kinds of tests like automatic culturing system and serological methods, such as Rose Bengal (RB test, serum agglutination test (SAT, 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME and coombs, which are operated based on agglutination, are useful for the problems mentioned earlier. Conclusion: Although serological methods are common for the diagnosis of brucellosis, false results are observable for several methods, such as the SAT method. Tests like the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, for the screening of specific traits, although confirmed, have their advantages and defects. The lateral flow assay (LFA shows promising evidence to be effective in the diagnosis of brucellosis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR is more prevalent than other common tests, according to sensitivity and fast answering potency in case of molecular diagnosis. Also, PCR is proper for patients' follow-up during the period of treatment and crimination of relapse by this method is easier compared to others.

  14. 9 CFR 311.15 - Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis. 311.15 Section 311.15... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.15 Brucellosis. Carcasses affected with localized lesions of brucellosis may be passed for human food after the affected parts are...

  15. Review of Brucellosis in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Acharya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status of the disease, the mechanism of infection, and pathogenesis, its zoonotic potential, diagnostic advances, treatment regimens, and the preventive measures that can be adopted in managing human brucellosis in under-developed countries such as Nepal. METHODS We performed a systematic review of all the available literture through Google Scholar, PubMed, Gideon Informatics, World Health Organization and other legitimate sources. Other secondary informations were collected from the government agencies such as department of livestock services and Ministry of Health. The obtained information was then re-analysed and summarized. RESULTS Few publications have addressed brucellosis in Nepal and most of those publications have focused on bovine brucellosis with sparse information available on brucellosis in humans and small ruminants. Brucella abortus is the most predominant causative agent followed by B. suis. B. abortus is predominant in cattle accounting for a substantial portion of bovine abortion in the country. Lack of awareness, unhealthy food habit, traditional husbandry practices, and a lack of surveillance and immunization have been the major factors in maintaining a vicious cycle of propagation of the disease in human and animals. Unfortunately, nothing has been done to identify the species of Brucella at the biovar level. CONCLUSIONS Although brucellosis has been reported to be endemic in Nepal, neither the distribution nor the economic and public health impact of this disease is well characterized. Robust and well-designed nationwide survey is warranted to assess the prevalence and distribution of disease in livestock and humans. Such data would facilitate the design of appropriate control programmes.

  16. Review of Brucellosis in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Krishna Prasad; Niroula, Nirajan; Kaphle, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status of the disease, the mechanism of infection, and pathogenesis, its zoonotic potential, diagnostic advances, treatment regimens, and the preventive measures that can be adopted in managing human brucellosis in under-developed countries such as Nepal. METHODS We performed a systematic review of all the available literture through Google Scholar, PubMed, Gideon Informatics, World Health Organization and other legitimate sources. Other secondary informations were collected from the government agencies such as department of livestock services and Ministry of Health. The obtained information was then re-analysed and summarized. RESULTS Few publications have addressed brucellosis in Nepal and most of those publications have focused on bovine brucellosis with sparse information available on brucellosis in humans and small ruminants. Brucella abortus is the most predominant causative agent followed by B. suis. B. abortus is predominant in cattle accounting for a substantial portion of bovine abortion in the country. Lack of awareness, unhealthy food habit, traditional husbandry practices, and a lack of surveillance and immunization have been the major factors in maintaining a vicious cycle of propagation of the disease in human and animals. Unfortunately, nothing has been done to identify the species of Brucella at the biovar level. CONCLUSIONS Although brucellosis has been reported to be endemic in Nepal, neither the distribution nor the economic and public health impact of this disease is well characterized. Robust and well-designed nationwide survey is warranted to assess the prevalence and distribution of disease in livestock and humans. Such data would facilitate the design of appropriate control programmes. PMID:27703129

  17. 76 FR 65935 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... interim rule that amended the brucellosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of swine by...

  18. Current status of brucellosis in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Szyfres, Boris; Centro Panamericano de Zoonosis, Azul, Argentina; Blood, Benjamín D.; Centro Panamericano de Zoonosis, Azul, Argentina; Moya, Víctor; Centro Panamericano de Zoonosis, Azul, Argentina

    2014-01-01

    The authors have summarized the information available to them regarding the problem of human and animal brucellosis in Latin America. Animal brucellosis in Latin American countries is a widespread infection. In cattle attacked in preference to animal milk which reaches its highest prevalence. The suina and caprine brucellosis is second in magnitude. In beef cattle, the infection is lower than in the previous groups, and in sheep there is a small percentage of reactants significant title, ther...

  19. Brucellosis update in Libya and regional prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed O; Abouzeed, Yousef M; Bennour, Emad M; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C

    2015-02-01

    Brucellosis is a global bacterial zoonosis responsible for high morbidity in humans and significant livestock economic losses. While brucellosis remains a public health concern worldwide, its global geographic distribution is variable, largely due to different management schemes; however, paucity of information renders the status of brucellosis unclear and incomplete in many countries, especially those with low income and under-developed infrastructure. This short article summarizes and discusses recent important updates on brucellosis from the North African countries, with a particular brief emphasis on the current status and recent updates in Libya.

  20. The relationship between brucellosis and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtaran, Behice; Akyildiz, Ozay; Candevir Ulu, Aslihan; Inal, Seza Ayse; Komur, Suheyla; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Arslan, Yusuf Kemal; Yaman, Akgun; Kibar, Filiz; Aksu, Hasan Salih Zeki; Tasova, Yesim

    2016-02-28

    This study was aimed to determine the relationship between vitamin D and soluble vitamin D receptor (VDR) levels and brucellosis, a common infection in Turkey, in which the cellular immune system is important in the course of the disease. Patients who had been followed up in the Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology of Cukurova University Medical Faculty, having been diagnosed with brucellosis and who had no brucellosis treatment before, were enrolled in the study along with healthy controls. The participants' vitamin D and soluble VDR values were recorded. Laboratory parameters of patients and controls, clinical findings, and disease course of brucellosis patients were also noted. The mean age of the 86 brucellosis patients, of whom 38 (44.2%) were males and 48 (55.8%) were females, was 40.9 ± 18.4 years. Complicated course of brucellosis rate was found to be 29.1%. Vitamin D and VDR levels were lower in brucellosis patients at the time of diagnosis compared to control group. For males, vitamin D and VDR levels were higher in the control group than in the patient group. In males, VDR levels were higher than in females. A significant difference was not found between clinical forms of the disease and vitamin D and VDR levels. Vitamin D and VDR levels were shown to be significantly lower in brucellosis patients before treatment compared to the control group. These results suggest that vitamin D could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  1. Brucellosis in camels ( Camelus dromedaries ) slaughtered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... season recorded the highest prevalence of 15.07% among the seasons. Since brucellosis is a zoonotic disease, it is important to include camels in vaccination programs against the disease. Keywords: Sero-prevalence; brucellosis; Camels; Zoonotic; Brucella abortus; Nigeria Animal Production Research Advances Vol.

  2. 9 CFR 78.22 - Brucellosis reactor bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor bison. 78.22... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.22 Brucellosis reactor bison. (a...

  3. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a...

  4. 9 CFR 78.43 - Validated brucellosis-free States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Validated brucellosis-free States. 78.43 Section 78.43 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... BRUCELLOSIS Designation of Brucellosis Areas § 78.43 Validated brucellosis-free States. Alabama, Alaska...

  5. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a...

  6. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a...

  7. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison...

  8. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle...

  9. Brucellosis: An Unrecognized Zoonotic Disease in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Maphilindawati Noor

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis, is a disease caused by members of the genus Brucella . In Indonesia, brucellosis has known as a contagious reproductive disease in animals, however, only certain people know that brucellosis can be transmitted to human . Bovine brucellosis is characterised by one or more of the following signs : abortion, retained placenta . orchitis, epididymitis and, rarely, arthritis, with excretion of the organisms in uterine discharges and in milk . The Brucella organism is transmitted to human most commonly by ingestion of untreated milk or milk products or through the mucous membranes and wound of the skin . The severity of human disease varies, depending largely upon the infecting strain . Brucella abortus, B . melitensis. B . suis and B. canis are highly pathogenic for humans . Clinical symptoms of human brucellosis may include an intermittent fever, headaches, weakness, arthalgia, myalgia and weight loss . Occasional complications include arthritis, endocarditis, hepatitis granuloma, meningitis, orchitis dan osteomyelitis have also been reported . Brucellosis can also produce spontaneous abortion in pregnant woman . Diagnosis is based on the isolation of the organism and serology . Antibiotics are usually the mainstay of treatment and long-term treatment may be required . Brucellosis can be controlled by comprehensive campaigns to eradicate the disease by vaccination programme followed by test and slaughter of domestic animals which exhibit positive serologic reactions to brucellae.

  10. Brucellosis: a retrospective evaluation of 164 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Esra; Akalın, Halis; Yılmaz, Emel; Heper, Yasemin; Mıstık, Reşit; Sınırtaş, Melda; Özakın, Cüneyt; Göral, Güher; Helvacı, Safiye

    2016-11-01

    Brucellosis is a public health problem that is prevalent in several developing countries. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of 164 cases of brucellosis in Bursa, Turkey, were retrospectively evaluated. The ages of the 164 patients ranged from 15-85 years. All of the patients underwent the Rose Bengal test and 163 (99.4%) patients tested positive. 122 (74.4%) patients were diagnosed with acute brucellosis, 31 (18.9%) with subacute brucellosis and 11 (6.7%) with chronic brucellosis. Focal involvement was found in 101 (61.6%) patients. Although patients with focal involvement had a higher white blood cell count (p = 0.002), those without focal involvement had higher aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase values, and lower platelet values (p = 0.005, 0.007 and 0.039, respectively). Spondylodiscitis was observed on imaging in 58 (66.7%) of the 87 patients who presented with back pain. Among the 118 patients who were examined within the first month of treatment, 79 (66.9%) responded to treatment. The relapse rate was 11.6% among all 164 patients. Brucellosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis among patients who present with fever, and joint or back pain. Focal involvement should be investigated in the presence of leucocytosis, and subacute or chronic forms of brucellosis. To identify cases of spondylodiscitis, radiography should be performed in patients who present with back pain.

  11. Brucellosis in Kosovo and Clinical Features of Brucellosis at University clinical center of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Qehaja Buçaj; Edmond Puca; Sadie Namani; Muharem Bajrami; Valbon Krasniqi; Lindita Ajazaj Berisha; Xhevat Jakupi; Bahrie Halili; Dhimiter Kraja

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Brucellosis became a remarkable disease in Kosovo. But there is not a comprehensive epidemiological study about pidemiology and clinical course of this disease from Kosovo. The aim of our study is to present demographic and clinical data of patients with brucellosis at University Clinical Center of Kosovo.Methods: A retrospective study was performed for the patients with brucellosis treated in our clinic during years 2011- 2012. The data about demography, history of the disease, cl...

  12. Brucellosis presenting as myelofibrosis: first case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Faris G; Al-Bsoul, Nazzal M; Magableh, Ahmad Y; Shehabi, Asem; Tarawneh, Musleh; Al-Hadidy, Azmy M; Abu-Fara, Mohammed A; Awidi, Abdallah S

    2010-02-01

    We describe the case of a 29-year-old woman who presented with pancytopenia and myelofibrosis. Brucella melitensis was identified in her blood. The patient recovered completely with doxycycline and rifampin. A repeat bone marrow biopsy showed hypercellularity without myelofibrosis. Bone marrow findings in cases of pancytopenia due to brucellosis reveal normocellularity, hypercellularity, hemophagocytosis, or granuloma. To our knowledge this is the first report of brucellosis causing myelofibrosis. Brucellosis should be considered as a possible cause of myelofibrosis in endemic areas. Copyright 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A NEW APPROACH TO BRUCELLOSIS ALLERGODIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Ponomarenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The new cytometric method for laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis in vitro conditions based on detection of hypersensitivity to Brucella has been developed. This test allows to differentiate vaccinal and infectious processes in case of chronic brucellosis, and to measure the level of patient sensibilization to Brucella. Thus, the test might be used to estimate intensity of post-vaccination immunity before re-immunization against brucellosis. Using of flow cytometry in the test excludes additional antigenic influence on human organism and allows to provide testing within 1 hour.

  14. Treatment of pulmonary brucellosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solera, Javier; Solís García Del Pozo, Julián

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement is a rare, focal complication of human brucellosis. The aim of this review is to describe clinical and radiologic features, treatment administered and clinical course of these patients. Areas covered: We conducted a systematic search of scientific reports of brucellosis with pulmonary involvement published from January 1985 to July 2016. Four main patterns of disease were observed: pneumonia, pleural effusion, nodules and interstitial pattern. Cough and fever were the most common symptoms. Brucella spp. culture was obtained from blood (50%) or pleural fluid. Treatment is based on the same antibiotics and combinations of antibiotics as for patients with acute no complicated brucellosis. The most frequent antimicrobial combination was doxycycline and rifampin for six weeks. The clinical course was favorable in most reports, and mortality was remarkably low (Brucellosis from other pulmonary infections, such as tuberculosis, sometimes posed an added diagnostic challenge.

  15. Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are most commonly infected include sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, and dogs, among others. Transmission How do people ... Worldwide Areas at Greatest Risk For Veterinarians For Laboratory Personnel For Clinicians For Consumers Travelers Expecting Mothers ...

  16. Diagnosis of Brucellosis in Livestock and Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, Jacques; Nielsen, Klaus; Saegerman, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Aim To describe and discuss the merits of various direct and indirect methods applied in vitro (mainly on blood or milk) or in vivo (allergic test) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in animals. Methods The recent literature on brucellosis diagnostic tests was reviewed. These diagnostic tests are applied with different goals, such as national screening, confirmatory diagnosis, certification, and international trade. The validation of such diagnostic tests is still an issue, particularly in wildlife. The choice of the testing strategy depends on the prevailing brucellosis epidemiological situation and the goal of testing. Results Measuring the kinetics of antibody production after Brucella spp. infection is essential for analyzing serological results correctly and may help to predict abortion. Indirect ELISAs help to discriminate 1) between false positive serological reactions and true brucellosis and 2) between vaccination and infection. Biotyping of Brucella spp. provides valuable epidemiological information that allows tracing an infection back to the sources in instances where several biotypes of a given Brucella species are circulating. Polymerase chain reaction and new molecular methods are likely to be used as routine typing and fingerprinting methods in the coming years. Conclusion The diagnosis of brucellosis in livestock and wildlife is complex and serological results need to be carefully analyzed. The B. abortus S19 and B. melitensis Rev. 1 vaccines are the cornerstones of control programs in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. There is no vaccine available for pigs or for wildlife. In the absence of a human brucellosis vaccine, prevention of human brucellosis depends on the control of the disease in animals. PMID:20718082

  17. Brucellosis Presenting with Pericarditis: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lopes Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericarditis is a rare manifestation during the course of brucellosis. This paper describes a case of pericarditis associated with brucellosis in a 31-year-old veterinary physician with a past medical history of testicular tumor and reviews the cases of pericarditis associated with brucellosis in medical English literature.

  18. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall not be slaughtered in an official establishment. ...

  19. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... bovine brucellosis in the United States. The notice stated that USDA would hold four public meetings...

  20. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to partnering...

  1. Hematological findings in children with brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aypak, Adalet; Aypak, Cenk; Bayram, Yasemin

    2015-12-01

    Brucellosis produces a variety of non-specific hematological abnormalities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hematological findings in childhood brucellosis. Medical records of children with brucellosis admitted to a tertiary hospital in a 1 year period, were analyzed retrospectively. Sixty-nine patients (mean age, 14.5 ± 3.3 years) were diagnosed with brucellosis. The most common hematological finding was thrombocytopenia (n = 11, 15.9%). Thrombocytosis was detected in five patients (7.3%), leukopenia in four (5.8%), anemia in three (4.3%), and bicytopenia in three (4.3%). None of the patients had pancytopenia. Blood culture was positive for Brucella spp. in 41 patients (59.4%). Among those patients with positive blood culture, six (14.6%) had serum agglutination test titer ≤1/80. Platelet (PLT) count was significantly lower in the bacteremia-positive group. The OR (95%CI) of bacteremia for PLT cut-off 200,000/mm(3) was 0.148 (95%CI: 0.031-0.718) and relative risk was 1.718 (95%CI: 1.244-2.372; P = 0.010). Brucellosis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of isolated thrombocytopenia in pediatric patients from endemic areas. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. 76 FR 6322 - Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 RIN 0579-AD22 Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and Certification Requirements AGENCY: Animal and... are extending the comment period for an interim rule modifying brucellosis testing, classification...

  3. 75 FR 81090 - Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 RIN 0579-AD22 Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and Certification Requirements AGENCY: Animal and... amending the brucellosis regulations to reduce the amount of testing required to maintain Class Free status...

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in goats in areas of Mexico with and without brucellosis control campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Frankena, K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Keilbach Baer, N.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a major constraint for small-scale goat farming systems in Mexico. This study estimated the prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis and identified and quantified risk factors in goats from small-scale farms of Michoacán that had participated in a brucellosis campaign (i.e.

  5. A REVIEW ON DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES FOR BRUCELLOSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... Whey agglutination test. This test has been an important test in detecting sero- logically negative or suspect animals with udder infection. These animals usually are chronically or recently infected animals in herds, from which it has been difficult to eradicate brucellosis (Stiles et al., 1958; Cameron, 1959;.

  6. Brucellosis in India – a review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    human population stand at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic diseases including brucellosis. The disease has an added importance in countries like India, where conditions are conducive for wide-spread human infection on account of unhygienic conditions and poverty. Species of main concern in India are B. melitensis, ...

  7. Brucellosis of the common vole (Microtus arvalis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Scholz, H.; Sedláček, I.; Melzer, F.; Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Nesvadbová, Jiřina

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2007), s. 679-688 ISSN 1530-3667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : common vole * brucellosis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.919, year: 2007

  8. Serological survey of toxoplasmosis, neosporosis and brucellosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several zoonotic diseases are known to constitute great impediment to livestock management and production worldwide, especially in developing countries where control measures are largely non-existent. This study sets out to investigate the occurrence of toxoplasmosis, neosporosis and brucellosis among ...

  9. The seroprevalence of brucellosis among undiagnosed family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-12

    Jan 12, 2015 ... Aim: This study investigated the seroprevalence, complications and risk factors of Brucella infection in rural areas of. Sivas, Turkey. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in three hyperendemic counties for brucellosis known as Gurun,. Altinyayla and Kangal in Sivas between April and October ...

  10. The seroprevalence of brucellosis among undiagnosed family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study investigated the seroprevalence, complications and risk factors of Brucella infection in rural areas of Sivas, Turkey. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in three hyperendemic counties for brucellosis known as Gurun, Altinyayla and Kangal in Sivas between April and October in 2011. A total of ...

  11. Seroprevalence Study Of Bovine Brucellosis In Extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of bovine brucellosis was measured in cross sectional study in Jimma zone, Western Ethiopia using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBT) and CFT from October 2003 to April 2004. The study animals consisted of 1305 local breed found in extensive system in five districts of in the zone. The overall individual animal ...

  12. OUTBREAK INVESTIGATION AND CONTROL OF BRUCELLOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biserka I. Vasileva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosisis an infectious and contagious disease caused by bacterial species of the genus Brucella. It is a major zoonosis with an important social and economic impact. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate and analyze the measures application for control and eradication of brucellosis occurred in the region of Pleven. Methods: We conducted a retrospective epidemiological study. Respective documents were reviewed. We analyzed Case report form and Questionnaire for persons suspected of having brucellosis. Conclusions were made of the possible source of the disease and the risk factors leading to infection of humans. Results: A focus of Brucellosis among the animals to private goat farm in August was detected. The connection to other existing in the country focuses has been proved. Two of the persons, having had contacts with the animals developed clinical symptoms of the disease; referenced persons have consumed fresh goat cheese and milk. A joint epidemiological investigation with representatives of responsible authorities was carried out and measures undertook to restrict and liquidate the focus. Conclusion: Brucellosis in man can only be prevented effectively by elimination of the animal reservoir. This necessitates a close interaction between the medical authorities concerned with public health authorities on the one hand and the veterinary authorities on the other.

  13. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piampiano, P.; McLeary, M.; Young, L.W. [Dept. of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Loma Linda University Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Janner, D. [Div. of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Loma Linda University Medical Center and Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  14. Human Brucellosis in Khartoum State: A Commonly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Back ground: Human brucellosis is a major debilitating zoonotic disease. It is caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella Methods: The serum antibody titres to Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus of one thousand febrile patients, randomly selected from Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman Teaching Hospitals, ...

  15. Brucellosis in low-income and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubach, Matthew P.; Halliday, Jo E.B.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Human brucellosis is a neglected, underrecognized infection of widespread geographic distribution. It causes acute febrile illness and a potentially debilitating chronic infection in humans, and livestock infection has substantial socioeconomic impact. This review describes new information regarding the epidemiology of brucellosis in the developing world and advances in diagnosis and treatment. Recent findings The highest recorded incidence of human brucellosis occurs in the Middle East and Central Asia. Fever etiology studies demonstrate brucellosis as a cause of undifferentiated febrile illness in the developing world. Brucellosis is a rare cause of fever among returning travelers, but is more common among travelers returning from the Middle East and North Africa. Sensitive and specific rapid diagnostic tests appropriate for resource-limited settings have been validated. Randomized controlled trials demonstrate that optimal treatment for human brucellosis consists of doxycycline and an aminoglycoside. Decreasing the burden of human brucellosis requires control of animal brucellosis, but evidence to inform the design of control programs in the developing world is needed. Summary Brucellosis causes substantial morbidity in human and animal populations. While improvements in diagnostic options for resource-limited settings and stronger evidence for optimal therapy should enhance identification and treatment of human brucellosis, prevention of human disease through control in animals remains paramount. PMID:23963260

  16. 75 FR 27579 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination Program...(2)(C), the National Park Service announces the availability of the Bison Brucellosis Remote...

  17. Recent trends in human brucellosis in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Emilia; Leventhal, Alex; Grotto, Itamar; Gandacu, Dan; Warshavsky, Bruce; Shimshony, Arnon; Israeli, Avi

    2011-06-01

    The majority of human brucellosis cases in Israel are caused by the ingestion of unpasteurized dairy foods produced from unlicensed family-owned flocks whose products are sold door-to-door at low prices. Exposure to infected farm animals is another major cause of infection. To determine, by examining recent incidence data and brucellosis control programs, whether a reduction in the incidence of human brucellosis in Israel can be sustained. Case information is reported to the Health Ministry and national data are compiled and analyzed by the Division of Epidemiology. The current study focuses on data from 1998 through 2009 and discusses several of the major prevention and health education programs that have been implemented. An incidence decline of almost 70% during the period 1998-2002 was followed by a return to previously existing levels, although the incidence has remained consistently lower than in past decades. The disease is mostly limited to certain sectors of the rural Arab population. In 2009 the incidence rate per 100,000 population was 7.0 among Arabs compared with 0.2 among Jews. Between 1998 and 2009, 63% of cases were from the Beer Sheva and Acre health districts, which together comprise 15.5% of the Israeli population. Control programs--including efforts to combat brucellosis in animals and to discourage the sale of unpasteurized homemade dairy products--have met with partial success. Without routine vaccination of all family-owned flocks, more effective restraints on the market for unpasteurized dairy foods and improved regional cooperation, human brucellosis will continue to be a contained, but persistent, health problem in Israel due to cultural behavior, socioeconomic factors, and the regional political environment.

  18. Ocular manifestations in a child with systemic Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with widespread prevalence. It presents with in various range and often with the presence of non-specific clinical signs and symptoms. Brucellosis also may cause different manifestations in eyes such as uveitis, keratitis, conjunctivitis and neuro-ophthalmic defects. Ocular brucellosis is rare among children. Herein, we present a 7-year-old girl with systemic and ocular brucellosis. After treatment with systemic steroid and antibiotics, her signs and symptoms disappeared. Since early treatment is important in preventing permanent visual loss and the other complications of ocular brucellosis, examination of the eyes in brucellosis patients must always be noticed by clinicians working in this field.

  19. Risk factors for occupational brucellosis among veterinary personnel in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Murat; Ergonul, Onder; Sayin-Kutlu, Selda; Guven, Tumer; Ustun, Cemal; Alp-Cavus, Sema; Ozturk, Serife Barcın; Acicbe, Ozlem; Akalin, Serife; Tekin, Recep; Tekin-Koruk, Suda; Demiroglu, Yusuf Ziya; Keskiner, Ramazan; Gönen, Ibak; Sapmaz-Karabag, Sevil; Bosnak, Vuslat; Kazak, Esra

    2014-11-01

    Veterinarians and veterinary technicians are at risk for occupational brucellosis. We described the risk factors of occupational brucellosis among veterinary personnel in Turkey. A multicenter retrospective survey was performed among veterinary personnel who were actively working in the field. Of 712 veterinary personnel, 84 (11.8%) had occupational brucellosis. The median number of years since graduation was 7 (interquartile ranges [IQR], 4-11) years in the occupational brucellosis group, whereas this number was 9 (IQR, 4-16) years in the non-brucellosis group (pbrucellosis. We suggest that all veterinary personnel should be trained on brucellosis and the importance of using personal protective equipment in order to avoid this infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantifying risk factors for human brucellosis in rural northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunda John

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis to humans in Tanzania. METHODS: This was a matched case-control study. Any patient with a positive result by a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test for brucellosis, and presenting to selected hospitals with at least two clinical features suggestive of brucellosis such as headache, recurrent or continuous fever, sweating, joint pain, joint swelling, general body malaise or backache, was defined as a case. For every case in a district, a corresponding control was traced and matched by sex using multistage cluster sampling. Other criteria for inclusion as a control included a negative c-ELISA test result and that the matched individual would present to hospital if falls sick. RESULTS: Multivariable analysis showed that brucellosis was associated with assisted parturition during abortion in cattle, sheep or goat. It was shown that individuals living in close proximity to other households had a higher risk of brucellosis. People who were of Christian religion were found to have a higher risk of brucellosis compared to other religions. The study concludes that assisting an aborting animal, proximity to neighborhoods, and Christianity were associated with brucellosis infection. There was no association between human brucellosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV serostatus. Protecting humans against contact with fluids and tissues during assisted parturition of livestock may be an important means of reducing the risk of transferring brucellosis from

  1. Brucellosis among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, Andrew J.; Biggs, Holly M.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Afwamba, Isaac A.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from febrile inpatients identified at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed brucellosis was defined as a positive blood culture or a ≥ 4-fold increase in microagglutination test titer, and probable brucellosis was defined as a single reciprocal titer ≥ 160. Among 870 participants enrolled in the study, 455 (52.3%) had paired sera available. Of these, 16 (3.5%) met criteria for confirmed brucellosis. Of 830 participants with ≥ 1 serum sample, 4 (0.5%) met criteria for probable brucellosis. Brucellosis was associated with increased median age (P = 0.024), leukopenia (odds ratio [OR] 7.8, P = 0.005), thrombocytopenia (OR 3.9, P = 0.018), and evidence of other zoonoses (OR 3.2, P = 0.026). Brucellosis was never diagnosed clinically, and although all participants with brucellosis received antibacterials or antimalarials in the hospital, no participant received standard brucellosis treatment. Brucellosis is an underdiagnosed and untreated cause of febrile disease among hospitalized adult and pediatric patients in northern Tanzania. PMID:23091197

  2. Increased Plasma Levels of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Human Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Yu-Xue; Fu, Dong-Wei; Gao, Qing-Feng; Ge, Feng-Xia; Liu, Wei-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is associated with inflammation and the oxidative stress response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective stress-responsive enzyme that has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Nevertheless, the role of HO-1 in human brucellosis has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the plasma levels of HO-1 in patients with brucellosis and to evaluate the ability of plasma HO-1 levels as an auxiliary diagnosis, a severity predictor, and a monitor for brucellosis treatments. A total of 75 patients with brucellosis were divided into the acute, subacute, chronic active, and chronic stable groups. An additional 20 volunteers were included as the healthy control group. The plasma HO-1 levels and other laboratory parameters were measured in all groups. Furthermore, the plasma levels of HO-1 in the acute group were compared before and after treatment. The plasma HO-1 levels were considerably increased in the acute (4.97 ± 3.55), subacute (4.98 ± 3.23), and chronic active groups (4.43 ± 3.00) with brucellosis compared to the healthy control group (1.03 ± 0.63) (p brucellosis (r = 0.707, p brucellosis status and may be used as a supplementary plasma marker for diagnosing brucellosis and monitoring its treatment.

  3. [Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease present in the population: A time series study in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Lozano, Meztli; Rodríguez-Reyes, Erika Judith; Sánchez-Zamorano, Luisa María

    2015-01-01

    To determinate the relationship of human brucellosis incidence in Mexico during 2000-2011 in relation with domestic ruminant brucellosis. An ecological time series study was analyzed using multilevel poisson multiple regression, the incidence of human brucellosis during 2000-2011 and incidence in ruminants and human development index. The high incidence of bovine brucellosis increased 19% the incidence of human brucellosis. The high incidence of caprine brucellosis increase 17% the incidence of human brucellosis. The presence of new cases of ovine brucellosis increased 13% the incidence rates of human brucellosis. Brucellosis is a public health problem in Mexico, the presence of brucellosis in domestic ruminants and the level of disease control in them affects the presence of the disease in humans.

  4. A Rare Complication of Brucellosis: Testicular Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Gul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella species. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This case was a male patient who developed Brucella epidiymo-orchitis and testicular abscess. He had fever, arthralgia and his right epididymis and right testicle were enlarged and tender. Ultrasound evaluation showed hypertrophy of the right epididymis and testis and moreover hypoechoic area within the testis. Brucella serology was positive and the patient did not respond completely to treatment with streptomycin, doxycycline, and rifampicina. Unilateral orchidectomy was decided. In areas where brucella infection is endemic brucella epididymo-orchitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Effective and rapid treatment is important. It should be noted that these patients may develop testicular abscess.

  5. Retrospective and prospective perspectives on zoonotic brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Brucella are pathogenic bacteria exceedingly well adapted to their hosts. The bacterium is transmitted by direct contact within the same host species or accidentally to secondary hosts, such as humans. Human brucellosis is strongly linked to the management of domesticated animals and ingestion of their products. Since the domestication of ungulates and dogs in the Fertile Crescent and Asia in 12000 and 33000 ya, respectively, a steady supply of well adapted emergent Brucella pathogens causing zoonotic disease has been provided. Likewise, anthropogenic modification of wild life may have also impacted host susceptibility and Brucella selection. Domestication and human influence on wild life animals are not neutral phenomena. Consequently, Brucella organisms have followed their hosts’ fate and have been selected under conditions that favor high transmission rate. The “arm race” between Brucella and their preferred hosts has been driven by genetic adaptation of the bacterium confronted with the evolving immune defenses of the host. Management conditions, such as clustering, selection, culling, and vaccination of Brucella preferred hosts have profound influences in the outcome of brucellosis and in the selection of Brucella organisms. Countries that have controlled brucellosis systematically used reliable smooth live vaccines, consistent immunization protocols, adequate diagnostic tests, broad vaccination coverage and sustained removal of the infected animals. To ignore and misuse tools and strategies already available for the control of brucellosis may promote the emergence of new Brucella variants. The unrestricted use of low-efficacy vaccines may promote a “false sense of security” and works towards selection of Brucella with higher virulence and transmission potential. PMID:24860561

  6. Brucella ceti and Brucellosis in Cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Morales, Juan-Alberto; Baquero-Calvo, Elías; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Moreno, Edgardo

    2012-01-01

    Since the first case of brucellosis detected in a dolphin aborted fetus, an increasing number of Brucella ceti isolates has been reported in members of the two suborders of cetaceans: Mysticeti and Odontoceti. Serological surveys have shown that cetacean brucellosis may be distributed worldwide in the oceans. Although all B. ceti isolates have been included within the same species, three different groups have been recognized according to their preferred host, bacteriological properties, and distinct genetic traits: B. ceti dolphin type, B. ceti porpoise type, and B. ceti human type. It seems that B. ceti porpoise type is more closely related to B. ceti human isolates and B. pinnipedialis group, while B. ceti dolphin type seems ancestral to them. Based on comparative phylogenetic analysis, it is feasible that the B. ceti ancestor radiated in a terrestrial artiodactyl host close to the Raoellidae family about 58 million years ago. The more likely mode of transmission of B. ceti seems to be through sexual intercourse, maternal feeding, aborted fetuses, placental tissues, vertical transmission from mother to the fetus or through fish or helminth reservoirs. The B. ceti dolphin and porpoise types seem to display variable virulence in land animal models and low infectivity for humans. However, brucellosis in some dolphins and porpoises has been demonstrated to be a severe chronic disease, displaying significant clinical and pathological signs related to abortions, male infertility, neurobrucellosis, cardiopathies, bone and skin lesions, strandings, and death. PMID:22919595

  7. Brucellosis in buffalos from Corrientes northeast (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Crudeli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo’s production represents an important option as input source in livestock systems located in areas with little profitability by cattle. In mostly farms, cattle and buffalos are breeding together, due that in Argentina, to carry out buffalo’s production is in an extensive way, with the aim to produce meat – mostly- milk – for this production nutritional supplements are used- and leathers. Brucellosis is zoonic illnesses from bacteria belong to Brucella which caused human human health problems by contaminated food ingestion or to those who are in touch with cattle. In Argentina, exist the National Control an Elimination Program for cattle Brucellosis, which include buffalos also, there is inclosed female vaccination and serologic segregation of positive reactants. Diagnosis techniques ruled for cattle brucellosis are BPA (Buffered Plate Agglutination, Tube seroaglutination and 2MercaptoEthanol. International reference test is Complement Fixation. By means of this present work, we pretend to evaluate the serologic diagnosis utility, ruled to the buffalos and compare obtained results by BPA, SAT and 2ME with Complement Fixation Test. In the present communication are presented results from the use of diagnosis techniques recommended by SENASA (National Service of Sanity and Quality Agro-Food to buffalo’s serums which belong to nine farms from NE Corrientes State. Obtained results show that association o BPA as Screening Test and SAT and 2ME as Confirmated Test has a valid correlation for the detection of positive animals with the reference technique Complement Fixation.

  8. Screening Household Members of Acute Brucellosis Cases in Endemic Areas and Risk Factors for Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Secil; Baykam, Nurcan; Celikbas, Aysel; Yilmaz, Sirin Menekse; Guzel, Tugba Cirkin; Dokuzoguz, Basak; Ergonul, Onder

    2015-08-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of acute brucellosis cases were targeted by screening the household members of the index cases. We also aimed to describe the causal relations of brucellosis in an endemic region. A cross-sectional study was performed among household members (29 index cases, 113 household members). Brucellosis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings, serum agglutinin titer of ≥1/160 in standard tube agglutination test (STA), or a positive blood culture. Index cases were defined as patients who had been admitted to the clinic on suspicion of brucellosis and then confirmed as brucellosis cases. The people who lived in the same house as the index cases were defined as household members. The risk factors for seropositivity were studied by multivariate analysis. Independent variables of gender, consuming fresh cheese, blood groups, dealing with husbandry, and contact with the placenta of infected animals were included to the model. Backward and forward selections were performed. Nineteen out of 113 (17%) screened individuals had agglutination titers ≥1/160. The mean ages of index cases and household members were 43 years (standard deviation [SD] 18) and 29 years (SD 19), respectively. In multivariate analysis, consuming fresh cheese (odds ratio [OR]=3.1, confidence interval [CI] 1.07-9.68, p=0.049), blood group A (OR=2.6, CI 1.18-5.96, p=0.018), contact with the placenta of the infected animals (OR=3.7, CI 1.42-9.68, p=0.007), and age >30 years (OR=2.8, CI 1.25-6.51, p=0.13) were found to be associated with brucellosis. In univariate analysis, the individuals with blood group B were protected from brucella infection (p=0.013). In conclusion, screening of the people in brucellosis-endemic areas should be considered for early diagnosis and treatment. To our knowledge, blood groups were studied for the first time by this study. Higher prevalence of brucellosis among the individuals with blood group A and less prevalence among the individuals with

  9. The Role of Livestock Keeping in Human Brucellosis Trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Karatu and Ngorongoro districts in Arusha region and Babati, Hanang and Mbulu districts in Manyara region involving 20 agro-pastoral and 9 pastoral villages, to establish the magnitude of human brucellosis in relation to livestock brucellosis. A multistage random sampling was ...

  10. Mean platelet volume in brucellosis: correlation between brucella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Brucellosis, a zoonotic infection, was most widely diagnosed by the Brucella standard serum agglutination test (SAT). No previous publication has demonstrated a correlation between the degree of Brucella SAT agglutination positivity and the severity of brucellosis infection. Objective: To contribute to the ...

  11. Prevalence of bovine brucellosis in slaughtered cattle and barriers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Brucellosis is a neglected zoonosis of public health importance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis among slaughtered cattle as well as challenges to the protection of abattoir workers in Nigeria. Methods: A slaughterhouse study was conducted in a major ...

  12. A review on diagnostic techniques for brucellosis | Kaltungo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brucellosis presents with many clinical manifestation that make its diagnosis a difficult task. Ever since the report of the first serologic test for brucellosis, a definitive diagnostic technique has been actively pursued. The most widely used methods of diagnosis are based on serology, which measures the ability of the serum ...

  13. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Brucellosis in dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine brucellosis is a contagious disease of cattle causing reproductive failure, loss of milk production and zoonosis worldwide. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted on 816 dairy cattle (449 were cows) from 60 dairy farms to determine the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis ...

  14. Trends of human brucellosis in pastoralist communities based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brucellosis is among the neglected zoonotic disease which mostly affects the pastoral and agro-pastoral communities because they are exposed to many risk factors for the infection. A four-year (2013–2016) retrospective study was carried out to determine the sero-prevalence of human brucellosis in patients at Wasso and ...

  15. Recent lessons learnt from the outbreak of brucellosis in Dekemhare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brucellosis is an acute to chronic zoonotic disease which is endemic in some tropical developing countries with profound impact on infected animals and people. The study examined some of the risk factors for brucellosis following outbreak of the disease in Anseba, a region in Eritrea. Twenty three patients from Dekemhare ...

  16. Recent Developments in Livestock and Wildlife Brucellosis Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Live attenuated brucellosis vaccines have been available for protecting domestic livestock against B. melitensis or B. abortus for more than 60 years. Current vaccines are effective in preventing abortion and transmission of brucellosis, but poor at preventing infection or seroconversion. In addit...

  17. Brucellosis in mammals of Costa Rica: An epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Bonilla-Montoya, Roberto; Barrantes-Granados, Osvaldo; Esquivel-Suárez, Andrea; Montero-Caballero, Danilo; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Fallas-Monge, Zeanne; Palacios-Alfaro, José David; Baldi, Mario; Campos, Elena; Chanto, Grettel; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán Verri, Caterina; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan-José; Moreno, Edgardo

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis has been an endemic disease of cattle and humans in Costa Rica since the beginning of XX century. However, brucellosis in sheep, goats, pigs, water buffaloes, horses and cetaceans, has not been reported in the country. We have performed a brucellosis survey in these host mammal species, from 1999-2016. In addition, we have documented the number of human brucellosis reported cases, from 2003-2016. The brucellosis seroprevalence in goat and sheep herds was 0.98% and 0.7% respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Antibodies against Brucella were not detected in feral or domestic pigs. Likewise, brucellosis seroprevalence in horse and water buffalo farms was estimated in 6.5% and 21.7%, respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Six cetacean species showed positive reactions against Brucella antigens, and B. ceti was isolated in 70% (n = 29) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). A steady increase in the diagnosis of human brucellosis cases was observed. Taking into account the prevalence of brucellosis in the various host mammals of Costa Rica, different measures are recommended.

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Brucellosis in Jazan Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Brucellosis is responsible for considerable public health issues involving economic losses due to abortion, loss of milk production and infertility in adult males. The purpose of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia and assess the possible risk factors.

  19. Managing brucellosis in wildlife costs more than expected benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine brucellosis is a contagious bacterial disease of cattle, elk, and bison which occurs in the U.S., primarily in the greater Yellowstone area (GYA) of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho. Brucellosis commonly causes infected pregnant animals to abort their calves. It can result in significant productio...

  20. Brucellosis in mammals of Costa Rica: An epidemiological survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Bonilla-Montoya, Roberto; Barrantes-Granados, Osvaldo; Esquivel-Suárez, Andrea; Montero-Caballero, Danilo; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Fallas-Monge, Zeanne; Palacios-Alfaro, José David; Baldi, Mario; Campos, Elena; Chanto, Grettel; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán Verri, Caterina; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan-José

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis has been an endemic disease of cattle and humans in Costa Rica since the beginning of XX century. However, brucellosis in sheep, goats, pigs, water buffaloes, horses and cetaceans, has not been reported in the country. We have performed a brucellosis survey in these host mammal species, from 1999–2016. In addition, we have documented the number of human brucellosis reported cases, from 2003–2016. The brucellosis seroprevalence in goat and sheep herds was 0.98% and 0.7% respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Antibodies against Brucella were not detected in feral or domestic pigs. Likewise, brucellosis seroprevalence in horse and water buffalo farms was estimated in 6.5% and 21.7%, respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Six cetacean species showed positive reactions against Brucella antigens, and B. ceti was isolated in 70% (n = 29) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). A steady increase in the diagnosis of human brucellosis cases was observed. Taking into account the prevalence of brucellosis in the various host mammals of Costa Rica, different measures are recommended. PMID:28793352

  1. Brucellosis in mammals of Costa Rica: An epidemiological survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hernández-Mora

    Full Text Available Brucellosis has been an endemic disease of cattle and humans in Costa Rica since the beginning of XX century. However, brucellosis in sheep, goats, pigs, water buffaloes, horses and cetaceans, has not been reported in the country. We have performed a brucellosis survey in these host mammal species, from 1999-2016. In addition, we have documented the number of human brucellosis reported cases, from 2003-2016. The brucellosis seroprevalence in goat and sheep herds was 0.98% and 0.7% respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Antibodies against Brucella were not detected in feral or domestic pigs. Likewise, brucellosis seroprevalence in horse and water buffalo farms was estimated in 6.5% and 21.7%, respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Six cetacean species showed positive reactions against Brucella antigens, and B. ceti was isolated in 70% (n = 29 of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba. A steady increase in the diagnosis of human brucellosis cases was observed. Taking into account the prevalence of brucellosis in the various host mammals of Costa Rica, different measures are recommended.

  2. 77 FR 42256 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Collection; Brucellosis Program AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension...-Federal Brucellosis Eradication Program. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before... State-Federal Brucellosis Eradication Program, contact Dr. Debbi Donch, Brucellosis Program Manager, VS...

  3. Historical perspective of brucellosis: a microbiological and epidemiological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    The historical process of brucellosis extends back to humankind's first contact with animals. Although brucellosis is a sporadic disease observed in animals in certain regions of the world, it is an important disease in humans that can affect many organs and systems due to the consumption of contaminated milk or milk products. Studies have shown that the presence of Brucella dates back to 60 million years ago. In 450 BC, Hippocrates described a disease similar to brucellosis. Since Hippocrates' time, brucellosis has been characterized by fever. Our aim is to investigate selfless work undertaken by scientists on the epidemiology, diagnosis and clinical findings of brucellosis until today, and to gain a historical perspective about the disease that is as old as human history, still has importance today, causes economic losses in treated animals and harms human health.

  4. Brucellosis in Kosovo and Clinical Features of Brucellosis at University clinical center of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Qehaja Buçaj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis became a remarkable disease in Kosovo. But there is not a comprehensive epidemiological study about epidemiology and clinical course of this disease from Kosovo. The aim of our study is to present demographic and clinical data of patients with brucellosis at University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Methods: A retrospective study was performed for the patients with brucellosis treated in our clinic during years 2011- 2012. The data about demography, history of the disease, clinical presentations, serological test, serum biochemistry and reatment were collected from hospital medical records. The diagnosis of brucellosis based on clinical and laboratory findings. Results: This descriptive study included 47 patients, who 33 of them (70.2% were males. The mean age was 37.9 ± 19.3 years. The route of transmission of the disease was known in 28 59.5% of them. Direct contact with livestock in 22 (46.8% and ingestion of dairy products in six cases (12.7% were reported as the transmission route. The majority of patients (27 patients, 57.4% were from rural area. The main presenting symptoms were atigue, fever and arthralgia. Osteoarticular manifestations were the common forms of localized disease. Regarding to the therapy, 45 (95.7% of patients were treated with streptomycin and doxycycline for the first three weeks. Conclusion: Human brucellosis is not a common in Kosovo but there is a potential risk. Osteoarticular symptoms were the most common presentation reasons. The most effective and preferred treatment regimen was Streptomycin plus Doxycycline for the first three weeks, and Doxycycline plus Rifampicin thereafter. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 147-150

  5. Brucellosis in Endangered Hector's Dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Kelly; Roe, Wendi D; Howe, Laryssa; Michael, Sarah; Duignan, Padraig J; Burrows, E; Ha, Hye Jeong; Humphrey, Sharon; McDonald, Wendy L

    2017-09-01

    Brucella spp infections of marine mammals are often asymptomatic but have been associated with reproductive losses and deaths. Zoonotic infections originating from marine isolates have also been described. Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) are an endangered species with a declining population, and the role of infectious disease in population dynamics is not fully understood. In this study, 27 Hector's dolphins found dead around the New Zealand coastline between November 2006 and October 2010 were evaluated for lesions previously associated with cetacean brucellosis. Tissues were examined using histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) techniques. Seven of 27 dolphins (26%) had at least 1 tissue that was positive on PCR for Brucella spp. Lesions consistent with brucellosis were present in 10 of 27 (37%) dolphins, but in 8 of these dolphins Brucella infection could not be demonstrated in lesional tissues. Two dolphins (7%) were diagnosed with active brucellosis: 1 female with placentitis and metritis, and 1 stillborn male fetus. Brucella identified in these 2 dolphins had genetic similarity (99%) to Brucella pinnipedialis. The omp2a gene amplicon from the uterus of the female had 100% homology with ST27 genotype isolates from a human in New Zealand and a bottlenose dolphin of Pacific origin. The remaining 5 PCR-positive dolphins were assessed as having asymptomatic or latent infection. While most Brucella infections identified in this study appeared to be subclinical, the finding of 2 dolphins with reproductive disease due to Brucella infection suggests that this disease has the potential to affect reproductive success in this species.

  6. Economic losses due to bovine brucellosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato L. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars. Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.

  7. Seroprevalence survey of brucellosis among rural people in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selenge Tsend

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: After the transition from socialism to a market economy in 1990, human brucellosis re-emerged in Mongolia. The aim of our study was to estimate a representative seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and to determine risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity among rural people. Methods: A cross-sectional study with multistage random selection was conducted in eight provinces of Mongolia. Study participants were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain their brucellosis history, current symptoms and likely risk factors. Blood samples were drawn to determine brucellosis seroprevalence. Results: A total of 2856 randomly selected rural people aged four to 90 years were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.0–12.1, ranging between 2.3% and 22.6% in the eight provinces; 39.2% (n = 609 of nomadic camps had at least one seropositive participant. Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity were being older than 45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.9, 95% CI = 5.1–8.7 and being a veterinarian (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.5–5.0. Conclusion: Our study confirms that human brucellosis seroprevalence among rural people in Mongolia is high. Human brucellosis can be effectively controlled if high-coverage livestock mass vaccination is implemented with a coverage survey after the vaccinations to ensure completeness. This mass vaccination should be accompanied by public awareness and educational programmes.

  8. [An investigation of brucellosis in occupational population in Yuxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanhua; Zuo, Shunwu; Yao, Yingbo; Yang, Rusong; Wang, Shukun

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the epidemic status of brucellosis in the occupational population in Yuxi, China, and to develop effective prevention and control strategies. Serological test was performed for 2320 employees involved in breeding, slaughtering, meat and dairy product processing, veterinary medicine, and sales in counties and districts where brucellosis was detected from 2008 to 2014 in Yuxi; pathogenic detection was performed for those in the occupational population who were suspected of brucellosis. The results of serological test showed that the infection rate of brucellosis reached 3.32% , and 15 cases of brucellosis had clinical symptoms. The employees involved in breeding had the highest infection rate (4.89%) (χ2=25.75, Pbrucellosis was 0.37%~4.93% and tended to increase; 67.85% of the occupational population did not take personal protective measures and had a significantly higher infection rate than those who took personal protective measures (4.45% vs 0.94%; χ2=19.42, Pbrucellosis, 42 cases were diagnosed as current brucellosis confirmed by laboratory pathogenic detection. The infection rate of brucellosis and the number of newly diagnosed cases tend to increase in the occupational population in Yuxi, and the employees involved in breeding are the major infected population.

  9. Seroprevalence survey of brucellosis among rural people in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsend, Selenge; Baljinnyam, Zolzaya; Suuri, Bujinlkham; Dashbal, Enkhbayar; Oidov, Baatarkhuu; Roth, Felix; Zinstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Dambadarjaa, Davaalkham

    2014-01-01

    After the transition from socialism to a market economy in 1990, human brucellosis re-emerged in Mongolia. The aim of our study was to estimate a representative seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and to determine risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity among rural people. A cross-sectional study with multistage random selection was conducted in eight provinces of Mongolia. Study participants were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain their brucellosis history, current symptoms and likely risk factors. Blood samples were drawn to determine brucellosis seroprevalence. A total of 2856 randomly selected rural people aged four to 90 years were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.0-12.1), ranging between 2.3% and 22.6% in the eight provinces; 39.2% (n = 609) of nomadic camps had at least one seropositive participant. Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity were being older than 45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.9, 95% CI = 5.1-8.7) and being a veterinarian (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.5-5.0). Our study confirms that human brucellosis seroprevalence among rural people in Mongolia is high. Human brucellosis can be effectively controlled if high-coverage livestock mass vaccination is implemented with a coverage survey after the vaccinations to ensure completeness. This mass vaccination should be accompanied by public awareness and educational programmes.

  10. Brucellosis in pregnant women from Pakistan: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahzad; Akhter, Shamim; Neubauer, Heinrich; Scherag, André; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Melzer, Falk; Khan, Iahtasham; El-Adawy, Hosny; Azam, Asima; Qadeer, Saima; Ali, Qurban

    2016-09-02

    Brucella species occasionally cause spontaneous human abortion. Brucella can be transmitted commonly through the ingestion of raw milk or milk products. The objective of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of and to identify potential risk factors for brucellosis in pregnant women from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Gynecology Outdoor Patient department of the Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from March to June 2013. Data related to potential risk factors and clinical history was collected by individual interviews on the blood sampling day. The 429 serum samples collected were initially screened by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination test for the detection of Brucella antibodies. We applied standard descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. Twenty five (5.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 3.8 % -8.5 %) serum samples were found to be seropositive. Brucellosis-related clinical symptoms were recorded in various seropositive cases. Animal contact, raw milk consumption, having an abortion history and the experience of an intrauterine fetal death were associated with seropositivity for brucellosis in univariate analyses (all p Brucellosis is a serious threat for pregnant women and their unborn children in Pakistan. Pregnant women having brucellosis-related symptoms or previous history of abortions, miscarriages, intrauterine fetal death and other brucellosis-related manifestations should be screened for brucellosis - especially those exposed to animals given the increased risk - and medication should be administered according to state of the art.

  11. Impaired Thiol-Disulfide Balance in Acute Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolgelier, Servet; Ergin, Merve; Demir, Lutfi Saltuk; Inkaya, Ahmet Cagkan; Aktug Demir, Nazlim; Alisik, Murat; Erel, Ozcan

    2017-05-24

    The objective of this study was to examine a novel profile: thiol-disulfide homeostasis in acute brucellosis. The study included 90 patients with acute brucellosis, and 27 healthy controls. Thiol-disulfide profile tests were analyzed by a recently developed method, and ceruloplasmin levels were determined. Native thiol levels were 256.72 ± 48.20 μmol/L in the acute brucellosis group and 461.13 ± 45.37 μmol/L in the healthy group, and total thiol levels were 298.58 ± 51.78 μmol/L in the acute brucellosis group and 504.83 ± 51.05 μmol/L in the healthy group (p brucellosis than in the healthy controls (p brucellosis. The strong associations between thiol-disulfide parameters and a positive acute-phase reactant reflected the disruption of the balance between the antioxidant and oxidant systems. Since thiol groups act as anti-inflammatory mediators, the alteration in the thiol-disulfide homeostasis may be involved in brucellosis.

  12. Lymphocyte Proliferation Response in Patients with Acute and Chronic Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Khosravi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Brucella is an intracellular bacterium that causes chronic infection in humans and domestic animals. The underlying mechanisms that cause prolonged illness are complex and not fully understood. Immune responses may have an important role in the chronicity of infection. Here, we evaluated the lymphocyte proliferation responses in patients with chronic and acute brucellosis. Materials and Methods: This descriptive - analytical study was performed on 22 patients with acute brucellosis, 21 patients with chronic brucellosis and 21 healthy people with the similar age, sex and genetic background as control group. Peripheral lymphocytes were isolated using Ficoll and the cellular proliferation was quantified in presence of antigen and phytohemaglutinin-A by MTT method. Results: The brucella antigen-specific stimulation index in patients with chronic brucellosis was significantly lower than the acute brucellosis patients (p=0.001. Also, stimulating the lymphocytes with phytohemaglutinin-A has shown that proliferative response in patients with chronic brucellosis was lower than the other groups (p=0.04. Conclusion: The results indicated that chronic brucellosis inhibits lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation may be due to the induction of anergy.

  13. Prevalence of positive autoimmune biomarkers in the brucellosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Abdollahi, Alireza; Ziaee, Vahid; Domiraei, Zeinab; Najafizadeh, Seyed-Reza; Jafari, Sirus; Ahmadinejad, Mahdi

    2016-10-01

    Brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease with articular involvement. Discrimination between brucellosis and rheumatologic disorders is difficult in regions endemic for brucellosis. There are few studies about the rate of positive autoantibodies as rheumatologic biomarkers in brucellosis, and the prevalence is variable. In this study, the rheumatologic tests were studied in brucellosis patients. This cross sectional study was performed in two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Forty-nine patients with brucella infection and 42 healthy participants were enrolled in this study. Brucellosis was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical symptoms and positive serology for brucellosis. Rheumatic factor (RF) and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were evaluated in all patients. Cyclic citrullinated peptides antibody (ACPA) and anti-double strand DNA (anti-dsDNA) were checked in all patients and control groups. Out of 49 patients, 15 (30.6 %) were RF positive and 4 (8.2 %) were ANA positive. Anti-dsDNA was concurrently positive with ANA in 1 patient (2 %) but ACPA titer was positive in 8 patients (16.3 %). None of the patients with positive autoantibody biomarkers fulfilled the criteria for rheumatologic disorders. The rate of positive RF in healthy people was significantly lower than patient group (2.4 vs. 30.6 %), but the positiveness rate of other biomarkers did not have significant difference in two groups. Sixty percent of the patients with positive RF and 75 % with positive ACPA had skeletal involvement (P brucellosis. Rheumatologists should be aware of brucellosis in patients with musculoskeletal involvement and positive autoantibody biomarkers in endemic regions.

  14. Brucella Endocarditis as a Late Onset Complication of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Andriopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucella endocarditis (BE is a rare but life threatening complication of brucellosis. We present a case report of a patient with relapsing brucellosis complicated with aortic valve endocarditis. The patient underwent valve replacement and required prolonged antibiotic treatment because of rupture of the noncoronary leaflet and development of congestive heart failure. Since the onset of endocarditis in patients with brucellosis is not known, proper follow-up is required in order to identify any late onset complications, especially in endemic areas.

  15. Brucellosis: new demands in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, H

    2010-01-01

    To provide an up-to-date overview on the role of Brucella as a possible biological (B-) agent to be used in biological warfare, biological crimes and biological terrorism (with special respect to agroterrorism) scenarios. An analysis of current literature and of Internet-based sources was made. Brucella spp. have always been in the focus of military decision. The main reason for military research on Brucella was driven by the finding that the organism can easily be transmitted via aerosols. Confronted with the new challenge of global terrorism in the last decades of the 20th century, experts tried to evaluate the risk that Brucella spp. are used against the civilian population. Based on criteria concerning public health demands brucellosis was rated to have only a lower medical and public impact. Nevertheless, small-scale outbreaks in humans will pose problems in all those countries where first responders are usually not aware of the clinical syndrome. Countries which have eradicated brucellosis from their livestock successfully may face another severe threat: agroterrorism. Brucella spp. might be introduced intentionally into livestock (cattle, small ruminants, pigs). Undeterminable losses for a state's economy may be the result of such an attack. The world has become safer in the last decades due to the intensive efforts of the global community to effectively ban the use of weapons of mass destruction. However, bio- and agroterrorism especially an attack against the agricultural infrastructure is considered to be a permanent danger.

  16. Lung cancer, brucellosis and tuberculosis: remarkable togetherness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Emin Akkoyunlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A 68 years old male farmer referred with cough, expectorating sputum, intermittant fever, night sweats, fatigue and anorexia persisting for two weeks. There was a history of 80 packs each year of smoking and he was still an active smoker. Pneumonectomy was performed because of pulmonary epidermoid cancer and he received chemotherapy. He was diagnosed lung tuberculosis and using anti-tuberculous treatment for 4 months. He had a weight loss of 8 kg in last month. His body tempereature was 38.5 °C. Heart rate was 100/min. ESR was 51mm/h and CRP was 5.6 mg/ dL. There was no proliferation in blood and sputum cultures. Three sputum specimens were examined and AFB wasn’t detected. Fibronodular infiltration was seen in right lower zone of chest X-ray. In thorax CT, fibronodular densities were seen in lower lobe anterior and posterior segments. Brucella melitensis was isolated in blood culture. Second bronchoscopy was performed with suspect of brucellosis pneumonia. Brucella tube agglutination test was positive at titer 1/320 in the bronchial lavage fluid and 1/640 in concurrent serum sample. In cases with chronic cough or pneumonia which is irresponsive to nonspecific antibiotherapy, respiratory brucellosis must be rememberred in endemic areas.

  17. Brucellosis in pregnancy: clinical aspects and obstetric outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchez, Gustavo; Espinoza, Miguel; D'Onadio, Guery; Saona, Pedro; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis with high morbidity in humans. This disease has gained interest recently due to its re-emergence and potential for weaponization. Pregnant women with this disease can develop severe complications. Its association with adverse obstetric outcomes is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to describe the obstetric outcomes of brucellosis in pregnancy. Cases of pregnant women with active brucellosis seen at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia from 1970 to 2012 were reviewed. Diagnostic criteria were a positive agglutination test and/or positive blood/bone marrow culture. Presentation and outcomes data were collected. The Chi-square test was used for nominal variables. A p-value of obstetric outcomes including fetal and maternal/neonatal death. Cases with unexplained spontaneous abortion should be investigated for brucellosis. Prompt treatment is paramount to decrease the devastating outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Investigation into the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and the risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation into the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and the risk factors that predispose human to infection among urban dairy and non-dairy farming households in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.

  19. FY 2001 year-end status report : Brucellosis program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The brucellosis program, created by the Wildlife Health, is a combination of technical assistance and research. The National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and...

  20. Epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and domestic ruminants in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, AKM Anisur

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is an ancient and one of the world’s most widespread zoonotic diseases affecting both, public health and animal production. It is endemic in many developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America including Bangladesh. Since the first report in 1970, a lot of brucellosis seroprevalence reports are available in cattle, goats, sheep and humans in Bangladesh. Most of the previously reported prevalence studies were based on non-random samples, which may not give a tr...

  1. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in patients with prolonged fever in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Akm Anisur; Berkvens, Dirk; Saegerman, Claude; Fretin, David; Muhammad, Noor; Hossain, Akram; Abatih, Emmanuel

    2016-09-30

    This study describes the seroprevalence of human brucellosis among pyretic patients and detection of Brucella abortus DNA from seropositive pyretic patients using real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) for the first time in Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected from 300 pyretic patients from October 2007 to May 2008 and subjected to three serological tests: Rose-Bengal plate test (RBT), standard tube agglutination test (STAT), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Risk factors were identified by multivariate Firth's logistic regression analysis. Brucella genus (BCSP31) and species-specific (IS711) rtPCR were applied to six human sera samples. The seroprevalence of brucellosis among pyretic patients was estimated to be 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-4.30). The odds of brucellosis seropositivity were 8.9 (95% CI: 1.26-63.0) times higher in pyretic patients who handled goats than those who handled only cattle, whereas the odds of brucellosis seropositivity were 9.7 (95% CI: 1.28-73.68) times higher in pyretic patients who had backache compared to those without backache. B. abortus DNA was amplified from all six human sera that tested positive by RBT, STAT, and iELISA. As the agreement between the tests was very strong, RBT is recommended as a screening test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis in Bangladesh because it is easier to use, cheaper, and faster. Brucellosis among pyretic patients is common, and B. abortus is responsible for brucellosis in such patients. Pyretic patients who handle goats and those with backaches should be screened for brucellosis.

  2. Assessment of a strain 19 brucellosis vaccination program in elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maichak, Eric J.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Cross, Paul C.; Rogerson, Jared D.; Edwards, William H.; Wise, Benjamin; Smith, Scott G.; Kreeger, Terry J.

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases in wildlife present substantial challenges and risks to host populations, susceptible domestic livestock populations, and affected stakeholders. Brucellosis, a disease caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus, is endemic among elk (Cervus canadensis) attending winter feedgrounds and adjacent areas of western Wyoming, USA. To minimize transmission of brucellosis from elk to elk and elk to livestock, managers initiated a B. abortus strain 19 ballistic vaccination program in 1985. We used brucellosis prevalence (1971–2015) and reproductive outcome (2006–2015) data collected from female elk attending feedgrounds to assess efficacy of the strain 19 program while controlling for potentially confounding factors such as site and age. From our generalized linear models, we found that seroprevalence of brucellosis was 1) not lower following inception of vaccination; 2) not inversely associated with proportion of juveniles vaccinated over time; 3) not inversely associated with additional yearlings and adults vaccinated over time; and 4) associated more with feeding end-date than proportion of juveniles vaccinated. Using vaginal implant transmitters in adult females that were seropositive for brucellosis, we found little effect of vaccination coverage at reducing reproductive failures (i.e., abortion or stillbirth). Because we found limited support for efficacy of the strain 19 program, we support research to develop an oral vaccine and suggest that continuing other spatio-temporal management actions will be most effective to minimize transmission of brucellosis and reduce dependency of elk on supplemental winter feeding.

  3. [Pediatric brucellosis : A case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréhin, C; Ray, S; Honorat, R; Prère, M-F; Bicart-See, A; Claudet, I; Grouteau, E

    2016-07-01

    Brucellosis is an overlooked infection of widespread geographic distribution. This disease is rarely evoked when assessing unexplained pediatric fever, and only 20-30 cases (children and adults) are confirmed per year. Risk factors for contracting brucellosis are exposure to bodily fluids and consumption of unpasteurized dairy products from infected animals. Most cases of brucellosis are associated with traveling to or importing contaminated goods from endemic areas. Here, we report a case of brucellosis in a 16-month-old patient hospitalized for an acute febrile illness in a French general pediatric ward. An antibiotic regimen of rifampicin and co-trimoxazole given over 6 weeks led to successful cure without relapse. The child had eaten a cake made from unpasteurized goat's milk and imported from Oran, a region in Algeria. His mother had consumed the same cake and was hospitalized for brucellosis 15 days later. Clinicians should suspect brucellosis when encountering febrile patients who have traveled to endemic areas, been exposed to body fluids or products of abortion of farm animals, or consumed unpasteurized products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Imported brucellosis: A case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Francesca F; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Chamorro-Tojeiro, Sandra; Pérez-Molina, Jose-Antonio; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the main neglected zoonotic diseases. Several factors may contribute to the epidemiology of brucellosis. Imported cases, mainly in travellers but also in recently arrived immigrants, and cases associated with imported products, appear to be infrequently reported. Cases of brucellosis diagnosed at a referral unit for imported diseases in Europe were described and a review of the literature on imported cases and cases associated with contaminated imported products was performed. Most imported cases were associated with traditional risk factors such as travel/consumption of unpasteurized dairy products in endemic countries. Cases associated with importation of food products or infected animals also occurred. Although a lower disease incidence of brucellosis has been reported in developed countries, a higher incidence may still occur in specific populations, as illustrated by cases in Hispanic patients in the USA and in Turkish immigrants in Germany. Imported brucellosis appears to present with similar protean manifestations and both classical and infrequent modes of acquisition are described, leading on occasions to mis-diagnoses and diagnostic delays. Importation of Brucella spp. especially into non-endemic areas, or areas which have achieved recent control of both animal and human brucellosis, may have public health repercussions and timely recognition is essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 75 FR 53979 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement... Service announces the reopening of the public comment period on the Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination...

  6. Diagnosis of clinical and laboratory findings of brucellosis in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Nourbakhsh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Brucellosis is one of the important infectious factors in most areas of Iran and other developing countries. Brucellosis has different clinical manifestations and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infectious and noninfectious diseases. The aims of this study was to determine the epidemiological, clinical findings of the brucellosis in patients based on blood culture and serological tests. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 190 brucellosis patients admitted in Isfahan Hospital in 2016–2017 that were studied based on positive immunological tests such as Wright, 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Samples of blood were cultured (BACTEC and incubated at 37°C for 5 days and then on Brucella agar. In addition, clinical and laboratory characteristics of brucellosis were done. The patients who had brucellosis (Coombs test ≥1/80 and 2ME ≥1/40 were selected. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical package. Results: About 62.5% of patients were female with mean age of 37.5% years. 54.8% of cases were living in urban and 45.2% in rural areas. The most contagious seasons were spring. The most common transmission way was consuming of contaminated dairy products (59.3%; however, some of the patients had a history of animal contacts. The most common symptoms were fever (65.2%, arthralgia (68.1%, sweating (32%, malaise and fatigue (37.2%. The most common clinical signs were fever and peripheral arthritis. High leukocytosis and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (>20 mm/h were reported in all of the cases. Elevated C-reactive protein was detected in 72.1% of patients. Conclusion: Brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with prolonged fever, spondylitis, or peripheral arthritis in endemic areas.

  7. Spatial epidemiology of hospital-diagnosed brucellosis in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background A retrospective case-control study was undertaken to examine the spatial risk factors for human brucellosis in Kampala, Uganda. Methods Information on age, sex and month of diagnosis was derived from records from plate agglutination tests undertaken at Mulago Hospital, Kampala. Information on Parishes (LC2s) where patients reside was sourced from the outpatient registration book. In-patient fracture cases were selected for use as controls using 1:1 matching based on the age, sex and month of diagnosis. The locations of cases and controls were obtained by calculating Cartesian coordinates of the centroids of Parish level (LC2) polygons and a spatial scan statistic was applied to test for disease clustering. Parishes were classified according to the level of urbanization as urban, peri-urban or rural. Results Significantly more females than males were found to show sero-positivity for brucellosis when compared with the sex ratio of total outpatients, in addition female brucellosis patients were found to be significantly older than the male patients. Spatial clustering of brucellosis cases was observed including around Mulago Hospital (radius = 6.8 km, p = 0.001). The influence of proximity to the hospital that was observed for brucellosis cases was not significantly different from that observed in the controls. The disease cluster was confounded by the different catchment areas between cases and controls. The level of urbanization was not associated with the incidence of brucellosis but living in a slum area was a significant risk factor among urban dwellers (odds ratio 1.97, 95% CI: 1.10-3.61). Conclusions Being female was observed to be a risk factor for brucellosis sero-positvity and among urban dwellers, living in slum areas was also a risk factor although the overall risk was not different among urban, peri-urban and rural areas of the Kampala economic zone. PMID:21962176

  8. Pancytopenia As the Initial Manifestation of Brucellosis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karli, Arzu; Sensoy, Gulnar; Albayrak, Canan; Koken, Ozlem; Cıraklı, Sevgi; Belet, Nursen; Albayrak, Davut

    2015-09-01

    Presenting with severe thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia is rare in children with brucellosis, and at the beginning it can be misdiagnosed as a hematological or a viral hemorrhagic disease. The follow-ups of 52 patients diagnosed with brucellosis from January, 2008, to December, 2013, in our clinic have shown the following results. Eleven out of these 52 patients revealed the fact that they had pancytopenia at the admission phase. Anemia and leukopenia were defined as hemoglobin levels and leukocyte counts below the standard values in terms of ages, thrombocytopenia as thrombocyte counts below 150,000/mm(3), and severe thrombocytopenia as thrombocyte counts below 20,000/mm(3). The most frequent admission symptoms and findings of the patients with pancytopenia were fever (75%), fatigue (50%), splenomegaly (75%), and hepatomegaly (41%). Laboratory results were hemoglobin 9.3±0.96 gram/dL, white blood cell count 2226±735.9/mm(3), and thrombocyte count 70,090±47,961/mm(3). The standard tube agglutination test was positive for all patients, and Brucellosis spp. were isolated in the blood cultures of six (54%) patients. Three of the 11 patients had severe thrombocytopenia, and they were admitted with complaints of epistaxis, gingival bleeding, petechiae, and purpura. At the beginning, two of three cases were misdiagnosed as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), another zoonotic endemic disease in Turkey. Pancytopenia improved with treatment of brucellosis on all patients. In conclusion, brucellosis can show great similarity with hematologic and zoonotic diseases like CCHF. Brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia, treatment-resistant immune thrombocytopenia, and viral hemorrhagic disease, especially in countries where brucellosis is endemic.

  9. TNF-α -238, -308, -863 polymorphisms, and brucellosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari-Nasab, Ebrahim; Moghadampour, Mehdi; Sepanj-Nia, Adel

    2016-01-01

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular bacterium that affects humans and domestic animals. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been shown as a key player in the induction of cell-mediated resistance against Brucella infection. We aimed to evaluate the possible influence of the TNF-α promoter polymorphisms (-308 G/A, -238 G/A, and -863 C/A) on the susceptibility of human brucellosis. A total of 153 patients with active brucellosis and 128 healthy individuals were recruited. All subjects were genotyped for the polymorphisms in the TNF-α gene by Allele-Specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. Our results showed that the TNF-α -308 GG genotype was significantly more frequently present in controls than in brucellosis patients (91% vs. 75%), thus was a protective factor against developing brucellosis (OR=0.313, p=0.001). In contrast, the -308 GA genotype (OR=3.026, p=0.002) and minor allele (A) (OR=3.058, p=0.001) as well as AAG haplotype (OR=4.014, p=0.001) conferred an increased risk of brucellosis. However, the -238 G/A and -863 C/A polymorphisms were not associated with the risk of brucellosis at both allelic and genotypic levels (p>0.05). Our study revealed that the TNF-α -308 A allele or GA heterozygosity or AAG haplotype were associated with an increased risk of brucellosis in our population. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Bacterial Glycoengineered Antigen for Improved Serodiagnosis of Porcine Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, María E; Balzano, Rodrigo E; Rey Serantes, Diego A; Caillava, Ana J; Elena, Sebastián; Ferreira, A C; Nicola, Ana M; Ugalde, Juan E; Comerci, Diego J; Ciocchini, Andrés E

    2016-06-01

    Brucellosis is a highly zoonotic disease that affects animals and human beings. Brucella suis is the etiological agent of porcine brucellosis and one of the major human brucellosis pathogens. Laboratory diagnosis of porcine brucellosis mainly relies on serological tests, and it has been widely demonstrated that serological assays based on the detection of anti O-polysaccharide antibodies are the most sensitive tests. Here, we validate a recombinant glycoprotein antigen, an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide-protein conjugate (OAg-AcrA), for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis. An indirect immunoassay based on the detection of anti-O-polysaccharide IgG antibodies was developed coupling OAg-AcrA to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates (glyco-iELISA). To validate the assay, 563 serum samples obtained from experimentally infected and immunized pigs, as well as animals naturally infected with B. suis biovar 1 or 2, were tested. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, and based on this analysis, the optimum cutoff value was 0.56 (relative reactivity), which resulted in a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.7%, respectively. A cutoff value of 0.78 resulted in a test sensitivity of 98.4% and a test specificity of 100%. Overall, our results demonstrate that the glyco-iELISA is highly accurate for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis, improving the diagnostic performance of current serological tests. The recombinant glycoprotein OAg-AcrA can be produced in large homogeneous batches in a standardized way, making it an ideal candidate for further validation as a universal antigen for diagnosis of "smooth" brucellosis in animals and humans. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. 78 FR 23740 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. This action will allow... a potential new approach to managing swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review...

  12. 78 FR 9028 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... approach to managing swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. Swine brucellosis and pseudorabies have been eliminated from commercial swine herds within the United States, but...

  13. Human Brucellosis in Febrile Patients Seeking Treatment at Remote Hospitals, Northeastern Kenya, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeru, John; Melzer, Falk; Wareth, Gamal; El-Adawy, Hosny; Henning, Klaus; Pletz, Mathias W; Heller, Regine; Kariuki, Samuel; Fèvre, Eric; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2016-12-01

    During 2014-2015, patients in northeastern Kenya were assessed for brucellosis and characteristics that might help clinicians identify brucellosis. Among 146 confirmed brucellosis patients, 29 (20%) had negative serologic tests. No clinical feature was a good indicator of infection, which was associated with animal contact and drinking raw milk.

  14. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... destroyed because of brucellosis. 51.5 Section 51.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis. (a) The claimant shall be responsible for...

  15. Brucellosis: Seroprevalence, Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S. Mangalgi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is an important but ignored zoonotic disease in India, with high prevalence among livestock and humans. It is of particular concern among veterinarians as they come in contact with infected animals in their day to day work. Aim and Objectives: The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of antibrucellar antibodies and assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP levels with regards to brucellosis among the veterinarians. Material and Methods:The serum samples of 1084 veterinarians were evaluated using the Rose Bengal Plate agglutination Test (RBPT, Serum Agglutination Test (SAT and 2-Mercaptoethanol Test (2-ME test. All the participants were interviewed with a pre-designed questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of antibrucellar antibodies among the veterinarians was 9.31% by RBPT. Clinical symptoms relating to brucellosis were seen in 4.33% individuals. Of the 1084 subjects screened for KAP, awareness was highest among the veterinary officers and students, while other veterinary workers were ignorant. Though most of the veterinary officers had adequate knowledge and positive attitude the regular preventive practices were not sound. Conclusion:Significantly higher seroprevalence of brucellosis was noted among veterinarians. High 2-ME titres were a better correlate of an active infection. Awareness regarding brucellosis among assisting staff was low. Training and health education programs to raise the KAP standard are necessary.

  16. Bovine Brucellosis: An Epidemiological Study at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchandan Sikder*, AKM Anisur Rahman1, Mohammad Rayhan Faruque, Mohammad Abdul Alim2, Shubhagata Das2, Aungshuman Das Gupta3, Bhajan Chandra Das, Mohammad Inkeyas Uddin4 and Mohammad Abdul Matin Prodhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological survey was conducted to identify probable risk factors and prevalence of brucellosis in commercial and backyard dairy cows at Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 500 milk samples were collected (250 commercial and 250 backyards for Milk Ring Test (MRT. The MRT positive cows were subjected to sera collection and Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and indirect ELISA were done for confirmatory diagnosis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle was 5% (7.6% in commercial and 2.4% in backyard. Significantly higher (P<0.05 prevalence was found in the zero grazing (5.74%, pregnant cows (7.53% and cows with history of retained placenta (7.89% or abortion (5.88% or both (11.76% than non-pregnant (2.68% and without any reproductive disorder (4.44%. A total of 420 farm attendants and owners were interviewed where 93.55 and 99.08% commercial and backyard personnel were found to have no knowledge of brucellosis and 9.67 and 87.77% consumed raw milk and yogurt respectively were highly vulnerable to zoonotic brucellosis. The results showed that brucellosis is widely distributed locally, underscoring the need for further studies including biovar determination.

  17. Economic losses occurring due to brucellosis in Indian livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Dhand, N K; Gill, J P S

    2015-05-01

    Brucellosis is a serious public health issue in India. Estimation of economic losses occurring due to brucellosis is required to help formulate prevention and control strategies, but has not been done in India. We estimated economic losses due to brucellosis by sourcing prevalence data from epidemiological surveys conducted in India. Data for livestock populations were obtained from official records. Probability distributions were used for many of the input parameters to account for uncertainty and variability. The analysis revealed that brucellosis in livestock is responsible for a median loss of US $ 3.4 billion (5th-95th percentile 2.8-4.2 billion). The disease in cattle and buffalo accounted for 95.6% of the total losses occurring due to brucellosis in livestock populations. The disease is responsible for a loss of US $ 6.8 per cattle, US$18.2 per buffalo, US $ 0.7 per sheep, US $ 0.5 per goat and US $ 0.6 per pig. These losses are additional to the economic and social consequences of the disease in humans. The results suggest that the disease causes significant economic losses in the country and should be controlled on a priority basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 78 FR 54620 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep, Goats, and Horses; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... destroyed because of brucellosis. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before November... for sheep, goats, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis, contact Dr. Debra Donch, Brucellosis...

  19. 75 FR 31743 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep, Goats, and Horses; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY..., and horses destroyed because of brucellosis. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on... for sheep, goats, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis, contact Dr. Debra Donch, Brucellosis...

  20. 76 FR 48118 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis First Point Testing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ...; Brucellosis First Point Testing of Cattle and Bison; Brucellosis Standard Card Test AGENCY: Animal and Plant...-Federal Brucellosis Eradication Program. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before... (202) 690-2817 before coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on brucellosis first...

  1. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in children with brucellosis: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Yöntem; Gözmen, Salih; Özkaya, Ahmet Kağan; Oymak, Yeşim; Apa, Hurşit; Vergin, Canan; Devrim, İlker

    2015-10-29

    Brucellosis is a systemic zoonotic infectious disease that may cause fever, fatigue, sweating, arthritis, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenia, and lymphadenopathy. It continues to be an important health problem worldwide. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is characterized by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, high serum levels of ferritin and triglycerides, low serum fibrinogen levels, and hemophagocytosis in bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, or liver. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with brucellosis is a very rare condition in the pediatric age group. Here, three pediatric cases of secondary HLH associated with brucellosis are reported. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis should be considered in patients with brucellosis having cytopenias. Hemophagocytosis in brucellosis seems to be cured with appropriate antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin.

  2. Seroprevalance of brucellosis among suspected cases in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama'ayah, M Z; Heu, J Y; Norazah, A

    2011-06-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease which can be transmitted by direct or indirect contact with infected animal or their products. It is an important public health problem but little is known on brucellosis in the Malaysian population. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Brucella antibodies using commercial Brucella IgG and IgM ELISA kits (Vircell, SL, Barcelona Spain). A total of 184 sera from suspected patients were received from 16 hospitals in Malaysia over the years 2004 to 2009. Only 10 serum samples (5.4%) were positive for Brucella antibodies in which 5 showed the presence of both IgM and IgG. Most of the positive patients were occupationally involved with animals. This study suggests the seroprevalance of brucellosis among individuals who have contact with infected animals in Malaysia is low.

  3. CLINICAL-IMMUNOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ACUTE BRUCELLOSIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Atakhodjayeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is acute zoonotic, multi-systemic infection caused by Brucella bacteria kind. Brucellosis is met everywhere on all continents of the world, especially in the countries where livestock sector is developed. Nowadays in spite of significant success in the struggle against brucellosis this infection is a social problem. Brucellosis has specific clinical manifestations during various age periods. Problems interrelated with the study of the pathogenesis of brucellosis infection, particularly immune genesis, defining the progress and the outcome of the disease have great importance. Object of the research: to study peculiarities of the progress of acute brucellosis in children taking into account clinical-immunologic data. Materials and methods of the research: the research was based on the results of examinations of 23 children from 3 to 14 years old with brucellosis mostly living in endemic foci of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The diagnosis was defined based on epidemiologic anamnesis, clinical symptoms and laboratory data. All examined children got the analysis of detailed blood immunogramm. The corresponding data of 20 healthy children served to be controlling ones. Results and discussion: The analysis of epidemiologic anamnesis showed, that 78.3% of the examined patients with brucellosis were villagers keeping sheep, goats and cattle. In 73.9% cases source of infection was sheep and goats, 8.7% - cattle, and in 17.4% cases we could observe mixed type of infection. 78% of patients applied to hospital during prodromal period. Main complaints were weakness, frustration, headache, fatigue, bad appetite. These symptoms lasted not more than 3-5 days, after which there were symptoms of intoxication of organism with the rise of cardinal symptoms such as fever with chill (100%, arthalgia (69%, slight sweating (70%, hepato-lienal syndrome (68%. 32.9% of patients had tachycardia. Objective visual examination showed enlargement of

  4. Spatial analysis on human brucellosis incidence in mainland China: 2004–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhui; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Xingyu; Feng, Zijian; Li, Xiaosong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives China has experienced a sharply increasing rate of human brucellosis in recent years. Effective spatial monitoring of human brucellosis incidence is very important for successful implementation of control and prevention programmes. The purpose of this paper is to apply exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) methods and the empirical Bayes (EB) smoothing technique to monitor county-level incidence rates for human brucellosis in mainland China from 2004 to 2010 by examining spatial patterns. Methods ESDA methods were used to characterise spatial patterns of EB smoothed incidence rates for human brucellosis based on county-level data obtained from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP) in mainland China from 2004 to 2010. Results EB smoothed incidence rates for human brucellosis were spatially dependent during 2004–2010. The local Moran test identified significantly high-risk clusters of human brucellosis (all p values brucellosis incidence. PMID:24713215

  5. Epizootiological Survey of Bovine Brucellosis in Nomadic Pastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They called bovine brucellosis (Bakkale) and described it as a cattle disease characterized by standing hair coat, fever, loss of appetite, swollen joints, and abortion and transmitted by ingestion and contact. The high prevalence observed calls for urgent government intervention towards public health enlightenment of ...

  6. Serological survey of Brucellosis in livestock animals and workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A serological survey of brucellosis in livestock animals and workers was conducted in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria between May and August 2004. A total of 1,210 cattle, 54 sheep, 496 goats, 200 pigs and 21 humans (i.e. butchers and herdsmen) were screened using the Rose Bengal test (RBT).From the results ...

  7. Recent lessons learnt from the outbreak of brucellosis in Dekemhare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with the disease and the management of the disease. ... whom were admitted with confirmed diagnosis of brucellosis in Orotta National Referral Medical and Surgical. Hospital in Asmara ... of the animals in the area were sick but less than 20% received veterinary consultations with half of them testing positive for ...

  8. Prevalence of brucellosis in livestock and incidences in humans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brucellosis is an emerging zoonotic disease that poses a threat to both livestock and public health in east Africa. There are several reports of occurrence of the disease in livestock populations especially in Tanzania and Kenya, suggesting chances of increased spread to humans, and the disease being misdiagnosed for ...

  9. Sero-epidemiological survey of bovine brucellosis and reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sero-epidemiological survey of bovine brucellosis in two selected was conducted from November 2007 to April 2008 in North Gondar Zone. Sera from 780 cattle (571) local and (209) cross breed were screened using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and RBPT positive reactors were further confirmed by Complement ...

  10. Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in agro pastoral areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from October 2008- March 2009 to determine the sero-prevalence of bovine brucellosis in four districts of Jijjiga Zone, eastern Ethiopia. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select the four districts and nine peasant associations (PAs). A total of 435 blood samples were ...

  11. Recent lessons learnt from the outbreak of brucellosis in Dekemhare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brucellosis is one of the most prevalent and yet most under-diagnosed zoonotic diseases in equal measure, with profound human and animal economic adversity2. The pathogenic types of this intracellular organism are brucella melitensis, brucella suis, and brucella arbotus presenting major diagnostic challenges because ...

  12. Seroprevalence of ruminant brucellosis in three selected local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-01-28

    Jan 28, 2014 ... Abstract. A serological survey of brucellosis was carried out in three selected local government areas of Taraba state to determine the current status of the disease in the field, especially in the nomadic Fulani breeding herds. A test using the Brucella abortus Rose Bengal Plate Test antigen to test the sera of ...

  13. Bacteriological investigation of sheep and goats milk for brucellosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological investigations of sheep and goats brucellosis were carried out in Northern Nigeria. Seven government or quasi-government farms were investigated. A total of 418 sheep and goats milk samples were examined culturally. Investigation revealed a 34.75 per cent and 15.88 per cent rate of infection in goats and ...

  14. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in domestic ruminants in livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A limited study was conducted to determine prevalence of brucellosis in domestic ruminants kept in a free range grazing system in Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) which is a world heritage site in which pastoralists communities have been living harmoniously with wildlife for decades. Blood samples from 200 cattle, ...

  15. Seroprevalence of ruminant brucellosis in three selected local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A serological survey of brucellosis was carried out in three selected local government areas of Taraba state to determine the current status of the disease in the field, especially in the nomadic Fulani breeding herds. A test using the Brucella abortus Rose Bengal Plate Test antigen to test the sera of bovine, ovine and caprine ...

  16. A Retrospective study of Brucellosis Seroprevalence in Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study covering 10 years (1995 – 2004) was conducted to investigate brucellosis seroprevalence and patterns in commercial and smallholder mixed dairy-beef cattle in Zimbabwe using surveillance data from the Central Veterinary Laboratory at Harare. Positive cases were analysed according to farming ...

  17. A seroprevalence study of ovine and caprine brucellosis in three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A random survey to study the seroprevalence of ovine and caprine brucellosis was carried out between July 2008 and January 2009 in three main districts of arid and semiarid rearing regions of Somaliland. A total of 1938 sheep, and 1344 goats' blood sera were randomly collected from 42 herd/flock of accessible ...

  18. Study on Seroprevalence of Bovine Brucellosis and Abortion and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was carried on bovine brucellosis from November 2008 to March 2009 to determine the sero-prevalence and distribution of bovine brucel osis in selected sites of Jimma zone, Southwestern Ethiopia. A total of 950 animals (541 female and 409 male) were examined serologically by using RBPT as ...

  19. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among women with miscarriage at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Brucellosis in animals has been identified as a common cause of miscarriage. It is the most common zoonotic disease that leads to considerable morbidity in humans. It is rarely diagnosed in hospitals in Nigeria, and debate exists as to whether it is a more common cause of miscarriage in humans compared to ...

  20. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among women with miscarriage at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AbstRACt background: Brucellosis in animals has been identified as a common cause of miscarriage. It is the most common zoonotic disease that leads to considerable morbidity in humans. It is rarely diagnosed in hospitals in Nigeria, and debate exists as to whether it is a more common cause of miscarriage in humans ...

  1. Brucellosis in Terekeka County, Central Equatoria State, Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To identify factors associated with Brucellosis in patients attending Terekeka Health Facility, Terekeka County, Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan and to evaluate the utility of the rapid test kit Euracil®. Design: A facility based case-control study. Setting: Terekeka Health Facility, Terekeka County, Central ...

  2. Study on the seroprevalence of small ruminant brucellosis in and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was carried out from October 2008 to April 2009 to determine the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants in and around Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. The sampling method used was purposive sampling technique for districts and simple random for the study animals. A total of 500 serum ...

  3. Bovine Brucellosis: Old and New Concepts with Pakistan Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abubakar*, Mehwish Mansoor and Muhammad Javed Arshed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is considered to be one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. According to OIE, it is the second most important zoonotic disease in the world after rabies. The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats, camels and dogs. It may also infect other ruminants and marine mammals. The disease is manifested by late term abortions, weak calves, still births, infertility and characteristic lesions are primarily placentitis, epididymitis and orchitis. The organism is excreted in uterine discharges and milk. The disease is economically important, is one of the most devastating transboundary animal diseases and also a major trade barrier. Although not yet reported, some species of Brucella (e.g., B. abortus are zoonotic and could be used as bioweapons. Brucellosis has a considerable impact on animal and human health, as well as wide socio-economic impacts, especially in countries in which rural income relies largely on livestock breeding and dairy products. Considering the poor health infrastructure and manpower in rural areas, the focus should be on preventive measures coupled with strengthening the curative health care services for early diagnosis and treatment. The incidence of brucellosis is increasing particularly in large dairy herds in Pakistan. Several studies have been conducted using sero-diagnostic techniques to determine the prevalence of brucellosis in different provinces, districts and livestock farms in government and private sector.

  4. [Brucellosis in Chile: Description of a series of 13 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Roberto; Vidal, Pamela; Sotomayor, Camila; Norambuena, Mackarenna; Luppi, Mario; Silva, Francisco; Cifuentes, Marcela

    2017-06-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella spp. It may be acquired by consuming unpasteurized dairy products. Brucellosis has a low incidence in Chile, thus, we have a scarce data. To report and to characterize the first series of clinical cases of adult patients diagnosed with brucellosis in Chile. We describe a series of 13 clinical cases in patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2016 in three different centers in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical presentation, laboratory, antibiotic treatment, morbidity and mortality. The mean age was 50 years old. Eight cases had a record of consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. The most frequently reported complaints were fever. The most frequent focal point involved was the spine. Only one patient had a positive blood culture, while the diagnosis was made using serological techniques in the other part of the group. The most indicated antibiotic regimens were doxycycline-rifampicin and doxycycline-gentamicin. The hospital stay was 20 days approximately as an average. Clinical cure was achieved in all cases. Brucellosis is an infrequent zoonosis in Chile, and it produces a nonspecific clinical picture, so it is necessary to have high suspicion to make the diagnosis based in the antecedent of consumption of unpasteurized dairy or raw meat.

  5. Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in agro pastoral areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Eth. Vet. J ., 11(2), 59-68. Bekele, A, 1999. Bovine brucellosis sero-epidemiological study in selected farms and ranches in Southeastern Ethiopia. DVM Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,. Addis Ababa University, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Bekele, A., Molla, B., Asfaw, Y., and Yirgu, L., 2000.

  6. Study on the seroprevalence of small ruminant brucellosis in and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LMA (Livestock Marketing Authority) 2001. Brief Baseline Information on Ethiopian. Livestock Resource Base and Its Trade. Livestock Marketing Authority. Addis. Ababa, Ethiopia. Muhie, Y. 2005. A Sero-prevalence Study of Small Ruminant Brucellosis in Selected Sites of the Afar and Somali Regions, Ethiopia. DVM Thesis ...

  7. Clinical human brucellosis in Malaysia: a case report

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    Tyagita Hartady

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical human brucellosis is quite rare in Malaysia although seroconverters are relatively more. This report describes a case of clinical human brucellosis in Malaysia. This case involved a 29-year-old research assistant in a veterinary microbiology laboratory. She complained of intermittent fever, anorexia, profuse sweating, malaise, headache, normotensive (110/60 mm Hg, muscle pain, and arthralgia for 3 d. Blood tests against dengue and malaria were negative thus she was prescribed vitamin C, paracetamol and cough syrup for common flu. The complaints, however, persisted on and off for the next 1 month. She eventually developed anemia and hypotension (90/50 mm Hg and started to show reduced body weight. Abdominal palpations revealed hepatomegaly and splenomegaly with pain. Thus, brucellosis was suspected before the Rose-Bengal plate test was performed, which revealed the presence of high level of antibody against Brucella. The same test was repeated after 14 d and the results confirmed the presence of high antibody level against Brucella. Following serum agglutination test, a diagnosis of brucellosis was made and she was eventually prescribed rifampicine p.o. once a day combined with doxycycline p.o. twice a day for 6 consecutive weeks before she made a full recovery.

  8. prevalence of brucellosis in livestock and incidences in humans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Records 700 - 1600 ... There are several reports of occurrence of the disease in livestock populations especially in Tanzania and Kenya, suggesting chances ... of this study was to determine brucellosis prevalence in livestock and incidence in humans among pastoralists and .... The advice targeted to control further spread of ...

  9. Epidemiological Characteristics of Brucellosis in Serbia, 1980-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čekanac, Radovan; Mladenović, Jovan; Ristanović, Elizabeta; Lazić, Srđan

    2010-01-01

    Aim To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of human brucellosis in Serbia from 1980 to 2008 and the most important factors affecting its emergence and spread. Methods Public sources of data on brucellosis were used, including official reports of infectious diseases and epidemics, as well as monthly and annual reports of the Serbia and Vojvodina Institutes of Public Health. Results From 1980 through 2008, there were 1521 human brucellosis cases in Serbia. The annual number ranged from 2 in 2000 to 324 in 1991. Infections occurred more often in men (67% of cases) than in women (odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.57-3.00; χ2 = 24.52, P Serbia was recorded from June to September (310 of 623 cases, 50%). The disease was most prevalent among people aged 30-49 years, accounting for 81 of 177 (46%) of the cases in Serbia from 1999 to 2008. Conclusion Brucellosis has been a significant public health concern in Serbia. This problem may be solved by joint efforts of all relevant factors, first of all human and veterinary medical services. PMID:20718087

  10. Changing Epidemiology of Human Brucellosis, China, 1955–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Hang; Xiong, Weiyi; Gilbert, Marius; Huang, Zhuojie; Yu, Jianxing; Yin, Wenwu; Wang, Liping; Chen, Qiulan; Li, Yu; Mu, Di; Zeng, Lingjia; Ren, Xiang; Geng, Mengjie; Zhang, Zike; Cui, Buyun; Li, Tiefeng; Wang, Dali; Li, Zhongjie; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease, was made statutorily notifiable in China in 1955. We analyzed the incidence and spatial–temporal distribution of human brucellosis during 1955–2014 in China using notifiable surveillance data: aggregated data for 1955–2003 and individual case data for 2004–2014. A total of 513,034 brucellosis cases were recorded, of which 99.3% were reported in northern China during 1955–2014, and 69.1% (258, 462/374, 141) occurred during February–July in 1990–2014. Incidence remained high during 1955–1978 (interquartile range 0.42–1.0 cases/100,000 residents), then decreased dramatically in 1979–1994. However, brucellosis has reemerged since 1995 (interquartile range 0.11–0.23 in 1995–2003 and 1.48–2.89 in 2004–2014); the historical high occurred in 2014, and the affected area expanded from northern pastureland provinces to the adjacent grassland and agricultural areas, then to southern coastal and southwestern areas. Control strategies in China should be adjusted to account for these changes by adopting a One Health approach. PMID:28098531

  11. Simple and rapid field tests for brucellosis in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoel, Theresia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Cardoso, Regina; Smits, Henk L.

    2008-01-01

    Four simple and rapid field tests for the serodiagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, goat, sheep and swine were developed. The performance of the assays was investigated using serum samples collected in Portugal from animals originating from herds with a defined sanitary status with respect to the

  12. Brucellosis in pastoral and confined livestock: prevention and vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, H. L.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional lifestyle and beliefs of pastoralists and small-scale farmers with confined livestock, together with certain farming environments, create favourable conditions for the spread and transmission of brucellosis. The risks associated with these practices are difficult to control because

  13. Brucellosis and thrombosis of the inferior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegger, Kristina; Tarr, Philip; Karatolios, Konstantinos; Humburg, Jörg; Hügli, Rolf; Jeanneret, Christina

    2017-01-01

    We describe the case of a 23-year old woman with a newly diagnosed thrombosis of the inferior vena cava associated with a Brucella melitensis infection. We suggest possible mechanisms leading to brucellosis-associated venous thrombosis and review 14 previously reported cases.
.

  14. Serological evidence for brucellosis in Bos indicus in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertu, Wilson J.; Gusi, Amahyel M.; Hassan, Moses; Mwankon, Esther; Ocholi, Reuben A.; Ior, Daniel D.; Husseini, Bakari A.; Ibrahim, Gideon; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Nigeria is the largest cattle-rearing nation in Africa with most animals kept under traditional husbandry practices. While bovine brucellosis does not receive much attention, a relatively high seroprevalence is found in samples submitted for laboratory testing. The aim of the study was to

  15. Persistence and relapse in brucellosis and need for improved treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, María Pía; Mulder, Maximilian; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    Treatment failure and relapse are major problems in the management of brucellosis. In developing countries, treatment with the oral combination doxycycline/rifampicin is preferred because of its convenience. However, its efficacy is lower than that of the doxycycline/streptomycin regimen and is

  16. Rapid latex agglutination test for the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a user-friendly latex agglutination assay for the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis. The assay was obtained by coating colored latex beads with Brucella lipopolysaccharides and drying of the activated beads onto white agglutination cards. Individual cards were sealed in a

  17. Bovine brucellosis in Argentina and bordering countries: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M N; Samartino, L E; Humblet, M-F; Saegerman, C

    2014-04-01

    Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease spread worldwide. The infection in cattle is predominantly caused by Brucella abortus and is usually detected in pregnant females through abortions. The disease is endemic in Argentina; however, infection in humans is underestimated and often not reported. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis in countries bordering Argentina is quite variable: 0.04% in Uruguay, 10.20% in the north and 0.06% in the south of Brazil, 0.2% in Chile, 3.15% in Paraguay and 2.27% in Bolivia. In 1999, the Argentine National Control and Eradication Program was implemented. Its strategies include identification of vaccinated animals, compulsory vaccination with B. abortus S19 of 100% of 3- to 8-month-old females, negative serological tests before animal movements and categorization of farms in terms of their brucellosis status. The epidemiological surveillance in milk is performed through the milk ring test and the indirect ELISA. The result of a national brucellosis survey performed in 2004 indicates that 12.4% (95% CI: 10.89-14.0) of Argentine beef farms are seropositive to Brucella and that the apparent prevalence in cattle is 2.10% (95% CI: 1.90-2.40). The official serological diagnostic tests are as follows: buffered plate antigen test, as screening, serum agglutination test, 2-mercaptoethanol and fluorescence polarization assay, competitive ELISA, as confirmatory tests, and complement fixation test, as definitive test. Santa Fe and a district in Córdoba have 'Outstanding Plans'. Tierra del Fuego is a 'Zone free from bovine brucellosis'. One question arising when studying the Argentine situation is why the disease remains endemic if good regulations exist to control and eradicate it. In future, some different aspects might be evaluated to understand it, and further studies should be performed to prioritize, select and refine control strategies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Risk factors for brucellosis in Samarqand Oblast, Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earhart, Kenneth; Vafakolov, Sadulla; Yarmohamedova, Nargiza; Michael, Atef; Tjaden, Jeffrey; Soliman, Atef

    2009-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify the potential risk factors for human brucellosis infection in Samarqand, Uzbekistan. Clinically identified cases admitted to different hospitals during 2004-2006 (N=144), and age-, sex- and residence-matched control patients (N=288) with other unrelated conditions, were included in this study. Structured questionnaires were completed and consent forms signed. Patients and controls were tested on site for Brucella infection by standard tube agglutination test and culture. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata software for univariate and multivariate analysis. Among the 144 patients with confirmed brucellosis, 137 (95.1%) owned farm animals, 135 (93.8%) were from rural areas, and 119 (82.6%) were enrolled during the animal breeding season. Multivariate analysis indicated that brucellosis was highly associated with contact with aborted animals (adjusted matched odds ratio (AMOR) 87.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.36-911.85; p<0.001), slaughtering/butchering animals (AMOR 35.35, 95% CI 6.25-199.77; p<0.001) in the household, consumption of raw milk (AMOR 54.13, 95% CI 1.98-1476.13; p=0.018), and being in a family that had brucellosis sharing the same exposure (AMOR 15.93, 95% CI 1.37-184.97; p=0.027). To reduce the burden of brucellosis in Samarqand Oblast, veterinary services should be improved. Also public health education programs should be increased. Implementing these measures will minimize exposure to infected farm animals and reduce the risk of infection.

  19. [Epidemiology of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Formosa province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana M; Mancebo, Orlando A; Monzón, Carlos M; Gait, Juan J; Casco, Rubén D; Torioni de Echaide, Susana M

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of brucellosis was carried out in 516 goats and mixed flocks (goat/sheep) from the three agro-ecological regions of Formosa province, Argentina. Serum samples from a total of 25401 goats and 2453 sheeps were analyzed using buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Bacteriological and PCR analyses on milk samples from goats in three flocks with a history of brucellosis and recent abortions were also performed. Brucellosis was detected in four of the nine departments of the province with an overall prevalence of 2% and an intra-flock prevalence ranging between 1% and 40%. The proportion of infected flocks was 3.6%, 12% and 36% for the eastern, central and western regions, respectively. Brucella melitensis bv. 1 was isolated efrom goats for the first time in the province. The expected fragments of 827bp from the omp2ab gene (Brucella spp.) and 731bp from the insert IS711 (B. melitensis) were amplified by PCR. Detection of antibodies by BPAT and FCT in sheep cohabiting with goats suggests that infections could have been caused by B. melitensis, posing an additional risk to public health. Control and eradication programs for brucellosis should consider mixed flocks as a single epidemiological unit. The results indicate that brucellosis by B. melitensis bv1 is highly endemic in the central and western regions of Formosa province. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Medical Meteorology: the Relationship between Meteorological Parameters (Humidity, Rainfall, Wind, and Temperature and Brucellosis in Zanjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefali Abedini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis (Malta fever is a major contagious zoonotic disease, with economic and public health importance. Methods To assess the effect of meteorological (temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind and climate parameters on incidence of brucellosis, brucellosis distribution and meteorological zoning maps of Zanjan Province were prepared using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW and Kriging technique in Arc GIS medium. Zoning maps of mean temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind were compared to brucellosis distribution maps. Results: Correlation test showed no relationship between the mean number of patients with brucellosis and any of the four meteorological parameters. Conclusion: It seems that in Zanjan province there is no correlation between brucellosis and meteorological parameters.

  1. Endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm due to brucellosis: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Qi; Liu, Han; Sun, Siqiao; Sun, Xiwei; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Zhongying; Cheng, Zhihua

    2017-06-02

    Arterial damage is a known complication of brucellosis, but the occurrence of a thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm secondary to brucellosis has not been previously reported. A 65-year-old Chinese man presented with a pseudoaneurysm in the descending segment of the thoracic aorta that caused symptoms of chest pain and intermittent fever. He was diagnosed with a thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm secondary to brucellosis based on a positive brucella serology test (standard-tube agglutination test) and imaging examination (computed tomography angiography). Anti-brucellosis treatment and covered stent graft implantation were attempted to eliminate the brucellosis and pseudoaneurysm, respectively, and were ultimately successful, with no symptoms after 6 months of follow-up. Endovascular repair may be effective and safe for treating a thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm resulting from brucellosis.

  2. Brucellosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current challenges for management, diagnosis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, M; Bertu, W J; Matope, G; Cadmus, S; Conde-Álvarez, R; Gusi, A M; Welburn, S; Ocholi, R; Blasco, J M; Moriyón, I

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella and affecting domestic and wild mammals. In this paper, the bacteriological and serological evidence of brucellosis in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and its epidemiological characteristics are discussed. The tools available for the diagnosis and treatment of human brucellosis and for the diagnosis and control of animal brucellosis and their applicability in the context of SSA are presented and gaps identified. These gaps concern mostly the need for simpler and more affordable antimicrobial treatments against human brucellosis, the development of a B. melitensis vaccine that could circumvent the drawbacks of the currently available Rev 1 vaccine, and the investigation of serological diagnostic tests for camel brucellosis and wildlife. Strategies for the implementation of animal vaccination are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Animal Vaccination Against Brucellosis on Human Incidence Rate in Hamadan Province 2002-2008

    OpenAIRE

    N.A. Norouzi; B. Talebi; H. Erfani; A Karimi; S.J. Bathaie; A.R. Moradi; Moradi , A. (MSc)

    2009-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Brucellosis is an important zoonosis considered a serious hazard to public health . Human brucellosis is caused by one of the four species of the brucella genus: B. melitensis is principally found in goats and sheep, B. abortus in cattle, B. suis in swine and B. canis in dogs. Vaccination of young animals, is a strategy to decrease the incidence rate of brucellosis in humans. The objective of this study is to give an estimate of vaccination coverage in animals (sheep...

  4. Acute Brucellosis with Splenic Infarcts: A Case Report from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishal Alyousef

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenic infarction is an extremely rare and unique presentation of brucellosis. Only few cases have been reported worldwide. We here report a case of a young man, presenting with acute onset of fever, left hypochondial pain, and vomiting. Further evaluation revealed multiple splenic infarcts and positive blood culture for brucellosis despite negative transesophageal echocardiography for endocarditis. Significant improvement in clinical symptoms and splenic lesions was achieved after six weeks of combination therapy against brucellosis.

  5. Overview of Human Brucellosis in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Paul

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Brucellosis is a common zoonotic disease of the Middle Eastern countries. Acute cases of brucellosis are often treated as cases of Pyrexia of unknown origin. Aims The main aim of this study is to compare the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings of the 42 culture positive cases of Brucella. Methods Forty two culture positive cases of Brucella were obtained from both in -patients and outpatients with a history of pyrexia over a period of two years (Nov 2014-Nov 2016. The patients' files were examined retrospectively for the history, clinical features, and lab findings. Results The prevalence of brucellosis was calculated to be 11.1 per cent as 42 cases were positive for brucellosis out of 377 of PUO cases Of the 42 cultures positive patients the percentage of males (57.1 per cent were almost equal to the females(42.8 per cent. The mean±S.D age was 28.5±13.65. 28.5 per cent had a history of livestock associations (Chi-square 3.8889, a p-value of 0.048607 which was statistically significant. 26.2 per cent had a history of raw milk and dairy produce intake (Chi-Square 2.6276, p-value of 0.105023 this was not statistically significant. 9.5 per cent had a family history of brucellosis; this association was not statistically significant as well (chi-square statistic 1.8651, p-value of 0.172034. 61.9 per cent presented as acute cases, 30.9 per cent of sub-acute cases and 7.1 per cent as chronic cases respectively. The pre- dominant clinical symptom was Fever (100 per cent with the commonest clinical signs being the osteoarticular signs (30.9 per cent. Raised ESR and CRP positives were seen in 34 cases (80.9 per cent and 23 cases (55 per cent respectively followed by Anaemia in 22 cases (52.3 per cent. Forty two cases were blood culture positive. All the cases were sensitive to the recommended regimen of Doxycycline and streptomycin. Conclusion Brucellosis is still a major health problem in the Middle Eastern countries especially

  6. The Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Anti-Diuretic Hormone (SIADH) and Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Keziban Aslı; Doğan, Murat; Kaba, Sultan; Akbayram, Sinan; Aslan, Oktay; Kocaman, Selami; Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Üstyol, Lokman; Demir, Nihat

    2016-09-03

    BACKGROUND Our study aimed to demonstrate the frequency of the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) and associated factors during the course of brucellosis in children and adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included children and adolescents aged 0-18 years old diagnosed with brucellosis between 2012 and 2014. The data were collected from patient charts. The diagnosis of brucellosis was made based on titrations >1:160 in standard Wright tube agglutination tests and/or positive culture tests. SIADH diagnosis was made based on the following criteria: euvolemic hyponatremia, serum Na+ 25 mmol/L with normal dietary salt intake), low uric acid (brucellosis.

  7. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010–2014

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    Pengwei Lou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920–18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R0=2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129–2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic.

  8. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920–18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R 0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129–2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R 0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic. PMID:27872852

  9. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920-18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R 0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129-2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R 0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic.

  10. A study on bovine brucellosis in an organized dairy farm

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    V. Bhanu Rekha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the status of bovine brucellosis in an organized dairy with a past history of Brucella abortions and where Brucella control measures including test and removal, calf-hood vaccination (already present adult animals were not vaccinated, use of semen obtained from a screened bull and general hygienic measures helps in the control of brucellosis in the farm have been implemented for the past four years.Materials and Methods: A total of 195 samples including 89 blood samples, 89 serum samples and 17 milk samples were collected and analysed by isolation and identification, Polymerase chain Reaction (PCR, Milk Ring Test (MRT, Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT, Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT and Enzyme Linked Immnuno-Sorbent assay ELISA.Results: On analysis, all the 89 blood and 17 milk samples turned out to be negative for culture and PCR. MRT and ELISA tests on all the 17 milk samples and STAT on all the 89 serum samples were also negative. The percent positives for Brucella antibodies in serum samples were 4.5 and 6.7 by RBPT and ELISA, respectively. Of the 17 vaccinated animals, 14 were negative by all the Brucella antigen and antibody diagnostic tests employed. Amongst the three vaccinated animals, one animal was positive by RBPTand I-ELISAand, two animals were positive by I-ELISAalone. On the other hand, of the 72 nonvaccinated animals, 65 were negative by all the diagnostic tests employed, three animals were positive by RBPTand 4 animals were positive by I-ELISA. Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that a combination of RBPT and I-ELISA can be successfully used for screening for brucellosis when the prevalence is low. Implementation of control measures including test and removal of the affected, calf-hood vaccination, use of semen obtained from a screened bull and general hygienic measures help in the control of brucellosis in the farm.

  11. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among dairy farm workers in Mexico

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    Miguel E Cervera-Hernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the seroprevalence and associated factors for brucellosis among dairy farm workers. Materials and methods. We performed a secondary analysis of a data set and sera from a previous cross-sectional study in a dairy farm. Sera were tested for Brucella spp. antibodies by the slide agglutination test. Seropositivity was defined as a titer ≥1:40; recent infection was titers ≥1:160. Results. We tested 331 human sera. Seroprevalence of brucellosis was 18.1% (60/331; 95% CI 14.1-22.7; 13.3% of them (8/60; 95% CI 5.9 - 24.5 corresponded to recent infection. Highexposure occupation (calf caretaker; OR 3.3; 95%CI 1.1 – 9.7, daily hours in contact with cows (OR 1.1; 95%CI 1.03 – 1.2, and living on-site (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1 – 4.4 remained inde- pendently associated with seropositivity. Conclusions. We found a high seroprevalence of brucellosis among dairy farm workers, as well as a significant association among those with prolonged and close contact with cattle.

  12. Diagnosis of bovine brucellosis using a homogeneous fluorescence polarization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K; Gall, D; Lin, M; Massangill, C; Samartino, L; Perez, B; Coats, M; Hennager, S; Dajer, A; Nicoletti, P; Thomas, F

    1998-12-11

    To evaluate the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis, 118 sera from cattle which were culture positive for Brucella abortus, 1751 sera from cattle from premises containing cattle infected with B. abortus, 1222 sera from cattle vaccinated with B. abortus strain 19 and 1199 sera from cattle with no evidence of brucellosis were tested in Argentina, Chile, Mexico and in the American states of Iowa, Missouri and Texas. Initial determination of serological positivity and negativity was based upon reactivity in currently used serological tests, consisting of a rapid screening test, the rose-bengal or the buffered plate antigen tests, followed by a second serological test, the complement fixation test. Sensitivity of the FPA (sera from culture positive animals) ranged from 87.5% to 100%. Serological positivity of cattle from infected premises ranged from 65.5% to 99.0% while the % negative cattle in herds without evidence of brucellosis was between 94.9 and 100%. Of B. abortus strain 19 vaccinated cattle which were positive in at least one in-use serological tests, 88.2% were negative in the FPA. In contrast, previous Canadian studies, sensitivity values were 99.0% and 100% and the specificity in both cases was 100%. This discrepancy was probably due to the use of less well characterized sera in the current study.

  13. Recurrent Epistaxis and Bleeding as the Initial Manifestation of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Kamali Aghdam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe thrombocytopenia with bleeding is rarely reported in children with brucellosis, and recurrent epistaxis is extremely rare. Brucellosis with hemorrhage should be differentiated from viral hemorrhagic fever, malignancy, and other blood disorders. Bone marrow aspiration (BMA is mandatory to differentiate from other blood diseases. An 8-year-old boy was admitted with recurrent epistaxis, petechiae and purpura on face and extremities and bleeding from the gums. During the hospitalization, he was febrile and complained of muscle pain. Leukopenias associated with thrombocytopenia were observed. BMA showed to be normal. Among the multiple tests requested, only serum agglutination test (SAT and 2-MercaptoEthanol test (2-ME were positive. He was treated with Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG associated with co-trimoxazole and rifampin. Finally, fever subsided, and he was discharged with good condition and normal platelet count. Brucellosis should be a differential diagnosis in patients with fever and bleeding disorders and a history of consumption of unpasteurized dairy, in endemic areas.

  14. Serological study of brucellosis in Argentine Creole sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gustavo E; Peña, Sabrina; Escobar, Gabriela I; Hasan, Déborah B; Lucero, Nidia E

    2018-01-05

    Ovine cattle was introduced into America during the Spanish conquest with the second journey of Columbus to the Antilles and was disseminated throughout the region. In 1587, sheep were introduced into Argentina, later developing into the "Creole" breed. We selected 486 animals from different Argentine provinces with the aim of determining the serological status of brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis and Brucella ovis. For the detection of antibodies against smooth Brucella spp., the Rose Bengal test (RBT) was performed as screening test while the serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2 mercapto-ethanol (2ME) were run as a confirmatory technique. Moreover, for the detection of antibodies against rough Brucella spp., we used the rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) for screening and an indirect ELISA (IELISA) as confirmatory assay. This study showed that the total positive percentage of brucellosis due to B. ovis was 2.9%. Excluding the animals mixed with the Suffolk breed; seropositivity would be 0.6%. All animals tested negative for brucellosis caused by B. melitensis. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Epididymoorchitis as the First Finding in Patients with Brucellosis

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    Ayhan Karaköse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Acute scrotal pain as the first symptom of brucellosis is rarely observed. We aimed to evaluate the data of male patients with brucellosis and epididymoorchitis as the initial diagnosis. Material and Methods. The data of seven patients presented with testicular pain, hyperemia, swelling, and increased fever were reviewed. Concomitant focal diseases as well as clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings were retrospectively evaluated. Results. The mean age of the patients was 22.28 ± 7.78 (16–35 years. All patients presented with scrotal pain, swelling, and increased sweating. Additional findings included fever, asthenia, arthralgia, dysuria, shiver and rash, weight loss, and vomiting in 6, 5, 4, 4, 3, 2, and 1 patient, respectively. In all of 7 patients, the agglutination tests of Rose-Bengal and Wright were positive. Coombs test was positive only in 3 patients. The patients underwent antibiotic and conservative treatment. No relapse was observed following the treatment. Conclusion. In endemic regions, epididymoorchitis caused by brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute scrotal pain. Clinical and serological findings are sufficient for the diagnosis. Conservative management combined with antibiotic therapy is adequate for managing brucellar epididymoorchitis.

  16. Human Brucellosis in the Republic of Macedonia by Regions Depending on Vaccination Procedures in Sheep and Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharko Stojmanovski

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Decline of the incidence of human brucellosis is one of the major indicators for successfully implemented new control programs and strategies for prevention and eradication of brucellosis in sheep and goats. Vaccination was good measure to control brucellosis in the 3 regions.

  17. Review of clinical and laboratory features of human Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantur B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Brucella spp. continues to pose a human health risk globally despite strides in eradicating the disease from domestic animals. Brucellosis has been an emerging disease since the discovery of Brucella melitensis by Sir David Bruce in 1887. Although many countries have eradicated B. abortus from cattle, in some areas B. melitensis and B. suis have emerged as causes of this infection in cattle, leading to human infections. Currently B. melitensis remains the principal cause of human brucellosis worldwide including India. The recent isolation of distinct strains of Brucella from marine mammals as well as humans is an indicator of an emerging zoonotic disease. Brucellosis in endemic and non-endemic regions remains a diagnostic puzzle due to misleading non-specific manifestations and increasing unusual presentations. Fewer than 10% of human cases of brucellosis may be clinically recognized and treated or reported. Routine serological surveillance is not practiced even in Brucella - endemic countries and we suggest that this should be a part of laboratory testing coupled with a high index of clinical suspicion to improve the level of case detection. The screening of family members of index cases of acute brucellosis in an endemic area should be undertaken to pick up additional unrecognised cases. Rapid and reliable, sensitive and specific, easy to perform and automated detection systems for Brucella spp. are urgently needed to allow early diagnosis and adequate antibiotic therapy in time to decrease morbidity / mortality. The history of travel to endemic countries along with exposure to animals and exotic foods are usually critical to making the clinical diagnosis. Laboratory testing is indispensable for diagnosis. Therefore alertness of clinician and close collaboration with microbiologist are essential even in endemic areas to correctly diagnose and treat this protean human infection. Existing treatment options, largely based on

  18. Osteoarticular Involvement among Brucellosis Cases in Konya City

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    Hale Turan Ozden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Brucellosis is a systemic disease that can affect many organs and tissues. Musculoskeletal system is one of the most commonly affected systems. Disease may present itself with sacroiliitis, peripheral arthritis, spondylitis, paraspinal abscess, bursitis or osteomyelitis. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency, types and clinical features of osteoarticular involvement among cases with brucellosis in Konya city and to establish the differences between patients with and without osteoarticular involvement. Material and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen patients with Brucellosis who presented between June 2003 and June 2014 were included in the study. Brucellosis was diagnosed by positive Brucella Standard Agglutination Test ( and #61619;1/160 titer and/or growth of Brucella spp. in blood culture in addition to the presence of clinical signs and findings. Diagnosis of osteoarticular system complications was established by physical examination and radiological findings obtained by diagnostic imaging tools. Magnetic resonance images of the thoracic, lumbar or sacral vertebrae were acquired in patients with back pain, low back pain and sacro-iliac joint pain. Results: Osteoarticular involvement was noted in 129 patients (40.8% (females: 52% and males: 48%. The most common route of transmission was employment in farming and/or consumption of un-pasteurized milk or dairy products, especially fresh cheese, in 97 (75% cases. Mean age was 46 and #61617;18 years. Sacroiliitis was the most frequent osteoarticular involvement (n: 68, 52.7%, 70.5% of which were bilateral. Sacroiliitis was followed by spondylodiscitis in 35 (38.7%, peripheral arthritis in 20 (15.5%, bursitis in 1 (0.8% cases. Patients with osteoarticular involvement received medical treatment for at least three months. Discussion: Ratio and anatomical region of osteoarticular involvement in brucellosis shows variability among areas. In the present study, we

  19. Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and small ruminants in the Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germeraad, Eveline A.; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Faye-Joof, Tisbeh; Roest, Hendrik-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis with significant impact on rural livelihoods and a potentially underestimated contributor to febrile illnesses. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and small ruminants in The Gambia. Methods The study was

  20. A review of serological tests used in the diagnosis of Brucellosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brucellosis is of serious economic importance in livestock and in humans. There are batteries of serological tests developed and in use for the diagnosis of brucellosis in human and livestock Brief history, merits and demerits of some of these test are enumerated in this review. The purpose of the review is to bring together in ...

  1. Cervical Spondylitis and Epidural Abscess Caused by Brucellosis: a Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reşorlu Hatice

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease widely seen in endemic regions and that can lead to systemic involvement. The musculoskeletal system is frequently affected, and the disease can exhibit clinical involvements such as arthritis, spondylitis, spondylodiscitis, osteomyelitis, tenosynovitis and bursitis. Spondylitis and spondylodiscitis, common complications of brucellosis, predominantly affect the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae.

  2. Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and small ruminants in the Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germeraad, Eveline A.; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Faye-Joof, Tisbeh; Goossens, Bart; Van Hoek, Wim Der; Jeng, Momodou; Lamin, Modou; Manneh, Ismaila L.; Nwakanma, Davis; Roest, Hendrik I J; Secka, Arss; Stegeman, Arjan; Wegmüller, Rita; Van Der Sande, Marianne A B; Secka, Ousman

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis with significant impact on rural livelihoods and a potentially underestimated contributor to febrile illnesses. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and small ruminants in The Gambia. METHODS: The study was

  3. Financial analysis of brucellosis control for small-scale goat farming in the Bajio Region, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Bruce, M.; Frankena, K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Rushton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in small-scale goat husbandry systems in Mexico. It is a zoonosis and the economic consequences can be large, although estimates are not available for the Mexican goat sector. Our objective was to conduct a financial analysis of brucellosis control in a prominent

  4. Low Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in Humans and Small Ruminants in the Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germeraad, Eveline A; Hogerwerf, Lenny|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/340295635; Faye-Joof, Tisbeh; Goossens, Bart; van der Hoek, Wim; Jeng, Momodou; Lamin, Modou; Manneh, Ismaila L; Nwakanma, Davis; Roest, Hendrik I J; Secka, Arss; Stegeman, Arjan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137144040; Wegmüller, Rita; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Secka, Ousman

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis with significant impact on rural livelihoods and a potentially underestimated contributor to febrile illnesses. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and small ruminants in The Gambia. METHODS: The study was

  5. Brucellosis in the United States: Role and Significance of Wildlife Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory programs for brucellosis in domestic livestock have been active in the United States for almost 80 years. Wildlife reservoirs of brucellosis include bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) for B. abortus whereas B. suis is the predominant species infecting feral swine. The...

  6. BOCI-Egypt : Brucellosis and Tuberculosis control 21- 25 March 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, A.J.; Vugt, van F.

    2011-01-01

    This is the report of the first mission to Egypt for the project: Impact of brucellosis and tuberculosis on animal production and public health (BO-10-009-118). The objective of this mission was: to make an assessment of the current needs and problems in Egypt related to brucellosis and tuberculosis

  7. Brucellosis in household members of Brucella patients residing in a large urban setting in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendoza-Núñez, Marjorie; Mulder, Maximilian; Franco, María Pía; Maas, Kathlène S. J. S. M.; Castañeda, Maria L.; Bonifacio, Nilo; Chacaltana, Jesús; Yagui, Elena; Gilman, Robert H.; Espinosa, Benjamin; Blazes, David; Hall, Eric; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.; Castañeda-Castañeda, Laura; Manrique, Jenny; Cordova, Nancy; Tuesta, Pilar; Osorio, Pilar; Yausen, Zósimo; Méndez, Melissa; Zavaleta, Milagros

    2008-01-01

    During home visits and using a point-of-care test for brucellosis, we screened the household members of adult patients found to have brucellosis by investigation at the Hospital Nacional Daniel Alcides Carrión in Callao, Peru. A total of 206 household members of 43 patients were screened, and 15

  8. Development and evaluation of a rapid dipstick assay for serodiagnosis of acute human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, H. L.; Basahi, M. A.; Díaz, R.; Marrodan, T.; Douglas, J. T.; Rocha, A.; Veerman, J.; Zheludkov, M. M.; Witte, O. W.; de Jong, J.; Gussenhoven, G. C.; Goris, M. G.; van der Hoorn, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    A dipstick assay for the detection of brucella-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies was evaluated with 707 sera from 247 laboratory-confirmed brucellosis patients and 342 control sera from brucellosis-free individuals. These sera were collected from six different countries. The assay was found to be

  9. Evaluation of Brucella dipstick assay for the diagnosis of acute brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altuglu, Imre; Zeytinoğlu, Aysin; Bilgic, Altinay; Kamcioglu, Saniye; Karakartal, Guney; Smits, Henk

    2002-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the dipstick assay was evaluated by comparison with Rose Bengal (RB), serum aglutination tests (SAT) and 2 mercaptoethanol test (2-ME) on consecutive serum samples submitted because of suspicion of brucellosis. Serum samples of 232 patients with suspected brucellosis that

  10. A novel multi-epitope recombined protein for diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dehui; Li, Li; Song, Xiuling; Li, Han; Wang, Juan; Ju, Wen; Qu, Xiaofeng; Song, Dandan; Liu, Yushen; Meng, Xiangjun; Cao, Hongqian; Song, Weiyi; Meng, Rizeng; Liu, Jinhua; Li, Juan; Xu, Kun

    2016-05-21

    In epidemic regions of the world, brucellosis is a reemerging zoonosis with minimal mortality but is a serious public hygiene problem. Currently, there are various methods for brucellosis diagnosis, however few of them are available to be used to diagnose, especially for serious cross-reaction with other bacteria. To overcome this disadvantage, we explored a novel multi-epitope recombinant protein as human brucellosis diagnostic antigen. We established an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on this recombinant protein. 248 sera obtained from three different groups including patients with brucellosis (146 samples), non-brucellosis patients (82 samples), and healthy individuals (20 samples) were tested by indirect ELISA. To evaluate the assay, a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and immunoblotting were carried out using these characterized serum samples. For this test, the area under the ROC curve was 0.9409 (95 % confidence interval, 0.9108 to 0.9709), and a sensitivity of 88.89 % and a specificity of 85.54 % was given with a cutoff value of 0.3865 from this ROC analysis. The Western blot results indicate that it is feasible to differentiate human brucellosis and non-brucellosis with the newly established method based on this recombinant protein. Our results obtained high diagnostic accuracy of the ELISA assay which encourage the use of this novel recombinant protein as diagnostic antigen to implement serological diagnosis of brucellosis.

  11. A Case of Brucellosis Associated with Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis: A Diagnostic Pitfall.

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    Nicole Dalton Wheeler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cases of brucellosis are rare in the United States and difficult to diagnose. We report a case of a young female who underwent a diagnostic investigation of fever of unknown origin, which included a lymph node biopsy. The biopsy was consistent with Kikuchi’s Disease, or histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, an entity where the major differential diagnosis is systemic lupus erythematosus. Interestingly, serologic studies supported the diagnosis of brucellosis. Brucellosis has rarely been associated with histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis. This association has never been reported in the United States, thus suggesting that brucellosis should be considered in the differential for histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, along with lupus-like autoimmune disease. As the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, brucellosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus are distinct, it is important to differentiate these entities. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(5.000: 274-279

  12. Human brucellosis in northwest Ecuador: typifying Brucella spp., seroprevalence, and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron-Román, Jorge; Ron-Garrido, Lenin; Abatih, Emmanuel; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Vizcaíno-Ordóñez, Laura; Calva-Pacheco, Jaime; González-Andrade, Pablo; Berkvens, Dirk; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington; Brandt, Jef; Fretin, David; Saegerman, Claude

    2014-02-01

    Human brucellosis in Ecuador is underreported and based only on passive surveillance. Since 2008, brucellosis was removed from the list of communicable diseases in the country. Until now, the true human brucellosis picture has not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of the disease, identify risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity in humans, and isolate circulating strains of Brucella spp. in the northwestern part of Ecuador. Between 2006 and 2008, a large transect survey was conducted, based on blood sampling of people from the northwestern part of Ecuador (n=3733) together with an epidemiological inquiry. On the basis of three diagnostic tests used in parallel, the overall seroprevalence was estimated as 1.88% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48-2.38). Based on a multivariable random effects logistic regression analysis, the main risk factors associated with human brucellosis seropositivity were contact with livestock (odds ratio [OR]=3.0; CI 1.25-7.08), consumption of fetus and placenta (OR=2.5; CI 1.18-5.22), and involvement in activities at risk for brucellosis infection (OR=1.8; CI 1.00-3.35). Noticeable variation in brucellosis seropositivity among humans within cantons was observed. The circulating strain was Brucella abortus biotype 4. This study emphasized that contact with livestock, consumption of fetus and placenta, and occupational hazard group were all significant risk factors for the transmission of brucellosis among individuals in the northwestern part of Ecuador. Alongside encouraging the launching of educational campaigns against brucellosis, especially in rural areas where 36% of the population lives, controlling this zoonotic disease in animals will directly benefit its prevention in humans, especially because there is no safe and efficacious vaccine against brucellosis in humans.

  13. Clinical Manifestations of Human Brucellosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Anna S.; Crump, Lisa; Greter, Helena; Hattendorf, Jan; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Background The objectives of this systematic review, commissioned by WHO, were to assess the frequency and severity of clinical manifestations of human brucellosis, in view of specifying a disability weight for a DALY calculation. Methods/Principal Findings Thirty three databases were searched, with 2,385 articles published between January 1990–June 2010 identified as relating to human brucellosis. Fifty-seven studies were of sufficient quality for data extraction. Pooled proportions of cases with specific clinical manifestations were stratified by age category and sex and analysed using generalized linear mixed models. Data relating to duration of illness and risk factors were also extracted. Severe complications of brucellosis infection were not rare, with 1 case of endocarditis and 4 neurological cases per 100 patients. One in 10 men suffered from epididymo-orchitis. Debilitating conditions such as arthralgia, myalgia and back pain affected around half of the patients (65%, 47% and 45%, respectively). Given that 78% patients had fever, brucellosis poses a diagnostic challenge in malaria-endemic areas. Significant delays in appropriate diagnosis and treatment were the result of health service inadequacies and socioeconomic factors. Based on disability weights from the 2004 Global Burden of Disease Study, a disability weight of 0.150 is proposed as the first informed estimate for chronic, localised brucellosis and 0.190 for acute brucellosis. Conclusions This systematic review adds to the understanding of the global burden of brucellosis, one of the most common zoonoses worldwide. The severe, debilitating, and chronic impact of brucellosis is highlighted. Well designed epidemiological studies from regions lacking in data would allow a more complete understanding of the clinical manifestations of disease and exposure risks, and provide further evidence for policy-makers. As this is the first informed estimate of a disability weight for brucellosis, there is a

  14. Celecoxib for the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression due to acute brucellosis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, S; Ashrafizadeh, S-G; Zeinoddini, A; Rasoulinejad, M; Entezari, P; Seddighi, S; Akhondzadeh, S

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a debilitating complication of brucellosis and how best to treat this is a matter of debate. Inflammatory processes are involved in the pathogenesis of both brucellosis and depression. Therefore, we hypothesized that celecoxib could be beneficial for the treatment of depression due to brucellosis. Forty outpatients with depression due to brucellosis with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score (HDRS) brucellosis when compared with placebo. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Vaccination strategies for managing brucellosis in Yellowstone bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, John J; Johnson, Joseph S; Wallen, Rick L; Cilles, Sara; Crowley, Philip H; Cox, John J; Maehr, David S; White, P J; Plumb, Glenn E

    2010-10-01

    Concerns over migratory bison (Bison bison) at Yellowstone National Park transmitting brucellosis (Brucella abortus) to cattle herds on adjacent lands led to proposals for bison vaccination. We developed an individual-based model to evaluate how brucellosis infection might respond under alternate vaccination strategies, including: (1) vaccination of female calves and yearlings captured at the park boundary when bison move outside the primary conservation area; (2) combining boundary vaccination with the remote delivery of vaccine to female calves and yearlings distributed throughout the park; and (3) vaccinating all female bison (including adults) during boundary capture and throughout the park using remote delivery of vaccine. Simulations suggested Alternative 3 would be most effective, with brucellosis seroprevalence decreasing by 66% (from 0.47 to 0.16) over a 30-year period resulting from 29% of the population receiving protection through vaccination. Under this alternative, bison would receive multiple vaccinations that extend the duration of vaccine protection and defend against recurring infection in latently infected animals. The initial decrease in population seroprevalence will likely be slow due to high initial seroprevalence (40-60%), long-lived antibodies, and the culling of some vaccinated bison that were subsequently exposed to field strain Brucella and reacted positively on serologic tests. Vaccination is unlikely to eradicate B. abortus from Yellowstone bison, but could be an effective tool for reducing the level of infection. Our approach and findings have applicability world-wide for managers dealing with intractable wildlife diseases that cross wildlife-livestock and wildlife-human interfaces and affect public health or economic well-being. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. [A new allergen for the determination of ovine brucellosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menasse, I; Skoulas, E; Seimenis, A; Skyrianos, G

    1976-01-01

    The authors report on the experimental use of an allergen, prepared by a special method, for the detection of brucellosis in both infected and non-infected sheep. The best method is the intradermal injection into the eyelid of 0.5 ml and the best time for reading the reaction is between 48 and 72 hrs after inoculation. The allergen proved more sensitive than the serum-agglutination test on infected sheep, and extremely specific, since all tests on non-infected sheep were negative and induced neither agglutinin production nor allergic sensitization.

  17. Descriptive Study of the Presentation of Human Brucellosis in Colombia (2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lopez Guarnizo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to conduct a descriptive study of the occurrence of human brucellosis in Colombia between 2000 and 2012, and, based on previous studies, to determine the prevalence and incidence of the disease, and the limitations for its timely diagnosis and recognition by the Colombian labor system. The research consisted of searching for and analyzing articles on human brucellosis published between 2000 and 2012 in Colombia. It included a phase of information gathering and unstructured interviews with representatives of brucellosis control programs and experienced professionals. We analyzed 17 studies of human brucellosis cases in personnel at risk in slaughterhouses, retailers and vaccinators for animal brucellosis programs: 10 of them reported prevalences between 0.14% and 10.4%, and seven evidenced seropositivity. Information revealed the limitations of the diagnosis, and it demonstrated the little knowledge of the medical community about this disease. In Colombia, there is no clear policy regarding this occupational zoonosis. Brucellosis is mentioned only in Decree 2566 of 2009, in which the new table of occupational diseases is established. The paper concludes that human brucellosis in Colombia is an underdiagnosed, and therefore underreported, disease since there is no mandatory reporting system on the subject.

  18. Human brucellosis in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shehhi, Nawal; Aziz, Faisal; Al Hosani, Farida; Aden, Bashir; Blair, Iain

    2016-10-12

    Worldwide, human brucellosis remains an important and widespread infection. In the past, there were limited data on the occurrence of human brucellosis in the United Arab Emirates and the reported incidence appeared to be low compared with similar areas. In 2009, a new web-based infectious disease surveillance system was introduced in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. This paper reports data from this new system on human brucellosis for the 6 years 2010 to 2015. A dataset was extracted for each case of human brucellosis reported to the notification system for the 6 year period January 2010 to December 2015. Annual brucellosis rates by age-group, gender, nationality and, geographical region were calculated and compared. A total of 480 cases of brucellosis were reported. The overall crude notification rate was 3 · 3 per 100,000 population but higher rates were seen in certain population subgroups notably expatriate males of working age in the Eastern Region (approximately 10 per 100,000) and UAE nationals of all ages and both genders in Abu Dhabi (between 4 -- 24 per 100,000). These findings reflect environmental and behavioral factors linked to occupation and leisure time activities associated with the large number of small non-commercial livestock farms in Abu Dhabi. Controlling human brucellosis in these circumstances will be challenging.

  19. Patterns of Brucellosis Infection Symptoms in Azerbaijan: A Latent Class Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ismayilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis infection is a multisystem disease, with a broad spectrum of symptoms. We investigated the existence of clusters of infected patients according to their clinical presentation. Using national surveillance data from the Electronic-Integrated Disease Surveillance System, we applied a latent class cluster (LCC analysis on symptoms to determine clusters of brucellosis cases. A total of 454 cases reported between July 2011 and July 2013 were analyzed. LCC identified a two-cluster model and the Vuong-Lo-Mendell-Rubin likelihood ratio supported the cluster model. Brucellosis cases in the second cluster (19% reported higher percentages of poly-lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, arthritis, myositis, and neuritis and changes in liver function tests compared to cases of the first cluster. Patients in the second cluster had a severe brucellosis disease course and were associated with longer delay in seeking medical attention. Moreover, most of them were from Beylagan, a region focused on sheep and goat livestock production in south-central Azerbaijan. Patients in cluster 2 accounted for one-quarter of brucellosis cases and had a more severe clinical presentation. Delay in seeking medical care may explain severe illness. Future work needs to determine the factors that influence brucellosis case seeking and identify brucellosis species, particularly among cases from Beylagan.

  20. Trend of human brucellosis over a decade at tertiary care centre in North Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, D P; Ajantha, G S; Shubhada, C; Jain, P A; Kalabhavi, A; Shetty, P C; Hosamani, M; Appannanavar, S; Kulkarni, R D

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease. India having a major agrarian population is expected to have a higher prevalence. However, due to lack of laboratory facility or awareness among clinicians, the disease is largely underreported. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence and trend of human brucellosis over a decade, in patients attending a teaching hospital in North Karnataka, and to understand their geographical distribution. The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in North Karnataka. A total of 3610 serum samples were evaluated from suspected cases of brucellosis. All serum samples were initially screened by Rose Bengal plate test, and positive samples were further analysed by Serum agglutination test (SAT) using standard Brucella abortus antigen from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. A titre above or equal to 1:80 IU/ml was considered as positive. Demographic data such as age, sex and native place of these patients were also analysed. We observed that human brucellosis is present in North Karnataka. The overall seropositivity of brucellosis in suspected cases was 5.1%. The positive titres ranged from 1:80 to 163,840 IU/ml. The majority of the patients were from Gadag, Koppal and Haveri districts of North Karnataka. Our study confirms the presence of human brucellosis in the northern part of Karnataka. Further studies to understand the prevalence of animal brucellosis in these areas will help in implementing prevention measures.

  1. Association of FCγRIIA (CD32 polymorphism with susceptibility to brucellosis

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    Zahra Hosseini khah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is the major bacterial zoonoses of global importance caused by Brucella spps. FCγRIIA receptor plays a central role in phagocytosis of IgG2-opsonized bacteria. FCγRIIA exhibits allelic polymorphisms with different capacities for binding IgG2 and phagocytosis. Cells expressing Fc γ RIIa-H131, bind more efficiently to complexes of IgG2 than those expressing the Fc γ RII A -R131 variant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of FCγRIIA polymorphisms with susceptibility to or severity of brucellosis. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated FCγRIIA polymorphisms (R/R131, R/H131, H/H131 in 67 patients with brucellosis and 67 age, sex and geographical matched healthy volunteers. FCγRIIA genotyping was performed by using a sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR. Results: The comparison of the FCγRIIA genotypes distribution in patients with brucellosis and controls showed a higher frequency in FCγRIIA-R/R131 homozygosity in patients than controls (47.8% vs. 28.4%. Logistic regression analysis showed that there is a significant correlation between R/R131 genotype and brucellosis (OR=2.3, 95%CI=1.3-4.2, P=0.04. Although the frequency of the FCγRIIA-R/R131 was higher in patients with chronic brucellosis compared with acute brucellosis, we did not find any statistically significant differences (53.8% vs. 46.3%, P=0.65. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that the homozygous genotype of FCγRIIA-R/R131 in patients with brucellosis may be associated with susceptibility to brucellosis as a genetic risk factor.

  2. The Prevalence of Brucellosis in Cattle, Goats and Humans in Rural Uganda: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R; Nakavuma, J L; Ssajjakambwe, P; Vudriko, P; Musisi, N; Kaneene, J B

    2016-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the presence of brucellosis in cattle, goats and humans in farms from south-western Uganda and identify risk factors associated with brucellosis in these three host groups. Data and serum samples were collected from 768 cattle, 315 goats and 236 humans, with 635 samples of bovine milk, from 70 farms in two different study areas in south-western Uganda. Sera from livestock were tested with the Rose Bengal Plate test, using B. abortus and B. melitensis antigens, and human sera were tested with a commercial IgG/IgM lateral flow assay. Milk samples were tested using the OIE-approved milk ring test. Screening tests for brucellosis were positive in 14% of cattle serum, 29% of bovine milk, 17% of goat serum and 11% of human serum samples. There were significant differences in the test prevalence of brucellosis by study site, with levels higher in the study area near Lake Mburo National Park than in the study area near Queen Elizabeth National Park. Multivariable regression models identified risk factors associated with increasing test positivity at the individual and farm levels for cattle, goats and humans. Positive associations were seen between increasing seropositivity of brucellosis in goats, cattle and humans. Results of multivariable analyses suggest that improvements in farm biosecurity and hygiene may reduce the risk of brucellosis on the farm and suggest a role for ticks in bovine brucellosis. Although cattle are the focus of brucellosis control in Uganda, the significant associations between seropositivity in humans and seropositivity in goats suggest that brucellosis in goats may be an important contributor to the epidemiology of the disease on the farm. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Representative seroprevalences of brucellosis in humans and livestock in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kasymbekov, Joldoshbek; Dürr, Salome; Toktobaev, Nurjan; Doherr, Marcus G; Schueth, Tobias; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2012-06-01

    Kyrgyzstan reported 77.5 new human brucellosis cases per 100,000 people in 2007, which is one of the highest incidences worldwide. In Kyrgyzstan, the currently used diagnostic tests in humans and animals are the Rose Bengal Test and the Huddleson test. A national representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, cattle, sheep, and goats was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 4,936 livestock sera and 1,774 human sera were tested in Naryn, Chuy, and Osh Oblasts. The overall apparent seroprevalences of brucellosis were 8.8% in humans (95% CI 4.5-16.5), 2.8% (95% CI 1.6-4.9%) in cattle, 3.3% (95% CI 1.5-6.9%) in sheep, and 2.5% (95% CI 1.4-4.5%) in goats. Naryn Oblast had the highest seroprevalences in humans and sheep. More men than women were seropositive (OR = 1.96; P Kyrgyzstan and warrants rapid effective intervention, among others, by mass vaccination of sheep and goats but also of cattle.

  4. An overview of the brucellosis epidemic conditions in Iran

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    fallah rostami Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is as one of the most important infection common disease between human and cattle, which nowadays considered as one of serious health systems dilemma specifically in developing countries.Among brucellosis different species are the cause of infection, 4 species namely B.melitensis, BSuis, B.abortus , B.canis are the most major cause of disease in human(1.Indeed, in Iran that is considered as an endemic area of hygienic organization, B. melitensis is as the most prevalent cause of infection in human. This bacterium generally will transfer to human from contact with contaminated animals or the consumption of cattle production such as unpasteurized dairy (raw milk, soft cheese, cream or even via breathe can transfer to human. But the transfer of infection from person to person is very infrequent.Of course there is some evidence of transfer in a bone marrow transplanting. The most prevalent clinical symptoms of this disease are fever, night sweat, asthenia and anorexia (2.Naturally this infection involved different systems and organs in human body and the one of most major part of body can be mentioned to nervous system, muscuskeletal and also some organs like joints, heart and liver.Diagnosis of this infection can be made by some various laboratory tests like SAT, 2ME. But some misdiagnosis instances are very common. Thus, World Health Organization (WHO exposed in its report that the number of infected cases are maybe ten folds more than scale which stated by health organizations.

  5. Brucelose canina: relato de caso Canine brucellosis: a case report

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    Agueda Castagna de Varga

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência de casos de brucelose em animais de um canil da cidade de Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul. Devido a registros de aborto nesta criação, suspeitou-se desta enfermidade. O isolamento da Brucella canis foi realizado através da cultura de materiais obtidos dos fetos abortados, placenta e neonatos. O teste sorológico de imunodifusão em gel de ágar demonstrou que 72,7% (8/11 dos animais deste canil haviam se infectado com esta bactéria. Neste relato são descritos e discutidos os dados clínicos e sorológicos, assim como o isolamento da Brucella canis.The ocurrence of canine brucellosis is described in a kennel from Uruguaiana city. Due to abortion registered at the kennel the suspected disease was brucellosis. The isolation of Bucella canis was realized by culturing the material collected from aborted fetuses, placenta and neonatos. The agar gel immunodiffusion test was used for sorological evaluation and showed that 72.7% (8/11 of the dogs were infected wifh the bactéria. The authors describe also the clinical signs, serological findings and also the isolation of the Brucella canis.

  6. Rocket and Two Dimensional Immunoelectrophoresis in Diagnosis of Caprine Brucellosis.

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    Mehrabani, Davood; Gholami, Zahra; Kohanteb, Jamshid; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hossein

    2015-08-01

    Brucellosis is a major bacterial zoonosis of global importance with the causative organisms of Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogens. The aims of this study were to standardize two immunoelectrophoretic techniques, rocket and cross immunoelectrophoresis, and compare their results with other conventional serodiagnostic tests. Sera from 15 sheep, without any history of brucellosis vaccination, infected with Brucella melitensis M16 subcutaneously, were employed in a comparison of culture, precipitating, and immunoelectrophoretic tests. A 125 days serologic follow-up was performed after the infection was started. As a reference, these tests also done in the five healthy sheep. The results obtained with the rocket immunoelectrophoresis test correlated very well with those of the cross immunoelectrophoresis, whereas results of other tests such as culture, Rose Bengal, standard tube agglutination and 2-mercaptoethanol seruagglutination tests were inferior. As agglutination test shows cross reaction and a prozone phenomenon, and in blood culture, the bacteria is not always detectable, so they are time consuming rocket and cross immunoelectrophoresis are recommended because their results can be obtained in a shorter time.

  7. Studies on a suitable antibiotic therapy for treating swine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieste-Pérez, L; Fraile, L; de Miguel, M J; Barberán, M; Blasco, J M; Muñoz, P M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was developing effective treatments against Brucella suis biovar 2, responsible for swine brucellosis in Europe. MICs for antibiotics used classically in brucellosis and two new macrolides (tulathromycin and tildipirosin) were determined for 33 B. suis biovar 2 field and B. suis reference strains. MIC90 values ranged from 0.01 to 0.25 μg/mL. The best candidates, given alone or combined, were then evaluated in mice. Ten groups (n = 7) of BALB/c mice were inoculated (1 × 10(5) CFU/mouse) with a virulent B. suis biovar 2 field strain. All groups, excepting untreated control, were treated for 14 days with, respectively, doxycycline, dihydrostreptomycin, tulathromycin (one or two doses), or tildipirosin (one or two doses) given alone, and doxycycline combined with dihydrostreptomycin, tulathromycin, or tildipirosin. Combined tildipirosin treatment was the most effective, then selected for pig studies. Sixteen B. suis biovar 2 naturally infected sows were treated with oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg BW/daily) for 21 days. The half of these received also tildipirosin (4 mg/kg BW) in two doses with a 10-day interval. An extensive bacteriological study conducted ten days after ceasing treatments proved the efficacy of this combined oxytetracycline/tildipirosin treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Brucellosis presenting as piriformis myositis: a case report

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    Romanos Odysseas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Myositis is a rare bacterial muscle infection. Involvement of the piriformis muscle has been rarely reported in the literature. In this report we describe a case of piriformis myositis due to Brucella melitensis, which to the best of our knowledge is the first such case presented in the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 19-year-old Caucasian man who presented to our institution with fever and right hip pain. Brucellosis was suspected, but the clinical suspicion was for spondylodiscitis. A pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scan allowed prompt diagnosis of inflammatory involvement of the right piriformis muscle. Blood culture results were positive for B. melitensis. Our patient was treated with antibiotics, and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans showed resolution of the inflammation. Conclusion Brucellosis can present as piriformis myositis. The clinical diagnosis of piriformis myositis is difficult, as it can mimic other common entities such as referred back pain from spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for establishing the diagnosis in the early stages of the disease, as late diagnosis can lead to abscess formation and the need for drainage.

  9. Seroprevalance of Brucellosis, Listeriosis and Toxoplasmosis in Cattle in Adana Province of Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sükran Yagci Yücel; Mehmet Yaman; Cemal Kurt; Cahit Babür; Bekir Çelebi; Selçuk Kiliç; Dogukan Özen

    2014-01-01

      Objective : This study was conducted to identify the seroprevalance of diseases which are zoonotic and responsible from abortion such as toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and brucellosis in Holstein crossbred cattle of...

  10. Outbreak of Occupational Brucellosis at a Pharmaceutical Factory in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, B D; Wang, S Q; Lai, S M; Lu, Y; Shi, X G; Cao, G P; Hu, X L; Zheng, C J; Yu, Z Y; Zhang, J M; Fang, C F; Gong, Z Y

    2017-09-01

    Brucellosis is an occupational disease affecting workers in butcher shops, the milking and dairy product industry, causing more than 500 000 new cases around the world. As a national statutory B infectious disease in China, morbidity of brucellosis is rapidly increasing in recent years. We report an occupational outbreak of brucellosis infection in a pharmaceutical factory. Exposure was a result of manual operation in the process line, close contact with sheep placentas, insufficient disinfection and repeated using of protective suits and infected by aerosol dissemination. Improved preventive methods, appropriate public health measures and spread of health education would be helpful to prevent the occupational outbreak of brucellosis in future. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunda, John; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Kazwala, Rudovic; French, Nigel P; Shirima, Gabriel; Macmillan, Alastair; Kambarage, Dominic; Bronsvoort, Mark; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2007-11-03

    Brucellosis is known to cause debilitating conditions if not promptly treated. In some rural areas of Tanzania however, practitioners give evidence of seeing brucellosis cases with symptoms of long duration. The purpose of this study was to establish health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania and explore the most feasible ways to improve it. This was designed as a longitudinal study. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients who reported to selected hospitals in rural northern Tanzania between June 2002 and April 2003. All patients with conditions suspicious of brucellosis on the basis of preliminary clinical examination and history were enrolled into the study as brucellosis suspects. Blood samples were taken and tested for brucellosis using the Rose-Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and other agglutination tests available at the health facilities and the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) test at the Veterinary Laboratory Agencies (VLA) in the UK. All suspects who tested positive with the c-ELISA test were regarded as brucellosis cases. A follow-up of 49 cases was made to collect data on health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases. The majority of cases 87.7% gave a history of going to hospital as the first point of care, 10.2% purchased drugs from a nearby drug shop before going to hospital and 2% went to a local traditional healer first. Brucellosis cases delayed going to hospital with a median delay time of 90 days, and with 20% of the cases presenting to hospitals more than a year after the onset of symptoms. Distance to the hospital, keeping animals and knowledge of brucellosis were significantly associated with patient delay to present to hospital. More efforts need to be put on improving the accessibility of health facilities to the rural poor people who succumb to most of the diseases including zoonoses. Health education on brucellosis in Tanzania should also stress the importance of early presentation

  12. Health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania

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    MacMillan Alastair

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is known to cause debilitating conditions if not promptly treated. In some rural areas of Tanzania however, practitioners give evidence of seeing brucellosis cases with symptoms of long duration. The purpose of this study was to establish health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania and explore the most feasible ways to improve it. Methods This was designed as a longitudinal study. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients who reported to selected hospitals in rural northern Tanzania between June 2002 and April 2003. All patients with conditions suspicious of brucellosis on the basis of preliminary clinical examination and history were enrolled into the study as brucellosis suspects. Blood samples were taken and tested for brucellosis using the Rose-Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and other agglutination tests available at the health facilities and the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test at the Veterinary Laboratory Agencies (VLA in the UK. All suspects who tested positive with the c-ELISA test were regarded as brucellosis cases. A follow-up of 49 cases was made to collect data on health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases. Results The majority of cases 87.7% gave a history of going to hospital as the first point of care, 10.2% purchased drugs from a nearby drug shop before going to hospital and 2% went to a local traditional healer first. Brucellosis cases delayed going to hospital with a median delay time of 90 days, and with 20% of the cases presenting to hospitals more than a year after the onset of symptoms. Distance to the hospital, keeping animals and knowledge of brucellosis were significantly associated with patient delay to present to hospital. Conclusion More efforts need to be put on improving the accessibility of health facilities to the rural poor people who succumb to most of the diseases including zoonoses. Health education on brucellosis in

  13. Knowledge and perceptions of brucellosis in the pastoral communities adjacent to Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic infections globally. Lack of knowledge about brucellosis may affect the health-seeking behavior of patients, thus leading to sustained transmission in these communities. Our study assessed knowledge and perceptions of brucellosis among pastoral communities adjacent to Lake Mburo National Park (LMNP), Kiruhura District, Uganda. Methods A community cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving 371 randomly selected household heads from three sub-counties neighboring LMNP were interviewed between June and August 2012. Data collected included communities’ knowledge on causes, symptoms, transmission, treatment, prevention and risk factors of brucellosis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to explore strength of association between overall knowledge of brucellosis and various individual factors using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results Only 70 (19%) knew the symptoms of brucellosis in animals, and three quarters (279, 75.5%) mentioned joint and muscle pain as a common symptom in humans. Almost all participants (370, 99.3%) had ever heard about brucellosis, majority (311, 84.7%) believed it affects all sexes and two thirds (67.7%) of the respondents believed close proximity to wildlife contributes to the presence of the disease. Almost all (352, 95.4%) knew that brucellosis in humans could be treatable using modern drugs. The main routes of infection in humans such as consumption of unpasteurized dairy products were known by 97% (360/371); eating of half-cooked meat by 91.4% and eating contaminated pasture in animals by 97.4%. There was moderate overall knowledge of brucellosis 197 (53.1%). Factors associated with higher overall knowledge were being agro-pastoralists (aOR: 2.08, CI: 1.17-3.71) compared to pure pastoralists while those who reported that the disease was a health problem (aOR: 0.18, CI: 0.06-0.56) compared to those who said it was not were less likely to be

  14. Espondilodiscite por brucelose: relato de caso Brucellosis spondylodiscitis: case report

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    Caroline Castro Figueira de Mello

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um caso de espondilodiscite por Brucella em um paciente do sexo masculino, 56 anos, fazendeiro, com manifestações sistêmicas da doença. O diagnóstico foi realizado por sorologia com título de 1/160, hemocultura positiva, o VHS foi elevado, bem como alterações radiológicas mostraram espondilodiscite ao nível de T8/T9 compatíveis com a patologia. O paciente foi tratado com estreptomicina 1gIM/dia por 15 dias, doxaciclina e rifampicina por seis semanas, com melhora clínica do quadro. O envolvimento vertebral na brucelose é uma complicação de ocorrência variável na literatura, mas considerado pouco freqüente, de difícil diagnóstico principalmente em regiões com alta prevalência de tuberculose, visto que esta pode mimetizar o quadro de brucelose. Chama-se atenção a um caso raro de espondilodiscite por brucelose, dada a necessidade de diagnóstico precoce e tratamento a fim de se evitar possíveis seqüelas.A case of spondylodiscitis due to Brucella with systematic manifestation of the disease, in a 56-year-old male patient who was a farmer, is reported. The diagnosis was made from serological tests, with a titer of 1/160. The blood culture was positive and the blood sedimentation rate was high. Radiological abnormalities showed spondylodiscitis at the T8/T9 level that were compatible with this disease. The patient was treated with streptomycin at 1g IM/day for 15 days, and doxycycline plus rifampicin for six weeks, with a clinical improvement in the condition. Vertebral involvement in brucellosis is a complication of variable occurrence in the literature. However, it is considered to be infrequent and difficult to diagnose, particularly in regions with high prevalence of tuberculosis, given that this may mimic conditions of brucellosis. Attention is drawn to this rare case of spondylodiscitis due to brucellosis, given the need for early diagnosis and treatment in order to avoid possible sequelae.

  15. Prevalence of Brucellosis among Women Presenting with Abortion/Stillbirth in Huye, Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Rujeni, Nadine; Mbanzamihigo, Léonidas

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of human brucellosis is not documented in Rwanda despite several reports on the disease in cattle. Because brucellosis has been associated with abortion, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of positive serology in women presenting with abortion and/or stillbirth. The study was done in Huye District, in the Southern Province of Rwanda, and the patients were recruited from both the University Teaching Hospital of Butare (CHUB) and Kabutare District Hospital. Se...

  16. Buffalo, Bush Meat, and the Zoonotic Threat of Brucellosis in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Kathleen Anne; Blackburn, Jason Kenna; Vandewalle, Mark Eric; Pesapane, Risa; Baipoledi, Eddie Kekgonne; Elzer, Phil H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana. Methods Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995–2000) were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and included the African buffalo (247), bushbuck (1), eland (5), elephant (25), gemsbok (1), giraffe (9),...

  17. Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Brucellosis in the Country of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhvlediani, Tamar; Bautista, Christian T; Garuchava, Natalia; Sanodze, Lia; Kokaia, Nora; Malania, Lile; Chitadze, Nazibrola; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Rivard, Robert G; Hepburn, Matthew J; Nikolich, Mikeljon P; Imnadze, Paata; Trapaidze, Nino

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the country of Georgia. According to the National Center for Disease Control and Public Health of Georgia (NCDC), the average annual number of brucellosis cases was 161 during 2008-2012. However, the true number of cases is thought to be higher due to underreporting. The aim of this study was to provide current epidemiological and clinical information and evaluate diagnostic methods used for brucellosis in Georgia. Adult patients were eligible for participation if they met the suspected or probable case definition for brucellosis. After consent participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, epidemiology, history of present illness, and clinical manifestation. For the diagnosis of brucellosis, culture and serological tests were used. A total of 81 participants were enrolled, of which 70 (86%) were from rural areas. Seventy-four percent of participants reported consuming unpasteurized milk products and 62% consuming undercooked meat products before symptom onset. Forty-one participants were positive by the Wright test and 33 (41%) were positive by blood culture. There was perfect agreement between the Huddelston and Wright tests (k = 1.0). Compared with blood culture (the diagnostic gold standard), ELISA IgG and total ELISA (IgG + IgM), the Wright test had fair (k = 0.12), fair (k = 0.24), and moderate (k = 0.52) agreement, respectively. Consumption of unpasteurized milk products and undercooked meat were among the most common risk factors in brucellosis cases. We found poor agreement between ELISA tests and culture results. This report also serves as an initial indication that the suspected case definition for brucellosis surveillance purposes needs revision. Further research is needed to characterize the epidemiology and evaluate the performance of the diagnostic methods for brucellosis in Georgia.

  18. Seroepidemiology of Human Brucellosis Among Blood Donors in Southern Ethiopia: Calling Attention to a Neglected Zoonotic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workalemahu, Bereket; Sewunet, Tsegaye; Astatkie, Ayalew

    2017-01-11

    Human brucellosis is neglected in southern Ethiopia. Although traditional food processing practices and animal husbandry which increase the risk of brucellosis are common, it has not been properly studied yet. This study was conducted to determine the seroepidemiology of brucellosis among apparently healthy individuals in southern Ethiopia. In the study, blood samples were collected to screen for serum agglutinins reactive to stained antigen of Brucella abortus Standard tube titration was performed for reactive serum to determine the titer of the agglutinin. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on possible risk factors for brucellosis. The seroprevalence of human brucellosis in this study was found to be 10.6% (95% confidence interval = 7.0, 14.0). Possession of domestic ruminant animals, contact with ruminant animals, and husbandry practices at home were associated with seropositivity. The higher seroprevalence of human brucellosis in the study area needs attention and additional confirmatory investigation. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Traditionally Managed Livestock in Selected Districts of Southern Province of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Muma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in 2008 to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in traditionally reared cattle of Southern Province in Zambia in four districts. The single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT was used to identify TB reactors, and the Rose Bengal test (RBT, followed by confirmation with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA, was used to test for brucellosis. A total of 459 animals were tested for tuberculosis and 395 for brucellosis. The overall prevalence of BTB based on the 4 mm and 3 mm cutoff criteria was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.6–7.0% and 6.3% (95% CI: 3.8–8.8%, respectively. Change in skin thickness on SCITT was influenced by initial skin-fold thickness at the inoculation site, where animals with thinner skin had a tendency to give a larger tuberculin response. Brucellosis seroprevalence was estimated at 20.7% (95% CI: 17.0–24.4%. Comparison between results from RBT and c-ELISA showed good agreement (84.1% and revealed subjectivity in RBT test results. Differences in brucellosis and tuberculosis prevalence across districts were attributed to type of husbandry practices and ecological factors. High prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis suggests that control control programmes are necessary for improved cattle productivity and reduced public health risk.

  20. Human brucellosis outbreak acquired through camel milk ingestion in southern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimol, Shalom Ben; Dukhan, Larissa; Belmaker, Ilana; Bardenstein, Svetlana; Sibirsky, David; Barrett, Chiya; Greenberg, David

    2012-08-01

    Human brucellosis is common in southern Israel among the semi-nomadic Bedouin, a population that consumes unpasteurized dairy products. Though camel milk ingestion is a known mechanism for brucellosis acquisition, only a few reports of sporadic cases have been published in the medical literature. To describe a local brucellosis outbreak in 15 extended Bedouin family members, following ingestion of infected camel milk. Data regarding patient's clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, treatment and outcome were collected from the hospital and the health fund clinics' computerized database. Camel's blood and milk were tested for Brucella serology and culture. Cases were defined by positive Rose Bengal test, symptoms correlating with brucellosis, and consumption of infected camel milk. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with acute brucellosis from March to June 2011. Sixty percent of cases had serum agglutination test titers of 1:160 or higher and 4/8 (50%) had positive blood culture for Brucella melitensis. Arthralgia and fever were the most consistent clinical manifestations. Blood and milk serology and milk culture taken from the female camel were positive for Brucella melitensis. The treating physicians must consider the possibility of infected camel milk ingestion as the mode of infection, both in sporadic cases and in outbreaks of brucellosis.

  1. A mixed methods study of ruminant brucellosis in central-eastern Tunisia.

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    Barkallah, Mohamed; Gharbi, Yaakoub; Zormati, Sonia; Karkouch, Nesrine; Mallek, Zouhir; Gautier, Michel; Gdoura, Radhouane; Fendri, Imen

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we conducted an investigation to determine the true prevalence of bovine and ovine brucellosis in central-eastern Tunisia. A total of 1134 veterinary samples taken from 130 ruminant herds were screened for brucellosis using IS711-based real-time PCR assay. Sera collected from the ruminants were tested using the Rose Bengal test and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Based on serological and molecular results, the true adjusted animal population level prevalence was 23.5 % in cattle, against 13.5 % in sheep. In addition, the true adjusted herd level prevalence of brucellosis was 55.6 % in cattle and 21.8 % in sheep. A statistically significant association was found between vaginal and milk shedding for ruminants. In addition, our results showed that Brucella abortus could be responsible for bovine and ovine brucellosis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis at the animal population level indicated that age and origin variables were important risk factors for cattle. However, age and abortion variables were found to be associated with ovine brucellosis. At the herd level, risk factors for Brucella positivity were as follows: abortion and herd composition for cattle against herd composition, mortality rates, and hygiene for sheep. Animal hygiene, food quality, and sanitary practices on the farm should be applied as strategies to control brucellosis in herds.

  2. Spatial and spatio-temporal analysis of human brucellosis in Iran.

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    Mollalo, Abolfazl; Alimohammadi, Abbas; Khoshabi, Mostafa

    2014-11-01

    Brucellosis is an important public and veterinary health problem in Iran and poses enormous economic burdens and significant human morbidity. In order to better understand the epidemiology of the disease in Iran, yearly spatial distribution and possible hotspots of the disease have been investigated in this study. A cross-sectional survey was performed on 39 359 recorded cases during April 2009 to March 2012 throughout the country. Moran's I was applied to investigate the yearly patterns of the spatial distribution. Presence of possible hotspots was investigated using both local Moran's I and spatial and space-time scan statistics. Moran's I at county and province level showed that distribution of human brucellosis was regularly clustered. Both local Moran's I and spatial and space-time scan statistics detected significant hotspots of human brucellosis cases with high incidence rates. Hotspots were predominantly located in the west, northwest and northeast. Comparison of the population-based frequencies of human brucellosis in different elevation classes indicated the highest possibility of human brucellosis occurred in counties with high average altitudes (>2000 m). Human brucellosis continues to be a widespread challenge, especially in western and northwestern parts of Iran. The hotspots highlight the potential high risk areas requiring special plans and resources for monitoring and control of the disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF PATHOGENETIC THERAPY ON THE LEVER OF CYTOKINES IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE BRUCELLOSIS

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    N. I. Kovalevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the level of proinflammatory cytokines: IL-12, IL-8 and IFNγ, neopterin and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in the serum of patients with acute brucellosis before and after antibiotic therapy. The clinical data from 32 patients with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis — “acute brucellosis” admitted to the diagnosis, treatment and examination of occupational diseases brucellosis GBUZ SC “City Clinical Hospital No. 2”, the city of Stavropol were used in the study. The concentrations IL-12, IL-8, IFNγ cytokines and acute-phase proteins in serum was determined by ELISA. In the acute phase of brucellosis infection (before treatment had high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IFNγ, but despite holding a course of antibiotic treatment in the serum of patients with preserved high levels of IL-8, indicative of active inflammation in the absence of clinical manifestations. IL-12 level, a key cytokine in the initiation of lymphocyte-dependent immune response was lower than in the control group. Evaluation of the cytokine status (IL-8, IL-12, IL-18 and proteins of acute inflammation phase (neopterin and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein will provide valuable information for monitoring the effect of pharmacotherapy of acute brucellosis. Indicators of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and neopterin in the serum of patients with brucellosis should be considered as a marker of inflammatory activity and as a predictor of outcome of acute brucellosis.

  4. Model-Based Evaluation of Strategies to Control Brucellosis in China.

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    Li, Ming-Tao; Sun, Gui-Quan; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Jin, Zhen

    2017-03-12

    Brucellosis, the most common zoonotic disease worldwide, represents a great threat to animal husbandry with the potential to cause enormous economic losses. Brucellosis has become a major public health problem in China, and the number of human brucellosis cases has increased dramatically in recent years. In order to evaluate different intervention strategies to curb brucellosis transmission in China, a novel mathematical model with a general indirect transmission incidence rate was presented. By comparing the results of three models using national human disease data and 11 provinces with high case numbers, the best fitted model with standard incidence was used to investigate the potential for future outbreaks. Estimated basic reproduction numbers were highly heterogeneous, varying widely among provinces. The local basic reproduction numbers of provinces with an obvious increase in incidence were much larger than the average for the country as a whole, suggesting that environment-to-individual transmission was more common than individual-to-individual transmission. We concluded that brucellosis can be controlled through increasing animal vaccination rates, environment disinfection frequency, or elimination rates of infected animals. Our finding suggests that a combination of animal vaccination, environment disinfection, and elimination of infected animals will be necessary to ensure cost-effective control for brucellosis.

  5. Evidence of ongoing brucellosis in livestock animals in North West Libya.

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    Al-Griw, Huda H; Kraim, Elfurgani Salem; Farhat, Milad E; Perrett, Lorraine L; Whatmore, Adrian M

    2017-12-01

    Animal brucellosis is thought to be present in small ruminants, cattle, and camels in Libya, particularly in the west coastal strip. Before the system collapsed due to political unrest in 2011, prevalence of the disease did not exceed 0.2% in cattle, 0.1% in camels, 8.3% in sheep, and 14.8% in goats. The aim of this study was to highlight outbreaks of disease that took place during the 18-month period from November 2014 to April 2016. A total of 1612 serum samples, collected opportunistically from 29 herds in 12 different localities in the northwest region of Libya, were investigated for brucellosis. The samples were screened for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test, and confirmed with either indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in the case of sheep, and/or a serum agglutination test, followed with a complement fixation test, in the case of cattle and camels. Our results showed the highest rates of brucellosis seropositivity in goats (33.4%) and sheep (9.2%). The overall percentage of brucellosis seropositivity was 21%. The high level of brucellosis identified by this study, particularly in small ruminants, strongly suggests re-emergence of the disease in the region. Re-evaluation of intervention measures applied to the control of brucellosis is highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Unrecognized pediatric and adult family members of children with acute brucellosis.

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    Çiftdoğan, Dilek Yılmaz; Aslan, Selda

    Brucellosis is an infectious, contagious and zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide. The family members of an index case of brucellosis may be especially susceptible, due to sharing the same source of infection and similar risk factors for brucellosis. In this study, we propose to screen pediatric and adult family members of brucellosis index cases for detecting additional unrecognized infected family members. 114 family members of 41 pediatric patients with brucellosis were evaluated. All family members completed a brief questionnaire and were tested by a standard tube agglutination test (STA). The majority of family members (n=96, 84.2%) were children. Among the 114 family members, 42 (36.8%) were seropositive, and 15 (35.7%) were symptomatic. The majority of the symptomatic seropositive family members (n=12, 80%) had STA titers (≥1:640) higher than asymptomatic seropositive family members (n=9, 33%; p=0.004). The routine screening of both pediatric and adult family members of index cases is a priority in endemic areas. Using this screening approach, unrecognized family members who are seropositive for brucellosis will be identified earlier and be able to receive prompt treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock

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    Serrano, E.; Cross, P.C.; Beneria, M.; Ficapal, A.; Curia, J.; Marco, X.; Lavin, S.; Marco, I.

    2011-01-01

    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  8. Human brucellosis in France in the 21st century: Results from national surveillance 2004-2013.

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    Mailles, A; Garin-Bastuji, B; Lavigne, J P; Jay, M; Sotto, A; Maurin, M; Pelloux, I; O'Callaghan, D; Mick, V; Vaillant, V; De Valk, H

    2016-12-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease mainly transmitted to humans by ruminants. In France, brucellosis has disappeared from ruminants herds. Human brucellosis surveillance is performed through mandatory notification and the national reference center. We report the results of human brucellosis surveillance from 2004 to 2013 with regards to epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data. A total of 250 cases were notified, making an annual incidence of 0.3 cases per million inhabitants. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 was the most frequently identified bacterium (79% of isolated strains). In total, 213 (85%) cases had been contaminated abroad in endemic countries. In 2012, an episode of re-emergence of brucellosis in cattle occurred in Haute-Savoie, in the French Alps, and was responsible for 2 human cases. Brucellosis has become a disease of travelers in France. However, maintaining a stringent epidemiological surveillance is necessary to be able to early detect any local re-emergence in humans or animals. The multidisciplinary surveillance was implemented in France years ago and is a successful example of the One Health Concept. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy features of normal-appearing white matter in patients with acute brucellosis

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    Kayabas, Uner [Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey)], E-mail: ukayabas@inonu.edu.tr; Alkan, Alpay; Firat, Ahmet Kemal; Karakas, Hakki Muammer [Department of Radiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey); Bayindir, Yasar; Yetkin, Funda [Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2008-03-15

    We aimed to evaluate whether the subtle metabolic cerebral changes are present in normal-appearing white matter on conventional MRI, in patients with acute brucellosis, by using MR spectroscopy (MRS). Sixteen patients with acute brucellosis and 13 healthy control subjects were investigated with conventional MRI and single-voxel MRS. Voxels were placed in normal-appearing parietal white matter (NAPWM). N-Acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios were calculated. There was no significant difference between the study subjects and the control group in NAA/Cr ratios obtained from NAPWM. However, the Cho/Cr ratios were significantly higher in patients with acute brucellosis compared to controls (p = 0.01). MRS revealed metabolic changes in normal-appearing white matter of patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis may cause subtle cerebral alterations, which may only be discernible with MRS. Increased Cho/Cr ratio possibly represents an initial phase of inflammation and/or demyelination process of brucellosis.

  10. BRUCELLOSIS: REVIEW OF CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FEATURES AND THERAPEUTIC REGIMENS IN 44 CHILDREN

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    S Afsharpaiman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBrucellosis is not uncommon in children in endemic areas. We described clinical and laboratory features and therapeutic regimens for brucellosis in children under 14 who admitted in the Pediatric Medical Center Hospital, Tehran, Iran from March 1988 until February 2001. The male: female ratio was 2:1. Family history of brucellosis and consumption of un-pasteurized milk and dairy products was positive in 20.4% and 65.9%, respectively. The common clinical findings were arthritis (79.5%, fever (77.4%, anorexia (61.4%, sweating (52.3%, splenomegaly (43.2%, hepatomegaly (34.1% and lymphadenopathy (13.65. Anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia were recorded in 56.8%, 31.8% and 9.1%, respectively. Out of all patients, seropositivity rate for brucellosis was found in 97.7% using serum agglutination test. Culture of blood and bone marrow specimen were positive in 30% and 50% of samples obtained, respectively. Rifampin and co-trimoxazole were the most commonly used combination in 68.1%. The overall relapse rate was 13.6%. Arthritis and fever were the most common clinical findings of brucellosis. Wright test is a very sensitive method to detect brucella infection. Public education and control measures should be applied to prevent the zoonotic and human brucellosis

  11. Epidemiological characteristics of human brucellosis in Hamadan Province during 2009-2015: results from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

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    Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Ayubi, Erfan; Karami, Manoochehr; Khazaei, Salman; Shojaeian, Masoud; Zamani, Reza; Mansori, Kamyar; Gholamaliee, Behzad

    2017-08-01

    Human brucellosis and recurrent brucellosis is an ever-increasing public health concern, especially in endemic areas like Iran. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the epidemiology and determinants of recurrent brucellosis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate epidemiological patterns and potential determinants of recurrent brucellosis in Hamadan Province during the years 2009-2015. Data on reported cases of new and recurrent brucellosis from 2009 to 2015 were obtained from the provincial Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Incidence rates per 100000 were estimated at the county level. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of background characteristics and recurrent brucellosis. The power of discrimination of the model for recurrent brucellosis was assessed using the area under the curve (AUC). Among 7318 brucellosis cases, the total frequency (%) of recurrent cases was 472 (6.45%). The rate of recurrent brucellosis was higher in females, people aged 50 years and over, people with a history of consuming unpasteurized dairy products with no history of contact with animals, and in the winter season. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.65), age ≥55 years (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.32-7.42), consumption of unpasteurized dairy products (AOR 1.16, 95% CI 0.96-1.40), and winter season (AOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.03-1.71) are potential risk factors for recurrent brucellosis. The final model that involved all the determinants showed moderate discrimination (AUC 0.61). Female sex, older age, and winter months were found to be significant determinants of recurrent human brucellosis. Enhanced surveillance systems with an emphasis on these population characteristics will allow effective preventive and protective measures to be implemented and might alleviate the recurrence of brucellosis in the

  12. A Case Report of Pediatric Brucellosis in an Algerian Immigrant.

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    Kitt, Eimear; Brannock, Kristina R; VonHolz, Lauren A; Planet, Paul J; Graf, Erin; Pillai, Vinodh

    2017-01-01

    An 8-year old girl presented to our facility with a 10-day history of fever, fatigue, abdominal pain and refusal to walk. She recently travelled from her native Algeria where she first developed symptoms. On evaluation, she was ill-appearing, febrile and tachycardic with hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy noted on examination. A strong musty odor was also noted from the child. Laboratory evaluation revealed pancytopenia, hyponatremia, and an elevated AST, ALT, and LDH. Malaria testing was negative, as was a PPD. On further questioning, the family reported multiple sick contacts in Algeria with similar symptoms. After discussion with Oncology and Infectious Diseases, she underwent a bone marrow biopsy that was significant for multiple non-caseating ring granulomas. She was started on combination therapy of doxycycline and for presumed brucellosis infection with improvement in her symptoms and resolution of fever. Bone marrow culture returned several days later positive for Brucella melitensis.

  13. [Brucellosis in the Stavropol Territory: Results of 15-year follow-up of epidemiological and clinical features].

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    Sannikova, I V; Makhinya, O V; Maleev, V V; Deineka, D A; Golub, O G; Kovalchuk, I V; Lyamkin, G I

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the epidemiological situation of brucellosis in the Stavropol Territory and to determine the specific features of its acute form. The epidemiological situation of brucellosis in the Stavropol Region was retrospectively analyzed using the 2000-2014 official statistics of the Russian Federation and Stavropol Territory for brucellosis cases, individual documents of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare Directorate in the Stavropol Territory and Russian Federation, and medical records of the Brucellosis Department, Stavropol Hospital Two. Brucellosis is a social problem in a group of focal zoonotic infections in the Russian Federation. In the North Caucasian Federal District, the largest number of new human brucellosis cases was notified in the Republic of Dagestan (59.3%) and Stavropol Territory (27.4%). The incidence of brucellosis in the Stavropol Territory was 5-10-fold higher than that in the Russian Federation as a whole. The true prevalence of brucellosis was 25% greater than the statistical data in terms of its clinical forms that were not included in official registration. Infection occurred in humans by contact with large and small cattle in 49.7% of cases. The disease mainly affected men (78.3%) and able-bodied people (67.7%); 78.5% of the patients seeking medical advice and as high as 79.9% of those being covered by serological examination of groups at risk for brucellosis were detected. There was a declining trend for the number of occupational brucellosis cases. At the same time, brucellosis accounted for 75% of the territory's total number of occupational diseases. In the past decade, brucellosis has exhibited a relatively benign course (91.3% for its moderate form), by predominantly involving the osteoarticular system (63%). Non-compliance with outpatient antibacterial therapy is one of the factors for brucellosis chronization. 28.2% of the patients who had undergone a complete therapy

  14. Epidemiological survey of human brucellosis in Inner Mongolia, China, 2010-2014: A high risk groups-based survey.

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    Ning, Cao; Shuyi, Guo; Tao, Yan; Hao, Zhu; Zhang, Xingguang

    2017-03-17

    Brucellosis, a zoonosis which can seriously harm public health. Inner Mongolia is known as an endemic region of human brucellosis in China. The aim of this study is to present the epidemic of human brucellosis in Inner Mongolia from 2010 to 2014, and to provide the evidence of preventing from brucellosis in endemic areas. The study included 838,956 participants by cluster random sampling from 2010 to 2014. The contents of this study included questionnaire survey and serological testing. The seropositive rate was calculated based on the serological testing results, tested to determine whether the participants were infected by brucellosis. The new brucellosis cases were diagnosed using the questionnaire data and serological testing results then and the incidence rate was obtained. We also plotted spatial distribution maps based on the seropositive and incidence rate of human brucellosis. The total seropositive and incidence rate of human brucellosis among the high risk groups in Inner Mongolia from 2010 to 2014 was 35.91‰ and 18.25‰, respectively. The epidemic of the mid-eastern Inner Mongolia was decreased, however, the epidemic has worsened in western Inner Mongolia. Despite the epidemic of human brucellosis among the high risk groups of Inner Mongolia decreased significantly from 2010 to 2014, increased prevention and control measures are urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with human brucellosis in livestock professionals.

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    Mufinda, Franco Cazembe; Boinas, Fernando; Nunes, Carla

    2017-06-22

    The objective of this study is to estimate the seroprevalence of human brucellosis in livestock professionals and analyze the factors associated with brucellosis focusing on sociodemographic variables and the variables of knowledge and practices related to the characteristics of the activities carried out in livestock. This is a cross-sectional seroepidemiological study with a population of 131 workers of butchers, slaughter rooms, and slaughterhouse and 192 breeders sampled randomly in Namibe province, Angola. The data were obtained from the collection of blood and use of questionnaires. The laboratory tests used were rose bengal and slow agglutination. The questionnaire allowed us to collect sociodemographic information and, specifically on brucellosis, it incorporated questions about knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of livestock professionals. In addition to the descriptive statistical approach, we used the Chi-square test of independence, Fisher's test, and logistic regression models, using a significance level of 10%. The general weighted prevalence of brucellosis was 15.6% (95%CI 13.61-17.50), being it 5.3% in workers and 16.7% (95%CI 11.39-21.93) in breeders. The statistical significance was observed between human seroprevalence and category (worker and breeder) (p brucellosis in professionals was the professional category (OR = 3.54; 95%CI 1.57-8.30, related to breeders in relation to workers). Human brucellosis in livestock professionals is prevalent in Namibe province (15.6%), where the professional category was the most important factor. The seroprevalence levels detected are high when compared with those found in similar studies. Estimar a seroprevalência da brucelose humana em profissionais da pecuária e analisar os factores associados à brucelose com foco em variáveis sociodemográficas, de conhecimento e práticas relativas às características das actividades desenvolvidas na pecuária. Estudo transversal seroepidemiológico em população de

  16. Epidemiology of Brucellosis and Genetic Diversity of Brucella abortus in Kazakhstan.

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    Elena Shevtsova

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a major zoonotic infection in Kazakhstan. However, there is limited data on its incidence in humans and animals, and the genetic diversity of prevalent strains is virtually unstudied. Additionally, there is no detailed overview of Kazakhstan brucellosis control and eradication programs. Here, we analyzed brucellosis epidemiological data, and assessed the effectiveness of eradication strategies employed over the past 70 years to counteract this infection. We also conducted multiple loci variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA of Brucella abortus strains found in Kazakhstan. We analyzed official data on the incidence of animal brucellosis in Kazakhstan. The records span more than 70 years of anti-brucellosis campaigns, and contain a brief description of the applied control strategies, their effectiveness, and their impact on the incidence in humans. The MLVA-16 method was used to type 94 strains of B. abortus and serial passages of B. abortus 82, a strain used in vaccines. MLVA-8 and MLVA-11 analyses clustered strains into a total of four and seven genotypes, respectively; it is the first time that four of these genotypes have been described. MLVA-16 analysis divided strains into 28 distinct genotypes having genetic similarity coefficient that varies from 60 to100% and a Hunter & Gaston diversity index of 0.871. MST analysis reconstruction revealed clustering into "Kazakhstani-Chinese (Central Asian", "European" and "American" lines. Detection of multiple genotypes in a single outbreak confirms that poorly controlled trade of livestock plays a crucial role in the spread of infection. Notably, the MLVA-16 profile of the B. abortus 82 strain was unique and did not change during 33 serial passages. MLVA genotyping may thus be useful for epidemiological monitoring of brucellosis, and for tracking the source(s of infection. We suggest that countrywide application of MLVA genotyping would improve the control of brucellosis in

  17. Trend of human brucellosis over a decade at tertiary care centre in North Karnataka

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    D P Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease. India having a major agrarian population is expected to have a higher prevalence. However, due to lack of laboratory facility or awareness among clinicians, the disease is largely underreported. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence and trend of human brucellosis over a decade, in patients attending a teaching hospital in North Karnataka, and to understand their geographical distribution. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in North Karnataka. A total of 3610 serum samples were evaluated from suspected cases of brucellosis. All serum samples were initially screened by Rose Bengal plate test, and positive samples were further analysed by Serum agglutination test (SAT using standard Brucella abortus antigen from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. A titre above or equal to 1:80 IU/ml was considered as positive. Demographic data such as age, sex and native place of these patients were also analysed. Results: We observed that human brucellosis is present in North Karnataka. The overall seropositivity of brucellosis in suspected cases was 5.1%. The positive titres ranged from 1:80 to 163,840 IU/ml. The majority of the patients were from Gadag, Koppal and Haveri districts of North Karnataka. Conclusion: Our study confirms the presence of human brucellosis in the northern part of Karnataka. Further studies to understand the prevalence of animal brucellosis in these areas will help in implementing prevention measures.

  18. Seroprevalence of human brucellosis in and around Jammu, India, using different serological tests

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    H. K. Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Brucellosis is a disease of zoonotic importance as it affects both human as well as animal’s health, and therefore, directly affects animal productivity and human efficiency. Therefore, a study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in Jammu and surrounding areas. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 sera samples from humans occupied with professional related to animals were collected and tested for anti-Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT, modified RBPT (mRBPT, standard tube agglutination test (STAT, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA. Sampling was done keeping in view with the occupation, sex, and age. Results: The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded was 4.96%. The test-wise seroprevalence was 9.91% by RBPT, 9.91% by mRBPT, 9.09% by STAT, and 16.52% by I-ELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis was higher in >35-50 years age group compared to >20-35 years and >50-65 years. Sex-wise seroprevalence was higher in males than females. Taking I-ELISA as standard, the relative sensitivities of mRBPT, RBPT, and I-ELISA were in the order of mRBPT=RBPT>STAT. All the tests revealed high specificity values; however, among different serological tests, I-ELISA detected a maximum number of positive sera samples. Conclusions: The prevalence of brucellosis was found to be approximately 5%. The adult (>35-50 years age male group was most vulnerable. The routine diagnosis of brucellosis involved the conventional serological tests, viz., RBPT and STAT, but each was associated with drawbacks which could give either false-positive or false-negative interpretation. Therefore, it is always recommended to use a battery of tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  19. An unusual presentation of brucellosis, involving multiple organ systems, with low agglutinating titers: a case report

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    Khorvash Farzin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a multi-system disease that may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. While hepatic involvement in brucellosis is not rare, it may rarely involve the kidney or display with cardiac manifestations. Central nervous system involvement in brucellosis sometimes can cause demyelinating syndromes. Here we present a case of brucella hepatitis, myocarditis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and renal failure. Case presentation A 26-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd and gave a history of low grade fever, chilly sensation, cold sweating, loss of appetite, arthralgia and 10 Kg weight loss during the previous 3 months. He had a body temperature of 39°C at the time of admission. On laboratory tests he had elevated level of liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine, Creatine phosphokinase (MB, and moderate proteinuria. He also had abnormal echocardiography and brain MRI. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG and IgM was negative. Standard tube agglutination test (STAT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME titers were 1:80 and 1:40 respectively. Finally he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and the polymerase chain reaction for Brucella mellitensis. Conclusion In endemic areas clinicians should consider brucellosis in any unusual presentation involving multiple organ systems, even if serology is inconclusive. In endemic areas low STAT and 2-ME titers should be considered as an indication of brucellosis and in these cases additional testing is recommended to rule out brucellosis.

  20. Epidemiology of Brucellosis and Genetic Diversity of Brucella abortus in Kazakhstan.

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    Shevtsova, Elena; Shevtsov, Alexandr; Mukanov, Kasim; Filipenko, Maxim; Kamalova, Dinara; Sytnik, Igor; Syzdykov, Marat; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Akhmetova, Assel; Zharova, Mira; Karibaev, Talgat; Tarlykov, Pavel; Ramanculov, Erlan

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a major zoonotic infection in Kazakhstan. However, there is limited data on its incidence in humans and animals, and the genetic diversity of prevalent strains is virtually unstudied. Additionally, there is no detailed overview of Kazakhstan brucellosis control and eradication programs. Here, we analyzed brucellosis epidemiological data, and assessed the effectiveness of eradication strategies employed over the past 70 years to counteract this infection. We also conducted multiple loci variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of Brucella abortus strains found in Kazakhstan. We analyzed official data on the incidence of animal brucellosis in Kazakhstan. The records span more than 70 years of anti-brucellosis campaigns, and contain a brief description of the applied control strategies, their effectiveness, and their impact on the incidence in humans. The MLVA-16 method was used to type 94 strains of B. abortus and serial passages of B. abortus 82, a strain used in vaccines. MLVA-8 and MLVA-11 analyses clustered strains into a total of four and seven genotypes, respectively; it is the first time that four of these genotypes have been described. MLVA-16 analysis divided strains into 28 distinct genotypes having genetic similarity coefficient that varies from 60 to100% and a Hunter & Gaston diversity index of 0.871. MST analysis reconstruction revealed clustering into "Kazakhstani-Chinese (Central Asian)", "European" and "American" lines. Detection of multiple genotypes in a single outbreak confirms that poorly controlled trade of livestock plays a crucial role in the spread of infection. Notably, the MLVA-16 profile of the B. abortus 82 strain was unique and did not change during 33 serial passages. MLVA genotyping may thus be useful for epidemiological monitoring of brucellosis, and for tracking the source(s) of infection. We suggest that countrywide application of MLVA genotyping would improve the control of brucellosis in Kazakhstan.

  1. Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of 496 children with brucellosis in Van, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Mehmet; Akbayram, Sinan; Doğan, Murat; Tuncer, Oğuz; Bayram, Yasemin; Ceylan, Nesrin; Özlük, Suat; Akbayram, Hatice Tuba; Öner, Abdurrahman

    2015-08-01

    Brucellosis is the most common zoonotic disease worldwide and remains an important human disease especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of childhood brucellosis in Van province of Eastern Turkey. To our knowledge, this is the largest series of childhood brucellosis reported in the literature. In this retrospective study, 496 children with brucellosis were assessed for the clinical manifestations and laboratory findings from July 2009 through December 2013. The diagnosis of brucellosis was based on clinical findings and a standard tube agglutination test (titer ≥ 1:160). Data were analyzed using Minitab version 16. The study included 496 children (boys, 60.5%) with a mean age of 10.0 ± 3.95 years (range, 1-16 years). The most frequent clinical symptoms were arthralgia (46.2%), fever (32.1%), and abdominal pain (17.1%) and the most common clinical signs were peripheral arthritis (10.1%), splenomegaly (2.2%) and hepatomegaly (1.8%). The most contagious seasons were summer and autumn (63.3%). Elevated lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were reported in 63.1%, 58.7%, and 55.2% of the patients, respectively. Anemia (20.4%), thrombocytopenia (15.5%), and leukopenia (12.1%) were the most common hematologic findings. Brucellosis remains a serious public health problem in Turkey. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of childhood brucellosis have been described in order to assist clinicians in diagnosing and monitoring the disease. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Brucellosis as an Emerging Threat in Developing Economies: Lessons from Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J.; Bertu, Wilson J.; Ocholi, Reuben A.; Gusi, Amahyel M.; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Sue; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, has a large proportion of the world's poor livestock keepers, and is a hotspot for neglected zoonoses. A review of the 127 accessible publications on brucellosis in Nigeria reveals only scant and fragmented evidence on its spatial and temporal distribution in different epidemiological contexts. The few bacteriological studies conducted demonstrate the existence of Brucella abortus in cattle and sheep, but evidence for B. melitensis in small ruminants is dated and unclear. The bulk of the evidence consists of seroprevalence studies, but test standardization and validation are not always adequately described, and misinterpretations exist with regard to sensitivity and/or specificity and ability to identify the infecting Brucella species. Despite this, early studies suggest that although brucellosis was endemic in extensive nomadic systems, seroprevalence was low, and brucellosis was not perceived as a real burden; recent studies, however, may reflect a changing trend. Concerning human brucellosis, no studies have identified the Brucella species and most reports provide only serological evidence of contact with Brucella in the classical risk groups; some suggest brucellosis misdiagnoses as malaria or other febrile conditions. The investigation of a severe outbreak that occurred in the late 1970s describes the emergence of animal and human disease caused by the settling of previously nomadic populations during the Sahelian drought. There appears to be an increasing risk of re-emergence of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa, as a result of the co-existence of pastoralist movements and the increase of intensive management resulting from growing urbanization and food demand. Highly contagious zoonoses like brucellosis pose a threat with far-reaching social and political consequences. PMID:25058178

  3. Brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis prevalence in livestock from pastoralist communities adjacent to Awash National Park, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Bekele, Shiferaw; Moti, Tesfaye; Young, Douglas; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-06-15

    This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in local cattle and goat breeds of Oromo and Afar pastoralist communities living in two distinct parts around the Awash National Park. A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess information on husbandry, milk consumption habits, and on knowledge-attitude-practice regarding both diseases. Among a total of 771 animals from all sites tested by comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) none were BTB reactors with the >4mm cut-off. Using the >2mm cut-off, individual apparent prevalence was 0.9% (95%CI: 0.23-3.56%) in cattle and 0.7% (95%CI: 0.12-3.45%) in goats. Herd prevalence in Oromia and Afar sites was 0% and 66.7% respectively in goats and 16.7% and 50% in cattle. Among the 327 animals tested by enzyme linked immunoassay for brucellosis, 4.8% (95%CI: 1.2-17.1%) of cattle and 22.8% (95%CI: 5.98-29.5%) of goats were reactors. Highest individual prevalence of both diseases was found in Afar settlements with brucellosis being as high as 50%. Respondent ethnicity was the only risk factor for brucellosis positivity in goats in the univariable risk factor analysis. Knowledge about the diseases was poor. Raw goat milk was regularly consumed by women and children, putting them at risk for brucellosis. This study highlighted an increased prevalence gradient of BTB and brucellosis from West to East along the study sites with high brucellosis individual prevalence and abortion rates among Afar settlements in particular. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. TGFβ1 genetic variants are associated with an increased risk of acute brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepanjnia, Adel; Eskandari-Nasab, Ebrahim; Moghadampour, Mehdi; Tahmasebi, Arezoo; Dahmardeh, Fatemeh

    2015-07-01

    Cytokines play a critical role in the regulation of the immune response against brucellosis infection, and mediate production of many pro- and anti-inflammatory signals. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1), a powerful suppressive cytokine, inhibits macrophage activation and modulates T-cell function, and plays crucial roles in regulation of microbial replication and host responses to brucella. The association of three polymorphisms in the TGFβ1 gene (-509 C/T [rs1800469], + 868 C/T [rs1800470], and + 913 G/C [rs1800471]) in promoter, codons 10 and 25, respectively, with brucellosis infection was evaluated. This case-control study was performed on a total of 281 Iranian subjects including 153 patients with active brucellosis and 128 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals as controls. Genotyping for the TGFβ1 -509 C/T and + 868 C/T variants was performed using tetra amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (T-ARMS-PCR). Also, the + 913 G/C polymorphism was genotyped using an allele-specific PCR. The results demonstrated that the TGFβ1 + 868 C/T mutant homozygote genotype (TT vs CC), was a risk factor for developing brucellosis in the co-dominant and recessive models (odds ratio (OR) = 2.60, p = 0.023; OR = 2.602, p = 0.014, respectively). Additionally, the diplotype analyses revealed that TGFβ1 codon 10 and 25 diplotype, TT/GG, was associated with an increased risk of brucellosis (OR = 2.49, p = 0.038). Other TGFβ1 variants did not increase the risk of brucellosis infection. Our findings propose that TGFβ1 + 868 TT genotype and TT/GG diplotype may confer increased risk of brucellosis in the examined population.

  5. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among cattle slaughtered in three municipal abattoirs of Gombe state, Northeastern Nigeria

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    Saleh Mohammed Jajere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis among cattle slaughtered at three municipal abattoirs of Gombe State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 blood samples collected from slaughtered cattle of different breeds (Sokoto Gudali - 50, White Fulani - 102, Red bororo – 34, and Crossbreeds - 14, sex (males - 19 and females - 181, and from different locations (Billiri - 30, Yamaltu Deba – 50, and Gombe - 120 were screened for brucellosis using rose bengal plate test (RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT, and microtiter agglutination test (MAT. Results: Of the 200 serum samples analyzed, 7 (3.5%, 10 (5.0% and 18 (9.0% were positive by RBPT, SAT and MAT, respectively. The results showed no statistically significant association between sex and seropositivity to bovine brucellosis. However, seropositivity of bovine brucellosis was higher in females than in males. Similarly, no statistically significant association was observed between breed and occurrence of bovine brucellosis. Moreover, the prevalence of brucellosis was higher in Sokoto Gudali as compared with the other breeds. Based on the study locations, higher seroprevalence was observed in animals screened from Billiri as compared with those from other locations (p<0.05. Conclusion: The presence of Brucella abortus antigen in the sera of slaughtered cattle in Gombe state poses a significant public health risk. Therefore, it is important to carry out further epidemiological studies on fulani herdsmen and cattle herds in the study area, in order to explore the risk factors associated with the occurrence and perpetuation of brucellosis among cattle herds, ascertain the prevalence and status of the disease among both farms and nomadic herds.

  6. Use of the Brucella IgM and IgG flow assays in the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis in an area endemic for brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irmak, Hasan; Buzgan, Turan; Evirgen, Omer; Akdeniz, Hayrettin; Demiroz, A. Pekcan; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2004-01-01

    The clinical utility of two complementary tests for brucellosis, the Brucella IgM and IgG flow assays, was evaluated in a hospital in eastern Turkey. The results show that the flow assays are convenient diagnostic tests for use in endemic areas. A positive result in the flow assays was obtained in

  7. Study of 72 Cases of Human Brucellosis in Tehran

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    Nassrollah Mojdehi

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Conclusions based on 72 proven cases of B~cellosis obsed"Ve.d at ~he Infectious Diseases Department of Pahlavi HOSPItal, Tehran University, School of Medicine from 1958-1962 are as follow:-"n1. Age Incidence: Highest between the ages of 20 to 40."n2. Seasonal Incidence: Highest during the summer months."n3. Occupational Relationship and Incidence: In 90% of th~ cases, there was no contact between the patients and the infected animals or their products. "n4. Sex Incidence: The majority of our cases, (68.0% were men."n5. Despite the prevalence of Hr. abortus among the c~ttle of tAlh~ Tehran area human Brucellosis due to Hr. abortus IS rare. the reported cases were due to Hr. mclitensi~."n6. The difference between the symptomatology in our cahsesdiaffnd those of foreigners are described. The~ may be ~ue ~o. t €I . ~renee in the casual agent and to the difference m living conditions in Iran. "n7. The Incidence of Brucellosis in children is extremely low. This may be due to their natural resistance and to their more limited living conditions."n8. The .disease is almost absent in occupationally exposed people, despite the number of infected cattle in the Tehran area. This may be due to the low pathogenic potency of Hr. abortus in Iran.."n9. Mode of Transmisainn ; Not discounting the possibility of transmission through the alimentary tract, we suggest that Brucella excreted by the goats kept in the city or those which belong to the tribes who pass some times during winter and summer"nmovement in the cities, may mix with the dust and air and so  ain entrance to the respiratory system."n10. Therapy: Best results in chronic cases were obtained througn"nan association of Tetracycline derivative with Sulfonamides and Streptomycine. Chloramphenicol has yielded good results, although in some cases the illness may recur.

  8. Epidemiological characteristics of human brucellosis in Hamadan Province during 2009–2015: results from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System

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    Shahrzad Nematollahi

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Female sex, older age, and winter months were found to be significant determinants of recurrent human brucellosis. Enhanced surveillance systems with an emphasis on these population characteristics will allow effective preventive and protective measures to be implemented and might alleviate the recurrence of brucellosis in the country.

  9. Study of toxic properties of prototypes of photo inactivated vaccines against tularemia and brucellosis by speckle microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianova, Onega V.; Ulyanov, Sergey

    2011-03-01

    Testing of prototypes of vaccines against extremely dangerous diseases, such as tularemia and brucellosis has been performed using speckle-microscopy. Changes of microcirculation caused by effect of toxins at applications of suspension of photoinactivated bacteria have been studied. Toxic properties of prototypes of vaccines against tularemia and brucellosis have been analyzed.

  10. The use of skin delayed-type hypersensitivity as an adjunct test to diagnose brucellosis in cattle: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, is a contagious disease that causes economic loss to owners of domestic animals due to loss of progeny and milk yield. Because cattle, sheep, goats, and to a lesser extent pigs are considered to be the source of human brucellosis, serological

  11. Did Rev-1 small ruminants vaccination helped improve cattle brucellosis prevalence status in Algeria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardjadj, Moustafa

    2017-08-01

    In 2006, the Algerian authorities started the Rev-1 vaccination of sheep and goats; consequently, there was a significant improvement of small ruminant brucellosis sanitary status. In this paper, we attempt to study the effect of Rev-1 small ruminants' vaccination on cattle brucellosis prevalence in Algeria. Our results showed an overall cattle herd seroprevalence of 12% (9 positive herds of 75). The risk factor analysis using a logistic regression model indicated that the presence of small ruminants along with cattle in the herd (mixed herds) decreased the odds for brucellosis seropositivity by 1.69 [95% CI 0.54-2.84; P = 0.042] compared to the cattle herds only. Likewise, the present study showed that the presence of Rev-1 vaccinated small ruminants in the herd decreased also the odds for brucellosis seropositivity by 4.10 [95% CI 3.20-5.00; P = 0.003] compared to other herds. This result lead to the assumption that the small ruminants Rev-1 vaccination diminish Brucella microbisme pressure in the mixed herds and help decrease the cattle brucellosis prevalence in these herds.

  12. Eradication of bovine brucellosis in the 10th Region de Los Lagos, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, S Alejandro; Ramírez, M Cristina; Lopetegui, I Patricia

    2002-12-20

    The process of Bovine Brucellosis Eradication that began in 1996 in the 10th Region de Los Lagos of Chile will be reviewed. The region comprises the most important dairy area of the country and it has the largest concentration of brucellosis infected herds. Based on the information gathered by an epidemiological surveillance system, the results of the eradication process for the years 1996 till 2001 are presented as rates of Milk Ring Test (MRT) positive dairies, rates of brucellosis reactors (bovines) in livestock markets and slaughterhouses, and the annual incidence and prevalence of brucellosis infected herds. During the period the rates of positive dairies, bovine reactors in livestock markets and slaughterhouses, and the annual incidence and prevalence of infected herds have experienced a decrease, while the rate of bovine reactors in slaughterhouses has remained stable. Data on the preventive measures taken, such as vaccination of female bovines and Certification of Brucellosis Free Herds, are also shown. The surveillance system has allowed the detection of infected herds, while the measures of prevention and cleaning of infected herds have allowed a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of the infection by Brucella abortus. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka, Mukhtar Salihu; Hassan, Latiffah; Khairani-Bejo, Siti; Zainal, Mohamed Abidin; Mohamad, Ramlan Bin; Salleh, Annas; Adzhar, Azri

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05); originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19) and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83) were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24) and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90) when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  14. The Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of AntiDiuretic Hormone in Patients With Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Aslan, Mehmet; Ceylan, Mehmet Resat; Olmez, Sehmus; Karadas, Sevdegul; Akdeniz, Hayrettin

    2015-09-01

    Various studies have shown that a number of infectious disease causes syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). However, the relationship between infectious disease and SIADH is not yet fully known. In this prospective study, we aimed to assess the presence of SIADH in patients with brucellosis. Thirty-five patients with acute brucellosis were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnosis of brucellosis was performed using the Wright test in connection with blood culture. SIADH was defined by euvolemic hyponatremia (serum sodium level lower than 135 mEq/l) with increased urinary sodium excretion (urinary sodium higher than 40 mmol/l). Of the 35 patients, 19 (54%) had SIADH; 20 (57%) also had hypouricemia (uric acid level lower than 4 mg/dl). Additionally, all of the studied patients had a high mean urinary sodium excretion rate (mean 132 mmol/l; range 40-224). Most importantly, the hyponatremic patients were more likely to have a lower albumin level (P brucellosis. The presence of SIADH could be a diagnostic tool for diagnosing brucellosis. Further larger randomized studies may confirm these findings. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Epidemiology of brucellosis among cattle in Korea from 2001 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Oun-Kyong; Lee, Soo-Han; Lee, Won-Chang; Her, Moon; Jeong, Wooseog; Jung, Suk-Chan; Kim, Do-Soon

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the outbreak patterns of bovine brucellosis in Korea from 2000 to 2011 were analyzed to understand the epidemiological evolution of this disease in the country. A total of 85,521 brucella reactor animals were identified during 14,215 outbreaks over the 12-year study period. The number of bovine brucellosis cases increased after 2003 and peaked in 2006 before decreasing thereafter. The majority of the bovine brucellosis cases were Korean native cattle, Han Woo. The numbers of human brucellosis cases and cattle outbreaks increased and decreased in the same pattern. The correlation coefficient for human and bovine cases per year was 0.96 (95% confidence interval = 0.86~0.99; p brucellosis appeared to be affected by the intensity of eradication programs that mainly involved a test-and-slaughter policy. Findings from the present study were based on freely available statistics from web pages maintained by government agencies. This unlimited access to information demonstrates the usefulness of government statistics for continually monitoring the health of animal populations. PMID:25234321

  16. Seroprevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in cattle in selected districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirar, Bashahun Gebremichael; Nasinyama, George William; Gelalcha, Benti Deresa

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Jimma town and Chora Botor district of Jimma zone from February 2014 to May 2014 to determine seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in cattle. A total of 348 blood samples (174 each from zebu and crossbreed) were collected. The sera were separated and screened by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), and positive sera were retested by complement fixation test (CFT) for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 1.4 and 0.3 % as tested by RBPT and CFT, respectively. The seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in indigenous and crossbreed cattle was 1.1 and 0.6 % and 1.7 and 0 % using RBPT and CFT, respectively. Retained fetal membrane was the only risk factor found to be significantly associated with seropositivity of brucellosis in this study (p = 0.019). The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was very low. However, due to the zoonotic and economic importance of the disease, prevention and control measures are required to stop further spread of the disease. To effectively implement this, the One Health (OH) is the most constructive approach we recommend.

  17. Serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis using B. melitensis strain B115.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrente, Marialaura; Desario, Costantina; Parisi, Antonio; Grandolfo, Erika; Scaltrito, Domenico; Vesco, Gesualdo; Colao, Valeriana; Buonavoglia, Domenico

    2015-12-01

    Bovine brucellosis is diagnosed by official tests, such as Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and Complement Fixation test (CFT). Both tests detect antibodies directed against the lipolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella cell wall. Despite their good sensitivity, those tests do not discriminate between true positive and false positive serological reactions (FPSR), the latter being generated by animals infected with other Gram negative microorganisms that share components of Brucella LPS. In this study, an antigenic extract from whole Brucella melitensis B115 strain was used to set up an ELISA assay for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. A total of 148 serum samples from five different groups of animals were tested: Group A: 28 samples from two calves experimentally infected with Yersinia enterocolitica O:9; Group B: 30 samples from bovines infected with Brucella abortus; Group C: 50 samples from brucellosis-free herds; Group D: 20 samples RBPT positive and CFT negative; Group E: 20 samples both RBPT and CFT positive. Group D and Group E serum samples were from brucellosis-free herds. Positive reactions were detected only by RBPT and CFT in calves immunized with Y. enterocolitica O:9. Sera from Group B animals tested positive also in the ELISA assay, whereas sera from the remaining groups were all negative. The results obtained encourage the use of the ELISA assay to implement the serological diagnosis of brucellosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of Brucellosis in Sika Deer ( Cervus nippon ) through Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianhong; Wei, Jie; Sun, Qingsong; Wang, Ben; Wang, Yuting; Hu, Ying; Wu, Wenrong

    2017-07-01

    Brucellosis (Brucella bovis) in sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) can cause enormous losses to stag breeding, especially in areas in which stag breeding has become an important industry. It also poses a threat to humans because it is a zoonotic disease. Use of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been poorly described in the diagnosis of brucellosis in deer. We developed a LAMP assay targeting the omp25 gene sequence to detect brucellosis in sika deer. The reaction can be completed in 60 min at 63 C and, with a detection limit of 17 pg, it was more sensitive than conventional PCR, with its detection limit of 1.7 ng. No cross-reactivity was observed with four bacteria: Escherichia coli , Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Clostridium pasteurianum , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . We used 263 samples of blood to evaluate the reaction. The percentage of agreement between LAMP and PCR reached 91%; relative specificity reached 87%, and relative sensitivity reached 100%. The results indicate LAMP can be a simple and rapid diagnostic tool for detecting brucellosis in sika deer, particularly in the field, where it is essential to control brucellosis in deer with a rapid and accurate diagnosis for removal of positive animals.

  19. Seroprevalence and "Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices" (KAPs) survey of endemic ovine brucellosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Yamen; Elmonir, Walid; Abdel-Hamid, Nour Hosny; Elbauomy, Essam Mohamed

    2016-01-07

    Between February and July 2014, a cross-sectional study to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep in the Kafrelsheikh district of Egypt was carried out, together with a survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) among local shepherds. A total of 273 serum samples were collected from 28 sheep flocks in 10 villages within the study area. These samples were analysed by the Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) test, with all positive samples being confirmed by complement fixation test (CFT). True seroprevalence was 20 % (95 % CI 15.3-24.7 %) with the prevalence of villages with at least one seropositive sheep estimated at 95.5 % (95 % CI 92.2-100 %); village flock seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 46.8 %. Results of the KAPs survey demonstrated that despite good knowledge regarding brucellosis being potentially present within their flocks, shepherds lacked knowledge regarding routes of livestock to humans disease transmission and the symptoms of brucellosis in humans. This lack of knowledge regarding disease transmission resulted in high-risk practices being widespread-practices such as assisting parturition without protective measures, throwing aborted material into water canals and a reluctance to remove animals that had aborted from the flock. This study proposes potential measures to reduce seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep and reduce public health risks from brucellosis such as culling aborted livestock and educational campaigns among shepherds regarding disease risks and modes of transmission.

  20. Lessons learned with molecular methods targeting the BCSP-31 membrane protein for diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuan-Jimenez, Rocio; Colmenero, Juan D; Morata, Pilar

    2017-06-01

    Brucellosis remains an emerging and re-emerging zoonosis worldwide causing high human morbidity. It usually affects persons who are permanently exposed to fastidious microorganisms of the Brucella genus and has a nonspecific clinical picture. Thus, diagnosis of brucellosis can sometimes be difficult. Molecular techniques have recently been found very useful in the diagnosis of brucellosis together with its common and very diverse focal complications. We herein review all the lessons learned by our group concerning the molecular diagnosis of human brucellosis over the last twenty years. The results, initially using one-step conventional PCR, later PCR-ELISA and more recently real-time PCR, using both fluorescent intercalating reagents (SYBR-Green I) and specific probes (Taqman), have shown that these techniques are all much more sensitive than bacteriological methods and more specific than the usual serological techniques for the diagnosis of primary infection, the post-treatment control of the disease, early detection of relapse and the diagnosis of focal complications. Optimization of the technique and improvements introduced over the years show that molecular methods, currently accessible for most clinical laboratories, enable easy rapid diagnosis of brucellosis at the same time as they avoid any risk to laboratory personnel while handling live Brucella spp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cases of human brucellosis in Sweden linked to Middle East and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofolo, Giuliano; Fasanella, Antonio; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Platone, Ilenia; Sacchini, Lorena; Persiani, Tiziana; Boskani, Talar; Rizzardi, Kristina; Wahab, Tara

    2016-05-17

    Human brucellosis cases are still reported each year in Sweden despite eradication of the disease in animals. Epidemiological investigation has never been conducted to trace back the source of human infection in the country. The purpose of the study was to identify the source of infection for 16 human brucellosis cases that occurred in Sweden, during the period 2008-2012. The isolates were identified as Brucella melitensis and MLVA-16 genotyping revealed 14 different genotypes of East Mediterranean and Africa lineages. We also reported one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis (LAB) that was shown to be epidemiological linked to one of the cases in the current study. Brucella melitensis was the only species diagnosed, confirming its highest zoonotic potential in the genus Brucella, and MLVA-16 results demonstrated that the cases of brucellosis in Sweden herein investigated, are imported and linked to travel in the Middle East and Africa. Due to its zoonotic concerns, any acute febrile illness linked to recent travel within those regions should be investigated for brucellosis and samples should be processed according to biosafety level 3 regulations.

  2. Single-stage transforaminal decompression, debridement, interbody fusion, and posterior instrumentation for lumbosacral brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulizi, Yakefu; Liang, Wei-Dong; Muheremu, Aikeremujiang; Maimaiti, Maierdan; Sheng, Wei-Bin

    2017-07-14

    Spinal brucellosis is a less commonly reported infectious spinal pathology. There are few reports regarding the surgical treatment of spinal brucellosis in existing literature. This retrospective study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of single-stage transforaminal decompression, debridement, interbody fusion, and posterior instrumentation for lumbosacral spinal brucellosis. From February 2012 to April 2015, 32 consecutive patients (19 males and 13 females, mean age 53.7 ± 8.7) with lumbosacral brucellosis treated by transforaminal decompression, debridement, interbody fusion, and posterior instrumentation were enrolled. Medical records, imaging studies, laboratory data were collected and summarized. Surgical outcomes were evaluated based on visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale. The changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), clinical symptoms and complications were investigated. Graft fusion was evaluated using Bridwell grading criteria. The mean follow-up period was 24.9 ± 8.2 months. Back pain and radiating leg pain was relieved significantly in all patients after operation. No implant failures were observed in any patients. Wound infection was observed in two patients and sinus formation was observed in one patient. Solid bony fusion was achieved in 30 patients and the fusion rate was 93.8%. The levels of ESR and CRP were returned to normal by the end of three months' follow-up. VAS and ODI scores were significantly improved (P brucellosis.

  3. Brucellosis Transmission between Wildlife and Livestock in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Inferences from DNA Genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael P; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Anderson, Neil; Ceballos, Ruben M; Edwards, William H; Harris, Beth; Wallen, Rick L; Costa, Vânia

    2017-04-01

    The wildlife of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem carries brucellosis, which was first introduced to the area by cattle in the 19th century. Brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock has been difficult to study due to challenges in culturing the causative agent, Brucella abortus . We examined B. abortus transmission between American bison ( Bison bison ), Rocky Mountain elk ( Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and cattle ( Bos taurus ) using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) markers on DNA from 98 B. abortus isolates recovered from populations in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, US. Our analyses reveal interspecies transmission. Two outbreaks (2007, 2008) in Montana cattle had B. abortus genotypes similar to isolates from both bison and elk. Nevertheless, similarity in elk and cattle isolates from the 2008 outbreak suggest that elk are the likely source of brucellosis transmission to cattle in Montana and Wyoming. Brucella abortus isolates from sampling in Montana appear to be divided in two clusters: one found in local Montana elk, cattle, and bison; and another found mainly in elk and a bison from Wyoming, which is consistent with brucellosis having entered Montana via migration of infected elk from Wyoming. Our findings illustrate complex patterns of brucellosis transmission among elk, bison, and cattle as well as the utility of VNTRs to infer the wildlife species of origin for disease outbreaks in livestock.

  4. Brucellosis Seropositivity in Animals and Humans in Ethiopia: A Meta-analysis.

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    Tadesse, Getachew

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the heterogeneities of estimates and to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in animals and humans in Ethiopia. Data from 70 studies covering 75879 animals and 2223 humans were extracted. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Complement Fixation Test (CFT) in series were the most frequently used serological tests. A random effects model was used to calculate pooled prevalence estimates. The overall True Prevalence of brucellosis seropositivity in goats and sheep were estimated at 5.3% (95%CI = 3.5, 7.5) and 2.7% (95%CI = 1.8, 3.4), respectively, and 2.9% for each of camels and cattle. The prevalence was higher in post-pubertal than in pre-pubertal animals (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.6, 3.7) and in the pastoral than in the mixed crop-livestock production system (OR = 2.8, 95%CI = 2.5, 3.2). The incidence rates of brucellosis in humans of pastoral and sedentary system origins were estimated at 160 and 28 per 100 000 person years, respectively. The seroprevalence of brucellosis is higher in goats than in other species. Its occurrence is evocative of its importance in the country in general and in the pastoral system in particular. Public awareness creation could reduce the transmission of Brucella spp. from animals to humans and the potential of livestock vaccination as a means of control of brucellosis needs to be assessed.

  5. Clinical and Diagnostic Aspects of Brucellosis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Brucella Isolates in Hamedan, Iran.

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    Torkaman Asadi, Fatemeh; Hashemi, Seyyed Hamid; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Naseri, Zahra

    2017-05-24

    Current drug regimens for brucellosis are associated with relatively high rates of therapeutic failure or relapse. Reduced antimicrobial susceptibility of Brucella spp. has been proposed recently as a potential cause of therapeutic failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Brucella melitensis clinical isolates by E-test method in Hamadan, west of Iran. In a 15-month period, all patients with suspected brucellosis were enrolled. Blood specimens were collected for diagnosis of brucellosis by BACTEC system and serological tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates to 7 antibiotics was assessed by the E-test method. One hundred forty-nine patients with brucellosis were evaluated. 38.3% of cultures of clinical samples were positive for BACTEC system, of which 91.2% were associated with a positive serological test result. No significant associations were found between serology and the culture method. All Brucella isolates were susceptible to doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. However, decreased sensitivity to rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was found in 35.1% and 3.5% of isolates, respectively. Because of the high rates of intermediate sensitivity to rifampin among Brucella isolates, this drug should be prescribed with caution. We recommend restricting the use of rifampin for treatment of brucellosis except as an alternative drug for special situations.

  6. MicroRNA Expression Patterns of CD8+ T Cells in Acute and Chronic Brucellosis

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    Budak, Ferah; Bal, S. Haldun; Tezcan, Gulcin; Guvenc, Furkan; Akalin, E. Halis; Goral, Guher; Deniz, Gunnur

    2016-01-01

    Although our knowledge about Brucella virulence factors and the host response increase rapidly, the mechanisms of immune evasion by the pathogen and causes of chronic disease are still unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the immunological factors which belong to CD8+ T cells and their roles in the transition of brucellosis from acute to chronic infection. Using miRNA microarray, more than 2000 miRNAs were screened in CD8+ T cells of patients with acute or chronic brucellosis and healthy controls that were sorted from peripheral blood with flow cytometry and validated through qRT-PCR. Findings were evaluated using GeneSpring GX (Agilent) 13.0 software and KEGG pathway analysis. Expression of two miRNAs were determined to display a significant fold change in chronic group when compared with acute or control groups. Both miRNAs (miR-126-5p and miR-4753-3p) were decreased (p 2). These miRNAs have the potential to be the regulators of CD8+ T cell-related marker genes for chronic brucellosis infections. The differentially expressed miRNAs and their predicted target genes are involved in MAPK signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, endocytosis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and focal adhesion indicating their potential roles in chronic brucellosis and its progression. It is the first study of miRNA expression analysis of human CD8+ T cells to clarify the mechanism of inveteracy in brucellosis. PMID:27824867

  7. The evaluation of a user-friendly lateral flow assay for the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizanbayeva, Sulushash; Smits, Henk L; Zhalilova, Katya; Abdoel, Theresia H; Kozakov, Stanislaw; Ospanov, Kenes S; Elzer, Philip H; Douglas, James T

    2009-09-01

    Serum samples from all patients with culture-confirmed brucellosis including those with chronic disease from Kazakhstan tested positive in the serum agglutination test for titers > or = 1:25 and reacted in the Brucella immunoglobulin M/immunoglobulin G lateral flow assay (LFA) confirming the high sensitivity of these assays. The strong reactivity in the LFA observed for the majority (92.1%) of the samples from the patients with culture-confirmed brucellosis together with the user-friendliness of the assay procedure makes the LFA ideal for the confirmation of brucellosis in endemic areas in Kazakhstan. The Rose Bengal test lacked sensitivity in particular for patients with chronic brucellosis therefore limiting its value as a quick screening assay. The study emphasizes the importance of the LFA as a useful, rapid, and easy-to-perform tool in the diagnostic testing of brucellosis.

  8. Brucellosis with cervical vertebrae and pulmonary involvement: A rare case

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    Gül Karagöz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement of brucellosis. However, there is no case report presented in the literature of both cervical vertebrae spondylodiscitis and pulmonary involvement of brucella.We reported a 52-year-old woman complaining for one month of fever with rigors, fatigue, malaise, pain on the neck and arm, and sweating. The Wright agglutination test for brucella was positive at titers of 1/640. MRI of the cervical vertebrae was consistent with spondylodiscitis and paravertebral and epidural abscesses. Ground glass opacity was seen in the left upper lobe on CT scanning of the chest. Percutaneous image-guided biopsy was performed and Brucella melitensis was isolated. The patient was treated with streptomycin for 3 weeks, plus doxycycline and rifampicin for 3 months. We recommend tissue culture for rucella patients with lung lesions. Isolation of the microorganism from a biopsy material provides conclusive evidence. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 173-175

  9. Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle and Goats in Northern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

  10. Annual trends of human brucellosis in pastoralist communities of south-western Uganda: a retrospective ten-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansiime, Catherine; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Asiimwe, Benon B; Makumbi, Fredrick; Bazira, Joel; Mugisha, Anthony

    2015-08-31

    Human brucellosis is prevalent in both rural and urban Uganda, yet most cases of the disease in humans go unnoticed and untreated because of inaccurate diagnosis, which is often due to the disease not manifesting in any symptoms. This study was undertaken to describe trends in laboratory-confirmed human brucellosis cases at three health facilities in pastoralist communities in South-western, Uganda. Data were collected retrospectively to describe trends of brucellosis over a 10-year period (2003-2012), and supplemented with a prospective study, which was conducted from January to December 2013. Two public health facilities and a private clinic that have diagnostic laboratories were selected for these studies. Annual prevalence was calculated and linearly plotted to observe trends of the disease at the health facilities. A modified Poisson regression model was used to estimate the risk ratio (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) to determine the association between brucellosis and independent variables using the robust error variance. A total of 9,177 persons with suspected brucellosis were identified in the retrospective study, of which 1,318 (14.4 %) were confirmed cases. Brucellosis cases peaked during the months of April and June, as observed in nearly all of the years of the study, while the most noticeable annual increase (11-23 %) was observed from 2010 to 2012. In the prospective study, there were 610 suspected patients at two public health facilities. Of these, 194 (31.8 %) were positive for brucellosis. Respondents aged 45-60 years (RR = 0.50; CI: 0.29-0.84) and those that tested positive for typhoid (RR = 0.68; CI: 0.52-0.89) were less likely to have brucellosis. With the noticeable increase in prevalence from 2010 to 2012, diagnosis of both brucellosis and typhoid is important for early detection, and for raising public awareness on methods for preventing brucellosis in this setting.

  11. Study of brucellosis in serum of camels in southeast of Iran

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    Ahmad Rafieipour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the town of Qalegange, located in southeast of Iran, home of about 3816 camels. To study brucellosis in these animals, serological examinations including rose Bengal plat test (RBPT, MRT and 2ME were performed on 3502 camel’s serum samples. Positive results were obtained in 245 (7%, 163 (4.66% and 89 (7.92% camels thus tested, respectively. Twenty three percent of the positive camels were adult 2 years old, 36% three years old, 22% four years old, 17% five years old and the remaining 3 percent were six years old. In the infected herds, abortion rates associated with the disease ranged from 10 to 39 percent. Other ailments observed associated with brucellosis were retention of the placenta, fetal death and mummification, delayed maturity and infertility. Recommendations for brucellosis control were given, in order to increase the awareness of shepherds, by suggesting regular testing, slaughtering of infected animals and vaccinations.

  12. The use of live vaccine for vaccination of human beings against brucellosis in the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VERSHILOVA, P A

    1961-01-01

    The great majority of human brucellosis cases in the USSR are caused by contact with infected sheep and goats. Extensive action has been taken to prevent human infection and to reduce the incidence among farm animals, the main prophylactic measure in recent years being vaccination with live brucellosis vaccine. The author summarizes the steps leading to the development of a satisfactory vaccine and gives a brief description of the method of preparation. Discussing the results obtained, she states that there has been a nearly 60% reduction in the number of human cases over the period 1952-58.The subcutaneous route of administration is usually resorted to, but preliminary figures suggest that cutaneous vaccination is equally effective immunogenically, although in persons who have suffered from active brucellosis it causes strong reactions and may lead to exacerbation of the disease. Research is going forward into the development of a cutaneous vaccine capable of general use.

  13. Seroprevalence of human brucellosis in a rural area of Western Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Zafer; Aktepe, Orhan C; Ciftci, Ihsan H; Demirel, Reha

    2005-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of human brucellosis and identify the potential risk factors in a rural area of Western Anatolia, Turkey. A simple random-sampling method was used for identifying 1,052 subjects for the study. Blood samples, collected from all the subjects, were studied following the methods of Rose Bengal slide agglutination and standard tube agglutination tests. One thousand and one samples (95.2%) were seronegative, and 51 (4.8%) were seropositive. There was a statistically significant correlation between seropositivity and age, sex, consuming fresh cheese and cream made from unboiled milk (p values 0.005, 0.019, dairy products and education regarding eating habits must be pursued for eradication of human brucellosis from rural areas. The findings of the study suggest that human brucellosis is still an important public-health problem in the western Anatolia region of Turkey, especially in rural areas.

  14. A Foodborne Outbreak of Brucellosis at a Police Station Cafeteria, Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Karina; Castillo, Rosa; Gilman, Robert H.; Calderón, Maritza; Vivar, Aldo; Céspedes, Manuel; Smits, Henk L.; Meléndez, Paolo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Guerra, Humberto; Maves, Ryan C.; Matthias, Michael A.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Saito, Mayuko

    2013-01-01

    Brucella melitensis is highly infectious for humans and can be transmitted to humans in a number of epidemiological contexts. Within the context of an ongoing brucellosis surveillance project, an outbreak at a Peruvian police officer cafeteria was discovered, which led to active surveillance (serology, blood culture) for additional cases among 49 police officers who had also eaten there. The cohort was followed up to 18 months regardless of treatment or symptoms. Active surveillance estimated the attack rate at 26.5% (13 of 49). Blood cultures from four cases were positive; these isolates were indistinguishable using multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis. This investigation indicates the importance of case tracking and active surveillance for brucellosis in the context of potential common source exposure. These results provide rationale for public health investigations of brucellosis index cases including the bioterrorism-related dissemination of Brucella. PMID:23382164

  15. Temporal Analysis and Costs of Ruminant Brucellosis Control Programme in Egypt Between 1999 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltholth, M M; Hegazy, Y M; El-Tras, W F; Bruce, M; Rushton, J

    2017-08-01

    Data for the prevalence of brucellosis in ruminants in Egypt are scarce; recent studies suggest the disease is endemic, with a high prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the financial costs and the impact of the current control programme on the pattern of brucellosis among ruminants between 1999 and 2011. A univariate binary logistic regression model was used to compare between seropositive proportions for different years for each species. The proportion of seropositive cattle was significantly increased from 2000 to 2004 then significantly decreased from 2005 to 2011. The proportion of seropositive buffalo fluctuated year to year; however, there was a significant increase in 2008 (OR 3.13, 95% CI 2.69-3.66, P brucellosis and its control measures should be investigated. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Incidence Patterns and Occupational Risk Factors of Human Brucellosis in Greece, 2004–2015

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    T Lytras

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is the most common bacterial zoonosis worldwide. Greece has the highest reported incidence among EU countries. However, occupational risk factors have not been well described. Objective: To determine the incidence patterns and exposure risk factors of brucellosis in Greece. Methods: We used national-level surveillance and occupational denominator data to estimate the incidence patterns and exposure risk factors of brucellosis in Greece, with particular emphasis on occupation. Results: Between November 2003 and December 2015 a total of 2159 human brucellosis cases was reported. The mean incidence rate was 1.62 per 100 000 population per year. A large majority of cases (77.1% reported consumption of unpasteurized milk or contact with livestock animals. Most cases occured in farmers and livestock breeders (1079 [87.7%] of 1231 cases reporting their occupation, corresponding to an annual incidence of 7.1 per 100 000. However, there were other occupations with a similar or higher risk: butchers and abattoir workers (12.7 per 100 000, laboratory personnel (3.1 per 100 000, while the highest risk was for veterinarians (53.2 per 100 000. Conclusion: Brucellosis incidence in specific occupational groups was much higher than in the general population. These results underline the importance of collecting information on occupation, both during the diagnostic process and in the surveillance system. Besides efforts to control brucellosis in animals, organized prevention efforts are needed within an occupational health framework, especially for the most vulnerable workers.

  17. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in the Potohar Plateau, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahzad; Akhter, Shamim; Neubauer, Heinrich; Melzer, Falk; Khan, Iahtasham; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; El-Adawy, Hosny; Irfan, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ali; Akbar, Muhammad Waqas; Umar, Sajid; Ali, Qurban; Iqbal, Muhammad Naeem; Mahmood, Abid; Ahmed, Haroon

    2017-01-28

    The seroprevalence and risk factors of bovine brucellosis were studied at animal and herd level using a combination of culture, serological and molecular methods. The study was conducted in 253 randomly selected cattle herds of the Potohar plateau, Pakistan from which a total of 2709 serum (1462 cattle and 1247 buffaloes) and 2330 milk (1168 cattle and 1162 buffaloes) samples were collected. Data on risk factors associated with seroprevalence of brucellosis were collected through interviews using questionnaires. Univariable and multivariable random effects logistic regression models were used for identifying important risk factors at animal and herd levels. One hundred and seventy (6.3%) samples and 47 (18.6%) herds were seropositive for brucellosis by Rose Bengal Plate test. Variations in seroprevalence were observed across the different sampling sites. At animal level, sex, species and stock replacement were found to be potential risk factors for brucellosis. At herd level, herd size (≥9 animals) and insemination method used were important risk factors. The presence of Brucella DNA was confirmed with a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR) in 52.4% out of 170 serological positive samples. In total, 156 (6.7%) milk samples were positive by milk ring test. B. abortus biovar 1 was cultured from 5 positive milk samples. This study shows that the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis is high in some regions in Pakistan. Prevalence was associated with herd size, abortion history, insemination methods used, age, sex and stock replacement methods. The infected animal may act as source of infection for other animals and for humans. The development of control strategies for bovine brucellosis through implementation of continuous surveillance and education programs in Pakistan is warranted.

  18. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria

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    Victor O. Akinseye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria; however, limited data exist on nationwide studies and risk factors associated with the disease. Using a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey, we determined the prevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis in slaughtered cattle in three geographical regions of Nigeria. Serum samples from randomly selected unvaccinated cattle slaughtered over a period of 3 years (between December 2010 and September 2013 from northern, southern and south-western Nigeria were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Data associated with risk factors of brucellosis were analysed by Stata Version 12. In all, 8105 cattle were screened. An overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (315/8105 was recorded by the Rose Bengal test, with 3.8%, 3.4% and 4.0% from the northern, southern and south-western regions, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that cattle screened in northern Nigeria were less likely to be seropositive for antibodies to Brucella spp. than those from south-western Nigeria (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.73–1.22. However, logistic regression analysis revealed that breed ( p = 0.04 and sex ( p £ 0.0001 of cattle were statistically significant for seropositivity to Brucella spp. The study found that brucellosis was endemic at a low prevalence among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria, with sex and breed of cattle being significant risk factors. Considering the public health implications of brucellosis, we advocate coordinated surveillance for the disease among diverse cattle populations in Nigeria, as is carried out in most developed countries.Keywords: Bovine brucellosis, RBT, Epidemiology, Public Health, Nigeria

  19. Analytical Review of Brucellosis in Jolfa City between 2010 and 2014

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    Safooreh Esmaeilzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : This study aimed to analyze existing data to achieve a comprehensive understanding of human brucellosis trend and its current situation in Jolfa city for implementing appropriate prevention and controlling program. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted on 91 patients with brucellosis who referred to Jolfa city health centers and private clinics from 2010 to 2014 and standard form of the brucellosis disease was completed for them. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16 and descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results : The mean incidence of brucellosis was 34.6 per 100,000. About 60.4% of the patients were male and 86.6% were living in rural. Disease was more common in men but there was no significant difference between the genders (x2 =2.72, p-value=0.85. The mean age was 36.7 years old (SD=1.78 with a range from 4 to 87 years old. The most cases of diseases were aged 40-50 years old. The most contagious seasons were spring (40.65% and summer (26.37%. About 85.7% of the patients had a history of animal contact and 78 % of the patients had a background of consuming unpasteurized dairy products. According to the findings, 94.55% of the patients were new cases and 38.5% had a history of disease in the family. The most cases (34.1% were in Komar-Sofla village. Conclusion : Despite the decrease of brucellosis disease in the East Azerbaijan province, trend of disease is increasing in Jolfa and brucellosis is still one of the common diseases. According to the results and considering the nature of the disease, applying ecological theories based on the multi-sectoral collaboration of the society can be effective in preventing the disease. ​

  20. Brucellosis in children in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period 2000 - 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetagić, Sead; Porobić Jahić, Humera; Koluder, Nada; Čalkić, Lejla; Mehanić, Snježana; Hadžić, Eldira; Ibrahimpašić, Nevzeta; Grgić, Svjetlana; Zirić, Mirela; Bajić, Jelena; Žepić, Denis

    2015-08-01

    To analyse clinical, laboratory and epidemiological characteristics of brucellosis in children in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study included 246 children aged 0-18 years, who were hospitalized in Clinics and Departments for Infectious Diseases in Tuzla, Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Zenica and Bihać in the period 2000-2013, in whom the diagnosis of brucellosis was established based on anamnestic data, clinical features and positive results from blood culture and/or positive results from one of the serological tests. In this period, a total of 2630 patients, 246 (9.35%) of whom were children, were treated from brucellosis at the Clinics and Departments in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the majority of cases, the children were from rural parts of the country, 226 (91.87%);214 (87.04%) cases had direct contact with sick animals, sick family member or consumption of unpasteurized dairy products from farms where brucellosis had been already established. Male children predominated, 157 (63.82%). The most frequent clinical features in affected children were fever, 194 (78.86%) and joint pain, 158 (64.22%). The average duration of antimicrobial treatment was 42.85 ± 10.67 days. A total of 228 (92.68%) children were completely cured, while relapses occurred in 18 (7.32%) children. Since brucellosis is an endemic disease in Bosnia and Herzegovina, it is important that physicians in their daily practice consider brucellosis and establish proper diagnosis and therapy in children with prolonged fever, arthralgia, leukopenia and positive epidemiological data, especially in rural parts of the country. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  1. Brucellosis Prevention Program: Applying “Child to Family Health Education” Method

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    H. Allahverdipour

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pupils have efficient potential to increase community awareness and promoting community health through participating in the health education programs. Child to family health education program is one of the communicative strategies that was applied in this field trial study. Because of high prevalence of Brucellosis in Hamadan province, Iran, the aim of this study was promoting families’ knowledge and preventive behaviors about Brucellosis in the rural areas by using child to family health education method.Materials & Methods: In this nonequivalent control group design study three rural schools were chosen (one as intervention and two others as control. At first knowledge and behavior of families about Brucellosis were determined using a designed questionnaire. Then the families were educated through “child to family” procedure. At this stage the students gained information. Then they were instructed to teach their parents what they had learned. After 3 months following the last session of education, the level of knowledge and behavior changes of the families about Brucellosis were determined and analyzed by paired t-test.Results: The results showed significant improvement in the knowledge of the mothers. The knowledge of the mothers about the signs of Brucellosis disease in human increased from 1.81 to 3.79 ( t:-21.64 , sig:0.000 , and also the knowledge on the signs of Brucellosis in animals increased from 1.48 to 2.82 ( t:-10.60 , sig:0.000. Conclusion: Child to family health education program is one of the effective and available methods, which would be useful and effective in most communities, and also Students potential would be effective for applying in the health promotion programs.

  2. Comparison between Efficacy of Ciprofioxacin -Doxycycline with Rifampin – Doxycycline Regimens inrelapse of Brucellosis

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    Hossein Sarmadian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is one of the endemic diseases in Iran that has a worldwide spread and is associated with chronic disabilities in humans. Combination therapy of Brucellosis leads to recovery of symptoms, shortening of the symptomatic intervals, and decrease in the rate of relapse and drug resistance. Considering the use of rifampin in the treatment of tuberculosis, and the necessity for an alternative treatment in regions endemic for both tuberculosis and brucellosis, the aim ofthis study was to compare the efficiency of the regimen of rifampin-Doxycycline with ciprofloxacin-Doxycycline in relapse of brucellosis. Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 90 patients, older than 17 years old, affected with brucellosis, which were referred to the Infectious Disease Clinics at ArakUniversity of medical sciences between the years 1384-1387. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the DR groups, receiving 100 mg of Doxycycline twice a day and 300 mg of rifampin Bid daily for eight weeks and the CD group, receiving 100 mg of Doxycycline plus 500 mg of ciprofloxacin twice a day for eight weeks. The patients were analyzed for the relief of symptoms, drug side effects, and laboratory findings during the treatment. Results:In this study, the rate of relapse in both groups were similar. The relapse was seen in 4.5% and 3.2% of the patients for the DR and CD groups, respectively (P=0.168. The drug side effects were slight in both of groups, with no significant difference, and did not lead to discontinuation of the therapy. Conclusion: According to the same rate of relapse in both CD and DR regimens in the treatment of brucellosis and considering the usage of rifampin in regions with high prevalence of tuberclusis, the CD regimen is recommended as an appropriate one.

  3. A Survey On Gastrointestinal And Hepatic Manifestations Of Brucellosis Imam Hospital (1995-2001

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    AhmadiNejad Z

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution. Despite its control in many developing countries the disease remains endemic in Iran. The symptoms, signs and laboratory results are variable and nonspecific. This case series study was conducted to determine the liver complications of Brucellosis in Iran"nMaterials and Methods: We studied 188 patients (108 males and 80 females with Brucellosis, fulfilled the diagnostic criteria, aged 1-79 years (mean 34.8 years were registered in Imam Khomeini Hospital, a referral center in Tehran, during the six years (1995-2001."nResults: Thirty-four of 188 cases (18.08 percent had elevated liver enzyme (elevated SGOT only, 6 patients; elevated SGPT only 1 patient; elevation of both transaminases, 27 patients. The prominent symptoms included anorexia (74 cases, weight loss (62 cases, right upper quadrant pain (32 cases, epigastric pain (25 cases and nausea and vomiting (23 cases. Among the gastrointestinal signs were found in these patients, hepatomegaly was seen in 28 patients. Jaundice and ascitis were present in only 7 and 3 patients, respectively. Other laboratory results showed elevated alkaline phosphatase in 28 cases and abnormal bilirubin in 10 cases. Fifty-seven patients had a focal illness, representing 30.32 percent of all patients. Osteoarticular complications were the most frequent focal forms, being present in 34 cases. Twelve male patients had genitourinary Brucellosis, representing 10.53 percent of focal forms. Also, 5 patients had neurologic complications."nConclusion: In conclusion liver involvement is frequent in Brucellosis, although the rate of this complication in our study was lower than other studies. So, in patients with evidence of overt clinical or laboratory findings compatible with liver disturbance etiologies other than brucellosis should be considered in Iran."n"n"n 

  4. Guidelines for the management of human brucellosis in the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Francisco Tuon

    Full Text Available Abstract Human brucellosis is a re-emerging disease with the potential for bioterrorism. The number of cases in Brazil has increased; however, the ideal management has not been established. These guidelines are intended for use by clinicians and other health-care workers providing medical care for patients with suspected brucellosis in the State of Paraná. We included a brief description of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention of exposure, prevention of disease by chemoprophylaxis, treatment of disease, monitoring of adverse effects during treatment, management of treatment failure and relapse cases.

  5. Epidemiology of brucellosis in domestic animals caused by Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis and Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Aparicio, E

    2013-04-01

    Brucellosis is a disease that causes severe economic losses for livestock farms worldwide. Brucella melitensis, B. abortus and B. suis, which are transmitted between animals both vertically and horizontally, cause abortion and infertility in their primary natural hosts - goats and sheep (B. melitensis), cows (B. abortus) and sows (B. suis). Brucella spp. infect not only their preferred hosts but also other domestic and wild animal species, which in turn can act as reservoirs of the disease for other animal species and humans. Brucellosis is therefore considered to be a major zoonosis transmitted by direct contact with animals and/or their secretions, or by consuming milk and dairy products.

  6. Canine brucellosis: Epizootiological characteristics, therapy and control of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes different aspects of canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis. The disease is present in a large number of countries all over the world, where it inflicts severe economic damages, in particular in the commercial breeding and major dog breeding facilities. The disease was discovered in 1966 in the United States of America, but there were no data about its presence or distribution in our country until 1999. It was established, following the initial investigations, that the prevalence of the disease is extremely high, and that it amounted to 4.27% among pet dogs in the territory of Belgrade. Investigations of stray dogs in the territory of Podgorica showed that the seroprevalence (an equal titer or higher than 1/200 was 9.37%, while the prevalence among stray dogs in the territory of Belgrade was 10.87%. Data for other parts of Serbia are mostly lacking, and the seroprevalence for stray dogs in the Municipality of Pozarevac amounted to over 15%, while not a single serologically positive case was found among pet dogs. In addition to the epizootiological specificities of the disease established in our country, isolates of B. canis from the territory of Serbia also indicate digressions in the test of resistance to colors with respect to the referent strain RM6/66. All isolates (SR1-SR-7 are resistant to base fuchsine, and it is probable that this characteristic could also be an important epizootiological marker. Even though the isolation of the cause is the most reliable diagnostic method, it is not possible to achieve this in most cases. That is why one of the most important tasks is to define the most ideal tests for the serological diagnostics of the disease, and the obligation of reporting the disease makes it imperative that wider-scale investigations are conducted and that measures are taken toward reducing the number of positive cases in our country. .

  7. The changing pattern of human brucellosis: clinical manifestations, epidemiology, and treatment outcomes over three decades in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is an endemic infection in Georgia. We conducted a review of patient records with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of brucellosis over three decades at the central referral hospital for brucellosis cases, the Institute of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine (IPTM) in Tbilisi. The purpose was to describe the demographic profile and clinical characteristics as well as diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with brucellosis. Methods Data were abstracted from randomly selected patient records at the IPTM. In total, 300 records were reviewed from three time periods: 1970-73, 1988-89, and 2004-2008. Results The age distribution of patients shifted from a median age of 40 years in the first time period to 20 years in the third time period. Azeri ethnicity was an increasing proportion of the total number of cases. The frequency of relapsed infection was 14.7% (44 cases). A total of 50 patients received vaccine therapy, and although the vaccine produced immune responses, demonstrated by an increase in agglutination titers, it was not associated with improved outcome. Conclusion The demographics of brucellosis in Georgia fit a profile of persons that tend sheep. Osteoarticular complications were commonly detected, especially in children. The changing pattern of brucellosis in Georgia suggests clinicians should be updated about different trends in brucellosis in their country. PMID:21143881

  8. The Price of a Neglected Zoonosis: Case-Control Study to Estimate Healthcare Utilization Costs of Human Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vered, Oded; Simon-Tuval, Tzahit; Yagupsky, Pablo; Malul, Miki; Cicurel, Assi; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2015-01-01

    Human brucellosis has reemerged as a serious public health threat to the Bedouin population of southern Israel in recent years. Little is known about its economic implications derived from elevated healthcare utilization (HCU). Our objective was to estimate the HCU costs associated with human brucellosis from the insurer perspective. A case-control retrospective study was conducted among Clalit Health Services (CHS) enrollees. Brucellosis cases were defined as individuals that were diagnosed with brucellosis at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Soroka University Medical Center in the 2010-2012 period (n = 470). Control subjects were randomly selected and matched 1:3 by age, sex, clinic, and primary physician (n = 1,410). HCU data, demographic characteristics and comorbidities were obtained from CHS computerized database. Mean±SD age of the brucellosis cases was 26.6±17.6 years. 63% were male and 85% were Bedouins. No significant difference in Charlson comorbidity index was found between brucellosis cases and controls (0.41 vs. 0.45, respectively, P = 0.391). Before diagnosis (baseline), the average total annual HCU cost of brucellosis cases was slightly yet significantly higher than that of the control group ($439 vs. $382, Pbrucellosis cases was significantly higher than that of controls ($1,327 vs. $380, respectively, Pbrucellosis is associated with elevated HCU costs. Considering these results in cost-effective analyses may be crucial for both reducing health inequities and optimal allocation of health systems' scarce resources.

  9. The changing pattern of human brucellosis: clinical manifestations, epidemiology, and treatment outcomes over three decades in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenaishvili Otar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is an endemic infection in Georgia. We conducted a review of patient records with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of brucellosis over three decades at the central referral hospital for brucellosis cases, the Institute of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine (IPTM in Tbilisi. The purpose was to describe the demographic profile and clinical characteristics as well as diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with brucellosis. Methods Data were abstracted from randomly selected patient records at the IPTM. In total, 300 records were reviewed from three time periods: 1970-73, 1988-89, and 2004-2008. Results The age distribution of patients shifted from a median age of 40 years in the first time period to 20 years in the third time period. Azeri ethnicity was an increasing proportion of the total number of cases. The frequency of relapsed infection was 14.7% (44 cases. A total of 50 patients received vaccine therapy, and although the vaccine produced immune responses, demonstrated by an increase in agglutination titers, it was not associated with improved outcome. Conclusion The demographics of brucellosis in Georgia fit a profile of persons that tend sheep. Osteoarticular complications were commonly detected, especially in children. The changing pattern of brucellosis in Georgia suggests clinicians should be updated about different trends in brucellosis in their country.

  10. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (I): A citizen-science based risk model for bovine brucellosis transmission from elk to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Scurlock, Brandon; Logan, Jim; Robinson, Timothy; Cook, Walt; Boroff, Kari; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-09-15

    Livestock producers and state wildlife agencies have used multiple management strategies to control bovine brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). However, spillover from elk to domestic bison and cattle herds continues to occur. Although knowledge is increasing about the location and behavior of elk in the SGYA, predicting spatiotemporal overlap between elk and cattle requires locations of livestock operations and observations of elk contact by producers. We queried all producers in a three-county area using a questionnaire designed to determine location of cattle and whether producers saw elk comingle with their animals. This information was used to parameterize a spatially-explicit risk model to estimate the number of elk expected to overlap with cattle during the brucellosis transmission risk period. Elk-cattle overlap was predicted in areas further from roads and forest boundaries in areas with wolf activity, with higher slopes, lower hunter densities, and where the cost-distance to feedgrounds was very low or very high. The model was used to estimate the expected number of years until a cattle reactor will be detected, under alternative management strategies. The model predicted cattle cases every 4.28 years in the highest risk herd unit, a higher prediction than the one case in 26 years we have observed. This difference likely indicates that ongoing management strategies are at least somewhat effective in preventing potential elk-cattle brucellosis transmission in these areas. Using this model, we can infer the expected effectiveness of various management strategies for reducing the risk of brucellosis spillover from elk to cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microplate Agglutination Test for Canine Brucellosis Using Recombinant Antigen-Coated Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Yussaira; Tachibana, Masato; Kimura, Yui; Kim, Suk; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Endo, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Kenta; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2014-01-01

    Brucella canis, a facultative intracellular pathogen, is the causative agent of canine brucellosis. The diagnosis of canine brucellosis is based on bacteriological examination and serological methods, including agglutination and gel diffusion tests. In this study, four recombinant antigens, heat shock protein 60, rhizopine-binding protein, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, and hypothetical protein (Ag 4), were constructed. These antigens were coated on latex beads and their usefulness in the serological diagnosis of canine brucellosis was examined. All recombinant antigens showed specific reaction with sera from B. canis-infected dogs in Western blotting. In a microplate agglutination test, mixing sera from B. canis-infected dogs, but not sera from B. canis-free dogs, with single or multiple antigens-coated latex beads produced clear agglutination. Moreover, the antigen-coated latex beads did not show nonspecific agglutination in hemolyzed serum samples. A survey of canine serum samples conducted by the microplate agglutination test using single antigen-coated latex beads showed that this method would be useful in the serological diagnosis of canine brucellosis. Further investigations using more serum samples are required to confirm the usefulness of our method.

  12. Record of porcine brucellosis in India by indigenously developed indirect ELISA

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    Rajeswari Shome

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Porcine brucellosis is a contagious and emerging zoonosis but neglected in most of the endemic countries including India. The disease in pigs is rarely reported due to non-availability of diagnostics or major focus is on bovine brucellosis. Hence, the necessity was felt to develop indirect ELISA for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies and to record spatial seroprevalence of porcine brucellosis in the country. The relative diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the developed indirect ELISA were 94.0% and 92.0%, respectively and kappa agreement with rose bengal plate test, serum agglutination test and commercial indirect ELISA kit was found to be 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.78–0.93. A total of 2 576 random serum samples sourced from 10 states were screened by indirect ELISA and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% confidence interval 5.6–8.7 was recorded. The study concluded the prevalence of brucellosis in swine population in many states of the country and indirect ELISA as an alternate test to rose bengal plate test and serum agglutination tests.

  13. Possible brucellosis in an early hominin skeleton from sterkfontein, South Africa.

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    Ruggero D'Anastasio

    Full Text Available We report on the paleopathological analysis of the partial skeleton of the late Pliocene hominin species Australopithecus africanus Stw 431 from Sterkfontein, South Africa. A previous study noted the presence of lesions on vertebral bodies diagnosed as spondylosis deformans due to trauma. Instead, we suggest that these lesions are pathological changes due to the initial phases of an infectious disease, brucellosis. The macroscopic, microscopic and radiological appearance of the lytic lesions of the lumbar vertebrae is consistent with brucellosis. The hypothesis of brucellosis (most often associated with the consumption of animal proteins in a 2.4 to 2.8 million year old hominid has a host of important implications for human evolution. The consumption of meat has been regarded an important factor in supporting, directing or altering human evolution. Perhaps the earliest (up to 2.5 million years ago paleontological evidence for meat eating consists of cut marks on animal remains and stone tools that could have made these marks. Now with the hypothesis of brucellosis in A. africanus, we may have evidence of occasional meat eating directly linked to a fossil hominin.

  14. Possible Brucellosis in an Early Hominin Skeleton from Sterkfontein, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Zipfel, Bernhard; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Stanyon, Roscoe; Capasso, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    We report on the paleopathological analysis of the partial skeleton of the late Pliocene hominin species Australopithecus africanus Stw 431 from Sterkfontein, South Africa. A previous study noted the presence of lesions on vertebral bodies diagnosed as spondylosis deformans due to trauma. Instead, we suggest that these lesions are pathological changes due to the initial phases of an infectious disease, brucellosis. The macroscopic, microscopic and radiological appearance of the lytic lesions of the lumbar vertebrae is consistent with brucellosis. The hypothesis of brucellosis (most often associated with the consumption of animal proteins) in a 2.4 to 2.8 million year old hominid has a host of important implications for human evolution. The consumption of meat has been regarded an important factor in supporting, directing or altering human evolution. Perhaps the earliest (up to 2.5 million years ago) paleontological evidence for meat eating consists of cut marks on animal remains and stone tools that could have made these marks. Now with the hypothesis of brucellosis in A. africanus, we may have evidence of occasional meat eating directly linked to a fossil hominin. PMID:19649274

  15. Hematologic Findings in Children With Brucellosis: Experiences of 622 Patients in Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Kamuran; Akbayram, Sinan; Bayhan, Gülsüm I; Dogan, Murat; Parlak, Mehmet; Akbayram, Hatice T; Geylan, Hadi; Garipardic, Mesut; Oner, Ahmet F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to present the hematologic findings of 622 cases diagnosed with acute brucellosis. Medical records of children with brucellosis, admitted to Yuzuncu Yil University Hospital over a 6-year period, were analyzed retrospectively. Three hundred ninety-seven (63.8%) patients were male and 225 (36.2%) were female. The mean age was 11 years (range, 1 to 16 y). The mean hematologic values were as follows: hemoglobin 9.4 (3.4 to 17) g/dL, hematocrite 28% (12% to 50%), leukopenia 2.8 (1.1 to 33)×10/L, leukocytosis 13.7 (1.1 to 33)×10/L, and platelets 79 (3 to 972)×10/L. An overall 28.6% of patients were found to have anemia, alone or in combination with leukopenia or thrombocytopenia. Sixteen percent of patients had thrombocytopenia, 13.9% had leukopenia, 7.7% had pancytopenia, and 4% had both leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Hematologic complications such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia are more frequently seen in acute brucellosis cases. However, acute brucellosis should also be considered in the differential diagnosis in the presence of other hematologic abnormalities such as severe thrombocytopenia, bicytopenia, and pancytopenia.

  16. Comparative evaluation of the Brucella Coombs gel test in laboratory diagnosis of human brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Koroglu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is widespread among humans and animals. Diagnosis of brucellosis mostly depends on serological methods. Serological tests are preferred over time-consuming and hazardous bacterial cultures in routine laboratory practice. However, these tests are somehow challenging due to ‘incomplete/blocking antibodies’ that prevent agglutination. Brucella Coombs gel test (BCGT is newly developed test that contains Coombs antibodies (anti-human IgG in gel microtubes and depends on gel centrifugation methods for the serological diagnosis of brucellosis. Here, performance of the BCGT is compared with standard serum tube agglutination (STA, standard serum tube agglutination with Coombs (C-STA and immune capture agglutination (Brucellacapt. In total, 78 positive samples for study group and 16 samples for the control group were enrolled in the study. The samples were tested at dilutions of 1:40–1:5120. Titres at 1:160 and above were considered positive for brucellosis, whereas those lower than 1:160 were considered negative. Excellent agreement levels were determined between BCGT test and C-STA (κ, 0.894; p < 0.001, and BCGT and Brucellacapt (κ, 0.802; p < 0.001, when the diagnostic titre was accepted as 1:160. BCGT is easy to apply and interpret and provides reliable titre results in less than 2 h. It is also advantageous for screening.

  17. Brucellosis outbreak in a flock of seventeen sheep in Zaria | Onoja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is a case report of brucellosis in a flock of sheep in Zaria. The flock comprised of seventeen Yankasa sheep, 14 ewes and 3 rams, with history of 2 recent cases of abortion, a presented case of uterine prolapse and 3 cases of carpal hygroma (1st and 2nd sheep bilaterally and the 3rd sheep left unilaterally).

  18. Seroepidemiology of human brucellosis in nomads in a rural area of Iran

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    Ali Sharafi Chegeni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To survey the seroprevalence of brucellosis among nomads in Shoulabad, Lorestan province, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, a total of 5 847 person took part by randomized cluster sampling and 312 of them with clinical feature of brucellosis were selected. The diagnosis of brucellosis was made with a standard tube agglutination test (STAT, Coombs test, and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME test, and the results with titers equal 1:80 or more were considered positive. Results: The seroprevalnce of anti-Brucella titer was 29.5% for STAT, 29.9% for Coombs test and 21.1% for 2ME test. Overall, 92, 93 and 66 patients had titers of 1:80 or higher in STAT, Coombs test and 2ME test, respectively. Seroprevalence was more among males (54.3% than females (45.7%. There is statistical difference between seroprevalence of infection and age (P<0.05. Based on age group, 10-19 years age group was more affected (37%. Conclusions: This results confirmed the necessity of conducting comprehensive and scheduled program of seroprevalence survey, particularly in nomad area, which aims at reducing the incidence of brucellosis as well as to guide planning programs by decision makers to improve community health.

  19. The prevalence of brucellosis in cattle and their handlers in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Brucellosis is a zoonotic pathogen responsible for great economic losses in most sub-Saharan nations. Although Ghana has successfully implemented the “One Health” initiative for the control of some emerging infectious zoonotic diseases with pandemic potential like Avian Influenza, there is very limited data ...

  20. Prevalence of Brucellosis among Women Presenting with Abortion/Stillbirth in Huye, Rwanda

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    Nadine Rujeni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of human brucellosis is not documented in Rwanda despite several reports on the disease in cattle. Because brucellosis has been associated with abortion, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of positive serology in women presenting with abortion and/or stillbirth. The study was done in Huye District, in the Southern Province of Rwanda, and the patients were recruited from both the University Teaching Hospital of Butare (CHUB and Kabutare District Hospital. Serum samples were collected and the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT was performed on each sample. A questionnaire was also used to investigate potential contacts with animals and/or consumption of raw milk. A total of 60 women were recruited and 15 (i.e., 25% were Brucella seropositive. The questionnaire showed that those with seropositivity either were in contact with domestic animals (cattle, goat, or sheep or were consuming raw cow’s milk. Human brucellosis appears to be of public health importance in Rwanda and more attention should be drawn on the disease. The current study provides a basis for larger studies to establish the incidence of human brucellosis in Rwanda. More mechanistic studies will also demonstrate the pathogenicity of Brucella in human placentas.

  1. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and typing of Brucella melitensis biovar 2 in lactating cows in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel El-Gohary

    2016-09-01

    Results: The results showed that the overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 339 (7.25% by BAPAT, 332 (7.1% by RBPT, and 329 (7.04% by CFT. The results revealed that, 42 (8.6%, 5 (1.4% and 292 (7.6% sera were positive for brucellosis by BAPAT in the cows of Al-Wafra, Al-Kabed and Al-Salebia areas, respectively. Whereas, their respective number and seroreactive cases by RBPT were 39 (8.02%, 5 (1.4% and 288 (7.4%. Similarly, as confirmatory test by CFT, the number and seroreactive cases in these areas were 39 (8.02%, 5 (1.4% and 285 (7.46%. MRT revealed that the average positive case was 61.67% (59.46% in Al-Wafra; 60% in Al-Kabed and 66.6% in Al-Salebia. Two Brucella isolates could be recovered from the stomach content of the two aborted feti and typed as Brucella melitensis biovar 2. Conclusion: Brucellosis is prevalent among lactating cows in Kuwait. This indicates the potential role of these dairy animals in disseminating and spread of such zoonosis to human. Considering public health significance, appropriate preventive measures are suggestive for combating brucellosis in Kuwait. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 229-235

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Seroprevalence of Brucellosis among Blood Donors of Satara District, Maharashtra

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    Smita Mangalgi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgroind: In endemic area for brucellosis background levels of antibodies are found in healthy populations. Aims & Objectives: Theaim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of anti-brucella antibodies and base line titres among the blood donors.Materials and Methods: 321 blood samples were collected from blood donors. Serological tests - Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test(RBPT, Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT and 2-Mercaptoethanol Agglutination Test (2ME, were carried out on all the blood samples. Results: Seroprevalence of brucellosis in blood donors was 5.91%, 3.11 % and 0.62% by RBPT, STAT and 2ME respectively. History of animal exposure and occasional raw milkingestion was observed in 137 individuals residing in rural area. Conclusion: Brucellosis might be common in rural population who comein contact with infected animals and or consume raw milk. For the diagnosis of brucellosis RBPT test should be used only for screening purpose and the positive results should be confirmed by STAT and 2ME tests. Titres of 160 IU and above for STAT and 80 IU and above for 2ME test can be considered significant for diagnostic purpose.

  3. 79 FR 2688 - Remote Vaccination Program To Reduce the Prevalence of Brucellosis in Yellowstone Bison, Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-15

    ... National Park Service Remote Vaccination Program To Reduce the Prevalence of Brucellosis in Yellowstone Bison, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming AGENCY: National Park... Yellowstone Bison, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. DATES: The National Park Service will execute a Record...

  4. 79 FR 35567 - Remote Vaccination Program To Reduce the Prevalence of Brucellosis in Yellowstone Bison, Record...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-23

    ... National Park Service Remote Vaccination Program To Reduce the Prevalence of Brucellosis in Yellowstone Bison, Record of Decision, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Yellowstone Bison, Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. On March 3, 2014, the...

  5. Assessment of performance of selected serological tests for diagnosing brucellosis in pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz, P.M.; Blasco, J.M.; Engel, B.; Miguel, de M.J.; Marín, C.M.; Dieste, L.; Mainar-Jaime, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Swine brucellosis due to Brucella suis is considered an emerging zoonotic disease whose control is based on serological testing and the subsequent culling of seropositive animals or the full depopulation of affected flocks. Here we assessed the performance of several serological tests (Rose Bengal

  6. On the origin of brucellosis in bison of Yellowstone National Park: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Mary; Meyer, Margaret E.

    1994-01-01

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus occurs in the free-ranging bison (Bison bison) of Yellowstone and Wood Buffalo National Parks and in elk (Cervus elaphus) of the Greater Yellowstone Area. As a result of nationwide bovine brucellosis eradication programs, states and provinces proximate to the national parks are considered free of bovine brucellosis. Thus, increased attention has been focused on the wildlife within these areas as potential reservoirs for transmission to cattle. Because the national parks are mandated as natural areas, the question has been raised as to whether Brucella abortus is endogenous or exogenous to bison, particularly for Yellowstone National Park. We synthesized diverse lines of inquiry, including the evolutionary history of both bison and Brucella, wild animals as Brucella hosts, biochemical and genetic information, behavioral characteristics of host and organism, and area history to develop an evaluation of the question for the National Park Service. All lines of inquiry indicated that the organism was introduced to North America with cattle, and that the introduction into the Yellowstone bison probably was directly from cattle shortly before 1917. Fistulous withers of horses was a less likely possibility. Elk on winter feedgrounds south of Yellowstone National Park apparently acquired the disease directly from cattle. Bison presently using Grand Teton National Park probably acquired brucellosis from feedground elk.

  7. Diagnostic Efficacy of Modified Coagglutination Test in the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

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    Mohite S.T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory help is must for thediagnosis of human brucellosis due to proteanclinical manifestations. As culture is hazardous,time consuming and less sensitive, serologicaltests are preferred for the diagnosis. Aggluti-nation tests like Rose Bengal PlateTest (RBPT, Serum Agglutination tests (SAT,2-Mercaptoethanol test (2-ME that are com-monly employed for the diagnosis either lacksensitivity or specificity. Coombs test andBrucellacapt though are sensitive and specific,workout costly. Therefore, modifiedcoagglutination test was developed and its di-agnostic efficacy was evaluated. Aims and Ob-jectives: To develop modified coagglutinationtest for the diagnosis of human brucellosis andcompare it with Coombs test. Materials andMethods: Serum samples collected from 191brucellosis patients and 100 controls were sub-jected to 2-ME, Coombs test and modifiedcoagglutination test (MCOAG. Blood culturewas performed by Castaneda’s method in all thepatients. Results: Significant difference in thepositivity rate was seen between MCOAG and2-ME. The results of MCOAG were compa-rable with Coombs test. Conclusions: Modi-fied coagglutination test is a better option toCoombs test for the serodiagnosis of brucel-losis in resource constrained countries as it issensitive, specific and cost effective.

  8. A serological survey of ovine and caprine brucellosis in slaughterhouses of East Azerbaijan province during 2004

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    Afshin Javadi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease which could be transmitted from animals to humans by ingestion of contaminated raw milk, dairy products or contact with meat or raw animal products. Thus, determination of brucella contaminated sheep and goat meat due to the risk of brucellosis transmission to human was the purpose of the present study. For this study, blood samples were collected directly during slaughtering from 441 female sheep and 300 female goats with an age of over a year slaughtered at abattoirs of East Azarbaijan province. At first, positive samples were separated by Rose Bengal test and then quantited with Wright and 2-ME tests. All the results were compared with standard veterinary tables and the data were analyzed using the Chi-Square test. According to this research, the prevalence rate of brucellosis among sheep and goats was 4.53% and 5.33% respectively. The prevalence rate of sheep and goat brucellosis in Shabestar city was significantly higher than other cities (P

  9. [Epidemiology of caprine brucellosis in the Central Zone of the State of Veracruz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Ramírez, Daniela Lucía; Martínez-Herrera, David Itzcoatl; Villagómez-Cortés, José Alfredo; Peniche-Cardeña, Álvaro Enrique de Jesús; Morales-Álvarez, José Francisco; Flores-Castro, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is a disease of high morbidity that affects several animal species, is transmitted to humans and, therefore, is a zoonosis. It is caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. In this study we aim to determine seroprevalence, risk factors, and spatial distribution of caprine brucellosis in 14 municipalities in the central region of the state of Veracruz. This cross-stratified multistage study was conducted between 2009 and 2012. It included 572 animals of 81 production units selected by consensus according to the value tables of ​​Cannon and Roe. The diagnosis was by Card Testing and Radial Immunodiffusion. The seroprevalence was determined with the VassarStats® risk factor program and odds. The overall seroprevalence was 0.52% (95% CI: 0.13-1.65) and production units 2.47% (95% CI: 0.43-9.46). They were identified as risk factor for infection, production units in feedlot system and Card Testing seroconversion to vaccine against brucellosis; and as a protective factor, vaccination. Seroprevalence and distribution of goat brucellosis is low, the intensive system is a risk, and according with the Health Ministry in order that human cases are scarce.

  10. DNA Genotyping Suggests Recent Brucellosis Outbreaks in the Greater Yellowstone Area Originated from Elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucellosis is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Brucella species infect a variety of livestock animals and humans world wide. In the United States, the disease with the greatest economic impact is caused by Brucella abortus in cattle. Although the disease has been mostly eradic...

  11. Serological, molecular detection and potential risk factors associated with camel brucellosis in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sana; Khan, Iahtasham; Nasir, Amar; Younus, Muhammad; Saqib, Muhammad; Melzer, Falk; Neubauer, Heinrich; El-Adawy, Hosny

    2016-12-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonoses in developing countries and was considered the most widespread zoonosis in the world. Brucellosis was reported in camels and has been reported from all camel-keeping countries.The present study was performed in three districts (Jhang, Chiniot, and Bhakkar) of Punjab province of Pakistan. A total of 200 camel (Camelus bactrianus) sera were collected using random and multistage cluster sampling from different areas. Fifty samples were collected from one organized governmental farm. One hundred fifty samples were collected randomly from nomadic/pastoral production systems. All sera were tested with Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT) and confirmed by ELISA. Genomic DNA was extracted from all serum samples and tested by real-time PCR. Various potential risk factors (season, rearing with other animals, and abortion or orchitis history) recorded through questionnaires were statistically analyzed by Chi-square test.In total, 5 % of investigated sera were positive by RBPT. Only 2 % of the camel sera were CELISA positive. Brucella abortus DNA was detected in 1.5 % of the investigated animals. Season, rearing of camels with other ruminants, abortion, and orchitis history were found to be statistically significant (p brucellosis is a zoonotic disease in the Pakistani Punjab with various risk factors maintaining and perpetuating its spread. Therefore, there is a need for implementing control measures and raising public health awareness in prevention of brucellosis in Pakistan.

  12. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients in Hamadan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramat, Fariba; Majzobi, Mohammad Mehdi; Poorolajal, Jalal; Ghane, Zohreh Zarei; Adabi, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Brucellosis is a systemic disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients in Hamadan Province in the west of Iran. Methods A total of 157 HIV-infected patients were screened through standard serological tests, including Wright’s test, Coombs’ Wright test, and 2-mercaptoethanol Brucella agglutination test (2ME test), blood cultures in Castaneda media, and CD4 counting. Data were analyzed using Stata version 11. Results Wright and Coombs’ Wright tests were carried out, and only 5 (3.2%) patients had positive serological results. However, all patients had negative 2ME results, and blood cultures were negative for Brucella spp. Moreover, patients with positive serology and a mean CD4 count of 355.8 ± 203.11 cells/μL had no clinical manifestations of brucellosis, and, and the other patients had a mean CD4 count of 335.55 ± 261.71 cells/μL. Conclusion Results of this study showed that HIV infection is not a predisposing factor of acquiring brucellosis. PMID:28904852

  13. Outbreaks of brucellosis related to the consumption of unpasteurized camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcell, Humberto G; Garcia, Elias G; Pueyo, Pedro V; Martín, Isis R; Arias, Ariadna V; Alfonso Serrano, Ramon N

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is the most frequent zoonosis reported in Qatar, mainly related to exposure to infected camels. An outbreak of human brucellosis in 14 members of a family living in a rural area in Qatar is reported herein. Clinical, epidemiological and laboratory results from all 14 patients with Brucella and 12 non-confirmed family members were collected from files. All patients reported fever for a maximum of 14 days, associated with arthralgia (6 patients), weakness (4 patients), headache (4 patients), diarrhea (2 patients) and abdominal pain (2 patients). The median age of the patients was 10 years and that of non-cases was 16 years, with a predominance of males (92.9%). Elevated levels of transaminases were observed in patients. A mixed infection caused by Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis was identified by blood culture and serology. The source of the infection was the milk of an infected camel. The outbreak of brucellosis melitensis/abortus related to the consumption of camel milk constitutes a gap in the prevention and control of the potential sources of brucellosis in animal farms. Proper control and education of the population are required. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A foodborne outbreak of brucellosis at a police station cafeteria, Lima, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Román, Karina; Castillo, Rosa; Gilman, Robert H.; Calderón, Maritza; Vivar, Aldo; Céspedes, Manuel; Smits, Henk L.; Meléndez, Paolo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Guerra, Humberto; Maves, Ryan C.; Matthias, Michael A.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Saito, Mayuko

    2013-01-01

    Brucella melitensis is highly infectious for humans and can be transmitted to humans in a number of epidemiological contexts. Within the context of an ongoing brucellosis surveillance project, an outbreak at a Peruvian police officer cafeteria was discovered, which led to active surveillance

  15. Context-dependent survival, fecundity and predicted population-level consequences of brucellosis in African buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Cross, Paul C.; Bengis, Roy G.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic infections may have negative impacts on wildlife populations, yet their effects are difficult to detect in the absence of long-term population monitoring. Brucella abortus, the bacteria responsible for bovine brucellosis, causes chronic infections and abortions in wild and domestic ungulates, but its impact on population dynamics is not well understood.

  16. Mapping brucellosis increases relative to elk density using hierarchical Bayesian models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Edwards, William H.; Brennan, Angela; Ebinger, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between host density and parasite transmission is central to the effectiveness of many disease management strategies. Few studies, however, have empirically estimated this relationship particularly in large mammals. We applied hierarchical Bayesian methods to a 19-year dataset of over 6400 brucellosis tests of adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming. Management captures that occurred from January to March were over two times more likely to be seropositive than hunted elk that were killed in September to December, while accounting for site and year effects. Areas with supplemental feeding grounds for elk had higher seroprevalence in 1991 than other regions, but by 2009 many areas distant from the feeding grounds were of comparable seroprevalence. The increases in brucellosis seroprevalence were correlated with elk densities at the elk management unit, or hunt area, scale (mean 2070 km2; range = [95–10237]). The data, however, could not differentiate among linear and non-linear effects of host density. Therefore, control efforts that focus on reducing elk densities at a broad spatial scale were only weakly supported. Additional research on how a few, large groups within a region may be driving disease dynamics is needed for more targeted and effective management interventions. Brucellosis appears to be expanding its range into new regions and elk populations, which is likely to further complicate the United States brucellosis eradication program. This study is an example of how the dynamics of host populations can affect their ability to serve as disease reservoirs.

  17. Mapping brucellosis increases relative to elk density using hierarchical Bayesian models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Cross

    Full Text Available The relationship between host density and parasite transmission is central to the effectiveness of many disease management strategies. Few studies, however, have empirically estimated this relationship particularly in large mammals. We applied hierarchical Bayesian methods to a 19-year dataset of over 6400 brucellosis tests of adult female elk (Cervus elaphus in northwestern Wyoming. Management captures that occurred from January to March were over two times more likely to be seropositive than hunted elk that were killed in September to December, while accounting for site and year effects. Areas with supplemental feeding grounds for elk had higher seroprevalence in 1991 than other regions, but by 2009 many areas distant from the feeding grounds were of comparable seroprevalence. The increases in brucellosis seroprevalence were correlated with elk densities at the elk management unit, or hunt area, scale (mean 2070 km(2; range = [95-10237]. The data, however, could not differentiate among linear and non-linear effects of host density. Therefore, control efforts that focus on reducing elk densities at a broad spatial scale were only weakly supported. Additional research on how a few, large groups within a region may be driving disease dynamics is needed for more targeted and effective management interventions. Brucellosis appears to be expanding its range into new regions and elk populations, which is likely to further complicate the United States brucellosis eradication program. This study is an example of how the dynamics of host populations can affect their ability to serve as disease reservoirs.

  18. Human brucellosis mimicking axial spondyloarthritis: a challenge for rheumatologists when applying the 2009 ASAS criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Cong; Shen, Gui-Fen; Li, Shou-Xin; Dong, Ling-Li; Yu, Yi-Kai; Tu, Wei; Zhu, Ying-Zi; Hu, Shao-Xian

    2016-06-01

    Although the development of the 2009 SpA classification criteria by Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) represents an important step towards a better definition of the early disease stage particularly in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), the specificity of the criteria has been criticized these days. As the commonest zoonotic infection worldwide, human brucellosis can mimic a large number of diseases, including SpA. This study was performed to determine the frequency of rheumatologic manifestations in patients with brucellosis and the chance of misdiagnosing them as having axSpA in central China. The results showed that clinical manifestations of axSpA could be observed in brucellosis. Over half of patients had back pain, and one fifth of the patients with back pain were less than 45 years old at onset and had the symptom for more than 3 months. Two young males were falsely classified as suffering from axSpA according to the ASAS criteria, and one with MRI proved sacroiliitis was once given Etanercept for treatment. Therefore, differential diagnosis including human brucellosis should always be kept in mind when applying the ASAS criteria, even in traditionally non-endemic areas.

  19. Ex Vivo Innate Immune Cytokine Signature of Enhanced Risk of Relapsing Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Kristyn E.; Loriaux, Paul M.; Saito, Mayuko; Tuero, Iskra; Villaverde, Homarh; Siva, Tenaya; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gilman, Robert H.; Hoffmann, Alexander; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Brucellosis, a zoonotic infection caused by one of the Gram-negative intracellular bacteria of the Brucella genus, is an ongoing public health problem in Perú. While most patients who receive standard antibiotic treatment recover, 5–40% suffer a brucellosis relapse. In this study, we examined the ex vivo immune cytokine profiles of recovered patients with a history of acute and relapsing brucellosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood was taken from healthy control donors, patients with a history of acute brucellosis, or patients with a history of relapsing brucellosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and remained in culture without stimulation or were stimulated with a panel of toll-like receptor agonists or heat-killed Brucella melitensis (HKBM) isolates. Innate immune cytokine gene expression and protein secretion were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and a multiplex bead-based immunoassay, respectively. Acute and relapse patients demonstrated consistently elevated cytokine gene expression and secretion levels compared to controls. Notably, these include: basal and stimulus-induced expression of GM-CSF, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in response to LPS and HKBM; basal secretion of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α; and HKBM or Rev1-induced secretion of IL-1β, IL-2, GM-CSF, IFN-Υ, and TNF-α. Although acute and relapse patients were largely indistinguishable by their cytokine gene expression profiles, we identified a robust cytokine secretion signature that accurately discriminates acute from relapse patients. This signature consists of basal IL-6 secretion, IL-1β, IL-2, and TNF-α secretion in response to LPS and HKBM, and IFN-γ secretion in response to HKBM. Conclusions/Significance This work demonstrates that informative cytokine variations in brucellosis patients can be detected using an ex vivo assay system and used to identify patients with differing infection histories. Targeted diagnosis of this signature may

  20. Shifting brucellosis risk in livestock coincides with spreading seroprevalence in elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Angela; Cross, Paul C.; Portacci, Katie; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Edwards, William H.

    2017-01-01

    Tracking and preventing the spillover of disease from wildlife to livestock can be difficult when rare outbreaks occur across large landscapes. In these cases, broad scale ecological studies could help identify risk factors and patterns of risk to inform management and reduce incidence of disease. Between 2002 and 2014, 21 livestock herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) were affected by brucellosis, a bacterial disease caused by Brucella abortus, while no affected herds were detected between 1990 and 2001. Using a Bayesian analysis, we examined several ecological covariates that may be associated with affected livestock herds across the region. We showed that livestock risk has been increasing over time and expanding outward from the historical nexus of brucellosis in wild elk on Wyoming’s feeding grounds where elk are supplementally fed during the winter. Although elk were the presumed source of cattle infections, occurrences of affected livestock herds were only weakly associated with the density of seropositive elk across the GYA. However, the shift in livestock risk did coincide with recent increases in brucellosis seroprevalence in unfed elk populations. As increasing brucellosis in unfed elk likely stemmed from high levels of the disease in fed elk, disease-related costs of feeding elk have probably been incurred across the entire GYA, rather than solely around the feeding grounds. Our results suggest that focused disease mitigation in areas where seroprevalence in unfed elk is high could reduce the spillover of brucellosis to livestock. We also highlight the need to better understand the epidemiology of spillover events with detailed histories of disease testing, calving, and movement of infected livestock. Finally, we recommend using case-control studies to investigate local factors important to livestock risk.

  1. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Salihu Anka

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05; originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19 and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83 were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24 and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90 when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  2. Brucellosis Seropositivity in Animals and Humans in Ethiopia: A Meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Tadesse

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to assess the heterogeneities of estimates and to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in animals and humans in Ethiopia.Data from 70 studies covering 75879 animals and 2223 humans were extracted. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and Complement Fixation Test (CFT in series were the most frequently used serological tests. A random effects model was used to calculate pooled prevalence estimates. The overall True Prevalence of brucellosis seropositivity in goats and sheep were estimated at 5.3% (95%CI = 3.5, 7.5 and 2.7% (95%CI = 1.8, 3.4, respectively, and 2.9% for each of camels and cattle. The prevalence was higher in post-pubertal than in pre-pubertal animals (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.6, 3.7 and in the pastoral than in the mixed crop-livestock production system (OR = 2.8, 95%CI = 2.5, 3.2. The incidence rates of brucellosis in humans of pastoral and sedentary system origins were estimated at 160 and 28 per 100 000 person years, respectively.The seroprevalence of brucellosis is higher in goats than in other species. Its occurrence is evocative of its importance in the country in general and in the pastoral system in particular. Public awareness creation could reduce the transmission of Brucella spp. from animals to humans and the potential of livestock vaccination as a means of control of brucellosis needs to be assessed.

  3. Brucellosis Seropositivity in Animals and Humans in Ethiopia: A Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to assess the heterogeneities of estimates and to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in animals and humans in Ethiopia. Methods/Principal findings Data from 70 studies covering 75879 animals and 2223 humans were extracted. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Complement Fixation Test (CFT) in series were the most frequently used serological tests. A random effects model was used to calculate pooled prevalence estimates. The overall True Prevalence of brucellosis seropositivity in goats and sheep were estimated at 5.3% (95%CI = 3.5, 7.5) and 2.7% (95%CI = 1.8, 3.4), respectively, and 2.9% for each of camels and cattle. The prevalence was higher in post-pubertal than in pre-pubertal animals (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.6, 3.7) and in the pastoral than in the mixed crop-livestock production system (OR = 2.8, 95%CI = 2.5, 3.2). The incidence rates of brucellosis in humans of pastoral and sedentary system origins were estimated at 160 and 28 per 100 000 person years, respectively. Conclusions The seroprevalence of brucellosis is higher in goats than in other species. Its occurrence is evocative of its importance in the country in general and in the pastoral system in particular. Public awareness creation could reduce the transmission of Brucella spp. from animals to humans and the potential of livestock vaccination as a means of control of brucellosis needs to be assessed. PMID:27792776

  4. Shifting brucellosis risk in livestock coincides with spreading seroprevalence in elk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brennan

    Full Text Available Tracking and preventing the spillover of disease from wildlife to livestock can be difficult when rare outbreaks occur across large landscapes. In these cases, broad scale ecological studies could help identify risk factors and patterns of risk to inform management and reduce incidence of disease. Between 2002 and 2014, 21 livestock herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA were affected by brucellosis, a bacterial disease caused by Brucella abortus, while no affected herds were detected between 1990 and 2001. Using a Bayesian analysis, we examined several ecological covariates that may be associated with affected livestock herds across the region. We showed that livestock risk has been increasing over time and expanding outward from the historical nexus of brucellosis in wild elk on Wyoming's feeding grounds where elk are supplementally fed during the winter. Although elk were the presumed source of cattle infections, occurrences of affected livestock herds were only weakly associated with the density of seropositive elk across the GYA. However, the shift in livestock risk did coincide with recent increases in brucellosis seroprevalence in unfed elk populations. As increasing brucellosis in unfed elk likely stemmed from high levels of the disease in fed elk, disease-related costs of feeding elk have probably been incurred across the entire GYA, rather than solely around the feeding grounds. Our results suggest that focused disease mitigation in areas where seroprevalence in unfed elk is high could reduce the spillover of brucellosis to livestock. We also highlight the need to better understand the epidemiology of spillover events with detailed histories of disease testing, calving, and movement of infected livestock. Finally, we recommend using case-control studies to investigate local factors important to livestock risk.

  5. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Bovine Brucellosis Seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka, Mukhtar Salihu; Hassan, Latiffah; Khairani-Bejo, Siti; Zainal, Mohamed Abidin; Mohamad, Ramlan bin; Salleh, Annas; Adzhar, Azri

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59–50.05); originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94–443.19) and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10–71.83) were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31–140.24) and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54–590.90) when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program. PMID:25265020

  6. Shifting brucellosis risk in livestock coincides with spreading seroprevalence in elk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Angela; Cross, Paul C; Portacci, Katie; Scurlock, Brandon M; Edwards, William H

    2017-01-01

    Tracking and preventing the spillover of disease from wildlife to livestock can be difficult when rare outbreaks occur across large landscapes. In these cases, broad scale ecological studies could help identify risk factors and patterns of risk to inform management and reduce incidence of disease. Between 2002 and 2014, 21 livestock herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) were affected by brucellosis, a bacterial disease caused by Brucella abortus, while no affected herds were detected between 1990 and 2001. Using a Bayesian analysis, we examined several ecological covariates that may be associated with affected livestock herds across the region. We showed that livestock risk has been increasing over time and expanding outward from the historical nexus of brucellosis in wild elk on Wyoming's feeding grounds where elk are supplementally fed during the winter. Although elk were the presumed source of cattle infections, occurrences of affected livestock herds were only weakly associated with the density of seropositive elk across the GYA. However, the shift in livestock risk did coincide with recent increases in brucellosis seroprevalence in unfed elk populations. As increasing brucellosis in unfed elk likely stemmed from high levels of the disease in fed elk, disease-related costs of feeding elk have probably been incurred across the entire GYA, rather than solely around the feeding grounds. Our results suggest that focused disease mitigation in areas where seroprevalence in unfed elk is high could reduce the spillover of brucellosis to livestock. We also highlight the need to better understand the epidemiology of spillover events with detailed histories of disease testing, calving, and movement of infected livestock. Finally, we recommend using case-control studies to investigate local factors important to livestock risk.

  7. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Cattle and African Buffalo in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, M; Inlameia, O; Michel, A; Maxlhuza, G; Pondja, A; Fafetine, J; Macucule, B; Zacarias, M; Manguele, J; Moiane, I C; Marranangumbe, A S; Mulandane, F; Schönfeld, C; Moser, I; van Helden, P; Machado, A

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and brucellosis are prevalent in buffaloes of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa). Both diseases were considered to have no or a very low prevalence in wildlife and livestock in and around the Limpopo National Park (LNP, Mozambique). The same applies for tuberculosis in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP, Zimbabwe), but just recently, BTB was detected in buffaloes in the GNP and fears arose that the disease might also spread to the LNP as a result of the partial removal of the fences between the three parks to form the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. To assess the status of both diseases in and around LNP, 62 buffaloes were tested for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis. The percentage of positive BTB reactors in buffalo was 8.06% using BovidTB Stat-Pak® and 0% with BOVIGAM® IFN-γ test and IDEXX ELISA. The brucellosis seroprevalence in buffalo was found to be 17.72% and 27.42% using Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and ELISA, respectively. In addition, 2445 cattle in and around the LNP were examined for BTB using the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test (SICCT), and an apparent prevalence of 0.98% was found with no significant difference inside (0.5%) and outside (1.3%) the park. This is the first published report on the presence of positive reactors to BTB and bovine brucellosis in buffalo and cattle in and outside the LNP. Monitoring the wildlife-livestock-human interface of zoonotic high-impact diseases such as BTB and brucellosis is of outmost importance for the successful implementation and management of any transfrontier park that aims to improve the livelihoods of the local communities. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Ammary, Khaoula; Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Mick, Virginie; Prevost, Laura; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Susan C; Benkirane, Abdelali

    2015-12-22

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world caused by several species of the genus Brucella. The disease, eradicated in many developed countries, is a re-emerging neglected zoonosis endemic in several zones especially in the Mediterranean region, impacting on human health and livestock production. A One Health approach could address brucellosis control in Morocco but scarcity of reliable epidemiological data, as well as underreporting, hinders the implementation of sustainable control strategies. Surveillance and control policies implemented by the Moroccan government in domestic animals (cattle and small ruminants) in the last few decades are assessed for disease impact. This study considers the origins of animal brucellosis in Morocco and the potential for emergence of brucellosis during a shift from extensive to intensive livestock production.

  9. Human brucellosis: sero-prevalence and associated risk factors in agro-pastoral communities of Kiboga District, Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwine, Gabriel; Matovu, Enock; Kabasa, John David; Owiny, David Okello; Majalija, Samuel

    2015-09-15

    Brucellosis remains a neglected zoonotic disease among agro-pastoral communities where unprocessed milk and milk products are consumed. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kiboga district to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with human brucellosis in communities where livestock rearing in a common practice. A total of 235 participants were involved in the study. Blood samples from the participants were collected and screened for Brucella using Serum Agglutination Test and Rose Bengal Plate Test. A questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and human brucellosis related risk factors. Human Brucella seroprevalence was at 17.0 % (n = 235). The prevalence was highest among males (20.5 %, n = 78) and the elderly - above 60 years (22.2 %, n = 18). Residence in rural areas (OR 3.16, 95 % CI: 1.16-8.56), consuming locally processed milk products (OR 2.54, 95 % CI: 1.12-5.78) and being single (OR 2.44, 95 % CI: 1.05-5.68), were associated with increased risk of brucellosis. Human brucellosis seroprevalence was high at 17 %, this was parallel with animal brucellosis prevalence that has been reported to range from 10.2 % to 25.7 % in cattle in the region. The participants were from communities known to habitually consume raw milk and milk products, know to process milk products using bare hands which are major risk factors for brucellosis in humans. This also explains why consumption of unpasteurized milk products was associated with the occurrence of brucellosis in study area. This strengthened the argument that humans get infected through consumption of contaminated animal products as reported in other earlier studies. Males and elderly being more affected because of traditional roles of these groups they play in livestock care and management. The single were also to be more associated to brucellosis, due to the fact that this group consume milk and milk products more as it is readily available in the informal

  10. [A case of brucellosis and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever coinfection in an endemic area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Çıkman, Aytekin; Akın, Hicran; Gülhan, Barış; Özçiçek, Adalet

    2016-04-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease which is especially seen in developing countries is still an important public health problem worldwide. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is another zoonotic disease that transmits to humans by infected tick bites as well as exposure to blood or tissue from infected animals. Both of the diseases are common among persons who live in rural areas and deal with animal husbandry. Since brucellosis usually presents with non-specific clinical symptoms and may easily be confused with many other diseases, the diagnosis of those infections could be delayed or misdiagnosed. In this report, a case of coinfection of brucellosis and CCHF has been presented to emphasize the possibility of association of these infections. A 70-year-old female patient with a history of dealing with animal husbandry in a rural area admitted to our hospital with the complaints of fever, malaise, generalized body and joint pains, and headache. Her complaints had progressed within the past two days. She also reported nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. She denied any history of tick bites. Her physical examination was significant for the presence of 38.8°C fever, increased bowel sounds and splenomegaly. Laboratory analysis revealed leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and high levels of liver enzymes. The patient was admitted to our service with the prediagnosis of CCHF. Serum sample was sent to the Department of Microbiology Reference Laboratory at Public Health Agency of Turkey for CCHF testing. During patient's hospitalization in service, more detailed history was confronted and it was learned that she had fatigue, loss of appetite, sweating, joint pain, and intermittent fever complaints were continuing within a month and received various antibiotic treatments. The tests for brucellosis were conducted and positive results for Brucella Rose Bengal test, tube agglutination (1/160 titers) and immune capture test with Coombs (1/320 titers) were determined

  11. Mean platelet volume in brucellosis: correlation between brucella standard serum agglutination test results, platelet count, and C-reactive protein.

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    Okan, Dogan Halef; Gökmen, Zararsiz; Seyit, Bayik; Yuksel, Koca; Cevdet, Zungun; Deniz, Akbulut

    2014-12-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonotic infection, was most widely diagnosed by the Brucella standard serum agglutination test (SAT). No previous publication has demonstrated a correlation between the degree of Brucella SAT agglutination positivity and the severity of brucellosis infection. To contribute to the clarification of the relationship between patelets and brucellosis. It is also aimed at evaluating the usefulness of the SAT titer as a measure of brucellosis severity. We compared the control (n=60) and patients (n=96) groups in terms of mean platelet volume (MPV), C-reactive protein (CRP) and platelet values. Patients were grouped according to their degree of agglutination positivity titers and compared by means of CRP, MPV and platelet values. We also investigated the relationship among logarithmic values of MPV, platelet and CRP parameters for each group. Although statistically meaningful difference was observed between control and patients group in terms of MPV and platelet value, there were no statistically significant differences observed among patients groups. The physiological negative correlation between MPV and platelet count was not encountered in group 2 and 3. Logarithmic values of CRP were not correlated with logarithmic values of MPV and platelet counts. The MPV could be a new parameter to evaluate hematologic abnormalities in patients with brucellosis. The SAT titer was not a useful measure for evaluation of the severity of brucellosis.

  12. Economic analysis of vaccination to control bovine brucellosis in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, A J S; Rocha, F; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Telles, E O; Grisi Filho, J H H; Ferreira Neto, J S; Zylbersztajn, D; Dias, R A

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes important economic losses in Brazil, and the country has therefore established a national program for its control and eradication. Using data generated in the last national brucellosis survey, we conducted an economic analysis in two Brazilian States with different brucellosis status, Mato Grosso (with high prevalence) and Sao Paulo (with low prevalence). The economic analysis was based on the calculation of the additional benefits and costs of controlling bovine brucellosis through the vaccination of heifers aged between 3 and 8 months with S19 vaccine, considering maximal and minimal impacts of the disease. The analysis showed that vaccinating 90% of the replacement heifers aged 3-8 months of age offers the best economic performance in a vaccination program against bovine brucellosis if compared to vaccination rates of 70% and 80%. Moreover, regions with higher prevalences of bovine brucellosis would experience significant economic advantages when implementing a vaccination strategy to control the disease. This economic analysis will allow decision makers to plan more economically effective vaccination programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Seroepidemiological prevalence of brucellosis in livestock breeders of the central rural area of Bushehr province 2003-4

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    Katayoon Vahdat

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is the most important zoonotic disease. As Brucellosis is endemic in Iran, this study was designed to evaluate seroepidemiological prevalence of brucellosis in livestock breeders of the central rural area of Bushehr province in 2003-2004. Methods: Sera of 397 livestock breeders from the central rural area of Bushehr province were collected and tested for anti-brucella IgG antibody using ELISA method. Results: The prevalence of brucellosis in livestock breeders was 10.8%. Brucella seropositively was found to have a significant association with sheep contact and abortion in domestic animals (p<0.05 but anti-brucella Ig antibody positivity had not a significant association with sex, age, contact with cattle, goats and camel, keeping livestock at home, consumption of milk products and raw milk, history of brucellosis in person and/or family and nonspecific signs such as fever, myalgia, low back pain and artheralgia. Conclusion: The prevalence of brucellosis is high in the central rural area of Bushehr province. The prevalence was much higher among livestock breeders in contact with sheep and also in those who had abortion in their domestic animals.

  14. Spatiotemporal analysis of brucellosis incidence in Iran from 2011-2014 using GIS.

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    Pakzad, Reza; Pakzad, Iraj; Janati, Ali; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadpour, Marzieh; Behroozi, Abbas; Sullman, Mark J M; Safiri, Saeid

    2017-11-06

    To investigate the distribution and trends associated with brucellosis incidences in Iran from 2011-2014. The reported incidences of brucellosis were collected and entered into GIS 10.1 for the period 2011-2014. The Cochran-Armitage test for linear trends, choropleth maps, hot-spot analysis, and high-low clustering analysis were used to investigate patterns of the disease over the study period and season, as well as identifying high-risk areas and any clustering of the disease. The significance level was set at p< 0.05. There were 68,493 cases of brucellosis reported during the study period, meaning the average brucellosis incidence rate during this period was 38.67/100,000. In 2011 the highest rate of brucellosis (317/100,000) was observed in the Koohrang County (Chaharmahal-Bakhtiari province). In the following years, from 2012 to 2014, Charuymaq County (East-Azerbaijan province) had incidence rates of 384, 534, and 583/100,000, respectively. However, the incidence rate of the disease did not follow a linear trend (p <0.001). The maximum and minimum incidence rates of the disease occurred in mid-summer and mid-winter, respectively. The results of the hot-spot analysis showed that the distribution of the disease was higher in the mountainous areas of Iran, particularly along the Zagros mountain ranges and in most cities near the Zagros Mountains (P<0.01). In addition, the cluster analysis showed a clustering pattern in these high incidence areas (p<0.01). There were significant differences in the geographic distribution of brucellosis, with the incidence rates being highest in most of the cities in the west and north-west of the country. Incidence of this disease also increased during the summer. Therefore, it is important to take these patterns into account when allocating resources to combat this disease and to ensure that health programs and other interventions focus on the areas of greatest need. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  15. Evaluation of an Immunocapture-Agglutination Test (Brucellacapt) for Serodiagnosis of Human Brucellosis

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    Orduña, Antonio; Almaraz, Ana; Prado, Ana; Gutierrez, M. Purificación; Garcia-Pascual, Agustina; Dueñas, Ana; Cuervo, Milagros; Abad, Ramon; Hernández, Beatriz; Lorenzo, Belen; Bratos, Miguel A.; Torres, Antonio Rodriguez

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the validity and the usefulness of a new test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis based on an immunocapture-agglutination technique. A total of 315 sera from 82 patients with a diagnosis of brucellosis, 157 sera from patients in whom brucellosis was suspected but not confirmed, and 412 sera from people living in rural areas with endemic brucellosis were studied. The seroagglutination test (SAT), Coombs anti-Brucella test, and Brucellacapt test were evaluated. All the initial sera from the 82 patients proved to be positive in Brucellacapt and Coombs tests, while only 75 (91.4%) were positive in the SAT. If a ≥1/160 diagnostic threshold titer was defined for the Brucellacapt test, Coombs test, and SAT, the sensitivities were 95.1, 91.5, and 65.8%, respectively. Taking the same diagnostic threshold titer for the 157 sera from the unconfirmed but suspected patients, the specificities of the Brucellacapt, Coombs, and SAT were 81.5, 96.2, and 100%, respectively; for the 412 control sera, the specificities were 99.0, 99.8, and 100%. The diagnostic efficiency (area below the receiver operating characteristic curve) of Brucellacapt was 0.987852 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95109 to 0.99286), very similar to the diagnostic efficiency of the Coombs test (0.97611; 95% CI, 0.94781 to 0.99146) and higher than that of SAT (0.91013; 95% CI, 0.86649 to 0.94317). The results of the Brucellacapt test were compared with those of the Coombs test (correlation coefficient, 0.956; P = 0.000) and SAT (correlation coefficient, 0.866; P = 0.000). The study shows very good correlation between the Brucellacapt and Coombs tests, with a high concordance between titers obtained in the two tests. Nevertheless, lower correlation and concordance were found between the Brucellacapt and Coombs tests when the results for titers of ≥1/160 were compared (0.692; P = 0.000). In acute brucellosis, the Brucellacapt and Coombs tests render positive titers of ≥1/160. When the titers

  16. Cattle brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practice in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, and its zoonotic implication

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    Niguse Fekadu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease. Methods A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using the rose Bengal test as screening and complement fixation test as confirmatory tests. The Stata survey command was used to establish prevalences for the overall and individual variables, while potential risk factors for seropositivity were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The results showed that 3.5% (95% CI = 2.4, 4.5% of the animals and 26.1% (95% CI = 18.6, 33.7 of the herds tested had antibodies against Brucella species. Village level seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 100%. A higher seroprevalence was observed in pastoral system than mixed farming although this variable was not significant in the final model. The final logistic regression model identified herd size; with large (odd ratio (OR = 8.0, 95% CI = 1.9, 33.6 and medium herds (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.9, 34.2 showing higher risk of Brucella infection when compared to small herds. Similarly, the odds of Brucella infection was higher in cattle aged above 4 years when compared to age groups of 1-2 (OR = 5.4, 2.1, 12.9 and 3-4 years (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.0, 9.6. Herd level analysis of the risk factors revealed that large and medium herds as well as herds kept with multiple livestock species were at higher risk of acquiring Brucella infection. Brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practices certainly poses a zoonotic risk to the public, in consequence of raw milk consumption, close contact with animals and provision of assistance during parturition. Due to lack of diagnostic facilities and

  17. The history of brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories and its re-emergence.

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    Tukana, Andrew; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    There are few publications on brucellosis within the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The reason is possibly because the cattle population has been reportedly free of the disease for many years until a re-emergence occurred in the Fiji Islands (Viti Levu) in 2009. This paper reports on the outbreak of brucellosis in Fiji and its progression between 2009 and 2013 in the context of an overview of brucellosis in the Pacific Island community. Review of the literature found only 28 articles with the oldest record of brucellosis being in 1965 in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and from human cases in Tonga in 1980. The Fiji outbreak of Brucella abortus occurred in cattle in 2009 (Wainivesi basin) in the Tailevu province. Prior to the outbreak, Fiji declared freedom from B. abortus to OIE in 1996 after a successful eradication campaign. During the course of the outbreak investigation, serum samples were collected from between 9790 and 21,624 cattle per annum between 2009 and 2013 from 87 farms on the main island of Fiji (Viti Levu). Blood samples were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) in 2009 and the indirect ELISA test in subsequent years. At the time of the outbreak in Fiji (2009) the apparent prevalence in cattle was 1.50% and this has fluctuated since the outbreak. The True Prevalence (TP) for the main island in Fiji for the indirect ELISA tests was 2.40% in 2010, reached a peak of 3.49% in 2011 then reduced to 0.12% by 2013. The significant reduction in prevalence compared to 2010 is most likely due to the control programs being implemented in Fiji. The re-emergence of B. abortus in Fiji could be attributed to the lack of monitoring for the disease until 2009 combined with inadequate management of exposed animals, thus illustrating how important it is for authorities not to become complacent. Continued awareness and monitoring for brucellosis is essential if future outbreaks are to be avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Comparison of the human brucellosis incidence trend in Eslam Abad-e-Gharb town, Kermanshah province and Iran (2006-2010)

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    Badrieh Sahargahi; Mansour Rezaei; Mohamadreza Naderi; Froud Ajdar; Mostafa Qubadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that mandates a high cost on nations. The aim of this study was to compare the human brucellosis incidence rates in Eslam Abad-e-Gharb, Kermanshah province and Iran from 2006 to 2010. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the incidence rates of human brucellosis in EslamAbad-e-Gharb town, Kermanshah province and Iranwere obtained from the existing files and compared by Z test. Results: There were 458 cases of human brucellosis in Eslam Ab...

  19. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (II): Cost-benefit analysis of reducing elk brucellosis prevalence.

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    Boroff, Kari; Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Maichak, Eric; Scurlock, Brandon; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-11-01

    Recent cases of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in cattle (Bos taurus) and domestic bison (Bison bison) of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area (SGYA) have been traced back to free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus). Several management activities have been implemented to reduce brucellosis seroprevalence in elk, including test-and-slaughter, low-density feeding at elk winter feedgrounds, and elk vaccination. It is unclear which of these activities are most cost-effective at reducing the risk of elk transmitting brucellosis to cattle. In a companion paper, a stochastic risk model was used to translate a reduction in elk seroprevalence to a reduction in the risk of transmission to cattle. Here, we use those results to estimate the expected economic benefits and costs of reducing seroprevalence in elk using three different management activities: vaccination of elk with Brucella strain 19 (S19), low-density feeding of elk, and elk test-and-slaughter. Results indicate that the three elk management activities yield negative expected net benefits, ranging from -$2983 per year for low-density feeding to -$595,471 per year for test-and-slaughter. Society's risk preferences will determine whether strategies that generate small negative net benefit, such as low-density feeding, are worth implementing. However, activities with large negative net benefits, such as test-and-slaughter and S19 vaccination, are unlikely to be economically worthwhile. Given uncertainty about various model parameters, we identify some circumstances in which individual management activities might generate positive expected net benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Systematic review of brucellosis in Kenya: disease frequency in humans and animals and risk factors for human infection

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    J. Njeru

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease affecting humans and animals. A comprehensive, evidence-based assessment of literature and officially available data on animal and human brucellosis for Kenya are missing. The aim of the current review is to provide frequency estimates of brucellosis in humans, animals and risk factors for human infection, and help to understand the current situation in Kenya. Methods A total of accessible 36 national and international publications on brucellosis from 1916 to 2016 were reviewed to estimate the frequency of brucellosis in humans and animals, and strength of associations between potential risk factors and seropositivity in humans in Kenya. Results The conducted studies revealed only few and fragmented evidence of the disease spatial and temporal distribution in an epidemiological context. Bacteriological evidence revealed the presence of Brucella (B. abortus and B. melitensis in cattle and human patients, whilst B. suis was isolated from wild rodents only. Similar evidence for Brucella spp infection in small ruminants and other animal species is unavailable. The early and most recent serological studies revealed that animal brucellosis is widespread in all animal production systems. The animal infection pressure in these systems has remained strong due to mixing of large numbers of animals from different geographical regions, movement of livestock in search of pasture, communal sharing of grazing land, and the concentration of animals around water points. Human cases are more likely seen in groups occupationally or domestically exposed to livestock or practicing risky social-cultural activities such as consumption of raw blood and dairy products, and slaughtering of animals within the homesteads. Many brucellosis patients are misdiagnosed and probably mistreated due to lack of reliable laboratory diagnostic support resulting to adverse health outcomes of the patients and routine

  1. Systematic review of brucellosis in Kenya: disease frequency in humans and animals and risk factors for human infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeru, J; Wareth, G; Melzer, F; Henning, K; Pletz, M W; Heller, R; Neubauer, H

    2016-08-22

    Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease affecting humans and animals. A comprehensive, evidence-based assessment of literature and officially available data on animal and human brucellosis for Kenya are missing. The aim of the current review is to provide frequency estimates of brucellosis in humans, animals and risk factors for human infection, and help to understand the current situation in Kenya. A total of accessible 36 national and international publications on brucellosis from 1916 to 2016 were reviewed to estimate the frequency of brucellosis in humans and animals, and strength of associations between potential risk factors and seropositivity in humans in Kenya. The conducted studies revealed only few and fragmented evidence of the disease spatial and temporal distribution in an epidemiological context. Bacteriological evidence revealed the presence of Brucella (B.) abortus and B. melitensis in cattle and human patients, whilst B. suis was isolated from wild rodents only. Similar evidence for Brucella spp infection in small ruminants and other animal species is unavailable. The early and most recent serological studies revealed that animal brucellosis is widespread in all animal production systems. The animal infection pressure in these systems has remained strong due to mixing of large numbers of animals from different geographical regions, movement of livestock in search of pasture, communal sharing of grazing land, and the concentration of animals around water points. Human cases are more likely seen in groups occupationally or domestically exposed to livestock or practicing risky social-cultural activities such as consumption of raw blood and dairy products, and slaughtering of animals within the homesteads. Many brucellosis patients are misdiagnosed and probably mistreated due to lack of reliable laboratory diagnostic support resulting to adverse health outcomes of the patients and routine disease underreporting. We found no studies of disease

  2. The influence of canine brucellosis on morphofunctional features of epididymal spermatozoa: case report

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    D.S.R. Angrimani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present work reports a clinical case of a mongrel dog, with serological diagnosis of brucellosis, from which epididymal sperm analysis was performed. Sperm samples were collected from different segments of the epididymis (tail, corpus, and caput. Sperm samples were evaluated for computer-assisted motility analysis (CASA, spermatic morphology, mitochondrial activity and sperm plasmatic membrane and acrosomal integrity. Changes in sperm movement patterns were found (progressive motility, percentage of rapid sperm, percentage of rapid velocity, average pathway, curvilinear velocity, velocity straight line, amplitude of lateral head displacement, straightness and linearity, increase of total morphological defects (51% and absence of sperm mitochondrial activity (20% were verified, especially for cauda epididymides. We highlight that such changes can contribute to clinical diagnosis of Brucellosis in dogs and to the use of epididymal sperm in reproductive biotechnologies.

  3. A review on camel brucellosis: a zoonosis sustained by ignorance and indifference.

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    Sprague, Lisa D; Al-Dahouk, Sascha; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2012-07-01

    In many developing countries of Asia and Africa, camels are one of the most important sources of income for the nomadic population. With increasing urbanization, camel milk and meat have gained a wider market and commercialization and consumption of camel products are on the rise. Camel brucellosis can be encountered in all camel rearing countries with exception of Australia. High animal and herd prevalences have been reported from numerous countries, which not only pose a continuous risk for human infection, but also increase the spread of infection through uncontrolled trade of clinically inconspicuous animals. This short review aims at providing an overview on diagnostic investigations, as well as the public health and economic impact of brucellosis in old world camels.

  4. Sero-prevalence of brucellosis among blood donors in Ahvaz, Southwest Iran

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    Abdolhussein Shakurnia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify sero-prevalence of brucellosis among blood donors in Ahvaz city, Southwest Iran. Methods: A total number of 1 450 serum samples from blood donation were collected and were screened for the presence of brucella antibody. Rose Bengal Plate Test, Standard Agglutination Test (SAT, and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME agglutination were tested in the sample. SAT dilution ≥1/80 and 2ME agglutination ≥1/40 were considered positive. Results: Sero-prevalence of brucellosis among the blood donors was 0.70%, 0.34%, and 0.20% by Rose Bengal Plate Test, SAT, and 2ME respectively. Conclusions: Considering the 1/80 titer of SAT as the criteria of contamination with brucella, routine screening of sero-prevalence of brucella in blood donors is not recommended in this area.

  5. A review on camel brucellosis: a zoonosis sustained by ignorance and indifference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lisa D; Al-Dahouk, Sascha; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    In many developing countries of Asia and Africa, camels are one of the most important sources of income for the nomadic population. With increasing urbanization, camel milk and meat have gained a wider market and commercialization and consumption of camel products are on the rise. Camel brucellosis can be encountered in all camel rearing countries with exception of Australia. High animal and herd prevalences have been reported from numerous countries, which not only pose a continuous risk for human infection, but also increase the spread of infection through uncontrolled trade of clinically inconspicuous animals. This short review aims at providing an overview on diagnostic investigations, as well as the public health and economic impact of brucellosis in old world camels. PMID:23265371

  6. A rare case report of Brucellosis in human immunodeficiency virus infected patient from rural Uttar Pradesh

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    Shewtank Goel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of brucellosis in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, who came to seek medical care at a tertiary care center in rural Uttar Pradesh. A 26-year-old male patient, milk salesperson by occupation who also used to rear his cattle as a routine, presented with complaints of longstanding fever accompanied with vomiting, giddiness, myalgia, and headache. No significant abnormality was detected on routine physical and laboratory investigations except reactive HIV antibodies. It was decided to conduct the serological tests for the evidence of brucellosis as clinical symptoms continued to persist. He had high titers of Brucella agglutinin, and responded to treatment with tetracycline and streptomycin. The isolates were confirmed at Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar.

  7. Оptimization of periodontitis treatment in patients with chronic brucellosis infection

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    L.A. Soboleva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose to determine the clinical pathogenetic efficacy of Cycloferon liniment in the combined therapy of parodontitis in patients with chronic brucellosis medical examination and treatment of 50 patients was carried out. It was established that use of liniment Cycloferon in the combined treatment of patients with pariodontitis against chronic brucellosis allowed to accelerate process of normalization of parameters of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant potential of blood, to decrease infection load (herpes symplex virus I, candida albicans, staphylococcus aureus in parodontal recess and evidence of local inflammation with reduction of activity of tumour necrosis and interleukin 1b, that provided acceleration of recovery processes, lowering in frequency of pariodontitis recurrences

  8. CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE BRUCELLOSIS IN CHILDREN OF THE STAVROPOL TERRITORY

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    S. M. Bezrodnova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the clinical  and  epidemiological features of brucellosis in children in the Stavropol region.Materials and  methods: Analysis of brucellosis is made and  the  share  of brucellosis in the  Stavropol Territory  from 2010 to 2014 is clarified. The paper  used  the  data  from the Territorial  Rospotrebnadzor in  the  Stavropol Territory.  Dynamic   clinical  indices were  analyzed in  17  children with brucellosis under treatment and  dispensary observation in the  State  Budget Institution of Health  of the  Stavropol Territory  «Regional Clinical  Hospital of  Infectious Diseases». Analyzed an  outbreak of brucellosis in  Essentuki in  2016. We used  the following methods: bibliographic, monographic description, epidemiological, analytical, statistical methods.Results. The proportion of the incidence of brucellosis in children in Stavropol Krai in comparison with the Russian figures were: in 2010 – 8,33%, in 2016 – 56%. A household way of infection increases, including children, who were infected in the  farms  of their  own  parents. The age  of infection was12–16 (47,06%, 8–11 (35,29% and 4–7  years (17,65%.The  main  clinical  syndromes were: arthritic, vegetative, asthenic, lymphoproliferative syndrome, liver disease, splenomegaly. Isolated forms did not occur. Predominantly, large joints with dysfunction of joints of I–II degree were affected. Late referral after the initial manifestation is typical. Late initiation of treatment. The etiotropic therapy is carried  out at least 4 weeks, in the presence of carditis – up to 16 weeks.Conclusion. The epidemiological situation of brucellosis in the Stavropol territory  has been  tense in the recent  years. The active migration of the population from the regions of the North  Caucasus Federal  District  contributes to this.  Intensive  incidence rate of brucellosis exceeds the  average Russian level by 5–8

  9. A Rare Case: Isolated Testicular and Epidural Abscess Associated with Brucellosis

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    Tugce Kalayci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Coincidence of isolated testicular abscess and epidural-paravertebral abscess is a rare complication of brucellosis. A 24-year-old male patient was admitted to our clinic with 2 months ongoing back pain, night sweats and left scrotal pain. Septal cystic lesion with dense content in the left testis was considered to isolated testicular abscess in scrotal Doppler examination. Multiple spinal epidural and right paraspinal abscess were detected in the spinal magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was treated with drainage of abscess and oral antibiotics. The rare combination of spinal epidural and testicular abscess should be kept in the mind if a patient presented with low back pain and scrotal pain in regions where brucellosis was endemic.

  10. Bayesian estimation of the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and livestock in Kyrgyzstan.

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    Dürr, S; Bonfoh, B; Schelling, E; Kasymbekov, J; Doherr, M G; Toktobaev, N; Schueth, T; Zinsstag, J

    2013-12-01

    Kyrgyzstan reported 77.5 new cases of human brucellosis per 100,000 inhabitants in 2007, which is one of the highest incidences in the world. However, because this number is based on official records, it is very likely that the incidence is underreported. The diagnostic tests most commonly used in Kyrgyzstan are the Rose Bengal test in ruminants and the Huddleson test in humans. The sensitivity and specificity of these tests have never been evaluated under field conditions in Kyrgyzstan, where the strains circulating in livestock and humans are unknown. Therefore, a representative national cross-sectional serological study was undertaken in humans, cattle, sheep and goats to assess the true seroprevalence and to compare different serologicaltests. In the year of study (2006), few animals were vaccinated against brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan. A total of 5,229 livestock sera and 1,777 human sera from three administrative regions were collected during spring 2006 and submitted to a range of serological tests. The true seroprevalence of brucellosis, estimated using Bayesian methodology, was 7% (95% credibility interval 4%-9%) in humans, 3% (1%-5%) in cattle, 12% (7%-23%) in sheep and 15% (7%-30%) in goats. The Rose Bengal test was confirmed as a useful screening test in livestock and humans, although its sensitivity was lower than that of other tests. The estimates of specificity of all tests were significantly higher than those for sensitivity. The high seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans, cattle and small ruminants in Kyrgyzstan was confirmed. Bayesian statistical approaches were demonstrated to be useful for simultaneously deriving test characteristics and true prevalence estimates in the absence of a gold standard.

  11. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials in the treatment of human brucellosis.

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    Julián Solís García del Pozo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a persistent health problem in many developing countries throughout the world, and the search for simple and effective treatment continues to be of great importance. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A search was conducted in MEDLINE and in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL. Clinical trials published from 1985 to present that assess different antimicrobial regimens in cases of documented acute uncomplicated human brucellosis were included. The primary outcomes were relapse, therapeutic failure, combined variable of relapse and therapeutic failure, and adverse effect rates. A meta-analysis with a fixed effect model was performed and odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A random effect model was used when significant heterogeneity between studies was verified. Comparison of combined doxycycline and rifampicin with a combination of doxycycline and streptomycin favors the latter regimen (OR = 3.17; CI95% = 2.05-4.91. There were no significant differences between combined doxycycline-streptomycin and combined doxycycline-gentamicin (OR = 1.89; CI95% = 0.81-4.39. Treatment with rifampicin and quinolones was similar to combined doxycycline-rifampicin (OR = 1.23; CI95% = 0.63-2.40. Only one study assessed triple therapy with aminoglycoside-doxycycline-rifampicin and only included patients with uncomplicated brucellosis. Thus this approach cannot be considered the therapy of choice until further studies have been performed. Combined doxycycline/co-trimoxazole or doxycycline monotherapy could represent a cost-effective alternative in certain patient groups, and further studies are needed in the future. CONCLUSIONS: Although the preferred treatment in uncomplicated human brucellosis is doxycycline-aminoglycoside combination, other treatments based on oral regimens or monotherapy should not be rejected until they are better studied. Triple therapy should not be considered

  12. A review on camel brucellosis: a zoonosis sustained by ignorance and indifference

    OpenAIRE

    Sprague, Lisa D; Al-Dahouk, Sascha; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    In many developing countries of Asia and Africa, camels are one of the most important sources of income for the nomadic population. With increasing urbanization, camel milk and meat have gained a wider market and commercialization and consumption of camel products are on the rise. Camel brucellosis can be encountered in all camel rearing countries with exception of Australia. High animal and herd prevalences have been reported from numerous countries, which not only pose a continuous risk for...

  13. Evaluation of Cell Proliferation and Interferon Gamma (IFN- Expression in Patients with Brucellosis

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    A.R. Rafiei

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available T cell proliferation is a standard method to evaluate cellular immune responses against intracellular infectious agents. Recently, intracellular cytokine assay is a valuable procedure for studying of the immune response to various stimuli such as intracellular microbes. The present study was undertaken to assess cell-mediated immune responses in patients with acute and chronic brucellosis. Diluted whole blood samples of patients with acute (n=14 and chronic brucellosis (n=13 with age 35.33 21 years, and sex and age-matched healthy volunteers(n=22 were cultured in the presence of either mitogen; heat inactivated bacteria or medium alone. Intracellular IFN-γ expression in CD3+ cells was detected by flow cytometry. Lymphoproliferation was determined by titiated thymidine incorporation using scintillation counter, to evaluate DNA synthesis. In all groups, incubation with mitogen induced proliferation of lymphocytes and intracellular IFN-γ expression of CD3+ cells. In contrast, only brucellosis patients responded with cell proliferation and IFN-γ production against heat killed Brucella melitensis. However, blastogenic responses and IFN-γ-producing CD3+ cells were significantly decreased in response to antigen in chronic group compared to patients with acute brucellosis of patients (P<0.001. There was a close correlation between the number IFN-- producing CD3+ cells only in acute group which shown polarization of immune responses to Th1 type. Methods used in this study were useful to evaluate immune responses against specific antigen or polyclonal stimulation. Our data was shown patients with acute infection responded to Brucella antigens by IFN- expression and proliferation and induced production of T helper 1 (Th1 cytokines, whereas chronically infected patients do not.

  14. False positive seroreactivity to brucellosis in tuberculosis patients: a prevalence study

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    Mojtaba Varshochi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mojtaba Varshochi1,2, Jafar Majidi2, Marjan Amini1, Kamyar Ghabili3, Mohammadali M Shoja31Department of Infectious Disease, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: The rising worldwide incidence of tuberculosis (TB increases the demand for knowledge about its potential seroreactivity with other microbial agents. A few reports and the authors’ experiences indicate that tuberculosis may result in a false-positive brucellosis serology. This may cause a diagnostic challenge because of the close clinical resemblance of these two infections.Objective: The aim of the present prevalence study was to elucidate brucellosis seroreactivity in patients with active TB.Methods: Ninety-eight patients with newly diagnosed and active TB were studied using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Wright’s and Coombs–Wright’s tests. Seventy-five healthy individuals were used as controls. The patients showed signs of recovery after starting a standard anti-TB regimen and had no clinical evidence of brucellosis at a subsequent 6-month follow-up. The data were analyzed statistically by Fisher’s exact test using SPSS 11.0.Results: We found that 9.2% of TB patients versus 1.3% of healthy controls had positive results on the anti-Brucella IgG ELISA (P = 0.04. Five TB patients were found to have agglutination on Wright’s tests, while none of the controls showed agglutination.Conclusion: Active TB patients may have some seroreactivity with Brucella antigens, and Brucella IgG ELISA may give a false positive in these patients. Clinicians should consider false positive brucellosis seroreactivity in patients with active TB.Keywords: false positive serology, ELISA, diagnosis

  15. Integrating serological and genetic data to quantify cross-species transmission: brucellosis as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, Mafalda; SHIRIMA, GABRIEL M.; JOHN, KUNDA S.; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Kazwala, Rucovick R.; Buza, Joram J.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Haydon, Daniel T; Halliday, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data are often fragmented, partial, and/or ambiguous and unable to yield the desired level of understanding\\ud of infectious disease dynamics to adequately inform control measures. Here, we show how the information contained in\\ud widely available serology data can be enhanced by integration with less common type-specific data, to improve the understanding\\ud of the transmission dynamics of complex multi-species pathogens and host communities. Using brucellosis in\\ud Northern ...

  16. Buffalo, bush meat, and the zoonotic threat of brucellosis in Botswana.

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    Kathleen Anne Alexander

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana.Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995-2000 were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA and included the African buffalo (247, bushbuck (1, eland (5, elephant (25, gemsbok (1, giraffe (9, hartebeest (12, impala (171, kudu (27, red lechwe (10, reedbuck (1, rhino (2, springbok (5, steenbok (2, warthog (24, waterbuck (1, wildebeest (33, honey badger (1, lion (43, and zebra (21. Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974-2006.Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%-8.96% and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0-38.43% were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46% occurring in children (<14 years old and no cases were reported among people working in the agricultural sector.Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in Botswana buffalo in a previous study in 1974 and again in this survey suggests an endemic status of the disease in this species. Buffalo, a preferred source of bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife sources of infection in determining public health risks from

  17. Isolation & characterization of Brucella melitensis isolated from patients suspected for human brucellosis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Anita; Kumar, Ashu; Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Mangalgi, Smita; Prakash, Archana; Tiwari, Sapana; Arora, Sonia; Sathyaseelan, Kannusamy

    2016-05-01

    Brucellosis is endemic in the southern part of India. A combination of biochemical, serological and molecular methods is required for identification and biotyping of Brucella. The present study describes the isolation and biochemical, molecular characterization of Brucella melitensis from patients suspected for human brucellosis. The blood samples were collected from febrile patients suspected to have brucellosis. A total of 18 isolates were obtained from 102 blood samples subjected to culture. The characterization of these 18 isolates was done by growth on Brucella specific medium, biochemical reactions, CO2 requirement, H2S production, agglutination with A and M mono-specific antiserum, dye sensitivity to basic fuchsin and thionin. Further, molecular characterization of the isolates was done by amplification of B. melitensis species specific IS 711 repetitive DNA fragment and 16S (rRNA) sequence analysis. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of omp2 locus and IS711 gene was also done for molecular characterization. All 102 suspected samples were subjected to bacteria isolation and of these, 18 isolates could be recovered on blood culture. The biochemical, PCR and PCR-RFLP and 16s rRNA sequencing revealed that all isolates were of B. melitensis and matched exactly with reference strain B. melitensis 16M. The present study showed an overall isolation rate of 17.64 per cent for B. melitensis. There is a need to establish facilities for isolation and characterization of Brucella species for effective clinical management of the disease among patients as well as surveillance and control of infection in domestic animals. Further studies are needed from different geographical areas of the country with different level of endemicity to plan and execute control strategies against human brucellosis.

  18. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials in the Treatment of Human Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís García del Pozo, Julián; Solera, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a persistent health problem in many developing countries throughout the world, and the search for simple and effective treatment continues to be of great importance. Methods and Findings A search was conducted in MEDLINE and in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Clinical trials published from 1985 to present that assess different antimicrobial regimens in cases of documented acute uncomplicated human brucellosis were included. The primary outcomes were relapse, therapeutic failure, combined variable of relapse and therapeutic failure, and adverse effect rates. A meta-analysis with a fixed effect model was performed and odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A random effect model was used when significant heterogeneity between studies was verified. Comparison of combined doxycycline and rifampicin with a combination of doxycycline and streptomycin favors the latter regimen (OR = 3.17; CI95% = 2.05–4.91). There were no significant differences between combined doxycycline-streptomycin and combined doxycycline-gentamicin (OR = 1.89; CI95% = 0.81–4.39). Treatment with rifampicin and quinolones was similar to combined doxycycline-rifampicin (OR = 1.23; CI95% = 0.63–2.40). Only one study assessed triple therapy with aminoglycoside-doxycycline-rifampicin and only included patients with uncomplicated brucellosis. Thus this approach cannot be considered the therapy of choice until further studies have been performed. Combined doxycycline/co-trimoxazole or doxycycline monotherapy could represent a cost-effective alternative in certain patient groups, and further studies are needed in the future. Conclusions Although the preferred treatment in uncomplicated human brucellosis is doxycycline-aminoglycoside combination, other treatments based on oral regimens or monotherapy should not be rejected until they are better studied. Triple therapy should not be considered the current

  19. A review of the basis of the immunological diagnosis of ruminant brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Conde-Álvarez, Raquel; Blasco, José María; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria of the genus Brucella cause brucellosis, the most common bacterial zoonosis worldwide. The diagnosis of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis ruminant brucellosis is based on bacteriological and immunological tests, the latter being routinely used in control and eradication and surveillance programs. Infections by smooth and rough Brucella spp., the use of smooth and rough vaccines, and the false-positive serological reactions caused by Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 and other cross-reacting bacteria represent the immunological contexts in which those tests are used. This complex context explains the large number of brucellosis tests that have been developed, and that vary in antigen type, antigen presentation, antibody and conditions for the reaction, the response detected and the sample required. This wealth of information and an imperfect understanding of Brucella antigens and of the peculiarities of the immunoresponse to Brucella has created confusion and led to several misconceptions on the usefulness and limitations of the brucellosis diagnostic tests. In this review, Brucella antigens are examined focusing on cellular topology, supramolecular properties, epitopic structure and lipopolysaccharide and protein cross-reactivity in the various contexts of the immune response in ruminants. Then, the significance of these features in diagnostic tests that use whole bacteria is discussed with respect to the activities of ruminant immunoglobulins, and the effect of pH on unspecific agglutinations, non-agglutinating and blocking antibodies, pseudo-prozones and complement activation. Similarly, the bacterial surface lipopolysaccharides and cognate polysaccharides are discussed with regards to topological effects, epitope exposure, ionic strength and antibody avidity in immunoprecipitation, immunosorbent and fluorescence polarization assays. Finally, the search for immunodominant protein antigens and their use in immunological tests is reviewed. Critical review

  20. Human Brucellosis in Maghreb: Existence of a Lineage Related to Socio-Historical Connections with Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounes, Nedjma; Cherfa, Moulay-Ali; Le Carrou, Gilles; Bouyoucef, Abdellah; Jay, Maryne; Garin-Bastuji, Bruno; Mick, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Despite control/eradication programs, brucellosis, major worldwide zoonosis due to the Brucella genus, is endemic in Northern Africa and remains a major public health problem in the Maghreb region (Algeria/Morocco/Tunisia). Brucella melitensis biovar 3 is mostly involved in human infections and infects mainly small ruminants. Human and animal brucellosis occurrence in the Maghreb seems still underestimated and its epidemiological situation remains hazy. This study summarizes official data, regarding Brucella melitensis infections in Algeria, from 1989 to 2012, with the purpose to provide appropriate insights concerning the epidemiological situation of human and small ruminant brucellosis in Maghreb. Algeria and Europe are closely linked for historical and economical reasons. These historical connections raise the question of their possible impact on the genetic variability of Brucella strains circulating in the Maghreb. Other purpose of this study was to assess the genetic diversity among Maghreb B. melitensis biovar 3 strains, and to investigate their possible epidemiological relationship with European strains, especially with French strains. A total of 90 B. melitensis biovar 3 Maghreb strains isolated over a 25 year-period (1989–2014), mainly from humans, were analysed by MLVA-16. The obtained results were compared with genotypes of European B. melitensis biovar 3 strains. Molecular assays showed that Algerian strains were mainly distributed into two distinct clusters, one Algerian cluster related to European sub-cluster. These results led to suggest the existence of a lineage resulting from socio-historical connections between Algeria and Europe that might have evolved distinctly from the Maghreb autochthonous group. This study provides insights regarding the epidemiological situation of human brucellosis in the Maghreb and is the first molecular investigation regarding B. melitensis biovar 3 strains circulating in the Maghreb. PMID:25517901

  1. Prevalence of brucellosis in the human, livestock and wildlife interface areas of Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

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    Gabriel M. Shirima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2006, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in domestic ruminants in agropastoral communities of Serengeti district, Tanzania to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in domestic–wildlife interface villages. Both the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and Competitive Enzyme Linked-immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA were used to analyse 82 human and 413 livestock sera from four randomly selected villages located along game reserve areas of Serengeti National Park. Although both cattle (288 and small ruminants (125 were screened, seropositivity was detected only in cattle. The overall seroprevalence based on c-ELISA as a confirmatory test was 5.6%. In cattle both age and sex were not statistically associated with brucellosis seropositivity (P = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.8 and 0.33; 95% CI = 0.6, 3.7, respectively. Overall herd level seropositivity was 46.7% (n = 7, ranging from 25% to 66.7% (n = 4–10. Each village had at least one brucellosis seropositive herd. None of the 82 humans tested with both RBPT and c-ELISA were seropositive. Detecting Brucella infection in cattle in such areas warrants further investigation to establish the circulating strains for eventual appropriate control interventions in domestic animals.

  2. Pathogenesis and immunobiology of brucellosis: review of Brucella-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Paul; Ficht, Thomas A; Rice-Ficht, Allison; Rossetti, Carlos A; Adams, L Garry

    2015-06-01

    This review of Brucella-host interactions and immunobiology discusses recent discoveries as the basis for pathogenesis-informed rationales to prevent or treat brucellosis. Brucella spp., as animal pathogens, cause human brucellosis, a zoonosis that results in worldwide economic losses, human morbidity, and poverty. Although Brucella spp. infect humans as an incidental host, 500,000 new human infections occur annually, and no patient-friendly treatments or approved human vaccines are reported. Brucellae display strong tissue tropism for lymphoreticular and reproductive systems with an intracellular lifestyle that limits exposure to innate and adaptive immune responses, sequesters the organism from the effects of antibiotics, and drives clinical disease manifestations and pathology. Stealthy brucellae exploit strategies to establish infection, including i) evasion of intracellular destruction by restricting fusion of type IV secretion system-dependent Brucella-containing vacuoles with lysosomal compartments, ii) inhibition of apoptosis of infected mononuclear cells, and iii) prevention of dendritic cell maturation, antigen presentation, and activation of naive T cells, pathogenesis lessons that may be informative for other intracellular pathogens. Data sets of next-generation sequences of Brucella and host time-series global expression fused with proteomics and metabolomics data from in vitro and in vivo experiments now inform interactive cellular pathways and gene regulatory networks enabling full-scale systems biology analysis. The newly identified effector proteins of Brucella may represent targets for improved, safer brucellosis vaccines and therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A serological survey for brucellosis in reindeer in Finnmark county, northern Norway

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    Kjetil Åsbakk

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available During September-December, 1990 to 1994, serum samples from a total of 5792 semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandm tarandm from Finnmark county, northern Norway, were screened for brucellosis on an indirect ELISA. There were no serologically positive animals. Twenty six of the animals had levels of antibodies detectable on the ELISA and were classed as suspicious, but the ELISA optical density readings were low compared to the readings for reindeer that were both culture positive and seropositive for Brucella suis biovar 4. When assayed on the standard tube agglutination test (STAT, all the 26 animals were seronegative. When absorbed with cells of Yersinia enterocolitica 0-9, the antibody detectable on the ELISA could be removed to a great extent from most of the sera, indicating previous or ongoing exposure to bacteria serologically cross-reacting with Brucella in these animals. We concluded that brucellosis was not present among reindeer in Finnmark during this study. This is supported by the absence of any reports of brucellosis among reindeer in Norway.

  4. Seroepidemiological Study of Brucellosis in High Risk Groups in Boyerahmad 1384

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    AM Khosravani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that may have a major public health and economic impact in most countries. The disease appears as a Malt fever in humans and abortion in animals. This study was designed to determine the serologic titer of Brucella in high risk and non high risk people in Boyerahmad. Materials & Methods: A retrospective seroepidemiological study was performed on samples collected from 604 high risk and non high risk people using Rose Bengol test, tube standard test as a rapid test and 2 mercaptoethanol (2ME and comb's wright as a confirmatory test. The data collected were analyzed by X2 test via SPSS. Results: Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in high risk people appeared to be high in the Rose Bengal and tube standard test (TST 6.62 at titer ≥1/40 whereas for non high risk it was 0%. Confirmation test in high risk people was shown with 2ME in four people. Conclusion: Brucellosis is a major cause of disease in high risk people which can be due to direct or indirect contact with diary products of the related animals.

  5. Molecular Survey on Brucellosis in Rodents and Shrews - Natural Reservoirs of Novel Brucella Species in Germany?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, J A; Ulrich, R G; Imholt, C; Scholz, H C; Jacob, J; Kratzmann, N; Nöckler, K; Al Dahouk, S

    2017-04-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease introduced from animal reservoirs to humans. In Germany, bovine and ovine/caprine brucellosis were eradicated more than a decade ago and mandatory measures in livestock have been implemented to keep the officially brucellosis-free status. In contrast, surveillance of wildlife is still challenging, and reliable data on the prevalence of brucellae in small mammal populations do not exist. To assess the epidemiology of Brucella spp. in rodents and shrews, a molecular survey was carried out. A total of 537 rodents and shrews were trapped in four federal states located throughout Germany and investigated for the presence of Brucella. Using a two-step molecular assay based on the detection of the Brucella-specific bcsp31 and IS711 sequences in tissue samples, 14.2% (n = 76) of the tested animals were positive. These originated mainly from western and south-western Germany, where preliminary analyses indicate population density-dependent Brucella prevalence in voles (Myodes glareolus) and mice (Apodemus spp.). recA typing revealed a close relationship to a potentially novel Brucella species recently isolated from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Austria. The molecular detection of brucellae in various rodent taxa and for the first time in shrew species shows that these animals may be naturally infected or at least have a history of exposure to Brucella spp. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Analysis of epidemiological indicators: Bovine brucellosis on the Atlantic coast and Antioquia - Colombia, 2005-2013

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    Misael Oviedo-Pastrana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Describe the situation of the bovine brucellosis in the Atlantic Coast and Antioquia (CAA by analysis of epidemiological indicators during 2005-2013. Materials and methods. The data was obtained from epidemiological reports of the Colombian Agricultural Institute and the National Agricultural Census 2014. The annual departmental average of the variables studied was compared and it was performed a temporal analysis through graphical representation. Results. 44% of the positive farms were focused on the CAA; the positivity rate of farms in the CAA (27.9% was higher and statistically significant when related to the average rate in the country (24.8% being promoted by the least producing departments. Regarding to the cattle population, the CAA concentrated 47.0% of positive cattle in the country; however, the bovine positivity rate (5.8% was statistically equal to the national average (5.3%; yet, the departments with lower cattle population had the highest rates. The best surveillance for bovine brucellosis was observed between 2005 and 2009, in contrast, during 2010, 2011 and 2013 there was a considerable reduction in the number of diagnoses, in both farms and cattle. In the least producing departments the temporary distribution of epidemiological indicators favored more the presence of the disease. Conclusions. The National Prevention Control and Eradication Program of Bovine Brucellosis in the CAA presented promising results, however, the lack of continuity in the diagnostic surveillance during some years and mainly in the least producing departments affected negatively their development.

  7. Osteoarticular tissue infection and development of skeletal pathology in murine brucellosis

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    Diogo M. Magnani

    2013-05-01

    Brucellosis, a frequent bacterial zoonosis, can produce debilitating chronic disease with involvement of multiple organs in human patients. Whereas acute brucellosis is well studied using the murine animal model, long-term complications of host-pathogen interaction remain largely elusive. Human brucellosis frequently results in persistent, chronic osteoarticular system involvement, with complications such as arthritis, spondylitis and sacroiliitis. Here, we focused on identifying infectious sites in the mouse that parallel Brucella melitensis foci observed in patients. In vivo imaging showed rapid bacterial dispersal to multiple sites of the murine axial skeleton. In agreement with these findings, immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of bacteria in bones and limbs, and in the lower spine vertebrae of the axial skeleton where they were preferentially located in the bone marrow. Surprisingly, some animals developed arthritis in paws and spine after infection, but without obvious bacteria in these sites. The identification of Brucella in the bones of mice corroborates the findings in humans that these osteoarticular sites are important niches for the persistence of Brucella in the host, but the mechanisms that mediate pathological manifestations in these sites remain unclear. Future studies addressing the immune responses within osteoarticular tissue foci could elucidate important tissue injury mediators and Brucella survival strategies.

  8. Prevalence of brucellosis in the human, livestock and wildlife interface areas of Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirima, Gabriel M; Kunda, John S

    2016-05-24

    Between 2005 and 2006, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in domestic ruminants in agropastoral communities of Serengeti district, Tanzania to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in domestic-wildlife interface villages. Both the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Competitive Enzyme Linked-immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA) were used to analyse 82 human and 413 livestock sera from four randomly selected villages located along game reserve areas of Serengeti National Park. Although both cattle (288) and small ruminants (125) were screened, seropositivity was detected only in cattle. The overall seroprevalence based on c-ELISA as a confirmatory test was 5.6%. In cattle both age and sex were not statistically associated with brucellosis seropositivity (P = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.8 and 0.33; 95% CI = 0.6, 3.7, respectively). Overall herd level seropositivity was 46.7% (n = 7), ranging from 25% to 66.7% (n = 4-10). Each village had at least one brucellosis seropositive herd. None of the 82 humans tested with both RBPT and c-ELISA were seropositive. Detecting Brucella infection in cattle in such areas warrants further investigation to establish the circulating strains for eventual appropriate control interventions in domestic animals.

  9. The Rose Bengal Test in human brucellosis: a neglected test for the diagnosis of a neglected disease.

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    Ramón Díaz

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis affecting livestock and human beings. The human disease lacks pathognomonic symptoms and laboratory tests are essential for its diagnosis. However, most tests are difficult to implement in the areas and countries were brucellosis is endemic. Here, we compared the simple and cheap Rose Bengal Test (RBT with serum agglutination, Coombs, competitive ELISA, Brucellacapt, lateral flow immunochromatography for IgM and IgG detection and immunoprecipitation with Brucella proteins. We tested 208 sera from patients with brucellosis proved by bacteriological isolation, 20 contacts with no brucellosis, and 1559 sera of persons with no recent contact or brucellosis symptoms. RBT was highly sensitive in acute and long evolution brucellosis cases and this related to its ability to detect IgM, IgG and IgA, to the absence of prozones, and to the agglutinating activity of blocking IgA at the pH of the test. RBT was also highly specific in the sera of persons with no contact with Brucella. No test in this study outperformed RBT, and none was fully satisfactory in distinguishing contacts from infected patients. When modified to test serum dilutions, a diagnostic titer >4 in RBT resulted in 87.4% sensitivity (infected patients and 100% specificity (contacts. We discuss the limitations of serological tests in the diagnosis of human brucellosis, particularly in the more chronic forms, and conclude that simplicity and affordability of RBT make it close to the ideal test for small and understaffed hospitals and laboratories.

  10. Seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in abattoir workers at Debre Zeit and Modjo export abattoir, Central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsegay, Amanuel; Tuli, Getachew; Kassa, Tesfu; Kebede, Nigatu

    2017-01-26

    Brucellosis is one of the major zoonoses globally with great veterinary and public health importance, particularly in developing countries where people are having frequent contact with livestock and animal products. This cross sectional study was carried out from November 2013 to May 2014 to determine the seroprevalence and assess the potential risk factors of brucellosis in abattoir workers of five export abattoirs at Debre Ziet and Modjo, Central Ethiopia. Serology and structured questionnaire were the methods used. In this study, 156 abattoir workers participated in the questionnaire survey and among them, 149 agreed for blood sample collection. Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test were conducted using sera samples at serology laboratory of the National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center. Data collection sheets were used to gather information on possible risk factors believed to influence the spread of Brucella infection in abattoir workers such as sex, age, marital status, duration on job, types of work, educational level, etc. and further information obtained include knowledge of brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases infection, symptoms of the disease, milk and meat consumption habits and work related risk factors. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for data analysis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in abattoir workers was found to be 4.7 and 1.3% using Rose Bengal plate test and Compliment fixation test, respectively. Based on the questionnaire survey, 66 (44.2%) and 85 (53.21%) of abattoir workers were aware of brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases, and 29 (18.6%) and 21 (13.5%) were using gloves and cover their mouth while slaughtering, respectively. Brucellosis in abattoir workers could be prevented by using protective closing and measures. Concerned body should educate occupationally exposed groups and the general public regarding e prevention and control of brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases.

  11. Human Brucellosis Trends: Re-emergence and Prospects for Control Using a One Health Approach in Azerbaijan (1983-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracalik, I T; Abdullayev, R; Asadov, K; Ismayilova, R; Baghirova, M; Ustun, N; Shikhiyev, M; Talibzade, A; Blackburn, J K

    2016-06-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most common and widely spread zoonotic diseases in the world. Control of the disease in humans is dependent upon limiting the infection in animals through surveillance and vaccination. Given the dramatic economic and political changes that have taken place in the former Soviet Union, which have limited control, evaluating the status of human brucellosis in former Soviet states is crucial. We assessed annual spatial and temporal trends in the epidemiology of human brucellosis in Azerbaijan, 1983-2009, in conjunction with data from a livestock surveillance and control programme (2002-2009). To analyse trends, we used a combination of segmented regression and spatial analysis. From 1983 to 2009, a total of 11 233 cases of human brucellosis were reported. Up to the mid-1990s, the incidence of human brucellosis showed a pattern of re-emergence, increasing by 25% annually, on average. Following Soviet governance, the incidence rates peaked, increasing by 1.8% annually, on average, and subsequently decreasing by 5% annually, on average, during the period 2002-2009. Despite recent national declines in human incidence, we identified geographic changes in the case distribution characterized by a geographic expansion and an increasing incidence among districts clustered in the south-east, compared to a decrease of elsewhere in the country. Males were consistently, disproportionately afflicted (71%) and incidence was highest in the 15 to 19 age group (18.1 cases/100 000). During the period 2002-2009, >10 million small ruminants were vaccinated with Rev1. Our findings highlight the improving prospects for human brucellosis control following livestock vaccination; however, the disease appears to be re-emerging in south-eastern Azerbaijan. Sustained one health measures are needed to address changing patterns of brucellosis in Azerbaijan and elsewhere in the former Soviet Union. © 2015 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell

  12. [Analysis on the epidemiological features of human brucellosis in northern and southern areas of China, 2015-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y J; Lai, S J; Chen, Q L; Mu, D; Li, Y; Li, X X; Yin, W W; Yu, H J

    2017-04-10

    Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of human brucellosis in northern and southern areas of China, and to develop national strategies for brucellosis prevention and control. Methods: Individual data on human brucellosis was collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting Information System to describe the situation of brucellosis in China during 2015-2016. Epidemiological features of the disease in northern and southern areas of China were analyzed. Results: A total of 104 125 cases were reported in mainland China during 2015-2016, with an average incidence rate as 3.81/100 000. The overall incidence rate from the northern provinces was 7.77/100 000 in 2016, a 18.6 % decrease from 2015 (9.55/100 000), whereas the incidence rate in the southern provinces was 0.27/100 000 in 2016, with an increase of 28.6 % than 0.21/100 000 in 2015. 90.0 % of the newly infected counties mainly distributed in southern China. As for the locations of reporting cases, most of them were in the same counties in the northern areas (52.3 % ) while most cases in the southern areas (59.6 % ) were imported from other counties. The median age of the cases was 48 ( IQR: 38-58) years, with male-to-female ratios as 2.7∶1 in the north and 2.2∶1 in the south. Majority of the cases were occupation-related, from both the northern (86.8 % ) and southern (62.7 % ) areas. Human brucellosis occurred every month throughout the year but with an obvious seasonal increase between March and July. Conclusions: Different epidemiological features of human brucellosis appeared in both northern and southern areas of China. The disease was seen endemic in the northern and dispersal in the southern provinces. Appropriate strategies for brucellosis prevention and control should be developed, according to the different epidemiological characteristics in the northern or southern areas.

  13. Epidemiology of brucellosis and q Fever in linked human and animal populations in northern togo.

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    Anna S Dean

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although brucellosis (Brucella spp. and Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii are zoonoses of global importance, very little high quality data are available from West Africa. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A serosurvey was conducted in Togo's main livestock-raising zone in 2011 in 25 randomly selected villages, including 683 people, 596 cattle, 465 sheep and 221 goats. Additionally, 464 transhumant cattle from Burkina Faso were sampled in 2012. The serological analyses performed were the Rose Bengal Test and ELISA for brucellosis and ELISA and the immunofluorescence assay (IFA for Q Fever Brucellosis did not appear to pose a major human health problem in the study zone, with only 7 seropositive participants. B. abortus was isolated from 3 bovine hygroma samples, and is likely to be the predominant circulating strain. This may explain the observed seropositivity amongst village cattle (9.2%, 95%CI:4.3-18.6% and transhumant cattle (7.3%, 95%CI:3.5-14.7%, with an absence of seropositive small ruminants. Exposure of livestock and people to C. burnetii was common, potentially influenced by cultural factors. People of Fulani ethnicity had greater livestock contact and a significantly higher seroprevalence than other ethnic groups (Fulani: 45.5%, 95%CI:37.7-53.6%; non-Fulani: 27.1%, 95%CI:20.6-34.7%. Appropriate diagnostic test cut-off values in endemic settings requires further investigation. Both brucellosis and Q Fever appeared to impact on livestock production. Seropositive cows were more likely to have aborted a foetus during the previous year than seronegative cows, when adjusted for age. This odds was 3.8 times higher (95%CI: 1.2-12.1 for brucellosis and 6.7 times higher (95%CI: 1.3-34.8 for Q Fever. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first epidemiological study of zoonoses in Togo in linked human and animal populations, providing much needed data for West Africa. Exposure to Brucella and C. burnetii is common but further research is needed into the

  14. State-space modeling to support management of brucellosis in the Yellowstone bison population

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    Hobbs, N. Thompson; Geremia, Chris; Treanor, John; Wallen, Rick; White, P.J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Rhyan, Jack C.

    2015-01-01

    The bison (Bison bison) of the Yellowstone ecosystem, USA, exemplify the difficulty of conserving large mammals that migrate across the boundaries of conservation areas. Bison are infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and their seasonal movements can expose livestock to infection. Yellowstone National Park has embarked on a program of adaptive management of bison, which requires a model that assimilates data to support management decisions. We constructed a Bayesian state-space model to reveal the influence of brucellosis on the Yellowstone bison population. A frequency-dependent model of brucellosis transmission was superior to a density-dependent model in predicting out-of-sample observations of horizontal transmission probability. A mixture model including both transmission mechanisms converged on frequency dependence. Conditional on the frequency-dependent model, brucellosis median transmission rate was 1.87 yr−1. The median of the posterior distribution of the basic reproductive ratio (R0) was 1.75. Seroprevalence of adult females varied around 60% over two decades, but only 9.6 of 100 adult females were infectious. Brucellosis depressed recruitment; estimated population growth rate λ averaged 1.07 for an infected population and 1.11 for a healthy population. We used five-year forecasting to evaluate the ability of different actions to meet management goals relative to no action. Annually removing 200 seropositive female bison increased by 30-fold the probability of reducing seroprevalence below 40% and increased by a factor of 120 the probability of achieving a 50% reduction in transmission probability relative to no action. Annually vaccinating 200 seronegative animals increased the likelihood of a 50% reduction in transmission probability by fivefold over no action. However, including uncertainty in the ability to implement management by representing stochastic variation in the number of accessible bison dramatically reduced the probability of

  15. The Price of a Neglected Zoonosis: Case-Control Study to Estimate Healthcare Utilization Costs of Human Brucellosis.

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    Oded Vered

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis has reemerged as a serious public health threat to the Bedouin population of southern Israel in recent years. Little is known about its economic implications derived from elevated healthcare utilization (HCU. Our objective was to estimate the HCU costs associated with human brucellosis from the insurer perspective. A case-control retrospective study was conducted among Clalit Health Services (CHS enrollees. Brucellosis cases were defined as individuals that were diagnosed with brucellosis at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Soroka University Medical Center in the 2010-2012 period (n = 470. Control subjects were randomly selected and matched 1:3 by age, sex, clinic, and primary physician (n = 1,410. HCU data, demographic characteristics and comorbidities were obtained from CHS computerized database. Mean±SD age of the brucellosis cases was 26.6±17.6 years. 63% were male and 85% were Bedouins. No significant difference in Charlson comorbidity index was found between brucellosis cases and controls (0.41 vs. 0.45, respectively, P = 0.391. Before diagnosis (baseline, the average total annual HCU cost of brucellosis cases was slightly yet significantly higher than that of the control group ($439 vs. $382, P<0.05, however, no significant differences were found at baseline in the predominant components of HCU, i.e. hospitalizations, diagnostic procedures, and medications. At the year following diagnosis, the average total annual HCU costs of brucellosis cases was significantly higher than that of controls ($1,327 vs. $380, respectively, P<0.001. Most of the difference stems from 7.9 times higher hospitalization costs (p<0.001. Additional elevated costs were 3.6 times higher laboratory tests (P<0.001, 2.8 times higher emergency room visits (P<0.001, 1.8 times higher medication (P<0.001 and 1.3 times higher diagnostic procedures (P<0.001. We conclude that human brucellosis is associated with elevated HCU costs. Considering these

  16. Intestinal brucellosis associated with celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery stenosis and with ileum mucosa and submucosa thickening: A case report.

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    Wang, Miaoqian; Zhu, Qingli; Yang, Qian; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Xinning; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Baotong; Li, Zhenghong; Yang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is a multisystem infection found worldwide that has a broad range of characteristics, which range from acute fever and hepatomegaly to chronic infections that most commonly affect the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, or skeletal system. Gastrointestinal and splanchnic artery involvements in brucellosis are relatively uncommon. We report a case of brucellosis in an adolescent presenting as intermittent abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fever, with intestinal tract involvement. And stenosis of the celiac artery and the superior mesenteric artery was found after exposed to risk factors of Brucella infection. Splanchnic vessels stenosis and an endothelial lesion may exacerbate the prevalent symptom of abdominal pain, as a form of colic pain, occurring after eating. The patient was diagnosed as brucellosis. The narrowing of the SMA and CA was suspected to be vasculitis secondary to the brucellosis. The patient was treated with minocycline and rifampicin for 12 weeks totally. The gastrointestinal manifestations of brucellosis recovered rapidly under intensive treatment. However, follow-up imaging revealed that the superior mesenteric artery and celiac artery stenosis was unimproved. In brucellosis, gastrointestinal manifestations may be the only observable features of the disease. Splanchnic arterial stenosis is a rare complication of brucellosis. Sonography and computed tomography may be useful for both diagnosis and follow-up.

  17. DYNAMIC SPREAD OF BRUCELLOSIS IN HUMANS IN THE AREA OF KORCA FOR THE YEARS 1999-2009

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    Klementina Puto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis disease is progressing rapidly, marking not only the vast spread to cattle, but now seriously endangering human health. Brucellosis is an infectious disease dekurs chronic, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella.This bacterial zoo-noses is transmitted as an infectious disease even in people from infected animals, products and by-products produced from them. In the brucellar infection map in all world Albania is also included, among the endemic dissemination countries. In 1988 our country was declared healthy from brucellosis. But political and economical changes that occurred in our country after 1990, brought a significant increase of brucelar infection in animals, as a result people were infected too. Therefore, the object of our study is the dynamics of the spread of brucellosis in humans at Korca’s region for the years 1999-2009. For examining this disease two methods are used in our bacteriological laboratory: evidence of Rosa-Bengal (RB and Wright test (SAT. We have studied different cases in these years and from our analysis the result is positive for 1698 people.The increased number of people infected with brucellosis shows that this disease poses a serious problem with social risk to the health of population.These data will serve as a microbiological archive to prevent and reduce this disease, until it is eliminated by combining both veterinary services and hygienic sanitation.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) relating to brucellosis in smallholder dairy farmers in two provinces in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Shumaila; Thomson, Peter C.; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; McGill, David M.; Warriach, Hassan Mahmood; Heller, Jane

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the extent of knowledge and understanding of brucellosis in smallholder dairy farmers and identify practices at the farm and household level that might pose a risk for humans contracting brucellosis. Between February and June 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted among smallholder farms (n = 420) in five districts of Punjab and two districts of Sindh province. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain information on farmers’ knowledge about brucellosis and the potential risks for contracting the disease that are present for dairy farmers and their families. Logistic regression and ordinal logistic models were used to investigate potential predictors for risky behaviours. The results show almost all farmers (97%) were not aware of the modes of transmission of brucellosis. Relating to risk, the majority (66%) of the farmers’ families were reported to consume raw milk and its products, live in shared housing with animals (49%) and not cover hand cuts during contact with animals (74%). All farmers performed at least one risky practice on a regular basis for brucellosis transmission from animal to human. A multivariable analysis highlighted that the respondents with no formal education and those who had not heard of the disease displayed greater risky behaviour. Poor understanding of the disease, presence of multiple risky practices on farm and at the household, and incorrect perception supports the need for an educational awareness program in order to ensure uptake of improved practices. PMID:28301498

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) relating to brucellosis in smallholder dairy farmers in two provinces in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Shumaila; Thomson, Peter C; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; McGill, David M; Warriach, Hassan Mahmood; Heller, Jane

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the extent of knowledge and understanding of brucellosis in smallholder dairy farmers and identify practices at the farm and household level that might pose a risk for humans contracting brucellosis. Between February and June 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted among smallholder farms (n = 420) in five districts of Punjab and two districts of Sindh province. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain information on farmers' knowledge about brucellosis and the potential risks for contracting the disease that are present for dairy farmers and their families. Logistic regression and ordinal logistic models were used to investigate potential predictors for risky behaviours. The results show almost all farmers (97%) were not aware of the modes of transmission of brucellosis. Relating to risk, the majority (66%) of the farmers' families were reported to consume raw milk and its products, live in shared housing with animals (49%) and not cover hand cuts during contact with animals (74%). All farmers performed at least one risky practice on a regular basis for brucellosis transmission from animal to human. A multivariable analysis highlighted that the respondents with no formal education and those who had not heard of the disease displayed greater risky behaviour. Poor understanding of the disease, presence of multiple risky practices on farm and at the household, and incorrect perception supports the need for an educational awareness program in order to ensure uptake of improved practices.

  20. Brucella melitensis VirB12 recombinant protein is a potential marker for serodiagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkalantari, Shiva; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Nazari, Mahboobeh; Irajian, Gholam Reza; Amirmozafari, Nour

    2017-03-03

    The numerous drawbacks of current serological tests for diagnosis of brucellosis which mainly results from cross reactivity with LPS from other gram-negative bacteria have generated an increasing interest to find more specific non-LPS antigens. Previous studies had indicated that Brucella VirB12 protein, a cell surface protein and component of type IV secretion system, induces antibody response during animal infection. However, this protein has not yet been tested as a serological diagnostic marker in human brucellosis. Recombinant VirB12 protein was prepared and evaluated the efficacy of it in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for brucellosis with sera collected from different region of Iran and the results were compared with a commercial ELISA kit. Sera from human brucellosis patients strongly reacted to the purified recombinant VirB12. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of recombinant VirB12-based ELISA related to the commercial-ELISA method were 87.8, 94, 90, 80 and 96.6% respectively. We concluded that antigenic VirB12 have a property value that can be considered as a candidate for using in serodiagnostic tests for human brucellosis.

  1. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, and Q Fever among Butchers and Slaughterhouse Workers in South-Eastern Iran.

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    Saber Esmaeili

    Full Text Available Zoonotic diseases can be occupational hazards to people who work in close contact with animals or their carcasses. In this cross-sectional study, 190 sera were collected from butchers and slaughterhouse workers in different regions of the Sistan va Baluchestan province, in Iran in 2011. A questionnaire was filled for each participant to document personal and behavioural information. The sera were tested for detection of specific IgG antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever (phase I and II using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. The seroprevalence of brucellosis was 7.9%, leptospirosis 23.4%, and phase I and II of Q fever were 18.1% and 14.4%, respectively. The seroprevalence of Q fever and leptospirosis, but not brucellosis, varied among regions within the province (p = 0.01. Additionally, a significant relationship was found between seropositivity of Q fever and camel slaughtering (p = 0.04. Reduced seropositivity rate of brucellosis was associated with use of personal protective equipment (PPE (p = 0.004. This study shows that brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever occur among butchers and slaughterhouse workers in this area.

  2. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, and Q Fever among Butchers and Slaughterhouse Workers in South-Eastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Saber; Naddaf, Saied Reza; Pourhossein, Behzad; Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Bagheri Amiri, Fahimeh; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases can be occupational hazards to people who work in close contact with animals or their carcasses. In this cross-sectional study, 190 sera were collected from butchers and slaughterhouse workers in different regions of the Sistan va Baluchestan province, in Iran in 2011. A questionnaire was filled for each participant to document personal and behavioural information. The sera were tested for detection of specific IgG antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever (phase I and II) using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The seroprevalence of brucellosis was 7.9%, leptospirosis 23.4%, and phase I and II of Q fever were 18.1% and 14.4%, respectively. The seroprevalence of Q fever and leptospirosis, but not brucellosis, varied among regions within the province (p = 0.01). Additionally, a significant relationship was found between seropositivity of Q fever and camel slaughtering (p = 0.04). Reduced seropositivity rate of brucellosis was associated with use of personal protective equipment (PPE) (p = 0.004). This study shows that brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever occur among butchers and slaughterhouse workers in this area.

  3. Brucellosis as a neglected disease in a neglected population: a seroepidemiological study of migratory nomads in the Fars province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, B; Moghadami, M; Lankarani, K B; Davarpanah, M A; Ataolahi, M; Farbod, A; Eskandari, E; Panahi, M; Ghorbani, A; Zahiri, Z; Tabrizi, R; Pourjafar, M; Heidari, S M M

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the seroprevalence of brucellosis and its risk factors in migratory nomads in the Fars province of Iran. Active brucellosis was defined as the combination of clinical symptoms, including fever, chills, night sweats, headache, low back pain, arthralgia, or myalgia, and positive laboratory testing, including either a serum agglutination test (SAT) ⩾1:80 with a 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) test ⩾1:40, or a SAT brucellosis was detected in 54 cases, indicating a prevalence of 10% (95% confidence interval 8-12). In conclusion, we determined that brucellosis is a prevalent yet neglected disease in this nomadic population. Brucellosis control is not possible as long as these high-risk populations remain neglected.

  4. Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone Cholestasis and Pericardial Effusion Due to Brucellosis Infection: A Case Report

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    Ahmet Cumhur Dülger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH is an extremely rare complication of infectious diseases. A rare case of brucellosis complicated by syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH cholestasis and pericardial involvement is reported. A 27-year-old woman was admitted for fever, abdominal pain, and scleral icterus. Her medical history revealed no recent use of diuretic agents. In addition to cholestasis and elevated liver enzymes, euvolemic hyponatremia, hypouricemia, low plasma osmolality, and high urinary osmolality were also detected. Surrenal and thyroid tests were also within normal range. Echocardiography revealed minimal pericardial effusion with normal cardiac functions. The final diagnosis was SIADH due to Brucellosis. Hyponatremia, cholestasis, and pericardial disease were resolved with effective antibrucellar treatment with streptomycine and doxycycline. After completing treatment of brucellosis, there was not any more evidence of cholestasis and pericardial fluid.

  5. Prevalence of mastitis and brucellosis in cattle in Awassa and the peri-urban areas of two smaller towns.

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    Abebe, G; Ike, A C; Siegmund-Schultze, M; Mané-Bielfeldt, A; Valle Zárate, A

    2010-08-01

    The prevalence of mastitis and brucellosis in urban and peri-urban settings was studied in Awassa and two smaller nearby towns in southern Ethiopia, because milk-born diseases are causing a risk for human health, besides direct impacts on animal production. Mastitis was investigated by examining 80 cows (320 udder quarters) using California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC). The prevalence of brucellosis was assessed by sampling 177 cattle in Awassa and its peri-urban areas using serological methods. Logistic regression was used to analyse risk factors associated with mastitis. Prevalence of clinical mastitis on quarter level was 0.9%, and 1.9% of quarters were non-functional or blocked. Prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis at quarter level in urban and peri-urban areas was significantly different (P milk and milk products is indicated in some parts of the area because of the danger of brucellosis.

  6. Quantitative analysis of risk factors associated with brucellosis in livestock in the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem, Tanzania.

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    Assenga, Justine A; Matemba, Lucas E; Malakalinga, Joseph J; Muller, Shabani K; Kazwala, Rudovick R

    2016-02-01

    Brucellosis is a neglected contagious bacterial disease of public health and economic importance. Nevertheless, its spread is not well known to many livestock farmers. Unmatched case control study was carried out to identify risk factors associated with brucellosis in cattle and goats at the herd level in Mpanda, Mlele and Nsimbo districts of Katavi region, in Tanzania between September 2012 and July 2013. A total of 138 adult respondents were selected randomly for the interview using a structured questionnaire. The criterion for inclusion was to have at least one Brucella-positive animal in the herd while the control was chosen from among the herds which these animals tested negative. The presence of seropositive herds were statistically linked (P brucellosis between animals and humans and the implementation of disease prevention and control programmes.

  7. CO-EXISTENCE AND SEROPREVALENCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN A MALARIA-ENDEMIC METROPOLIS OF SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA

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    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and typhoid are known major causes of febrile conditions in the South-Eastern Nigeria, hence healthcare providers usually co-administer antibiotics and anti-malaria on febrile patients without or before proper laboratory diagnosis. Despite this, fever and other symptoms of malaria sometimes persist after repeated treatment regimens. We investigated possible co-existence and prevalence of another fever-causing condition and ndash; brucellosis, with malaria and typhoid. The systematic study done between January 2015 and June 2016 involved 682 febrile patients referred to a private medical laboratory in Enugu metropolis in South-Eastern Nigeria for investigation for malaria and typhoid only. The number was made up of 295(43.3% males and 387(56.7% females, aged between 10 and 50 years. Identification of malaria parasites was done using thick films stained with Giemsa stain while typhoid and brucellosis were investigated serologically using Chromatest and reg; febrile antigen kits. Our results showed prevalence of 39.1%, 66.0% and 28.6% for malaria, typhoid and brucellosis respectively in the studied population. Prevalence among male and female patients was 46.1% and 33.9% for malaria, 80.3% and 55.0% for typhoid, and 34.2% and 24.3% for brucellosis respectively. The results also showed that prevalence of malaria decreased with age while typhoid and brucellosis increased with age. We opine that 28.6% prevalence of brucellosis in a city with rare pastoral activities is high, and may be the cause of persistent fever after repeated combined treatment for malaria and typhoid. We advocate that these disease conditions should be simultaneously investigated for in all cases of febrile conditions to ensure wider investigation and treatment options, improvement on patients\\' recovery time and reduction in man-hour loss.

  8. Risk factors for human brucellosis in agro-pastoralist communities of south western Uganda: a case-control study.

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    Asiimwe, Benon B; Kansiime, Catherine; Rwego, Innocent B

    2015-09-04

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequelae and considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A case-control study was conducted in Nyabushozi, Kiruhura district, Uganda, so as to determine the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis to humans in these communities. We conducted a matched case-control study among participants in a previous study who were positive by the standard Serum Agglutination Test with titres ≥1:160. Controls were two neighbors for each case, matched by sex and age. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on potential risk factors for brucellosis. Categorical variables were presented as proportions and their associations determined by Chi-square test. Bivariate analysis was performed to explore associations between the disease and the risk factors of brucellosis. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to estimate independent associations between the disease and the risk factors using Odds Ratios and 95% confidence intervals. A total of 45 cases and 90 controls were interviewed. Of the 45 cases, 21 (46.7%) were male while 44/90 (48.9%) of the controls were female. The most significant risk factors for infection being an agro-pastoralist (P = 0.05), consumption of raw cow ghee (P = 0.03) and consumption of unpasteurized milk (P = 0.02). The greatest risk factors for acquiring brucellosis in the study area were being an agro-pastoralist, consumption of raw cow ghee and consumption of unboiled milk. We recommend dissemination of health education packages regarding risks and prevention measures for brucellosis in these communities.

  9. Evaluation of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells during treatment of patients with brucellosis.

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    Hasanjani Roushan, M R; Bayani, M; Soleimani Amiri, S; Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, M; Nouri, H R; Ebrahimpour, S

    2016-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) plays a critical role in the control of brucellosis. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have a functional character in modulating the balance between host immune response and tolerance, which can eventually lead to chronic infection or relapse. The aim of this study was to assess the alteration of Tregs in cases of brucellosis before and after treatment. Thirty cases of acute brucellosis with the mean age of 41.03±15.15 years (case group) and 30 healthy persons with the mean age of 40.63±13.95 years (control group) were selected and assessed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from peripheral blood of all individuals. We analyzed the alteration of Treg cell count using flow cytometry for CD4, CD25, and FoxP3 markers. The level of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg cells was increased in active patients compared with controls (2.5±0.99% vs 1.6±0.84%, p= 0.0004), but it had declined in the treated cases (1.83±0.73%, p=0.02). The level of Tregs was elevated in three relapsed cases. The frequency of Tregs and Treg/Teff (effector T cell) ratio was correlated with inverse serum agglutination test (SAT) and, 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) titers as markers of treatment in brucellosis. Based on our findings, we suggest that regulatory cells, such as CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg cells, may contribute to the development of infection processes involving immune responses in brucellosis, and evaluation of regulatory T-cell levels may be a potential diagnostic strategy for the treatment outcome in chronic and relapsed cases of brucellosis.

  10. Survey of Serum Zinc and Copper Levels in the Patients with Brucellosis and Comparing with Healthy Persons

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    P Eini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection. Metabolism of trace elements such as zinc and copper can influence the response of immunity system and can activate host 's immunochemical mechanisms against the organism. Therefore, this study aimed to determine changes in serum levels of Zn and Cu in patients with brucellosis in pre and post treatment compared with healthy persons. Methods: In this individual matched case-control study, 26 patients participated who were admitted to infectious unit of Farshchian Hospital with brucellosis. Moreover, 26 healthy individuals were included in the control group. 5mL of venous blood was taken from all cases in pre-treatment as well post-treatment. Then, the serum samples were diluted with deionized water, and Cu and Zn levels were measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: In this study, 26 patients with brucellosis were enrolled, who were 13 men (50% and 13 women (50%. No significant difference was observed between the patients and the control group in regard with their age and sex. Serum level of Cu in patients with brucellosis was found to be 100.31µg/dl and 92.81µg/dl, respectively before and after the treatment (P=0.495. Serum level of Cu in healthy individuals was reported to be 97.96µg/dl. In addition, serum level of Zn in the patients and controls was 93 µg/dl and 96.38 µg/dl, respectively (P= 0.625. Patients' Zn Serum level was found to be 90.27µg/dl after the treatment. Conclusion: In this study, no significant changes were observed in serum levels of copper and zinc in the patients with brucellosis in comparison with the control group. Besides, no significant changes were reported in serum levels of these elements in the patients in the end of treatment.

  11. Ruminant brucellosis in the Kafr El Sheikh Governorate of the Nile Delta, Egypt: prevalence of a neglected zoonosis.

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    Yamen M Hegazy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a neglected tropical zoonosis allegedly reemerging in Middle Eastern countries. Infected ruminants are the primary source of human infection; consequently, estimates of the frequency of ruminant brucellosis are useful elements for building effective control strategies. Unfortunately, these estimates are lacking in most Middle East countries including Egypt. Our objectives are to estimate the frequency of ruminant brucellosis and to describe its spatial distribution in Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, Nile Delta, Egypt. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in which 791 sheep, 383 goats, 188 cattle milk tanks and 173 buffalo milk tanks were randomly selected in 40 villages and tested for the presence of antibodies against Brucella spp. The seroprevalence among different species was estimated and visualized using choropleth maps. A spatial scanning method was used to identify areas with significantly higher proportions of seropositive flocks and milk tanks. We estimated that 12.2% of sheep and 11.3% of goats in the study area were seropositive against Brucella spp. and that 12.2% and 12% of cattle and buffalo milk tanks had antibodies against Brucella spp. The southern part of the governorate had the highest seroprevalence with significant spatial clustering of seropositive flocks in the proximity of its capital and around the main animal markets. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Our study revealed that brucellosis is endemic at high levels in all ruminant species in the study area and questions the efficacy of the control measures in place. The high intensity of infection transmission among ruminants combined with high livestock and human density and widespread marketing of unpasteurized milk and dairy products may explain why Egypt has one of the highest rates of human brucellosis worldwide. An effective integrated human-animal brucellosis control strategy is urgently needed. If resources are not

  12. Bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis prevalence in cattle from selected milk cooperatives in Arsi zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia.

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    Tschopp, Rea; Abera, Birhanu; Sourou, Sabi Yao; Guerne-Bleich, Emmanuelle; Aseffa, Abraham; Wubete, Alehegne; Zinsstag, Jakob; Young, Douglas

    2013-08-13

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis are two important milk-borne zoonoses that have been shown to be prevalent to various degrees in Ethiopian cattle. The study was carried out in four Woredas (districts) around Asella town, Arsi Zone between October 2011 and March 2012 and included 318 small-holders in 13 dairy cooperatives that marketed the delivered milk. The aims of the study were i) to assess the prevalence of the two diseases in cattle in a cross-sectional study, ii) to assess potential risk factors of BTB and brucellosis to humans as well as the knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) among these farmers towards these diseases. BTB testing using the comparative intradermal skin test (CIDT) was done on 584 milking cows, out of which 417 were serologically tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test and reactors confirmed with an indirect ELISA test (PrioCHECK®). The individual animal prevalence was 0.3% (95% CI 0.1% to 1.3%) for BTB, 1.7% (95% CI 0.8% to 3.5%) for brucellosis and 8.9% (95% CI 6.8% to 11.5%) for MAC (Mycobacterium avium complex). Of the 13 milk cooperatives, two had at least one positive BTB reactor and five had animals positive for brucellosis. Cross-breeds accounted for 100% and 71.4% of the BTB and brucellosis reactors respectively. For both diseases, there were prevalence variations depending on Woreda. No animal was concomitant reactor for BTB and brucellosis. Raw milk was consumed by 55.4% of the respondents. 79.2% of the respondents reported touching the afterbirth with bare hands. The latter was fed to dogs in 83% of the households. One cow among the herds of the 130 interviewees had aborted in the last 12 months. Among the interviewees, 77% stated knowing tuberculosis in general but 42 out of the 130 respondents (32.3%) did not know that BTB was transmitted by livestock. Less than half (47.7%) of the respondents knew about brucellosis. Low prevalence of both diseases reflected the potential for the area to compete

  13. Evaluation of recombinant porin (rOmp2a) protein as a potential antigen candidate for serodiagnosis of Human Brucellosis.

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    Pathak, Prachi; Kumar, Ashu; Thavaselvam, Duraipandian

    2017-07-11

    Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by different Brucella species and human brucellosis is commonly prevalent in different states of India. Among various Brucella species, B. melitensis is most pathogenic to human and included as category B biothreat which can cause infection through aerosol, cut, wounds in skin and contact with infected animals. The diagnosis of human brucellosis is very important for proper treatment and management of disease as there is no vaccine available for human use. The present study was designed to clone, express and purify immunodominant recombinant omp2a (rOmp2a) porin protein of B. melitensis and to evaluate this new antigen candidate for specific serodiagnosis of human brucellosis by highly sensitive iELISA (indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay). Omp2a gene of B. melitensis 16 M strain was cloned and expressed in pET-SUMO expression system. The recombinant protein was purified under denaturing conditions using 8 M urea. The purified recombinant protein was confirmed by western blotting by reacting with anti-HIS antibody. The sero-reactivity of the recombinant protein was also checked by reacting with antisera of experimentally infected mice with B. melitensis 16 M at different time points. Serodiagnostic potential of recombinant porin antigen was tested against 185 clinical serum samples collected from regions endemic to brucellosis in southern part of India by iELISA. The samples were grouped into five groups. Group 1 contained cultured confirmed positive serum samples of brucellosis (n = 15), group 2 contained sera samples from positive cases of brucellosis previously tested by conventional methods of RBPT (n = 28) and STAT (n = 26), group 3 contained sera samples negative by RBPT(n = 36) and STAT (n = 32), group 4 contained sera samples of other febrile illness and PUO case (n = 35) and group 5 contained confirmed negative sera samples from healthy donors (n = 23). The rOmp2a was found to be

  14. Immunoproteomics of Brucella abortus RB51 as candidate antigens in serological diagnosis of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Yeon; Sung, So-Ra; Lee, Kichan; Lee, Hyang-Keun; Kang, Sung-Il; Lee, Jin Ju; Jung, Suk Chan; Park, Yong Ho; Her, Moon

    2014-08-15

    The current brucellosis serodiagnostic assays are chiefly based on detecting anti-LPS (lipopolysaccharide) antibodies. However, cross-reaction with some gram-negative bacteria can occasionally induce due to similar O-polysaccharide (OPS) structure. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify new candidate antigens from Brucella abortus RB51, a mutant strain lacking the LPS portion, which might be valuable in brucellosis diagnosis. To detect potential antigens, immobilized pH gradients (IPG) strips with three ranges (pH 3-5.6, 4-7 and 6-11) were applied. After separating the insoluble proteins of B. abortus RB51 using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), their immunogenicity was evaluated by western blotting using four types of antisera - B. abortus, Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 and Escherichia coli O157:H7-positive, and B. abortus-negative bovine sera. Among the several immunogenic spots, the spots showing specific reactivity with only the B. abortus-positive antisera, were considered as candidate antigens. Overall, eleven immuno-reactive proteins were identified, as follows: Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, histidinol dehydrogenase, chaperonin DnaK, chaperonin GroES, beta-ketoadipyl CoA thiolase, two-component response regulator, the cell-division protein FtsZ, aldehyde dehydrogenase, 50s ribosomal protein L10 and invasion protein B. These selected highly immunogenic protein spots might be useful as alternative antigens for brucellosis and helpful in reducing the cross-reactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Serological Follow up in 50 Brucellosis Cases in a Rural Area

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    Semra Özgümüş

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Brucellosis is an endemic and zoonotic disease in livestock farming areas. Patients may exhibit relapses, reinfections and multi-system complications. Therefore, early diagnosis, appropriate treatment as well as serological follow-up are extremely important in the management of this disease. Methods: We aimed to investigate the demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings and risk factors in 50 brucellosis cases (14 males, 36 females who were treated in Hakkari State Hospital. All patients were evaluated for post-treatment serological results. Results: The mean age of the patients was 35 years. The main clinical symptoms were arthralgia, fatigue, sweating, back pain, and headache. Fever, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and arthritis were the most common signs. Anemia, high level of AST and ALT, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, high sedimentation rate, and leukocytosis were found in laboratory tests. The Wright agglutination test was positive at titers of 1/160 in 18 cases, 1/320 in 22 cases, 1/640 in 3 cases, and 1/1280 in 7 cases. Twelve patients had relapse. One patient, who was a veterinarian, was infected via splashing live brucella vaccine into the eyes. Two women transmitted the disease to their babies through breast milk. At the end of the treatment, Wright agglutination test results were negative in all patients. Conclusion: The average duration of symptoms before the diagnosis was 4 months in our study. Therefore, brucellosis should be considered in all individuals who present with fever and arthralgia in endemic areas (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:139-42

  16. A serological survey of brucellosis in wild ungulate species from five game parks in Zimbabwe

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    Tatenda R. Motsi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective serosurvey was carried out between 2009 and 2012 to detect antibodies to Brucella spp. in free-ranging African wildlife ungulates from five selected game parks in Zimbabwe. Samples were drawn from wildlife-livestock interface and non-interface areas in Zimbabwe. A total of 270 serum samples from four different species, namely African buffalo (Syncerus caffer (n=106, impala (Aepyceros melampus (n = 72, black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis (n= 45 and white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum (n = 47, were tested. The percentage of positive samples was 17.0% in buffalo (18/106; 95% CI: 9.72% – 24.1% and 1.4% in impala (1/72; 95% CI: 0% – 4.2%. No antibodies to Brucella spp. were detected in the two rhinoceros species. The difference in the percentage of seropositive cases between buffalo and impala was significant (p< 0.05. Seropositivity to Brucella spp. was higher (19.1% in adult buffalo compared with juveniles and sub-adults younger than six years (5.9%. Further, seropositivity was marginally higher (20.4% in animals from wildlife-livestock interface areas than in those from non-interface areas (13.45%; OR = 1.45 although the difference was not statistically significant. The study showed that brucellosis could be more widespread in buffalo and may circulate in this species independently in the absence of contact with cattle, whilst rhinoceros may be considered less susceptible to brucellosis. The role of the wildlife-livestock interface in the epidemiology of brucellosis in wildlife and livestock is probably overstated but needs to be explored further.

  17. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchia, Massimo; Di Provvido, Andrea; Ippoliti, Carla; Kefle, Uqbazghi; Sebhatu, Tesfaalem T; D'Angelo, Annarita; De Massis, Fabrizio

    2013-04-23

    In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% - 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% - 5.80%), followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% - 2.50%) and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% - 2.20%) regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

  18. Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine brucellosis in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Erivânia Camelo de Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to characterize the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The state was divided into three regions, and in each region, approximately 300 properties were randomly sampled. From these selected properties, a pre-established number of animals were randomly selected and blood serum samples were obtained. A total of 3,901 animals were selected from 900 properties. For each selected property, an epidemiological questionnaire was administered to assess the type of farming, the animal husbandry practices and the sanitary practices that could be associated with the presence of brucellosis infection. The testing protocol consisted of screening the samples with a buffered acidified plate antigen test and retesting the positive samples with a complement fixation test (CF. One positive animal was enough to define an infected herd. The prevalence rates of infected herds and animals in the state were 4.5% [3.2; 6.4%] and 1.4% [0.7; 2.7%], respectively. By region, the prevalence rates of infected herds and animals, respectively, were as follows: Zona da Mata, 3.3% [1.8; 6.1%] and 1.7% [0.5; 3.0%]; Agreste, 7.4% [4.9; 10.9%] and 1.9% [0.8; 3.0%]; and Sertão, 1.3% [0.5; 3.5%] and 0.7% [0.0; 1.6%]. Flooded pastures (OR = 2.86 [1.37; 6.42] and the presence of 13 or more females in the herd (3rd quartile (OR = 2.65 [1.19; 5.89] were identified as risk factors. The existence of veterinary care emerged as a protective factor against bovine brucellosis in the state of Pernambuco (OR = 0.24 [0.10; 0.58].

  19. Caprine brucellosis: A historically neglected disease with significant impact on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Carlos A; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M; Maurizio, Estefanía

    2017-08-01

    Caprine brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by the gram-negative cocci-bacillus Brucella melitensis. Middle- to late-term abortion, stillbirths, and the delivery of weak offspring are the characteristic clinical signs of the disease that is associated with an extensive negative impact in a flock's productivity. B. melitensis is also the most virulent Brucella species for humans, responsible for a severely debilitating and disabling illness that results in high morbidity with intermittent fever, chills, sweats, weakness, myalgia, abortion, osteoarticular complications, endocarditis, depression, anorexia, and low mortality. Historical observations indicate that goats have been the hosts of B. melitensis for centuries; but around 1905, the Greek physician Themistokles Zammit was able to build the epidemiological link between "Malta fever" and the consumption of goat milk. While the disease has been successfully managed in most industrialized countries, it remains a significant burden on goat and human health in the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, Central and Southeast Asia (including India and China), sub-Saharan Africa, and certain areas in Latin America, where approximately 3.5 billion people live at risk. In this review, we describe a historical evolution of the disease, highlight the current worldwide distribution, and estimate (by simple formula) the approximate costs of brucellosis outbreaks to meat- and milk-producing farms and the economic losses associated with the disease in humans. Successful control leading to eradication of caprine brucellosis in the developing world will require a coordinated Global One Health approach involving active involvement of human and animal health efforts to enhance public health and improve livestock productivity.

  20. Caprine brucellosis: A historically neglected disease with significant impact on public health.

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    Carlos A Rossetti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Caprine brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by the gram-negative cocci-bacillus Brucella melitensis. Middle- to late-term abortion, stillbirths, and the delivery of weak offspring are the characteristic clinical signs of the disease that is associated with an extensive negative impact in a flock's productivity. B. melitensis is also the most virulent Brucella species for humans, responsible for a severely debilitating and disabling illness that results in high morbidity with intermittent fever, chills, sweats, weakness, myalgia, abortion, osteoarticular complications, endocarditis, depression, anorexia, and low mortality. Historical observations indicate that goats have been the hosts of B. melitensis for centuries; but around 1905, the Greek physician Themistokles Zammit was able to build the epidemiological link between "Malta fever" and the consumption of goat milk. While the disease has been successfully managed in most industrialized countries, it remains a significant burden on goat and human health in the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, Central and Southeast Asia (including India and China, sub-Saharan Africa, and certain areas in Latin America, where approximately 3.5 billion people live at risk. In this review, we describe a historical evolution of the disease, highlight the current worldwide distribution, and estimate (by simple formula the approximate costs of brucellosis outbreaks to meat- and milk-producing farms and the economic losses associated with the disease in humans. Successful control leading to eradication of caprine brucellosis in the developing world will require a coordinated Global One Health approach involving active involvement of human and animal health efforts to enhance public health and improve livestock productivity.

  1. Buffalo, bush meat, and the zoonotic threat of brucellosis in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kathleen Anne; Blackburn, Jason Kenna; Vandewalle, Mark Eric; Pesapane, Risa; Baipoledi, Eddie Kekgonne; Elzer, Phil H

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana. Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995-2000) were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and included the African buffalo (247), bushbuck (1), eland (5), elephant (25), gemsbok (1), giraffe (9), hartebeest (12), impala (171), kudu (27), red lechwe (10), reedbuck (1), rhino (2), springbok (5), steenbok (2), warthog (24), waterbuck (1), wildebeest (33), honey badger (1), lion (43), and zebra (21). Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974-2006). Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%-8.96%) and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0-38.43%) were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46%) occurring in children (bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife sources of infection in determining public health risks from zoonotic disease invasions.

  2. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea

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    Massimo Scacchia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT. A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05% of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% – 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% – 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% – 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

  3. Caprine brucellosis: A historically neglected disease with significant impact on public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M.; Maurizio, Estefanía

    2017-01-01

    Caprine brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by the gram-negative cocci-bacillus Brucella melitensis. Middle- to late-term abortion, stillbirths, and the delivery of weak offspring are the characteristic clinical signs of the disease that is associated with an extensive negative impact in a flock’s productivity. B. melitensis is also the most virulent Brucella species for humans, responsible for a severely debilitating and disabling illness that results in high morbidity with intermittent fever, chills, sweats, weakness, myalgia, abortion, osteoarticular complications, endocarditis, depression, anorexia, and low mortality. Historical observations indicate that goats have been the hosts of B. melitensis for centuries; but around 1905, the Greek physician Themistokles Zammit was able to build the epidemiological link between “Malta fever” and the consumption of goat milk. While the disease has been successfully managed in most industrialized countries, it remains a significant burden on goat and human health in the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, Central and Southeast Asia (including India and China), sub-Saharan Africa, and certain areas in Latin America, where approximately 3.5 billion people live at risk. In this review, we describe a historical evolution of the disease, highlight the current worldwide distribution, and estimate (by simple formula) the approximate costs of brucellosis outbreaks to meat- and milk-producing farms and the economic losses associated with the disease in humans. Successful control leading to eradication of caprine brucellosis in the developing world will require a coordinated Global One Health approach involving active involvement of human and animal health efforts to enhance public health and improve livestock productivity. PMID:28817647

  4. New developments in the immunodiagnosis of brucellosis in livestock and wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGiven, J A

    2013-04-01

    Although relatively effective diagnostic tests for brucellosis have been in existence for more than 100 years, it remains a serious, embedded and also a re-emerging disease in many parts of the globe. There are many factors besides suboptimal diagnosis that impede the complete and sustained eradication of animal brucellosis. In this review a case for the continued improvement of diagnostic methods is made through identifying existing shortcomings and considering what impact these have upon control and eradication. The focus is on developments in immunodiagnostics as these seem more likely to yield the pragmatic solutions needed. Moreover, developments in DNA detection methods have been neatly and recently reviewed elsewhere. This article reviews issues such as test cost, mobility, sensitivity and specificity. Advances in low-cost materials, high-throughput testing, assay multiplexing and the quantification of pen-side tests are described and their relevance to disease control considered. Poor test specificity when resolving positive serology, due to infection with cross-reactive bacteria and vaccination with smooth Brucella strains, is also an impediment to efficient disease eradication. A case for the development of novel discrete epitope antigens to address this is presented alongside in silico methods of selection and tools that enable increased analytical sensitivity that may be required to detect relatively low, but potentially significant, analytes. References have been drawn from the study of brucellosis wherever possible. However, in some cases new technological developments worthy of discussion have been included via the use of pertinent alternative examples. In conclusion, despite developments and innovations the classical serological tests seem under no imminent danger of mass extinction but there is potential for significant improvement and supplementation.

  5. Seroprevalence and risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Luciana Faria de Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was conducted in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil in 2011 to estimate the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus in properties and cattle, and to identify potential infection risk factors for herds with cows of reproductive age. The state was divided into seven regions: 1. Noroeste, Norte and Nordeste; 2. Leste; 3. Central; 4. Zona da Mata; 5. Sul and Sudoeste; 6. Alto Paranaíba; and 7. Triângulo Mineiro. Random, two-stage sampling was performed of both properties and cattle from each property. Blood samples were collected from 18,990 cows of reproductive age from 2,185 properties. The serologic tests used for the detection of anti-B. abortus antibodies included the buffered, acidified plate antigen test, as a screening test, with the 2-mercaptoethanol reduction, test as a confirmatory test, as recommended by the Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose e Tuberculose Animal - PNCEBT (National Program for the Control and Eradication of Animal Brucellosis and Tuberculosis. The seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis on the surveyed properties and in cattle were 3.59% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.76 4.42% and 0.81% (95% CI: 0.05-1.10%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified the total number of cows in the property as a risk factor for the presence of anti-B. abortus antibodies, with an odds ratio (OR of 1.93 (95% CI: 1.12 - 3.34 for herds with 30 to 210 cows and 7.81 (95% CI: 3.72-16.38 for those with more than 210 cows, relative to the risk in herds with less than 30 cows, the base category. While these results demonstrate a significant reduction in the prevalence of properties with bovine brucellosis, the disease is still present in Minas Gerais, with properties with higher numbers of cows at higher risk for infection.

  6. Detection of brucellosis in water buffaloes for exportation in northern and northeastern of Brazil

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    José Diomedes Barbosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Barbosa J.D., Bomjardim H.dosA., Lima D.H.daS., Reis A.dosS.B., Barboza F.B., Albernaz T.T., Oliveira C.M.C., Fonseca A.H., Nicolino R.R. & da Silva J.B. Detection of brucellosis in water buffaloes for exportation in northern and northeastern of Brazil. [Detecção de brucelose em búfalos d’agua para exportação no norte e nordeste do Brasil}. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3: 129-135, 2016. Laboratório de Doenças Parasitárias, Departamento de Epidemiologia e Saúde Pública, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7 Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: adivaldofonseca@yahoo.com The prevalence of brucellosis in buffaloes was evaluated by the Buffered Acidified Plate Antigen (BAPA in 5.163 water buffaloes from Maranhão state, Pará state and Marajó Island, Brazil. The detection of buffaloes positive for brucellosis by BAPA was 7.37% in Marajó Island, 8.45% in Pará state and 29.86% in Maranhão state. The locations with the highest prevalences were Santa Cruz do Arari, in Marajó Island (12.50%; Ipixuna, in Pará state (30.25%; and Santa Inês, in Maranhão state (34.76%. After the confirmatory test (Complement Fixation Test, only 7 animals remained positive in Marajó Island, and 22 remained positive in the state of Pará. None of the 66 animals that reacted positively in the BAPA test in Maranhão reacted positively in the CF. The high prevalence of B. abortus that was observed in animals, especially in the state of Maranhão, is worrisome for the health system for the control and eradication of bovine brucellosis.

  7. Probable causes of increasing brucellosis in free-ranging elk of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

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    Cross, P.C.; Cole, E.K.; Dobson, A.P.; Edwards, W.H.; Hamlin, K.L.; Luikart, G.; Middleton, A.D.; Scurlock, B.M.; White, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    While many wildlife species are threatened, some populations have recovered from previous overexploitation, and data linking these population increases with disease dynamics are limited. We present data suggesting that free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) are a maintenance host for Brucella abortus in new areas of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Brucellosis seroprevalence in free-ranging elk increased from 0-7% in 1991-1992 to 8-20% in 2006-2007 in four of six herd units around the GYE. These levels of brucellosis are comparable to some herd units where elk are artificially aggregated on supplemental feeding grounds. There are several possible mechanisms for this increase that we evaluated using statistical and population modeling approaches. Simulations of an age-structured population model suggest that the observed levels of seroprevalence are unlikely to be sustained by dispersal from supplemental feeding areas with relatively high seroprevalence or an older age structure. Increases in brucellosis seroprevalence and the total elk population size in areas with feeding grounds have not been statistically detectable. Meanwhile, the rate of seroprevalence increase outside the feeding grounds was related to the population size and density of each herd unit. Therefore, the data suggest that enhanced elk-to-elk transmission in free-ranging populations may be occurring due to larger winter elk aggregations. Elk populations inside and outside of the GYE that traditionally did not maintain brucellosis may now be at risk due to recent population increases. In particular, some neighboring populations of Montana elk were 5-9 times larger in 2007 than in the 1970s, with some aggregations comparable to the Wyoming feeding-ground populations. Addressing the unintended consequences of these increasing populations is complicated by limited hunter access to private lands, which places many ungulate populations out of administrative control. Agency-landowner hunting access

  8. Brucellosis outbreak in a Swedish kennel in 2013: determination of genetic markers for source tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaden, Rene; Ågren, Joakim; Båverud, Viveca; Hallgren, Gunilla; Ferrari, Sevinc; Börjesson, Joann; Lindberg, Martina; Bäckman, Stina; Wahab, Tara

    2014-12-05

    Brucellosis is a highly infectious zoonotic disease but rare in Sweden. Nonetheless, an outbreak of canine brucellosis caused by an infected dog imported to Sweden was verified in 2013. In total 25 dogs were tested at least duplicated by the following approaches: real-time PCR for the detection of Brucella canis, a Brucella genus-specific real-time PCR, selective cultivation, and microscopic examination. The whole genome of B. canis strain SVA13 was analysed regarding genetic markers for epidemiological examination. The genome of an intact prophage of Roseobacter was detected in B. canis strain SVA13 with whole genome sequence prophage analysis (WGS-PA). It was shown that the prophage gene content in the American, African and European isolates differs remarkably from the Asian strains. The prophage sequences in Brucella may therefore serve of use as genetic markers in epidemiological investigations. Phage DNA fragments were also detected in clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in the genome of strain SVA13. In addition to the recommendations for genetic markers in Brucella outbreak tracing, our paper reports a validated two-step stand-alone real-time PCR for the detection of B. canis and its first successful use in an outbreak investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of a New and Rapid Serologic Test for Detecting Brucellosis: Brucella Coombs Gel Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanci, Hayrunisa; Igan, Hakan; Uyanik, Muhammet Hamidullah

    2017-01-01

    Many serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. A new serological method is identified as Brucella Coombs gel test based on the principle of centrifugation gel system similar to the gel system used in blood group determination. In this system, if Brucella antibodies were present in the serum, antigen and antibody would remain as a pink complex on the gel. Otherwise, the pink Brucella antigens would precipitate at the bottom of the gel card system. In this study, we aimed to compare the Brucella Coombs gel test, a new, rapid screen and titration method for detection of non-agglutinating IgG with the Brucella Coombs test. For this study, a total of 88 serum samples were obtained from 45 healthy persons and 43 individuals who had clinical signs and symptoms of brucellosis. For each specimen, Rose Bengal test, standard agglutination test, Coombs test and Brucella Coombs gel test were carried out. Sensitivity and specificity of Brucella Coombs gel test were found as 100.0 and 82.2%, respectively. Brucella Coombs gel test can be used as a screening test with high sensitivity. By the help of pink Brucella antigen precipitation, the tests' evaluation is simple and objective. In addition, determination of Brucella antibody by rapid titration offers another important advantage.

  10. Brucellosis caused by the wood rat pathogen Brucella neotomae: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Vindas, Juan M; Amuy, Ernesto; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Rojas, Norman; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzman-Verri, Caterina; Moreno, Edgardo

    2017-12-19

    Brucellosis is a chronic bacterial disease caused by members of the genus Brucella. Among the classical species stands Brucella neotomae, until now, a pathogen limited to wood rats. However, we have identified two brucellosis human cases caused by B. neotomae, demonstrating that this species has zoonotic potential. Within almost 4 years of each other, a 64-year-old Costa Rican white Hispanic man and a 51-year-old Costa Rican white Hispanic man required medical care at public hospitals of Costa Rica. Their hematological and biochemical parameters were within normal limits. No adenopathies or visceral abnormalities were found. Both patients showed intermittent fever, disorientation, and general malaise and a positive Rose Bengal test compatible with Brucella infection. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures rendered Gram-negative coccobacilli identified by genomic analysis as B. neotomae. After antibiotic treatment, the patients recovered with normal mental activities. This is the first report describing in detail the clinical disease caused by B. neotomae in two unrelated patients. In spite of previous claims, this bacterium keeps zoonotic potential. Proposals to generate vaccines by using B. neotomae as an immunogen must be reexamined and countries housing the natural reservoir must consider the zoonotic risk.

  11. [A cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of Brucellosis among workers in Jiangsu province, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liang-liang; Tan, Wen-wen; Hang, Ji-hong; Zhou, Wei-zhong; Tan, Zhong-ming; Zhou, Jian-gang; Xu, Jian-fang; Shen, Tao; Bao, Chang-jun

    2013-07-01

    To study the status of infection and risk factors on Brucellosis among workers in Jiangsu province so as to provide related preventive and control measures. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 238 workers at three butcheries, one trading market and one stockyard. Related risk factors on the different exposures to the disease were also analyzed. 50 workers were identified to have had the infection, with a infection rate as 21% (50/238). No significant differences in gender, age, working length and occupations were found. Jobs as slaughtering (RR = 1.80, 95%CI:1.1-3.1), particular on bleeding (RR = 1.90, 95%CI:1.1-3.3) were risk factors. Habit as hand-washing before eating was a protective factor (RR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.14-0.44). Workers from butcheries, trading markets and stockyards were seriously infected with Brucellosis in Jiangsu province and related. Control measures and education should be implemented to the workers in that trade.

  12. [Assessment of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to diagnose brucellosis in a Brucella infected herd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, O; Aguirre, N; Vanzini, V; Lugaresi, C; Torioni de Echaide, S

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of bovine brucellosis using PCR in blood and milk samples from two dairy herds were compared to in vitro isolation, complement fixation test (CF), competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) in serum, and indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) in milk. Samples were obtained from 99 cows vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19, from a naturally infected herd (A), whose cows were also vaccinated with B. abortus strain RB51 as adults, and 100 from brucellosis free herd (B). In herd A, PCR identified 14 B. abortus infected cows: nine infected with wild type, and five with wild type and RB51, B. abortus S 19 was not identified. B. abortus biotype 1 was isolated from one cow. All cows infected with a wild strain of B. abortus were positive in serologic tests. Brucella was not found in herd B using PCR. Serological test showed 100% sensitivity related to PCR. The specificity for CF, C-ELISA and I-ELISA was 100%, 99% and 95% respectively. PCR could be useful to identify Brucella biotypes and to complement serologic tests.

  13. Epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic survey in 505 cases with Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haj Abdolbaghi M

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in Iran with variety of clinical manifestation. Special characteristics of clinical diagnosis and treatment issues may cause some problems in manegement of patients. In this descriptive study 505 patients with Brucellosis retrospectively were evaluated from clinical point of view, Lab exams and therapeutic issues for 10 years (1990 to 1999. From 505 patients, 321 cases were male and 184 were female. 42.7 percent of cases were in age group of 10 to 30 years. Ingestion of un-pasteurized dairy products was detected in (66.7 percent and 31.86 percent of cases were sheep herders. The most common symptoms and signs were fever (65 percent, sweating (61 percent, arthritis (30.09 percent, sacroilitis (21.5 percent, orchitis (8.2 percent, spondylitis (2-3 percent and endocarditis (1.18. In this survery blood culture for Brucella melitensis became positive in 48.5 percent and bone marrow in 61 percent. Standard tube agglutination was positive in 96 percent (?1.80. Doxycyclin plus Rifampin was the most common regimen we used (37.8 percent. 4 patients died, but just one of those was directly because of Brucella Endocarditis. In this article we have discussed about some interesting cases as well.

  14. Risk factors associated with the presentation of brucellosis in the spine

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    Alberto Aceves Pérez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the risk factors associated with the presentation of brucellosis on the spine, and determine the strength of association between these factors. METHODS: The medical records of patients with brucellosis on the spine were analyzed and a spreadsheet was created to compile the following data: age, sex, place of origin and residence, risk factors (exposure at work, consumption of unpasteurized products and comorbidities, clinical presentation (lumbar pain, anorexia, headache, myalgia, fatigue, paresthesia, dysesthesia, muscle weakness, weight loss, fever, affected spine level, presence of abscesses, disease duration (acute, subacute, chronic, laboratory studies (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, serology, blood culture, Rose Bengal test, histopathological reports, imaging studies (x-rays, MRI, bone gammagraphy, established treatment (medical and/or surgical, therapeutic failure and sequelae. RESULTS: A total of 17 patients, 10 women (58.8% and seven men (41.2%, were reviewed from January 2007 to January 2011. The group had a mean age of 57.8 years with a standard deviation of +13.91 and age range between 16-74 years. CONCLUSIONS: There is no significant difference between the groups compared with respect to age and sex, however, improvement of the neurological deficit was observed in eight patients who underwent surgical procedure.

  15. Yersinia enterocolitica: an unlikely cause of positive brucellosis tests in greater yellowstone ecosystem bison (Bison bison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Wade; Edwards, William H; Dauwalter, Stacey; Almendra, Claudia; Kardos, Martin D; Lowell, Jennifer L; Wallen, Rick; Cain, Steven L; Holben, William E; Luikart, Gordon

    2012-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 has identical O-antigens to those of Brucella abortus and has apparently caused false-positive reactions in numerous brucellosis serologic tests in elk (Cervus canadensis) from southwest Montana. We investigated whether a similar phenomenon was occurring in brucellosis antibody-positive bison (Bison bison) using Y. enterocolitica culturing techniques and multiplex PCR of four diagnostic loci. Feces from 53 Yellowstone bison culled from the population and 113 free-roaming bison from throughout the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) were tested. Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 was not detected in any of 53 the bison samples collected at slaughter facilities or in any of the 113 fecal samples from free-ranging bison. One other Y. enterocolitica serotype was isolated; however, it is not known to cause cross-reaction on B. abortus serologic assays because it lacks the perosamine synthetase gene and thus the O-antigens. These findings suggest that Y. enterocolitica O:9 cross-reactivity with B. abortus antigens is unlikely to have been a cause of false-positive serology tests in GYE bison and that Y. enterocolitica prevalence was low in bison in the GYE during this study.

  16. Brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Danilo Guedes; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Gonçalves, Vitor Salvador Picão; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Almeida, Valéria Maria de Andrade; Nicolino, Rafael Romero; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mota, Ana Lourdes Arrais de Alencar; Veloso, Flávio Pereira; Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-10-01

    The present survey aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and investigating risk factors associated with the infection. Serum samples from 6439 animals, including 5292 horses, 1037 mules and 110 donkeys, were collected from 1936 herds, between September 2003 and March 2004, in 848 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella spp. found in equines from Minas Gerais State was 1.37% (95% CI: 0.97-1.78), resulting in a prevalence of herds with infected animals of 4.28% (95% CI: 4.21-4.36). There were differences between regions but these were not of major epidemiological relevance nor were most of them statistically significant, given the considerable overlap of confidence intervals. Nevertheless, the point estimates suggest that the three northeastern regions have slightly higher prevalence than the rest of the state, both at the herd and animal levels. No association of Brucella spp. seropositivity with sex, age or host was observed. In conclusion, the present study showed a low but widespread prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella in equines kept in cattle farms in Minas Gerais, a state where bovine brucellosis is also widespread albeit with low prevalence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment and test-based culling strategies for eradicating brucellosis in commercial swine herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieste-Pérez, L.; Frankena, K.; Blasco, J.M.; Muñoz, P.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Swine brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease in continental Europe. Without effective vaccines being available, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommends the full depopulation of infected herds as the only strategy to eradicate B. suis outbreaks. Using data

  18. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment and test-based culling strategies for eradicating brucellosis in commercial swine herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieste-Pérez, L.; Frankena, K.; Blasco, J. M.; Muñoz, P. M.; De Jong, M. C M

    2016-01-01

    Swine brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease in continental Europe. Without effective vaccines being available, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommends the full depopulation of infected herds as the only strategy to eradicate B. suis outbreaks. Using data

  19. A Live Vaccine from Brucella abortus Strain 82 for Control of Cattle Brucellosis in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the first half of the 20th century, widespread regulatory efforts to control cattle brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics were essentially nonexistent, and control was limited to selective test and slaughter of serologic agglutination reactors. By the 1950...

  20. Brucellosis in Terekeka counTy, cenTral equaToria sTaTe, souThern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East Africa Medical Journal Vol. 89 No. 1 January 2012. BRUCELLOSIS IN TEREKEKA COUNTY, CENTRAL EQUATORIA STATE, SOUTHERN SUDAN. D. Lado, Ministry of Animal Resources and Fisheries Government of Southern Sudan, Kenya, Field Epidemiology and. Laboratory Training Programme, N. Maina, Jomo ...

  1. Immunochromatographic Brucella-specific immunoglobulin M and G lateral flow assays for rapid serodiagnosis of human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Henk L.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Solera, Javier; Clavijo, Encarnacion; Diaz, Ramon

    2003-01-01

    To fulfill the need for a simple and rapid diagnostic test for human brucellosis, we used the immunochromatographic lateral flow assay format to develop two assays, one for the detection of Brucella-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and one for the detection of Brucella-specific IgG

  2. The evaluation of a user-friendly lateral flow assay for the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis in Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mizanbayeva, Sulushash; Smits, Henk L.; Zhalilova, Katya; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Kozakov, Stanislaw; Ospanov, Kenes S.; Elzer, Philip H.; Douglas, James T.

    2009-01-01

    Serum samples from all patients with culture-confirmed brucellosis including those with chronic disease from Kazakhstan tested positive in the serum agglutination test for titers > or = 1:25 and reacted in the Brucella immunoglobulin M/immunoglobulin G lateral flow assay (LFA) confirming the high

  3. A Retrospective Evaluation of Epidemiological, Clinical and Laboratory Features of Brucellosis in 230 Patients in Hamadan, Iran: A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Mobaien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is one of the most common infectious diseases in Iran with very different clinical manifestations. Methods: In this retrospective descriptive study, all patients with brucellosis, who were admitted in Farshchian Hospital in Hamadan, Iran in 2005 to 2010, were enrolled in the study. The data were collected from the patients' medical records and were entered in forms for analysis. Results: A total of 230 patients with brucellosis, including 130 (56.5% male and 100 (43.5% female patients with a mean age of 40.84±20.29 years, who mostly (72.2% lived in rural areas were enrolled in the study. Outbreaks were most common in spring and summer and the main route of transmission was consumption of contaminated dairy products (60.3%. The most common symptoms were fever (77.4%, arthralgia (70%, sweating (47%, malaise and fatigue (46.5%. Arthritis and epididymo- orchitis were seen in 121 (52.9% and 48 (8.20% patients, respectively. CBC analysis showed leukocytosis in 20.8% of the participants. ESR rise was noted in 59.5% of the patients and 52.9% had positive CRP. Conclusion: Given to various clinical presentations, brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of individuals with chronic fever with or without other organ abnormalities.

  4. Transmission of brucellosis from elk to cattle and bison, Greater Yellowstone area, U.S.A., 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyan, Jack C; Nol, Pauline; Quance, Christine; Gertonson, Arnold; Belfrage, John; Harris, Lauren; Straka, Kelly; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee

    2013-12-01

    Bovine brucellosis has been nearly eliminated from livestock in the United States. Bison and elk in the Greater Yellowstone Area remain reservoirs for the disease. During 1990-2002, no known cases occurred in Greater Yellowstone Area livestock. Since then, 17 transmission events from wildlife to livestock have been investigated.

  5. A Familial Cluster of Human Brucellosis Attributable to Contact with Imported Infected Goats in Shuyang, Jiangsu Province, China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhongming; Huang, Yong; Liu, Genyan; Zhou, Weizhong; Xu, Xilou; Zhang, Zibing; Shen, Qing; Tang, Fenyang; Zhu, Yefei

    2015-10-01

    Brucellosis remains a serious public health issue in developing countries, including China. On August 8, 2013, four cases of brucellosis from one extended family were reported at Shuyang County, Jiangsu Province, China. Active case finding was performed to identify the source and the risk factors of the infection and to prevent additional cases. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used for molecular subtyping analysis. Six people from two extended families met the case definition for brucellosis infection; four were blood culture positive for Brucella melitensis biotype 3. Four additional family members were found seropositive by using a serological test. Isolates from the four patients were indistinguishable by MLVA profiling, displaying a unique type for Jiangsu Province. Field epidemiological data combined with MLVA genotyping supported a common source of the isolates from the different patients. We recommend stronger reinforcement measures for animal quarantine practices, enhanced cooperation with veterinary service organizations, and implementation of measures that strengthen public education on brucellosis to prevent further human outbreaks in Jiangsu Province. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. 'La Fiebre de Malta': An interface of Farmers and Caprine Brucellosis Control Policies in the Bajio Region, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Udo, H.M.J.; Frankena, K.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2017-01-01

    This article shows that socio-economic factors, defined here as practices, knowledge, interests, beliefs and experiences have a role in the adoption of brucellosis control strategies in the Bajío region, Mexico. We combined qualitative and quantitative methods to show that socio-economic factors

  7. The economic efficiency and equity of government policies on brucellosis: comparative insights from Albania and the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, D; Bruce, M

    2017-04-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease that causes recurring febrile illness in humans, as well as reproductive failure and reduced milk production in livestock. The cost of brucellosis is equal to the sum of lost productivity of humans and animals, as well as private and public expenditures on brucellosis surveillance, prevention, control and treatment. In Albania, Brucella abortus and B. melitensis affect humans, cattle and small ruminants. In the United States, B. abortus affects cattle and wild ungulates in the Greater Yellowstone Area. These two case studies illustrate the importance of place-specific context in developing sustainable and effective brucellosis mitigation policies. Government regulations and mitigation strategies should be designed with consideration of all costs and benefits, both to public agencies and private stakeholders. Policy-makers should, for example, weigh the benefits of a regulation that increases epidemiological certainty against the costs of compliance for producers and households. The distribution of costs and benefits amongst public agencies and private individuals can have important implications for a policy's economic efficiency and equity quite apart from their total magnitude.

  8. Risk, knowledge and preventive measures of smallholder dairy farmers in northern Malawi with regard to zoonotic brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanly Fon Tebug

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk production using local cattle breed-types is an age-old practice in Malawi. Although dairy farming is becoming more common as a result of the increasing population and demand for milk and milk products, there is limited knowledge of the farmers’ awareness of zoonotic disease risks, their preventative practices and the disease burden in animals. This study determined dairy farmers’ general knowledge of zoonoses, assessed their risks for infection with zoonotic bovine tuberculosis (bTB and brucellosis, and evaluated farm practices to prevent disease transmission. A questionnaire was drawn up and administered by the authors. It was used to collect information about the knowledge and preventive practices of 140 out of 684 registered dairy farmers at Mzuzu Agricultural Development Division, northern Malawi. During a second visit to 60 out of the 140 farms, a total of 156 and 95 cattle were tested for brucellosis and tuberculosis, respectively. Most farmers (77.1% knew or had heard of zoonotic diseases, whilst 75.0% correctly named at least one zoonotic disease. More survey participants named tuberculosis as a zoonotic disease compared to brucellosis (74.3% versus 2.9%. The most commonly named means of transmission were milk (67.0% and meat (56.0%. Almost all survey participants (96.4% practised at least one farm activity that could lead to potential transmission of brucellosis or bTB, including sale (67.0% and consumption (34.0% of unpasteurised milk. Antibodies against brucellosis were found in 12 cattle (7.7%, whilst one animal (1.1% reacted to the tuberculin skin test. General knowledge about possible transmission of diseases between humans and animals was high, although most farmers practised risk behaviours that could potentially expose the public to milk-borne zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis and bTB. Furthermore, some animals had positive results for brucellosis and tuberculosis tests. Therefore, improvement of zoonotic disease

  9. Financial analysis of brucellosis control for small-scale goat farming in the Bajío region, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseguera Montiel, David; Bruce, Mieghan; Frankena, Klaas; Udo, Henk; van der Zijpp, Akke; Rushton, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in small-scale goat husbandry systems in Mexico. It is a zoonosis and the economic consequences can be large, although estimates are not available for the Mexican goat sector. Our objective was to conduct a financial analysis of brucellosis control in a prominent dairy goat production area of the Bajío region, Mexico. We used three models: (1) a brucellosis transmission model at village flock level (n=1000 head), (2) a flock growth model at smallholder flock level (n=23 head) using output of model 1 and (3) cost-benefit analysis of several brucellosis control scenarios based on output of model 2. Scenarios consisted of test-and-slaughter or vaccination or a combination of both compared to the base situation (no control). The average net present values (NPV) of using vaccination over a 5-year period was 3.8 US$ (90% CI: 1.3-6.6) and 20 US$ (90% CI: 11.3-28.6) over a 10-year period per goat. The average benefit-cost ratios over a 5-year period and 10-year period were 4.3 US$ (90% CI: 2.2-6.9) and 12.3 US$ (90% CI: 7.5-17.3) per goat, respectively. For the total dairy goat population (38,462 head) of the study area (the Bajío of Jalisco and Michoacán) the NPV's over a 5-year and 10-year period were 0.15 million US$ and 0.8 million US$. However, brucellosis prevalence was predicted to remain relatively high at about 12%. Control scenarios with test-and-slaughter predicted to reduce brucellosis prevalence to less than 3%, but this produced a negative NPV over a 5-year period ranging from -31.6 to -11.1 US$ and from -31.1 to 7.5 US$ over a 10-year period. A brucellosis control campaign based on vaccination with full coverage is economically profitable for the goat dairy sector of the region although smallholders would need financial support in case test-and-slaughter is applied to reduce the prevalence more quickly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. ELISA Cut-off Point for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis; a Comparison with Serum Agglutination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a world-wide disease, which has a diverse clinical manifestation, and its diagnosis has to be proven by laboratory data. Serum agglutination test (SAT is the most-widely used test for diagnosing brucellosis. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA can also determine specific antibody classes against brucella. It is a sensitive, simple and rapid test, which could be an acceptable alternative to SAT with fewer limitations, however, like any other new test it should be further evaluated and standardized for various populations. This study was planned to determine an optimal cut-off point, for ELISA which would offer maximum sensitivity and specificity for the test when compared to SAT.Methods: Four hundred and seven patients with fever and other compatible symptoms of brucellosis were enrolled in the study. Serum agglutination test, 2-Mercaptoethanol test, and ELISA were performed on their sera. Results: The cut-off point of 53 IU/ml of ELISA-IgG yielded the maximal sensitivity and specificity comparing to the other levels of ELISA-IgG, and was considered the best cut off-point of ELISA-IgG to diagnose acute brucellosis. At this cut-off, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 84.09%, 85.38%, 62.20, 94.90, 5.75, 0.18, respectively.Conclusion: The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG is 53 IU/ml, which yields the maximal sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute brucellosis.

  11. Development of improved enzyme-based and lateral flow immunoassays for rapid and accurate serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, María E; Novak, Analía; Melli, Luciano J; Elena, Sebastián; Corbera, Natalia; Romero, Juan E; Nicola, Ana M; Ugalde, Juan E; Comerci, Diego J; Ciocchini, Andrés E

    2017-09-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Brucella canis is the etiological agent of canine brucellosis, a disease that can lead to sterility in bitches and dogs causing important economic losses in breeding kennels. Early and accurate diagnosis of canine brucellosis is central to control the disease and lower the risk of transmission to humans. Here, we develop and validate enzyme and lateral flow immunoassays for improved serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis using as antigen the B. canis rough lipopolysaccharide (rLPS). The method used to obtain the rLPS allowed us to produce more homogeneous batches of the antigen that facilitated the standardization of the assays. To validate the assays, 284 serum samples obtained from naturally infected dogs and healthy animals were analyzed. For the B. canis-iELISA and B. canis-LFIA the diagnostic sensitivity was of 98.6%, and the specificity 99.5% and 100%, respectively. We propose the implementation of the B. canis-LFIA as a screening test in combination with the highly accurate laboratory g-iELISA. The B. canis-LFIA is a rapid, accurate and easy to use test, characteristics that make it ideal for the serological surveillance of canine brucellosis in the field or veterinary laboratories. Finally, a blind study including 1040 serum samples obtained from urban dogs showed a prevalence higher than 5% highlighting the need of new diagnostic tools for a more effective control of the disease in dogs and therefore to reduce the risk of transmission of this zoonotic pathogen to humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a forecasting model for brucellosis spreading in the Italian cattle trade network aimed to prioritise the field interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, L; Candeloro, L; Conte, A; De Massis, F; Giovannini, A

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus is an important zoonosis that constitutes a serious hazard to public health. Prevention of human brucellosis depends on the control of the disease in animals. Livestock movement data represent a valuable source of information to understand the pattern of contacts between holdings, which may determine the inter-herds and intra-herd spread of the disease. The manuscript addresses the use of computational epidemic models rooted in the knowledge of cattle trade network to assess the probabilities of brucellosis spread and to design control strategies. Three different spread network-based models were proposed: the DFC (Disease Flow Centrality) model based only on temporal cattle network structure and unrelated to the epidemiological disease parameters; a deterministic SIR (Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered) model; a stochastic SEIR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered) model in which epidemiological and demographic within-farm aspects were also modelled. Containment strategies based on farms centrality in the cattle network were tested and discussed. All three models started from the identification of the entire sub-network originated from an infected farm, up to the fifth order of contacts. Their performances were based on data collected in Sicily in the framework of the national eradication plan of brucellosis in 2009. Results show that the proposed methods improves the efficacy and efficiency of the tracing activities in comparison to the procedure currently adopted by the veterinary services in the brucellosis control, in Italy. An overall assessment shows that the SIR model is the most suitable for the practical needs of the veterinary services, being the one with the highest sensitivity and the shortest computation time.

  13. Human brucellosis: seroprevalence and associated exposure factors among abattoir workers in Abuja, Nigeria - 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aworh, Mabel Kamweli; Okolocha, Emmanuel; Kwaga, Jacob; Fasina, Folorunso; Lazarus, David; Suleman, Idris; Poggensee, Gabrielle; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Brucellosis, a neglected debilitating zoonosis, is a recognized occupational hazard with a high prevalence in developing countries. Transmission to humans can occur through contact with infected animals or animal products. Brucellosis presents with fever. In Nigeria, there is a possibility of missed diagnoses by physicians leading to a long debilitating illness. We conducted a study to determine the seroprevalence and factors associated with Human Brucellosis (HB) among abattoir-workers in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study and selected abattoir-workers using stratified random sampling. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data on demographics and exposure-factors. We tested the workers’ serum-samples using Rose-Bengal (RBPT) and ELISA tests. A worker with HB was one whose serum tested positive to RBPT or ELISA. We tested differences in proportions between workers with HB and those without HB using odds-ratio and X2 tests. Results Of 224 workers, 172 (76.8%) were male and mean age was 30 + 9.0 years. Of 224 sera collected, 54 were positive giving a seroprevalence of 24.1%. Of these, 32 (59.3%) were butchers, and 11 (20.4%) were meat-sellers. Slaughtering animals while having open-wounds (Odds-ratio (OR) = 2.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.15-4.04); occupational-exposure of >5years (OR = 2.30, CI = 1.11-4.78) and eating raw meat (OR = 2.75, CI = 1.21-6.26) were significantly associated with HB. Multivariate analyses showed that occupational-exposure of >5years (Adjusted OR (AOR) =2.45, CI = 1.15 – 5.30) and eating raw-meat (AOR = 2.64, CI = 1.14 - 6.14) remained significantly associated with HB. Conclusion Seroprevalence of HB among abattoir-workers in Abuja was high. Factors associated with HB were occupational-exposure of >5years and eating raw-meat. Abattoir-workers should be discouraged from eating raw-meat and educated on adherence to safe animal-product handling practices. PMID:24876892

  14. Possible cases of tuberculosis and brucellosis in Argaric villages in Galera (Granada

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    Ángel Rubio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of Bronze Age Argaric populations of Granada is an agricultural and livestock economy in which animals were present within the settlements. Such presence is a factor in the increase of the risk of contagious diseases. In this study we present some cases that could be linked to animal-transmitted infectious diseases due that have been documented at the sites of Castellón Alto and Fuente Amarga, both located in Galera (province of Granada. At these sites four individuals have been identified with new bone formations in the thorax (scapulae and ribs that can indicate the presence of tuberculosis. At Fuente Amarga another individual presents a characteristic lesion in the vertebral column linked to brucellosis (vertebral epiphysitis. These features are not uncommon in populations that have close contact with animals.

  15. Determination of the optimal cut-off point for ELISA test for diagnosis of brucellosis in Iran

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    Soudbakhsh A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Finding a reliable diagnostic method for brucellosis is the most challengeable problem. In this study we determined the optimal diagnostic cut-off point for ELISA test."n"nMethods: We gathered 56 confirmed cases of brucellosis. Furthermore blood samples from 126 controls including 73 healthy controls and 53 without brucellosis febrile patients were collected. In all of the cases and controls ELISA Ig G and ELISA Ig M levels were measured and compared with each other by Box plot graph and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA Ig G and Ig M were fixed in different cut-off values and Ig G and Ig M levels yielding maximal sensitivity plus specificity were selected for determination of optimal cut-off point."n"nResults: The nineteen patients had positive blood cultures for Brucella melitensis. The standard agglutination test results were 1/160 or more in 54 patients. The Box plot graph indicated a high degree of dispersion for Ig G and Ig M data in patients with brucellosis compared with febrile patients without brucellosis and healthy controls. We observed partial overlap for Ig M data (not for Ig G between cases and controls. The area under ROC curve for

  16. [Analysis on epidemiology and spatial-temporal clustering of human brucellosis in Fujian province, 2011-2016].

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    Zhu, H S; Wang, L L; Lin, D H; Hong, R T; Ou, J M; Chen, W; Wu, B P; Huang, W L; Xie, Z H; Chen, G M; Wu, S G; Xu, Z B; Deng, Y Q

    2017-09-10

    Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and spatial distribution of human brucellosis in Fujian province during 2011-2016, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of the disease. Methods: The surveillance data of human brucellosis in Fujian during 2011-2016 was analyzed with software R 3.3.1, ArcGIS 10.3.1, GeoDa 1.8.8 and SaTScan 9.4.3. Results: During 2011-2016, a total of 319 human brucellosis cases were reported, the incidence increased year by year (F=11.838, P=0.026) with the annual incidence of 0.14/100 000. The male to female rate ratio of the incidence was 2.50 ∶ 1. Farmers and herdsmen accounted for 57.37%. The incidence was 0.40/100 000 in Zhangzhou and 0.32/100 000 in Nanping, which were higher than other areas. The number of affected counties (district) increased from 12 in 2011 to 28 in 2016, showing a significant increase (F=13.447, P=0.021). The Moran's I of brucellosis in Fujian between January 2011 and December 2016 was 0.045, indicating the presence of a high value or low value clustering areas. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that, high-high clustering area (hot spots) were distributed in Zhangpu, Longhai, Longwen, etc, while high-low clustering areas were distributed in Nan'an and Jiaocheng, etc. Temporal scanning showed that there were three clustering areas in areas with high incidence, the most possible clustering, occurring during January 1, 2013- December 31,2015, covered 6 counties, including Yunxiao, Pinghe, Longhai, etc, and Zhangpu was the center, (RR=7.96, LLR=92.62, P<0.001). Conclusions: The epidemic of human brucellosis in Fujian is becoming serious, and has spread to general population and non-epidemic areas. It is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of human brucellosis in areas at high risk.

  17. Epidemiological study of Brucellosis in cattle, immunized with Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine in endemic zones.

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    Herrera-López, Enrique; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco; Hernández-Andrade, Laura; Córdova-López, Dionicio; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén

    2010-10-01

    In this study the behavior of the Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine was evaluated in bovine herds, with different prevalence of Brucellosis. A prospective longitudinal study was made, in two dairies, one of low prevalence (9%) with 538 cows, and the other of high prevalence (15%) with 612 cows. The cattle were vaccinated twice 90 days apart with RB51 at a dose of 1×10(9)cfu/ml. The monthly incidence was determined during 660 days of observation. In the low prevalence dairy, all positive animals were eliminated as soon as they were diagnosed as positive and in this herd the number of new cases decreased to less than 1% between days 120, and day 660. In the dairy with high prevalence, positive cows were not eliminate resulting in the herd increasing its incidence by the end of the first year. Once positive animals were eliminated the incidence diminishes by day 660 to less of 1%. The odds ratio (OR) in the group of cows with abortion history, in the low prevalence dairy, was of 4.5 (1.2; 16.6), in the dairy ranch with high prevalence it presented an OR of 3.6 (1.5; 8.5). The conclusion from this study was that in brucellosis endemic zones, vaccination with RB51 by itself is not enough to control disease. It is mandatory that the initial elimination of all positive cows at the time of vaccination, the continued elimination of all new positive animals be adhered to for long periods of time. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective Live Oral Brucellosis Vaccines Stimulate Th1 and Th17 Cell Responses ▿

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    Clapp, Beata; Skyberg, Jerod A.; Yang, Xinghong; Thornburg, Theresa; Walters, Nancy; Pascual, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of brucellosis often results from exposure to Brucella-infected livestock, feral animals, or wildlife or frequently via consumption of unpasteurized milk products or raw meat. Since natural infection of humans often occurs by the oral route, mucosal vaccination may offer a means to confer protection for both mucosal and systemic tissues. Significant efforts have focused on developing a live brucellosis vaccine, and deletion of the znuA gene involved in zinc transport has been found to attenuate Brucella abortus. A similar mutation has been adapted for Brucella melitensis and tested to determine whether oral administration of ΔznuA B. melitensis can confer protection against nasal B. melitensis challenge. A single oral vaccination with ΔznuA B. melitensis rapidly cleared from mice within 2 weeks and effectively protected mice upon nasal challenge with wild-type B. melitensis 16M. In 83% of the vaccinated mice, no detectable brucellae were found in their spleens, unlike with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-dosed mice, and vaccination also enhanced the clearance of brucellae from the lungs. Moreover, vaccinated gamma interferon-deficient (IFN-γ−/−) mice also showed protection in both spleens and lungs, albeit protection that was not as effective as in immunocompetent mice. Although IFN-γ, interleukin 17 (IL-17), and IL-22 were stimulated by these live vaccines, only RB51-mediated protection was codependent upon IL-17 in BALB/c mice. These data suggest that oral immunization with the live, attenuated ΔznuA B. melitensis vaccine provides an attractive strategy to protect against inhalational infection with virulent B. melitensis. PMID:21768283

  19. Simulating sterilization, vaccination, and test-and-remove as brucellosis control measures in bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, M.; Cross, P.; Wallen, Rick; White, P.J.; Treanor, John

    2011-01-01

    Brucella abortus, the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, infects wildlife, cattle, and humans worldwide, but management of the disease is often hindered by the logistics of controlling its prevalence in wildlife reservoirs. We used an individually based epidemiological model to assess the relative efficacies of three management interventions (sterilization, vaccination, and test-and-remove). The model was parameterized with demographic and epidemiological data from bison in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Sterilization and test-and-remove were most successful at reducing seroprevalence when they were targeted at young seropositive animals, which are the most likely age and sex category to be infectious. However, these approaches also required the most effort to implement. Vaccination was less effective (even with a perfect vaccine) but also required less effort to implement. For the treatment efforts we explored (50–100 individuals per year or 2.5–5% of the female population), sterilization had little impact upon the bison population growth rate when selectively applied. The population growth rate usually increased by year 25 due to the reduced number of Brucella-induced abortions. Initial declines in seroprevalence followed by rapid increases (>15% increase in 5 years) occurred in 3–13% of simulations with sterilization and test-and-remove, but not vaccination. We believe this is due to the interaction of superspreading events and the loss of herd immunity in the later stages of control efforts as disease prevalence declines. Sterilization provided a mechanism for achieving large disease reductions while simultaneously limiting population growth, which may be advantageous in some management scenarios. However, the field effort required to find the small segment of the population that is infectious rather than susceptible or recovered will likely limit the utility of this approach in many free-ranging wildlife populations. Nevertheless, we encourage

  20. Are brucellosis, Q fever and melioidosis potential causes of febrile illness in Madagascar?

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    Boone, Ides; Henning, Klaus; Hilbert, Angela; Neubauer, Heinrich; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Dekker, Denise Myriam; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Pak, Gi Deok; Krüger, Andreas; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Hogan, Benedikt; May, Jürgen; Marks, Florian; Poppert, Sven; Al Dahouk, Sascha

    2017-08-01

    Brucellosis, Q fever and melioidosis are zoonoses, which can lead to pyrexia. These diseases are often under-ascertained and underreported because of their unspecific clinical signs and symptoms, insufficient awareness by physicians and public health officers and limited diagnostic capabilities, especially in low-resource countries. Therefore, the presence of Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii and Burkholderia pseudomallei was investigated in Malagasy patients exhibiting febrile illness. In addition, we analyzed zebu cattle and their ticks as potential reservoirs for Brucella and C. burnetii, respectively. Specific quantitative real-time PCR assays (qPCRs) were performed on 1020 blood samples drawn from febrile patients. In total, 15 samples (1.5%) were Brucella-positive, mainly originating from patients without travel history, while DNA from C. burnetii and Bu. pseudomallei was not detected. Anti-C. burnetii antibodies were found in four out of 201 zebu serum samples (2%), whereas anti-Brucella antibodies could not be detected. Brucella DNA was detected in a single zebu sample. Three out of 330 ticks analyzed (1%) were positively tested for C. burnetii DNA but with high Ct values in the qPCR assay. Our data suggest that zebus as well as Amblyomma and Boophilus ticks have to be considered as a natural reservoir or vector for C. burnetii, but the risk of cattle-to-human transmission is low. Since bovine brucellosis does not seem to contribute to human infections in Madagascar, other transmission routes have to be assumed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effects of Good Breeding Practices on Brucellosis Incidence in Kangal Akkaraman Sheep Flocks

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    Yusuf Ziya Oğrak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of brucellosis in groups of Kangal Akkaraman sheep flocks raised in farm conditions in Sivas province. The first and second groups of the sheep flocks were part of the 8 sub-projects which belong to The Project entitled “Nationwide Genetic Improvement of Small Ruminants in Farm Condition” continued for 7 and 1-3 years, respectively. The third group of the sheep flocks was not part of this nationwide project. The study material consisted of 1491 units of blood serum (n=278, 1166 and 47 for the first, second and third groups, respectively. Brucella antibodies were looked for in blood serum using tube and slide agglutination tests. The incidences of brucellosis were 4% and 7.5% in flocks which were part of the nationwide project continued for 7 and 3 years, respectively and 25.5% for the flocks not part of the nationwide project. The differences between groups were found statistically significant. Even though there was no brucella vaccination programs in the flocks of the nationwide project, practices such as regular controls of the flocks by veterinary technicians, drug/vaccination applications for parasites and some other diseases, removal of rams positive for brucella before breeding season significantly reduced the incidence of brucella. As a result, promoting good breeding practices along with the brucella vaccination program applied by the related Ministry can be very beneficial for the eradication of brucella disease that is a big problem for the country.

  2. Bovine Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen that causes reproductive losses in cattle and zoonotic infections in people. An eradication program based on serologic detection and vaccination has been in place for decades in the United States. Brucella use multiple molecular mechanisms to modify th...

  3. Epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in Costa Rica: Lessons learned from failures in the control of the disease.

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    Gabriela Hernández-Mora

    Full Text Available Brucellosis, caused by Brucella abortus is a major disease of cattle and a zoonosis. In order to estimate the bovine brucellosis prevalence in Costa Rica (CR, a total 765 herds (13078 bovines from six regions of CR were randomly sampled during 2012-2013. A non-random sample of 7907 herds (532199 bovines of the six regions, arriving for diagnoses during 2014-2016 to the Costa Rican Animal Health Service was also studied. The prevalence estimated by Rose Bengal test (RBT ranged from 10.5%-11.4%; alternatively, the prevalence estimated by testing the RBT positives in iELISA, ranged from 4.1%-6.0%, respectively. However, cattle in CR are not vaccinated with B. abortus S19 but with RB51 (vaccination coverage close to 11%, and under these conditions the RBT displays 99% specificity and 99% sensitivity. Therefore, the RBT herd depicted in the random analysis stands as a feasible assessment and then, the recommended value in case of planning an eradication program in CR. Studies of three decades reveled that bovine brucellosis prevalence has increased in CR. B. abortus was identified by biochemical and molecular studies as the etiological agent of bovine brucellosis. Multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis-16 revealed four B. abortus clusters. Cluster one and three are intertwined with isolates from other countries, while clusters two and four have only representatives from CR. Cluster one is widely distributed in all regions of the country and may be the primary B. abortus source. The other clusters seem to be restricted to specific areas in CR. The implications of our findings, in relation to the control of the disease in CR, are critically discussed.

  4. Risk factors associated with brucellosis among slaughtered cattle: Epidemiological insight from two metropolitan abattoirs in Southwestern Nigeria

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    Ogugua Akwoba Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate risk factors responsible for the epidemiology of brucellosis among cattle slaughtered in Nigeria in a bid to implement control strategies. Methods: This was a cross-sectional and sero-epidemiological survey of bovine brucellosis in two metropolitan abattoirs in Southwestern Nigeria. Between March and August 2013, cattle were screened for antibodies to Brucella spp. by using Rose Bengal test (RBT, and positive samples were subjected to competitive ELISA (cELISA. Parameters of individual animal were also obtained. Data were analyzed by using STATA version 12 and Chi-square; and logistic regression statistics were used to test association. Results: Overall, 2 480 cattle (1 241 in Oyo; 1 239 in Lagos were screened. Analysis using RBT revealed a total sero-prevalence of 4.9% (121/2 480, with 7.8% and 1.9% from Oyo and Lagos States respectively. The cELISA result supported 77.7% (94/121 (90.7% in Oyo; 25.0% in Lagos of the total RBT positive samples. Logistic regression analysis showed that only sex (P ≤ 0.001 and location (P = 0.001 of animal screened had statistically significant effects on seropositivity to Brucella abortus antibodies. Conclusions: Our findings reveal low sero-prevalence of brucellosis among slaughtered cattle in Southwestern Nigeria. Sex and location of abattoirs where animals are slaughtered are major risk factors to be considered in the epidemiology of the disease. Therefore, to promote public health, trade cattle meant for slaughter in Nigeria and African countries where brucellosis is endemic, should be monitored, and positive animals be excluded from the food chain.

  5. Active evasion of CTL mediated killing and low quality responding CD8+ T cells contribute to persistence of brucellosis.

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    Marina Durward

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a common zoonotic disease that remains endemic in many parts of the world. Dissecting the host immune response during this disease provides insight as to why brucellosis is often difficult to resolve. We used a Brucella epitope specific in vivo killing assay to investigate the ability of CD8+ T cells to kill targets treated with purified pathogenic protein. Importantly, we found the pathogenic protein TcpB to be a novel effector of adaptive immune evasion by inhibiting CD8+ T cell killing of Brucella epitope specific target cells in mice. Further, BALB/c mice show active Brucella melitensis infection beyond one year, many with previously unreported focal infection of the urogenital area. A fraction of CD8+ T cells show a CD8+ Tmem phenotype of LFA-1hi, CD127hi, KLRG-1lo during the course of chronic brucellosis, while the CD8+ T cell pool as a whole had a very weak polyfunctional cytokine response with diminished co-expression of IFN-γ with TNFα and/or IL-2, a hallmark of exhaustion. When investigating the expression of these 3 cytokines individually, we observed significant IFN-γ expression at 90 and 180 days post-infection. TNFα expression did not significantly exceed or fall below background levels at any time. IL-2 expression did not significantly exceeded background, but, interestingly, did fall significantly below that of uninfected mice at 180 days post-infection. Brucella melitensis evades and blunts adaptive immunity during acute infection and our findings provide potential mechanisms for the deficit observed in responding CD8+ T cells during chronic brucellosis.

  6. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with brucellosis in dogs in south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoola, Modupe Comfort; Ogugua, Akwoba Joseph; Akinseye, Victor Oluwatoyin; Joshua, Tunde Olu; Banuso, Morenikeji Folusho; Adedoyin, Folashade Julianah; Adesokan, Hezekiah Kehinde; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Abiola, John Olusoji; Otuh, Patricia Ihuaku; Nottidge, Helen Oyebukola; Dale, Emma-Jane; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy; Cadmus, Simeon Idowu Babalola

    2016-01-01

    In Nigeria, there is limited information on brucellosis particularly in dogs, despite its public health implications. We undertook a sero-epidemiological survey of brucellosis in dogs to determine the prevalence of the disease and associated risk factors for its occurrence in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted to screen dogs in south-western Nigeria for antibodies to Brucella sp using the rapid slide agglutination test (RSA) and Rose Bengal test (RBT), with positive samples confirmed respectively by serum agglutination test (SAT) and competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Data were analyzed with STATA-12. From the 739 dog sera tested, 81 (10.96%) were positive by RSA and 94 (12.72%) by RBT; these were corroborated with SAT (4/81; 4.94%) and cELISA (1/94; 1.06%), respectively. Logistic regression identified location (OR=0.04; 95% CI: 0.02-0.09), breed (OR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.34-2.19), age (OR=0.10; 95% CI: 0.04-0.30) and management system (OR=8.51; 95% CI: 1.07-68.05) as risk factors for Brucella infection by RSA. However, location (OR=10.83; 95% CI: 5.48-21.39) and history of infertility (OR=2.62; 95% CI: 1.41-4.84) were identified as risk factors using RBT. Given the 10.96% to 12.72% seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded in this study, we advocate control of the disease in dogs, and public health education for those at risk of infection. Again, further studies are required to elucidate the role of dogs in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria considering the conducive human-animal interface and ecological factors responsible for the transmission of the disease.

  7. The Prevalence of Brucella Biotypes Isolated From Sterile Body Fluids of Patients With Brucellosis in Kashan, Iran in 2013

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    Erami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Brucella species are classified based on their pathogenic and genetic properties and hosts. Considering the significance of identifying different biotypes of Brucella from the epidemiological point of view and lack of such information in the city of Kashan, Iran. Objectives This study was designed to determine the biotypes and strains of Brucella isolated from patients with brucellosis. Methods This was a descriptive study of 206 samples obtained from patients with suspected brucellosis in 2013 in Kashan. BACTEC 9050 culture media was employed to test the samples. Suspected colonies of Brucella were identified through morphology, staining, and biochemical tests. The biotypes were identified by the Razi Research Institute. Lysis tests with the Tbilisi (Tb phage were performed, the need for CO2, SH2 production, sensitivity to basic fuchsin and thionin stains, and the reaction of all the samples to specific antiserum A and M (monospecific were tested. Results Fifty (24.3% of the 206 samples were culture positive. SH3 production was not detected in any of the isolates, and none of the isolated strains required CO2. The results of the sensitivity test to basic fuchsin and thionin staining and specific agglutination and phage lysis (phage typing tests indicated that all the isolated strains were biotype 1 B. melitansis. Conclusions The cause of human brucellosis in Kashan and its suburbs was biotype 1 B. melitensis. The identification of various biotypes of Brucella is important. Similar studies should be performed to detect the presence of new biotypes originating from neighboring countries.

  8. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF TOXOPLASMOSIS, NEOSPOROSIS AND BRUCELLOSIS AMONG CATTLE HERDS IN OYO STATE, SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayinmode, Adekunle; Akinseye, Victor; Schares, Gereon; Cadmus, Simeon

    2017-01-01

    Several zoonotic diseases are known to constitute great impediment to livestock management and production worldwide, especially in developing countries where control measures are largely non-existent. This study sets out to investigate the occurrence of toxoplasmosis, neosporosis and brucellosis among cattle herds in Oyo State, southwest Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey to screen for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii , Neospora caninum and Brucella abortus was conducted among 174 cattle in 17 herds. Sera obtained from the cattle were screened for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for Brucella abortus antibodies using Rose Bengal test and Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA). Overall, herd level prevalence of 52.9%, 23.5% and 23.5% as well as individual prevalence of 7.5%, 3.4% and 3.4% was obtained for toxoplasmosis, neosporosis and brucellosis, respectively. Antibodies to T. gondii , N. caninum and B. abortus were detected in 2 of the 17 herds, T. gondii and N. caninum in 4 herds, and T. gondii and B. abortus in 4 herds. Statistically significant association was only found between seropositivity to T. gondii antibodies and sex (pneosporosis and brucellosis are prevalent among cattle herds screened in the study area. Considering the potential impact of these diseases on livestock management and production, extensive surveillance is necessary for development and implementation of effective control and prevention strategies.

  9. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment and test-based culling strategies for eradicating brucellosis in commercial swine herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieste-Pérez, L; Frankena, K; Blasco, J M; Muñoz, P M; de Jong, M C M

    2016-04-01

    Swine brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease in continental Europe. Without effective vaccines being available, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommends the full depopulation of infected herds as the only strategy to eradicate B. suis outbreaks. Using data collected from 8 herds suffering natural swine brucellosis outbreaks, we assessed the efficacy of four control strategies: (i) oxytetracycline treatment only, as a default scenario, (ii) oxytetracycline treatment combined with skin testing and removal of positive animals, (iii) oxytetracycline treatment combined with serological testing (Rose Bengal test-RBT-and indirect ELISA -iELISA-) and removal of seropositive animals and (iv) oxytetracycline treatment combined with both serological (RBT/iELISA) and skin testing and removal of positive animals. A Susceptible-Infectious-Removal model was used to estimate the reproduction ratio (R) for each strategy. According to this model, the oxytetracycline treatment alone was not effective enough to eradicate the infection. However, this antibiotic treatment combined with diagnostic testing at 4-monthly intervals plus immediate removal of positive animals showed to be effective to eradicate brucellosis independent of the diagnostic test strategy used in an acceptable time interval (1-2 years), depending on the initial number of infected animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Brucellosis With Multi-Organ Involvement in a Patient With History of Composite Aortic Graft and Hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan Manshadi, Seyed Ali; Rezahosseini, Omid; Abdi Liaei, Zahra

    2016-11-01

    The brucellosis with multi-organ involvement in a patient with a history of the composite aortic graft (Bentall procedure) and Hepatitis B infection is rare. A 35-year-old man presented to us with fever and loss of consciousness. Four years ago, he was IDU and underwent cardiac surgery because of endocarditis. Recently lumbar spondylodiscitis was diagnosed. The Wright (1/320) and Coombs Wright tests (1/640) were positive. After CNS imaging, lumbar puncture was done. The CSF pleocytosis was lymphocyte dominant. In cardiac echocardiography, large vegetation on prosthetic aortic valve leaflets was seen. The brain MRI was reported abnormal. Treatment of brucellosis started with Ceftriaxone, Doxycycline, Rifampin and Gentamycin. After 4 days, he became oriented, and fever was disappeared then we continued the treatment for 16 days. The patient discharged and followed by daily phone calls. As symptoms of abdominal pain and jaundice were presented on the fifth day, he re-admitted. The patient expired because of hepatorenal and cardiac insufficiency. Drug side effects, activation of Hepatitis B and embolism of cardiac vegetation to other organs were suspected causes of death. We do not suggest medical therapy without cardiac surgery in such cases. When combination therapy is necessary for brucellosis in an HBsAg-positive patient, hepatitis virus activity should be assess by HBV-DNA PCR and the dose of drugs with known hepatotoxic effects such as rifampin and co-trimoxazole should be adjust. Combination therapy with quinolones instead of hepatoxic drugs is one of our suggustions.

  11. Epidemiological features and risk factors associated with the spatial and temporal distribution of human brucellosis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human brucellosis incidence in China has been increasing dramatically since 1999. However, epidemiological features and potential factors underlying the re-emergence of the disease remain less understood. Methods Data on human and animal brucellosis cases at the county scale were collected for the year 2004 to 2010. Also collected were environmental and socioeconomic variables. Epidemiological features including spatial and temporal patterns of the disease were characterized, and the potential factors related to the spatial heterogeneity and the temporal trend of were analysed using Poisson regression analysis, Granger causality analysis, and autoregressive distributed lag (ADL) models, respectively. Results The epidemic showed a significantly higher spatial correlation with the number of sheep and goats than swine and cattle. The disease was most prevalent in grassland areas with elevation between 800–1,600 meters. The ADL models revealed that local epidemics were correlated with comparatively lower temperatures and less sunshine in winter and spring, with a 1–7 month lag before the epidemic peak in May. Conclusions Our findings indicate that human brucellosis tended to occur most commonly in grasslands at moderate elevation where sheep and goats were the predominant livestock, and in years with cooler winter and spring or less sunshine. PMID:24238301

  12. A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to brucellosis among small-scale dairy farmers in an urban and peri-urban area of Tajikistan.

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    Elisabeth Lindahl

    Full Text Available Improvement of knowledge, attitudes and practices among urban livestock farmers could have a significant impact on the reduction of many zoonotic infections in urban farming. This study aimed to describe and evaluate weak areas in knowledge, attitudes and practices with regards to brucellosis among urban and peri-urban small-scale dairy farmers in a low income country to generate information essential for control programmes and public health interventions. The cross-sectional study was conducted during six weeks in 2011. The study subjects were small-scale dairy farmers living in the urban and peri-urban area of the capital Dushanbe in Tajikistan. In total, 441 farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with questions about demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to brucellosis. Descriptive statistics were used and a logistic regression model applied to evaluate potential predictors to knowledge about brucellosis. The majority (85% of the farmers had never heard of brucellosis. Low educational level was found to be associated with low awareness of brucellosis (P = < 0.001. Respondents who talked about animal health issues with family members or friends were less likely to have heard of brucellosis compared to those who often talked to veterinarians (P = 0.03. Sixty three per cent of the participants wanted more information about brucellosis. Seventeen per cent sold unpasteurized dairy products on a regular basis direct to consumers. Almost 30% of the households consumed unpasteurized dairy products on regular basis. A majority of the respondents did not use any protection when handling cows having an abortion or when dealing with aborted materials. Poor knowledge, high-risk behaviours and a willingness to learn more strengthens the logic for including health education as part of control programmes.

  13. 'La fiebre de Malta': An Interface of Farmers and Caprine Brucellosis Control Policies in the Bajío Region, Mexico.

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    Oseguera Montiel, D; Udo, H M J; Frankena, K; van der Zijpp, A

    2017-02-01

    This article shows that socio-economic factors, defined here as practices, knowledge, interests, beliefs and experiences have a role in the adoption of brucellosis control strategies in the Bajío region, Mexico. We combined qualitative and quantitative methods to show that socio-economic factors with regard to goat husbandry and brucellosis control are not taken into account in the current policy to combat the disease in Mexico. Farmers ranked constraints like the price of goat milk more important than the control of the disease. The impact of brucellosis in goats is hidden to farmers, and the term brucellosis is still a strange name to them; it is better known as 'la fiebre de Malta' (Malta fever), which farmers are aware of and which they avoid by not drinking goat milk. Brucellosis control measures cause losses such as abortion due to vaccination and ear infections due to ear tagging. In the villages of the state of Michoacán, the uptake of a vaccination and testing programme was almost complete because it was offered for free, whereas in villages of Jalisco, vaccination was not adopted thoroughly because the cost of vaccination was high for farmers and because of a lack of veterinarians offering the service. Neither compensation for culling suspected infected goats does exist nor the infrastructure, like slaughterhouses, to ensure that goats that are brucellosis seropositive are not resold to neighbouring farmers. This article disputes the idea that brucellosis is confined to the lack of awareness and participation of farmers in control measures, but rather that policies are promulgated without a good knowledge of goat husbandry and farmers' perceptions. We claim that governmental authorities should reformulate the policy to take into account socio-economic factors shaping farmers' behaviour so that effective control measures will be adopted by goat farmers. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. A Study of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Relating to Brucellosis among Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in an Urban and Peri-Urban Area of Tajikistan

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    Lindahl, Elisabeth; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of knowledge, attitudes and practices among urban livestock farmers could have a significant impact on the reduction of many zoonotic infections in urban farming. This study aimed to describe and evaluate weak areas in knowledge, attitudes and practices with regards to brucellosis among urban and peri-urban small-scale dairy farmers in a low income country to generate information essential for control programmes and public health interventions. The cross-sectional study was conducted during six weeks in 2011. The study subjects were small-scale dairy farmers living in the urban and peri-urban area of the capital Dushanbe in Tajikistan. In total, 441 farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with questions about demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to brucellosis. Descriptive statistics were used and a logistic regression model applied to evaluate potential predictors to knowledge about brucellosis. The majority (85%) of the farmers had never heard of brucellosis. Low educational level was found to be associated with low awareness of brucellosis (P = brucellosis compared to those who often talked to veterinarians (P = 0.03). Sixty three per cent of the participants wanted more information about brucellosis. Seventeen per cent sold unpasteurized dairy products on a regular basis direct to consumers. Almost 30% of the households consumed unpasteurized dairy products on regular basis. A majority of the respondents did not use any protection when handling cows having an abortion or when dealing with aborted materials. Poor knowledge, high-risk behaviours and a willingness to learn more strengthens the logic for including health education as part of control programmes. PMID:25668783

  15. Dairy farm demographics and management factors that played a role in the re-emergence of brucellosis on dairy cattle farms in Fiji.

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    Tukana, Andrew; Gummow, B

    2017-08-01

    Little is published on risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in Pacific island communities. The 2009 re-emergence of bovine brucellosis in Fiji enabled us to do an interview-based questionnaire survey of 81 farms in the Wainivesi locality of the Tailevu province on the main island of Fiji to investigate what risk factors could have played a role in the re-emergence of the disease. The survey was conducted on 68 farms that had no positive cases of bovine brucellosis and on 13 farms in the same area where cattle had returned a positive result to the Brucella Rose Bengal test. Descriptive statistical methods were used to describe the demographic data while univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between the selected risk factors and the presence of brucellosis on the farms at the time of the outbreak. The demographics of Fijian dairy farms are presented in the article and the biosecurity implications of those farming systems are discussed. Two risk factors were strongly associated with farms having brucellosis, and these were history of reactor cattle to brucellosis and or bovine tuberculosis on the farm (OR = 29, P ≤ 0.01) and farms that practised sharing of water sources for cattle within and with outside farms (OR = 39, P ≤ 0.01). Possible reasons why these were risk factors are also discussed. The potential risks for human health was also high as the use of personal protective equipment was low (15%). A high proportion of farmers (62%) could not recognise brucellosis thus contributing to the low frequency of disease reports (44%) made. The article also highlights other important risk factors which could be attributed to farming practices in the region and which could contribute to public health risks and the re-emergence of diseases.

  16. Using the Precede-Proceed Model in Needs Assessment for the Prevention of Brucellosis in Rural Areas of Isfahan, Iran

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    A Hajari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Brucellosis is considered as a significant health threat worldwide. The disease has been reported in more than a half-million people each year in 100 countries, according to the World Health Organization. This study aimed to determine the predictive factors of a needs assessment and prioritization of interventions to prevent brucellosis using the Precede - Proceed Model in Isfahan rural areas in 2015.   Methods: The present cross-sectional study (needs assessment by Delphi method was conducted on 402 people aged 15 years and older in 20 villages of 44 villages which were randomly selected in the rural Regions of Tiran and Karvan county of Isfahan Province. The data were collected through questionnaires and a Self-made checklist based on the Precede-Proceed Model which its content and face validity was approved by experts and pilot projects. Data collected by the survey techniques agreement using chi-square and t tests were analyzed by the use of SPSS version 18 software.   Results:This study indicated that the subjects' awareness of the possibility of transmission of brucellosis by skin, breathing contaminated dust, the use of personal protective devices at the time of contact with animals were not appropriate. Increasing the access to veterinary services and vaccination of livestock herders in rural areas and helping in creating storage areas for livestock backcountry villages and moving the livestock to rural areas outside was one of the demands of the population. The present study revealed that between knowledge, attitude and performance of the participants with their educational level was a significant association (p≤0.05. Also, there was a significant relationship between enabling factors, reinforcing factors and skill and practice in the prevention of brucellosis and having cattle(P≤0.05.   Conclusion: Needs assessment performance before implementation of any intervention in the prevention of brucellosis could help

  17. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to brucellosis and factors affecting knowledge sharing on animal diseases: a cross-sectional survey in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

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    Kothalawala, Kasthuri Arachchige Chandrika Hemali Abeyratne; Makita, Kohei; Kothalawala, Hemal; Jiffry, Athambawa Mohamed; Kubota, Satoko; Kono, Hiroichi

    2018-02-01

    Farmers' lack of knowledge is assumed to have affected the presence of brucellosis in Sri Lanka for decades. This study, carried out in the Ampara district in the dry zone of Sri Lanka, revealed that there is a significant knowledge gap for brucellosis compared to foot and mouth disease (FMD) (p < 0.001). Only 8.3% of farmers knew that brucellosis causes cattle abortions. Only 2.6% knew that it is zoonotic. The difference in knowledge of the symptoms and transmission of brucellosis and FMD was significant (p < 0.001). Farmers' attitudes and practices related to the spread of the disease were poor. Farmers' education and spoken language had a negative influence on knowledge. Young people and those with strong social relationships were efficient in knowledge sharing. It can be concluded that brucellosis knowledge, attitudes, and practices are poor; thus, there is a need for more attention in disease control policymaking. Backward farmer groups should be the focus in animal health extension programs.

  18. Herd prevalence of bovine brucellosis and analysis of risk factors in cattle in urban and peri-urban areas of the Kampala economic zone, Uganda

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    Eisler Mark C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human brucellosis has been found to be prevalent in the urban areas of Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. A cross-sectional study was designed to generate precise information on the prevalence of brucellosis in cattle and risk factors for the disease in its urban and peri-urban dairy farming systems. Results The adjusted herd prevalence of brucellosis was 6.5% (11/177, 95% CI: 3.6%-10.0% and the adjusted individual animal prevalence was 5.0% (21/423, 95% CI: 2.7% - 9.3% based on diagnosis using commercial kits of the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA for Brucella abortus antibodies. Mean within-herd prevalence was found to be 25.9% (95% CI: 9.7% - 53.1% and brucellosis prevalence in an infected herd ranged from 9.1% to 50%. A risk factor could not be identified at the animal level but two risk factors were identified at the herd level: large herd size and history of abortion. The mean number of milking cows in a free-grazing herd (5.0 was significantly larger than a herd with a movement restricted (1.7, p Conclusions Vaccination should be targeted at commercial large-scale farms with free-grazing farming to control brucellosis in cattle in and around Kampala city.

  19. Ovine and Caprine Brucellosis (Brucella melitensis in Aborted Animals in Jordanian Sheep and Goat Flocks

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    Assadullah Samadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and fifty five biological samples were collected from 188 animals (81 sheep and 107 goats during the lambing season from September 2009 to April 2010 from the Mafraq region of Jordan. Sampled animals belonged to 93 sheep and goat flocks that had abortion cases in the region. One hundred and seven (41.9% biological samples were positive for the omp2 primers that were able to identify all Brucella species in the collected samples which were obtained from 86 aborted animals (86/188=45.7%. Using the B. melitensis insertion sequence 711 (IS711 primers on the 107 omp2 positive samples, only 61 confirmed to be positive for B. melitensis. These positive samples were obtained from 28 sheep and 33 goats. The prevalence rate of B. melitensis was 27.1% (51/188 among aborted animals. For differentiation between vaccine strain and field strain infection, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method using PstI endonuclease enzyme was used. Vaccination with Rev-1 in the last year (OR=2.92, CI: 1.1–7.7 and grazing at common pasture (OR=2.78, CI: 1.05–7.36 were statistically significant (P≤.05 risk factors positively associated with the occurrence of brucellosis in sheep and goat flocks.

  20. Development and evaluation of diagnostic tests for the serological diagnosis of brucellosis in swine

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    Tiziana Di Febo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA, an indirect ELISA (i-ELISA and a dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA were developed to test for antibodies to Brucella suis in pig and wild boar sera. An anti-Brucella-LPS monoclonal antibody (MAb 4B5A (c-ELISA and DELFIA and an anti-swine IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb 10C2G5 (i-ELISA were used for the three assays. The specificity (Sp and sensitivity (Se of the assays gave the following results: Se and Sp = 100% at a cut-off value of 61.0% (B/B0% for c-ELISA; Sp = 99.1% and Se = 100% at a cut-off value of 21.7% (percentage positivity: PP% for i-ELISA; Sp = 91.0% and Se = 75% at a cut-off value of 37.0% (B/B0% for DELFIA. In addition, the performance of a commercial fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA, standardised for bovine sera, was evaluated in swine sera. The specificity and sensitivity obtained were both 100% at a cut-off value of 99.5 (millipolarisation unit values. These results suggest that the combination of c-ELISA, i-ELISA and FPA can be used to improve the serological diagnosis of swine brucellosis.

  1. Brucellosis in adult beef cattle of Mexican origin shipped direct-to-slaughter into Texas.

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    Brown, W H; Hernández de Anda, J

    1998-03-01

    To compare prevalence estimates of brucellosis (BR) in adult beef cattle that originated from different states and regions of Mexico and that were shipped direct-to-slaughter into Texas during 1995. Epidemiologic survey. About 65,000 adult beef cattle. Blood samples were collected during postmortem examinations and were tested for serum antibodies to Brucella abortus, using the particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay and automated complement-fixation test. Prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals of BR were calculated by state of origin in Mexico. The difference among prevalence estimates of BR in cattle from different states and regions was tested for significance (P Aguascalientes (7.89%), and Campeche (12.24%). In addition, prevalence estimates of BR in cattle were significantly different among the northern (0.22%), south-central (3.18%), and south coastal (9.42%) regions of Mexico. Results of this study indicate that the number of cattle exposed to B abortus may be significantly different among states and regions of Mexico. Current import sanitary requirements should continue to mitigate potential risk of transmission of BR from sexually intact cattle of Mexican origin to Texas cattle.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Native Antigens for the Development of Brucellosis Antibody Detection System

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    Yasmin Bano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a highly infectious zoonotic disease and an economically important infection of humans and livestock with a worldwide distribution. The main mode of transmission of this disease to humans is through the consumption of infected milk, milk products, and uncooked or raw meat. The present study was designed to prepare few native antigens, that is, sonicated antigen (SA, cell envelope (CE antigen, and freeze and thaw (FT antigen from Brucella abortus S99 culture and to test them in a highly sensitive and specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA in both a microtiter plate and a dot-blot format for the development of field-based diagnosis. All 50 suspected bovine samples were tested by plate as well as in dot ELISA formats for all the three antigens prepared. The CE antigen was found to be more suitable as it had the maximum agreement with the Rose Bengal plate agglutination test results followed by the SA and the least agreement was found with that of the FT antigen. This detection system in microtiter plates and a dot-blot format will be useful for the rapid screening of samples for the disease surveillance and routine diagnosis.

  3. A case of brucellosis with abscess of the iliacus muscle, olecranon bursitis, and sacroiliitis.

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    Turan, Hale; Serefhanoglu, Kivanc; Karadeli, Elif; Timurkaynak, Funda; Arslan, Hande

    2009-11-01

    Brucellosis is a systemic infection involving many organs and tissues. The musculoskeletal system is one of the most commonly affected. The disease can present with sacroiliitis, peripheral arthritis, spondylitis, paraspinal abscess, bursitis, and osteomyelitis. A 25-year-old male patient was admitted with fever of 20-day duration, right-sided hip pain, and night sweating. A Brucella standard tube agglutination test was positive at a titer of 1/160. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hip joint showed right sacroiliitis and a hyperintense, nodular, lobulated mass within the right iliacus muscle, consistent with abscess. The patient was started on intramuscular streptomycin at a dose of 1 g/day, oral rifampin 600 mg/day, and doxycycline 200 mg/day. On day 20 of treatment, the patient was admitted with swelling and pain over the left elbow for the past week. MRI of the left elbow was performed, which showed fluid edema suggestive of olecranon bursitis. Taking the patient's complaints into consideration, rifampin and doxycycline treatment were maintained for a year. Pain at the hip joint and elbow resolved and MRI findings disappeared. Abscess of the iliacus muscle, which has not been reported before, and the olecranon bursitis that developed during treatment make this case worth presenting.

  4. Exploiting the Campylobacter jejuni protein glycosylation system for glycoengineering vaccines and diagnostic tools directed against brucellosis

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    Iwashkiw Jeremy A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune responses directed towards surface polysaccharides conjugated to proteins are effective in preventing colonization and infection of bacterial pathogens. Presently, the production of these conjugate vaccines requires intricate synthetic chemistry for obtaining, activating, and attaching the polysaccharides to protein carriers. Glycoproteins generated by engineering bacterial glycosylation machineries have been proposed to be a viable alternative to traditional conjugation methods. Results In this work we expressed the C. jejuni oligosaccharyltansferase (OTase PglB, responsible for N-linked protein glycosylation together with a suitable acceptor protein (AcrA in Yersinia enterocolitica O9 cells. MS analysis of the acceptor protein demonstrated the transfer of a polymer of N-formylperosamine to AcrA in vivo. Because Y. enterocolitica O9 and Brucella abortus share an identical O polysaccharide structure, we explored the application of the resulting glycoprotein in vaccinology and diagnostics of brucellosis, one of the most common zoonotic diseases with over half a million new cases annually. Injection of the glycoprotein into mice generated an IgG response that recognized the O antigen of Brucella, although this response was not protective against a challenge with a virulent B. abortus strain. The recombinant glycoprotein coated onto magnetic beads was efficient in differentiating between naïve and infected bovine sera. Conclusion Bacterial engineered glycoproteins show promising applications for the development on an array of diagnostics and immunoprotective opportunities in the future.

  5. Seroprevalence studies of bovine brucellosis using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA at organized and unorganized farms in three different states of India

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    Ramesh Somavanshi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to know the seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle and buffaloes. The work was carried out during the period 2011 through 2013 at Centre for Animal Diseases, Research and Diagnostics, IVRI, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1005 sera samples were collected and tested for bovine brucellosis using ELISA Kit; IDEXX, CHEKIT, Brucellose serum, Brucella abortus Antibody Test Kit. Results: A total of 1005 serum samples were collected from Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand during the period of 2011 to 2013 and were screened for bovine brucellosis using i-ELISA (indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis was compared between organized and unorganized farms in order to find the epidemiology of the disease among the animal population. Sera from 5 organized farms in Karnataka were collected for seroprevalence studies. Out of 417 animals, 191 (45.80% animals were found positive by i-ELISA. A total of 361 serum samples were collected from 5 unorganized farms or villages, of which 82 (22.71% were positive. From Uttar Pradesh, bovine serum samples were collected from 3 organized farms. Out of 192 animals, 43 (22.39% animals were found positive for brucellosis. Similarly, sera collected from a single organized farm from Uttarakhand, showed 3 (8.57% positivity among 35 animals. On the whole, 319 (31.74% animals were found positive for brucellosis among the 3 states taken for study, which includes 138 (27.21% cattle and 181 (36.34% buffaloes. Conclusion: It has been found that Brucella infections are widely prevalent in organized and unorganized dairy farms in investigated states of India. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 550-553

  6. Epidemic characteristics, high-risk townships and space-time clusters of human brucellosis in Shanxi Province of China, 2005-2014.

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    Chen, Qiulan; Lai, Shengjie; Yin, Wenwu; Zhou, Hang; Li, Yu; Mu, Di; Li, Zhongjie; Yu, Hongjie; Yang, Weizhong

    2016-12-19

    Brucellosis, one of the world's most important zoonosis, has been re-emerging in China. Shanxi Province, located in northern China, where husbandry development has been accelerated in recent years, has a rather high incidence of human brucellosis but drew little attention from the researchers. This study aimed to describe the changing epidemiology of human brucellosis in Shanxi Province from 2005 to 2014 and explore high-risk towns and space-time clusters for elucidating the necessity of decentralizing disease control resource to township level in epidemic regions, particularly in hotspot areas. We extracted data from the Chinese National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System to describe the incidence and spatiotemporal distribution of human brucellosis in Shanxi Province. Geographic information system was used to identify townships at high risk for the disease. Space-Time Scan Statistic was applied to detect the space-time clusters of human brucellosis during the past decade. From 2005 to 2014, a total of 50,002 cases of human brucellosis were recorded in Shanxi, with a male-to-female ratio of 3.9:1. The reported incidence rate increased dramatically from 7.0/100,000 in 2005 to 23.5/100,000 in 2014, with an average annual increase of 14.5%. There were still 33.8% cases delaying diagnosis in 2014. The proportion of the affected towns increased from 31.5% in 2005 to 82.5% in 2014. High-risk towns spread from the north to the center and then south of Shanxi Province, which were basins and adjacent highlands suitable for livestock cultivation. During the past decade, there were 55 space-time clusters of human brucellosis detected in high risk towns; the clusters could happen in any season. Some clusters' location maintained stable over time. During the last decade, Shanxi province's human brucellosis epidemic had been aggravated and high-risk areas concentrated in some towns located in basins and adjacent highlands. Space-time clusters existed and some

  7. Studies on recombinant glucokinase (r-glk) protein of Brucella abortus as a candidate vaccine molecule for brucellosis.

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    Vrushabhendrappa; Singh, Amit Kumar; Balakrishna, Konduru; Sripathy, Murali Harishchandra; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2014-09-29

    Brucellosis is one of the most prevalent zoonotic diseases of worldwide distribution caused by the infection of genus Brucella. Live attenuated vaccines such as B. abortus S19, B. abortus RB51 and B. melitensis Rev1 are found most effective against brucellosis infection in animals, contriving a number of serious side effects and having chances to revert back into their active pathogenic form. In order to engineer a safe and effective vaccine candidate to be used in both animals and human, a recombinant subunit vaccine molecule comprising the truncated region of glucokinase (r-glk) gene from B. abortus S19 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 host. Female BALB/c mice immunized with purified recombinant protein developed specific antibody titer of 1:64,000. The predominant IgG2a and IgG2b isotypes signified development of Th1 directed immune responses. In vitro cell cytotoxicity assay using anti-r-glk antibodies incubated with HeLa cells showed 81.20% and 78.5% cell viability against lethal challenge of B. abortus 544 and B. melitensis 16M, respectively. The lymphocyte proliferative assay indicated a higher splenic lymphocyte responses at 25μg/ml concentration of protein which implies the elevated development of memory immune responses. In contrast to control, the immunized group of mice intra-peritoneal (I.P.) challenged with B. abortus 544 were significantly protected with no signs of necrosis and vacuolization in their liver and spleen tissue. The elevated B-cell response associated with Th1 adopted immunity, significant in vitro cell viability as well as protection afforded in experimental animals after challenge, supplemented with histopathological analysis are suggestive of r-glk protein as a prospective candidate vaccine molecule against brucellosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

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    Emma J. Dale

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  9. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

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    Simeon I.B. Cadmus

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  10. Feasibility of quarantine procedures for bison (Bison bison) calves from Yellowstone National Park for conservation of brucellosis-free bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan Clarke, P; Frey, Rebecca K; Rhyan, Jack C; McCollum, Matt P; Nol, Pauline; Aune, Keith

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the feasibility of qualifying individuals or groups of Yellowstone National Park bison as free from brucellosis. DESIGN--Cohort study. SAMPLE--Serum, blood, and various samples from live bison and tissues taken at necropsy from 214 bison over 7 years. PROCEDURES--Blood was collected from bison every 30 to 45 days for serologic tests and microbiological culture of blood for Brucella abortus. Seropositive bison were euthanized until all remaining bison had 2 consecutive negative test results. Half the seronegative bison were randomly euthanized, and tissues were collected for bacteriologic culture. The remaining seronegative bison were bred, and blood was tested at least twice per year. Cow-calf pairs were sampled immediately after calving and 6 months after calving for evidence of B abortus. RESULTS--Post-enrollment serial testing for B abortus antibodies revealed no bison that seroconverted after 205 days (first cohort) and 180 days (second cohort). During initial serial testing, 85% of bison seroconverted within 120 days after removal from the infected population. Brucella abortus was not cultured from any euthanized seronegative bison (0/88). After parturition, no cows or calves had a positive test result for B abortus antibodies, nor was B abortus cultured from any samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE--Results suggested it is feasible to qualify brucellosis-free bison from an infected herd following quarantine procedures as published in the USDA APHIS brucellosis eradication uniform methods and rules. Latent infection was not detected in this sample of bison when applying the USDA APHIS quarantine protocol.

  11. Brucellosis vaccines: assessment of Brucella melitensis lipopolysaccharide rough mutants defective in core and O-polysaccharide synthesis and export.

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    David González

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The brucellae are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the major neglected zoonoses. In endemic areas, vaccination is the only effective way to control this disease. Brucella melitensis Rev 1 is a vaccine effective against the brucellosis of sheep and goat caused by B. melitensis, the commonest source of human infection. However, Rev 1 carries a smooth lipopolysaccharide with an O-polysaccharide that elicits antibodies interfering in serodiagnosis, a major problem in eradication campaigns. Because of this, rough Brucella mutants lacking the O-polysaccharide have been proposed as vaccines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine the possibilities of rough vaccines, we screened B. melitensis for lipopolysaccharide genes and obtained mutants representing all main rough phenotypes with regard to core oligosaccharide and O-polysaccharide synthesis and export. Using the mouse model, mutants were classified into four attenuation patterns according to their multiplication and persistence in spleens at different doses. In macrophages, mutants belonging to three of these attenuation patterns reached the Brucella characteristic intracellular niche and multiplied intracellularly, suggesting that they could be suitable vaccine candidates. Virulence patterns, intracellular behavior and lipopolysaccharide defects roughly correlated with the degree of protection afforded by the mutants upon intraperitoneal vaccination of mice. However, when vaccination was applied by the subcutaneous route, only two mutants matched the protection obtained with Rev 1 albeit at doses one thousand fold higher than this reference vaccine. These mutants, which were blocked in O-polysaccharide export and accumulated internal O-polysaccharides, stimulated weak anti-smooth lipopolysaccharide antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate that no rough mutant is equal to Rev 1 in laboratory models and question the notion that

  12. Comparison of a flow assay for brucellosis antibodies with the reference cELISA test in West African Bos indicus.

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    Barend M deC Bronsvoort

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is considered by the Food and Agricultural Organisation and the World Health Organisation as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It is a major veterinary public health challenge as animals are almost exclusively the source of infection for people. It is often undiagnosed in both human patients and the animal sources and it is widely acknowledged that the epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and animals is poorly understood, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore important to develop better diagnostic tools in order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and also for use in the field for disease control and eradication. As with any new diagnostic test, it is essential that it is validated in as many populations as possible in order to characterise its performance and improve the interpretation of its results. This paper describes a comparison between a new lateral flow assasy (LFA for bovine brucellosis and the widely used cELISA in a no gold standard analysis to estimate test performance in this West African cattle population. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model incorporated previous studies' data on sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA. The results indicate that the new LFA is very sensitive (approximately 87% and highly specific (approximately 97%. The analysis also suggests that the current cut-off of the cELSIA may not be optimal for this cattle population but alternative cut-offs did not significantly change the estimates of the LFA. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this simple to use test in field based surveillance and control which could be easily adopted for use in developing countries with only basic laboratory facilities.

  13. Comparison of a Flow Assay for Brucellosis Antibodies with the Reference cELISA Test in West African Bos indicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Koterwas, Bronwyn; Land, Fiona; Handel, Ian G.; Tucker, James; Morgan, Kenton L.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2009-01-01

    Brucellosis is considered by the Food and Agricultural Organisation and the World Health Organisation as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It is a major veterinary public health challenge as animals are almost exclusively the source of infection for people. It is often undiagnosed in both human patients and the animal sources and it is widely acknowledged that the epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and animals is poorly understood, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore important to develop better diagnostic tools in order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and also for use in the field for disease control and eradication. As with any new diagnostic test, it is essential that it is validated in as many populations as possible in order to characterise its performance and improve the interpretation of its results. This paper describes a comparison between a new lateral flow assasy (LFA) for bovine brucellosis and the widely used cELISA in a no gold standard analysis to estimate test performance in this West African cattle population. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model incorporated previous studies' data on sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA. The results indicate that the new LFA is very sensitive (∼87%) and highly specific (∼97%). The analysis also suggests that the current cut-off of the cELSIA may not be optimal for this cattle population but alternative cut-offs did not significantly change the estimates of the LFA. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this simple to use test in field based surveillance and control which could be easily adopted for use in developing countries with only basic laboratory facilities. PMID:19381332

  14. Association of farmers' socio-economics with bovine brucellosis epidemiology in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

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    Kothalawala, Kasthuri Arachchige Chandrika; Makita, Kohei; Kothalawala, Hemal; Jiffry, Athambawa Mohamed; Kubota, Satoko; Kono, Hiroichi

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the farmers' socio-economic factors and their association with Brucella prevalence in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional survey was planned and a total of 1,153 blood samples were collected from milking and dry animals of 155 farms from three selected veterinary ranges of Kalmunai, Navithanveli, and Mahaoya in the Ampara district, which is a multi-ethnic area. The  Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) were used for the Brucella screening and confirmation, respectively. Socio-economic attributes such as family income, poverty, education, main job, ethnicity, parent farmer, farming experience, and training in animal husbandry were determined as potential farmer-level risk factors. Meanwhile, herd size, grazing practice, breeding method, animal brought-in to the farm, and abortions were considered as herd factors. The results revealed that the overall animal level sero-prevalence of brucellosis was 2.7% (35/1153; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7, 3.7%) and the herd prevalence was 9.6% (15/155; 95% CI: 5.7, 15.7%) in the area of study. Brucellosis prevalence varies significantly (p<0.001) among the selected veterinary ranges with the highest herd prevalence in Kalmunai (20.0%) followed by Navithanveli (11.9%) and Mahaoya (2.7%). Disease prevalence showed variability (p<0.001) among ethnicities with the highest in Muslims (27.3%) followed by Tamils (8.1%) and Sinhalese (2.7%). Poverty was highly associated (OR=3.75; 95% CI: 1.43-10.00) with the disease. Free movement grazing practices (p<0.01) with OR=7.2 and animal brought-in from outside (p<0.06) with OR=3.06 were positively related to brucellosis. It was revealed that farmers' socio-economics, such as ethnicity and poverty, and animal movement patterns, such as grazing practices are significantly associated with epidemiology of brucellosis in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Therefore, the "farmer factor" should be carefully

  15. Efficacy of strain RB51 vaccine in heifers against experimental brucellosis.

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    Poester, Fernando P; Gonçalves, Vítor S P; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L; Olsen, Steven C; Schurig, Gerhardt G; Lage, Andrey P

    2006-06-19

    With the goal of providing an additional tool for controlling bovine brucellosis in Brazil and evaluating the full calf dose in adult cattle, the efficacy of the rough Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine was tested in heifers. Thirty-three females of approximately 24 months of age were divided in two groups: one group (n=20) received the RB51 vaccine and the other group (n=13) were used as non-vaccinated control. Animals in the vaccinated group were split in two sub-groups. One sub-group (n=12) was vaccinated subcutaneously with 1.5x10(10) colony forming units (CFU) of RB51 at Day 0 of the experiment and the other sub-group (n=8) was vaccinated subcutaneously with 1.6x10(10) CFU of RB51 at 60 days of gestation (Day 260 of the experiment). All cattle were challenged between 6 and 7 months of pregnancy with 3x10(8) CFU of the virulent strain 2308 of B. abortus by the conjunctival route. Vaccination with RB51 vaccine did not result in the production of any antibodies against the O-side chain of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as measured by conventional serological tests (rose bengal plate agglutination test (RBPAT), standard tube agglutination test (STAT), and 2-mercaptoethanol test (2ME)). A total of 25% cumulative incidence of abortions was found in the vaccinated group, whereas in the control group the cumulative incidence was 62%. B. abortus RB51 was not isolated from any sample, and no abortions were produced by RB51 vaccination of females at 60 days of pregnancy. The results indicate that vaccination with RB51 prevented 59.4% of abortions, 58.6% of cow infections, and 61.0% of fetal infections. The relative risk (RR) revealed that non-vaccinated animals have 2.462 (95% CI 1.029-5.889) times higher risk of aborting than RB51-vaccinated animals.

  16. Sviluppo e valutazione di test diagnostici per la sierodiagnosi di brucellosi suina

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    Tiziana Di Febo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sono stati sviluppati una ELISA competitiva (c-ELISA, una ELISA indiretta (i-ELISA e un test immunologico DELFIA (Dissociation-Enhanced Lanthanide Fluorescence Immunoassay per la ricerca di anticorpi verso Brucella suis in sieri di maiale e cinghiale. I tre test prevedono l’utilizzo di un anticorpo monoclonale (MAb 4B5A verso l’LPS di Brucella (c-ELISA e DELFIA e di un anticorpo monoclonale (MAb 10C2G5 verso le IgG suine (i-ELISA. La specificità (Sp e la sensibilità (Se dei tre test sono le seguenti: per la c-ELISA Se e Sp = 100% con un valore di cut-off pari al 61.0% (B/B0%; per la i-ELISA Sp = 99.1% e Se = 100% con un valore di cut-off di 21.7% (PP%; per il DELFIA Sp = 91.0% e Se = 75% ponendo il valore di cut-off al 37.0% (B/B0%. Inoltre sono state valutate le performance, nei confronti di sieri suini, di un test FPA (Fluorescence Polarization Assay commerciale sviluppato per la ricerca di anticorpi anti-Brucella in sieri bovini; la specificità e la sensibilità ottenute sono entrambe del 100% al valore di cut-off di 99.5 (mP. Questi risultati suggeriscono che la combinazione di c-ELISA, i-ELISA e FPA può essere utilizzata per migliorare la diagnosi di brucellosi suina.

  17. Integrating serological and genetic data to quantify cross-species transmission: brucellosis as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Mafalda; Shirima, Gabriel M; John, Kunda S; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Buza, Joram J; Cleaveland, Sarah; Haydon, Daniel T; Halliday, Jo E B

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological data are often fragmented, partial, and/or ambiguous and unable to yield the desired level of understanding of infectious disease dynamics to adequately inform control measures. Here, we show how the information contained in widely available serology data can be enhanced by integration with less common type-specific data, to improve the understanding of the transmission dynamics of complex multi-species pathogens and host communities. Using brucellosis in northern Tanzania as a case study, we developed a latent process model based on serology data obtained from the field, to reconstruct Brucella transmission dynamics. We were able to identify sheep and goats as a more likely source of human and animal infection than cattle; however, the highly cross-reactive nature of Brucella spp. meant that it was not possible to determine which Brucella species (B. abortus or B. melitensis) is responsible for human infection. We extended our model to integrate simulated serology and typing data, and show that although serology alone can identify the host source of human infection under certain restrictive conditions, the integration of even small amounts (5%) of typing data can improve understanding of complex epidemiological dynamics. We show that data integration will often be essential when more than one pathogen is present and when the distinction between exposed and infectious individuals is not clear from serology data. With increasing epidemiological complexity, serology data become less informative. However, we show how this weakness can be mitigated by integrating such data with typing data, thereby enhancing the inference from these data and improving understanding of the underlying dynamics.

  18. Medulloblastoma and Brucellosis - Molecular Evidence of Brucella sp in Association with Central Nervous System Cancer

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    Binxue Zhang, Mina Izadjoo, Iren Horkayne-Szakaly, Alan Morrison, Douglas J. Wear

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobrucellosis has been reported to cause lesions in a number of different locations in the central nervous system. Histologically or radiologically, these lesions were consistent with an infection. In response to parents who believed their child's brain tumor, histologically typical of medulloblastoma, was in reality neurobrucellosis, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue from the medulloblastoma was sectioned, DNA extracted, and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Specific primer/probe sets, designed in our laboratory to target Brucella species, B. melitensis, B. abortus and B. suis, and designated OMP31, B-m, B-a and B-s, respectively, were used in TaqMan real-time PCR to amplify those gene targets in two separate blocks of the child's tumor. Sections from two blocks were positive only for Brucella species. Although the patient grew up in a European country known to harbor brucella in foods, such as unpasturized milk and cheese, the patient was seronegative for B. mellitensis, B. suis, and B. abortus. In an effort to test whether a relationship existed between the presence of brucella and medulloblastoma, 20 medulloblastomas were retrieved from the tissue repository of the AFIP. The above four primer/probe sets were again used to amplify brucella DNA. Five of 20 tumors (25% contained Brucella species DNA by the OMP31 primer/probe set. None of the 20 medulloblastomas had specific sequences for B. mellitensis, B. suis, or B. abortus. Is chronic brucellosis similar to other infectious agents such as helicobacter that is associated with tumor formation?

  19. Epidemiological situation of bovine brucellosis in the State of Paraiba, Brazil

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    Inácio José Clementino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to characterize the epidemiological status of brucellosis in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. The State was divided into three regions. Herds were randomly sampled in each region and a pre-established number of animals were sampled in each of these herds. A total of 3,489 serum samples from 674 herds were collected. In each herd, an epidemiological questionnaire was conducted. This questionnaire focused on herd traits, as well as husbandry and sanitary practices that could be associated with the risk of infection. The serum samples were screened for antibodies against Brucella spp. by the Rose-Bengal Test (RBT, and all positive sera were confirmed by the 2-mercaptoethanol test (2-ME. The herd was considered positive if at least one animal had positive results for both the RBT and the 2-ME test. The prevalence rates of infected herds and animals in the State were 4.6% [3.2-6.5%] and 2.5% [1.1-3.9%], respectively. The prevalence rates of infected herds and animals in the regions were, respectively: region 1, 3.2% [1.5-6.6%] and 1.7% [0.5-5.7%]; region 2, 2.2% [0.9-5.2%] and 0.7% [0.3-1.7%]; and region 3, 7.9% [5.0-12.2%] and 3.2% [1.6-6.3%]. The risk factor (odds ratio, OR associated with the presence of the infection was Zebuine as the predominant breed (OR=12.30 [1.32-114.64].

  20. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Analysis For Disease Detection: Proof Of Principle For Field Studies Detecting Paratuberculosis And Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Henri; Köhler, Heike; Nicola, Commander; Reinhold, Petra; Turner, Claire; Chambers, Mark

    2009-05-01

    A proof of concept investigation was performed to demonstrate that two independent infectious diseases of cattle result in different patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the headspace of serum samples detectable using an electronic nose (e-nose). A total of 117 sera from cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (paraTB, n = 43) or Brucella sp. (n = 26) and sera from corresponding control animals (n = 48) were randomly and analysed blind to infection status using a ST214 e-nose (Scensive Ltd, Leeds, UK). Samples were collected under non-standardised conditions on different farms from the UK (brucellosis) and Germany (paraTB). The e-nose could differentiate the sera from brucellosis infected, paraTB infected and healthy animals at the population level, but the technology used was not suitable for determination of the disease status of individual animals. Nevertheless, the data indicate that there are differences in the sensor responses depending on the disease status, and therefore, it shows the potential of VOC analysis from serum headspace samples for disease detection.

  1. Latex agglutination using the periplasmic proteins antigen of Brucella melitensis is a successful, rapid, and specific serodiagnostic test for ovine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Alaa Bassuny; Swelum, Ayman Abdel-Aziz; Mostafa, Salama A-H; Alhumiany, Abdel-Rahman A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis, especially caused by Brucella melitensis, is considered the most-widespread zoonosis in the world, particularly in developing countries. This study was planned to develop an accurate test for diagnosis of ovine brucellosis using a specific hot saline extracted soluble Brucella melitensis periplasmic proteins (SBPPs). The efficacy of the latex agglutination test (LAT) using SBPPs compared to the Rose Bengal test (RBT), buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT), serum agglutination test (SAT), and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) was evaluated in the field diagnosis of ovine brucellosis. The test performance was evaluated by estimating sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), disease prevalence (DP), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) using test agreement and bacteriological culture in 1777 samples. The false-positive result was significantly (P ⩽0.05) lower in LAT than RBT, BPAT, SAT, and i-ELISA. With reference to test agreement, the Se, Sp, PPV, and PLR were highest (P ⩽0.05) in LAT 99.33%, 99.88%, 98.68%, and 827.25%, respectively. With reference to bacteriological culture, the LAT and i-ELISA tests showed a significant difference in Se with SAT. However, no significant difference in specificity was detected. The DP was 8.44% in the five tests. In conclusion, LAT using SBPPs of B. melitensis could be a suitable serodiagnostic field test for ovine brucellosis, with high sensitivity and specificity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. How do you get the Rose Bengal Test at the point-of-care to diagnose brucellosis in Africa? The importance of a systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Bardosh, Kevin L

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is a major neglected zoonotic disease, whose burden both in animals and humans is severely under-reported. Diagnosis in humans identifies cases in order to treat the disease at the individual level. In animals diagnosis is implemented at the population level in the context of appropriate control or eradication strategies. Molecular and bacteriological diagnosis are rarely undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa, at least outside research projects, due to cost, skills and laboratory infrastructure issues. The brucellosis toolbox contains a wide range of serological tests, but the perfect test for use in animals and humans respectively does not exist. Drug and diagnostic discovery for the neglected zoonoses are notoriously poor, and there is limited investment interest in developing new tools for brucellosis diagnosis. But are current tools being used to their full capacity? The rose Bengal test (RBT) stands out as an efficient, practical and very cheap test adapted for use in the resource-poor context. In this paper, we argue that a social science or system's approach to explore the practicality of improving diagnostic capacity at the point-of care in high-risk brucellosis areas of rural Africa may be a step towards solving the issue of under-diagnosis, but this must go hand-in-hand with implementation of control measures at source in the animal reservoir and capacity to treat human cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Brucella immunoglobulin M and G flow assays with serum agglutination and 2-mercaptoethanol tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeytinoğlu, Ayşin; Turhan, Ajda; Altuğlu, Imre; Bilgiç, Altinay; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnostic value of Brucella IgM/IgG flow assays was evaluated in comparison with serum agglutination and 2-mercaptoethanol tests by testing a selection of serum samples submitted to the laboratory because of clinical suspicion of brucellosis. All 39 admission and 11 follow-up samples that

  4. Invasive human brucellosis infection in travelers to and immigrants from the Horn of Africa related to the consumption of raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Heather M; Williams, David N; Hansen, Glen T

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is the commonest zoonosis worldwide and typically results from ingestion of unpasteurized goat and sheep milk and cheese. Consumption of camel milk is common in the Middle East and the Horn of Africa, but is an infrequently reported source of brucellosis. We report three immigrant patients seen in one hospital system between 2007 and 2013 with brucellosis due to the consumption of camel milk. The case patients presented after 3-14 days of symptoms following travel to countries where Brucella is endemic. All three patients were bacteremic. One patient had definite infective endocarditis, one had possible endocarditis and one patient presented with acute brucellosis. The diagnoses were made expeditiously and appropriate treatment initiated. Knowledge of travel, local customs and immigration patterns are keys to early Brucella diagnosis and optimal treatment. Previous reports implicating camel milk as the source of Brucella infection have been limited to patients living in or traveling to and from the Middle East. This report highlights the acquisition of Brucella infection in travelers to and immigrants from the Horn of Africa related to the consumption of camel milk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Brucellosis is not a major cause of febrile illness in patients at public health care facilities in Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nga, Tran T. T.; de Vries, Peter J.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the presence of brucellosis among patients with acute febrile illness at health care facilities in Binh Thuan province, Vietnam. A retrospective seroepidemiological study on serum samples collected at 13 not adjacent health care facilities using the Rose Bengal test as a rapid screening

  6. Eradication of bovine brucellosis in the Azores, Portugal-Outcome of a 5-year programme (2002-2007) based on test-and-slaughter and RB51 vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, H; Garin-Bastuji, B; Lima, F; Flor, L; Pina Fonseca, A; Boinas, F

    2009-07-01

    Bovine brucellosis is an important contagious disease that can cause abortions and infertility in cattle, and can be transmitted to humans. Despite having an eradication programme in place since 1994, in 2000 the situation of bovine brucellosis due to Brucella abortus was not significantly improving in 3 of the 9 islands (Terceira, S. Miguel and S. Jorge) of the archipelago of Azores, an autonomous region of Portugal. Farming on these islands, particularly dairy, is extensive. Therefore, the use of RB51 vaccine, which does not induce antibodies detectable with routine brucellosis diagnostic tests, was implemented. This article reports the results of an eradication programme based on RB51 mass vaccination combined with test-and-slaughter, which was implemented in the Azores during the 2002-2007 period. During the first round of vaccination, both adult cows and heifers were vaccinated. Subsequently, only replacement stock aged 4-12 months, were immunized with RB51.The test-and-slaughter policy based on bulk milk ring test (MRT) and serological surveillance was maintained. During this period, the average brucellosis herd incidence, herd prevalence and individual prevalence decreased 69.26%, 39.26% and 75.41% respectively for the three above-mentioned islands. However, disease reduction approaching eradication was obtained only on the island of Terceira, where a high level of vaccine coverage was rapidly reached and regularly maintained together with strict application of a test-and-slaughter programme. This work shows that the RB51 vaccine could be a useful tool for eradicating bovine brucellosis in well-controlled epidemiological units provided that there is mass vaccine coverage for a sufficiently long period of time and it is combined with an appropriate test-and-slaughter programme.

  7. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda.

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    Catherine Kansiime

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda.This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method.All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process.The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such as wildlife authorities

  8. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansiime, Catherine; Atuyambe, Lynn M; Asiimwe, Benon B; Mugisha, Anthony; Mugisha, Samuel; Guma, Victor; Rwego, Innocent B; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda. This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method. All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process. The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such as wildlife authorities, community

  9. A randomized, comparative study of dual therapy (doxycycline-rifampin) versus triple therapy (doxycycline-rifampin-levofloxacin) for treating acute/subacute brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanain, Ahmad; Mahdy, Reem; Mohamed, Asmaa; Ali, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare both the efficacy and safety profile of the WHO-recommended, dual therapy (doxycycline-rifampin) to a quinolone-based, triple therapy (doxycycline-rifampin-levofloxacin) for treating acute/subacute brucellosis. We studied 107 consecutive, naïve patients with acute/subacute brucellosis admitted to Assiut University Hospital. Patients were randomly allocated to receive the dual therapy of doxycycline-rifampin (group-A) or to receive the triple therapy of doxycycline-rifampin-levofloxacin (group-B). Acute/subacute brucellosis was diagnosed based on the presence of: (1) contact with animals or fresh animal products, (2) suggestive clinical manifestations of less than one-year duration, and (3) positive antibody titer (1:160) by standard tube agglutination test. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding their demographic data. Fever was the most frequent manifestation (96.3%). Epigastric pain was the most frequent adverse effect of treatment (12.1%). Group-A patients had a significantly higher relapse rate compared to group-B patients (22.6% versus 9.3%, p-value=0.01). The rate of treatment adverse effects was higher among group-B patients, although not reaching statistical significance (20.4% versus 11.3%, p-value=0.059). Adding levofloxacin to the dual therapy for acute/subacute brucellosis (doxycycline-rifampin) may increase its efficacy in terms of lowering the relapse rate of the disease. Further, larger scale studies are needed before considering modifying the standard, dual therapy for brucellosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. SDR-2 as a strong candidate vaccine for brucellosis in animals

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    Maxs U.E Sanam

    2001-10-01

    study on its efficacy as a vaccine for brucellosis in pigs as the primary host for B. suis needs to be assessed.

  11. The Co- Infection of Crime Congo Hemorrhagic Fever and Brucellosis: A Case Report

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    A Saghafipour

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a viral disease transmitted to ruminants or human by the bite of mature tick vectors. It can be transmitted through contact with the infectious blood or viraemic tissues during slaughter and hospital contacts. 80% of the cases are sub clinical and the rest of them are presenting with an acute febrile and occasionally hemorrhagic disease. The mortality rate of the fulminate form of the disease is equal to 20% to 50%. The hemorrhage is usually in the form of hematoma, melena, nose, conjunctiva, uterine or subcutaneous bleeding. CCHF complications are: encephalitis, optic neuropathy, hepatitis, renal failure and myocardial necrosis.

     

    Case Report: In this article, we’ve discussed a CCHF patient who presented with high fever, myalgia, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diffuse cutaneous and gingival hemorrhage during the course of the disease while the patient was hospitalized. Profound jaundice, petechia and global ecchymosis were considerable. Lab data showed at the beginning of hospitalization that the number of liver enzymes was increased up to 8-10 times. The number of placates were lower than 150000 ml. Moreover, during the first three days there was a decrease in the number of white blood cells and PTT was abnormal. (AST was higher than 100 units per litre. The results of serologic examination of IgM- ELISA virus for CCHF on day 5 and IgG-ELISA on day 10–which were carried out in pasture Institute-were reported to be positive. According to the patient’s history and clinical symptoms, he was also suspicious for Brucellosis and the lab data demonstrated that he is also infected with Brucella. (Wright=1.320, 2ME=1.160 (The patient was a 22 year old man, sheep farmer, residing in the GhalehKamkar area of Qom City.

     

  12. Controlling bovine brucellosis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil: results after ten years of a vaccination program

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    Ricardo Augusto Dias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross- sectional study was carried out, between May and November 2011, to estimate the situation of the bovine brucellosis in São Paulo State, 10 years after the commencement of the vaccination of the heifers with the S19 strain. The State was divided into seven regions and in each of them, 300 farms with reproductive activity were randomly chosen and considered as primary sample units. A fixed number of cows was randomly selected and tested for antibodies against Brucella spp. A farm was considered infected if at least one female tested positive. In the selected farms, an epidemiological questionnaire was administered which focused on herd traits as well as husbandry and sanitary practices that could be associated with the risk of infection. The prevalence (percentile, [95% confidence interval] of infected herds was 10.2% [8.8-11.8] for the State, and for the regions, it varied from 7.3% [4.7-11.2] to 12.3% [8.8-16.8], not showing significant difference between different regions. The apparent prevalence of positive farms in the State and regions remained similar to the prevalence observed 10 years before. The prevalence of positive animals was 2.4% [1.8-3.1] in the State and varied from 1.1% [0.6-2] to 3.5% [1.7-7.1] in the regions, not showing significant difference between regions. Again, there was no difference in the prevalence of positive animals after 10 years of the vaccination program. The risk factors (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval associated with bovine brucellosis in the State included number of cows ? 24 (3.08, 2.22-4.27 and the acquisition of breeding animals (1.33, 0.95-1.87. The São Paulo State should conduct systematic vaccination coverage of above 80% of the eligible heifers with the S19 strain vaccine annually. Moreover, the State should emphatically use RB51 strain vaccine in females above 8 months of age not vaccinated with S19 strain vaccine. An efficient animal health education program to orientate farmers to

  13. Epidemiological investigation of the first human brucellosis case in Spain due to Brucella suis biovar 1 strain 1330.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compés Dea, Cecilia; Guimbao Bescós, Joaquín; Alonso Pérez de Ágreda, Juan Pablo; Muñoz Álvaro, Pilar María; Blasco Martínez, José María; Villuendas Usón, María Cruz

    2017-03-01

    No cases of human brucellosis caused by Brucella suis has been reported in Spain. This study involved interviews with the case and his co-workers, inspection of their workplace, checking infection control measures, and typing the Brucella strain isolated in the blood culture. Brucella suis biovar 1 strain 1330 was isolated from a patient who worked in a waste treatment plant. Food borne transmission, contact with animals, and risk jobs were ruled out. An accidental inoculation with a contaminated needle from a research laboratory waste container was identified as the most probable mode of transmission. There should be controls to ensure that waste containers are sealed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Cross-sectional study of brucellosis in Jordan: Prevalence, risk factors and spatial distribution in small ruminants and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musallam, I I; Abo-Shehada, M; Omar, M; Guitian, J

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is considered endemic in many Middle Eastern countries including Jordan. To determine the frequency, risk factors and spatial distribution of ruminant brucellosis in Jordan, a nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted. Small ruminant flocks (n=333) and cattle herds (n=204) were randomly selected, and their disease status was ascertained by testing individual serum samples using the Rose Bengal Test and a competitive ELISA (sheep and goats) and milk samples using an indirect ELISA (cattle). Information on putative risk factors was collected using standardized questionnaires. A logistic model with a binomial outcome was built to identify risk factors for being seropositive. The estimated true seroprevalence values were 18.1% (95% CI: 11-25.3) (cattle-only herds), 22.2% (95% CI: 16.5-28.8) (sheep flocks), 45.4% (95% CI: 30.3-61.6) (goat herds), 70.4% (95% CI: 55.5-84.9) (mixed sheep-goat flocks), 34.3% (95% CI: 28.4, 40.4) (all small ruminant flocks) and 38.5% (95% CI: 24.3-51.8) (mixed herds of cattle and small ruminants). Only 1.5% of small ruminant flocks were vaccinated. The seroprevalence was higher in northern areas, where livestock density is also higher. The logistic model fitted the data well and had a very high predictive ability. In the small ruminant model, five variables were significantly associated with a higher odds of seropositivity: lending/borrowing rams (OR=8.9, 95% CI: 3.0-26.1), feeding aborted material to dogs (OR=8.0, 95% CI: 3.5-18.1) the presence of goats (OR=6.9, 95% CI: 3.1-15.4), introducing new animals to the flock (OR=5.8, 95% CI: 2.5-13.6), and a large flock size (OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.6). Conversely, separating newly introduced animals (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.47), separating animals that had aborted (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.08-0.46) and using disinfectants to clean pens (OR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.83) were significantly associated with a lower odds of being seropositive. The main risk factor for cattle herds being

  15. Application of the indirect enzyme-labeled antibody microtest to the detection and surveillance of animal diseases. [Brucellosis, cholera, and trichinosis in cattle and swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, G.C. Clinard, E.H.; Bartlett, M.L.; Sanders, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    The rapid, indirect enzyme-labeled antibody (ELA) microplate test has been developed as a diagnostic and surveillance tool to aid in the control of animal disease. Data are presented, which illustrate the application of the test to viral (hog cholera), parasitic (trichinosis), and bacterial (brucellosis) diseases of animals. A greater than 95 percent correlation was observed between the hog cholera ELA test and the hog cholera serum neutralization test performed on over 2000 mixed hog cholera positive and negative field samples obtained during the 1976 New Jersey epizootic. Of 56 swine naturally infected with Trichinella spiralis at a level considered dangerous to man, all were ELA positive, while only one of 360 T. spiralis negative packing house sera was ELA positive. Preliminary experiments with bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) indicate that the ELA test is more sensitive than other test methods currently in use. ELA procedures should soon become tests of choice for the detection of antibodies to animal disease agents.

  16. Control of Bovine Brucellosis from Persistently Infected Holdings Using RB51 Vaccination with Test-and-Slaughter: A Comparative Case Report from a High Incidence Area in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, M C; Afonso, F; Ribeiro, R; Fonseca, A P; Abernethy, D A; Boinas, F

    2016-02-01

    Bovine brucellosis due to Brucella abortus infection causes significant reproductive and production losses in cattle and is a major zoonosis. Eradication of this disease has proved difficult to achieve in Portugal where it still occurs in some regions despite an ongoing national eradication programme. In 2004, the Alentejo region, a major cattle producing area, reported one of the highest levels of bovine brucellosis in the country, especially in one divisional area. In that area, bovine brucellosis was particularly problematic in a holding of ten herds, the largest extensive cattle unit in the country, which remained infected despite an extensive test-and-slaughter programme and depopulation of five herds. A 5-year programme of RB51 vaccination with biannual test-and-slaughter was thus implemented in 2004. The apparent animal seroprevalence decreased from 19% (646/3,400) to 3% (88/2930) on the third herd-level test and remained below 0.8% (27/3324) after the fourth test. After the tenth test, the holding had a prevalence of 0.1% (2/2332) and only one herd remained positive with a within-herd prevalence of 1.1% (2/177). The results were compared to all other herds (n = 10) in the divisional area that were also persistently infected but were subject only to test-and-slaughter before being depopulated. In these herds, the strategy of test-and-slaughter did not reduce the prevalence, which remained significantly higher than the vaccinated group (median = 0.48% and 8.5% in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated herds; Wilcoxon rank sum test; P RB51 vaccination with parallel testing and improved biosecurity as a comprehensive and sustainable strategy for bovine brucellosis control in persistently infected herds. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Pbrucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Reliability evaluation of sampling plan fixed by Council Directive 91/68/EEC for the maintenance of officially brucellosis-free flock status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Massis, F; Petrini, A; Giovannini, A

    2005-08-01

    The European Union (EU) strategy with respect to sheep and goat brucellosis aims to eradicate the infection and achieve officially brucellosis-free (OBF) status in all EU holdings and territories. Council Directive 91/68/EEC of 28 January 1991 states that to maintain OBF status of ovine or caprine holdings located outside an OBF territory, only a representative number of animals need to be tested annually. However, depending on the number of animals in a holding, this testing method risks non-detection of the infection, thereby reducing the efficacy of the brucellosis control plan. The recommended sampling procedure has a low sensitivity for detecting infection in medium-sized flocks; furthermore, the risk of not detecting re-infection in OBF flocks, particularly in territories that have not yet gained OBF status, is also not acceptable. Moreover, in large-sized flocks, the Directive sampling procedure entails taking an excessive number of samples, which can be very expensive. The authors evaluated, by using statistical analyses and a simulation model based on field data, the possible consequences of the current EU strategy. It is suggested that the sampling criteria for the maintenance of OBF status in the EU should be modified and that a statistically based sampling method should be applied instead of the fixed percentage method that is currently in use.

  19. Protection of Brucella abortus RB51 revaccinated cows, introduced in a herd with active brucellosis, with presence of atypical humoral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Hernandez, Marisela; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Pérez, Rafael; Andrade, Laura Hernández; Arellano-Reynoso, Beatriz; Alfonseca, Edgar; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    It is a dogma, that RB51 vaccination does not induce antibodies that interfere with Brucellosis diagnosis, therefore any animal positive to serological test is considered as an infected animal. To determine protection against Brucellosis virulent field strain, 35 pregnant cows from a free-Brucellosis herd, previously vaccinated as calves with 1 x 10(10) CFU of RB51, were revaccinated with RB51 reduced dose, and then introduced into a herd with an active outbreak. Seventeen cows resulted positive in card test after revaccination. All 35 pregnant revaccinated cows had normal parturition; nevertheless, RB51 vaccine strain was isolated from milk and vaginal exudates from two cows after delivery at day 120 post-revaccination. At 150 days post-revaccination, two cows were positives to card and rivanol test and the field virulent strain was isolated. Revaccination with a reduced dose of RB51 in endemic zones did not cause abortion and protected 94% of animals against field infection, but caused an atypical response to conventional serological tests.

  20. Vaccination of adult animals with a reduced dose of Brucella abortus S19 vaccine to control brucellosis on dairy farms in endemic areas of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Puran; Chhabra, Rajesh; Nagra, Juhi

    2015-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis is an economically important disease which seriously affects dairy farming by causing colossal losses. It can be controlled by practicing vaccination of animals with Brucella abortus S19 vaccine (S19 vaccine). In the present study, adult bovines were vaccinated on seven dairy farms with a reduced dose of S19 vaccine to control brucellosis. Serological screening of adult animals (N = 1,082) by Rose Bengal test (RBT) and ELISA prior to vaccination revealed the presence and absence of brucellosis on five and two farms, respectively. The positive animals (N = 171) were segregated and those which tested negative (N = 911) were vaccinated by conjunctival route with a booster after 4 months. The conjunctival vaccination induced weak antibody response in animals, which vanished within a period of 9 to 12 weeks. Abortion in 12 animals at various stages of pregnancy and post-vaccination was recorded, but none was attributed to S19 vaccine. However, virulent B. abortus was incriminated in six heifers, and the cause of abortion could not be established in six animals. The six aborted heifers perhaps acquired infection through in utero transmission or from the environment which remained undetected until abortion. These findings suggested that vaccination of adult animals with a reduced dose of S19 vaccine by conjunctival route did not produce adverse effects like abortion in pregnant animals and persistent vaccinal antibody titers, which are the major disadvantages of subcutaneous vaccination of adult animals.