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Sample records for brucellosis increases relative

  1. Mapping brucellosis increases relative to elk density using hierarchical Bayesian models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Edwards, William H.; Brennan, Angela; Ebinger, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between host density and parasite transmission is central to the effectiveness of many disease management strategies. Few studies, however, have empirically estimated this relationship particularly in large mammals. We applied hierarchical Bayesian methods to a 19-year dataset of over 6400 brucellosis tests of adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming. Management captures that occurred from January to March were over two times more likely to be seropositive than hunted elk that were killed in September to December, while accounting for site and year effects. Areas with supplemental feeding grounds for elk had higher seroprevalence in 1991 than other regions, but by 2009 many areas distant from the feeding grounds were of comparable seroprevalence. The increases in brucellosis seroprevalence were correlated with elk densities at the elk management unit, or hunt area, scale (mean 2070 km2; range = [95–10237]). The data, however, could not differentiate among linear and non-linear effects of host density. Therefore, control efforts that focus on reducing elk densities at a broad spatial scale were only weakly supported. Additional research on how a few, large groups within a region may be driving disease dynamics is needed for more targeted and effective management interventions. Brucellosis appears to be expanding its range into new regions and elk populations, which is likely to further complicate the United States brucellosis eradication program. This study is an example of how the dynamics of host populations can affect their ability to serve as disease reservoirs.

  2. Mapping brucellosis increases relative to elk density using hierarchical Bayesian models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Cross

    Full Text Available The relationship between host density and parasite transmission is central to the effectiveness of many disease management strategies. Few studies, however, have empirically estimated this relationship particularly in large mammals. We applied hierarchical Bayesian methods to a 19-year dataset of over 6400 brucellosis tests of adult female elk (Cervus elaphus in northwestern Wyoming. Management captures that occurred from January to March were over two times more likely to be seropositive than hunted elk that were killed in September to December, while accounting for site and year effects. Areas with supplemental feeding grounds for elk had higher seroprevalence in 1991 than other regions, but by 2009 many areas distant from the feeding grounds were of comparable seroprevalence. The increases in brucellosis seroprevalence were correlated with elk densities at the elk management unit, or hunt area, scale (mean 2070 km(2; range = [95-10237]. The data, however, could not differentiate among linear and non-linear effects of host density. Therefore, control efforts that focus on reducing elk densities at a broad spatial scale were only weakly supported. Additional research on how a few, large groups within a region may be driving disease dynamics is needed for more targeted and effective management interventions. Brucellosis appears to be expanding its range into new regions and elk populations, which is likely to further complicate the United States brucellosis eradication program. This study is an example of how the dynamics of host populations can affect their ability to serve as disease reservoirs.

  3. Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucellosis is an infectious disease that occurs from contact with animals carrying brucella bacteria. ... you eat or drink unpasteurized milk or cheese. Brucellosis is rare in the United States. About 100 ...

  4. Brucellosis

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    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Brucellosis Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. People ...

  5. Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tests that may be done include: Blood culture Bone marrow culture Urine culture CSF (spinal fluid) culture Serology ( ... Health problems that may result from brucellosis include: Bone and joint sores (lesions) Encephalitis Infective endocarditis Meningitis

  6. A Prospective Study of Brucellosis in Children: Relative Frequency of Pancytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed El Koumi; Mona Afify; Salha Al-Zahrani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective Hematological complications of brucellosis are common. Pancytopenia, although mainly reported in adults, has also been described in children with brucellosis. This investigation was conducted to estimate the relative frequency of pancytopenia in children with brucellosis. Methods The current study was conducted in Al-Khafji Joint Operations Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Sixty patients with brucellosis were enrolled in the study. Complete blood count (CBC) and blood culture were p...

  7. Probable causes of increasing brucellosis in free-ranging elk of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P.C.; Cole, E.K.; Dobson, A.P.; Edwards, W.H.; Hamlin, K.L.; Luikart, G.; Middleton, A.D.; Scurlock, B.M.; White, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    While many wildlife species are threatened, some populations have recovered from previous overexploitation, and data linking these population increases with disease dynamics are limited. We present data suggesting that free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) are a maintenance host for Brucella abortus in new areas of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Brucellosis seroprevalence in free-ranging elk increased from 0-7% in 1991-1992 to 8-20% in 2006-2007 in four of six herd units around the GYE. These levels of brucellosis are comparable to some herd units where elk are artificially aggregated on supplemental feeding grounds. There are several possible mechanisms for this increase that we evaluated using statistical and population modeling approaches. Simulations of an age-structured population model suggest that the observed levels of seroprevalence are unlikely to be sustained by dispersal from supplemental feeding areas with relatively high seroprevalence or an older age structure. Increases in brucellosis seroprevalence and the total elk population size in areas with feeding grounds have not been statistically detectable. Meanwhile, the rate of seroprevalence increase outside the feeding grounds was related to the population size and density of each herd unit. Therefore, the data suggest that enhanced elk-to-elk transmission in free-ranging populations may be occurring due to larger winter elk aggregations. Elk populations inside and outside of the GYE that traditionally did not maintain brucellosis may now be at risk due to recent population increases. In particular, some neighboring populations of Montana elk were 5-9 times larger in 2007 than in the 1970s, with some aggregations comparable to the Wyoming feeding-ground populations. Addressing the unintended consequences of these increasing populations is complicated by limited hunter access to private lands, which places many ungulate populations out of administrative control. Agency-landowner hunting access

  8. Epidemiology and control of brucellosis in China.

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    Deqiu, Shang; Donglou, Xiao; Jiming, Yin

    2002-12-20

    The paper describes the history and evolvement of brucellosis in China. It presents the variation of epidemic situation, epidemiological characteristics, application of vaccines and control in brief. Before 1980s, human and animal brucellosis was quite severe; during 1980s, the incidence of human and animal brucellosis was relatively low, and seemed to decrease during the decade. During 1990s, there were no obvious changes in the incidence of animal brucellosis, but the incidence of human brucellosis increased, especially from 1995 to 2001. There are not only some common characteristics but also some differences in brucellosis epidemiology relative to that reported in the rest of the world. For the entire country, B. melitensis was the predominant strain associated with outbreaks, and the epidemic peak is from February to June. Several Brucella vaccines have been used in China for prevention and control of brucellosis. such as B. abortus 104 M in humans, B. suis S2 in animals. The introduction of comprehensive measures has allowed great progress in the prevention and control of brucellosis in China. Surveillance points were set-up countrywide to estimate the epidemic situation. In addition, we discussed the new characteristics of brucellosis in China, the influence of the El Nino phenomenon on brucellosis epidemic situation, the phenomenon of antigenic interference between Brucella species and some disadvantages of live Brucella vaccines. PMID:12414142

  9. Outbreaks of brucellosis related to the consumption of unpasteurized camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcell, Humberto G; Garcia, Elias G; Pueyo, Pedro V; Martín, Isis R; Arias, Ariadna V; Alfonso Serrano, Ramon N

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is the most frequent zoonosis reported in Qatar, mainly related to exposure to infected camels. An outbreak of human brucellosis in 14 members of a family living in a rural area in Qatar is reported herein. Clinical, epidemiological and laboratory results from all 14 patients with Brucella and 12 non-confirmed family members were collected from files. All patients reported fever for a maximum of 14 days, associated with arthralgia (6 patients), weakness (4 patients), headache (4 patients), diarrhea (2 patients) and abdominal pain (2 patients). The median age of the patients was 10 years and that of non-cases was 16 years, with a predominance of males (92.9%). Elevated levels of transaminases were observed in patients. A mixed infection caused by Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis was identified by blood culture and serology. The source of the infection was the milk of an infected camel. The outbreak of brucellosis melitensis/abortus related to the consumption of camel milk constitutes a gap in the prevention and control of the potential sources of brucellosis in animal farms. Proper control and education of the population are required. PMID:26796768

  10. Meningoencephalitis in brucellosis.

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    Kochar D

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis, more specifically neurobrucellosis, is a less commonly reported disease in India; although, animal brucellosis and seroprevalence in specific areas is well reported. We are reporting 4 cases of neurobrucellosis presenting as meningoencephalitis. Diagnosis was confirmed by serological test and agglutination titre was > 1:320 in all the patients. All these patients had close contact with animals and history of raw milk ingestion was present in 3 cases. The aim of presenting these cases is to create awareness among physicians while treating meningitis in persons, engaged in occupations related to brucellosis or having a history of ingestion of raw milk or milk product.

  11. Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria

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    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH and livestock marketers (LM in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5% of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262. Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05. In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations.

  12. Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Alabi, Peter I; Stack, Judy A; Cadmus, Simeon I B

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5%) of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262). Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations. PMID:23718254

  13. Spinal brucellosis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, relatively frequent in Mediterranean countries and in the Middle East. It is a systemic infection, caused by facultative intra-cellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, that can involve many organs and tissues. The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement, followed by the sacroiliac joints. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and imaging features of spinal brucellosis. (orig.)

  14. Spinal brucellosis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelli Bouaziz, Mouna; Ladeb, Mohamed Fethi; Chakroun, Mohamed; Chaabane, Skander [Institut M T Kassab d' orthopedie, Department of Radiology, Ksar Said (Tunisia)

    2008-09-15

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, relatively frequent in Mediterranean countries and in the Middle East. It is a systemic infection, caused by facultative intra-cellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, that can involve many organs and tissues. The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement, followed by the sacroiliac joints. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and imaging features of spinal brucellosis. (orig.)

  15. Ocular brucellosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tabbara, K F; al-Kassimi, H

    1990-01-01

    Though brucellosis has been eradicated from many countries, it remains a health problem in many developing countries. We report hereon a 34-year-old woman who presented with recurrent attacks of uveitis unresponsive to treatment with steroids. She was found to have systemic brucellosis, and Brucella melitensis was isolated from a paravertebral abscess. The condition responded to systemic antibiotics, and she completely recovered from her uveitis.

  16. Relation between interleukin-13 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to brucellosis in Iranian population

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    Sayed-Jalal-Aladin Ashraf-Mansuri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Brucella is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium. Previous reports showed that gene polymorphisms of cytokines can affect resistance or susceptibility to Brucella infection. Interleukin-13, a cytokine secreted by Th2 lymphocytes, has an important role in immune responses against established infections. In this study, we investigated the association of three polymorphic sites of IL-13 with susceptibility to brucellosis in Iranian population. In this study 169 patients with brucellosis and 71 healthy controls were included. DNA was extracted and genotyped for three bi-allelic polymorphisms of IL-13 gene at positions -1512A/C, -1055C/T, and +2044G/A by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. None of the studied alleles and genotypes of IL-13 gene (-1512A/C, -1055C/T, and +2044G/A showed significant relationship with susceptibility to brucellosis. However, among eight haplotypes, the distribution of TCG and CAA haplotypes were significantly higher in the patients compared with those in the controls (P=0.002 and P=0.034, respectively. Although, the later did not tolerate Bonferoni correction. On the contrary, the distribution of TCA haplotype was higher in the controls compared to that in the patients (P=0.01. Furthermore, TAG/TCA haplogenotypes were significantly higher among controls compared to the brucellosis patients (P=0.025. P value resulted from TCA and TAG/TCA did not tolerate Bonferroni correction. There is no association between the inheritance of different alleles and genotypes of interleukin-13 gene and susceptibility to brucellosis. However, it seems that the inheritance of some haplotypes and haplogenotypes of IL-13 can impact the susceptibility to brucellosis.

  17. Cytokine levels in patients with Brucellosis and their relations with the treatment

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    Akbulut H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the serum levels of proinflammatory and some of the Th1/Th2 cytokines in brucellosis and their alterations with treatment and outcome. Methods: Twenty-eight acute and seven subacute brucellosis patients diagnosed clinically were included in the study. Twenty healthy volunteers were also included. Brucella standard tube agglutination tests and blood culture were conducted on all subjects. Cytokine levels of pre- and post-treatment period serum samples were measured by ELISA. Results: The mean serum levels of IL-6, IFN-g and TNF-a were significantly higher in brucellosis patients compared to the control group ( P < 0.05. No significant differences were found between patient and control groups in terms of IL-1β , TGF-β 1, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-8 levels. There was a positive correlation between IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 levels with CRP levels. IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α levels measured after treatment were statistically significantly lower than pre-treatment values ( P < 0.001. No differences were found in the levels of these cytokines between acute and subacute patients′ sera. IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α levels were higher in acute or subacute brucellosis patients. Conclusions: Although the levels of the cytokines were decreased significantly with effective and adequate treatment these alterations did not correlate with the extent or activity of the disease.

  18. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  19. Control of brucellosis in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucellosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease and considered a great problem of major economic importance in most countries, particularly in those where no eradication programme is applied. In developing countries, ovine brucellosis is still a more frequent source of human infection, and attempts at eradication or campaigns for its control have often met with considerable difficulties. The Iraqi government has long been concerned with the danger brucellosis represents to public health and economy. The Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at Baghdad has a long history of work on brucellosis since in 1977-1985 different biotypes of Brucella melitensis, in particular biotype III, were prevalent and isolated from aborted foetuses and from sheep and goat milk. In addition, two biotypes of Brucella abortus were isolated from aborted calves. As a result, goats, sheep and cattle have a very high risk of morbidity. Serious incidences of brucellosis have been observed in 12% of goats, 10% of sheep and 0.5% of cattle. Recently, Iraq has faced an increasing incidence of the disease, because of inadequate observation of the rules and regulations concerning its control. Accordingly, Iraq has initiated action in co-operation with Jordan, Lebanon and the Syrian Arab Republic in order to develop a regional project in the framework of the elimination, prevention and eradication programme established in 1995

  20. Persistence of brucellosis in pastoral systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racloz, V; Schelling, E; Chitnis, N; Roth, F; Zinsstag, J

    2013-04-01

    Regarded as a highly contagious, zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution, brucellosis is endemic in many countries and settings and is responsible for a considerable economic and health-related burden. Limited information is available on the persistence and prevalence of brucellosis in pastoral communities, due to the difficulty in gathering information and to their mobility. However, since these communities are economically and culturally dependent on livestock, it is important to further determine the cause of persistent disease and develop possible methods for its management. The two main objectives of this paper are to review the literature, identifying various epidemiological and social factors that affect the persistence of brucellosis in pastoral ecosystems, and determine prevalence estimates within these communities. The general trend of the summarised studies indicates low-level, relatively stable transmission of brucellosis in pastoral areas, when compared to transmission in intensive and semi-intensive peri-urban production systems. A formal mathematical analysis can be undertaken using matrix models or coupled differential equations. This allows an examination of the various conditions under which the number of diseased, infected or exposed animals remains stable. The authors examined an existing mathematical differential equation model for brucellosis in Mongolia for its equilibrium conditions and found it reasonably robust, though clearly more data are needed to estimate threshold densities for brucellosis transmission in other regions of the world. However, the results indicate the importance of livestock demographic determinants for brucellosis persistence. The paper concludes that brucellosis remains largely persistent in pastoral areas of the world, despite (varying) control efforts. Plans to control brucellosis in pastoral settings should include ecological considerations, such as sustaining ecosystem services in pastoral areas. This

  1. Cutaneous manifestations in Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Karaali; Birol Baysal; Sule Poturoglu; Mehmet Kendir

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis is a common worldwide zoonotic disease. Cutaneous manifestations are not specific and affect 1–14% of patients with brucellosis. Here, we describe 49-year-old female with fever and a diffuse maculopapular rash due to Brucella melitensis infection. Histopathology of skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis; positive blood cultures for B. melitensis established the diagnosis of brucellosis. We provide a review of the relevant literature.

  2. Brucellosis among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Bouley, Andrew J.; Biggs, Holly M.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Afwamba, Isaac A.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from febrile inpatients identified at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed brucellosis was defined as a positive blood culture or a ≥ 4-fold increase in microagglutination test titer, and probable brucellosis was defined as a single reciprocal titer ≥ 160. Among 870 participants enrolled in the study, 455 (52.3%) had paired sera available. Of these, 16 (3.5%) met criteria for confirmed brucellosis. Of 830 participants with ≥ 1 serum s...

  3. Unusual manifestations of brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Onur; Avşar, Kemal; Zeynep Akçam, Füsun

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis is an important public health problem in the Mediterranean countries, including our country. Furthermore, because of different symptoms and clinical findings, the disease could be confused with several other diseases. In this article, three unusual findings of brucellosis are presented: pancytopenia, endocarditis and meningitis.

  4. Gum and Nose Bleeding as a Presentation of Pediatric Brucellosis

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    Hosseininasab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Brucellosis symptoms are nonspecific; the most common complaints include fever, sweats, anorexia, headache, malaise, and arthralgia. Hematological manifestations of active brucellosis vary from mild anemia and leukopenia to thrombocytopenia and rarely pancytopenia. Case Presentation We report on an eight-year-old boy who presented epistaxis and gum bleeding. The physical examination revealed petechiae, purpura, ecchymosis, and cervical while inguinal lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly were noted. Brucella agglutinin titer was positive. After five days of specific therapy for brucellosis, fever was controlled, clinical signs and symptoms were improved and platelet count was dramatically increased. Conclusions Sever thrombocytopenia and bleeding may be the presentation of brucellosis.

  5. Brucellosis among hospitalized febrile patients in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, Andrew J; Biggs, Holly M; Stoddard, Robyn A; Morrissey, Anne B; Bartlett, John A; Afwamba, Isaac A; Maro, Venance P; Kinabo, Grace D; Saganda, Wilbrod; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A

    2012-12-01

    Acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from febrile inpatients identified at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed brucellosis was defined as a positive blood culture or a ≥ 4-fold increase in microagglutination test titer, and probable brucellosis was defined as a single reciprocal titer ≥ 160. Among 870 participants enrolled in the study, 455 (52.3%) had paired sera available. Of these, 16 (3.5%) met criteria for confirmed brucellosis. Of 830 participants with ≥ 1 serum sample, 4 (0.5%) met criteria for probable brucellosis. Brucellosis was associated with increased median age (P = 0.024), leukopenia (odds ratio [OR] 7.8, P = 0.005), thrombocytopenia (OR 3.9, P = 0.018), and evidence of other zoonoses (OR 3.2, P = 0.026). Brucellosis was never diagnosed clinically, and although all participants with brucellosis received antibacterials or antimalarials in the hospital, no participant received standard brucellosis treatment. Brucellosis is an underdiagnosed and untreated cause of febrile disease among hospitalized adult and pediatric patients in northern Tanzania. PMID:23091197

  6. National Swine Brucellosis Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Finlay, Ronald C.; Roe, Richard T.; Kellar, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A national survey was conducted in 1985 to investigate the brucellosis status of the Canadian swine herd. Serum samples were collected from cull sows slaughtered over a forty week period in 1985; 15,707 samples were suitable for brucellosis testing, and 48 (0.31%) gave some degree of reaction on the buffered plate agglutination screening test. All 48 samples were negative on the 2-mercaptoethanol and modified complement fixation test. We therefore conclude that the Canadian swine herd remains...

  7. Meningoencephalitis in brucellosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kochar D; Kumawat B; Agarwal N; Shubharakaran; Aseri S; Sharma B; Rastogi A

    2000-01-01

    Human brucellosis, more specifically neurobrucellosis, is a less commonly reported disease in India; although, animal brucellosis and seroprevalence in specific areas is well reported. We are reporting 4 cases of neurobrucellosis presenting as meningoencephalitis. Diagnosis was confirmed by serological test and agglutination titre was > 1:320 in all the patients. All these patients had close contact with animals and history of raw milk ingestion was present in 3 cases. The aim of presentin...

  8. Risk Assessment of Diary Cattle Brucellosis Based on Systematic Multilevel Grey Relation Entropy Method%基于系统多层次灰色关联熵的奶牛布鲁菌病风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙向东; 江慎铭; 刘拥军

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探究影响奶牛布病风险评估的主要因素及其影响强弱顺序,为合理评估不同地区的奶牛布病风险水平提供理论依据。[方法]从饲养与调入、繁育、饲养环境、混养情况四个维度,设定了评价指标体系,选取了3个有代表性的地区进行了奶牛布病风险调查,应用系统多层次灰色关联熵分析方法进行数据分析。[结果]一级影响因子对奶牛布病风险影响大小的顺序为:饲养与调入〉饲养环境〉混养情况〉繁育;二级影响因子对奶牛布病风险影响大小的顺序为:U32〉U12〉U11〉U31〉U21〉U42〉U43〉U23〉U22〉U41;3个有代表性的地区奶牛布病风险水平为:A省份(A1县、A2县、A3县)〉B省份(B1县、B2县、B3县)〉C省份(C1县、C2县、C3县)。[结论]根据一级指标层的权重,各级政府主管部门与奶牛养殖户应首先注重饲养与调入和饲养环境这两方面;而从二级指标层的加权权重来看,奶牛养殖户应首先重视奶牛场的选址,奶牛调入前的布病检测,挤奶方式等;根据3个有代表性的地区奶牛布病风险水平来看,各地政府主管部门只要加大宣传力度和投资力度,在当地形成奶牛养殖新风气,奶牛布病风险水平一定可以降低。%[Objective] The study was to explore the major factors affecting diary cattle brucellosis risk assessment,as well as their strong-to-weak sequence,so as to provide theoretical basis for assessing diary cattle brucellosis risk level in different regions.[Method] From 4 dimensions of feeding and importing,breeding,housing and polyculture situation,an evaluation index system was set up,and diary cattle brucellosis risk survey was conducted in 3 typical regions.Finally,systematic multilevel grey relation entropy method was applied to perform data analysis.[Result] The strong-to-weak sequence of Level 1 impact factor of diary cattle brucellosis was as follows:feeding and

  9. Brucellosis in Childhood

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    Ulku Gul

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is still an important infectious disease, being widespread as endemic and sporadic cases in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and laboratory findings, treatment modalities and final outcomes of brucellosis in children. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective record review of all patients 0-18 years of age with brucellosis admitted during a 8-year period between January 2003 and September 2010.Results: Of the 62 patients, 39 (63% were male. The mean age and standard deviation of patients was 120±51.7 months (4 months-18 years. Most common symptoms on admission were fever (88%, arthralgia (64% and dizziness (19%. On physical examination, the findings and percentages were as follows; arthritis (29%, lymphadenopathy (25%, hepatomegaly (24% and splenomegaly (17%. Fifty-one percent of the patients had high sedimentation rate, 41% had high transaminase levels, and 40% had positivity for C-Reactive Protein. Brucella agglutination tests were positive in all cases. Brucella spp. was isolated from blood cultures in 27% of the cases. All of the cases were given combined drug therapy. Three of the cases (4.8% had relapses during the follow up period. No mortality was seen in patients with brucellosis.Conclusion: Childhood brucellosis remains an important public health problem in our country. It may cause serious complications in children, and treatment with at least two antibiotics for not less than six weeks appears to be effective.

  10. Economic losses due to bovine brucellosis in Brazil

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    Renato L. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars. Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.

  11. Solution structure of an arsenate reductase-related protein, YffB, from Brucella melitensis, the etiological agent responsible for brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. melitensis is a NIAID Category B microorganism that is responsible for brucellosis and is a potential agent for biological warfare. Here, the solution structure of the 116-residue arsenate reductase-related protein Bm-YffB (BR0369) from this organism is reported. Brucella melitensis is the etiological agent responsible for brucellosis. Present in the B. melitensis genome is a 116-residue protein related to arsenate reductases (Bm-YffB; BR0369). Arsenate reductases (ArsC) convert arsenate ion (H2AsO4−), a compound that is toxic to bacteria, to arsenite ion (AsO2−), a product that may be efficiently exported out of the cell. Consequently, Bm-YffB is a potential drug target because if arsenate reduction is the protein’s major biological function then disabling the cell’s ability to reduce arsenate would make these cells more sensitive to the deleterious effects of arsenate. Size-exclusion chromatography and NMR spectroscopy indicate that Bm-YffB is a monomer in solution. The solution structure of Bm-YffB shows that the protein consists of two domains: a four-stranded mixed β-sheet flanked by two α-helices on one side and an α-helical bundle. The α/β domain is characteristic of the fold of thioredoxin-like proteins and the overall structure is generally similar to those of known arsenate reductases despite the marginal sequence similarity. Chemical shift perturbation studies with 15N-labeled Bm-YffB show that the protein binds reduced glutathione at a site adjacent to a region similar to the HX3CX3R catalytic sequence motif that is important for arsenic detoxification activity in the classical arsenate-reductase family of proteins. The latter observation supports the hypothesis that the ArsC-YffB family of proteins may function as glutathione-dependent thiol reductases. However, comparison of the structure of Bm-YffB with the structures of proteins from the classical ArsC family suggest that the mechanism and possibly the function of Bm-YffB and other

  12. Cattle producers' economic incentives for preventing bovine brucellosis under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Trenton W; Peck, Dannele E; Ritten, John P

    2012-12-01

    Cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem occasionally contract bovine brucellosis from free-ranging elk and bison. Cattle producers use a variety of brucellosis prevention activities to reduce their herds' risk of contracting brucellosis, such as: (1) having state agency personnel haze elk off private land, (2) fencing haystacks, (3) administering adult booster vaccination, (4) spaying heifers, (5) altering the winter-feeding schedule of cattle, (6) hiring riders to prevent cattle-elk commingling, and (7) delaying grazing on high-risk allotments. Their brucellosis prevention decisions are complicated, however, by several sources of uncertainty, including the following: a cattle herd's baseline risk of contracting brucellosis, the inherent randomness of brucellosis outbreaks, the cost of implementing prevention activities, and the activities' effectiveness. This study eliminates one source of uncertainty by estimating the cost of implementing brucellosis prevention activities on a representative cow/calf-long yearling operation in the southern GYE. It then reports the minimum level of effectiveness each prevention activity must achieve to justify investment by a risk-neutral producer. Individual producers face different levels of baseline risk, however, and the US government's brucellosis-response policy is constantly evolving. We therefore estimate breakeven levels of effectiveness for a range of baseline risks and government policies. Producers, animal health experts, and policymakers can use this study's results to determine which brucellosis prevention activities are unlikely to generate sufficient expected benefits to cover their cost of implementation. Results also demonstrate the influence of government policy on producers' incentives to prevent brucellosis. Policies that increase the magnitude of economic loss a producer incurs when their herd contracts brucellosis subsequently decrease prevention activities' breakeven levels of effectiveness, and

  13. Brucellosis in India – a review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basappa G Mantur; Satish K Amarnath

    2008-11-01

    Brucellosis is an important re-emerging zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. It is still an uncontrolled serious public health problem in many developing countries including India. Brucellosis in India is yet a very common but often neglected disease. Currently, Brucella melitensis accounts for most recorded cases globally with cattle emerging as a important reservoir with the few cases of B. suis. Isolated cases of non-terrestrial brucellosis and continuing transmission from wild animals have raised important epidemiological issues. Routine serological surveillance along with high clinical suspicion and screening of family members of index cases would be essential in delineating the real magnitude of human brucellosis in endemic countries. Increased business and leisure travel to endemic countries have led to diagnostic challenge in non-endemic areas. Laboratory testing is indispensable for diagnosis. Advances in newer rapid, sensitive, and specific testing methodologies and alternate treatment strategies are urgently needed. A safe and effective vaccine in human is not yet available. Prevention is dependent upon increasing public awareness through health education programmes and safe livestock practices. Active co-operation between health and veterinary services should be promoted. This review collates world literature and its impact to the discovery, isolation and diagnosis and epidemiology along with the control measures adapted in the Indian scenario.

  14. Effects of management and climate on elk brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P.C.; Edwards, W.H.; Scurlock, B.M.; Maichak, E.J.; Rogerson, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Every winter, government agencies feed ???6000 metric tons (6 ?? 106 kg) of hay to elk in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) to limit transmission of Brucella abortus, the causative agent of brucellosis, from elk to cattle. Supplemental feeding, however, is likely to increase the transmission of brucellosis in elk, and may be affected by climatic factors, such as snowpack. We assessed these possibilities using snowpack and feeding data from 1952 to 2006 and disease testing data from 1993 to 2006. Brucellosis seroprevalence was strongly correlated with the timing of the feeding season. Longer feeding seasons were associated with higher seroprevalence, but elk population size and density had only minor effects. In other words, the duration of host aggregation and whether it coincided with peak transmission periods was more important than just the host population size. Accurate modeling of disease transmission depends upon incorporating information on how host contact rates fluctuate over time relative to peak transmission periods. We also found that supplemental feeding seasons lasted longer during years with deeper snowpack. Therefore, milder winters and/or management strategies that reduce the length of the feeding season may reduce the seroprevalence of brucellosis in the elk populations of the southern GYE. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Levels of Acute Phase Reactants in Patients with Acute Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Uluğ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Infection, tissue damage, immunologic reactions and the inflammatory process rapidly cause a systemic response in the organism, generally termed as acute phase response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP, ferritin and fibrinogen in patients with acute brucellosis.Methods: This study was carried out in 48 patients (27 female, 21 male with acute brucellosis who were followed at the Departments of Infectious Diseases and Neurology, between April 2007 and August 2008, and in 42 healthy controls (22 female, 20 male.Results: Serum albumin levels significantly decreased (p<0.001, whereas CRP and ferritin levels significantly increased (p<0.001 and p=0.03 in patients with acute brucellosis.Conclusions: It was concluded that serum levels of CRP and ferritin increased, while albumin decreased in patients with acute brucellosis.

  16. Clinical human brucellosis in Malaysia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hartady, Tyagita; Saad, Mohd Zamri; Bejo, Siti Khairani; Salisi, Mohd Shahrom

    2014-01-01

    Clinical human brucellosis is quite rare in Malaysia although seroconverters are relatively more. This report describes a case of clinical human brucellosis in Malaysia. This case involved a 29-year-old research assistant in a veterinary microbiology laboratory. She complained of intermittent fever, anorexia, profuse sweating, malaise, headache, normotensive (110/60 mm Hg), muscle pain, and arthralgia for 3 d. Blood tests against dengue and malaria were negative thus she was prescribed vitami...

  17. Brucellosis: a political disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.; Roffe, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    With the challenges confronting North America's elk herds today, a bacteria that causes a nonfatal disease in a few elk herds seems an unlikely addition to the list. Fragmentation of habitat, dwindling bull-cow ratios, grazing competition from livestock on public rangelands, or the crowding of favorite hunting spots all seem like far more urgent matters to elk junkies. But a twist of fate an a national campaign to eradicate this seemingly innocuous bacterium have put brucellosis on the front burner.

  18. The return of brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Amato-Gauci, Andrew J.

    1995-01-01

    Brucellosis, also known under the names of Undulant fever, Mediterranean fever and Malta fever is closely linked with Malta’s medical history and for long endemic to our Islands. Every reported case was investigated by the medical officers of health who contacted the head of each affected household for an epidemiological enquiry including a food history. All these cases were associated with the consumption of fresh cheeselets made from unpasteurised milk. During the investigation some 900 kgs...

  19. An evaluation of Irish cattle herds with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes M; Ashe S; Collins DM; Power S; Kenny K; Sheahan M; O'Hagan G; More SJ

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Since 1998, there has been a steady decline in herd restrictions and de-populations in Ireland due to bovine brucellosis. There is concern that the interpretation of laboratory results may become increasingly problematic, as brucellosis prevalence falls in Ireland. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the infection status of Irish herds and animals with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis. During 12 months from September 1, 2004, laboratory ...

  20. Unusual presentation of Brucellosis:Afebrile,culture posi-tive Brucellosis and culture positive,seronegative Brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Avijgan; Masoud Hafizi; Ardeshir Salemi; Shams al-sadate Izadi Dehkordi

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the unusual presentation of brucellosis.Methods:This prospective study was carried out on 46 patients suspected to brucellosis.The diagnosis was made with isolation of brucella species by Bone Marrow culture.Results:Among 40 culture positive patients,there were two unusual presentations of brucello-sis;Afebrile culture positive and culture positive seronegative brucellosis.Conclusion:Some brucellosis pa-tients would not match with criteria for diagnosis of brucellosis.Although it is needed to have positive serology or culture for diagnosis of brucellosis but sometimes,it is the clinical experiences,which help to diagnose and treat these kinds of patients.

  1. BOCI-Egypt : Brucellosis and Tuberculosis control 21- 25 March 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, A.J.; Vugt, van F.

    2011-01-01

    This is the report of the first mission to Egypt for the project: Impact of brucellosis and tuberculosis on animal production and public health (BO-10-009-118). The objective of this mission was: to make an assessment of the current needs and problems in Egypt related to brucellosis and tuberculosis

  2. A Bacterial Glycoengineered Antigen for Improved Serodiagnosis of Porcine Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, María E; Balzano, Rodrigo E; Rey Serantes, Diego A; Caillava, Ana J; Elena, Sebastián; Ferreira, A C; Nicola, Ana M; Ugalde, Juan E; Comerci, Diego J; Ciocchini, Andrés E

    2016-06-01

    Brucellosis is a highly zoonotic disease that affects animals and human beings. Brucella suis is the etiological agent of porcine brucellosis and one of the major human brucellosis pathogens. Laboratory diagnosis of porcine brucellosis mainly relies on serological tests, and it has been widely demonstrated that serological assays based on the detection of anti O-polysaccharide antibodies are the most sensitive tests. Here, we validate a recombinant glycoprotein antigen, an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide-protein conjugate (OAg-AcrA), for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis. An indirect immunoassay based on the detection of anti-O-polysaccharide IgG antibodies was developed coupling OAg-AcrA to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates (glyco-iELISA). To validate the assay, 563 serum samples obtained from experimentally infected and immunized pigs, as well as animals naturally infected with B. suis biovar 1 or 2, were tested. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, and based on this analysis, the optimum cutoff value was 0.56 (relative reactivity), which resulted in a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.7%, respectively. A cutoff value of 0.78 resulted in a test sensitivity of 98.4% and a test specificity of 100%. Overall, our results demonstrate that the glyco-iELISA is highly accurate for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis, improving the diagnostic performance of current serological tests. The recombinant glycoprotein OAg-AcrA can be produced in large homogeneous batches in a standardized way, making it an ideal candidate for further validation as a universal antigen for diagnosis of "smooth" brucellosis in animals and humans. PMID:26984975

  3. 76 FR 28885 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the brucellosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of swine by adding Texas to the list of validated brucellosis-free States. We have determined that Texas...

  4. Thrombocytopenia in Brucellosis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    A Nikavar; Z Kalbasi

    1997-01-01

    A 6-year old is presented with fever, ecchymosis and knee pain. Positive Wright and 2ME tests were in favor of Brucellosis. Blood culture for Brucella was also positive. Blood cells count showed a Thrombocytopenia of 35.000. Platelets returned to normal by mere antibiotic treatment of Brucellosis. Pancytopenia or any isolated deficiency of hematologic cell lines can be a complication of Brucellosis. This urges the clinicians to think of Brucellosis in patients with Thrombocytopenia.

  5. Brucellosis Associated with Deep Vein Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tolaj, Ilir; Mehmeti, Murat; Ramadani, Hamdi; Tolaj, Jasmina; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Fejza, Hajrullah

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10 years more than 700 cases of brucellosis have been reported in Kosovo, which is heavily oriented towards agriculture and animal husbandry. Here, brucellosis is still endemic and represents an uncontrolled public health problem. Human brucellosis may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations; among them, vascular complications are uncommon. Hereby we describe the case of a 37-year-old male patient with brucellosis complicated by deep vein thrombosis on his left ...

  6. Thrombocytopenia in Brucellosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nikavar

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year old is presented with fever, ecchymosis and knee pain. Positive Wright and 2ME tests were in favor of Brucellosis. Blood culture for Brucella was also positive. Blood cells count showed a Thrombocytopenia of 35.000. Platelets returned to normal by mere antibiotic treatment of Brucellosis. Pancytopenia or any isolated deficiency of hematologic cell lines can be a complication of Brucellosis. This urges the clinicians to think of Brucellosis in patients with Thrombocytopenia.

  7. Epistaxis as the initial manifestation of brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Al Mousa, Abdullah I

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a multisystem disease with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Hematologic complications in the form of mild pancytopenia are occasionally reported in the course of acute brucellosis. Rarely, thrombocytopenia is severe and can be associated with purpura and mucosal bleeding. Epistaxis as the initial manifestation of brucellosis is a rarely reported phenomenon. A case of young adult is being reported who presented with epistaxis due to brucellosis-induced thrombocytopenia.

  8. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and associated hemato-biochemical changes in pakistani horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and hemato-biochemical manifestations of brucellosis in horses. Serum samples were screened for Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and serum agglutination test (SAT). Blood samples were evaluated for hemato-biochemical parameters following standard procedures. Results indicated seroprevalence of brucellosis 20.13 and 16.23% in horses by RBPT and SAT, respectively. Brucellosis does not lead to any significant change in hematological and biochemical parameters in relation to age, sex, body condition and lactation except few parameters. The values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, neutrophil, basophil and alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased in brucellosis positive animals as compared to healthy animals whereas lymphocytes and alanine aminotransferase were in opposite order. It was concluded from the results that prevalence of brucellosis in horse population is of concern; therefore, control measures should be opted so that its zoonotic threat is curtailed. (author)

  9. 9 CFR 311.15 - Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis. 311.15 Section 311.15... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.15 Brucellosis. Carcasses affected with localized lesions of brucellosis may be passed for human food after the affected parts...

  10. An evaluation of ELISA using recombinant Brucella abortus bacterioferritin (Bfr) for bovine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Simborio, Hannah Leah; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Lee, Jin Ju; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-04-01

    To date, detection of antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide portion is the backbone of most serodiagnostic methods for brucellosis screening. However this pose a risk for false positive reactions related to other pathogens especially that of Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 which has the most prominent cross reactivity with Brucella spp. In this study, cloning and expression of Brucella abortus bacterioferritin (Bfr) was accomplished by PCR amplification into an expression vector system, and purification of a recombinant B. abortus Bfr (rBfr). The immunogenicity of rBfr was confirmed by Western blot with Brucella-positive bovine serum. To determine whether rBfr has a potential benefit for use in the serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis, rBfr-based ELISA was performed. Interestingly, rBfr was able to detect anti-Brucella antibodies in positive sera in a dependent manner of TAT values but did not show an immunoreaction with negative samples. Particularly, average OD492 values at the lowest, medium and highest TAT titer levels were 1.4, 2.2 and 2.6-fold increase compared with the cutoff value, respectively. The accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of rBfr showed 89.09%, 93.6% and 85.33%, respectively. These findings suggest that rBfr might be a good candidate for serological diagnosis development of bovine brucellosis. PMID:27012915

  11. Risk factors for human brucellosis in northern Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Shehada, M N; Abu-Halaweh, M

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the risk factors of human brucellosis in Jordan. A case-control study was conducted involving 56 Jordanians who had been treated for brucellosis and at least 3 matched controls for each case (n = 247). Matching was for sex, age, locality (the same village) and socioeconomic standard. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. In all, 17 risk factors were examined related to: contact with various livestock, milk and milk product consumption, drinking-water treatment and disease awareness. Most variables were associated with brucellosis in the univariate analysis but the final logistic model included only 4: milking sheep and goats (OR 3.5), consumption of raw feta cheese made from sheep and goat milk (OR 2.8) and consumption of cows' milk (OR 0.4) and boiled feta cheese (OR 0.4). Small ruminant farmers need to be trained in safer milking practices and feta cheese making procedures. PMID:23516823

  12. Various clinical manifestations of brucellosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkulov Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Brucellosis is an acute, subacute or chronical disease, from the zoonosis group, caused by various types of bacteria belonging to genus Brucellae. It is transmitted to humans from domestic animals: goats, sheep, cattle, pigs and dogs. The course of the disease may either be asymptomatic, or produce a variety of clinical manifestations, ranging from light ones to extremely severe clinical forms. The aim of the study was to follow the clinical features of brucella infection in the hospital-treated patients, as well as its course and outcome. Material and Methods. The investigation included 15 patients, treated for brucella infection at the Clinic for infectious diseases during the last two years (2004 and 2005. Results. All patients were adults, their age ranged from 18 to 71, 49.96 on average. The epidemiological questionnaire was positive in all patients, confirming contacts with the ailing animals, or consumption of cheese made from milk of diseased animals. They all exhibited the classic symptoms - increased body temperature and shiver, fever, sweating, malaise and headache, the so called flu like state. The serum agglutination test was positive in respect to brucellosis, the titre ranged from 1:80 to 1:1280. Eight patients suffered excessive back pain, accompanied with impeded walk. In half of them magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the spondylodiscitis diagnosis. Three patients had clinical features of knee arthritis, two had bronchopneumonia, one pancreatitis, and one developed the signs of an acute kidney insufficiency. The outcome was favorable in all patients - They recuperated or healed completely. In one patient a relapse occurred, leading to the chronic course of the illness. Discussion. Although predominantly Mediterranean Brucellosis is a worldwide spread disease. During the last two years, an increased incidence of the disease has been observed. Conclusion. Due to the variety of clinical futures and the possibility

  13. Brucellosis: Epizootiologic and diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Sonja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been known as a separate etiological entity for almost 150 years, brucellosis is, on a global scale, one of the most frequent diseases that is transferred from animals to humans. It is present as an endemic disease in almost all countries of the Mediterranean Sea, which indicates that a large number of aspects in connection with the control and epizootiology of this disease still remain unexplained. Three of the six types of brucella have been officially confirmed in our country as well. They are Brucella melitensis biotip 3, Brucella suis biotip 2 and Brucella canis. Brucellosis is endemically present in Kosovo and Metohija province and in southern Serbia proper; over the past few years, the spread of brucellosis in sheep and goats as primary hosts for B. melitensis to new territories, mostly in Vojvodina province, has shown that risk analysis is one of the main factors in selecting and implementing control programmes. A correctly selected set of diagnostic tests yields reliable data in most cases, but interpretations of results are prone to result in subjective assessments as well. A special problem in the serological diagnosis of brucellosis is the cross reactivity of brucellas and some other bacteria, often a weak immunological response of the animal, or that the type of brucella that causes the infection determines the sensitivity and specificity of the applied tests, most often screenings tests. Due to the big economic losses resulting from disease control and eradication, and the serious risk to human health, brucellosis still poses an epizootiological, and, in particular, a diagnostic challenge.

  14. Seroprevalence of caprine brucellosis in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Avinash Reddy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the seroprevalence of caprine bruellosis in Karnataka and compare the relative sensitivity and specificity among the different serological tests used. Materials and Methods: A total of 252 serum samples were collected from the goats of Karnataka and subjected to 5 different serological tests, i.e., Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT, Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT, 2-mercaptoethanol test (2-MET, Indirect ELISA (I-ELISA and Dot-ELISA to detect the Brucella antibodies. Results: Test-wise, the seroprevalence in goats was 5.15% by RBPT, 6.34% by STAT, 1.98% by 2-MET, 9.52% by I-ELISA and 7.14% by Dot-ELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis was found to be highest among goats of northeast Karnataka followed by northwest Karnataka, central Karnataka and south Karnataka. I-ELISA detected maximum number of positive samples. Conclusions: The study used five serological tests to determine the apparent seroprevalence of caprine brucellosis in Karnataka. Taking I-ELISA as reference, the tests revealed the relative sensitivity values in the following order: Dot-ELISA>STAT>RBPT>2-MET.

  15. Etiological role of brucellosis in autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colakoglu Onder; Taskiran Bengur; Adnan Kirci; Tunakan Mine; Buyrac Zafer; Unsal Belkis; Aksoz Kadir; Yorukoglu Gazi

    2005-01-01

    To show that brucellosis may trigger autoimmune hepatitis(AIH), in addition to nonspecific liver involvement and toxic hepatitis, due to a class effect of tetracycline family used for treatment. We present a female patient admitted to our hospital due to partially improved fatigue and elevated liver enzymes following doxycycline and streptomycin usage for brucellosis. Brucellosis is endemic in our country, Turkey. It may involve any organ in the body. Liver is frequently involved. Doxycycline used for treatment occasionally may lead to hepatotoxicity. AIH is a necroinflammatory disease of the liver. Certain drugs (e.g. Minocycline), toxins, and viruses (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, EBV, etc.) can trigger AIH. Only one case of AIH probably caused by doxycycline and brucellosis was reported. We discuss the relationship between brucellosis, AIH, and hepatotoxicity of doxycycline. Brucellosis may trigger AIH.

  16. Brucellosis in Islamic republic of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Esmaeili

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that is widely distributed throughout the developing countries.In this review, an overview of the epidemiological and epizootic status of brucellosis in Islamic republic of Iran is presented. In Iran, the disease was first recognized in 1932, which is now endemic in the entire country. The first animal vaccination program was carried out in 1949. Brucellosis has been found in humans, cattle, sheep, goats, camels, horses, buffaloes, dogs and the prevalence of ...

  17. Bovine Brucellosis: Old and New Concepts with Pakistan Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abubakar*, Mehwish Mansoor and Muhammad Javed Arshed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is considered to be one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. According to OIE, it is the second most important zoonotic disease in the world after rabies. The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats, camels and dogs. It may also infect other ruminants and marine mammals. The disease is manifested by late term abortions, weak calves, still births, infertility and characteristic lesions are primarily placentitis, epididymitis and orchitis. The organism is excreted in uterine discharges and milk. The disease is economically important, is one of the most devastating transboundary animal diseases and also a major trade barrier. Although not yet reported, some species of Brucella (e.g., B. abortus are zoonotic and could be used as bioweapons. Brucellosis has a considerable impact on animal and human health, as well as wide socio-economic impacts, especially in countries in which rural income relies largely on livestock breeding and dairy products. Considering the poor health infrastructure and manpower in rural areas, the focus should be on preventive measures coupled with strengthening the curative health care services for early diagnosis and treatment. The incidence of brucellosis is increasing particularly in large dairy herds in Pakistan. Several studies have been conducted using sero-diagnostic techniques to determine the prevalence of brucellosis in different provinces, districts and livestock farms in government and private sector.

  18. SEROPREVALENCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN HORSES IN AND AROUND FAISALABAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. WADOOD, M. AHMAD, A. KHAN1, S. T. GUL1 AND N. REHMAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT and Serum Agglutination test (SAT were used to monitor the seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses in and around Faisalabad, Pakistan. Sera were screened by RBPT and positive or doubtful sera were further processed by SAT for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses was 20.7 and 17.7% by RBPT and SAT, respectively. Source wise seroprevalence of brucellosis was 19.8, 25.5, 2.9 and 0% in horses of Remount Area Faisalabad, Remount Area Toba Tek Singh, private and Livestock Management Department University of Agriculture Faisalabad, respectively. Sex wise seroprevalence in horses was 9.67 and 17.7% in male and female, respectively. In relation to age, seroprevalence was 12.9, 16.5, 14.8 and 20.6%, in horses of 1-5, 6-10, 11-15 and above 15 years of age, respectively. Highest seroprevalence was recorded in horses of above 15 years of age. Depending upon the body condition, the seroprevalence was 9.7, 13, and 20% in poor fair, and good body conditioned horses, respectively. Seroprevalence of brucellosis on the basis of parity was 19.2, 20.9, 18.7, 16.6, and 21.1% in 0, 1, 2, 3 and above 3 foaling females, respectively. Prevalence of brucellosis in different breeds of horses was 22.4, 17.1, 25.7 and 0.0% in Desi, Thoroughbred, Crossbred and Arabian horses, respectively. However, statistically, in relation to various factors like source, sex, body condition, parity and breed of horses, a non significant difference was observed among various groups. Statistically a significant difference (P<0.001 in seroprevalence was observed with respect to age, only.

  19. Seroepidemiological survey of human brucellosis in and around Ludhiana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moti Yohannes Gemechu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been done on public health significance of brucellosis using serology with little or no emphasis to risk factors. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate seroprevalence of brucellosis and assess epidemiological variables associated with human brucellosis. After obtaining verbal consent, 241 peripheral blood samples were collected from occupationally exposed groups with and without pyrexia of unknown origin. A structured questionnaire was prepared to gather risk factors, such as occupation, age, sex, history of consuming raw milk and other unpasteurised dairy products, direct contact with domestic animals, general knowledge about the route of transmission and awareness level. Purposive sampling was used to select the key informants. All serum samples were first screened by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and further analysed by Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT. The results revealed that 24.5% were positive by RBPT and diagnosis was established in 26.6% using STAT with a titre range between 80 and 1,280 IU/ml. Among occupational groups, prevalence was 17.8% in veterinarians and pharmacists but was not statistically significant. The most common clinical symptoms at presentation were fever, headache, back pain, arthralgia and myalgia. No female reactor was found and the mean age and standard deviation of seropositive patients was 34.69±10.97 years. Risk factors such as residence in rural area, participation in vaccination of animals and eating during working hours were significantly associated (P<0.05 with brucellosis by univariate and multivariate analysis. In conclusion, to deal with occupation-related disease like brucellosis, awareness on risk factors must be part of extension education campaign. Besides, regular surveillance of the disease needs to be integrated into control and prevention programme at a local and national level.

  20. Lipopolysaccharide as a target for brucellosis vaccine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Álvarez, Raquel; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; Gil-Ramírez, Yolanda; Iriarte, Maite; Grilló, María-Jesús; Gorvel, Jean Pierre; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2013-05-01

    The gram-negative bacteria of the genus Brucella are facultative intracellular parasites that cause brucellosis, a world wide-distributed zoonotic disease that represents a serious problem for animal and human health. There is no human-to-human contagion and, since there is no human vaccine, animal vaccination is essential to control brucellosis. However, current vaccines (all developed empirically) do not provide 100% protection and are infectious in humans. Attempts to generate new vaccines by obtaining mutants lacking the lipopolysaccharide O-polysaccharide, in purine metabolism or in Brucella type IV secretion system have not been successful. Here we propose a new approach to develop brucellosis vaccines based on the concept that Brucella surface molecules evade efficient detection by innate immunity, thus delaying protective Th1 responses and opening a time window to reach sheltered intracellular compartments. We showed recently that a branch of the core oligosaccharide section of Brucella lipopolysaccharide hampers recognition by TLR4-MD2. Mutation of glycosyltransferase WadC, involved in the synthesis of this branch, results in a lipopolysaccharide that, while keeping the O-polysaccharide essential for optimal protection, shows a truncated core, is more efficiently recognized by MD2 and triggers an increased cytokine response. In keeping with this, the wadC mutant is attenuated in dendritic cells and mice. In the mouse model of brucellosis vaccines, the Brucella abortus wadC mutant conferred protection similar to that provided by S19, the best cattle vaccine available. The properties of the wadC mutant provide the proof of concept for this new approach and open the way for more effective brucellosis vaccines. PMID:23219811

  1. Clinical analysis of 117 patients with brucellosis in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region%新疆布鲁菌病117例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 孙晓风; 向阳; 张跃新

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨新疆维吾尔自治区(新疆)布鲁菌病的流行情况、临床特征、实验室检查及治疗结果。方法回顾性分析我院2012年7月—2014年4月收治的117例布鲁菌病的临床特征及治疗效果。结果本地区布鲁菌病以4—9月高发,发病人群以畜牧相关人员为主。主要临床表现除发热、多汗、乏力、关节痛等一般症状外,肝脾大和淋巴结肿大也占一定比例,部分患者ALT、AST和GGT升高。治疗以多西环素联合利福平为主,好转率为97.44%。结论布鲁菌病为新疆地区发病率较高的传染病,当地有关部门应普及该病防护知识,临床医师应关注该病的临床特点及其并发症和合并症,并给予规范的抗菌治疗。%Objective To investigate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and treatment outcome of bru-cellosis in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang). Methods Clinical characteristics and therapeutic efficacy were analyzed in 117 patients with brucellosis admitted to our hospital from Jul. 2012 to Apr. 2014. Results The incidence of brucellosis was higher from April to September in Xinjiang and brucellosis mainly occurred in livestock-related personnel. The main clinical manifestations were fever, sweating, fatigue and joint pain, and hepatosplenomegaly and lymph node enlargement were found in some patients. ALT, AST and GGT increased in some patients. The combination of doxycycline and rifampin achieved a high improvement rate (97.44%). Conclusions Brucellosis is a more frequent infectious disease in Xinjiang, so local authorities should strengthen public education on brucellosis prevention and management, and clinicians should pay much attention to the clinical characteristics of brucellosis and its complications and comorbidities, and give standard antimicrobial therapy.

  2. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed...

  3. 9 CFR 78.22 - Brucellosis reactor bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor bison. 78.22... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.22 Brucellosis reactor bison....

  4. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine....

  5. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine....

  6. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed...

  7. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle....

  8. 9 CFR 78.43 - Validated brucellosis-free States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Wyoming. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 78.43, see the List of CFR Sections... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Validated brucellosis-free States. 78... BRUCELLOSIS Designation of Brucellosis Areas § 78.43 Validated brucellosis-free States. Alabama,...

  9. ADP and brucellosis indemnity systems development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, W.M.; Harlan, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    Our initial study of the USDA/TAHC Brucellosis Indemnity Program in Texas has shown that both the efficiency and rate of claim payments can be increased by the application of present day computer technologies. Two main factors contribute to these increases: the number of discrepancies that are caused by poor penmanship, transposition of numbers, and other human errors can be monitored and minimized; and the documented information can be indexed, sorted, and searched faster, more efficiently, and without human error. The overall flow of documentation that is used to control the movement of infected or exposed animals through commerce should be studied. A new system should be designed that fully utilizes present day computer and electronic technologies.

  10. Virginia Tech receives NIH funds brucellosis research

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Virginia Tech researchers from Virginia Bioinformatics Institute (VBI) and Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (VMRCVM) have received $300,000 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study brucellosis. Caused by Brucella bacteria, a potential bioterrorism agent, brucellosis is common to animals and some strains infect humans.

  11. Acute Brucellosis Presenting as Gastroenteritis: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Salih Bin Salih; Adel Alothman

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a systemic infection with multiple presentations. In spite of its oral mode of transmission and gastrointestinal pathogenesis, systemic symptoms are usually more prominent than gastrointestinal ones. Acute brucellosis presenting as gastroenteritis is rare in adults and could be the only manifestation of the disease. We report a case of gastroenteritis caused by Brucella species.

  12. Brucellosis in Islamic republic of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Esmaeili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that is widely distributed throughout the developing countries.In this review, an overview of the epidemiological and epizootic status of brucellosis in Islamic republic of Iran is presented. In Iran, the disease was first recognized in 1932, which is now endemic in the entire country. The first animal vaccination program was carried out in 1949. Brucellosis has been found in humans, cattle, sheep, goats, camels, horses, buffaloes, dogs and the prevalence of bovine brucellosis is estimated 0.3%. The successful implementation of a national brucellosis control program requires enough compensation, farmers’ cooperation, accurate diagnosis of infected animals and impetus of health system is required to overcome thedisease.

  13. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, E.; Cross, P.C.; Beneria, M.; Ficapal, A.; Curia, J.; Marco, X.; Lavin, S.; Marco, I.

    2011-01-01

    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  14. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy features of normal-appearing white matter in patients with acute brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to evaluate whether the subtle metabolic cerebral changes are present in normal-appearing white matter on conventional MRI, in patients with acute brucellosis, by using MR spectroscopy (MRS). Sixteen patients with acute brucellosis and 13 healthy control subjects were investigated with conventional MRI and single-voxel MRS. Voxels were placed in normal-appearing parietal white matter (NAPWM). N-Acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios were calculated. There was no significant difference between the study subjects and the control group in NAA/Cr ratios obtained from NAPWM. However, the Cho/Cr ratios were significantly higher in patients with acute brucellosis compared to controls (p = 0.01). MRS revealed metabolic changes in normal-appearing white matter of patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis may cause subtle cerebral alterations, which may only be discernible with MRS. Increased Cho/Cr ratio possibly represents an initial phase of inflammation and/or demyelination process of brucellosis

  15. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy features of normal-appearing white matter in patients with acute brucellosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayabas, Uner [Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey)], E-mail: ukayabas@inonu.edu.tr; Alkan, Alpay; Firat, Ahmet Kemal; Karakas, Hakki Muammer [Department of Radiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey); Bayindir, Yasar; Yetkin, Funda [Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2008-03-15

    We aimed to evaluate whether the subtle metabolic cerebral changes are present in normal-appearing white matter on conventional MRI, in patients with acute brucellosis, by using MR spectroscopy (MRS). Sixteen patients with acute brucellosis and 13 healthy control subjects were investigated with conventional MRI and single-voxel MRS. Voxels were placed in normal-appearing parietal white matter (NAPWM). N-Acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios were calculated. There was no significant difference between the study subjects and the control group in NAA/Cr ratios obtained from NAPWM. However, the Cho/Cr ratios were significantly higher in patients with acute brucellosis compared to controls (p = 0.01). MRS revealed metabolic changes in normal-appearing white matter of patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis may cause subtle cerebral alterations, which may only be discernible with MRS. Increased Cho/Cr ratio possibly represents an initial phase of inflammation and/or demyelination process of brucellosis.

  16. Chest Wall Involvement as a Manifestation of Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    K Rahmdel; R Golsha; Golshah, E; R Rezaie Shirazi; N Sadre Momtaz

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis continues to be a common infectious disease in some parts of the world. Although the disease has different presentations, but chest wall involvement, as a manifestation of brucellosis is rare. In this study, we report three cases of chest wall involvement as manifesting feature of Brucellosis in Iran. They presented with a history of parasternal masses revealed to a diagnosis of Brucellosis and responded well to the treatment. Brucellosis may present with strange and unpredictable...

  17. The Increasing Importance of Employee Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckley, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Surveys corporate public relations executives for information about their concern for and involvement with employee relations programming in their organizations and analyzes current public relations education as it relates to these findings. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland,…

  18. Brucellosis: An Unrecognized Zoonotic Disease in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Maphilindawati Noor

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis, is a disease caused by members of the genus Brucella . In Indonesia, brucellosis has known as a contagious reproductive disease in animals, however, only certain people know that brucellosis can be transmitted to human . Bovine brucellosis is characterised by one or more of the following signs : abortion, retained placenta . orchitis, epididymitis and, rarely, arthritis, with excretion of the organisms in uterine discharges and in milk . The Brucella organism is transmitted to human most commonly by ingestion of untreated milk or milk products or through the mucous membranes and wound of the skin . The severity of human disease varies, depending largely upon the infecting strain . Brucella abortus, B . melitensis. B . suis and B. canis are highly pathogenic for humans . Clinical symptoms of human brucellosis may include an intermittent fever, headaches, weakness, arthalgia, myalgia and weight loss . Occasional complications include arthritis, endocarditis, hepatitis granuloma, meningitis, orchitis dan osteomyelitis have also been reported . Brucellosis can also produce spontaneous abortion in pregnant woman . Diagnosis is based on the isolation of the organism and serology . Antibiotics are usually the mainstay of treatment and long-term treatment may be required . Brucellosis can be controlled by comprehensive campaigns to eradicate the disease by vaccination programme followed by test and slaughter of domestic animals which exhibit positive serologic reactions to brucellae.

  19. The changing pattern of human brucellosis: clinical manifestations, epidemiology, and treatment outcomes over three decades in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenaishvili Otar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is an endemic infection in Georgia. We conducted a review of patient records with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of brucellosis over three decades at the central referral hospital for brucellosis cases, the Institute of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine (IPTM in Tbilisi. The purpose was to describe the demographic profile and clinical characteristics as well as diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with brucellosis. Methods Data were abstracted from randomly selected patient records at the IPTM. In total, 300 records were reviewed from three time periods: 1970-73, 1988-89, and 2004-2008. Results The age distribution of patients shifted from a median age of 40 years in the first time period to 20 years in the third time period. Azeri ethnicity was an increasing proportion of the total number of cases. The frequency of relapsed infection was 14.7% (44 cases. A total of 50 patients received vaccine therapy, and although the vaccine produced immune responses, demonstrated by an increase in agglutination titers, it was not associated with improved outcome. Conclusion The demographics of brucellosis in Georgia fit a profile of persons that tend sheep. Osteoarticular complications were commonly detected, especially in children. The changing pattern of brucellosis in Georgia suggests clinicians should be updated about different trends in brucellosis in their country.

  20. Brucellosis in Kosovo and Clinical Features of Brucellosis at University clinical center of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Qehaja Buçaj; Edmond Puca; Sadie Namani; Muharem Bajrami; Valbon Krasniqi; Lindita Ajazaj Berisha; Xhevat Jakupi; Bahrie Halili; Dhimiter Kraja

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Brucellosis became a remarkable disease in Kosovo. But there is not a comprehensive epidemiological study about epidemiology and clinical course of this disease from Kosovo. The aim of our study is to present demographic and clinical data of patients with brucellosis at University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Methods: A retrospective study was performed for the patients with brucellosis treated in our clinic during years 2011- 2012. The data about demography, history of the diseas...

  1. Bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis patients with hematologic abnormalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cengiz Demir; Mustafa Kasim Karahocagil; Ramazan Esen; Murat Atmaca; Hayriye G(o)nüllü; Hayrettin Akdeniz

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis can mimic various multisytem diseases,showing wide clinical polymorphism that frequently leads to misdiagnosis and treatment delay,further increasing the complication rates.In this study,we aimed to examine bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis cases presenting with hematologic abnormalities.Methods Forty-eight brucellosis cases were prospectively investigated.Complaints and physical examination findings of patients were recorded.Patients' complete blood count,routine biochemical tests,erythrocyte sedimentation rate,C-reactive protein and serological screenings were performed.Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration was performed in patients with cytopenia,for bone marrow examination and brucella culture,in accordance with the standard procedures from spina iliaca posterior superior region of pelvic bone.Results Of the 48 patients,35 (73%) were female and 13 (27%) were male.Mean age was (34.8±15.4) years (age range:15-70 years).Anemia,leukopenia,thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia were found in 39 (81%),28 (58%),22 (46%) and 10 patients (21%),respectively.In the examination of bone marrow,hypercellularity was found In 35 (73%) patients.Increased megacariocytic,erythroid and granulocytic series were found in 28 (58%),15 (31%) and 5 (10%) patients,respectively.In addition,hemophagocytosis was observed in 15 (31%) patients,granuloma observed in 12 (25%) and increased eosinophil and plasma cells observed in 9 (19%) patients.Conclusion According to the results of our series,hemophagocytosis,microgranuloma formation and hypersplenism may be responsible for hematologic complications of brucellosis.

  2. An evaluation of Irish cattle herds with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M; Ashe, S; Collins, Dm; Power, S; Kenny, K; Sheahan, M; O'Hagan, G; More, Sj

    2009-01-01

    Since 1998, there has been a steady decline in herd restrictions and de-populations in Ireland due to bovine brucellosis. There is concern that the interpretation of laboratory results may become increasingly problematic, as brucellosis prevalence falls in Ireland. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the infection status of Irish herds and animals with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis. During 12 months from September 1, 2004, laboratory and observational epidemiological data were collected from all Irish herds where animal testing identified at least one animal with a complement fixation test (CFT) reading greater than zero and/or a positive result to the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Due to the observational nature of the study, we have robust estimates of the relative, but not the absolute, performance of the CFT, iELISA and brucellin skin test (BST). Herds were divided into three categories (Group A, B or C) on the basis of test results at initial assessment. A total of 639 herds were enrolled into the study, and observed for at least two years following enrolment. A rising CFT titre, with a CFT reading of 111 International CFT Units (IU) or greater at the subsequent blood test, was generally associated with herds where other evidence of infection was also available. Knowledge of the CFT reading at the initial and a subsequent blood test proved useful in distinguishing false-positive and true-positive brucellosis results. There was poor correlation between the CFT and iELISA results, and between the CFT and BST results. As a result of this study, national policy has been modified to include re-sampling of all animals with CFT readings of 20 IU or greater. This project has also led to a reduction in the number of herds restricted, as well as restriction duration. It has also contributed to a reduction in the number of herds listed for contiguous tests, and therefore the potential for contiguity

  3. An evaluation of Irish cattle herds with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 1998, there has been a steady decline in herd restrictions and de-populations in Ireland due to bovine brucellosis. There is concern that the interpretation of laboratory results may become increasingly problematic, as brucellosis prevalence falls in Ireland. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the infection status of Irish herds and animals with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis. During 12 months from September 1, 2004, laboratory and observational epidemiological data were collected from all Irish herds where animal testing identified at least one animal with a complement fixation test (CFT reading greater than zero and/or a positive result to the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA. Due to the observational nature of the study, we have robust estimates of the relative, but not the absolute, performance of the CFT, iELISA and brucellin skin test (BST. Herds were divided into three categories (Group A, B or C on the basis of test results at initial assessment. A total of 639 herds were enrolled into the study, and observed for at least two years following enrolment. A rising CFT titre, with a CFT reading of 111 International CFT Units (IU or greater at the subsequent blood test, was generally associated with herds where other evidence of infection was also available. Knowledge of the CFT reading at the initial and a subsequent blood test proved useful in distinguishing false-positive and true-positive brucellosis results. There was poor correlation between the CFT and iELISA results, and between the CFT and BST results. As a result of this study, national policy has been modified to include re-sampling of all animals with CFT readings of 20 IU or greater. This project has also led to a reduction in the number of herds restricted, as well as restriction duration. It has also contributed to a reduction in the number of herds listed for contiguous tests, and therefore the

  4. Epididymoorchitis as the First Finding in Patients with Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Karaköse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Acute scrotal pain as the first symptom of brucellosis is rarely observed. We aimed to evaluate the data of male patients with brucellosis and epididymoorchitis as the initial diagnosis. Material and Methods. The data of seven patients presented with testicular pain, hyperemia, swelling, and increased fever were reviewed. Concomitant focal diseases as well as clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings were retrospectively evaluated. Results. The mean age of the patients was 22.28 ± 7.78 (16–35 years. All patients presented with scrotal pain, swelling, and increased sweating. Additional findings included fever, asthenia, arthralgia, dysuria, shiver and rash, weight loss, and vomiting in 6, 5, 4, 4, 3, 2, and 1 patient, respectively. In all of 7 patients, the agglutination tests of Rose-Bengal and Wright were positive. Coombs test was positive only in 3 patients. The patients underwent antibiotic and conservative treatment. No relapse was observed following the treatment. Conclusion. In endemic regions, epididymoorchitis caused by brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute scrotal pain. Clinical and serological findings are sufficient for the diagnosis. Conservative management combined with antibiotic therapy is adequate for managing brucellar epididymoorchitis.

  5. Seroprevalence of human brucellosis in and around Jammu, India, using different serological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Brucellosis is a disease of zoonotic importance as it affects both human as well as animal’s health, and therefore, directly affects animal productivity and human efficiency. Therefore, a study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in Jammu and surrounding areas. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 sera samples from humans occupied with professional related to animals were collected and tested for anti-Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT, modified RBPT (mRBPT, standard tube agglutination test (STAT, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA. Sampling was done keeping in view with the occupation, sex, and age. Results: The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded was 4.96%. The test-wise seroprevalence was 9.91% by RBPT, 9.91% by mRBPT, 9.09% by STAT, and 16.52% by I-ELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis was higher in >35-50 years age group compared to >20-35 years and >50-65 years. Sex-wise seroprevalence was higher in males than females. Taking I-ELISA as standard, the relative sensitivities of mRBPT, RBPT, and I-ELISA were in the order of mRBPT=RBPT>STAT. All the tests revealed high specificity values; however, among different serological tests, I-ELISA detected a maximum number of positive sera samples. Conclusions: The prevalence of brucellosis was found to be approximately 5%. The adult (>35-50 years age male group was most vulnerable. The routine diagnosis of brucellosis involved the conventional serological tests, viz., RBPT and STAT, but each was associated with drawbacks which could give either false-positive or false-negative interpretation. Therefore, it is always recommended to use a battery of tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  6. Brucellosis as an emerging threat in developing economies: lessons from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Bertu, Wilson J; Ocholi, Reuben A; Gusi, Amahyel M; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Sue; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, has a large proportion of the world's poor livestock keepers, and is a hotspot for neglected zoonoses. A review of the 127 accessible publications on brucellosis in Nigeria reveals only scant and fragmented evidence on its spatial and temporal distribution in different epidemiological contexts. The few bacteriological studies conducted demonstrate the existence of Brucella abortus in cattle and sheep, but evidence for B. melitensis in small ruminants is dated and unclear. The bulk of the evidence consists of seroprevalence studies, but test standardization and validation are not always adequately described, and misinterpretations exist with regard to sensitivity and/or specificity and ability to identify the infecting Brucella species. Despite this, early studies suggest that although brucellosis was endemic in extensive nomadic systems, seroprevalence was low, and brucellosis was not perceived as a real burden; recent studies, however, may reflect a changing trend. Concerning human brucellosis, no studies have identified the Brucella species and most reports provide only serological evidence of contact with Brucella in the classical risk groups; some suggest brucellosis misdiagnoses as malaria or other febrile conditions. The investigation of a severe outbreak that occurred in the late 1970s describes the emergence of animal and human disease caused by the settling of previously nomadic populations during the Sahelian drought. There appears to be an increasing risk of re-emergence of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa, as a result of the co-existence of pastoralist movements and the increase of intensive management resulting from growing urbanization and food demand. Highly contagious zoonoses like brucellosis pose a threat with far-reaching social and political consequences. PMID:25058178

  7. A Case of Brucellosis with Recurrent Attacks of Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Pınar; Kıdır, Mehtap; Namdar, Nazlı Dizen; Özmen, Ahmet; Uyar, Cemile; Değer, Ayşe Nur

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis that affects several organs or systems. Skin involvement is nonspecific and it is reported to range between 0,4 and 17% of the patients with brucellosis. Here, we defined a 36-year-old female patient presented to our clinic with a clinical picture of recurrent attacks of vasculitis due to brucellosis for the first time. Skin involvement and vasculitic lesions as a finding of skin involvement are nonspecific in brucellosis. Therefore, in the regions like Turkey where brucellosis is endemic, brucellosis should be kept in mind necessarily in the differential diagnosis of vasculitis. PMID:27042369

  8. Pedro Pons′ sign as a Brucellosis complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Tuna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases. Several complications may be seen during its clinical course. Here, we describe a patient who presented with complaints of fatigue, malaise, and intensive lumbar pain. He had been suffering from these complaints for nearly 1 month. It was learned that he lived in rural area, made and ate his own cheese. The Rose Bengal test was positive and Brucella standard tube agglutination was positive at 1/320 titer. Pedro Pons′ sign, an osteoarticular complication of brucellosis, was revealed with the aid of radiologic imaging. Osteoarticular involvement is common in the course of brucellosis. Deformation in vertebrae formerly known as Pedro Pons′ sign should be thought in brucellosis patients suffering from lumbar pain.

  9. Field trial of brucellosis competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance characteristics of the competitive (C) ELISA for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis and the differentiation of Brucella infected from Brucella vaccinated cattle to the indirect (I) ELISA and the conventional serological techniques used in Argentina. The diagnostic specificity and relative sensibility of ELISA was comparable to CFT and 2ME, which are the official complementary tests in Argentina. Besides, C-ELISA showed the best performancein analysing vaccinated animals. The application of the ELISA test is largely feasible because of its reproducibility and easy standardization. In addition, although CFT has a great performance, its application is cumbersom; the 2ME test lasted for 48 h and is toxic. Both the C-ELISA, using MAb M84, and the I-ELISA, using MAb M23, have been demonstrated to have the best performance. Owing to our field conditions (brucellosis prevalence and mandatory vaccination of female calves) the competitive ELISA should be applied as a complement of the official screening tests such as BP. These results suggest that the ELISA test would be very useful in contributing to the control and eradication programme of bovine brucellosis in Argentina

  10. Brucellosis: Development and success using ELISAs for diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucellosis is a highly infectious disease of a substantial number of animal species. Because of its pathogenicity to humans, the cost and time involved, classical diagnosis by isolation of the causative microorganism is not commonly used for diagnosis of individual animals. Presumptive diagnosis has been made for about 100 years by using serological tests. Initially, a slow agglutination test was developed and later modified to increase the sensitivity and to decrease the time. Complement fixation and gel diffusion tests were also developed and, in some cases, widely used. The development of primary binding assays, in particular, enzyme immunoassays, has provided tools for diagnosis that are more accurate than conventional serological tests. The enzyme immunoassays, the indirect and competitive formats, have different uses but are both potent additions to the diagnosis of brucellosis in that they may be used for rapid and accurate assessment of antibody in milk and serum in the absence of interference by antibodies resulting from vaccination. Another type of primary binding assay, a fluorescence polarization assay, was also developed for the diagnosis of brucellosis. This assay, which is a homogeneous format, has the added advantages of being simple to perform, very rapid, potentially inexpensive and capable of being performed outside the laboratory. (author)

  11. Laboratory Animal Models for Brucellosis Research

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Teane M. A.; Erica A Costa; Tatiane A. Paixão; Renée M. Tsolis; Santos, Renato L

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Brucella spp., a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that affects humans and animals, leading to significant impact on public health and animal industry. Human brucellosis is considered the most prevalent bacterial zoonosis in the world and is characterized by fever, weight loss, depression, hepato/splenomegaly, osteoarticular, and genital infections. Relevant aspects of Brucella pathogenesis have been intensively investigated...

  12. Brucellosis: The Case for Live, Attenuated Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ficht, Thomas A.; Kahl-McDonagh, Melissa M.; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M.; Rice-Ficht, Allison C.

    2009-01-01

    The successful control of animal brucellosis and associated reduction in human exposure has limited the development of human brucellosis vaccines. However, the potential use of Brucella in bioterrorism or biowarfare suggests that direct intervention strategies are warranted. Although the dominant approach has explored the use of live attenuated vaccines, side-effects associated with their use has prevented widespread use in humans. Development of live, attenuated Brucella vaccines that are sa...

  13. Advanced diagnostic methods for human brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso; Kunguloski, Dzoko

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis is a typical zoonotic disease caused by organisms of genus brucella. Humans become infected by ingestion of animal food products, direct contact with infected animals or inhalation of infectious aerosols. Variable symptoms, sub-clinical and atypical infections make diagnosis of human brucellosis difficult. Objective of this paper is to evaluate specificity and sensitivity of different diagnostic methods, on large number of samples, in patients at different stages of...

  14. Diagnosis of brucellosis in livestock and wildlife.

    OpenAIRE

    Godfroid, Jacques; Nielsen, Klaus; Saegerman, Claude

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To describe and discuss the merits of various direct and indirect methods applied in vitro (mainly on blood or milk) or in vivo (allergic test) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in animals. METHODS: The recent literature on brucellosis diagnostic tests was reviewed. These diagnostic tests are applied with different goals, such as national screening, confirmatory diagnosis, certification, and international trade. The validation of such diagnostic tests is still an issue, particularly in wi...

  15. Context-dependent survival, fecundity and predicted population-level consequences of brucellosis in African buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsich, Erin E; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Cross, Paul C; Bengis, Roy G; Jolles, Anna E

    2015-07-01

    Chronic infections may have negative impacts on wildlife populations, yet their effects are difficult to detect in the absence of long-term population monitoring. Brucella abortus, the bacteria responsible for bovine brucellosis, causes chronic infections and abortions in wild and domestic ungulates, but its impact on population dynamics is not well understood. We report infection patterns and fitness correlates of bovine brucellosis in African buffalo based on (1) 7 years of cross-sectional disease surveys and (2) a 4-year longitudinal study in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We then used a matrix population model to translate these observed patterns into predicted population-level effects. Annual brucellosis seroprevalence ranged from 8·7% (95% CI = 1·8-15·6) to 47·6% (95% CI = 35·1-60·1) increased with age until adulthood (>6) and varied by location within KNP. Animals were on average in worse condition after testing positive for brucellosis (F = -5·074, P pregnancy or being observed with a calf. For the range of body condition scores observed in the population, the model-predicted growth rate was λ = 1·11 (95% CI = 1·02-1·21) in herds without brucellosis and λ = 1·00 (95% CI = 0·85-1·16) when brucellosis seroprevalence was 30%. Our results suggest that brucellosis infection can potentially result in reduced population growth rates, but because these effects varied with demographic and environmental conditions, they may remain unseen without intensive, longitudinal monitoring. PMID:25714466

  16. Brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis prevalence in livestock from pastoralist communities adjacent to Awash National Park, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Bekele, Shiferaw; Moti, Tesfaye; Young, Douglas; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-06-15

    This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in local cattle and goat breeds of Oromo and Afar pastoralist communities living in two distinct parts around the Awash National Park. A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess information on husbandry, milk consumption habits, and on knowledge-attitude-practice regarding both diseases. Among a total of 771 animals from all sites tested by comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) none were BTB reactors with the >4mm cut-off. Using the >2mm cut-off, individual apparent prevalence was 0.9% (95%CI: 0.23-3.56%) in cattle and 0.7% (95%CI: 0.12-3.45%) in goats. Herd prevalence in Oromia and Afar sites was 0% and 66.7% respectively in goats and 16.7% and 50% in cattle. Among the 327 animals tested by enzyme linked immunoassay for brucellosis, 4.8% (95%CI: 1.2-17.1%) of cattle and 22.8% (95%CI: 5.98-29.5%) of goats were reactors. Highest individual prevalence of both diseases was found in Afar settlements with brucellosis being as high as 50%. Respondent ethnicity was the only risk factor for brucellosis positivity in goats in the univariable risk factor analysis. Knowledge about the diseases was poor. Raw goat milk was regularly consumed by women and children, putting them at risk for brucellosis. This study highlighted an increased prevalence gradient of BTB and brucellosis from West to East along the study sites with high brucellosis individual prevalence and abortion rates among Afar settlements in particular. PMID:25841999

  17. Epidemiological features and risk factors associated with the spatial and temporal distribution of human brucellosis in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yin-Jun; Li, Xin-Lou; Liang, Song; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Background Human brucellosis incidence in China has been increasing dramatically since 1999. However, epidemiological features and potential factors underlying the re-emergence of the disease remain less understood. Methods Data on human and animal brucellosis cases at the county scale were collected for the year 2004 to 2010. Also collected were environmental and socioeconomic variables. Epidemiological features including spatial and temporal patterns of the disease were characterized, and t...

  18. Acute Prostatitis Due to Brucellosis; Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Alper Ozorak

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in Turkey. The clinical features of brucellosis are not disease specific; and almost every organ can be affected. In males, genitourinary localization is reported in 2%-20% of cases. Unilateral epididiymo-orchitis is the usual manifestation. Prostatitis due to brucellosis is a very rare condition. In this article we reported two cases exhibit acute prostatitis due to Brucellosis.

  19. Specific IgE response in patients with brucellosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Araj, G F; Lulu, A. R.; Khateeb, M. I.; Haj, M

    1990-01-01

    In the search to find discriminative serological markers to differentiate between patients with acute brucellosis and those with chronic brucellosis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine and compare the brucella-specific IgE response in 80 sera from patients with acute brucellosis, 37 sera from patients with chronic brucellosis, 26 sera from patients with positive blood cultures for bacteria other than brucella and 51 sera from healthy controls. The IgE findings ...

  20. Ocular manifestations in a child with systemic brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Mohammadi; Alireza Dehghani; Heshmat Ollah Ghanbari; Mohammad Reza Akhlaghi; Kobra Nasrollahi; Hasan Salam

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with widespread prevalence. It presents with in various range and often with the presence of non-specific clinical signs and symptoms. Brucellosis also may cause different manifestations in eyes such as uveitis, keratitis, conjunctivitis and neuro-ophthalmic defects. Ocular brucellosis is rare among children. Herein, we present a 7-year-old girl with systemic and ocular brucellosis. After treatment with systemic steroid and antibiotics, her signs and symptoms...

  1. A Case of Brucellosis with Recurrent Attacks of Vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pınar Korkmaz; Mehtap Kıdır; Nazlı Dizen Namdar; Ahmet Özmen; Cemile Uyar; Ayşe Nur Değer

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis that affects several organs or systems. Skin involvement is nonspecific and it is reported to range between 0,4 and 17% of the patients with brucellosis. Here, we defined a 36-year-old female patient presented to our clinic with a clinical picture of recurrent attacks of vasculitis due to brucellosis for the first time. Skin involvement and vasculitic lesions as a finding of skin involvement are nonspecific in brucellosis. Therefore, in the regions like Turkey where ...

  2. 春节效应对布鲁杆菌病监测分析影响的探讨%The thinking of the affect of Brucellosis surveillance analysis of spring festival effect from a epidemic situation briefing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余晓花; 肖宛凝; 李晔

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the reasons of national Brucellosis epidemic situation year on year increase in Feb 2012 year, to bring up and analyzing the effect of Brucellosis surveillance analysis of spring festival effect. Methods To describe surveillance data of national Brucellosis epidemic situation by epidemiological method in Feb 2012 year, to analyzing spring festival effect by chi - square test. Results Year on year analysis, there are the statistical difference between the average incidence of the months including spring festival and the average incidence of the months non - including spring festival (x2 =9183. 16, P < 0.01 Jin national Brucellosis from 2008 to 2012;link relative ration analysis, there are the statistical difference between the average incidence of the months including spring festival and the average incidence of the months non - including spring festival { x2 = 59. 88, P < 0. 01) in national Brucellosis in Jan from 2008 to 2012, there are the statistical difference between the average incidence of the months including spring festival and the average incidence of the months non - including spring festival(x2 =959. 7, P <0. 01) in national Brucellosis in Feb from 2008 to 2012. Conclusions The reasons of national Brucellosis epidemic situation year on year increase in Feb 2012 year include the spring festival effect and the leap year and the increasing of Brucellosis epidemic situation of several provinces. Reported incidence ratio of Brucellosis in the months that include spring festival year on year decline caused of spring festival effect. To use the methods of adjusted ARIMA model\\move average could reduce the spring festival effect among Brucellosis surveillance analysis.%目的 分析2012年2月全国布鲁杆菌病疫情同比上升原因,提出并分析春节效应对监测分析的影响.方法 对2012年2月全国布鲁杆菌病疫情监测资料进行三间分布的流行病学描述,对春节效应分析采用卡方检验.结果 2008

  3. Review of clinical and laboratory features of human Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantur B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Brucella spp. continues to pose a human health risk globally despite strides in eradicating the disease from domestic animals. Brucellosis has been an emerging disease since the discovery of Brucella melitensis by Sir David Bruce in 1887. Although many countries have eradicated B. abortus from cattle, in some areas B. melitensis and B. suis have emerged as causes of this infection in cattle, leading to human infections. Currently B. melitensis remains the principal cause of human brucellosis worldwide including India. The recent isolation of distinct strains of Brucella from marine mammals as well as humans is an indicator of an emerging zoonotic disease. Brucellosis in endemic and non-endemic regions remains a diagnostic puzzle due to misleading non-specific manifestations and increasing unusual presentations. Fewer than 10% of human cases of brucellosis may be clinically recognized and treated or reported. Routine serological surveillance is not practiced even in Brucella - endemic countries and we suggest that this should be a part of laboratory testing coupled with a high index of clinical suspicion to improve the level of case detection. The screening of family members of index cases of acute brucellosis in an endemic area should be undertaken to pick up additional unrecognised cases. Rapid and reliable, sensitive and specific, easy to perform and automated detection systems for Brucella spp. are urgently needed to allow early diagnosis and adequate antibiotic therapy in time to decrease morbidity / mortality. The history of travel to endemic countries along with exposure to animals and exotic foods are usually critical to making the clinical diagnosis. Laboratory testing is indispensable for diagnosis. Therefore alertness of clinician and close collaboration with microbiologist are essential even in endemic areas to correctly diagnose and treat this protean human infection. Existing treatment options, largely based on

  4. Clinical Features and Long Term Prognosis of Childhood Brucellosis in Northeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Saeed Sasan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is a prevalent disorder in children of developing countries. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and long term prognosis of Brucellosis in Khorasan, Iran.Methods: This is a descriptive cross sectional study (from November 2003 up to February 2006, the subjects of which are composed of 82 patients (from Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, and Health Center of Kashmar. In this study the diagnosis of Brucellosis is based on serology accompanied with clinical signs and symptoms. Our strategy for duration of treatment was to treat all patients for at least 6 weeks. We followed the patients by phone and if necessary by visiting.Findings: During 38 months we had 82 children with Brucellosis. The mean age was 8.02 y, and 40% of them were girls (M/F=1.21. Summer with 45.9% of the cases was the peak season. History of consuming raw dairy products, close contact with farm animals, living in village and Brucellosis in family was found in 91.6%, 76%, 70.24% and 41.1% of the cases respectively. The presenting symptom in 79.7% of the cases was joint pain, 72.9% had history of fever during the course of the disease. Arthritis, splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy were found in 60.97%, 16.9%, 7.5%, of patients respectively. The therapeutic regimen of 48.7% of our patients was Co-trimoxazole and rifampin. We followed 74% of the patients for at least 3 years which showed the relapse rate of 6.5 %. There was a case of reinfection, a patient with residual sequel and one death related to Brucellosis in our case series.Conclusion: Brucellosis is still a common disease in our children and at least a risk factor for it can be found in the history of almost all cases of pediatric Brucellosis. With at least six weeks treatment with two antibiotics and with close follow up, we can decrease the relapse rate in pediatric Brucellosis to zero, even without repeating the serology during or after treatment

  5. Screening of Household Family Members of Brucellosis Cases and Neighboring Community Members in Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Ismayilova, Rita; Mody, Rupal; Abdullayev, Rakif; Amirova, Kamala; Jabbarova, Latafat; Ustun, Narmin; Jahanov, Musa; Nasirova, Emilya; Powers, Marilyn; Rivard, Robert; Hepburn, Matthew; Bautista, Christian T.

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease in Azerbaijan. The first human brucellosis case reported in 1922 was in Pardabil village of a region currently named Shabran. Household members of brucellosis index cases are a population at risk for brucellosis infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of seropositivity of brucellosis among household and neighboring community members of brucellosis index cases in Azerbaijan. Twenty-one household members of 8 index brucellosis ca...

  6. Brucellosis Presenting with Pericarditis: Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Lopes Pedro; Fernanda Paula Franchini; Leonardo Muraro Wildner

    2013-01-01

    Pericarditis is a rare manifestation during the course of brucellosis. This paper describes a case of pericarditis associated with brucellosis in a 31-year-old veterinary physician with a past medical history of testicular tumor and reviews the cases of pericarditis associated with brucellosis in medical English literature.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in goats in areas of Mexico with and without brucellosis control campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Frankena, K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Keilbach Baer, N.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a major constraint for small-scale goat farming systems in Mexico. This study estimated the prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis and identified and quantified risk factors in goats from small-scale farms of Michoacán that had participated in a brucellosis campaign (i.e. vacci

  8. Brucellosis Prevention Program: Applying “Child to Family Health Education” Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Allahverdipour

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pupils have efficient potential to increase community awareness and promoting community health through participating in the health education programs. Child to family health education program is one of the communicative strategies that was applied in this field trial study. Because of high prevalence of Brucellosis in Hamadan province, Iran, the aim of this study was promoting families’ knowledge and preventive behaviors about Brucellosis in the rural areas by using child to family health education method.Materials & Methods: In this nonequivalent control group design study three rural schools were chosen (one as intervention and two others as control. At first knowledge and behavior of families about Brucellosis were determined using a designed questionnaire. Then the families were educated through “child to family” procedure. At this stage the students gained information. Then they were instructed to teach their parents what they had learned. After 3 months following the last session of education, the level of knowledge and behavior changes of the families about Brucellosis were determined and analyzed by paired t-test.Results: The results showed significant improvement in the knowledge of the mothers. The knowledge of the mothers about the signs of Brucellosis disease in human increased from 1.81 to 3.79 ( t:-21.64 , sig:0.000 , and also the knowledge on the signs of Brucellosis in animals increased from 1.48 to 2.82 ( t:-10.60 , sig:0.000. Conclusion: Child to family health education program is one of the effective and available methods, which would be useful and effective in most communities, and also Students potential would be effective for applying in the health promotion programs.

  9. Study of brucellosis in serum of camels in southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rafieipour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the town of Qalegange, located in southeast of Iran, home of about 3816 camels. To study brucellosis in these animals, serological examinations including rose Bengal plat test (RBPT, MRT and 2ME were performed on 3502 camel’s serum samples. Positive results were obtained in 245 (7%, 163 (4.66% and 89 (7.92% camels thus tested, respectively. Twenty three percent of the positive camels were adult 2 years old, 36% three years old, 22% four years old, 17% five years old and the remaining 3 percent were six years old. In the infected herds, abortion rates associated with the disease ranged from 10 to 39 percent. Other ailments observed associated with brucellosis were retention of the placenta, fetal death and mummification, delayed maturity and infertility. Recommendations for brucellosis control were given, in order to increase the awareness of shepherds, by suggesting regular testing, slaughtering of infected animals and vaccinations.

  10. Liver disease in brucellosis. A clinical and pathological study of 40 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, F.; Carbonell, J.; Bruguera, M.; Force, L.; Webb, S.

    1982-01-01

    Among 82 patients with brucellosis, physical and/or biochemical abnormalities suggesting liver disease were found in 40 cases. A soft and tender liver enlargement was present in 65% of them, and the spleen was palpable in 52%. The most frequent biochemical abnormalities were a slight increase of serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase. Liver biopsy showed a non-specific reactive hepatitis in 90% of patients, and minimal changes in the remaining 10%. Non-caseating granulomas were present in 28 patients, always associated with reactive hepatitis. No differences were found when comparing clinical and biochemical features in patients with and without granulomas. However, statistically significant differences were obtained when the duration of the process was related to the type of alteration found in the liver biopsy; the finding of granulomas was practically constant when the duration of the disease before liver biopsy was under 100 days, but was infrequent after this time. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:7122367

  11. Acute Brucellosis in a young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girija Subramanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease primarily affecting cattle, goats, sheep and other animals occasionally transmitted to man. The clinical manifestations are protean and often missed. A case of acute brucellosis in a young adult male who presented primarily with loss of weight, malaise, fatigue and with no known risk factors is reported here. Brucella melitensis was isolated from blood culture and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Brucella IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA test and the patient was treated successfully with injection Amikacin for two weeks and oral Doxycycline for a period of six weeks.

  12. Cytokine profile and nitric oxide levels in sera from patients with brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refik M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the serum levels of some cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß, IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-8] and nitric oxide (NO levels in patients with untreated brucellosis and to test the correlation of these parameters with each other. The study was conducted on 67 subjects, 37 patients with brucellosis and 30 healthy individuals with no history of Brucella infection. Brucellosis was identified by a positive blood culture and/or increased Brucella antibodies in serological tests in addition to compatible clinical symptoms. Cytokine profile analysis was performed by the immulite chemiluminescent enzyme immunometric assay whose inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variance were 2.6-3.6 and 4.4-8.5%, respectively. The levels of nitrites/nitrates, which are representative of NO levels, were measured by the Griess method. Patients with brucellosis had significantly elevated serum levels of nitrites/nitrates, IL-2R, IL-6 and IL-8 (mean ± SD, 102.8 ± 23.8 µmol/l, 806.1 ± 58.5 U/ml, 21.1 ± 2.3 pg/ml, and 8.8 ± 1.6 pg/ml, respectively compared to healthy controls, whereas TNF-alpha and IL-1ß levels were unchanged. No statistically significant correlation was detected between any of the studied cytokine levels and nitrate/nitrite concentrations according to Pearson's linear correlation test. We conclude that only IL-6, IL-8 and IL-2R are elevated in brucellosis and the extent of elevation depends on the severity and clinical pattern of the disease. Moderate elevation in serum NO was comparable to that observed in previous studies. This explains the absence or very rare occurrence of septic shock in brucellosis.

  13. Simulating sterilization, vaccination, and test-and-remove as brucellosis control measures in bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, M.; Cross, P.; Wallen, Rick; White, P.J.; Treanor, John

    2011-01-01

    Brucella abortus, the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, infects wildlife, cattle, and humans worldwide, but management of the disease is often hindered by the logistics of controlling its prevalence in wildlife reservoirs. We used an individually based epidemiological model to assess the relative efficacies of three management interventions (sterilization, vaccination, and test-and-remove). The model was parameterized with demographic and epidemiological data from bison in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Sterilization and test-and-remove were most successful at reducing seroprevalence when they were targeted at young seropositive animals, which are the most likely age and sex category to be infectious. However, these approaches also required the most effort to implement. Vaccination was less effective (even with a perfect vaccine) but also required less effort to implement. For the treatment efforts we explored (50–100 individuals per year or 2.5–5% of the female population), sterilization had little impact upon the bison population growth rate when selectively applied. The population growth rate usually increased by year 25 due to the reduced number of Brucella-induced abortions. Initial declines in seroprevalence followed by rapid increases (>15% increase in 5 years) occurred in 3–13% of simulations with sterilization and test-and-remove, but not vaccination. We believe this is due to the interaction of superspreading events and the loss of herd immunity in the later stages of control efforts as disease prevalence declines. Sterilization provided a mechanism for achieving large disease reductions while simultaneously limiting population growth, which may be advantageous in some management scenarios. However, the field effort required to find the small segment of the population that is infectious rather than susceptible or recovered will likely limit the utility of this approach in many free-ranging wildlife populations. Nevertheless, we encourage

  14. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Implementation of ELISA for brucellosis at DGLS laboratories in indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This expert mission was performed to assess the current status of activities relating to brucellosis testing at the Regional Disease Investigation Centres of the Directorate General of Livestock Services in Indonesia, and to assist in the establishment and validation of the ELISA technique for detecting Brucella antibodies

  15. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  16. Brucellosis of the common vole (Microtus arvalis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Scholz, H.; Sedláček, I.; Melzer, F.; Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Nesvadbová, Jiřina

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2007), s. 679-688. ISSN 1530-3667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : common vole * brucellosis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.919, year: 2007

  17. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piampiano, P.; McLeary, M.; Young, L.W. [Dept. of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Loma Linda University Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Janner, D. [Div. of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Loma Linda University Medical Center and Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  18. Human Brucellosis Trends: Re-emergence and Prospects for Control Using a One Health Approach in Azerbaijan (1983-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracalik, I T; Abdullayev, R; Asadov, K; Ismayilova, R; Baghirova, M; Ustun, N; Shikhiyev, M; Talibzade, A; Blackburn, J K

    2016-06-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most common and widely spread zoonotic diseases in the world. Control of the disease in humans is dependent upon limiting the infection in animals through surveillance and vaccination. Given the dramatic economic and political changes that have taken place in the former Soviet Union, which have limited control, evaluating the status of human brucellosis in former Soviet states is crucial. We assessed annual spatial and temporal trends in the epidemiology of human brucellosis in Azerbaijan, 1983-2009, in conjunction with data from a livestock surveillance and control programme (2002-2009). To analyse trends, we used a combination of segmented regression and spatial analysis. From 1983 to 2009, a total of 11 233 cases of human brucellosis were reported. Up to the mid-1990s, the incidence of human brucellosis showed a pattern of re-emergence, increasing by 25% annually, on average. Following Soviet governance, the incidence rates peaked, increasing by 1.8% annually, on average, and subsequently decreasing by 5% annually, on average, during the period 2002-2009. Despite recent national declines in human incidence, we identified geographic changes in the case distribution characterized by a geographic expansion and an increasing incidence among districts clustered in the south-east, compared to a decrease of elsewhere in the country. Males were consistently, disproportionately afflicted (71%) and incidence was highest in the 15 to 19 age group (18.1 cases/100 000). During the period 2002-2009, >10 million small ruminants were vaccinated with Rev1. Our findings highlight the improving prospects for human brucellosis control following livestock vaccination; however, the disease appears to be re-emerging in south-eastern Azerbaijan. Sustained one health measures are needed to address changing patterns of brucellosis in Azerbaijan and elsewhere in the former Soviet Union. PMID:26403990

  19. The Rose Bengal Test in human brucellosis: a neglected test for the diagnosis of a neglected disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Díaz

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis affecting livestock and human beings. The human disease lacks pathognomonic symptoms and laboratory tests are essential for its diagnosis. However, most tests are difficult to implement in the areas and countries were brucellosis is endemic. Here, we compared the simple and cheap Rose Bengal Test (RBT with serum agglutination, Coombs, competitive ELISA, Brucellacapt, lateral flow immunochromatography for IgM and IgG detection and immunoprecipitation with Brucella proteins. We tested 208 sera from patients with brucellosis proved by bacteriological isolation, 20 contacts with no brucellosis, and 1559 sera of persons with no recent contact or brucellosis symptoms. RBT was highly sensitive in acute and long evolution brucellosis cases and this related to its ability to detect IgM, IgG and IgA, to the absence of prozones, and to the agglutinating activity of blocking IgA at the pH of the test. RBT was also highly specific in the sera of persons with no contact with Brucella. No test in this study outperformed RBT, and none was fully satisfactory in distinguishing contacts from infected patients. When modified to test serum dilutions, a diagnostic titer >4 in RBT resulted in 87.4% sensitivity (infected patients and 100% specificity (contacts. We discuss the limitations of serological tests in the diagnosis of human brucellosis, particularly in the more chronic forms, and conclude that simplicity and affordability of RBT make it close to the ideal test for small and understaffed hospitals and laboratories.

  20. Transient electrocardiographic changes during two episodes of relapsing brucellosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gur, H; Gefel, D.; Tur-Kaspa, R

    1984-01-01

    Cardiac involvement in the course of acute brucellosis is rare and, when present, is usually manifested by endocarditis. Myocarditis is very infrequent and in the few reported cases, the course of the disease was fulminant. A patient with recurrent brucellosis who presented transient electrocardiographic T wave changes during two episodes of acute illness is reported. It is suggested that the patient had minor asymptomatic myocarditis in the course of recurrent brucellosis.

  1. A case of brucellosis complicated with acute pyelonephritis

    OpenAIRE

    Cemal Üstün; Tümer Güven

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis, is an endemic disease in our country, may lead to bacteremia and cause different clinic manifestations.A 44-year-old male patient admitted to our policlinic with high fever, shivering, chilling, pollacuria, and left costovertebral pain, and interned with diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. Subsequently, acute pyelonephritis due to acute brucellosis was detected in the clinical and laboratoryexamination. Antibiotic treatment for brucellosis was given to patient for eight week and a...

  2. Practical approaches for the control and eradication of bovine brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Enright, Fred

    2000-01-01

    Outline: * A short history of the Brucellosis problems in the coastal marshes of southwest Louisiana. * A summary of results of the field studies on the control of brucellosis in the marsh herds. * The U.S. Brucellosis Program in the mid 1970s: A program in turmoil. * Questions for Argentina's animal health officials, beef and dairy producers and veterinarians. * Scientific factors and a disease control program: prevalence, reservoirs and transmission. A very long incubation pe...

  3. An analysis of brucellosis epidemic situation in humans from 2004 to 2010 in China%2004~2010年中国人间布鲁杆菌病疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晔; 余晓花; 贺天锋

    2012-01-01

    目的 描述2004~2010年全国人间布鲁氏菌病疫情现状和动态分布,分析流行趋势,为全国布鲁杆菌病防控提供科学依据.方法 对中国疾病预防控制信息系统中的2004~ 2010年全国布鲁杆菌病监测数据进行统计描述,并利用灰色模型进行趋势分析.结果 2004~2010年全国布鲁杆菌病疫情呈上升趋势,分布范围相对集中、逐年扩大,每年3~8月份高发,以青壮年男性为主,农牧民占很大比例.结论 近年全国人间布鲁杆菌病疫情严峻,有继续上升的趋势,应根据其流行特征,探讨改进防治策略和措施,加大防治力度和投入.%Objectives To describe epidemic situation and dynamic distribution of national human brucellosis from 2004 to 2010; to analysis epidemic trends; to provide scientific basis for prevention and control of national brucellosis. Methods To analyse the monitoring data of national brucellosis from 2004 to 2010 by describe statistical analysis, and to conduct analysis trends by using the grey model. Results Epidemic situation of national brucellosis shows that the trends had risen from 2004 to 2010 , regional distribution range was relatively concentrated, the case was increasing year by year, epidemic threshold was between March and August, young male were main disease groups, farmers and herdsmen took up a large proportion. Conclusions In recent years, the epidemic situation of national brucellosis is severe, and the trend keeps rising, we should explore and improve some strategies and measures to control and prevent brucellosis, and strengthen prevention efforts and investment according to epidemic features.

  4. Trends of reported human cases of brucellosis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloufi, Abdulaziz D; Memish, Ziad A; Assiri, Abdullah M; McNabb, Scott J N

    2016-03-01

    Human brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease and is especially concerning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), where livestock importation is significant. We analyzed reported human brucellosis disease trends in KSA over time to help policymakers understand the magnitude of the disease and guide the design of prevention and control measures. By using data from the national registry from 2004 to 2012, we calculated the cumulative numbers by age group and months. Trends of incidence rates (IRs) by gender, nationality, and region were also calculated. We found that there was a greater number of cases (19,130) in the 15-44years age group than in any other age group. The IRs significantly decreased from 22.9 in 2004 [95% confidence interval (CI)=22.3, 23.5] to 12.5 in 2012 (95% CI=12.1, 13). Males had a significantly greater IR than females. Most cases were reported during spring and summer seasons. The IR of Saudi citizens was significantly greater than that of non-Saudis, but this difference reduced over time. The IRs of Al-Qassim, Aseer, and Hail were in the highest 25th percentile. Young, male Saudi citizens living in highly endemic areas were at greatest risk of acquiring brucellosis. We recommend vaccinating susceptible animals against brucellosis and increasing the public's awareness of preventive measures. PMID:26429071

  5. 布鲁氏菌病的健康干预%Brucellosis health intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟惠云; 王迪; 张国芳; 孙洪杰

    2014-01-01

    吉林省前郭县是布鲁氏菌病(以下简称布病)的老疫区,多年来虽然狠抓布病的防治工作并取得了显著成果,但随着近年来养殖规模的增大,粗放管理模式加上自我防范意识的缺乏,使一度控制的布病出现了多发的趋势,不但威胁到养殖人员的健康,还严重制约了当地畜牧业的发展,如何遏制布病的传播显得尤为重要和紧迫。%Jilin Province Qianguo County is an old epidemic area of brucellosis(hereinafter referred to as the Bubing).Over the years,although we have paid close attention to the prevention and control of brucellosis and achieve remarkable results,but with the breeding scale increases in recent years,extensive management pattern and the lack of awareness of self-protection,the control of brucellosis appeared multiple development trend.It not only threatens the farm staff health,but also seriously hampers local animal husbandry development.How to curb the spread of brucellosis is particularly important and urgent.

  6. A Rare Complication of Brucellosis: Testicular Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Gul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella species. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This case was a male patient who developed Brucella epidiymo-orchitis and testicular abscess. He had fever, arthralgia and his right epididymis and right testicle were enlarged and tender. Ultrasound evaluation showed hypertrophy of the right epididymis and testis and moreover hypoechoic area within the testis. Brucella serology was positive and the patient did not respond completely to treatment with streptomycin, doxycycline, and rifampicina. Unilateral orchidectomy was decided. In areas where brucella infection is endemic brucella epididymo-orchitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Effective and rapid treatment is important. It should be noted that these patients may develop testicular abscess.

  7. Human brucellosis among pyrexia of unknown origin cases and occupationally exposed individuals in Goa Region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay D. Pathak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic infection. This disease is endemic in many parts of Asia, including India. Brucellosis is a major cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO. Persons exposed to infected animals or contaminated animal products are at high risk. Seropositivity among animal handlers, veterinarians and dairy workers has been documented in India. Thus, the present study was aimed to determine prevalence of brucellosis among PUO cases and occupationally exposed individuals. Methods: In this study, serum samples (n=282 from cases of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO (n=243, and occupationally exposed individuals (n=39 were collected and tested for brucellosis by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT, indirect ELISA, IgG and IgM ELISA. Blood culture for isolation of Brucella was performed for 10 serologically positive patients using BACTEC 9050 automated blood culture system. Biochemical tests and PCR techniques were used for confirmation of the isolates. Results: Of the samples tested, 4.25%, 3.54%, 6.02% and 4.96% samples were positive by RBPT, SAT, indirect ELISA and IgG ELISA, respectively. None of the sample was positive for IgM ELISA. Of the 10 blood samples cultured bacteriologically, one Brucella isolate was recovered. The isolate was confirmed as Brucella abortus. Amplification of the bcsp31 and IS711 genes was also observed. Conclusions: Seropositivity for brucellosis was observed among PUO cases, animal handlers and dairy workers in Goa, India. The serological tests showed variable results. One Brucella isolate was obtained by performing blood culture. Confirmation of the case was done rapidly using molecular tools. General awareness about clinical symptoms should be increased which will improve proper diagnosis within short time frame.

  8. Brucellosis in buffalos from Corrientes northeast (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Crudeli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo’s production represents an important option as input source in livestock systems located in areas with little profitability by cattle. In mostly farms, cattle and buffalos are breeding together, due that in Argentina, to carry out buffalo’s production is in an extensive way, with the aim to produce meat – mostly- milk – for this production nutritional supplements are used- and leathers. Brucellosis is zoonic illnesses from bacteria belong to Brucella which caused human human health problems by contaminated food ingestion or to those who are in touch with cattle. In Argentina, exist the National Control an Elimination Program for cattle Brucellosis, which include buffalos also, there is inclosed female vaccination and serologic segregation of positive reactants. Diagnosis techniques ruled for cattle brucellosis are BPA (Buffered Plate Agglutination, Tube seroaglutination and 2MercaptoEthanol. International reference test is Complement Fixation. By means of this present work, we pretend to evaluate the serologic diagnosis utility, ruled to the buffalos and compare obtained results by BPA, SAT and 2ME with Complement Fixation Test. In the present communication are presented results from the use of diagnosis techniques recommended by SENASA (National Service of Sanity and Quality Agro-Food to buffalo’s serums which belong to nine farms from NE Corrientes State. Obtained results show that association o BPA as Screening Test and SAT and 2ME as Confirmated Test has a valid correlation for the detection of positive animals with the reference technique Complement Fixation.

  9. 77 FR 42256 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Collection; Brucellosis Program AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension...-Federal Brucellosis Eradication Program. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before... State-Federal Brucellosis Eradication Program, contact Dr. Debbi Donch, Brucellosis Program Manager,...

  10. Meningoencephalitis, pancytopenia, pulmonary insufficiency and splenic abscess in a patient with brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complicated case of brucellosis with some rare features is reported. Brucellosis is a multisystematic disease. However, disseminated brucellosis with cerebral, pulmonary, hematopoietic and splenic involvement in an otherwise healthy patient is a rare event. In this article, we report a case of disseminated brucellosis who was initially diagnosed as myeldoplastic syndrome (MDS) and meningoencephalitis, pulmonary symptoms, and splenic abscess formation occurred thereafter. (author)

  11. Recent Developments in Livestock and Wildlife Brucellosis Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Live attenuated brucellosis vaccines have been available for protecting domestic livestock against B. melitensis or B. abortus for more than 60 years. Current vaccines are effective in preventing abortion and transmission of brucellosis, but poor at preventing infection or seroconversion. In addit...

  12. Control Measures for Brucellosis in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucellosis in domestic livestock remains a significant human health threat in many areas of the world. The brucellosis eradication program in the United States is based on trained personnel and laboratories, market surveillance, epidemiologic traceback from infected herds, calfhood vaccination, sa...

  13. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis...-5256. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On May 6, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR...

  14. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The.... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is currently developing proposed revisions to its programs regarding...

  15. Human Brucellosis: Still an Unfamiliar and Misdiagnosed Disease in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Mangalgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human brucellosis is a disease with protean clinical manifestations. Despite many awareness programmes, it is still missed or wrongly diagnosed. This leads to chronic morbidity leading to misery and loss of working days. Aim and Objectives: To assess the microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of human brucellosis. Materials and Methods: Patients with positive brucella screening test constituted the study material. A detailed laboratory, clinical, epidemiological study along with response to the treatment was analyzed. Results: Seroprevalence of brucellosis was found to be 1.75%. Brucellosis was clinically diagnosed in only 12.73% of cases. Fever, joint pain and low backache were the commonest symptoms. Close contact with animals and raw milk ingestion were the major sources of infection. Knowledge regarding brucellosis and its prevention was lacking in patients. Brucellosis was not considered as one of the differential diagnosis by the treating physicians. Conclusion: Brucellosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis in cases presenting with fever, low backache, arthritis and arthralgia. Laboratories should screen all the serum samples for brucella agglutinins by Rose Bengal Plate Test. Awareness regarding the prevention of brucellosis in the general population and regarding the existence of the disease among the doctors practicing in rural areas is needed

  16. Brucellosis in pregnancy: clinical aspects and obstetric outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Vilchez

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: This is the largest series of brucellosis in pregnancy reported in the literature. Brucella presents adverse obstetric outcomes including fetal and maternal/neonatal death. Cases with unexplained spontaneous abortion should be investigated for brucellosis. Prompt treatment is paramount to decrease the devastating outcomes.

  17. A case of brucellosis complicated with thromboflebitis and pulmonary emboli

    OpenAIRE

    TEKİN, S. Başol; ÇETİNKAYA, Ramazan; Gündoğdu, Mehmet; Kaya, Hasan; İNCE, Aynur

    1997-01-01

    Brucellosis is a systemic infectious disease. It may effect both circulatory and respiratory system as well. This disease could be observed as plorezi and alveolit in respiratory system while it may appear as pericardit, myocardit, and endocardit in circulatory system. It would rarely occur with thrombophlebit and pulmonary embolism. In this article, We discuss a brucellosis event which goes along thrombophlebit and pulmary embolism

  18. Historical perspective of brucellosis: a microbiological and epidemiological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    The historical process of brucellosis extends back to humankind's first contact with animals. Although brucellosis is a sporadic disease observed in animals in certain regions of the world, it is an important disease in humans that can affect many organs and systems due to the consumption of contaminated milk or milk products. Studies have shown that the presence of Brucella dates back to 60 million years ago. In 450 BC, Hippocrates described a disease similar to brucellosis. Since Hippocrates' time, brucellosis has been characterized by fever. Our aim is to investigate selfless work undertaken by scientists on the epidemiology, diagnosis and clinical findings of brucellosis until today, and to gain a historical perspective about the disease that is as old as human history, still has importance today, causes economic losses in treated animals and harms human health. PMID:27031903

  19. 76 FR 6322 - Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 RIN 0579-AD22 Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and Certification Requirements AGENCY: Animal and... in order to maintain Class Free status. Finally, the interim rule provided an alternative...

  20. 75 FR 81090 - Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 RIN 0579-AD22 Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and Certification Requirements AGENCY: Animal and... testing and movement mitigation activities before regulated animals are permitted to move interstate....

  1. Analysis on the epidemiological characteristics of brucellosis in Langfang city%廊坊市布鲁氏菌病流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董为为; 吴涛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the status of infection and risk factors on Brucellosis among Workers in Langfang city so as to provide related preventive and control measures.Methods Extraction in breeding,slaughtering and other key groups in the blood serum of the subject each 5 ml,standing separation of serum,the use of amber red treadmill test tube agglutination test methods for qualitative and quantitative detection of them.Using SPSS 19.0 software for data analysis.Results Langfang City in 2010-2014 focus groups Brucellosis Serological surveillance average positive rate was 2.90%,the incidence rate increased year by year,with an average incidence of 1.87/100 000,as of 2014 a total of Langfang City to monitor the cases of 734 cases of Brucellosis.Prevention and control among an average was 68.28%,showed an increasing trend;health behaviors average rate was 63.18%,showing an upward trend.April to July high,Xianghe Country,Dachang County,Guang Yang District,high fat,40 to 50 years old age group high.Feeding,the positive rate of livestock products processing and trafficking,slaughtering,veterinary and other professional high,whether the impact on morbidity operating procedures.Conclusion Langfang Brucellosis incidence increased year by year,the positive rate of blood tests focus groups brucellosis average 1.87/100 000,through health education can reduce human brucellosis trends.%目的 对廊坊市布鲁氏菌病(以下简称布病)监测点重点人群血清学监测结果进行分析,观察人间布病流行状况.方法 抽取从事饲养、屠宰等重点人群血清受检者的血液各5ml,静置分离血清,采用琥红平板试验定性和试管凝集试验定量的方法对其进行检测.使用SPSS 19.0软件进行数据分析.结果 廊坊市2010-2014年重点人群布鲁氏菌病血清学监测平均阳性率为2.90%,发病率逐年增加,平均发病率1.87/10万,截至2014年廊坊市共计监测到734例布病病例.防治知识知晓率平均68.28

  2. Analysis on the epidemiological characteristics of brucellosis in Langfang city%廊坊市布鲁氏菌病流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董为为; 吴涛

    2016-01-01

    目的 对廊坊市布鲁氏菌病(以下简称布病)监测点重点人群血清学监测结果进行分析,观察人间布病流行状况.方法 抽取从事饲养、屠宰等重点人群血清受检者的血液各5ml,静置分离血清,采用琥红平板试验定性和试管凝集试验定量的方法对其进行检测.使用SPSS 19.0软件进行数据分析.结果 廊坊市2010-2014年重点人群布鲁氏菌病血清学监测平均阳性率为2.90%,发病率逐年增加,平均发病率1.87/10万,截至2014年廊坊市共计监测到734例布病病例.防治知识知晓率平均68.28%,呈逐年上升趋势;健康行为形成率平均63.18%,呈逐年上升趋势.4~7月高发,香河县、大厂县、广阳区三地高发,40~ 50岁年龄组人群高发.饲养、畜产品加工及贩运、屠宰、兽医等职业的阳性率较高,是否按规程操作对发病率有影响.结论 廊坊市布病发病率逐年上升,重点人群布病血检阳性率平均2.90%,通过健康教育可降低人间布病流行趋势.%Objective To study the status of infection and risk factors on Brucellosis among Workers in Langfang city so as to provide related preventive and control measures.Methods Extraction in breeding,slaughtering and other key groups in the blood serum of the subject each 5 ml,standing separation of serum,the use of amber red treadmill test tube agglutination test methods for qualitative and quantitative detection of them.Using SPSS 19.0 software for data analysis.Results Langfang City in 2010-2014 focus groups Brucellosis Serological surveillance average positive rate was 2.90%,the incidence rate increased year by year,with an average incidence of 1.87/100 000,as of 2014 a total of Langfang City to monitor the cases of 734 cases of Brucellosis.Prevention and control among an average was 68.28%,showed an increasing trend;health behaviors average rate was 63.18%,showing an upward trend.April to July high,Xianghe Country,Dachang County,Guang Yang

  3. Brucellosis in Kosovo and Clinical Features of Brucellosis at University clinical center of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Qehaja Buçaj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis became a remarkable disease in Kosovo. But there is not a comprehensive epidemiological study about epidemiology and clinical course of this disease from Kosovo. The aim of our study is to present demographic and clinical data of patients with brucellosis at University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Methods: A retrospective study was performed for the patients with brucellosis treated in our clinic during years 2011- 2012. The data about demography, history of the disease, clinical presentations, serological test, serum biochemistry and reatment were collected from hospital medical records. The diagnosis of brucellosis based on clinical and laboratory findings. Results: This descriptive study included 47 patients, who 33 of them (70.2% were males. The mean age was 37.9 ± 19.3 years. The route of transmission of the disease was known in 28 59.5% of them. Direct contact with livestock in 22 (46.8% and ingestion of dairy products in six cases (12.7% were reported as the transmission route. The majority of patients (27 patients, 57.4% were from rural area. The main presenting symptoms were atigue, fever and arthralgia. Osteoarticular manifestations were the common forms of localized disease. Regarding to the therapy, 45 (95.7% of patients were treated with streptomycin and doxycycline for the first three weeks. Conclusion: Human brucellosis is not a common in Kosovo but there is a potential risk. Osteoarticular symptoms were the most common presentation reasons. The most effective and preferred treatment regimen was Streptomycin plus Doxycycline for the first three weeks, and Doxycycline plus Rifampicin thereafter. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 147-150

  4. [A case of brucellosis and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever coinfection in an endemic area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Çıkman, Aytekin; Akın, Hicran; Gülhan, Barış; Özçiçek, Adalet

    2016-04-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease which is especially seen in developing countries is still an important public health problem worldwide. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is another zoonotic disease that transmits to humans by infected tick bites as well as exposure to blood or tissue from infected animals. Both of the diseases are common among persons who live in rural areas and deal with animal husbandry. Since brucellosis usually presents with non-specific clinical symptoms and may easily be confused with many other diseases, the diagnosis of those infections could be delayed or misdiagnosed. In this report, a case of coinfection of brucellosis and CCHF has been presented to emphasize the possibility of association of these infections. A 70-year-old female patient with a history of dealing with animal husbandry in a rural area admitted to our hospital with the complaints of fever, malaise, generalized body and joint pains, and headache. Her complaints had progressed within the past two days. She also reported nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. She denied any history of tick bites. Her physical examination was significant for the presence of 38.8°C fever, increased bowel sounds and splenomegaly. Laboratory analysis revealed leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and high levels of liver enzymes. The patient was admitted to our service with the prediagnosis of CCHF. Serum sample was sent to the Department of Microbiology Reference Laboratory at Public Health Agency of Turkey for CCHF testing. During patient's hospitalization in service, more detailed history was confronted and it was learned that she had fatigue, loss of appetite, sweating, joint pain, and intermittent fever complaints were continuing within a month and received various antibiotic treatments. The tests for brucellosis were conducted and positive results for Brucella Rose Bengal test, tube agglutination (1/160 titers) and immune capture test with Coombs (1/320 titers) were determined

  5. Evidence for global runoff increase related to climate warming

    OpenAIRE

    Labat, David; Goddéris, Yves; Probst, Jean-Luc; Guyot, Jean-Loup

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing global climatic change initiated by the anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide is a matter of intense debate. We focus both on the impact of these climatic changes on the global hydrological cycle and on the amplitude of the increase of global and continental runoff over the last century, in relation to measured temperature increases. In this contribution, we propose an original statistical wavelet-based method for the reconstruction of the monthly discharges of worldwide largest riv...

  6. A Study for Brucellosis Seroprevelance in Agri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Tok

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We evaluated retrospectively laboratory test results of 520 patient who has brucellosis suspect between 2002-2004 years. METHOD: We use to Rose-Bengal test, Wright agglutination test and the other laboratory results and demographic properties for diagnosis. RESULTS: Rose-Bengal test was positive in 39 patients (11.3 % sera. Wright agglutination test was found positive for 1/160 or higher titers in 18 (3.4% sera. CONCLUSION: Wright agglutination test gave higher positive results in summer and autumn months. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 485-488

  7. An Epidemiological Situation of an Animal Brucellosis in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nyamdorj

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis, which is caused by Brucella spp., infects domestic and wild animals worldwide, as well as humans who have contact with infected animals or contaminated dairy products. In present-day epidemiological situation in Mongolia is not quiet, especially, zoonoses such us brucellosis have been broadly spreaded.Recently, we developed agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test with polysaccharide (Poly-B antigen and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA using soluble antigen extracted from B. abortus 544 by n-lauroylsarcosine (sarcosine extracts and these tests could be used to differentiate naturally infected animals from vaccinated and Y. enterocolitica O9-infected ones; this assay simply and specifically diagnoses brucellosis. To validate the method in the field and to test the effectiveness of the vaccination program in Mongolia, a serological survey of brucellosis in nomadic animal husbandry in Mongolia was performed in 2010 and 2011. In this study had been determined an animal brucellosis prevalence in Arkhangai and Khovd aimag. The result showed that 1.25% and 0.4% of cattle and 0.04 % and 0.01% of small ruminants were positive for brucellosis in Arkhangai and Khovd aimag respectively.These results showed that B.abortus 159 N5R can be used as an alternative vaccine against bovine brucellosis.

  8. Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2010-01-01

    Investments in children are generally seen as investments in the future economy. In this study I focus on time investments in children as I investigate the long-term educational effects on children of increasing parents' birth-related leave from 14 to 20 weeks using a natural experiment from 1984...

  9. 浙江省布鲁氏菌病疫情分析与防制对策研究%A retrospective analysis on the epidemic of human and livestock brucellosis and the prevention and control measures in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐卫民; 朱素娟; 施旭光; 王衡; 金行一; 杨洋; 王佳

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析浙江省人畜布鲁氏菌病(布病)疫情,提出防制对策。方法收集浙江省1955—2014年人畜布病监测及防控工作资料,进行描述性流行病学分析。结果浙江省历史畜间布病阳性率最高达22.28%,证实有犬种、牛种布病疫源地存在;1996年达到国家布病控制区标准后,畜间布病阳性率控制在较低水平;但近年多地从外来肉山羊及本地湖羊中检出布病阳性,存在输入性疫源扩散的风险。人间布病疫情首次于1967年有确诊病例,当时仅在职业人群中确诊有散发慢性稳定型病例或隐性感染者;2003—2014年共报告布病506例,新增感染者767人,年报告发病率呈递增趋势(P=0.002);在此期间共发生9起人间布病局部暴发疫情,分布在绍兴、杭州、宁波、金华、嘉兴及衢州等地。全省在人和动物中已先后检出犬种、牛种、羊种5个生物型82株布氏菌,优势菌为羊种3型布氏菌。结论浙江省现阶段畜间布病以省外输入性疫情为主,人间疫情大多与经畜输入的疫源有关,随着省外肉羊输入逐年增多,疫情呈扩大趋势并存在扩散的风险,应加强布病联防联控,采取综合防治措施做好人畜布病防控工作。%Objective To analyze the epidemic situation of human and livestock brucellosis in Zhejiang Province in recent sixty years and to put forward countermeasures for prevent and control.Methods Related data of prevention and cure of human and livestock brucellosis were collected from 1 996 to 201 4 and descriptive analysis was conducted.Results The positive rate of the livestock's bacteria was up to 22. 28%in the history of Zhejiang Province.Epidemic foci of B.canis and B.bovis in Zhejiang Province were confirmed.After achieving stability control standards of brucellosis,the positive rate of livestock brucellosis was low.But in recent years,meat goats from the north and local sheep

  10. Categorical and associative relations increase false memory relative to purely associative relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coane, Jennifer H; McBride, Dawn M; Termonen, Miia-Liisa; Cutting, J Cooper

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the contributions of associative strength and similarity in terms of shared features to the production of false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott list-learning paradigm. Whereas the activation/monitoring account suggests that false memories are driven by automatic associative activation from list items to nonpresented lures, combined with errors in source monitoring, other accounts (e.g., fuzzy trace theory, global-matching models) emphasize the importance of semantic-level similarity, and thus predict that shared features between list and lure items will increase false memory. Participants studied lists of nine items related to a nonpresented lure. Half of the lists consisted of items that were associated but did not share features with the lure, and the other half included items that were equally associated but also shared features with the lure (in many cases, these were taxonomically related items). The two types of lists were carefully matched in terms of a variety of lexical and semantic factors, and the same lures were used across list types. In two experiments, false recognition of the critical lures was greater following the study of lists that shared features with the critical lure, suggesting that similarity at a categorical or taxonomic level contributes to false memory above and beyond associative strength. We refer to this phenomenon as a "feature boost" that reflects additive effects of shared meaning and association strength and is generally consistent with accounts of false memory that have emphasized thematic or feature-level similarity among studied and nonstudied representations. PMID:26250805

  11. Field trial of a brucellosis competitive enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a competitive ELISA system for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in comparison to conventional aerological tests routinely used in Argentina. A total of 2.500 serum samples, comprising Brucella-free herds, vaccinated cattle and naturally infected animals, was tested by the following tests: buffered plate agglutination, Rose Bengal, 2-mercaptoethanol, complement fixation, and indirect and competitive ELISAs. Specificity and relative sensitivity at each test were determined. The competitive ELISA was considered suitable for detection of vaccinated animals and had higher specificity than the other tests. The results point to the potential use of the test as a complementary assay in the brucellosis control programme in Argentina. (author)

  12. Bone scintigraphy in two cases of chronic brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As shown in the case reports, bone scintigraphy plays an important part considering the diagnosis of chronic brucellosis, an infectious disease which occurs rarely in Germany. To establish the diagnosis knowledge of symptoms and signs of the disease is necessary. Chronic brucellosis may occur in each organ, ionvolving especially bones and joints. The disease may manifest as spondilytis (especially of the lumbar spine) or arthritis of large joints, sacroiliacal joints or costotransverse joints. Chronic brucellosis has to be considered if a bone scan reveals a typical pattern even without a typical history. (orig.)

  13. Caffeine increases food intake while reducing anxiety-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Patrick; Levack, Russell; Watters, Jared; Xu, Zhenping; Yang, Yunlei

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different doses of caffeine on appetite and anxiety-related behavior. Additionally, we sought to determine if withdrawal from chronic caffeine administration promotes anxiety. In this study, we utilized rodent open field testing and feeding behavior assays to determine the effects of caffeine on feeding and anxiety-related behavior (n = 8 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We also measured 2 h and 24 h food intake and body-weight during daily administration of caffeine (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). To test for caffeine withdrawal induced anxiety, anxiety-related behavior in rodents was quantified following withdrawal from four consecutive days of caffeine administration (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We find that acute caffeine administration increases food intake in a dose-dependent manner with lower doses of caffeine more significantly increasing food intake than higher doses. Acute caffeine administration also reduced anxiety-related behaviors in mice without significantly altering locomotor activity. However, we did not observe any differences in 24 h food intake or body weight following chronic caffeine administration and there were no observable differences in anxiety-related behaviors during caffeine withdrawal. In conclusion, we find that caffeine can both increase appetite and decrease anxiety-related behaviors in a dose dependent fashion. Given the complex relationship between appetite and anxiety, the present study provides additional insights into potential caffeine-based pharmacological mechanisms governing appetite and anxiety disorders, such as bulimia nervosa. PMID:26972351

  14. Brucellosis in high risk group individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agasthya A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among high-risk group individuals, consisting of veterinarians and para-veterinarians, shepherds, butchers and animal owners. Methods: The present work was carried out at Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance, Bangalore, by using the recently developed indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibodies to Brucella abortus. Results: The results were compared with the conventional serological tests, Rose Bengal plate test and standard tube agglutination test. The result showed that the indirect ELISA was more sensitive than the conventional tests. Of 618 tested, the disease of prevalence was at 41.23% in veterinary inspectors, 30.92% in veterinary assistants, 12.37% in veterinary officers, 6.18% in veterinary supervisors, 6.18% in Group D workers, 2.06% in shepherds and 1.03% in butchers. Conclusions: This study results highlight the immediate necessity to institute control measures to control Brucellosis.

  15. Epidemiology of human brucellosis in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbaghian, H; Nadim, A

    1974-10-01

    Studies on brucellosis were carried out to elucidate the epidemiology of the disease in Isfahan province, where Brucella melitensis is highly prevalent in animals and man. A positive milk ring test of 32% and 23% was found in unvaccinated goats and sheep respectively. Card and tube agglutination tests showed an infection rate of about 12% in sheep and goats and 42% in cattle. B. melitensis was isolated from 8% of 677 samples of fresh cheese examined.Of 1526 clinically suspected human cases, 476 showed laboratory evidence of brucellosis. Of these patients, 291 cases were from urban and 185 cases from rural areas. Cases from urban and rural areas were seen principally in the younger age groups. The median age of infection was 19.7 in urban and 15.7 in rural patients respectively. The infection was encountered mainly from April to August. This correlates with animal parturition and the greatest amount of sheep and goat milk production, which is introduced to the local market as fresh cheese. Raw dairy product consumption is the most probable way of Brucella transmission in urban patients. In rural areas, both dairy product consumption and contact with animals are sources of infection. PMID:4529097

  16. Brucellosis at the animal/ecosystem/human interface at the beginning of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, J; Scholz, H C; Barbier, T; Nicolas, C; Wattiau, P; Fretin, D; Whatmore, A M; Cloeckaert, A; Blasco, J M; Moriyon, I; Saegerman, C; Muma, J B; Al Dahouk, S; Neubauer, H; Letesson, J-J

    2011-11-01

    Following the recent discovery of new Brucella strains from different animal species and from the environment, ten Brucella species are nowadays included in the genus Brucella. Although the intracellular trafficking of Brucella is well described, the strategies developed by Brucella to survive and multiply in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, particularly to access nutriments during its intracellular journey, are still largely unknown. Metabolism and virulence of Brucella are now considered to be two sides of the same coin. Mechanisms presiding to the colonization of the pregnant uterus in different animal species are not known. Vaccination is the cornerstone of control programs in livestock and although the S19, RB51 (both in cattle) and Rev 1 (in sheep and goats) vaccines have been successfully used worldwide, they have drawbacks and thus the ideal brucellosis vaccine is still very much awaited. There is no vaccine available for pigs and wildlife. Animal brucellosis control strategies differ in the developed and the developing world. Most emphasis is put on eradication and on risk analysis to avoid the re-introduction of Brucella in the developed world. Information related to the prevalence of brucellosis is still scarce in the developing world and control programs are rarely implemented. Since there is no vaccine available for humans, prevention of human brucellosis relies on its control in the animal reservoir. Brucella is also considered to be an agent to be used in bio- and agroterrorism attacks. At the animal/ecosystem/human interface it is critical to reduce opportunities for Brucella to jump host species as already seen in livestock, wildlife and humans. This task is a challenge for the future in terms of veterinary public health, as for wildlife and ecosystem managers and will need a "One Health" approach to be successful. PMID:21571380

  17. False positive seroreactivity to brucellosis in tuberculosis patients: a prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Varshochi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mojtaba Varshochi1,2, Jafar Majidi2, Marjan Amini1, Kamyar Ghabili3, Mohammadali M Shoja31Department of Infectious Disease, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: The rising worldwide incidence of tuberculosis (TB increases the demand for knowledge about its potential seroreactivity with other microbial agents. A few reports and the authors’ experiences indicate that tuberculosis may result in a false-positive brucellosis serology. This may cause a diagnostic challenge because of the close clinical resemblance of these two infections.Objective: The aim of the present prevalence study was to elucidate brucellosis seroreactivity in patients with active TB.Methods: Ninety-eight patients with newly diagnosed and active TB were studied using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Wright’s and Coombs–Wright’s tests. Seventy-five healthy individuals were used as controls. The patients showed signs of recovery after starting a standard anti-TB regimen and had no clinical evidence of brucellosis at a subsequent 6-month follow-up. The data were analyzed statistically by Fisher’s exact test using SPSS 11.0.Results: We found that 9.2% of TB patients versus 1.3% of healthy controls had positive results on the anti-Brucella IgG ELISA (P = 0.04. Five TB patients were found to have agglutination on Wright’s tests, while none of the controls showed agglutination.Conclusion: Active TB patients may have some seroreactivity with Brucella antigens, and Brucella IgG ELISA may give a false positive in these patients. Clinicians should consider false positive brucellosis seroreactivity in patients with active TB.Keywords: false positive serology, ELISA, diagnosis

  18. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  19. Seroepidemiological Study of Brucellosis in High Risk Groups in Boyerahmad 1384

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Khosravani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that may have a major public health and economic impact in most countries. The disease appears as a Malt fever in humans and abortion in animals. This study was designed to determine the serologic titer of Brucella in high risk and non high risk people in Boyerahmad. Materials & Methods: A retrospective seroepidemiological study was performed on samples collected from 604 high risk and non high risk people using Rose Bengol test, tube standard test as a rapid test and 2 mercaptoethanol (2ME and comb's wright as a confirmatory test. The data collected were analyzed by X2 test via SPSS. Results: Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in high risk people appeared to be high in the Rose Bengal and tube standard test (TST 6.62 at titer ≥1/40 whereas for non high risk it was 0%. Confirmation test in high risk people was shown with 2ME in four people. Conclusion: Brucellosis is a major cause of disease in high risk people which can be due to direct or indirect contact with diary products of the related animals.

  20. Effect of toxoplasmosis and brucellosis on some biochemical parameters in ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. J. Al- Hussary

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of infection of ewes with toxoplasmosis and/or brucellosis on someserum biochemical parameters. Ninety six samples of blood were collected from aborted ewes at different stages of gestation,suspected to be infected with toxoplasmosis and /or brucellosis from different regions in Nineveh governorate. The percentageof toxoplasma and brucella infection depending on Latex Agglutination Test (LAT and Rose Bengal Test were 21.88% and23.96% respectively. The results of biochemical analysis showed that infection with toxoplasma caused significant elevation ofserum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Aswell as the concentrations of glucose, total protein and copper. Where as the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and theconcentration of calcium and zinc were reduced. Infection with brucellosis caused a significant increased in serum AST, ALTand LDH, ALP and creatin phosphokinase (CPK activities, and glucose, zinc and cholesterol concentrations. While serumcalcium and total protein concentration were decreased. Association of toxoplasma and brucella infection induced significantelevation of serum AST, ALT and LDH and CPK activities and the concentrations of glucose and copper with significant reduction in serum ALP activity and both calcium and zinc concentrations. It was concluded from this study that infection ofewes with toxoplasma and/or brucella caused changes in some biochemical parameters in the serum.

  1. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion). PMID:26341900

  2. Epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and domestic ruminants in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Anisur

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is an ancient and one of the world’s most widespread zoonotic diseases affecting both, public health and animal production. It is endemic in many developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America including Bangladesh. Since the first report in 1970, a lot of brucellosis seroprevalence reports are available in cattle, goats, sheep and humans in Bangladesh. Most of the previously reported prevalence studies were based on non-random samples, which may not give a tr...

  3. Quantifying Risk Factors for Human Brucellosis in Rural Northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    John, Kunda; Fitzpatrick, Julie; French, Nigel; Kazwala, Rudovick; Kambarage, Dominic; Godfrey S. Mfinanga; MacMillan, Alastair; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission ...

  4. An overview of the brucellosis epidemic conditions in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    fallah rostami Fatemeh; Borzoueisileh Sajad; Ebrahimpour Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is as one of the most important infection common disease between human and cattle, which nowadays considered as one of serious health systems dilemma specifically in developing countries.Among brucellosis different species are the cause of infection, 4 species namely B.melitensis, BSuis, B.abortus , B.canis are the most major cause of disease in human(1).Indeed, in Iran that is considered as an endemic area of hygienic organization, B. melitensis is as the most prevalent cause ...

  5. Neonatal Brucellosis: Two Cases with Two Different Transmissions

    OpenAIRE

    İlke Mungan Akın; Özlem Kalaycık Şengül; Sibel Sevük Özümüt

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis remains as an endemic infection of humans in many parts of the world; Latin America, Asia including Middle East and Mediterranean region including Turkey. Neonatal brucellosis is very rare and clinical manifestations as well as transmission route are not well-defined. The neonate can be either infected transplacentally, or by ingestion of mother’s secretions and blood during delivery, or by ingestion of breast milk. Here, we present two cases with two different t...

  6. Osteoarticular Involvement among Brucellosis Cases in Konya City

    OpenAIRE

    Özden, Hale Turan; Togan, Turhan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Brucellosis is a systemic disease that can affect many organs and tissues. Musculoskeletal system is one of the most commonly affected systems. Disease may present itself with sacroiliitis, peripheral arthritis, spondylitis, paraspinal abscess, bursitis or osteomyelitis. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency, types and clinical features of osteoarticular involvement among cases with brucellosis in Konya city and to establish the differences between patient...

  7. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Kenji [Hiroshima City Hospital (Japan); Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-12-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  8. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  9. [Pediatric brucellosis : A case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréhin, C; Ray, S; Honorat, R; Prère, M-F; Bicart-See, A; Claudet, I; Grouteau, E

    2016-07-01

    Brucellosis is an overlooked infection of widespread geographic distribution. This disease is rarely evoked when assessing unexplained pediatric fever, and only 20-30 cases (children and adults) are confirmed per year. Risk factors for contracting brucellosis are exposure to bodily fluids and consumption of unpasteurized dairy products from infected animals. Most cases of brucellosis are associated with traveling to or importing contaminated goods from endemic areas. Here, we report a case of brucellosis in a 16-month-old patient hospitalized for an acute febrile illness in a French general pediatric ward. An antibiotic regimen of rifampicin and co-trimoxazole given over 6 weeks led to successful cure without relapse. The child had eaten a cake made from unpasteurized goat's milk and imported from Oran, a region in Algeria. His mother had consumed the same cake and was hospitalized for brucellosis 15 days later. Clinicians should suspect brucellosis when encountering febrile patients who have traveled to endemic areas, been exposed to body fluids or products of abortion of farm animals, or consumed unpasteurized products. PMID:27266645

  10. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in yaks (Poephagus grunniens) in India and evaluation of protective immunity to S19 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Sasmal, Debasis; Dutta, Tapan Kumar; Ghosh, Monoj Kumar; Sarkar, Mihir; Sasmal, Nihar Kanta; Bhattacharya, Mohan

    2009-04-01

    The present study was carried out to explore the seroprevalence of brucellosis in yaks of North-Eastern hilly yak tracts of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Of 374 animals tested, 23.79, 21.11 and 18.98% were found positive for brucellosis using avidin-biotin ELISA (AB-ELISA), Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) and standard tube-agglutination test (STAT), respectively. The relative sensitivity and specificity for STAT were 79.77 and 100%, respectively and the same for RBPT were 88.76 and 100%, respectively in comparison to AB-ELISA. The alarming prevalence as recorded was highest among the yak cows (31.42%) followed by heifers (23.85%) and bulls (8.88%). The immune response in yaks following standard dose of calfhood vaccination with Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine showed that protective antibody level persisted up to 210 days. This is the first report from India on prevalence of brucellosis and immunization with B abortus strain 19 vaccine in yaks. The present investigation would be a valuable guideline for future control measure and eradication programme of brucellosis in yaks. PMID:18763048

  11. Isolation and identification of Brucella suis biotype 2 from epididymal puncture performed on a boar affected with brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogožarski Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The causal agent of swine brucellosis is Brucella suis. Within the scope of the kinds of Brucella suis, there are five biotypes, but only biotypes 1, 2 and 3 lead to swine infections. Human infections with Brucella suis biotype 2 are rarely registered. Swine brucellosis is widespread all over the world. It has been noted that the incidence of swine population infected with Brucella suis in Western Europe has been increasing during the recent years. The goal of this project was to isolate, identify and typify the causal agent from epididymal puncture performed on a boar with conditions suspicious of brucellosis, using standard microbiological methods. The results of the research show that Brucella suis biotype 2 can be successfully isolated and identified from a sample obtained by means of epididymal puncture of live animals. Therefore, epididymal puncture gives us a certain, reliable and important sample derived from a live animal for a direct diagnostic of boar brucellosis. The above mentioned first isolate of Brucella suis biotype 2 epididymal puncture, has been marked as K-1.

  12. Epidemiological Analysis of Brucellosis Disease in Taiyuan City from 2010 to 2014%2010~2014年太原市布鲁氏菌病流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳静; 张晓佳; 魏晓勇

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To describe the distribution of brucellosis cases in Taiyuan city from 2010 to 2014 and to put forward the suggestions on prevention and control. Methods:The diagnosed cases of brucellosis patients were con-ducted the epidemiological analysis based on the data that were collected in Taiyuan city according to Chinese Diseases Reporting Information System between 2010 and 2014. Results:The tendency of epidemic situation of brucellosis in Taiyuan city continued to increase,and the outbreak and deaths case didn′t appear. The brucellosis in 10 counties(cit-ies,districts)in Taiyuan city occurred with the characteristic of the developed livestock of agricultural counties,such as Yangqu county,Loufan county,Qingxu county relatively severe. The brucellosis disease attacked all the year round. The peak incidence of brucellosis was from April to August. The young and middle-aged male farmers easily suffered. Conclusion:It is essential for the government to be attracted the attention to the prevention and control of brucellosis in Taiyuan city. The cooperation between all departments should be strengthened. The comprehensive measures,mainly in-cluding quarantine,immunization tend to be adopted among animals and discover the epidemic disease of animal slaugh-ter. The quarantine must be strengthened while transporting. And large-scale breeding will develop. The epidemiological investigation into the human cases should be carried out in order to conduct standard treatment in a large scale. Health education should be strengthened. The stock administrative departments are responsible for administration of epizootic in-vestigation and disposition within their jurisdiction.%目的:描述太原市2010~2014年的布鲁氏菌病分布情况,提出防治建议。方法:对2010~2014年《中国疾病预防控制信息系统》中报告的布鲁氏菌病病例进行流行病学分析。结果:布鲁氏菌病疫情处于上升阶段,尚未出现暴发疫情和死亡

  13. 75 FR 53979 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement... Service announces the reopening of the public comment period on the Bison Brucellosis Remote...

  14. Risk, knowledge and preventive measures of smallholder dairy farmers in northern Malawi with regard to zoonotic brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanly Fon Tebug

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk production using local cattle breed-types is an age-old practice in Malawi. Although dairy farming is becoming more common as a result of the increasing population and demand for milk and milk products, there is limited knowledge of the farmers’ awareness of zoonotic disease risks, their preventative practices and the disease burden in animals. This study determined dairy farmers’ general knowledge of zoonoses, assessed their risks for infection with zoonotic bovine tuberculosis (bTB and brucellosis, and evaluated farm practices to prevent disease transmission. A questionnaire was drawn up and administered by the authors. It was used to collect information about the knowledge and preventive practices of 140 out of 684 registered dairy farmers at Mzuzu Agricultural Development Division, northern Malawi. During a second visit to 60 out of the 140 farms, a total of 156 and 95 cattle were tested for brucellosis and tuberculosis, respectively. Most farmers (77.1% knew or had heard of zoonotic diseases, whilst 75.0% correctly named at least one zoonotic disease. More survey participants named tuberculosis as a zoonotic disease compared to brucellosis (74.3% versus 2.9%. The most commonly named means of transmission were milk (67.0% and meat (56.0%. Almost all survey participants (96.4% practised at least one farm activity that could lead to potential transmission of brucellosis or bTB, including sale (67.0% and consumption (34.0% of unpasteurised milk. Antibodies against brucellosis were found in 12 cattle (7.7%, whilst one animal (1.1% reacted to the tuberculin skin test. General knowledge about possible transmission of diseases between humans and animals was high, although most farmers practised risk behaviours that could potentially expose the public to milk-borne zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis and bTB. Furthermore, some animals had positive results for brucellosis and tuberculosis tests. Therefore, improvement of zoonotic disease

  15. Increased Risk Taking in Relation to Chronic Stress in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Smarandita; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Schwieren, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify accumulation of the stress hormone cortisol. We discovered a significant positive, though modest, correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations. PMID:26858663

  16. Investigation of Brucellosis Seroprevalence in Artvin City According to the Laboratory Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Inci

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease in our country.In this study, we aimed seroprevalence of brucellosis was determined by Rose Bengal and standart tube agglutination tests. Matherial and Method: Serologic data of 1580 brucellosis prediagnosed patients admitted to %u2026.. State Public Hospital Microbiology Laboratory between January 2010 and March 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. Results: Seropositivity for brucellosis in patients by RB were (132)8.35% respectively.among the...

  17. Comparison of Plasma Copper Concentrations in Patients with Brucellosis and Control Group

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Mobaien; S. Jafari; M. Haji Abdolbaghi; A. Aliporan; A.A. Saiedi; P Eini

    2008-01-01

    Introduction & Objective : There are some reports about influence of the rare nutrients such as copper and zinc on immune system. Serum concentrations of copper alter in patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis is a common and endemic disease and a health problem in Iran. We compared serum concentrations of copper in patients with brucellosis and healthy individuals.Materials & Methods: In a cross sectional study, serum concentrations of copper was measured in patients with brucellosis and cont...

  18. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis among Children in the Middle Anatolia Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gül, Serdar; Satilmiş, Özgün Kiriş; Ozturk, Baris; Gökçe, Mehmet İlker; Kuscu, Ferit

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brucellosis is an important public-health problem in Turkey. Children may constitute 20 to 30% of all brucellosis cases in the world, especially in the endemic regions. Data on the seroprevalence of brucellosis in childhood are very limited. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among a child population. One thousand one hundred and ten subjects were included in the study. Blood samples were collected and tested with Rose Bengal (RB) and standard tube ...

  19. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Associated with Brucellosis in Two Patients with Fever and Pancytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Eser, Bulent; Altuntas, Fevzi; Soyuer, Isin; Er, Ozlem; Canoz, Ozlem; COSKUN, HASAN SENOL; Cetin, Mustafa; Unal, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Brucellosis is a disease involving the lymphoproliferative system, which may lead to changes in the hematological parameters; however, pancytopenia is a rare finding. However, malignant diseases in association with brucellosis are rarely the cause of pancytopenia. Herein, two cases with fever and pancytopenia, diagnosed as simultaneous acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brucellosis are presented. Anti-leukemic therapy and brucellosis treatment were administered simultaneously, and normal blood ...

  20. Acute abdomen as atypical presentation of brucellosis: report of two cases and review of literature.

    OpenAIRE

    al Faraj, S

    1995-01-01

    Abdominal involvement in brucellosis is seen in the acute, subacute and chronic disease. It is not typical, however, that acute abdomen is the presenting feature of brucellosis. In this paper, two cases of serologically diagnosed brucellosis are reported, both presenting initially with acute abdomen and fever. In brucella-endemic regions of the world, brucellosis has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen and fever. With definitive diagnosis, unnecessary laparotomy ca...

  1. Evaluation of an Immunocapture-Agglutination Test (Brucellacapt) for Serodiagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Orduña, Antonio; Almaraz, Ana; Prado, Ana; Gutierrez, M. Purificación; Garcia-Pascual, Agustina; Dueñas, Ana; Cuervo, Milagros; Abad, Ramon; Hernández, Beatriz; Lorenzo, Belen; Bratos, Miguel A.; Torres, Antonio Rodriguez

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the validity and the usefulness of a new test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis based on an immunocapture-agglutination technique. A total of 315 sera from 82 patients with a diagnosis of brucellosis, 157 sera from patients in whom brucellosis was suspected but not confirmed, and 412 sera from people living in rural areas with endemic brucellosis were studied. The seroagglutination test (SAT), Coombs anti-Brucella test, and Brucellacapt test were evaluated. All the initial s...

  2. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... destroyed because of brucellosis. 51.5 Section 51.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis. (a) The claimant shall be responsible...

  3. Ocular Complications of Brucellosis: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Reza Lashay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A 21-year-old female was referred for severe bilateral visual loss 3 weeks after a diagnosis of brucellosis. On ocular examination she had bilateral optic nerve head swelling, preretinal hemorrhages and retinal vasculitis. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral optic neuritis secondary to brucellosis and developed optic atrophy and severe visual loss despite medical treatment. Brucellosis can lead to various types of ocular involvement including vasculitis, optic neuritis and retinal hemorrhage.

  1. An interesting case of childhood brucellosis with unusual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksugur, Sevil Bilir; Bekdas, Mervan; Gurel, Safiye; Tas, Tekin; Sarac, Esma Gokcen; Demircioglul, Fatih; Kismet, Erol

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection, which is still a major public health concern worldwide. Common clinical findings are usually nonspecific involving fever, arthralgia, myalgia, weakness and malaise. Since none of the symptoms of brucellosis is pathognomonic, it may have a similar course with various multisystemic diseases. In terms of focal involvement, sacroiliitis is the most common musculoskeletal manifestation in adult patients, while it is quite rare in pediatric patients. Blood culture is the gold standard in the diagnosis of brucellosis. In the absence of culture facilities, the diagnosis traditionally relies on serologic testing with a variety of agglutination tests such as the Rose Bengal test and the serum agglutination test. However, these agglutination tests are accompanied by frequent false negative results such as seen in prozone phenomenon, which may lead to diagnostic delays. In this article we present a rarely encountered pediatric brucellosis patient who had sacroiliitis-spondylitis, which are rarely reported in children, and exhibited prozone phenomenon in agglutination tests. PMID:26058253

  2. Brucellosis in Milk and Milk Products and Its Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Keskin, Dilek; TOROĞLU, Sevil

    2007-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by Brucella spp, is a zoonotic disease which is patogenic to human. Brucella spp especially can be host cattle, sheep, goats, water bufalo pigs, dogs, camel, deer, certain poultry and human even tick and some artropod. Brucella spp are very important for public health because, along causing important economical losses, they infect man via milk and milk products of infected animals.

  3. Polymyositis-like syndrome with rhabdomyolysis in association with brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kushal Naha; Suman Karanth; Sowjanya Dasari; Mukhyaprana Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse myositis with progression to rhabdomyolysis has been reported in association with wide range of viral infections.We report a case of polymyositis-like syndrome complicated by rhabdomyolysis secondary to brucellosis.This case report thus contributes yet another atypical presentation to a disease already infamous for its protean manifestations.

  4. ELISA versus Conventional Methods of Diagnosing Endemic Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantur, Basappa; Parande, Aisha; Amarnath, Satish; Patil, Giridhar; Walvekar, Ravindra; Desai, Arun; Parande, Mahantesh; Shinde, Rupali; Chandrashekar, Masiyappa; Patil, Satish

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic value of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated when blood specimens of 92 patients suspected of brucellosis underwent the ELISA (IgM and IgG), standard tube agglutination (SAT), and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) tests and blood cultures; 38 sera from non-brucellosis patients and 34 sera from blood donors were also subjected to ELISA, SAT, and 2-ME tests. SAT was able to pinpoint only 23 (25%), whereas ELISA confirmed the etiology in 56 (60.9%; P < 0.001) patients with brucellosis, including 31 culture-confirmed cases. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 100% and 71.31%, respectively. Because they were confirmed by ELISA, the diagnosis could never be excluded with SAT in 33 cases. ELISA has been found to be more sensitive in acute (28% higher sensitivity; P < 0.02) and chronic (55% higher sensitivity; P < 0.01) cases. For accurate diagnosis in suspected brucellosis cases detection, we recommend both ELISA IgM and IgG tests. ELISA IgG and 2-ME tests seem to be promising tools in judging prognosis. PMID:20682874

  5. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. ELISA for epidemiology of brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a travel report of a three-week mission (from October 13 to November 1, 1991) to Indonesia within the framework of ''The implementation of ELISA technology for the sero-diagnosis of important livestock diseases''. The mission evaluated the implementation of ELISA technology at the Regional Laboratories and its role in the surveillance and control of bovine brucellosis

  6. Sleep spindles predict stress-related increases in sleep disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Thanh eDang-Vu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Predisposing factors place certain individuals at higher risk for insomnia, especially in the presence of precipitating conditions such as stressful life events. Sleep spindles have been shown to play an important role in the preservation of sleep continuity. Lower spindle density might thus constitute an objective predisposing factor for sleep reactivity to stress. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the relationship between baseline sleep spindle density and the prospective change in insomnia symptoms in response to a standardized academic stressor. Methods: 12 healthy students had a polysomnography (PSG recording during a period of lower stress at the beginning of the academic semester, along with an assessment of insomnia complaints using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI. They completed a second ISI assessment at the end of the semester, a period coinciding with the week prior to final examinations and thus higher stress. Spindle density, amplitude, duration and frequency, as well as sigma power were computed from C4-O2 electroencephalography (EEG derivation during stages N2-N3 of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM sleep, across the whole night and for each NREM sleep period. To test for the relationship between spindle density and changes in insomnia symptoms in response to academic stress, spindle measurements at baseline were correlated with changes in ISI across the academic semester.Results: Spindle density (as well as spindle amplitude and sigma power, particularly during the first NREM sleep period, negatively correlated with changes in ISI (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Lower spindle activity, especially at the beginning of the night, prospectively predicted larger increases in insomnia symptoms in response to stress. This result indicates that individual differences in sleep spindle activity contribute to the differential vulnerability to sleep disturbances in the face of precipitating factors.

  7. Bovine brucellosis in Argentina and bordering countries: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M N; Samartino, L E; Humblet, M-F; Saegerman, C

    2014-04-01

    Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease spread worldwide. The infection in cattle is predominantly caused by Brucella abortus and is usually detected in pregnant females through abortions. The disease is endemic in Argentina; however, infection in humans is underestimated and often not reported. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis in countries bordering Argentina is quite variable: 0.04% in Uruguay, 10.20% in the north and 0.06% in the south of Brazil, 0.2% in Chile, 3.15% in Paraguay and 2.27% in Bolivia. In 1999, the Argentine National Control and Eradication Program was implemented. Its strategies include identification of vaccinated animals, compulsory vaccination with B. abortus S19 of 100% of 3- to 8-month-old females, negative serological tests before animal movements and categorization of farms in terms of their brucellosis status. The epidemiological surveillance in milk is performed through the milk ring test and the indirect ELISA. The result of a national brucellosis survey performed in 2004 indicates that 12.4% (95% CI: 10.89-14.0) of Argentine beef farms are seropositive to Brucella and that the apparent prevalence in cattle is 2.10% (95% CI: 1.90-2.40). The official serological diagnostic tests are as follows: buffered plate antigen test, as screening, serum agglutination test, 2-mercaptoethanol and fluorescence polarization assay, competitive ELISA, as confirmatory tests, and complement fixation test, as definitive test. Santa Fe and a district in Córdoba have 'Outstanding Plans'. Tierra del Fuego is a 'Zone free from bovine brucellosis'. One question arising when studying the Argentine situation is why the disease remains endemic if good regulations exist to control and eradicate it. In future, some different aspects might be evaluated to understand it, and further studies should be performed to prioritize, select and refine control strategies. PMID:23046031

  8. Neonatal Brucellosis: Two Cases with Two Different Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlke Mungan Akın

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis remains as an endemic infection of humans in many parts of the world; Latin America, Asia including Middle East and Mediterranean region including Turkey. Neonatal brucellosis is very rare and clinical manifestations as well as transmission route are not well-defined. The neonate can be either infected transplacentally, or by ingestion of mother’s secretions and blood during delivery, or by ingestion of breast milk. Here, we present two cases with two different transmission route and clinical findings. First case is a premature infant born after 31 weeks of gestation and hospitalized for respiratory distress in addition to hepatosplenomegaly and leukocytosis. Brucella species were isolated from the initial blood culture obtained just after birth. Clinical and laboratory findings improved with decreased ventilatory support after replacement of antibiotherapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX and rifampicin. Second case was a 28 days old, term infant. Her sibling was diagnosed as brucellosis and during evaluation of the family members, her mother was found to have brucellosis just before delivery. Initial evaluation of the baby after birth was totally normal. Beside medical advice, she was breastfed and in the 4th week of life she was found to have leucopenia and neutropenia, and brucella tube agglutination test turned to be positive. After antibiotherapy, laboratory findings were normalized. Breastfeeding was ceased during the treatment periods of both mothers. Both families were from rural regions of Turkey, who were using unpasteurized dairy products. Both patients were treated with TMP-SMX and rifampicin for 6 weeks without any complication. Brucella spp must be sought as a causative agent in the differential diagnosis of intrauterine and neonatal infections in endemic countries. Family members of patients from rural areas of the country must be questioned about traditional food consumption, as findings of neonatal

  9. Use of non-conventional tests for the diagnosis of brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of non-conventional tests to complement traditional diagnostic methods for Brucellosis were established and assessed in order to verify whether the adoption of a panel of methods combined to alternative sampling strategies would increase the possibility of detecting low levels of Brucella spp. antibodies or microorganisms. The diagnostic performance of each test was established by means of reference standards and compared with conventional screening and confirmatory tests under field conditions. Non-conventional tests assessed for detecting Brucella organisms included: an agglutination method using a monoclonal antibody for an early and specific detection of Brucella spp. from colonies, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Brucella spp in raw milk. Methods for detecting Brucella spp. antibodies included an ELISA test applied to cow milk, evaluation of milk-ELISA test through repeated sampling and ELISA in milk for the diagnosis of ovine brucellosis. The adopted strategy of repeated milk testing in dairy cows using ELISA increased the chance of identification of positive animals. (author)

  10. A Brief Discussion on How to Prevent Occupational Brucellosis%职业性布氏菌病的预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠; 丁家波; 程君生; 毛开荣; 张维珍

    2012-01-01

    针对目前布病在我国部分省(自治区、直辖市)呈现不同程度的暴发和流行情况,分别从加大宣传教育力度、源头上切断病畜感染密切接触人群,加强个人防护、遏制流通环节病原感染职业人员,健全生物安全管理制度、保证生产科研人员自身安全三方面阐述了如何预防职业性布氏菌病。%Recently the outbreaks and prevalent situations of brucellosis were quite serious in some regions of China. How to effectively prevent occupational brucellosis became one of the most important public health concerns nowadays. Here, a preventive strategy was proposed and discussed in the following three aspects. Firstly in order to cut off the disease from the origins, increased publicity education was necessary. Secondly strengthening the personal protective measures could prevent professionals from being infected by pathogen in circulation intermediaries. Thirdly a complete biological safety management system could ensure the security of the production and scientific research personnel from catching occupational brucellosis.

  11. Human brucellosis among pyrexia of unknown origin cases and occupationally exposed individuals in Goa Region, India

    OpenAIRE

    Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B.; Ajay D. Pathak; Dubal, Zunjar B.; Doijad, Swapnil P.; Raorane, Abhay; Rodrigues, Savio; Naik, Rajeshwar; Naik-Gaonkar, Shraddha; Dewanand R. Kalorey; Nitin V. Kurkure; Naik, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic infection. This disease is endemic in many parts of Asia, including India. Brucellosis is a major cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO). Persons exposed to infected animals or contaminated animal products are at high risk. Seropositivity among animal handlers, veterinarians and dairy workers has been documented in India. Thus, the present study was aimed to determine prevalence of brucellosis among PUO cases and occupationally exposed indivi...

  12. Mean platelet volume may not be a biomarker monitoring of brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Beyan, Cengiz; Beyan, Esin

    2014-01-01

    To the editorWe read with great interest the research article by Kader et al. [1] entitled with evaluation of mean platelet volume (MPV) levels in brucellosis patients. They retrospectively investigated the complete blood count parameters in patients with brucellosis. They found that MPV values were statistically significantly low in pre-treatment group compared with post-treatment group and healthy controls. They suggested that MPV levels might be useful in the follow-up of brucellosis patie...

  13. Predictive Contribution of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in Diagnosis of Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Here we wanted to investigate predictive value of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in the diagnosis of brucellosis. Thirty-two brucellosis patients diagnosed with positive serum agglutination test and thirty-two randomized healthy subjects were enrolled in this study retrospectively. Result with ROC analyzes the baseline NLR and hemoglobin values were found to be significantly associated with brucellosis (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, resp.). Herein we demonstrated ...

  14. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome secondary to brucellosis — A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Seetharam; Lingadakai, Ramachandra; Chethan, Kishanchand; Abdul, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a rare condition characterized by duodenal obstruction due to extrinsic compression by SMA. Any condition which results in rapid, significant weight loss can cause SMA syndrome. Brucellosis is a common cause of pyrexia of unknown origin which can result in loss of appetite and weight loss. Brucellosis resulting in SMA syndrome has not been described in literature. We present a case of SMA syndrome resulting from weight loss due to brucellosis along...

  15. Optimal Control of Brucellosis in Bison in the Yellowstone National Park Area

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Fang; Horan, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis is a highly infectious bacterial disease that causes infected females to abort their calves. It has caused devastating losses to U.S. farmers over the last century. The only known focus of Brucellosis left in the nation is wildlife such as bison and elk in the Greater Yellowstone Area. Vaccination and test-and-slaughter have been applied to brucellosis management in bison, and there has been discussion that a combination of both could potentially eradicate the disease in the Yello...

  16. Seroprevalence Study of Human Brucellosis by Conventional Tests and Indigenous Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Agasthya, Annapurna S.; Srikrishna Isloor; Prabhudas Krishnamsetty

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most important reemerging zoonoses in many countries. Brucellosis is caused by Gram-negative coccobacillus belonging to genus Brucella. Human brucellosis often makes the diagnosis difficult. The symptoms and clinical signs most commonly reported are fever, fatigue, malaise, chills, sweats headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, and weight loss. Some cases have been presented with only joint pain, lower backache, and involuntary limb movement, burning feet, or ischemic heart ...

  17. Acute Brucellosis with Splenic Infarcts: A Case Report from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishal Alyousef

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenic infarction is an extremely rare and unique presentation of brucellosis. Only few cases have been reported worldwide. We here report a case of a young man, presenting with acute onset of fever, left hypochondial pain, and vomiting. Further evaluation revealed multiple splenic infarcts and positive blood culture for brucellosis despite negative transesophageal echocardiography for endocarditis. Significant improvement in clinical symptoms and splenic lesions was achieved after six weeks of combination therapy against brucellosis.

  18. Analysis of a multi patch dynamical model about cattle brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of cattle brucellosis in Zhejiang province of China can be attributed to the transport of cattle between cities within the province. In this paper,an n-patch dynamical model is proposed to study the effect of cattle dispersal on brucellosis spread. Theoretically,we analyze the dynamical behavior of the muti-patch model. For the 2-patch submodel,sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number R0 and the number of the infectious cattle in term of model parameters are carried out. By numerical analysis,it is obtained that the dispersal of susceptible cattle between patches and the centralization of infected cattle to the large scale patch can alleviate the epidemic and are in favor of the control of disease in the whole region.

  19. "Seroepidemiological Survey of Brucellosis Among Animal Farmers of Yazd Province"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Salari

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis has remained a great problem of health in most of countries, which have failed in control of zoonosis infections. This disease is caused by species of Brucella and usually is transferred from animals to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among animal farmers of Yazd province. In this descriptive study, 933 animal farmers were investigated by serological tests and blood culture method. Then the data were analyzed by SPPS statistical program. The results showed that the frequency distribution of seropositive cases by MAT and STAT were 35 (3.2%; 25 (2.7% males and 10 (1.1% females. The highest and lowest incidences of seropositive cases were among age group of 21-30 (1% and more than 60 (0.3% years old, respectively. Of the 35 seropositive cases, 2MET positive were 5 (0.5%, while all blood cultures were negative.

  20. Rapid laboratory confirmation of human brucellosis by PCR analysis of a target sequence on the 31-kilodalton Brucella antigen DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    MATAR, G.M.; Khneisser, I A; Abdelnoor, A M

    1996-01-01

    We developed a PCR-based assay for the rapid and specific laboratory diagnosis of human brucellosis directly from whole blood. Specimens were collected in EDTA tubes from 17 patients with acute serologic brucellosis and 3 patients with chronic relapsing brucellosis as determined by serologic tests and the patient's clinical picture. DNA was extracted from peripheral mononuclear cells obtained from the blood of patients with brucellosis and control individuals. Specific primers for the PCR amp...

  1. A study on bovine brucellosis in an organized dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bhanu Rekha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the status of bovine brucellosis in an organized dairy with a past history of Brucella abortions and where Brucella control measures including test and removal, calf-hood vaccination (already present adult animals were not vaccinated, use of semen obtained from a screened bull and general hygienic measures helps in the control of brucellosis in the farm have been implemented for the past four years.Materials and Methods: A total of 195 samples including 89 blood samples, 89 serum samples and 17 milk samples were collected and analysed by isolation and identification, Polymerase chain Reaction (PCR, Milk Ring Test (MRT, Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT, Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT and Enzyme Linked Immnuno-Sorbent assay ELISA.Results: On analysis, all the 89 blood and 17 milk samples turned out to be negative for culture and PCR. MRT and ELISA tests on all the 17 milk samples and STAT on all the 89 serum samples were also negative. The percent positives for Brucella antibodies in serum samples were 4.5 and 6.7 by RBPT and ELISA, respectively. Of the 17 vaccinated animals, 14 were negative by all the Brucella antigen and antibody diagnostic tests employed. Amongst the three vaccinated animals, one animal was positive by RBPTand I-ELISAand, two animals were positive by I-ELISAalone. On the other hand, of the 72 nonvaccinated animals, 65 were negative by all the diagnostic tests employed, three animals were positive by RBPTand 4 animals were positive by I-ELISA. Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that a combination of RBPT and I-ELISA can be successfully used for screening for brucellosis when the prevalence is low. Implementation of control measures including test and removal of the affected, calf-hood vaccination, use of semen obtained from a screened bull and general hygienic measures help in the control of brucellosis in the farm.

  2. Investigation of Canine Brucellosis in Klang Valley Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Bahaman; Ardhy-Adnan; Khairani-Bejo

    2006-01-01

    One-hundred and twenty three (123) blood samples were collected from dogs in Klang Valley Malaysia to investigate the present of brucellosis. On culture, all blood samples were negative for Brucella sp. The serological tests carried out were Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and 2-mercaptoethanol tube agglutination test (ME-TAT). The RBPT found that all serum samples were negative for Brucella infection. However, ME-TAT shown six serum samples were positive to Brucella infection with a high antib...

  3. The clinical characteristics and analysis of 12 cases of Brucellosis%布氏杆菌病12例临床特点与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鑫

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析布氏杆菌病的临床特点,以便于及时诊断与治疗.方法 回顾性分析大连市第六人民医院自2010年1月至2011年12月收治的12例布氏杆菌病病例.结果 布氏杆菌病一年四季均可发病,但多发生于春、夏、秋季,传播途径复杂,有明显的职业特点.临床表现不典型,病程初期易误诊.利福平联合多西环素治疗有效,症状重者加用喹诺酮药物疗效肯定.结论 掌握布氏杆菌临床特点及流行病学特征,可提高诊断率,合理规范抗菌治疗.%Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of Brucellosis for timely diagnosis and treatment. Methods Retrospective analysis on 12 cases of Brucellosis from January 2010 to December 2011 were performed. Results Brucellosis could take place anytime during the whole year, especially in spring, summer and autumn. The transmission route was complicated. It often happened in special population. It was easy to be misdiagnosed in the early course of disease because its clinical symptoms were not typical. Rifampin and doxycycline were used together to treat Brucellosis, and quin-olone was added when the disease aggravated. Conclusion Better understanding of the clinical characteristics of Brucellosis can increase the diagnosis rate and optimize the treatment.

  4. Recurrent Epistaxis and Bleeding as the Initial Manifestation of Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali Aghdam, Mojtaba; Davari, Kambiz; Eftekhari, Kambiz

    2016-03-01

    Severe thrombocytopenia with bleeding is rarely reported in children with brucellosis, and recurrent epistaxis is extremely rare. Brucellosis with hemorrhage should be differentiated from viral hemorrhagic fever, malignancy, and other blood disorders. Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) is mandatory to differentiate from other blood diseases. An 8-year-old boy was admitted with recurrent epistaxis, petechiae and purpura on face and extremities and bleeding from the gums. During the hospitalization, he was febrile and complained of muscle pain. Leukopenias associated with thrombocytopenia were observed. BMA showed to be normal. Among the multiple tests requested, only serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2-MercaptoEthanol test (2-ME) were positive. He was treated with Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) associated with co-trimoxazole and rifampin. Finally, fever subsided, and he was discharged with good condition and normal platelet count. Brucellosis should be a differential diagnosis in patients with fever and bleeding disorders and a history of consumption of unpasteurized dairy, in endemic areas. PMID:27107528

  5. An analysis of children with brucellosis associated with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Kamuran; Akbayram, Sinan; Kaba, Sultan; Karaman, Serap; Garipardiç, Mesut; Aydin, Ilyas; Öner, Ahmet Fayik

    2016-06-01

    This retrospective study included seven paediatric cases aged from 4 to 14 (10.2±3.4) years with pathologically proved haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis from a single institution during 2009 and 2013. Over this time period, 496 patients with brucellosis were diagnosed. None of the patients (3 boys and 4 girls) had a history of any haematologic disorder. All patients had an anamnesis for recently consumed unpasteurised homemade dairy products or had a contact history with sheep and/or cows. The diagnosis of brucellosis was confirmed by standard tube agglutination test in all patients; titres were 1: 1280 in seven patients. Blood culture was positive for Brucella melitensis in three patients (42%). Bone marrow cultures were positive for B. melitensis in four patients (57%). Fever was present in all patients (100%) with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The other most common symptoms were malaise, myalgia, anorexia, sweating and weight loss. In addition, sweating was observed in five patients, and lymphadenopathy, petechiae, and weight loss were observed in one patient. Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and hepatosplenomegaly were found in four (57%), six (85%) and four (57%), patients, respectively. Haemophagocytosis was documented in bone marrow examinations of all children except in two cases. All patients recovered completely, and their peripheral blood counts returned to normal by 2 to 4 weeks after antibiotic treatment of brucellosis. PMID:27367321

  6. Human Brucellosis in the Republic of Macedonia by Regions Depending on Vaccination Procedures in Sheep and Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharko Stojmanovski

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Decline of the incidence of human brucellosis is one of the major indicators for successfully implemented new control programs and strategies for prevention and eradication of brucellosis in sheep and goats. Vaccination was good measure to control brucellosis in the 3 regions.

  7. Osteoarticular Involvement among Brucellosis Cases in Konya City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Turan Ozden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Brucellosis is a systemic disease that can affect many organs and tissues. Musculoskeletal system is one of the most commonly affected systems. Disease may present itself with sacroiliitis, peripheral arthritis, spondylitis, paraspinal abscess, bursitis or osteomyelitis. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency, types and clinical features of osteoarticular involvement among cases with brucellosis in Konya city and to establish the differences between patients with and without osteoarticular involvement. Material and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen patients with Brucellosis who presented between June 2003 and June 2014 were included in the study. Brucellosis was diagnosed by positive Brucella Standard Agglutination Test ( and #61619;1/160 titer and/or growth of Brucella spp. in blood culture in addition to the presence of clinical signs and findings. Diagnosis of osteoarticular system complications was established by physical examination and radiological findings obtained by diagnostic imaging tools. Magnetic resonance images of the thoracic, lumbar or sacral vertebrae were acquired in patients with back pain, low back pain and sacro-iliac joint pain. Results: Osteoarticular involvement was noted in 129 patients (40.8% (females: 52% and males: 48%. The most common route of transmission was employment in farming and/or consumption of un-pasteurized milk or dairy products, especially fresh cheese, in 97 (75% cases. Mean age was 46 and #61617;18 years. Sacroiliitis was the most frequent osteoarticular involvement (n: 68, 52.7%, 70.5% of which were bilateral. Sacroiliitis was followed by spondylodiscitis in 35 (38.7%, peripheral arthritis in 20 (15.5%, bursitis in 1 (0.8% cases. Patients with osteoarticular involvement received medical treatment for at least three months. Discussion: Ratio and anatomical region of osteoarticular involvement in brucellosis shows variability among areas. In the present study, we

  8. 78 FR 23740 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Register (78 FR 9028-9029, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0086) a notice that made a proposed action plan describing... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. This action will...

  9. Brucellosis in the United States: Role and Significance of Wildlife Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory programs for brucellosis in domestic livestock have been active in the United States for almost 80 years. Wildlife reservoirs of brucellosis include bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) for B. abortus whereas B. suis is the predominant species infecting feral swine. The...

  10. Financial analysis of brucellosis control for small-scale goat farming in the Bajio Region, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Bruce, M.; Frankena, K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Rushton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in small-scale goat husbandry systems in Mexico. It is a zoonosis and the economic consequences can be large, although estimates are not available for the Mexican goat sector. Our objective was to conduct a financial analysis of brucellosis control in a prominent da

  11. A case report of brucellosis with fever and abdominal pain at onset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU He-Ling; YANG Fei-Fei; HUANG Yu-Xian; JIN Jia-Lin; ZHANG Wen-Hong; WENG Xin-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella ,with an acute or chronic clinical infection .Clinical manifestations of brucellosis are various or atypical ,and it is easily misdiagnosed and miss-diagnosed .The case we have reported had an onset of fever and abdominal pain ,associated with arthralgia ,headache and rashes during the course , and was initially misdiagnosed as “acute cholangitis , associated with biliary pancreatitis” . According to epidemiologic survey , radiological evidence , as well as blood culture and agglutination test showing Brucella positive ,the diagnosis of brucellosis associated with splenic infarction and multi-systemic involvement including lungs , skin and brain was made . After regular anti-brucellosis treatment , the patient’s symptoms were significantly improved . Brucellosis associated with splenic infarction is rare ,which is possibly due to vasculitis resulting from Brucella infection .

  12. A Case of Brucellosis Associated with Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis: A Diagnostic Pitfall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Dalton Wheeler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cases of brucellosis are rare in the United States and difficult to diagnose. We report a case of a young female who underwent a diagnostic investigation of fever of unknown origin, which included a lymph node biopsy. The biopsy was consistent with Kikuchi’s Disease, or histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, an entity where the major differential diagnosis is systemic lupus erythematosus. Interestingly, serologic studies supported the diagnosis of brucellosis. Brucellosis has rarely been associated with histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis. This association has never been reported in the United States, thus suggesting that brucellosis should be considered in the differential for histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, along with lupus-like autoimmune disease. As the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, brucellosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus are distinct, it is important to differentiate these entities. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(5.000: 274-279

  13. An investigation of brucellosis in occupational population in Yuxi, China%玉溪市职业人群布鲁菌病调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳华; 左顺武; 姚颖波; 杨汝松; 王树坤

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解玉溪市职业人群布鲁菌病的流行现状,制定有效的防治策略.方法 对玉溪市2008至2014年发现布鲁菌病县(区)的养殖、屠宰、乳肉制品加工、兽医和销售交易等2 320名从业人员进行血清学检测;对职业人群疑似布鲁菌病患者进行病原学检测.结果 血清学检测显示,布鲁菌病感染率达3.32%,发现现症布鲁菌病15例,其中养殖人员感染率(4.89%)最高,差异有统计学意义(x-25.75,P<0.05);2008至2014年布鲁菌病感染率为0.37%~4.93%,呈上升趋势;67.85%的职业人群在工作中未采取个人防护措施,其感染率为4.45%,高于采取个人防护措施感染率(0.94%),差异有统计学意义(x2=19.42,P<0.05);161例疑似患者中,通过实验室病原学检测确诊现症布鲁菌病42例.结论 玉溪市职业人群布鲁菌病的感染率和新发病例有上升趋势,养殖人员是感染的主要人群.%Objective To investigate the epidemic status of brucellosis in the occupational population in Yuxi,China,and to develop effective prevention and control strategies.Methods Serological test was performed for 2320 enployees involved in breeding,slaughtering,meat and dairy product processing,veterinary medicine,and sales in counties and districts where brucellosis was detected from 2008 to 2014 in Yuxi;pathogenic detection was performed for those in the occupational population who were suspected of brucellosis.Results The results of serological test showed that the infection rate of brucellosis reached 3.32%,and 15 cases of brucellosis had clinical symptoms.The employees involved in breeding had the highest infection rate (4.89%) (x2=25.75,P<0.05).From 2008 to 2014,the infection rate of brucellosis was 0.37%~4.93% and tended to increase;67.85% of the occupational population did not take personal protective measures and had a significantly higher infection rate than those who took personal protective measures (4.45% vs 0

  14. epidemiological analysis on Brucellosis in Tangshan from 2002 to 2010%唐山市2002~2010年布鲁菌病流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓慧; 李芳

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze current epidemiological of Brucellosis in Tangshan, and provide scientific evidence for formulation of relevant prevention and control measures. METHODS The incidence rate of the Brucellosis were collected. The clue of Brucellosis was explored. The epidemic informations of Brucellosis fever from 2004 to 2008 were investigated and analyzed. RESULTS The Brucellosis in Tangshan are located in 12 counties, and a total of 237 cases were found from 2004 to 2008. CONCLUSION The epidemic situation of Tangshan showed diffuse, and the incidence of Brucellosis showed increased trend, and main cases were male, and there is no obvious seasonal difference.%目的 对唐山市近年来布鲁菌病病例进行流行病学调查与分析,为布鲁菌病防治提供理论依据.方法 收集近年来布鲁菌病疫情资料,对全市布鲁菌病病例进行线索调查,对2002~2010年布鲁菌病病例进行回顾性调查与分析.结果 2002~2010年全市布鲁菌病疫情主要分布于12个县(市)区,共有新发病人237例.结论 唐山市疫情以散发为主,疫情回升态势明显,职业特征明确,以男性为主,无明显季节性差异.

  15. Soft tissue mass of the chest wall as the sole manifestation of brucellosis in a 7-year-old boy

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a child who presented with a subcutaneous mass on the left side of the chest wall of one month's duration. The mass was painful and increasing in size over time. He had a history of weight loss and a decrease in appetite, but no history of fever or trauma. He had ingested raw camel milk, but had no history of contact with animals. He was diagnosed by the standard tube agglutination titer and tissue culture for brucellosis, treated with surgery and three months of antibru...

  16. Childhood brucellosis--a microbiological, epidemiological and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantur, B G; Akki, A S; Mangalgi, Smita S; Patil, S V; Gobbur, R H; Peerapur, B V

    2004-06-01

    A total of 5726 blood specimens (from children aged 14 years and younger) were studied for the serological evidence of brucellosis. Ninety-three (1.6 per cent) showed diagnostic agglutinin titres with a geometric mean titre of 403 (SD +/- 547). Forty-three (59.7 per cent) blood specimens yielded the growth of Brucella melitensis. Thirty-nine patients (41.93 per cent) were shepherds, who constituted the major occupational group affected in the present series. More than 60 per cent of the patients had a history of both consumption of fresh goat's milk and close animal contact. The habit of consuming fresh goat's milk to obtain relief from chronic ailments was noted in nine patients. Seventy-three (78.49 per cent) were males and 20 (21.51 per cent) were females, with a male to female ratio of 3:1. The disease occurred mainly in the school age group (mean age 10.3 years). All the patients had an acute history of less than 2 months. Forty-nine (52.68 per cent) patients presented with persistent fever, 19 (20.43 per cent) with joint pain, and the rest with a combination of fever and joint pain with and without low backache, fever being the commonest complaint. One case presented with involuntary movements of limbs alone and the other with burning feet only. Pityriasis alba was the consistent physical finding, with fever in the majority of the patients. The major joint found to be involved was the knee (52.77 per cent). The synovial fluid obtained from the knee joint of five patients demonstrated Brucella agglutinins and also three grew B. melitensis. Eight patients presented with complications that included skin lesions (3), carditis (2), neurobrucellosis such as chorea (1), peripheral neuritis (1), and meningitis (1). Brucella melitensis biotype 1 was successfully isolated from the papular eruption of one out of three cases who presented with skin lesions. To our knowledge this is the fourth confirmed isolation of B. melitensis from skin lesions with brucellosis

  17. Descriptive Study of the Presentation of Human Brucellosis in Colombia (2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lopez Guarnizo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to conduct a descriptive study of the occurrence of human brucellosis in Colombia between 2000 and 2012, and, based on previous studies, to determine the prevalence and incidence of the disease, and the limitations for its timely diagnosis and recognition by the Colombian labor system. The research consisted of searching for and analyzing articles on human brucellosis published between 2000 and 2012 in Colombia. It included a phase of information gathering and unstructured interviews with representatives of brucellosis control programs and experienced professionals. We analyzed 17 studies of human brucellosis cases in personnel at risk in slaughterhouses, retailers and vaccinators for animal brucellosis programs: 10 of them reported prevalences between 0.14% and 10.4%, and seven evidenced seropositivity. Information revealed the limitations of the diagnosis, and it demonstrated the little knowledge of the medical community about this disease. In Colombia, there is no clear policy regarding this occupational zoonosis. Brucellosis is mentioned only in Decree 2566 of 2009, in which the new table of occupational diseases is established. The paper concludes that human brucellosis in Colombia is an underdiagnosed, and therefore underreported, disease since there is no mandatory reporting system on the subject.

  18. Patterns of Brucellosis Infection Symptoms in Azerbaijan: A Latent Class Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ismayilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis infection is a multisystem disease, with a broad spectrum of symptoms. We investigated the existence of clusters of infected patients according to their clinical presentation. Using national surveillance data from the Electronic-Integrated Disease Surveillance System, we applied a latent class cluster (LCC analysis on symptoms to determine clusters of brucellosis cases. A total of 454 cases reported between July 2011 and July 2013 were analyzed. LCC identified a two-cluster model and the Vuong-Lo-Mendell-Rubin likelihood ratio supported the cluster model. Brucellosis cases in the second cluster (19% reported higher percentages of poly-lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, arthritis, myositis, and neuritis and changes in liver function tests compared to cases of the first cluster. Patients in the second cluster had a severe brucellosis disease course and were associated with longer delay in seeking medical attention. Moreover, most of them were from Beylagan, a region focused on sheep and goat livestock production in south-central Azerbaijan. Patients in cluster 2 accounted for one-quarter of brucellosis cases and had a more severe clinical presentation. Delay in seeking medical care may explain severe illness. Future work needs to determine the factors that influence brucellosis case seeking and identify brucellosis species, particularly among cases from Beylagan.

  19. An analysis of human brucellosis epidemic characteristic and trend in Wuhai during 2010 to 2014%2010—2014年乌海市布鲁氏菌病疫情特征及趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄喜平; 银福

    2015-01-01

    目的 掌握乌海市人间布鲁氏菌病疫情流行动态,分析疫情特征及现状,预测疫情发展趋势,为布鲁氏菌病的科学防治提供理论依据.方法 收集分析2010—2014年中国疾病预防控制信息系统传染病报告资料;2010—2014年人间布病防治项目调查及监测资料,历史资料.结果 乌海市人间布鲁氏菌病疫情呈上升态势,但发病总体上呈散发状态;该地区人间布病为较典型的"城市型"布病,病例多集中在养殖、屠宰、兽医、畜产品购销等行业,非职业人群发病增多.结论 加强对高危人群的监测工作,加大布病防治知识的宣传力度,做好畜间检疫、免疫、淘汰宰杀病畜等工作,有效控制人间布病疫情.%Objective To master the human brucellosis dynamics epidemic situation,to analysis the epidemic characteristic and present situation,and to predict the development trend of the epidemic of Wuhai to provide a the-oretical basis for brucellosis control.Methods Analysis on the brucellosis data of infectious disease report of 2010-2014 China disease prevention and control information system,investigation and monitoring data of 2010-2014 hu-man brucellosis prevention and control project and the historical data.Results The human brucellosis epidemic of Wuhai is rising gradually,but the incidence is interspersed on the whole.This area of human brucellosis is a typical urban type.Most cases was concentrated in the breeding,slaughtering,veterinary,animal products purchasing and supplying industry,and the incidence of occupational population was increased.Conclusions We should strength-en the monitoring of high-risk groups and the propaganda of the knowledge of prevention and control of brucellosis, and do well the work of animal quarantine and immunization and out of the slaughter of sick livestock,to effective control of the human brucellosis.

  20. The use of gene-based technology to determine the prevalence of dairy and beef cattle with a natural resistance to bovine brucellosis in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Bovine brucellosis is a highly contagious disease caused by Brucella abortus. The principal manifestations of brucellosis are reproductive failure including mid- to late-term abortions or birth of unthrifty calves, infertility in cows and orchitis and epididymitis with frequent sterility in the male. The disease has a high prevalence in southern Africa, especially in intensively farmed areas, and is the most important bacterial cause of abortion on the subcontinent. Although cattle diseases can be partially controlled by the use of antimicrobials, pesticides, vaccines, isolation-and-quarantine, and test-and-slaughter policies, sustained losses due to infectious diseases continue to impede the livestock industry. For the past decade, the use of antimicrobials has been increasingly criticized because of the development of antimicrobial resistant pathogens and the dangers of residues in animal products used as food for human consumption. A balanced strategy in which drug use is minimized and the emphasis is placed on breeding disease resistant livestock must be considered. An area of recurrent interest in this regard is to increase the overall level of resistance in a herd by using selective breeding programs based on gene bases technologies. 'Natural disease resistance' refers to the inherent capacity of an animal to resist disease when exposed to pathogens, without prior exposure or immunization, of which the major component is heritable and, therefore, stably passed from parent to offspring. Because antibiotics cannot effectively cure bovine brucellosis, only three approaches are currently available to control the disease viz. a combination of vaccination, hygiene, and/or 'test and slaughter'. It was therefore decided to concentrate on the exploitation of natural resistance as a fourth important tool to control and eradicate the disease in South Africa. It has been shown that natural resistance to brucellosis can be dramatically increased by selection

  1. Mean platelet volume may not be a biomarker monitoring of brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Beyan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To the editor We read with great interest the research article by Kader et al. [1] entitled with evaluation of mean platelet volume (MPV levels in brucellosis patients. They retrospectively investigated the complete blood count parameters in patients with brucellosis. They found that MPV values were statistically significantly low in pre-treatment group compared with post-treatment group and healthy controls. They suggested that MPV levels might be useful in the follow-up of brucellosis patients. We would like to comment on this study.

  2. Co-infection of brucellosis and tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle in Ibadan, Nigeria: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy A. Stack

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case report on co-infection of brucellosis and tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered at the Bodija abattoir in Ibadan, Nigeria. Out of 32 animals that were seropositive for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal test, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and competitive ELISA, six were also demonstrated as being infected with tuberculosis through mycobacterial culture. This is the first report of co-infection of brucellosis and tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered in Nigeria. There is a need for further studies to investigate this occurrence.

  3. Cytokine profile and nitric oxide levels in sera from patients with brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Refik M.; Mehmet N.; Durmaz R.; Ersoy Y.

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the serum levels of some cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-8] and nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients with untreated brucellosis and to test the correlation of these parameters with each other. The study was conducted on 67 subjects, 37 patients with brucellosis and 30 healthy individuals with no history of Brucella infection. Brucellosis was identified by a positive blood culture and/or ...

  4. Non-Traumatic Subcapsular Spleen Hematoma in a Patient with Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Söker

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease. A characteristic clinical findings are fever, headache, arthralgia and splenomegali. Brucellosis occurs after direct contact with an infected animal or consumption of products of an infected animal. Subcapsular hematoma in the spleen is very rare complication of brucella infection. We report here, an 11 year old patient with brucellosis who admitted to our clinic with subcapsular non-traumatic spleen hematoma. Hematoma and clinical findings were resolved with doxicyclin and streptomycin combination. We emphasised that brucella infection should be keept in mind when non-traumatic subcapsular spleen hematoma occur.

  5. Brucellosis with p-ANCA-associated renal failure, leukocytoclastic vasculitis and endocarditis: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Turgay, Esin Ertuğrul, Orhan Küçükşahin, Ali Şahin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between brucellosis and p-antinuclear cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA-associated vasculitis (pAAV is a rare condition. Herein, we report a 52-year-old man who was diagnosed as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN and endocarditis due to brucellosis. He was treated with antimicrobial agents, steroids, plasmapheresis, renal replacement therapy and aortic valve replacement. According to our best of knowledge, no similar case has been reportedpreviously in the literature in regard to p-ANCA anti-lactoferrin antibodies associated-glomerulonephritis with brucellosis and endocarditis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1(1:31-34.

  6. An overview of the brucellosis epidemic conditions in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fallah rostami Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is as one of the most important infection common disease between human and cattle, which nowadays considered as one of serious health systems dilemma specifically in developing countries.Among brucellosis different species are the cause of infection, 4 species namely B.melitensis, BSuis, B.abortus , B.canis are the most major cause of disease in human(1.Indeed, in Iran that is considered as an endemic area of hygienic organization, B. melitensis is as the most prevalent cause of infection in human. This bacterium generally will transfer to human from contact with contaminated animals or the consumption of cattle production such as unpasteurized dairy (raw milk, soft cheese, cream or even via breathe can transfer to human. But the transfer of infection from person to person is very infrequent.Of course there is some evidence of transfer in a bone marrow transplanting. The most prevalent clinical symptoms of this disease are fever, night sweat, asthenia and anorexia (2.Naturally this infection involved different systems and organs in human body and the one of most major part of body can be mentioned to nervous system, muscuskeletal and also some organs like joints, heart and liver.Diagnosis of this infection can be made by some various laboratory tests like SAT, 2ME. But some misdiagnosis instances are very common. Thus, World Health Organization (WHO exposed in its report that the number of infected cases are maybe ten folds more than scale which stated by health organizations.

  7. Brucellosis presenting as piriformis myositis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanos Odysseas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Myositis is a rare bacterial muscle infection. Involvement of the piriformis muscle has been rarely reported in the literature. In this report we describe a case of piriformis myositis due to Brucella melitensis, which to the best of our knowledge is the first such case presented in the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 19-year-old Caucasian man who presented to our institution with fever and right hip pain. Brucellosis was suspected, but the clinical suspicion was for spondylodiscitis. A pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scan allowed prompt diagnosis of inflammatory involvement of the right piriformis muscle. Blood culture results were positive for B. melitensis. Our patient was treated with antibiotics, and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans showed resolution of the inflammation. Conclusion Brucellosis can present as piriformis myositis. The clinical diagnosis of piriformis myositis is difficult, as it can mimic other common entities such as referred back pain from spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for establishing the diagnosis in the early stages of the disease, as late diagnosis can lead to abscess formation and the need for drainage.

  8. The computation of relative motion with increased precision. [of two orbiting space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacozy, P.; Szebehely, V.

    1976-01-01

    Encke's method as modified by Potter to increase the accuracy of orbit computations of gravitationally interacting bodies is applied to the problem of relative motion of non-interacting space vehicles. This technique is then combined with a simple transformation of the independent variable to arrive at a system of equations from which the relative motion may be determined with increased precision.

  9. 20 CFR 410.580 - Relation to provisions for reductions or increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relation to provisions for reductions or increases. 410.580 Section 410.580 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE... Relation to provisions for reductions or increases. The amount of an overpayment or underpayment is...

  10. Use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle in Yucatan, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera (247) from non-vaccinated brucellosis negative herds, 328 negative sera from Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccinated herds (brucellosis free), and 95 sera positive to the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and Complement Fixation test (CFT) from Brucella abortus-infected herds, were used to determine the relative sensitivity and specificity of a FAO/IAEA I-ELISA kit and the Rivanol Agglutination Test (RAT), using the CFT as a 'gold standard'. A threshold value for the I-ELISA was determined to be 37 PP using the mean plus 3 standard deviations of the negative sera from vaccinated animals. The I-ELISA showed a high relative sensitivity (100%) and a good relative specificity (92.5%), using the threshold determined for local conditions. The RAT gave a lower sensitivity value than the CFT (97.8%) and good specificity (99.3%). The I-ELISA could be used as a screening test under Yucatan conditions or as a confirmatory test in places where vaccination is not carried out. The RAT lacks sensitivity and is therefore not recommended for use in final stages of eradication programs but could be used in control programmes or early stages of eradication campaigns as a confirmatory test. (author)

  11. Discussion on the control process of sudden brucellosis%突发布鲁菌病防治进程的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高芸

    2014-01-01

    Objective In order to accumulate data of prevention and control brucellosis related for public health emergencies in the future. Methods The discussion were carried on the prevention process of burst Brucellosis of the city this year from the livestock disease purification, existing epidemic prevention effect, prevention process problems and solutions. Results Summarized the experience in prevention of brucellosis and existing problems. Conclusion Accumulated data of prevention and control brucellosis related for public health emergencies.%目的:探讨突发布鲁菌病的防治进程,为今后防治与布鲁菌病相关的突发公共卫生事件积累资料。方法就2013年我市突发布鲁菌病的防治进程,从病畜的净化、疫情防治的效果、防治过程中存在的问题及解决方案进行探讨。结果此次防治布鲁菌病进程中,没有发生防疫人员和兽医人员感染事故,疫情处理及时。结论探讨突发布鲁菌病的防治进程,及时总结防治经验和分析存在的问题,能够为防治相关突发公共卫生事件积累资料。

  12. Herd-level Risk Factors Associated with Bovine Brucellosis Seropositivity and Abortion in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md. Atiqul

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify the herd level risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis seropositivity and abortion in the Mymensingh and Sherpur districts of Bangladesh.

  13. Microtiter-Adapted Method That Facilitates the Coombs Test for Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Otero, Joaquín R.; Fuertes, Antonio; Palenque, Elia; Noriega, Antonio R.

    1982-01-01

    A simple method for carrying out the Coombs test with U-shaped microtiter plates instead of tubes is described. This technique provides reliable and more rapid testing of large numbers of sera in suspected cases of human brucellosis.

  14. Serological and bacteriological study of brucellosis in camels in central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, A I; Bekairi, S I; Prasad, P V

    1992-09-01

    Sera from 2,630 apparently normal adult camels (Camelus dromedarius) raised in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Kharj cities) were examined serologically by the Rose Bengal and standard United States of America Brucella plate agglutination tests. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in the restricted populations of tested camels was 8%. The seroprevalence of brucellosis among camels raised in small numbers in the backyards of 24 houses in Riyadh and those intensively raised on one large camel farm near Al-Kharj were 4.3% and 8.6% respectively. Fresh milk samples from 100 brucellosis seropositive camels from Riyadh and Al-Kharj were cultured on Brucella-selective media. Brucella melitensis biovars 1 and 2 were isolated and identified from 26 camels. Epidemiologically, brucellosis in camels in central Saudi Arabia appeared to be connected with B. melitensis infection of sheep and goats, and also represents a serious public health risk. PMID:1472730

  15. Simultaneous acute deep vein thrombosis and acute brucellosis. A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaç, Şeyda; Kalender, Mehmet; Yıldırım, Onur; İmre, Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease common in developing countries. Vascular complications, including arterial and venous, associated with Brucella infection have rarely been reported. A case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) developing after a diagnosis of acute brucellosis in a young milkman is presented. A 26-year-old man presented with pain in the right leg. The patient's medical history included a diagnosis of brucellosis in our hospital where he had presented with complaints of weakness and fever. Peripheral venous Doppler ultrasound showed DVT, and the patient was treated with anticoagulants. The patient was discharged with warfarin therapy and anti-brucellosis treatment. Although rare, some infectious agents may cause vascular pathologies. Patients presenting with symptoms of DVT or similar vascular pathologies should be assessed for infectious agents, particularly in those coming from Brucella-endemic areas.

  16. Health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan Alastair

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is known to cause debilitating conditions if not promptly treated. In some rural areas of Tanzania however, practitioners give evidence of seeing brucellosis cases with symptoms of long duration. The purpose of this study was to establish health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania and explore the most feasible ways to improve it. Methods This was designed as a longitudinal study. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients who reported to selected hospitals in rural northern Tanzania between June 2002 and April 2003. All patients with conditions suspicious of brucellosis on the basis of preliminary clinical examination and history were enrolled into the study as brucellosis suspects. Blood samples were taken and tested for brucellosis using the Rose-Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and other agglutination tests available at the health facilities and the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test at the Veterinary Laboratory Agencies (VLA in the UK. All suspects who tested positive with the c-ELISA test were regarded as brucellosis cases. A follow-up of 49 cases was made to collect data on health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases. Results The majority of cases 87.7% gave a history of going to hospital as the first point of care, 10.2% purchased drugs from a nearby drug shop before going to hospital and 2% went to a local traditional healer first. Brucellosis cases delayed going to hospital with a median delay time of 90 days, and with 20% of the cases presenting to hospitals more than a year after the onset of symptoms. Distance to the hospital, keeping animals and knowledge of brucellosis were significantly associated with patient delay to present to hospital. Conclusion More efforts need to be put on improving the accessibility of health facilities to the rural poor people who succumb to most of the diseases including zoonoses. Health education on brucellosis in

  17. Exclusion of an outbreak of human brucellosis%一起人间布鲁杆菌病爆发疫情的排除调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙广玖; 姚文清

    2014-01-01

    Objective To prevent misdiagnoses of brucellosis and misjudgment of brucellosis outbreak through differential diagnosis between influenza and brucellosis of three new cases who were in the same work unit and underwent the longest latent period.Methods Contact history of the three new cases was investigated epidemiologically and physical examination and blood test were taken.Brucellosis antibodies of the cases and abortion cow were tested by serum tube agglutination test (SAT),and pathogen was isolated.The tonsilla and pharyngeal secretion substance of cases were collected for detection of influenza virus RNA by real-time PCR.Results The cases had contact history with brucellosis abortion cattle and/or the animal contaminated environment,and had a fever,fatigue and other symptoms.Total blood cell(WBC) was normal and proportion of lymphocyte was increased.The antibody titer in SAT test was 1:200(+++),but pathogen isolation was negative for all three cases.Brucellosis antibody of abortion cow was positive and antibody titer was 1:800 (++).The test of Bv RNA of influenza virus was positive in the three cases.Conclusions The three cases are brucellosis latent infection combined with influenza and we have excluded a misjudgment of pestilence of human brucellosis outbreak.%目的 调查并排除一起人间布鲁杆菌病爆发疫情.方法 对在同一个集体单位、布鲁杆菌病(简称布病)最长潜伏期内发病的已构成布病诊断的3例新发布病病例与流感进行鉴别诊断,调查内容包括病例的流行病学接触史、临床症状体征及血常规检测.血清试管凝集试验(SAT)检测病例及其接触的流产病牛布病抗体并进行布鲁杆菌分离;采集病例扁桃体、咽部分泌物,实时荧光定量PCR检测流感病毒RNA.结果 3例病例都有与流产病牛或其污染环境接触的病史,均有发烧、乏力等症状;白细胞总数正常、淋巴细胞比例增高;SAT试验抗体滴度为1:200(+++),病原分离结

  18. Analysis of 153 patients with brucellosis in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region%新疆布鲁氏菌病153例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘珂君; 买买提艾力·吾布力; 包依夏姆·阿巴拜克力; 努尔比亚·阿不都克尤木; 孙晓风; 鲁晓擘; 张跃新

    2013-01-01

    considered when the patient presents with primary complaint of fever of unknown origin. The incidence of brucellosis is increasing in China, which should be paid much more attention.

  19. A Primary Investigation on Serum CTX-II Changes in Patients Infected with Brucellosis in Qinghai Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi Jun; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Ma, Li; Xu, Li Qing; Yang, Pei Zhen; Meng, Xian Ya; Yu, Hui Zhen; Xu, Xiao Qing; Cao, Jian Ying

    2016-03-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases, with the most frequent complication being osteoarticular changes. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) in patients infected with brucellosis. A total of 84 brucellosis patients and 43 volunteers were selected and divided into brucellosis vs. control groups. Serum samples were subjected to serological tests for brucellosis, and CTX-II levels in all samples were measured simultaneously with ELISA. The results showed that serum CTX-II levels in human brucellosis were higher than those of healthy controls, without a statistically significant difference, but serum CTX-II levels in male patients were significantly higher than those of female patients (Pbrucellosis. PMID:27109135

  20. Patterns of Brucellosis Infection Symptoms in Azerbaijan: A Latent Class Cluster Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Ismayilova; Emilya Nasirova; Colleen Hanou; Rivard, Robert G.; Bautista, Christian T.

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis infection is a multisystem disease, with a broad spectrum of symptoms. We investigated the existence of clusters of infected patients according to their clinical presentation. Using national surveillance data from the Electronic-Integrated Disease Surveillance System, we applied a latent class cluster (LCC) analysis on symptoms to determine clusters of brucellosis cases. A total of 454 cases reported between July 2011 and July 2013 were analyzed. LCC identified a two-cluster model...

  1. Is Wright Test an Appropriate Screening Test for Diagnosis of Brucellosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mohsenpour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Diagnosis of brucellosis is generally based on culture, polymerase chain reaction and serology. The first two methods are not accessible in all parts of world and are expensive. The routine method for diagnosis of brucellosis is considering Wright test as the first screening test; if the results are Wright positive’ Wright would be the next choice otherwise 2ME would be requested. This method of laboratory data collection is not appropriate and it is probable to have some cases of brucellosis missed and in clinical practice we observed that some cases of brucellosis are Wright negative but Coombs’ Wright positive. Approach: In this study we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and likelihood ratio of Wright and Coombs’ Wright in brucellosis suspected patients. Results: 122 patients suspected to brucellosis were studied. 53.3% were female. Sensitivity and specificity Positive Predictive Values (PPV and Negative Predictive Values (NPV of Wright were 32.5% (CI95%: 22.8-42.3, 96.4% (CI95%: 89.5-100, 96.6% (CI95%: 0.9-100 and 93.1% (CI95%:83.8-100 respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for Coombs’ Wright were 97.7% (CI95%: 94.6-100, 100% (CI95%: 100-100, 100% (CI95%: 100-100 and 93.1% (CI95%:83.8-100 respectively. Conclusion: Coombs’ Wright is more sensitive than Wright for diagnosis of brucellosis. Instead of considering Wright, Coombs’ Wright and 2ME (mercaptoethanol tests and interpretation of these three test we can just apply Coombs’ Wright and 2ME to reduce the expenditures and use a more sensitive test for diagnosis of brucellosis.

  2. Effect of toxoplasmosis and brucellosis on some biochemical parameters in ewes

    OpenAIRE

    N. A. J. Al- Hussary; A. S. M. Al- Zuhairy

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of infection of ewes with toxoplasmosis and/or brucellosis on someserum biochemical parameters. Ninety six samples of blood were collected from aborted ewes at different stages of gestation,suspected to be infected with toxoplasmosis and /or brucellosis from different regions in Nineveh governorate. The percentageof toxoplasma and brucella infection depending on Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) and Rose Bengal Test were 21.88% and23.96% re...

  3. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis among people in contact with livestock in suburban Khartoum, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Nada A Gaafar; Adil A Ismaeel; Adel H Elduma; Elnageeb S Saeed; Mohamed E. Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: The objectives of the present study were to survey brucellosis and to determine risk factors among humans in occupational contacts with dairy cattle in suburban and peri-urban regions in Khartoum State, Sudan. Materials and Methods: Serum samples (n = 362) were collected from people in association with 11 farms with history of brucellosis in Khartoum State between August 2009 and February 2010. Results: Out of the 362 serum samples 14 (3.9%) were positive for brucell...

  4. Prevalence of Brucellosis among Women Presenting with Abortion/Stillbirth in Huye, Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Rujeni; Léonidas Mbanzamihigo

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of human brucellosis is not documented in Rwanda despite several reports on the disease in cattle. Because brucellosis has been associated with abortion, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of positive serology in women presenting with abortion and/or stillbirth. The study was done in Huye District, in the Southern Province of Rwanda, and the patients were recruited from both the University Teaching Hospital of Butare (CHUB) and Kabutare District Hospital. Se...

  5. Brucellosis with p-ANCA-associated renal failure, leukocytoclastic vasculitis and endocarditis: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Turgay, Esin Ertuğrul, Orhan Küçükşahin, Ali Şahin

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between brucellosis and p-antinuclear cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA)-associated vasculitis (pAAV) is a rare condition. Herein, we report a 52-year-old man who was diagnosed as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) and endocarditis due to brucellosis. He was treated with antimicrobial agents, steroids, plasmapheresis, renal replacement therapy and aortic valve replacement. According to our best of knowledge, no similar case has been reportedpreviously in the literature ...

  6. Towards single screening tests for brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Yu, W.; Nicoletti, P.; Elzer, P.; Robles, C.; Bermudez, R.; Renteria, T.; Moreno, F.; Ruiz, A.; Massengill, C.; Muenks, Q.; Jungersen, Gregers; Tollersrud, T.; Samartino, L.; Conde, S.; Forbes, L.; Gall, D.; Perez, B.; Rojas, X.; Minas, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and a fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA), each capable of detecting antibody in several species of hosts to smooth and rough members of the genus Brucella. The I-ELISA uses a mixture of smooth lipopolysaccharide (SLPS...... RLPS than did I-ELISA procedures using each individual antigen separately. Similarly, the assay using combined antigens detected antibody in slightly fewer animals not exposed to Brucella sp. When a universal cutoff of 10% positivity was used (relative to strongly positive control sera of each species......) and rough lipopolysaccharide (RLPS) as the antigen, and a recombinant protein A/G conjugated with horseradish peroxidase as the detection reagent. When using individually determined cutoff values, the SLPS/RLPS combined-antigen I-ELISA detected antibody in slightly more animals exposed to SLPS or to...

  7. BRUCELLOSIS: REVIEW OF CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FEATURES AND THERAPEUTIC REGIMENS IN 44 CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Afsharpaiman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBrucellosis is not uncommon in children in endemic areas. We described clinical and laboratory features and therapeutic regimens for brucellosis in children under 14 who admitted in the Pediatric Medical Center Hospital, Tehran, Iran from March 1988 until February 2001. The male: female ratio was 2:1. Family history of brucellosis and consumption of un-pasteurized milk and dairy products was positive in 20.4% and 65.9%, respectively. The common clinical findings were arthritis (79.5%, fever (77.4%, anorexia (61.4%, sweating (52.3%, splenomegaly (43.2%, hepatomegaly (34.1% and lymphadenopathy (13.65. Anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia were recorded in 56.8%, 31.8% and 9.1%, respectively. Out of all patients, seropositivity rate for brucellosis was found in 97.7% using serum agglutination test. Culture of blood and bone marrow specimen were positive in 30% and 50% of samples obtained, respectively. Rifampin and co-trimoxazole were the most commonly used combination in 68.1%. The overall relapse rate was 13.6%. Arthritis and fever were the most common clinical findings of brucellosis. Wright test is a very sensitive method to detect brucella infection. Public education and control measures should be applied to prevent the zoonotic and human brucellosis

  8. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Traditionally Managed Livestock in Selected Districts of Southern Province of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Muma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in 2008 to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in traditionally reared cattle of Southern Province in Zambia in four districts. The single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT was used to identify TB reactors, and the Rose Bengal test (RBT, followed by confirmation with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA, was used to test for brucellosis. A total of 459 animals were tested for tuberculosis and 395 for brucellosis. The overall prevalence of BTB based on the 4 mm and 3 mm cutoff criteria was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.6–7.0% and 6.3% (95% CI: 3.8–8.8%, respectively. Change in skin thickness on SCITT was influenced by initial skin-fold thickness at the inoculation site, where animals with thinner skin had a tendency to give a larger tuberculin response. Brucellosis seroprevalence was estimated at 20.7% (95% CI: 17.0–24.4%. Comparison between results from RBT and c-ELISA showed good agreement (84.1% and revealed subjectivity in RBT test results. Differences in brucellosis and tuberculosis prevalence across districts were attributed to type of husbandry practices and ecological factors. High prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis suggests that control control programmes are necessary for improved cattle productivity and reduced public health risk.

  9. Human Brucellosis in the Republic of Macedonia by Regions Depending on Vaccination Procedures in Sheep and Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Zharko Stojmanovski; Milka Zdravkovska; Vaso Taleski; Svetlana Jovevska; Velo Markovski

    2014-01-01

    Background: Besides the strategy based on test-and-slaughter policy for seropositive sheep and goats after an evaluation of the situation, vaccination measure of those animals against brucellosis with Rev 1 vaccine in 2008 have been implemented. Aims: To examine the influence of the new measure for control and eradication of brucellosis in sheep and goats on the incidence of human brucellosis before and after vaccination with B. melitensis Rev.1. Material and methods: This is a retros...

  10. An overview of the epidemiology and epizootology of brucellosis in selected countries of Central and Southeast Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso; Zerva, Loukia; Kantardziev, Todor; Cvetnic, Zelko; Erski-Biljic, Milanka; Nikolovski, Blazo; Bosnjakovski, Jovan; Katalini-Jankovic, Vera; Panteliadoa, A; Stojkoski, Sinisa; Kirandziski, Toni

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the epidemiologic and epizootic status of brucellosis in selected countries of Central and Southeast Europe (Balkan region). Based on dimension of the disease problem, there is a need to establish collaboration in the eradication and prevention of brucellosis between all countries in the region. Although there were no readily accessible data concerning epidemiology and epizootology of brucellosis in these countries, the limited official an...

  11. Expansion of brucellosis detection in the country of Georgia by screening household members of cases and neighboring community members

    OpenAIRE

    Sanodze, Lia; Bautista, Christian T.; Garuchava, Natalia; Chubinidze, Svetlana; Tsertsvadze, Ekaterine; Broladze, Mariam; Chitadze, Nazibrola; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Tsanava, Shota; Akhvlediani, Tamar; Rivard, Robert G.; Mody, Rupal; Hepburn, Matthew J.; Elzer, Philip H.; Nikolich, Mikeljon P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is considered as endemic zoonotic disease in the country of Georgia. However, the burden of the disease on a household level is not known. Therefore, this study sought to determine the benefits of active surveillance coupled to serological screening for the early detection of brucellosis among close contacts of brucellosis cases. Methods We used an active surveillance approach to estimate the rate of seropositivity among household family members and neighboring communit...

  12. Acute hepatitis due to brucellosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevil AYKIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucella infection is a systemic disease. It rarely causes local infections like hepatitis in gastrointestinal system. In this article we would like to present an acute hepatitis case related to brucella infection that followed up in our clinic. A male, 30 year-old patient hospitalized due to common muscle pain, high fever and vomiting. During the physical examination the patient’s skin, scleras and mucosal membranes were icteric, the liver was 2-3 cm palpable and tender. Laboratory findings were as follows: AST:1190 U/L; ALT:715 U/L; GGT:961 U/L; ALP:369 U/L; total bilirubin:4.6 mg/dL; direct bilirubin:2.1 mg/dL. Viral markers were found to be negative. We started treatment with streptomicine and doxicycline since, the patient’s standard brucella tube agglutination test was positive (1/60 and brucella spp produced in his blood culture. From the second day of the treatment, we started to get clinical response. On the 17th day of the treatment, he discharged from the hospital because ALT, AST and bilirubine level were found normal and his treatment was completed to the 8 weeks. Brucella is continuing to be an important health problem especially who live in surrounding countryside and have to keep in mind in the differential diagnosis of the acute hepatitis.

  13. Field trial of brucellosis competitive ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2990 sera samples from cattle were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using 8 serological tests for. The tests used were Rose Bengal (RBT), Buffer Plate Agglutination Test (BPAT), Complement Fixation (CFT), 2 Indirect and 2 Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA). Bacteriological evaluation from milk was done also. All tests were compared with respect to diagnostic specificity in vaccinated herds which were considered to be Brucella-free. The diagnostic specificity of the Indirect and Competitive ELISA was greater than 99,8%. Estimates of relative sensitivity were obtained from infected herds. The diagnostic sensitivity of the Indirect ELISA was greater than 95,8% and for the Competitive ELISA between 98,8 and 100 %, the last value refers to the Competitive ELISA Prototype II (SLPS antigen/M84 Mab), which was found highly suitable to differentiate vaccinated from brucella-infected cattle. The use of C-ELISA II for monitoring bovine populations under an eradication programme is recommended. (author)

  14. 20 CFR 404.504 - Relation to provisions for reductions and increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relation to provisions for reductions and increases. 404.504 Section 404.504 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... Overpayments, and Liability of a Certifying Officer § 404.504 Relation to provisions for reductions...

  15. The Long Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

        The length of parents' total birth related leave was increased with almost 50% in 1984 in Denmark. The previous length of the Danish maternity leave was long, especially compared to e.g. the U.S. today. This paper investigates the long term effects on children of increasing length of birth...

  16. [Clinical manifestations, complications and treatment of brucellosis: 45-patient study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi, M; Ammari, L; Masmoudi, A; Tiouiri, H; Fendri, C

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, laboratory findings and therapeutic features of patients with brucellosis. The diagnosis was made by clinical findings, automated blood culture, serology (Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, standard tube agglutination (Wright) and immunofluorerescence). The susceptibility of 13 strains was tested in vitro. The base sequence was determined for four strains. Forty-five cases were collected (31 acute and 14 sub-acute). Contamination was digestive in 62%. Symptoms of patients were fever (93%), sweating (82%), arthralgia (78%) and splenomegaly (51%). Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate was determined in 80%, leukopenia in 49% and anaemia in 37% of cases. Blood cultures were positives in 39% of cases. The four sequenced strains were identified as Brucella melitensis biovar abortus. Six strains were resistant to sufomethoxazol-trimetoprim (54%). In 93% of cases, the treatment was associated rifampicin and doxycyclin. One patient died. No relapse was reported. PMID:18387752

  17. Evaluation of four immunoassays for diagnosis of brucellosis in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four immunoassays (two indirect and two competitive ones) were evaluated by samples from areas free of disease, free by vaccination and affected areas using as reference techniques the Bengal Rose Tests, the Antigen in Buffered Plate Tests and the Complement Fixation Reaction Test. The evaluated samples demonstrated that the competitive assays (ELISAC-1 and ELISAC-2) detected less false positives than the indirect ones (ELISAI-1 and ELISAI-2). Of the competitive ELISAS, version 2 presented better sensitivity and specificity results in affected areas for 95% confidence: 80.9 - 96.9% and 97.5 - 99.4% respectively with positive predictive value in the range of 76 to 94% and negative predictive one between 98.1 and 99.7%. It was concluded that this assay can be used for brucellosis control because it gives higher assurance than the other evaluated immunoassays and it can discriminate infected from vaccinated animals. (author)

  18. 秩和比法在吉林省布鲁氏菌病发病率比较中的应用%Application of RSR on Comparison of the Incidence of Brucellosis in Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战扬; 孙齐蕊; 孙爱峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective RSR compare the incidence of brucellosis in Jilin Province, and to explore its value. Methods Ap-plications based on rank and confidence intervals than the comparative law from 1990 to 2010, the difference in 2011 and 2012 the level of incidence of brucellosis (Brucellosis control situations) whether a statistical significance between the ap-plication based on the sub-RSR file method for nine cities (prefectures) of brucellosis incidence levels (brucellosis control situation) cluster analysis. Results In addition to differences from 1990 to 2010 and 2012 every two years the level of inci-dence of brucellosis (Brucellosis control the situation) was statistically significant between (P0.05). Baicheng, Matsubara is a high incidence areas, relatively poor control of brucellosis; Siping, Liaoyuan and a moderate incidence of Yanbian region, brucellosis control situation is relatively acceptable; Tonghua, Changchun, Jilin Baishan and a low incidence area, cloth disease control situation is rela-tively better. Conclusion After 90 years since the 20th century, brucellosis epidemic is serious, Jilin Province in 2011 and 2012 outbreaks have been some control, but the incidence of 9 cities and states are not the same situation, should take fur-ther effective measures to continuously improve the level of disease prevention. RSR principles of law evident, simple oper-ation, should be widely applied.%目的:应用秩和比法比较吉林省布鲁氏菌病发病率,并探讨其应用价值。方法应用基于秩和比的可信区间法比较1990—2010年、2011年和2012年布病发病率水平(布病控制情况)之间的差异是否具有统计学意义,应用基于秩和比的分档法对9个市(州)的布病发病率水平(布病控制情况)进行聚类分析。结果除1990—2010年和2012年两两年份布病发病率水平(布病控制情况)之间的差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。白城、松原属于高发病率地区,布病

  19. Increased attention and memory for beloved-related information during infatuation: behavioral and electrophysiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; Olivier, Jamie R; Köhlen, Martine E; Nijs, Ilse M; Van Strien, Jan W

    2015-01-01

    Emotionally salient information is well attended and remembered. It has been shown that infatuated individuals have increased attention for their beloved. It is unknown whether this attention bias generalizes to information related to the beloved. Moreover, infatuated individuals report to remember trivial things about their beloved, but this has not yet been tested empirically. In two studies, we tested whether infatuated individuals have increased attention and memory for beloved-related information. In a passive viewing task (Study 1), the late positive potential, an event-related potential (ERP) component reflecting motivated attention, was enhanced for beloved-related vs friend-related words/phrases. In a recognition task (Study 2), memory performance and the frontal and parietal ERP old/new effects, reflecting familiarity and recollection, respectively, were not enhanced for beloved-related compared with friend-related words/phrases. In free recall tasks in both studies, memory was better for beloved-related than friend-related words/phrases. This research reveals that attention and memory are enhanced for beloved-related information. These attention and memory biases for beloved-related information were not due to valence, semantic relatedness, or experience, but to arousal. To conclude, romantic love has profound effects on cognition that play a clear role in daily life. PMID:24526182

  20. Interleukin 13-positive mast cells are increased in immunoglobulin G4-related sialadenitis

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Mai; Ohno, Kyotaro; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Gion, Yuka; Tachibana,Tomoyasu; Orita, Yorihisa; Yoshino, Tadashi; Sato, Yasuharu

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-13 is a T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine that plays important roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. IL-13 induces hypersensitivity of the airways, increased mucous production, elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and increased numbers of eosinophils. Many patients with IgG4-related disease have allergic backgrounds and show elevated serum IgE levels and an increase in the number of eosinophils. Upregulation of Th2/regulatory T (Treg) cytokines, including IL-13, has been detec...

  1. Neurological Manifestations of Brucellosis in an Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarfarosh, Shah Faisal Ahmad; Manzoor, Mushbiq

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease causing serious public health problems in countries of the Middle-East and developing countries like India. Neurobrucellosis is one of the devastating complications of this re-emerging zoonosis. The objective of this review was to identify the neurological manifestations of Brucellosis in an Indian population and bring into light the effective modalities used for treating neurobrucellosis. A systematic review of the scientific literature reported in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Three databases (PubMed, IndMed, and ScienceDirect) were used to analyze retrospectively case reports of sufficient quality for data extraction (from the last 15 years, 2002-2016), and relevant literature was reviewed. Most of the cases had a definite history of exposure to Brucella through occupational contact with cattle, drinking raw milk, or living near unhygienic abattoir or even trips to epidemic areas outside India. The common presentations include fever, meningitis, brisk deep-tendon reflexes, extensor plantars, sensory deficit usually below the twelfth thoracic vertebral level, weakness of lower limbs, ocular signs of papilledema, and retrobulbar neuritis. The usual systemic findings associated were hepatosplenomegaly and weight-loss. Neurobrucellosis needs to be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin involving neurological symptoms and systemic involvement. Prognosis is good if there is a combination of antibiotics, each with different mechanisms of action given in full dose. Suitable measures for its prevention are also suggested. PMID:27555982

  2. The role of the ELISA test in the control of bovine brucellosis in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An FAO/IAEA enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis was compared in Argentina with two screening tests, the rose bengal (RB) and buffered plate antigen (BPA) agglutination tests, and two confirmatory tests, the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) agglutination tests and the complement fixation (CF) test. In the testing of Brucella abortus strain 19 (S19) vaccinated cattle from Brucella free dairy herds, the diagnostic specificity estimate of the EIA test was shown to be comparable to those of the RB, 2-ME and CF tests and greater than that of the BPA test. In the testing of S19 vaccinated cattle from infected herds, the sensitivity estimates of the BPA test relative to CF, 2-ME and EIA test positive reactors were comparable and high. The relative sensitivity estimates of the RB test in the same comparison were disparate and lower. The EIA test demonstrated the highest relative sensitivity estimates in a three way comparison between EIA, CF and 2-ME test reactors from these herds. Relative to BPA test reactors from the same infected herds, the sensitivity estimate of the EIA test was comparable to that of the 2-ME test and higher than that of the CF test. These results would suggest that the overall diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the EIA test are comparable, if not superior, to those of the tests used to confirm BPA test reactor status. (author). 6 refs, 3 tabs

  3. Epidemiological investigation on causes of the decline in the epidemic situation of human brucellosis%人间布鲁杆菌病疫情下降原因的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓丽; 赵会生; 陈素良; 孙印旗; 赵旭春; 姜霞; 韩国毅; 李月平; 吴建明; 钱振宇; 刘俊平

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨人间布鲁杆菌病(以下简称布病)疫情下降原因,为制定防控措施积累科学依据.方法 选择人间布病疫情严重且2010年病例数较2009年大幅度下降的市、县、村作为调查点,收集并调查居民畜牧养殖、畜间疫情、人间布病疫情、防疫措施的变化情况,分析人间布病疫情下降原因.结果 2010年人间布病疫情下降与畜牧存栏量减少、户养殖率下降、养殖人口率下降、畜间布病疫情下降和畜疫户率降低等因素有关.畜牧存栏量大幅度减少的原因是2009年11月实施了严厉的禁牧政策,养殖成本增加,居民弃养或减少了家畜存栏数;由于禁牧导致圈养增多,减少了羊群间布病传播的机会,畜间布病疫情减轻.还发现羊是当地布病的主要传染源.当地居民畜牧养殖行为习惯和健康行为形成不是影响2010年人间布病疫情下降的因素.结论 当地人间布病疫情下降主要原因是当地政府禁牧导致了羊存栏量减少,羊群布病疫情减轻所致.%Objectives To explore the causes of the decline of human brucellosis and provide scientific evidence to develop the measures for the prevention and control of the disease. Methods Survey areas were selected, in which the epidemic situation of human brucellosis was serious and the epidemic situation was significantly declined in 2010 compared with 2009. Materials of resident livestock, livestock brucellosis, human brucellosis and preventive measure changed from 2009 to 2010 were collected and investigated in the villages and the counties. The causes of the decline in human brucellosis were analyzed. Results The decline in human brucellosis in 2010 was related with the decline in livestock breeding stock, farming households rate, population of farming,livestock brucellosis and the number of households with livestock brucellosis. Conclusion The decline in sheep breeding stock and the decrease in sheep brucellosis which were

  4. Evaluation of ELISA and Brucellacapt Tests for Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghasem Golmohammadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of the difficulty in the diagnosis of brucellosis, particularly in endemic areas, the use of new and feasible diagnostic tests seem to be of great importance for resolving the diagnostic obstacles. We evaluated the usefulness of a new serological test based on an immunocapture-agglutination technique in comparison with ELISA test for serological diagnosis of brucellosis.Methods: A total of 11 patients with brucellosis, who had positive blood cultures for Brucella species, and 47 suspected patients were included in this study. Serum samples collected from these patients were tested by brucellacapt and ELISA and the results were, consequently, compared.Results: In patients with positive blood culture, all the samples gave positive results with brucellacapt test while IgM ELISA, IgG ELISA and (IgG + IgM ELISA tests were positive in 8, 9 and 11 patients, respectively. Out of the 46 suspected patients, (IgG + IgM ELISA, Brucellacapt, IgG ELISA and IgM ELISA were positive in 37, 15, 34 and 37 patients, respectively.The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG was 10.78 IU/ml which produced the maximal sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.Conclusion: Both the (IgG + IgM ELISA and Brucellacapt tests demonstrate a high specificity in this study. According to the results of the current study, it is found that both tests are valuable tools for diagnosis of brucellosis in Iran as an endemic area of brucellosis. It is strongly suggested that a combination of both tests to be used for the diagnosis of brucellosis

  5. An unusual presentation of brucellosis, involving multiple organ systems, with low agglutinating titers: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorvash Farzin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a multi-system disease that may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. While hepatic involvement in brucellosis is not rare, it may rarely involve the kidney or display with cardiac manifestations. Central nervous system involvement in brucellosis sometimes can cause demyelinating syndromes. Here we present a case of brucella hepatitis, myocarditis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and renal failure. Case presentation A 26-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd and gave a history of low grade fever, chilly sensation, cold sweating, loss of appetite, arthralgia and 10 Kg weight loss during the previous 3 months. He had a body temperature of 39°C at the time of admission. On laboratory tests he had elevated level of liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine, Creatine phosphokinase (MB, and moderate proteinuria. He also had abnormal echocardiography and brain MRI. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG and IgM was negative. Standard tube agglutination test (STAT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME titers were 1:80 and 1:40 respectively. Finally he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and the polymerase chain reaction for Brucella mellitensis. Conclusion In endemic areas clinicians should consider brucellosis in any unusual presentation involving multiple organ systems, even if serology is inconclusive. In endemic areas low STAT and 2-ME titers should be considered as an indication of brucellosis and in these cases additional testing is recommended to rule out brucellosis.

  6. Interleukin 13-positive mast cells are increased in immunoglobulin G4-related sialadenitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Mai; Ohno, Kyotaro; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Gion, Yuka; Tachibana, Tomoyasu; Orita, Yorihisa; Yoshino, Tadashi; Sato, Yasuharu

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-13 is a T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine that plays important roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. IL-13 induces hypersensitivity of the airways, increased mucous production, elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and increased numbers of eosinophils. Many patients with IgG4-related disease have allergic backgrounds and show elevated serum IgE levels and an increase in the number of eosinophils. Upregulation of Th2/regulatory T (Treg) cytokines, including IL-13, has been detected in affected tissues of patients with IgG4-related disease. We previously reported that mast cells might be responsible for the production of the Th2/Treg cytokines IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in IgG4-related disease. In this study, immunohistochemical analysis showed increased numbers of IL-13-positive mast cells in IgG4-related disease, which suggests that mast cells also produce IL-13 and contribute to elevation of serum IgE levels and eosinophil infiltration in IgG4-related disease. PMID:25571893

  7. Prevalence of insomnia-related symptoms continues to increase in the Finnish working-age population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Härmä, Mikko; Hublin, Christer; Lallukka, Tea; Peltonen, Markku; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2016-08-01

    In 2008, we published epidemiological data from 1972 to 2005 that suggested an increase in insomnia-related symptoms among the working-age population. The results were based on the National FINRISK (FR) Study samples of the Finnish adult population aged 25-64, and on the Finnish Quality of Work Life Surveys (FQWLS), carried out among Finnish salary earners. Both of these ongoing studies have since provided two new estimates of insomnia-related symptoms. Chronic insomnia-related symptoms were 9.0% (95% CI 8.3-9.7), 9.6% (95% CI 8.8-10.4) in FR 2007 and 2012, respectively; and 9.1% (95% CI 8.3-10.0), 9.2% (95% CI 8.4-10.1) in FQWLS 2008 and 2013, respectively. Occasional insomnia-related symptoms were 45.3% (95% CI 44.1-46.6), 42.5% (95% CI 41.1-43.9) in FR 2007 and 2012, respectively; and 40.3% (95% CI 38.8-41.7), 44.8% (95% CI 41.1-43.9) in FQWLS 2008 and 2013, respectively. The new estimates further strengthen the interpretation of the ongoing increase in occasional insomnia-related symptoms among the Finnish general adult population. The increase in occasional symptoms was most prominent among employees. However, chronic insomnia symptoms showed no further increase. PMID:26868677

  8. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Brucellosis Diagnosis Using Agglutination Test Procedures in Cattle Owners and Cattle of Babol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH Maliji

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The geographic conditions is such that animal husbandry is in separable part of villagers and farmers life and they are at risk of infection due to contact with cattle and on the other hand, the whole peopele urban or rural are using unpaseurized dairy products expose at the risk all of society. Brucellosis diagnosis can have special significance based on serologic tests. The tube Standard test has the most usage in brucellosis diagnosis. Antibodies such as IgM and IgG induce agglotination and in some cases become negative due to to existance of blocking and incomplete antibodies that if so, the above antibodies are detectable through coombs wright test. Methods: In this research, 150 cattle owners and 300 cattle were investigated random during year of 83-84. After blood sampling in view of Rosbangal, tube wright test, 2 ME and Coombs wright test were investigated. Results: Between 150 serum Sample of studing cattle owners, 80 and 70 people were men and women respectively. The relative average of these people was 38.86. The most percent of negative cases dedicated to Rosbangal test is 66.7%. The significant difference wasn’t observed with Rosbangal method according to Sex in cattle owners (P value= 0/863. According to the obtained results, the serum titre of tube wright test in the studied people was different from 1/20 to 1/2560 and in (3.3%, (2% and (0.7% was 1/640, 1/1280 and 1/2560 respectively. The serum titre 2 ME in (2.7%, (2.7% and (2% was 1/160, 1/320 and 1/640 respectively. The serum titre of coombs wright in (8.7% and (5.3% was 1/320 and 1/640 respectively. With the above studied, in 300 cattle there was positive 9% with Rosbangal test and serum titre of tube wright (0.7% 1/160, (0.7% 1/320, (0.7% 1/640, (1.3% 1/1280 and 2 ME serum titre (0.7% 1/160, (0.3% 1/320, (1.7% The major findings of this investigation, the significant agreement statistically between Rosebangal results and the other methods including tube wright

  9. Age-related increase in prostacyclin production in the rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panganamala, R V; Hanumaiah, B; Merola, A J

    1981-02-01

    Normal Sprague-Dawley rats convert a substantial percentage of exogenous arachidonic acid to prostacyclin. This conversion can be quantitated by an aqueous sampling technique utilizing thin layer chromatography and liquid scintillation counting. There is a clear age-related increase in this conversion that can be demonstrated in aortas from rats of 3 weeks to 20 weeks of age. PMID:7017783

  10. Relative workload determines exercise-induced increases in PGC-1alpha mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lundby, Carsten; Leick, Lotte;

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:: The hypothesis that brief intermittent exercise induced increases in human skeletal muscle metabolic mRNA is dependent on relative workload was investigated. METHODS:: Trained (n=10) and untrained (n=8) subjects performed exhaustive intermittent cycling exercise (4x4 min @ 85% of V...

  11. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-01-08

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.  Created: 1/8/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 1/8/2008.

  12. 78 FR 54620 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep, Goats, and Horses; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... collection associated with the regulations for the payment of indemnity for sheep, goats, and horses... for sheep, goats, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis, contact Dr. Debra Donch,...

  13. 76 FR 48118 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis First Point Testing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis First Point Testing of Cattle and Bison; Brucellosis Standard Card Test AGENCY: Animal and Plant... accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant...

  14. The use of skin delayed-type hypersensitivity as an adjunct test to diagnose brucellosis in cattle: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, is a contagious disease that causes economic loss to owners of domestic animals due to loss of progeny and milk yield. Because cattle, sheep, goats, and to a lesser extent pigs are considered to be the source of human brucellosis, serological te

  15. Study of toxic properties of prototypes of photo inactivated vaccines against tularemia and brucellosis by speckle microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianova, Onega V.; Ulyanov, Sergey

    2011-03-01

    Testing of prototypes of vaccines against extremely dangerous diseases, such as tularemia and brucellosis has been performed using speckle-microscopy. Changes of microcirculation caused by effect of toxins at applications of suspension of photoinactivated bacteria have been studied. Toxic properties of prototypes of vaccines against tularemia and brucellosis have been analyzed.

  16. Empirical Research on the Relations between Farmers’ Income Increase and Economic Development in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to data of per capita net income of rural households and the per capita regional gross output from 1978 to 2008 provided by the Henan Statistical Yearbook, we know that both of the time series obey the unit root process, so they belong to non-stationary time series. The results of the Engle-Granger two-stage estimation method show that the two terms have long-term stable integration equilibrium relations. The results of Granger Causality Test show that there is only the one way Granger Causality relation from farmers’ income increase to economic growth. Connecting with the reality of Henan Province, the possible reasons are analyzed. The population of rural residents is huge and the income level of the rural residents are low, and the marginal consumption tendency is bigger than urban and township residents, so the increase of farmers’ income will promote economic growth. Notably, the income increase of farmers is even more helpful to expand domestic demand. Since 1978, the consumption level and structure of farmers in Henan Province is increasing gradually and the role played by of farmers’ income increase in stimulating economic growth is increasing. Besides, the urban-rural double system which serves for economic development strategy is the historic root for the expanding gap of urban and rural income. In addition, the economic policy which gives priority to cities is the system root for the expanding gap of rural and urban income.

  17. Epidemiological study of bovine brucellosis in three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, S. G.; Atsanda, N. N.; Tijjani, A. O.; Usur, A. M.; Sule, A. G; Gulani, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the seroepidemiological patterns of bovine brucellosis in three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were aseptically collected from the anterior jugular vein of 336 slaughtered cattle, between September 2013 and March 2014 in three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Nigeria. The sera obtained were screened for brucellosis using rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and serum agglutination test (SAT) in parallel. The data generated was subjected to Chi-square and Fishers exact test analysis to establish whether there is a relationship between the breeds, sex, and location of the animals sampled. Results: Of the 336 cattle screened, 18 (5.4%) and 13 (3.9%) were positive by RBPT and SAT, respectively. There was no statistically significant association (p>0.05) between the sex, age, and location of cattle with seropositivity of brucellosis in the state. It was concluded that brucellosis is prevalent in Bauchi State. Further study is recommended in other abattoirs and herds of cattle in Bauchi State for confirmation of the status of the disease among cattle slaughtered in the state. Conclusion: A high seroprevalence of brucellosis among the cattle in Bauchi state indicates that the disease is endemic and cattle are one of the animals that perpetuate and sustain the disease. PMID:27051184

  18. Comparison of Culture and Serological Methods for the Diagnosis of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Hashemi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Brucellosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Conventional methods for diagnosis of brucellosis include serologic tests and blood culture. The aim of this study was to compare the culture of clinical specimens and serologic test for the diagnosis of brucellosis. Materials & Methods: In a 15-month period, all patients with clinical suspected brucellosis were enrolled in this comparative-descriptive study. Blood specimens for all patients were obtained for culture and serologic tests including wright, coombs' wright and 2ME. A questionnaire including demographic, clinical and paraclinical characteristics was completed for each subject. Results: A total of 149 patients were enrolled in the study. The most common symptoms were fever, malaise, myalgia and sweating. Osteoarticular complications were observed in 106 (71.1 % patients, of which, the most common type was sacroiliitis in 67 patients (45%. The results of serologic tests including wright, coombs’ wright, and 2ME were positive in 88.6%, 87.5% and 88.5% of the patients. Also, culture of clinical specimens were positive in 38.3% of the patients, of which, serology was positive in 91.2% of the patients. Conclusion: Serologic tests are useful for the diagnosis of brucellosis in most cases. Culture of blood and the clinical specimens are useful for definitive diagnosis even in patients with low titers of antibodies. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (1: 37-42

  19. Study of 72 Cases of Human Brucellosis in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassrollah Mojdehi

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Conclusions based on 72 proven cases of B~cellosis obsed"Ve.d at ~he Infectious Diseases Department of Pahlavi HOSPItal, Tehran University, School of Medicine from 1958-1962 are as follow:-"n1. Age Incidence: Highest between the ages of 20 to 40."n2. Seasonal Incidence: Highest during the summer months."n3. Occupational Relationship and Incidence: In 90% of th~ cases, there was no contact between the patients and the infected animals or their products. "n4. Sex Incidence: The majority of our cases, (68.0% were men."n5. Despite the prevalence of Hr. abortus among the c~ttle of tAlh~ Tehran area human Brucellosis due to Hr. abortus IS rare. the reported cases were due to Hr. mclitensi~."n6. The difference between the symptomatology in our cahsesdiaffnd those of foreigners are described. The~ may be ~ue ~o. t €I . ~renee in the casual agent and to the difference m living conditions in Iran. "n7. The Incidence of Brucellosis in children is extremely low. This may be due to their natural resistance and to their more limited living conditions."n8. The .disease is almost absent in occupationally exposed people, despite the number of infected cattle in the Tehran area. This may be due to the low pathogenic potency of Hr. abortus in Iran.."n9. Mode of Transmisainn ; Not discounting the possibility of transmission through the alimentary tract, we suggest that Brucella excreted by the goats kept in the city or those which belong to the tribes who pass some times during winter and summer"nmovement in the cities, may mix with the dust and air and so  ain entrance to the respiratory system."n10. Therapy: Best results in chronic cases were obtained througn"nan association of Tetracycline derivative with Sulfonamides and Streptomycine. Chloramphenicol has yielded good results, although in some cases the illness may recur.

  20. Health Related Quality of Life May Increase when Patients with a Stoma Attend Patient Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    included 50 patients in the study. Health related quality of life was measured before hospital discharge, three months and six months after stoma creation. The program included educational interventions involving lay-teachers, alongside health professional teachers. RESULTS: We found a significant rise in...... in health related quality of life baseline (p = 0.045) with lower scores in the intervention group compared with the intervention group. However, there were no significant differences in the demographic variables at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Educational activities aimed at increase in knowledge and......INTRODUCTION: Adaptation to living with a stoma is complex, and studies have shown that stoma creation has a great impact on patients' health related quality of life. The objective was to explore the effect of a structured patient education program on health related quality of life. Therefore, we...

  1. Alternative mechanisms of increased eggshell hardness of avian brood parasites relative to host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, Branislav; Braganza, Kim; Hyland, Margaret M; Silyn-Roberts, Heather; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas; Rutila, Jarkko; Moskát, Csaba; Hauber, Mark E

    2011-11-01

    Obligate brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in nests of other species and parasite eggs typically have evolved greater structural strength relative to host eggs. Increased mechanical strength of the parasite eggshell is an adaptation that can interfere with puncture ejection behaviours of discriminating hosts. We investigated whether hardness of eggshells is related to differences between physical and chemical traits from three different races of the parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, and their respective hosts. Using tools developed for materials science, we discovered a novel correlate of increased strength of parasite eggs: the common cuckoo's egg exhibits a greater microhardness, especially in the inner region of the shell matrix, relative to its host and sympatric non-host species. We then tested predictions of four potential mechanisms of shell strength: (i) increased relative thickness overall, (ii) greater proportion of the structurally harder shell layers, (iii) higher concentration of inorganic components in the shell matrix, and (iv) elevated deposition of a high density compound, MgCO(3), in the shell matrix. We confirmed support only for hypothesis (i). Eggshell characteristics did not differ between parasite eggs sampled from different host nests in distant geographical sites, suggesting an evolutionarily shared microstructural mechanism of stronger parasite eggshells across diverse host-races of brood parasitic cuckoos. PMID:21561966

  2. Genotypic virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 isolated from pigs and wild boars serologically positive and negative for brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns molecular study on pathogenicity markers of fourteen Y. enterocolitica O:9 isolated from pigs in which initially positive serological reactions for brucellosis were observed (n = 41, healthy pigs, which were brucellosis-negative (n = 258, and wild boars serologically negative for brucellosis (n = 209. PCR identification proved that all isolates were ail, ystA- and myfA-positive. The plasmid encoding yadA marker was detected in nine isolates that originated from pigs serologically positive or negative for brucellosis, and from one isolate of wild boar origin. Furthermore, none of the examined isolates was ystB-positive. Results of the investigations indicate that the Y. enterocolitica O:9 isolates from pigs or wild boars, regardless of whether they were serologically positive or negative for brucellosis, may also be potentially pathogenic for humans, due to the presence of chromosomal and plasmid encoded molecular markers.

  3. Turkey’s Increased Engagement in Africa: The Potential, Limits and Future Perspective of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savas GENC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of Turkey’s recently increased engagement in Africa in terms of the potential, limits and future perspectives of relations. It aims to examine Turkey’s foreign policy toward Africa and to analyze the driving force behind this foreign policy between 2001 and 2010. The maidens of Turkish Foreign Policy towards African countries have been analyzed as official initiatives and supplementary efforts that demonstrate significant dynamism of Turkish NonGovernmental Organizations (NGOs. The evidences show that Turkish foreign policy has been managed consistently; and as a result of this, improvements on relations are clearly recorded.

  4. Turkey's Increased Engagement in Africa: The Potential, Limits and Future Perspective of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savas Genc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of Turkey's recently increased engagement in Africa in terms of the potential, limits and future perspectives of relations. It aims to examine Turkey's foreign policy toward Africa and to analyze the driving force behind this foreign policy between 2001 and 2010. The maidens of Turkish Foreign Policy towards African countries have been analyzed as official initiatives and supplementary efforts that demonstrate significant dynamism of Turkish NonGovernmental Organizations (NGOs. The evidences show that Turkish foreign policy has been managed consistently; and as a result of this, improvements on relations are clearly recorded.

  5. Diagnosis and Treatment of Brucellosis in Non-pastoral Areas——Clinical Analysis of 30 Cases of Brucellosis%非牧区布氏杆菌病的诊治——布氏杆菌病30例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳; 李云华; 张蕾; 刘同刚; 夏风飞

    2013-01-01

    研究滨州地区布氏杆菌病的流行病学、临床特征、治疗及预后情况.对2010年4月~2012年9月入住我院的30例布氏杆菌病患者的临床特征及疗效进行分析.滨州地区布氏杆菌病在4月~6月高发,近3年发病人数有增多趋势.主要表现为发热、多汗、乏力及关节痛,部分可出现肝脾大、血小板减少.多西环素、利福平、左氧氟沙星联合治疗1个疗程(6周),治愈率为80%.滨州地区布氏杆菌病发病率较前升高.对发热伴血小板减少的患者要想到布氏杆菌病的可能.须加强对病畜的检疫工作,提高个人防护意识,重视从事养殖业及畜牧业人员的防疫.早期、规范、联合抗生素治疗是关键.%To study the epidemiology, clinical features, treatment and prognosis of brucellosis in Binzhou region, clinical characteristics and treatment effect of 30 cases with brucellosis hospitalized from April 2010 to September 2012. April, May and June were the fastigium that brucellosis disease occurrence in the region were analyzed, and the number increased gradually in the past three years. Its major clinical manifestations were fever, sweating, fatigue and arthralgia, some patients appeared hepatosplenomegaly and platelet reduction. The cure rate of a course (6 weeks) using doxycycline, ri-fampin, levofloxacin combination treatment was 80%. The incidence of brucellosis increased compared with the previous. Take into account the possibility of brucellosis for patients with fever and thrombocytopenia. Strengthen the quarantine of sick animals, raise the self — protective consciousness, paid more attention to epidemic prevention of staffs engaging in farming and animal husbandry were needed. Early, standard and combinational therapy of antibiotic was the key.

  6. Assessment of Credit Risk Approaches in Relation with Competitiveness Increase of the Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipovová Eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on a presentation and analysis of selected methods of credit risk management in relation with competitiveness increase of the banking sector. The article is defined credit risk approaches under the Basel III gradually. Aim of this contribution constitutes various methods of credit risk management and effects of their usage on regulatory capital amount in respect of corporate exposures. Optimal equity amount in relation to the risk portfolio presents an essential prerequisite of performance and competitiveness growth of commercial banks. Gradually capital requirements using Standardized Approach and Internal Based Approach in a case of used and unused techniques of credit risk reduce has been quantified. We presume that sophisticated approach means significant saving for bank’s equity which increases competitiveness of banking sector also. Within the article, quantification of capital savings in case of Standardized (with and without assigned external ratings and Foundation Internal Based Approach at the selected credit portfolio has been effected.

  7. Relative role of bed roughness change and bed erosion on peak discharge increase in hyperconcentrated floods

    OpenAIRE

    Li, W.; Wang, Z. B.; van Maren, D.S.; de Vriend, H.J.; Wu, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    River floods are usually featured by a downstream flattening discharge peak whereas a downstream increasing discharge peak is observed at a rate exceeding the tributary discharge during highly silt-laden floods (hyperconcentrated floods) in China’s Yellow River. It entails a great challenge in the downstream flood defence and the underlying mechanisms need to be unravelled. Previous study on this issue only focuses on one possible mechanism, while the present work aims to reveal the relative ...

  8. Aspects on Dynamic Power Flow Controllers and Related Devices for Increased Flexibility in Electric Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Nicklas

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies different aspects of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices which are used to improve the power transfer capability and increase the controllability in electric power systems. In the thesis, different aspects on the usage and control of Dynamic Power Flow Controllers (DPFC) and related FACTS devices are studied. The DPFC is a combination of a Phase Shifting Transformer (PST) and a Thyristor Switched Series Capacitor (TSSC)/Thyristor Switched Series Reactor (TSSR)....

  9. Turkey’s Increased Engagement in Africa: The Potential, Limits and Future Perspective of Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Savas Genc; Oguzhan Tekin

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of Turkey's recently increased engagement in Africa in terms of the potential, limits and future perspectives of relations. It aims to examine Turkey's foreign policy toward Africa and to analyze the driving force behind this foreign policy between 2001 and 2010. The maidens of Turkish Foreign Policy towards African countries have been analyzed as official initiatives and supplementary efforts that demonstrate significant dynamism of Turkish NonGovernmental O...

  10. Spreading of lipid monolayers on hydrophilic substrates at increased relative humidities

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgart, T.; Offenhäusser, A.

    2002-01-01

    A self-repairing ability of phospholipid monolayers deposited onto thin hydrogel films was observed by fluorescence microscopy, in terms of the expansion and lateral spreading of the monolayer into film defects. The spreading was quantitatively analyzed by covering half of a substrate supporting a thin hydrogel film with a lipid monolayer by Langmuir-Blodgett transfer and observing the spreading of the initially confined monolayer at increased relative humidities due to the hydration of both ...

  11. Research of Prevention Technology and Prevalent in Livestock Brucellosis in Xinjiang%新疆畜间布鲁氏菌病流行情况及防制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 闫晶华; 闫昊; 李金平; 米吉提; 地里夏提

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed the prevention work of brucellosis(hereinafter referred to as brucellosis) in Xinjiang.Quarantine of livestock disease control,immunization,monitoring,integrated control measures,including culling,eliminate sources of infection at this stage are still most easily to promote,simple and convention,and reliable control measures.Through the investigation and research to the livestock of Xinjiang in recent years,the results show:First,outbreak of brucellosis among livestock increased substantially in recent years,70 districts and cities in Xinjiang achieved the stability controlled zone index since 2007,but now there are only 42 counties achieve the index.Second,raising livestock brucellosis outbreak rebounded more quickly,individual breeders of livestock brucellosis-positive rate is up to about 10%.Third,the human incidence of brucellosis infection survey results in the recent three years show that exponential increase quickly.To solve the problem,strengthening the construction of livestock brucellosis control,increase investment in prevention funding,and popularize knowledge about prevention and treatment work for brucellosis is imperative.%本文对新疆畜间布鲁氏菌病(以下简称布病)防治工作进行回顾,畜间布病防制采用的检疫、免疫、监测、扑杀、消灭传染源等综合防制技术,在现阶段仍为最易推广、方法简便、结果可靠的防制措施。对新疆畜间近年来的布病疫情进行了调查与研究,数据显示:近年畜间布病疫情大幅上升,2007年前全疆70个县市达稳定控制区指标,目前只有42个市县达到;散养畜布病疫情回升幅度较快,个别养殖户畜间布病阳性率高达10%左右;近三年人间布病感染调查结果显示发病人数成倍增加。为此,加强畜间布病防治队伍建设,加大防治经费的投入以及普及布病防治常识的工作势在必行。

  12. Development of a new live rough vaccine against bovine brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucella abortus S19 is the most commonly used attenuated live vaccine to prevent bovine brucellosis. In spite of its advantages, S19 has several drawbacks: it is abortive for pregnant cattle, is virulent for humans, and re-vaccination is not advised due to the persistence of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibodies that hamper the immunoscreening procedures. For these reasons, there is a continuous search for new bovine vaccine candidates. We have previously characterized the phenotype of the phosphoglucomutase (pgm) gene disruption in Brucella abortus S2308, as well as the possible role for the smooth LPS in virulence and intracellular multiplication. Here we evaluate the vaccine properties of an unmarked deletion mutant of pgm. Western blot analysis of purified lipopolysaccharide and whole-cell extract from Δpgm indicate that it synthesizes O-antigen but is incapable of assembling a complete LPS. In consequence Δpgm has a rough phenotype. Experimental infections of mice indicate that Δpgm is avirulent. Vaccination with Δpgm induces protection levels comparable to those induced by S19, and generates a splenocyte proliferative response and cytokines profile typical of a Th-1 response. The ability of the mutant to generate a strong cellular Th-1 response without eliciting specific O-antigen antibodies highlights the potential use of this mutant as a new live vaccine for cattle. (author)

  13. [Retrospective evaluation of brucellosis cases inhabiting in Mus province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Dede; Kadiroğlu, Ali Kemal; Kayabaşi, Hasan; Hoşoğlu, Salih

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the brucellosis patients inhabiting in Mus province, in Eastern Anatolia of Turkey, retrospectively. The mean age of the patients (n: 87) was 38.1 +/- 12.4 years, and 45% of them were female. The transmission route was the consumption of unpasteurized fresh cheese (in 85%), and unboiled milk (in 45%). The most common symptoms were recorded as chills (89%), fever (87%), and arthralgia (81%). Splenomegaly (71%) and hepatomegaly (63%) were the predominant physical examination signs. Diagnosis was made based on the clinical features and positive Rose-Bengal test result (93%), however, blood cultures could not be performed due to insufficient laboratory equipment. In 92% of the patients at least one complication has been detected indicating delayed admission to the hospital, while the most common complications were sacroileitis (79%) and spondylitis (44%). Streptomycin+doxycyclin, streptomycin+doxycyclin+ ciprofloxacin, and streptomycin+doxycyclin+ rifampicin combination therapies were used in 62%, 24% and 14% of the patients, respectively, for six weeks, resulting with complete cure. PMID:17001861

  14. Validating a bovine brucellosis elisa test for application in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera from 600 cattle on Rio Negro Island, known to be free of brucellosis, and 400 sera from vaccinated cattle but known to be negative in the Rose-Bengal test were selected for validation of the FAO/IAEA test kit for detection of antibody to Brucella abortus. Two conjugates, one a polyclonal antiserum and the other a monoclonal antibody, were evaluated. When evaluated for reproducibility using the sera from uninfected cattle, the average coefficient of variation for duplicate samples was 7.1%±5.5. The serum control samples did not exceed OD limits as established for the kit, for any of the 15 plates evaluated. When evaluated by regression analysis, the control sera had an average correlation coefficient of 0.996, indicating a high degree of agreement between the observed OD values of controls on each plate vs the expected values for those controls. Specificity in the assay was >98% as calculated by the PP or regression methods. Comparison of the monoclonal and polyclonal conjugates using sera from vaccinated cattle indicated that many of the cattle must have been vaccinated as adults because of high antibody levels detected by both conjugates. Before this assay can be used on vaccinated animals, the kit will have to be evaluated using sera from animals of known age of vaccination. (author)

  15. Increased expression of endocytosis-Related proteins in rat hippocampus following 10-day electroconvulsive seizure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Shingo; Shimizu, Kunio; Nibuya, Masashi; Toda, Hiroyuki; Yoshino, Aihide; Suzuki, Eiji; Kondo, Takashi; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2016-06-15

    Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is clinically used for severe depression and drug-resistant Parkinson's disease, its exact biological background and mechanism have not yet been fully elucidated. Two potential explanations have been presented so far to explain the increased neuroplastic and resilient profiles of multiple ECT administrations. One is the alteration of central neurotransmitter receptor densities and the other is the expressional upregulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor in various brain regions with enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis and mossy fiber sprouting. In the present report, western blot analyses revealed significantly upregulated expression of various endocytosis-related proteins following 10-day electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) treatment in rat hippocampal homogenates and hippocampal lipid raft fractions extracted using an ultracentrifugation procedure. Upregulated proteins included endocytosis-related scaffolding proteins (caveolin-1, flotillin-1, and heavy and light chains of clathrin) and small GTPases (Rab5, Rab7, Rab11, and Rab4) specifically expressed on various types of endosomes. Two scaffolding proteins, caveolin-1 and flotillin-1, were also increased in the lipid raft fraction. Together with our previous finding of increased autophagy-related proteins in the hippocampal region, the present results suggest membrane trafficking machinery is enhanced following 10-day ECS treatment. We consider that the membrane trafficking machinery that transports functional proteins in the neuronal cells and from or into the synaptic membranes is one of the new candidates supporting the cellular and behavioral neuroplastic profiles of ECS treatments in animal experiments and ECT administrations in clinical settings. PMID:27177725

  16. Subject-specific increases in serum S-100B distinguish sports-related concussion from sports-related exertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kiechle

    Full Text Available The on-field diagnosis of sports-related concussion (SRC is complicated by the lack of an accurate and objective marker of brain injury.To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences in S100B before and after non-contact exertion.Longitudinal cohort study.From 2009-2011, we performed a prospective study of athletes from Munich, Germany, and Rochester, New York, USA. Serum S100B was measured in all SRC athletes at pre-season baseline, within 3 hours of injury, and at days 2, 3 and 7 post-SRC. Among a subset of athletes, S100B was measured after non-contact exertion but before injury. All samples were collected identically and analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescent assay to quantify serum S100B levels.Forty-six athletes (30 Munich, 16 Rochester underwent baseline testing. Thirty underwent additional post-exertion S100B testing. Twenty-two athletes (16 Rochester, 6 Munich sustained a SRC, and 17 had S100B testing within 3 hours post-injury. The mean 3-hour post-SRC S100B was significantly higher than pre-season baseline (0.099±0.008 µg/L vs. 0.058±0.006 µg/L, p = 0.0002. Mean post-exertion S100B was not significantly different than the preseason baseline. S100B levels at post-injury days 2, 3 and 7 were significantly lower than the 3-hour level, and not different than baseline. Both the absolute change and proportional increase in S100B 3-hour post-injury were accurate discriminators of SRC from non-contact exertion without SRC (AUC 0.772 and 0.904, respectively. A 3-hour post-concussion S100B >0.122 µg/L and a proportional S100B increase of >45.9% over baseline were both 96.7% specific for SRC.Relative and absolute increases in serum S100B can accurately distinguish SRC from sports-related exertion, and may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SRC.

  17. Enhanced functional connectivity and increased gray matter volume of insula related to action video game playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Diankun; He, Hui; Liu, Dongbo; Ma, Weiyi; Dong, Li; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that distinct insular subregions are associated with particular neural networks (e.g., attentional and sensorimotor networks). Based on the evidence that playing action video games (AVGs) facilitates attentional and sensorimotor functions, this study examined the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of insular subregions and the functional networks therein that are related to attentional and sensorimotor functions. By comparing AVG experts and amateurs, we found that AVG experts had enhanced functional connectivity and grey matter volume in insular subregions. Furthermore, AVG experts exhibited increased functional connectivity between the attentional and sensorimotor networks, and the experience-related enhancement was predominantly evident in the left insula, an understudied brain area. Thus, AVG playing may enhance functional integration of insular subregions and the pertinent networks therein. PMID:25880157

  18. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor O. Akinseye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria; however, limited data exist on nationwide studies and risk factors associated with the disease. Using a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey, we determined the prevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis in slaughtered cattle in three geographical regions of Nigeria. Serum samples from randomly selected unvaccinated cattle slaughtered over a period of 3 years (between December 2010 and September 2013 from northern, southern and south-western Nigeria were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Data associated with risk factors of brucellosis were analysed by Stata Version 12. In all, 8105 cattle were screened. An overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (315/8105 was recorded by the Rose Bengal test, with 3.8%, 3.4% and 4.0% from the northern, southern and south-western regions, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that cattle screened in northern Nigeria were less likely to be seropositive for antibodies to Brucella spp. than those from south-western Nigeria (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.73–1.22. However, logistic regression analysis revealed that breed ( p = 0.04 and sex ( p £ 0.0001 of cattle were statistically significant for seropositivity to Brucella spp. The study found that brucellosis was endemic at a low prevalence among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria, with sex and breed of cattle being significant risk factors. Considering the public health implications of brucellosis, we advocate coordinated surveillance for the disease among diverse cattle populations in Nigeria, as is carried out in most developed countries.Keywords: Bovine brucellosis, RBT, Epidemiology, Public Health, Nigeria

  19. Reward prediction-related increases and decreases in tonic neuronal activity of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Ichi Okada

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The neuromodulators serotonin, acetylcholine, and dopamine have been proposed to play important roles in the execution of movement, control of several forms of attentional behavior, and reinforcement learning. While the response pattern of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and its specific role in reinforcement learning have been revealed, the roles of the other neuromodulators remain elusive. Reportedly, neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, one major source of serotonin, continually track the state of expectation of future rewards by showing a correlated response to the start of a behavioral task, reward cue presentation, and reward delivery. Here, we show that neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN, one major source of acetylcholine, showed similar encoding of the expectation of future rewards by a systematic increase or decrease in tonic activity. We recorded and analyzed PPTN neuronal activity in monkeys during a reward conditioned visually guided saccade task. The firing patterns of many PPTN neurons were tonically increased or decreased throughout the task period. The tonic activity pattern of neurons was correlated with their encoding of the predicted reward value; neurons exhibiting an increase or decrease in tonic activity showed higher or lower activity in the large reward-predicted trials, respectively. Tonic activity and reward-related modulation ended around the time of reward delivery. Additionally, some tonic changes in activity started prior to the appearance of the initial stimulus, and were related to the anticipatory fixational behavior. A partially overlapping population of neurons showed both the initial anticipatory response and subsequent predicted reward value-dependent activity modulation by their systematic increase or decrease of tonic activity. These bi-directional reward- and anticipatory behavior-related modulation patterns are suitable for the presumed role of the PPTN in reward processing and

  20. Changed of NK cell and T-lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood of patients with brucellosis%布鲁菌病患者外周血NK细胞和T淋巴细胞亚群的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾宇臣; 其其格; 郭菊红; 赵海珍; 乌云; 奥敦托娅

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解布鲁菌病患者性别、年龄、职业分布特征及并发症,外周血NK细胞和T淋巴细胞亚群的变化及意义。方法对101例布鲁菌病患者采用流行病学调查法进行调查,采用流式细胞仪抗体双表法检测38例布鲁菌病和非布鲁菌病发热患者外周血NK细胞(CD16+CD56+)、淋巴细胞绝对值(CD45+)、T淋巴细胞绝对值(CD3+)、T辅助细胞绝对值(CD3+CD4+)、T抑制/细胞毒细胞绝对值(CD3+CD8+)、B淋巴细胞绝对值(CD19+)、CD4/CD8比值,并进行分析。结果布鲁菌病患者以男性居多,中老年患者居多,发病人群主要为农牧民及从事防疫工作者,并发症以肝功能损害最多;布鲁菌病患者外周血NK绝对值显著低于非布鲁菌病发热患者组,具有统计学意义(t =-2.58,P <0.05)。结论布鲁菌病以男性中老年患者居多,以农牧民和防疫员为主,布鲁菌病患者外周血NK细胞常受损伤。%Objective To investigate the characteristics of gender, age, occupation distributions and complication of patients with brucellosis, explore the changes of NK cell and T-lymphocyte subsets, and the related significance. Methods Total of 101 cases of brucellosis were analyzed by descriptive epidemiological study. NK and T/B-lymphocyte subsets were studied in peripheral blood of 38 patients with brucellosis and 35 cases with non-brucellosis fever. Results The majority of cases were male elderly patients, mainly occurred among farmers, herdsmen and stuff engaged in the epidemic prevention. The complication of brucellosis was priority to liver damage. The number of NK cell in patients with brucellosis was below compared with in patients with non-brucellosis fever, with signiifcant differeces (t=-2.58, P<0.05). Conclusions The majority of patients with brucellosis were male elderly person. Outbreak mainly occur in farmers, herdsmen and stuffs engared in epidemic prevention ifeld

  1. The immune system of brucellosis sicks living in district of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of work is study of immune system of the brucellosis sicks protracted living in the district of Semipalatinsk test site. The 303 sicks with acute (81), subacute (107) and chronic (115) brucellosis have been examined. By complex immune investigation the expressed changes of indexes of sell section of immunity of the sicks living in the different zones of radiation risk were fixed. The strongly expressed quantitative deficit of T-lymphocytes, T-suppressors has been observed of personnel, living in the zone of high radiation risk

  2. Comparison of an indirect enzyme immunoassay with conventional serological tests for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Chile, as in several other Latin American countries, brucellosis is an enzootic disease. As there is a government voluntary control programme for brucellosis, some farms are free from this disease. Currently, however, the government has initiated an eradication programme. This programme requires more accurate diagnostic techniques. The objective of this research was to compare an indirect enzyme immunoassay (I-ELISA) with the milk ring test (MRT) for detection of antibodies in milk. A second objective was to compare the I-ELISA, the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and the complement fixation test (CFT) for the detection of serum antibody

  3. 牛布鲁菌病概述%Summary of Brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁选国; 张知侠

    2012-01-01

    本文就牛布鲁菌病的发病病因、流行病学、临床症状、病理变化、临床诊断及防治措施等进行简要概述。%Brucellosis is a zoonosis,which is caused by Brucellae.The paper briefly summarized the reasons caused brucellosis of cattle,epidemiology,clinical symptoms,pathological change,clinical diagnosis,prophylaxis and treatment,and so on.

  4. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn D Rode

    Full Text Available Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013 when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia, highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  5. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D; Wilson, Ryan R; Regehr, Eric V; St Martin, Michelle; Douglas, David C; Olson, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia), highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions. PMID:26580809

  6. Transcriptional effects of glucocorticoid receptors in the dentate gyrus increase anxiety-related behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Sarrazin

    Full Text Available The Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR is a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed in the brain. Activation of brain GRs by high levels of glucocorticoid (GC hormones modifies a large variety of physiological and pathological-related behaviors. Unfortunately the specific cellular targets of GR-mediated behavioral effects of GC are still largely unknown. To address this issue, we generated a mutated form of the GR called DeltaGR. DeltaGR is a constitutively transcriptionally active form of the GR that is localized in the nuclei and activates transcription without binding to glucocorticoids. Using the tetracycline-regulated system (Tet-OFF, we developed an inducible transgenic approach that allows the expression of the DeltaGR in specific brain areas. We focused our study on a mouse line that expressed DeltaGR almost selectively in the glutamatergic neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus. This restricted expression of the DeltaGR increased anxiety-related behaviors without affecting other behaviors that could indirectly influence performance in anxiety-related tests. This behavioral phenotype was also associated with an up-regulation of the MAPK signaling pathway and Egr-1 protein in the DG. These findings identify glutamatergic neurons in the DG as one of the cellular substrate of stress-related pathologies.

  7. Adolescent caffeine consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Casey E; Newsom, Ryan J; Stafford, Jacob; Scott, Talia; Archuleta, Solana; Levis, Sophia C; Spencer, Robert L; Campeau, Serge; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2016-05-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used psychoactive substance and consumption by children and adolescents continues to rise. Here, we examine the lasting effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on anxiety-related behaviors and several neuroendocrine measures in adulthood. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed caffeine (0.3g/L) for 28 consecutive days from postnatal day 28 (P28) to P55. Age-matched control rats consumed water. Behavioral testing for anxiety-related behavior began in adulthood (P62) 7 days after removal of caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption enhanced anxiety-related behavior in an open field, social interaction test, and elevated plus maze. Similar caffeine consumption in adult rats did not alter anxiety-related behavior after caffeine removal. Characterization of neuroendocrine measures was next assessed to determine whether the changes in anxiety were associated with modifications in the HPA axis. Blood plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) were assessed throughout the caffeine consumption procedure in adolescent rats. Adolescent caffeine consumption elevated plasma CORT 24h after initiation of caffeine consumption that normalized over the course of the 28-day consumption procedure. CORT levels were also elevated 24h after caffeine removal and remained elevated for 7 days. Despite elevated basal CORT in adult rats that consumed caffeine during adolescence, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and CORT response to placement on an elevated pedestal (a mild stressor) was significantly blunted. Lastly, we assessed changes in basal and stress-induced c-fos and corticotropin-releasing factor (Crf) mRNA expression in brain tissue collected at 7 days withdrawal from adolescent caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption increased basal c-fos mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Adolescent caffeine consumption had no other effects on the basal or stress-induced c-fos mRNA changes. Caffeine consumption during adolescence increased

  8. Increases in Fentanyl-Related Overdose Deaths - Florida and Ohio, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Alexis B; Gladden, R Matthew; Delcher, Chris; Spies, Erica; Garcia-Williams, Amanda; Wang, Yanning; Halpin, John; Zibbell, Jon; McCarty, Carolyn Lullo; DeFiore-Hyrmer, Jolene; DiOrio, Mary; Goldberger, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    In March and October 2015, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and CDC issued nationwide alerts identifying fentanyl, particularly illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF), as a threat to public health and safety (1,2). IMF is pharmacologically similar to pharmaceutical fentanyl (PF), but is unlawfully produced in clandestine laboratories, obtained via illicit drug markets, and includes fentanyl analogs. Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid 50-100 times more potent than morphine and approved for the management of surgical/postoperative pain, severe chronic pain, and breakthrough cancer pain.* DEA's National Forensic Laboratory Information System (NFLIS) collects drug identification results from drug cases analyzed by federal, state, and local forensic laboratories throughout the United States.(†) In 2014, 80% of fentanyl submissions (i.e., drug products obtained by law enforcement that tested positive for fentanyl) in NFLIS were identified from 10 states, including Florida and Ohio (2), and seven of these 10 states reported sharp increases in fentanyl-related overdose deaths (fentanyl deaths) (3). This report presents findings of increased fentanyl deaths during 2013-2015 from investigations conducted by the University of Florida and the Ohio Department of Public Health, in collaboration with CDC. Analyses examined the association between trends in fentanyl-related law enforcement submissions and fentanyl deaths and describes groups at risk for fentanyl death using medical examiner and coroner reports. The marked increases in fentanyl death in Florida and Ohio during 2013-2015 were closely associated with parallel increases in fentanyl submissions, with the largest impact on persons who use heroin, consistent with reports that IMF is commonly mixed with or sold as heroin (1,4). In Ohio, circumstances associated with fentanyl deaths included a current diagnosed mental health disorder(§) and recent release from an institution such as a jail, rehabilitation facility

  9. Increased visceral fat mass and insulin signaling in colitis-related colon carcinogenesis model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Shingo; Tanaka, Takuji; Murakami, Akira

    2010-01-27

    Leptin, a pleiotropic hormone regulating food intake and metabolism, plays an important role in the regulation of inflammation and immunity. We previously demonstrated that serum leptin levels are profoundly increased in mice which received azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) as tumor-initiator and -promoter, respectively, in a colon carcinogenesis model. In this study, we attempted to address underlying mechanism whereby leptin is up-regulated in this rodent model. Five-week-old male ICR mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection of AOM (week 0), followed by 1% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. Thereafter, the weights of visceral fats and the serum concentration of leptin were determined at week 20. Of interest, the relative epididymal fat pad and mesenteric fat weights, together with serum leptin levels in the AOM and/or DSS-treated mice were markedly increased compared to that in untreated mice. In addition, leptin protein production in epididymal fat pad with AOM/DSS-treated mice was 4.7-fold higher than that of control. Further, insulin signaling molecules, such as protein kinase B (Akt), S6, mitogen-activate protein kinase/extracellular signaling-regulated kinase 1/2, and extracellular signaling-regulated kinase 1/2, were concomitantly activated in epididymal fat of AOM/DSS-treated mice. This treatment also increased the serum insulin and IGF-1 levels. Taken together, our results suggest that higher levels of serum insulin and IGF-1 promote the insulin signaling in epididymal fat and thereby increasing serum leptin, which may play an crucial role in, not only obesity-related, but also -independent colon carcinogenesis. PMID:19931517

  10. 山西省天镇县2001-2010年控制布鲁氏菌病疫情探讨%Investigation on Brucellosis epidemic control from 2001 to 2010 in Tianzhen county, Shanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴美和

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the characteristics of Brucellosis epidemic control in Tianzhen county from 2001 to 2010 for exploring measures for the prevention and control of brucellosis in the areas of prevalence. Methods Statistical analysis was performed of the brucellosis epidemics from 2001 to 2010 in Tianzhen county. Results There were 1958 new cases of brucellosis reported in Tianzhen county during the 10 years with an average annual incidence rate of 100.53/105. Farmers were predominantly affected. An obvious seasonal periodicity was seen in terms of the incidence of the epidemic, with it spreading from a small area of the county to all of the 11 townships of the county year by year. Conclusion The source of infection was not effectively controlled because of frequent livestock trading during 2001 to 2005 with a significant increase in new cases. The epidemic was kept under control in 2006 to 2010 through intensive surveillance, free and timely standardized treatment of patients and file management, combined with intensified propaganda of the knowledge about brucellosis prevention and control, cooperation of departments concerned under the auspices of the local government, strengthened quarantine, and elimination of livestock with brucellosis.%目的 分析山西省天镇县2001-2010年布鲁氏菌病(布病)疫情控制特点,探索布病高发区的防治措施.方法 对2001 -2010年全县布病疫情进行统计分析,Excel软件绘制图表.结果 2001-2010年天镇县报告新发布病病例1958例,年平均发病率100.53/10万.病例以农民为主.布病发病呈明显的季节周期性;疫情逐年由部分乡镇向全县11个乡镇蔓延.结论 200l—2005年,牲畜交易频繁,传染源未得到有效控制,人间新发病例增加显著;2006-2010年加强监测,免费、规范及时治疗患者,档案化管理;强化宣传布病防治知识;政府主持下部门协作,加强检疫、淘汰病畜,遏制了疫情上升.

  11. Maintenance of brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: linking seasonal food resources, host-pathogen interaction, and life-history trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, John J; Geremia, Chris; Ballou, Michael A; Keisler, Duane H; White, Patrick J; Cox, John J; Crowley, Philip H

    2015-09-01

    The seasonal availability of food resources is an important factor shaping the life-history strategies of organisms. During times of nutritional restriction, physiological trade-offs can induce periods of immune suppression, thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious disease. Our goal was to provide a conceptual framework describing how the endemic level bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) may be maintained in Yellowstone bison based on the seasonality of food resources and the life-history strategies of the host and pathogen. Our analysis was based on active B. abortus infection (measured via bacterial culture), nutritional indicators (measured as metabolites and hormones in plasma), and carcass measurements of 402 slaughtered bison. Data from Yellowstone bison were used to investigate (1) whether seasonal changes in diet quality affect nutritional condition and coincide with the reproductive needs of female bison; (2) whether active B. abortus infection and infection intensities vary with host nutrition and nutritional condition; and (3) the evidence for seasonal changes in immune responses, which may offer protection against B. abortus, in relation to nutritional condition. Female bison experienced a decline in nutritional condition during winter as reproductive demands of late gestation increased while forage quality and availability declined. Active B. abortus infection was negatively associated with bison age and nutritional condition, with the intensity of infection negatively associated with indicators of nutrition (e.g., dietary protein and energy) and body weight. Data suggest that protective cell-mediated immune responses may be reduced during the B. abortus transmission period, which coincides with nutritional insufficiencies and elevated reproductive demands during spring. Our results illustrate how seasonal food restriction can drive physiological trade-offs that suppress immune function and create infection and transmission opportunities

  12. Cysteamine-related agents could be potential antidepressants through increasing central BDNF levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2006-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mental disease, but with an unknown etiology. Antidepressants are the main biological treatment for MDD. However, current antidepressive agents have a slow onset of effect and a substantial proportion of MDD patients do not clinically improve, despite maximal medication. Thus, the exploration for new antidepressants with novel strategies may help to develop faster and more effective antidepressant agents. Studies in the recent decades have demonstrated that antidepressants increase central brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and activating the BDNF-signaling pathway may play an important role in their therapeutic mechanism. Cysteamine is a natural product of cells and constitutes the terminal region of the CoA molecule. Recent work has found that cysteamine and a related agent, cystamine, have neuroprotective effects in Huntington's disease (HD) mice, through enhancing central BDNF levels. Furthermore, cystamine or cysteamine injection could increase serum BDNF levels in wild-type mice as well as HD mice. Since activation of the BDNF-dependent pathway plays an important role in the mechanism of antidepressant therapeutic action, cystamine or its derivatives could have potential antidepressant therapeutic effects. Among these agents, pantethine may be one of the most promising agents. It is a naturally occurring compound which can be administered orally with negligible side effects, and is metabolized to cysteamine. Further evaluation of the therapeutic and toxic effects of these cysteamine-related antidepressant agents in MDD animal models is needed before any clinical application. PMID:16797865

  13. Ecological study of brucellosis in humans and animals in Khoy, a mountainous District of the IR. of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rabbani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Brucellosis is primarily a contagious disease of domestic animals causing abortion, so it is considered one of the most serious of the current public health problems, especially in developing countries. The main purpose of this study was finding the incidence of human and animal brucellosis and detection of any correlation between human and animal brucellosis in Khoy, one of the endemic regions in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: We carried out an ecological study in Khoy district in North West of Iran. We ascertained all new cases of human and animal brucellosis in the 2001-2004 period. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient (r and square of correlation coefficient (r2. Seasonal incidence was calculated for each species."nResults: The cumulative incidence rate of human brucellosis was detected to be 175/100,000, cattle brucellosis was 391/100,000, and sheep and goat brucellosis was 105/100,000. We detected direct and incomplete correlation between human and cattle (r=0.096, r2=0.009, p value 0.742, human and sheep (r=0.267, r2=0.071, p value=0.355, and cattle and sheep (r=0.797, r2=0.635, p value=0.001."nConclusion: The most effective routes to control the disease include pasteurization or boiling of milk for human consumption, cooking all food stuff derived from animal sources, vaccination of cattle against brucellosis, isolation and slaughtering of seropositive reactors for brucellosis and providing protective clothing for humans dealing with infected cattle.

  14. Hepatitis C Virus Increases Occludin Expression via the Upregulation of Adipose Differentiation-Related Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branche, Emilie; Conzelmann, Stéphanie; Parisot, Clotilde; Bedert, Ludmila; Lévy, Pierre L.; Bartosch, Birke

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle is closely associated with lipid metabolism. In particular, HCV assembly initiates at the surface of lipid droplets. To further understand the role of lipid droplets in HCV life cycle, we assessed the relationship between HCV and the adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP), a lipid droplet-associated protein. Different steps of HCV life cycle were assessed in HCV-infected human Huh-7 hepatoma cells overexpressing ADRP upon transduction with a lentiviral vector. HCV infection increased ADRP mRNA and protein expression levels by 2- and 1.5-fold, respectively. The overexpression of ADRP led to an increase of (i) the surface of lipid droplets, (ii) the total cellular neutral lipid content (2.5- and 5-fold increase of triglycerides and cholesterol esters, respectively), (iii) the cellular free cholesterol level (5-fold) and (iv) the HCV particle production and infectivity (by 2- and 3.5-fold, respectively). The investigation of different steps of the HCV life cycle indicated that the ADRP overexpression, while not affecting the viral replication, promoted both virion egress and entry (~12-fold), the latter possibly via an increase of its receptor occludin. Moreover, HCV infection induces an increase of both ADRP and occludin expression. In HCV infected cells, the occludin upregulation was fully prevented by the ADRP silencing, suggesting a specific, ADRP-dependent mechanism. Finally, in HCV-infected human livers, occludin and ADRP mRNA expression levels correlated with each other. Alltogether, these findings show that HCV induces ADRP, which in turns appears to confer a favorable environment to viral spread. PMID:26731658

  15. Canine brucellosis: Epizootiological characteristics, therapy and control of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes different aspects of canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis. The disease is present in a large number of countries all over the world, where it inflicts severe economic damages, in particular in the commercial breeding and major dog breeding facilities. The disease was discovered in 1966 in the United States of America, but there were no data about its presence or distribution in our country until 1999. It was established, following the initial investigations, that the prevalence of the disease is extremely high, and that it amounted to 4.27% among pet dogs in the territory of Belgrade. Investigations of stray dogs in the territory of Podgorica showed that the seroprevalence (an equal titer or higher than 1/200 was 9.37%, while the prevalence among stray dogs in the territory of Belgrade was 10.87%. Data for other parts of Serbia are mostly lacking, and the seroprevalence for stray dogs in the Municipality of Pozarevac amounted to over 15%, while not a single serologically positive case was found among pet dogs. In addition to the epizootiological specificities of the disease established in our country, isolates of B. canis from the territory of Serbia also indicate digressions in the test of resistance to colors with respect to the referent strain RM6/66. All isolates (SR1-SR-7 are resistant to base fuchsine, and it is probable that this characteristic could also be an important epizootiological marker. Even though the isolation of the cause is the most reliable diagnostic method, it is not possible to achieve this in most cases. That is why one of the most important tasks is to define the most ideal tests for the serological diagnostics of the disease, and the obligation of reporting the disease makes it imperative that wider-scale investigations are conducted and that measures are taken toward reducing the number of positive cases in our country. .

  16. Review and Analysis of 17 Patients with Brucellosis%17例布鲁菌病病例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建娜

    2014-01-01

    different degrees of abnormal liver function indicators. The values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reac-tive protein were increased in 13 cases. The blood culture for brucella was positive in 9 cases. Both RBPT and STA tests were positive in 17 cases. After treatment with the combination of doxycycline and rifampicin or streptomycin, all patients im-proved and were discharged from hospital. Conclusion Clinical symptoms of brucellosis are not typical and easy to be mis-diagnosed. We should pay attention to the patients with fever of unknown origin.

  17. Vaccination and triploidy increase relative heart weight in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, T W K; Mayer, I; Hansen, T; Poppe, T T; Skjaeraasen, J E; Koppang, E O; Fjelldal, P G

    2015-02-01

    Heart morphology is particularly plastic in teleosts and differs between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon. However, little is known about how different culture practices and sex affect heart morphology. This study investigated how vaccination, triploidy and sex affected heart size and heart morphology (ventricle shape, angle of the bulbus arteriosus) in farmed Atlantic salmon for 18 months following vaccination (from c. 50-3000 g body weight). In addition, hearts were examined histologically after 7 months in sea water. All fish sampled were sexually immature. Vaccinated fish had significantly heavier hearts relative to body weight and a more triangular ventricle than unvaccinated fish, suggesting a greater cardiac workload. Irrespective of time, triploids had significantly heavier hearts relative to body weight, a more acute angle of the bulbus arteriosus and less fat deposition in the epicardium than diploids. The ventricle was also more triangular in triploids than diploids at seawater transfer. Sex had transient effects on the angle of the bulbus arteriosus, but no effect on relative heart weight or ventricle shape. From a morphological perspective, the results indicate that vaccination and triploidy increase cardiac workload in farmed Atlantic salmon. PMID:24422684

  18. Rapidly increasing macroalgal cover not related to herbivorous fishes on Mesoamerican reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchley, Adam; McField, Melanie D; Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Long-term phase shifts from coral to macroalgal dominated reef systems are well documented in the Caribbean. Although the impact of coral diseases, climate change and other factors is acknowledged, major herbivore loss through disease and overfishing is often assigned a primary role. However, direct evidence for the link between herbivore abundance, macroalgal and coral cover is sparse, particularly over broad spatial scales. In this study we use a database of coral reef surveys performed at 85 sites along the Mesoamerican Reef of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras, to examine potential ecological links by tracking site trajectories over the period 2005-2014. Despite the long-term reduction of herbivory capacity reported across the Caribbean, the Mesoamerican Reef region displayed relatively low macroalgal cover at the onset of the study. Subsequently, increasing fleshy macroalgal cover was pervasive. Herbivorous fish populations were not responsible for this trend as fleshy macroalgal cover change was not correlated with initial herbivorous fish biomass or change, and the majority of sites experienced increases in macroalgae browser biomass. This contrasts the coral reef top-down herbivore control paradigm and suggests the role of external factors in making environmental conditions more favourable for algae. Increasing macroalgal cover typically suppresses ecosystem services and leads to degraded reef systems. Consequently, policy makers and local coral reef managers should reassess the focus on herbivorous fish protection and consider complementary measures such as watershed management in order to arrest this trend. PMID:27280075

  19. Rapidly increasing macroalgal cover not related to herbivorous fishes on Mesoamerican reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchley, Adam; McField, Melanie D.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term phase shifts from coral to macroalgal dominated reef systems are well documented in the Caribbean. Although the impact of coral diseases, climate change and other factors is acknowledged, major herbivore loss through disease and overfishing is often assigned a primary role. However, direct evidence for the link between herbivore abundance, macroalgal and coral cover is sparse, particularly over broad spatial scales. In this study we use a database of coral reef surveys performed at 85 sites along the Mesoamerican Reef of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras, to examine potential ecological links by tracking site trajectories over the period 2005–2014. Despite the long-term reduction of herbivory capacity reported across the Caribbean, the Mesoamerican Reef region displayed relatively low macroalgal cover at the onset of the study. Subsequently, increasing fleshy macroalgal cover was pervasive. Herbivorous fish populations were not responsible for this trend as fleshy macroalgal cover change was not correlated with initial herbivorous fish biomass or change, and the majority of sites experienced increases in macroalgae browser biomass. This contrasts the coral reef top-down herbivore control paradigm and suggests the role of external factors in making environmental conditions more favourable for algae. Increasing macroalgal cover typically suppresses ecosystem services and leads to degraded reef systems. Consequently, policy makers and local coral reef managers should reassess the focus on herbivorous fish protection and consider complementary measures such as watershed management in order to arrest this trend. PMID:27280075

  20. Increased oxidation-related glutathionylation and carbonic anhydrase activity in endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisani, Alessandra; Donà, Gabriella; Brunati, Anna Maria; Clari, Giulio; Armanini, Decio; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Ambrosini, Guido; Bordin, Luciana

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the possible involvement of carbonic anhydrase activation in response to an endometriosis-related increase in oxidative stress. Peripheral blood samples obtained from 27 healthy controls and 30 endometriosis patients, classified as having endometriosis by histological examination of surgical specimens, were analysed by multiple immunoassay and carbonic anhydrase activity assay. Red blood cells (RBC) were analysed for glutathionylated protein (GSSP) content in the membrane, total glutathione (GSH) in the cytosol and carbonic anhydrase concentration and activity. In association with a membrane increase of GSSP and a cytosolic decrease of GSH content in endometriosis patients, carbonic anhydrase significantly increased (P < 0.0001) both monomerization and activity compared with controls. This oxidation-induced activation of carbonic anhydrase was positively and significantly correlated with the GSH content of RBC (r = 0.9735, P < 0.001) and with the amount of the 30-kDa monomer of carbonic anhydrase (r = 0.9750, P < 0.001). Because carbonic anhydrase activation is implied in many physiological and biochemical processes linked to pathologies such as glaucoma, hypertension, obesity and infections, carbonic anhydrase activity should be closely monitored in endometriosis. These data open promising working perspectives for diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis and hopefully of other oxidative stress-related diseases. Endometriosis is a chronic disease associated with infertility and local inflammatory response, which is thought to spread rapidly throughout the body as a systemic subclinical inflammation. One of the causes in the pathogenesis/evolution of endometriosis is oxidative stress, which occurs when reactive oxygen species are produced faster than the endogenous antioxidant defence systems can neutralize them. Once produced, reactive oxygen species can alter the morphological and functional properties of endothelial cells, including

  1. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis among people in contact with livestock in suburban Khartoum, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada A Gaafar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The objectives of the present study were to survey brucellosis and to determine risk factors among humans in occupational contacts with dairy cattle in suburban and peri-urban regions in Khartoum State, Sudan. Materials and Methods: Serum samples (n = 362 were collected from people in association with 11 farms with history of brucellosis in Khartoum State between August 2009 and February 2010. Results: Out of the 362 serum samples 14 (3.9% were positive for brucella infection using competitive ELISA (cELISA. A significant association was observed between the seropositivity and community living in association with brucella-infected livestock notably: Illiterate males (P = 0.002, middle age group (20-40 yrs (P = 0.003, and consumers of raw milk and milk products (P = 0.004 are at risk of infection. Conclusions: A significant association was observed between the seropositivity and community living in association with brucella-infected livestock notably: Illiterate males, middle age group (20-40 years, and consumers of raw milk and milk products are at risk of infection. The study recommends routine serological screening for brucellosis among herders and workers and their livestock particularly in regions with history of brucellosis.

  2. Developing a brucellosis public health information and awareness campaign in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, John R; Bill, Debra E

    2008-01-01

    U.S. Army civil affairs public health professionals are deployed worldwide in support of current contingency operations to promote and to preserve the public health of the citizens of the occupied territory or host nation. In Iraq, they face the challenge of assisting a health care system plagued by years of neglect and inefficient bureaucracy. Iraqi efforts to track and to control infectious diseases, especially zoonotic diseases, are in their infancy. Brucellosis, a worldwide zoonotic disease of ruminants, is of particular concern in Iraq because of the close proximity of animals to humans and the cultural habits that favor disease dissemination among the population. A public health education and awareness campaign was recently developed in Ninewa Province, Iraq, to educate Iraqi citizens about brucellosis and ways to prevent it. The public health campaign used a two-pronged approach to effect change, i.e., (1) development of a social marketing campaign (public health education) about brucellosis and its prevention, with billboards, flyers, and public service announcements, and (2) mobilization of key veterinary institutions to participate in educating and training the public and farmers about brucellosis. The campaign used culturally relevant messages and was targeted to address local cultural practices, to lower disease transmission. Efforts were made to state messages using local terms and references. This approach may have utility in other public health efforts in Iraq and other postconflict stabilization operations. PMID:18251336

  3. DNA Genotyping Suggests Recent Brucellosis Outbreaks in the Greater Yellowstone Area Originated from Elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucellosis is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Brucella species infect a variety of livestock animals and humans world wide. In the United States, the disease with the greatest economic impact is caused by Brucella abortus in cattle. Although the disease has been mostly eradic...

  4. Outbreak of Human Brucellosis from Consumption of Raw Goats' Milk in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kar Nim; Chow, Ting Soo; Wong, Peng Shyan; Hamzah, Siti Hawa; Ahmad, Norazah; Ch'ng, Chin Chin

    2015-09-01

    We report the largest outbreak of brucellosis in Penang, Malaysia. Brucellosis is not endemic in this region. The index case was a 45-year-old goat farm owner presented with 3 weeks of fever, headache, severe lethargy, poor appetite, and excessive sweating. He claimed to have consumed unpasteurized goat's milk that he had also sold to the public. Tests were negative for tropical diseases (i.e., dengue fever, malaria, leptospirosis and scrub typhus) and blood culture showed no growth. Based on epidemiological clues, Brucella serology was ordered and returned positive. Over a period of 1 year, 79 patients who had consumed milk bought from the same farm were diagnosed with brucellosis. Two of these patients were workers on the farm. Four laboratory staff had also contracted the disease presumably through handling of the blood samples. The mean duration from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 53 days with a maximum duration of 210 days. A combination treatment of rifampin and doxycycline for 6 weeks was the first line of treatment in 90.5% of patients. One-third of the patients had sequelae after recovering and 21% had a relapse. We highlight the importance of Brucellosis as a differential diagnosis when a patient has unexplained chronic fever. PMID:26055742

  5. Transmission of Brucellosis from Elk to Cattle and Bison, Greater Yellowstone Area, USA, 2002–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jack C Rhyan; Nol, Pauline; Quance, Christine; Gertonson, Arnold; Belfrage, John; Harris, Lauren; Straka, Kelly; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee

    2013-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis has been nearly eliminated from livestock in the United States. Bison and elk in the Greater Yellowstone Area remain reservoirs for the disease. During 1990–2002, no known cases occurred in Greater Yellowstone Area livestock. Since then, 17 transmission events from wildlife to livestock have been investigated.

  6. Context-dependent survival, fecundity and predicted population-level consequences of brucellosis in African buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Cross, Paul C.; Bengis, Roy G.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic infections may have negative impacts on wildlife populations, yet their effects are difficult to detect in the absence of long-term population monitoring. Brucella abortus, the bacteria responsible for bovine brucellosis, causes chronic infections and abortions in wild and domestic ungulates, but its impact on population dynamics is not well understood.

  7. 78 FR 9028 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... INFORMATION: Background Brucellosis is a contagious disease, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, that... other animals. The disease, also known as Aujeszky's disease, is caused by a herpes virus. The disease..., caused by Brucella suis, causes loss of young through spontaneous abortion or birth of weak...

  8. Human brucellosis mimicking axial spondyloarthritis: a challenge for rheumatologists when applying the 2009 ASAS criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Cong; Shen, Gui-Fen; Li, Shou-Xin; Dong, Ling-Li; Yu, Yi-Kai; Tu, Wei; Zhu, Ying-Zi; Hu, Shao-Xian

    2016-06-01

    Although the development of the 2009 SpA classification criteria by Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) represents an important step towards a better definition of the early disease stage particularly in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), the specificity of the criteria has been criticized these days. As the commonest zoonotic infection worldwide, human brucellosis can mimic a large number of diseases, including SpA. This study was performed to determine the frequency of rheumatologic manifestations in patients with brucellosis and the chance of misdiagnosing them as having axSpA in central China. The results showed that clinical manifestations of axSpA could be observed in brucellosis. Over half of patients had back pain, and one fifth of the patients with back pain were less than 45 years old at onset and had the symptom for more than 3 months. Two young males were falsely classified as suffering from axSpA according to the ASAS criteria, and one with MRI proved sacroiliitis was once given Etanercept for treatment. Therefore, differential diagnosis including human brucellosis should always be kept in mind when applying the ASAS criteria, even in traditionally non-endemic areas. PMID:27376805

  9. Prevalence of Brucellosis among Women Presenting with Abortion/Stillbirth in Huye, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujeni, Nadine; Mbanzamihigo, Léonidas

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of human brucellosis is not documented in Rwanda despite several reports on the disease in cattle. Because brucellosis has been associated with abortion, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of positive serology in women presenting with abortion and/or stillbirth. The study was done in Huye District, in the Southern Province of Rwanda, and the patients were recruited from both the University Teaching Hospital of Butare (CHUB) and Kabutare District Hospital. Serum samples were collected and the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on each sample. A questionnaire was also used to investigate potential contacts with animals and/or consumption of raw milk. A total of 60 women were recruited and 15 (i.e., 25%) were Brucella seropositive. The questionnaire showed that those with seropositivity either were in contact with domestic animals (cattle, goat, or sheep) or were consuming raw cow's milk. Human brucellosis appears to be of public health importance in Rwanda and more attention should be drawn on the disease. The current study provides a basis for larger studies to establish the incidence of human brucellosis in Rwanda. More mechanistic studies will also demonstrate the pathogenicity of Brucella in human placentas. PMID:25101131

  10. Prevention and Treatment of Brucellosis%布鲁菌病的预防与治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄石桩

    2015-01-01

    阐述了布鲁菌病的流行病学、临床症状、病理变化、诊断方法,并提出了相应的防治措施。%The epidemiology, clinical symptoms, necropsy lesions and diagno-sis methods of Brucellosis were elaborat-ed,and some prevention measures were proposed.

  11. Prevalence of Brucellosis among Women Presenting with Abortion/Stillbirth in Huye, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Rujeni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of human brucellosis is not documented in Rwanda despite several reports on the disease in cattle. Because brucellosis has been associated with abortion, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of positive serology in women presenting with abortion and/or stillbirth. The study was done in Huye District, in the Southern Province of Rwanda, and the patients were recruited from both the University Teaching Hospital of Butare (CHUB and Kabutare District Hospital. Serum samples were collected and the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT was performed on each sample. A questionnaire was also used to investigate potential contacts with animals and/or consumption of raw milk. A total of 60 women were recruited and 15 (i.e., 25% were Brucella seropositive. The questionnaire showed that those with seropositivity either were in contact with domestic animals (cattle, goat, or sheep or were consuming raw cow’s milk. Human brucellosis appears to be of public health importance in Rwanda and more attention should be drawn on the disease. The current study provides a basis for larger studies to establish the incidence of human brucellosis in Rwanda. More mechanistic studies will also demonstrate the pathogenicity of Brucella in human placentas.

  12. Assessment of performance of selected serological tests for diagnosing brucellosis in pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz, P.M.; Blasco, J.M.; Engel, B.; Miguel, de M.J.; Marín, C.M.; Dieste, L.; Mainar-Jaime, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Swine brucellosis due to Brucella suis is considered an emerging zoonotic disease whose control is based on serological testing and the subsequent culling of seropositive animals or the full depopulation of affected flocks. Here we assessed the performance of several serological tests (Rose Bengal T

  13. Evaluation of serological diagnostic tests for human Brucellosis in an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Arabacı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The clinical utility of complementary tests for brucellosis are not clear in many situation. This study aimed toevaluate value of these tests for brucellosis in an endemic area in Turkey.Materials and methods: This study was performed at Çanakkale General Hospital in 2009. In a retrospective approach, recordsof the patients who evaluated for brucellosis were collected. During the study period, 236 people (131 symptomaticand 105 non-symptomatic were evaluated for diagnosis of brucellosis. All of the samples from these patients were testedfor Brucella antibody seropositivity by RB slide agglutination, standard serum agglutination, Brucella Coombs, BrucellaCapt,and ELISA IgG and IgM tests. Results: In total, 49 symptomatic patients were hospitalized and blood cultures wereobtained. Brucella spp. were isolated from nine of them (18.4%.The BrucellaCapt test was found to be the most sensitivefor Brucella (74.0% and close behind it was the Coombs test (72.5%. The sensitivity for the RB test was 48.1%. The ELISAIgG test was found more sensitive for brucellosis than the ELISA IgM test was (65.6% and 49.6%, respectively. All examinedtests were found about 100% specific for brucellosis but the RB test was found less specific than the others were (96.1%Positive predictive value for all tests was about 1 but negative predictive values were only valuable for the Coombs andBrucella Capt test (0.744 and 0.755, respectively. The other serological tests were around and below 0.50, which was weakfor negative results.Conclusions: The ELISA IgG and IgM tests were no superior to the other tests. By assessment of receiver operating characteristics(ROC analysis, the Brucella Coombs and BrucellaCapt tests were found to be the most valuable tests for serologicaldiagnosis of brucellosis in endemic areas. The seronegative tests in the symptomatic patients should be evaluated andrepeated in short time. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(2: 50-56Key words: Brucella

  14. Current application of brucellosis vaccines and its research advances%动物布鲁氏菌病疫苗应用现状及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁家波; 冯忠武

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a crucial zoonosis caused by Brucella, which has some traits of wide hosts, great infectivity, serious damage and difficulty in cure. In recent years, brucellosis rebounds worldwidely, and it is especially serious in China. It causes great losses to farming and people's health. Vaccination is one of the most effective measures used to control the disease, and the application of appropriate vaccine decides the brucellosis controlling effect. Up to now, therer are several attenuated vaccines used in domestic and abroad, in which the most widely used vaccines were B. abortus strain 19 (S19), B. melitensis Rev.l (Rev.1), B. suis strain 2 (S2), and rough strain B. abortus 51 (RB51), and each vaccine has its advantages and disadvantages. Scientists are now trying to develop more effective vaccines to deal with increasingly serious brucellosis epidemic situation. They are now constructing recombinant and molecular marker strains, DNA vaccines and subunit vaccines. Some conventional and new-style vaccines were reviewed in this paper.%布鲁氏菌病(布病)是由布鲁氏菌引起的一种重要的人兽共患病,近几年在世界范围内呈反弹趋势,我国尤其严重,该病对畜牧业和人类健康均构成严重威胁.疫苗免疫是预防和控制布病的重要措施之一,选择和使用有效的布病疫苗关系到布病防控的成效.迄今国内外已有多个弱毒活疫苗在使用,其中使用最为广泛的有光滑型牛种S19株、羊种Rev.1株、猪种S2株,以及粗糙型牛种RB51株.不同疫苗各有其优缺点,科学家们正试图研发更理想的布病疫苗.目前人们正通过基因工程技术构建重组弱毒疫苗、分子标记疫苗、DNA疫苗以及亚单位疫苗.对布病疫苗的应用及新型疫苗的研究现状作一综述.

  15. Study on Relative COP Changes with Increasing Heat Input Temperatures of Double Effect Steam Absorption Chillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Majid Mohd Amin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorption chillers at cogeneration plants generate chilled water using steam supplied by heat recovery steam generators. The chillers are mainly of double effect type. The COP of double effect varies from 0.7 to 1.2 depending on operation and maintenance practices of the chillers. Heat input to the chillers during operations could have impact on the COP of the chillers. This study is on relative COP changes with increasing the heat input temperatures for a steam absorption chiller at a gas fueled cogeneration plant. Reversible COP analysis and zero order model were used for evaluating COP of the chiller for 118 days operation period. Results indicate increasing COP trends for both the reversible COP and zero model COP. Although the zero model COP are within the range of double effect absorption chiller, it is not so for the actual COP. The actual COP is below the range of normal double effect COP. It is recommended that economic replacement analysis to be undertaken to assess the feasibility either to repair or replace the existing absorption chiller.

  16. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during worry forecasts stress-related increases in psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Deschênes, Sonya S; Dugas, Michel J

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been conceptualized as an index of emotion regulation abilities. Although resting RSA has been associated with both concurrent and prospective affective responses to stress, the impact of RSA reactivity on emotional responses to stress is inconsistent across studies. The type of emotional stimuli used to elicit these phasic RSA responses may influence the adaptive value of RSA reactivity. We propose that RSA reactivity to a personally relevant worry-based stressor might forecast future affective responses to stress. To evaluate whether resting RSA and RSA reactivity to worry inductions predict stress-related increases in psychological distress, an academic stress model was used to prospectively examine changes in psychological distress from the well-defined low- and high-stress periods. During the low-stress period, 76 participants completed self-report mood measures and had their RSA assessed during a resting baseline, free worry period and worry catastrophizing interview. Participants completed another mood assessment during the high-stress period. Results indicated that baseline psychological distress predicted larger decreases in RSA during the worry inductions. Lower resting RSA and greater RSA suppression to the worry inductions at baseline prospectively predicted larger increases in psychological distress from the low- to high-stress period, even after accounting for the impact of baseline distress on RSA. These results provide further evidence that RSA may represent a unique index of emotion regulation abilities in times of stress. PMID:25089936

  17. Increased sugarcane water productivity in Brazil avoids land use change and related environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpare, F. V.; Galdos, M. V.; Kolln, O.; Gava, G.; Franco, H.; Trivelin, P.

    2012-12-01

    ratoon cane cycle. In order to demonstrate the potential effect of avoided land use change by increased productivity, we calculated the avoided GHG emissions related to land use change in a hypothetical fertirrigation project over a ten-year period (2010-2020). A conservative scenario for increased demand for sugarcane was selected, assuming a 20% increase in total production over the ten-year period. The current area under sugarcane in the municipality of Jaú is 42,500 ha. A 5,000 ha fertirrigation project, assuming the 40% increase in sugarcane productivity described above for the IN treatment, would avoid the conversion of 2,000 ha of other land uses in to sugarcane. Landsat data covering the region in the 2008/2009 crop year demonstrated that most conversion occurred over pasture areas (91%), with the remaining being converted from annual crops. Using IPCC biomass and soil carbon stock change factors and emission factors, the LUC-related emissions avoided by the fertirrigation project in the period were calculated as 53,199 Mg CO2 eq. A more comprehensive life cycle assessment of both the fertirrigation system and the reference case would be necessary to evaluate the actual GHG mitigation potential, but the preliminary results indicate that the increased productivity will bring environmental benefits under these conditions.

  18. Surveillance analysis of human brucellosis in Ningbo from 2002 to 2012%2002年-2012年宁波市人间布鲁氏菌病监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亚维; 张颉楠; 赵薛飞; 姚漫红; 陈科杰

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of human brucellosis in Ningbo and provide scientific evidence for the development of the preventive and control measures.Methods:By using Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT) and standard tube agglutination test (SAT),serological detection was conducted in risk populations with occupational exposure to Brucella,including lives stock traders,slaughters,raisers,milkmaids,veterinary and people engaged in lives stock in Ningbo.Results:From 2002 to 2012,6737 persons received the detection,113 were serological positive (1.68%),of which 50 cases were diagnosed as brucellosis and 63 cases were bacteria carriers.The brucellosis cases and carriers mainly distributed in Cixi City,Yuyao City,Yinzhou District,Ninghai county.Brucellosis cases related to local trafficking processing slaughtering sheep industry in Cixi City,Yuyao City.Brucellosis cases related to the local dairy farming in Yinzhou District,Ninghai county.Conclusion:In recent ten years,human brucellosis epidemic presents a clear upward trend in Ningbo.It is suggested to strengthen the training of medical staff in and of brucellosis knowledge and management.Active surveillance and health education on focus groups is the focus of the prevention and control of brucellosis in the future.%目的:掌握宁波市人间布鲁氏菌病(以下简称布病)流行特征,为制定防治策略提供依据.方法:采用虎红平板凝集试验和试管凝集试验对全市涉及牛、羊畜交易、屠宰、养殖、挤乳、畜产品加工、兽医等重点职业人群进行血清学检测.结果:2002年-2012年共监测重点人群6737人,检出血清学阳性113例,阳性率为1.68%,其中病例50例,感染者63例,患者和感染者主要分布在慈溪市、余姚市、鄞州区和宁海县,慈溪和余姚的患病与当地贩卖加工屠宰肉羊产业相关.鄞州区和宁海县的患病与当地奶牛饲养有关.结论:近10年来,宁波市人间布病

  19. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinseye, Victor O; Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Ogugua, Akwoba J; Adedoyin, Folashade J; Otu, Patricia I; Kwaghe, Ayi V; Kolawole, Noah O; Okoro, Oyinye J; Agada, Charity A; Tade, Adeniyi O; Faleke, Olufemi O; Okeke, Anyanwu L; Akanbi, Ibikunle M; Ibitoye, Mofoluwake M; Dipeolu, Morenike O; Dale, Emma J; Lorraine, Perrett; Taylor, Andrew V; Awosanya, Emmanuel A; Cadmus, Eniola O; Stack, Judy A; Cadmus, Simeon I

    2016-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria; however, limited data exist on nationwide studies and risk factors associated with the disease. Using a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey, we determined the prevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis in slaughtered cattle in three geographical regions of Nigeria. Serum samples from randomly selected unvaccinated cattle slaughtered over a period of 3 years (between December 2010 and September 2013) from northern, southern and south-western Nigeria were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Data associated with risk factors of brucellosis were analysed by Stata Version 12. In all, 8105 cattle were screened. An overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (315/8105) was recorded by the Rose Bengal test, with 3.8%, 3.4% and 4.0% from the northern, southern and south-western regions, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that cattle screened in northern Nigeria were less likely to be seropositive for antibodies to Brucella spp. than those from south-western Nigeria (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.73-1.22). However, logistic regression analysis revealed that breed ( p = 0.04) and sex ( p £ 0.0001) of cattle were statistically significant for seropositivity to Brucella spp. The study found that brucellosis was endemic at a low prevalence among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria, with sex and breed of cattle being significant risk factors. Considering the public health implications of brucellosis, we advocate coordinated surveillance for the disease among diverse cattle populations in Nigeria, as is carried out in most developed countries. PMID:27247065

  20. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka, Mukhtar Salihu; Hassan, Latiffah; Khairani-Bejo, Siti; Zainal, Mohamed Abidin; Mohamad, Ramlan Bin; Salleh, Annas; Adzhar, Azri

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05); originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19) and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83) were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24) and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90) when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program. PMID:25265020

  1. EFFECTIVE METHODS FOR APPROPRIATE DIAGNOSIS OF BRUCELLOSIS IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS (REVIEW ARTICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. MOLAVI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most common diseases among human that identification and control of disease transmission methods can promote public health. Clinical signs alone are not sufficient for brucellosis diagnosis. Hence, a sensitive, specific, rapid and inexpensive method is required. Early and appropriate diagnosis of this disease is effective in improving public health as well as disease control and eradication. Several serological tests for probable diagnosis of Brucella infection were used in evaluation of antibodies against Brucella. Using new methods such as Elisa has higher sensitivity and specificity than standard SAT test and complement fixation which can show both G and M immunoglobulins. It is also suitable for examining certain class of immunoglobulin. Research and studies have shown that ELISA is a complete method for in vitro detection of chronic disease, especially when other tests results are negative. In addition to this method, all unique and specific immunoglobulin in tested serum appear with high speed and accuracy. Another diagnostic method is PCR, which has higher sensitivity and specificity in comparison with serologic methods for diagnosis of human brucellosis. PCR shows similar sensitivity as 16srRNA using L7/L12 gene. It can be used in diagnosis of human brucellosis. Another diagnostic method is identification of different forms of IL-10 gene, which is a cytokine. It inactivates macrophages and infects the susceptible subject with brucellosis. Therefore, identification of different forms of IL-10 gene is considered as effective method for diagnosis of the disease. It’s recommended to use this new and effective method because many of these methods can overcome limitations of traditional methods.

  2. Prediction and control of brucellosis transmission of dairy cattle in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a bacterial disease caused by brucella; mainly spread by direct contact transmission through the brucella carriers, or indirect contact transmission by the environment containing large quantities of bacteria discharged by the infected individuals. At the beginning of 21st century, the epidemic among dairy cows in Zhejiang province, began to come back and has become a localized prevalent epidemic. Combining the pathology of brucellosis, the reported positive data characteristics, and the feeding method in Zhejiang province, this paper establishes an SEIV dynamic model to excavate the internal transmission dynamics, fit the real disease situation, predict brucellosis tendency and assess control measures in dairy cows. By careful analysis, we give some quantitative results as follows. (1 The external input of dairy cows from northern areas may lead to high fluctuation of the number of the infectious cows in Zhejiang province that can reach several hundreds. In this case, the disease cannot be controlled and the infection situation cannot easily be predicted. Thus, this paper encourages cows farms to insist on self-supplying production of the dairy cows. (2 The effect of transmission rate of brucella in environment to dairy cattle on brucellosis spreading is greater than transmission rate of the infectious dairy cattle to susceptible cattle. The prevalence of the epidemic is mainly aroused by environment transmission. (3 Under certain circumstances, the epidemic will become a periodic phenomenon. (4 For Zhejiang province, besides measures that have already been adopted, sterilization times of the infected regions is suggested as twice a week, and should be combined with management of the birth rate of dairy cows to control brucellosis spread.

  3. Epidemiological, laboratory, diagnostic and public health aspects of human brucellosis in western Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Hamid Amani; Massoud Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine brucellosis's epidemiologic, laboratory, diagnostic and public health features considering brucellosis is endemic in Azna County, western Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was investigated on 43 patients with brucellosis in Azna County. The subjects were the patients with symptoms correspondent with brucellosis and positive Wright and 2ME tests. A questionnaire about demographic, epidemiological and laboratory findings was filled in. Afterwards, patients were treated using usual antimicrobial drugs regimen. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Results:Forty-three subjects were found to be positive in laboratory tests. Incidence of Brucellosis was 59.31 per hundred thousand population. About 34.9% of patients were female and 65.1% male. Nearly 95.2 % of human cases were living in rural and 4.8 % in urban areas. Around 20.9% of patients had history of animal contact. The commonest transmission was unpasteurized dairy products (79.1%). The most contagious seasons were summer and spring (60.3%). The most common age group was 15-24 (27.9%), and about 60.5% of the patients were between 15-44 years old. Disease was more common among housewives (30.2%) and farmers (20.9%). The majority of the patients had Wright test titre=1:320 (54.1%) and 2ME test titre=1:160 (56.1%) in serological titration. Doxycycline with Rifampin was used for treatment of the greatest of patients (60.4%). Conclusions:In order to control this zoonotic disease, close cooperation of health and veterinary organizations is necessary.

  4. Prevalence trend of human brucellosis in Qinghai Province from 2000 to 2012%2000-2012年青海省人间布鲁菌病疫情趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立青; 赵志军; 马丽; 李超; 杨旭欣; 胡桂英; 魏荣杰; 李亚楠; 李强

    2016-01-01

    Objective By summing up monitoring data of human brucellosis in Qinghai Province from 2000 to 2012, to evaluate epidemiological dynamics and analyze prevalence trend. Method Monitoring data of human brucellosis in Qinghai Province from 2000 to 2012 were collected, epidemiological characteristics including prevalence condition, area and population distribution were analyzed by descriptive epidemiology method. Results Totally 38 578 persons were examined from 2000 to 2012. The number of persons infected with brucellosis was 1 209, the infection rate was 3.34%;the number of patients diagnosed with human brucellosis was 344, the prevalence rate was 0.89%. New cases had occurred since 2006, and there were 158 new cases diagnosed with brucellosis. The prevalence rates in cities and areas of agriculture and pasture were 2.93%(78/2 663), 1.18%(33/2 806) and 0.70%(233/33 109), respectively. The ages of developing brucellosis ranged from 10 to 72 years old. The prevalence rates of biological pharmaceutical producers and the herdsman were [18.13%(196/1 081)] and [6.13%(353/5 763)], respectively. The prevalence rate of human brucellosis in Han nation was the highest [4.61%(467/10 140)], followed by Tibet [3.60%(443/12 318)], Mongolia [2.53%(211/8 342)], Tu [2.22%(110/4 953)] and Hui [2.09%(59/2 825)], and the differences were statistically significant (χ2 = 102.493, P < 0.01). Conclusion The prevalence state of human brucellosis in Qinghai Province is in a increasing trend, and new cases are increasing.%目的:总结青海省2000-2012年布鲁菌病(简称布病)监测资料,评价疫情动态,分析流行趋势。方法收集2000-2012年青海省32个县的布病监测资料,采用描述流行病学的方法分析青海省人群布病的流行特征,包括患病情况、地区分布、人群分布等。结果2000-2012年,青海省共监测38578人,感染布鲁菌1290人,感染率为3.34%;患布病344人,患病率为0.89%;自2006年开始出现新

  5. Chemoresistance of CD133{sup +} colon cancer may be related with increased survivin expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Ra; Ji, Sun-Young; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Mee-Yon, E-mail: meeyon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Genomic Cohort, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    CD133, putative cancer stem cell marker, deemed to aid chemoresistance. However, this claim has been challenged recently and we previously reported that patients with CD133{sup +} colon cancer have benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy incontrast to no benefit in patients with CD133{sup −} cancer. To elucidate the role of CD133 expression in chemoresistance, we silenced the CD133 expression in a colon cancer cell line and determined its effect on the biological characteristics downstream. We comparatively analyzed the sequential changes of MDR1, ABCG2, AKT1 and survivin expression and the result of proliferation assay (WST-1 assay) with 5-FU treatment in CD133{sup +} and siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells, derived from Caco-2 colon cancer cell line. 5-FU treatment induced significantly increase of the mRNA expression of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1genes, but not protein level. CD133 had little to no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. However, survivin expression at mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in CD133{sup +} cells compared with siRNA-induced CD133-cells and Mock (not sorted CD133{sup +} cells) at 96 h after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated notable increase of chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment (10 μM) in CD133{sup +} cells at 96 h after siRNA transfection. From this study, we conclude that CD133{sup +} cells may have chemoresistance to 5-FU through the mechanism which is related with survivin expression, instead of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. Therefore a survivin inhibitor can be a new target for effective treatment of CD133{sup +} colon cancer. - Highlights: • We evaluate the role of CD133 in chemoresistance of colon cancer. • We compared the chemoresistance of CD133{sup +} cells and siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells. • CD133 had little to no effect on MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. • Survivin expression and chemoresistance were increased in CD133{sup +} colon cancer cells.

  6. Chemoresistance of CD133+ colon cancer may be related with increased survivin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CD133, putative cancer stem cell marker, deemed to aid chemoresistance. However, this claim has been challenged recently and we previously reported that patients with CD133+ colon cancer have benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy incontrast to no benefit in patients with CD133− cancer. To elucidate the role of CD133 expression in chemoresistance, we silenced the CD133 expression in a colon cancer cell line and determined its effect on the biological characteristics downstream. We comparatively analyzed the sequential changes of MDR1, ABCG2, AKT1 and survivin expression and the result of proliferation assay (WST-1 assay) with 5-FU treatment in CD133+ and siRNA-induced CD133− cells, derived from Caco-2 colon cancer cell line. 5-FU treatment induced significantly increase of the mRNA expression of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1genes, but not protein level. CD133 had little to no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. However, survivin expression at mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in CD133+ cells compared with siRNA-induced CD133-cells and Mock (not sorted CD133+ cells) at 96 h after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated notable increase of chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment (10 μM) in CD133+ cells at 96 h after siRNA transfection. From this study, we conclude that CD133+ cells may have chemoresistance to 5-FU through the mechanism which is related with survivin expression, instead of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. Therefore a survivin inhibitor can be a new target for effective treatment of CD133+ colon cancer. - Highlights: • We evaluate the role of CD133 in chemoresistance of colon cancer. • We compared the chemoresistance of CD133+ cells and siRNA-induced CD133− cells. • CD133 had little to no effect on MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. • Survivin expression and chemoresistance were increased in CD133+ colon cancer cells

  7. 圆形分布法分析石家庄市2004-2010年布鲁杆菌病的高发季节%Analysis on seasonal distribution of brucellosis in Shijiazhuang City by circular distribution method from 2004 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世勇; 高秋菊

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to analyze the seasonal distribution of brucellosis in Shijiazhuang City from 2004 to 2010, so as to provide scientific basis for brucellosis control and prevention. The brucellosis incidence data was derived from China Information System for Diseases Control and Prevention. The seasonal characteristics including peak day and crest time of brucellosis were analyzed by circular distribution. The long-term trend of brucellosis was analyzed by correlation. Results demonstrated that the brucellosis incidence had no significant fluctuation (γ= 0. 572,P = 0. 180). The brucellosis incidence had obvious sea-sonality in Shijiazhuang from 2004 to 2010, brucellosis might occur in every month all over the year, which gradually increased from February, and reached the peak time from March to July, but gradually decreased from August. There were obvious peak day and crest time of brucellosis from 2004 to 2010 (P<0. 01). The peak day of brucellosis in each year was different or partly different (F=3. 912, P<0. 05). The peak day all over the year was 3rd June, and the crest time was 10th March to 26th August. It's suggested that there is obvious seasonality of brucellosis, which is concentrated from March to July. As the crest time is concentrated from the first 10 days of March to the last 10 days of September, effective precautions might be adopted according to the results.%目的 分析石家庄市2004-2010年布鲁杆菌病的季节性,为有效防制布病提供参考依据.方法 对全国传染病疫情信息网络直报系统上报的石家庄市布病疫情资料,用圆形分布法分析布病发病的高峰日和高峰期,用相关分析法分析布病发病的长期趋势.结果 2004-2010年石家庄市布病发病波动不明显(γ=0.572,P=0.180).且存在明显的季节性,其季节分布特征是,全年均可发病,2月份发病人数开始增多,3~7月份达高峰,8月份以后下降.7年间布病发病均存在明显的高峰日和高峰期(P<0

  8. Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Ammary, Khaoula; Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Mick, Virginie; Prevost, Laura; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Susan C; Benkirane, Abdelali

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world caused by several species of the genus Brucella. The disease, eradicated in many developed countries, is a re-emerging neglected zoonosis endemic in several zones especially in the Mediterranean region, impacting on human health and livestock production. A One Health approach could address brucellosis control in Morocco but scarcity of reliable epidemiological data, as well as underreporting, hinders the implementation of sustainable control strategies. Surveillance and control policies implemented by the Moroccan government in domestic animals (cattle and small ruminants) in the last few decades are assessed for disease impact. This study considers the origins of animal brucellosis in Morocco and the potential for emergence of brucellosis during a shift from extensive to intensive livestock production. PMID:26690090

  9. Integrating serological and genetic data to quantify cross-species transmission: brucellosis as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Mafalda; Shirima, Gabriel M; John, Kunda S; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Buza, Joram J; Cleaveland, Sarah; Haydon, Daniel T; Halliday, Jo E B

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological data are often fragmented, partial, and/or ambiguous and unable to yield the desired level of understanding of infectious disease dynamics to adequately inform control measures. Here, we show how the information contained in widely available serology data can be enhanced by integration with less common type-specific data, to improve the understanding of the transmission dynamics of complex multi-species pathogens and host communities. Using brucellosis in northern Tanzania as a case study, we developed a latent process model based on serology data obtained from the field, to reconstruct Brucella transmission dynamics. We were able to identify sheep and goats as a more likely source of human and animal infection than cattle; however, the highly cross-reactive nature of Brucella spp. meant that it was not possible to determine which Brucella species (B. abortus or B. melitensis) is responsible for human infection. We extended our model to integrate simulated serology and typing data, and show that although serology alone can identify the host source of human infection under certain restrictive conditions, the integration of even small amounts (5%) of typing data can improve understanding of complex epidemiological dynamics. We show that data integration will often be essential when more than one pathogen is present and when the distinction between exposed and infectious individuals is not clear from serology data. With increasing epidemiological complexity, serology data become less informative. However, we show how this weakness can be mitigated by integrating such data with typing data, thereby enhancing the inference from these data and improving understanding of the underlying dynamics. PMID:26935267

  10. Relating increasing hantavirus incidences to the changing climate: the mast connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maes Piet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nephropathia epidemica (NE, an emerging rodent-borne viral disease, has become the most important cause of infectious acute renal failure in Belgium, with sharp increases in incidence occurring for more than a decade. Bank voles are the rodent reservoir of the responsible hantavirus and are known to display cyclic population peaks. We tried to relate these peaks to the cyclic NE outbreaks observed since 1993. Our hypothesis was that the ecological causal connection was the staple food source for voles, being seeds of deciduous broad-leaf trees, commonly called "mast". We also examined whether past temperature and precipitation preceding "mast years" were statistically linked to these NE outbreaks. Results Since 1993, each NE peak is immediately preceded by a mast year, resulting in significantly higher NE case numbers during these peaks (Spearman R = -0.82; P = 0.034. NE peaks are significantly related to warmer autumns the year before (R = 0.51; P Conclusion NE peaks in year 0 are induced by abundant mast formation in year-1, facilitating bank vole survival during winter, thus putting the local human population at risk from the spring onwards of year 0. This bank vole survival is further promoted by higher autumn temperatures in year-1, whereas mast formation itself is primed by higher summer temperatures in year-2. Both summer and autumn temperatures have been rising to significantly higher levels during recent years, explaining the virtually continuous epidemic state since 2005 of a zoonosis, considered rare until recently. Moreover, in 2007 a NE peak and an abundant mast formation occurred for the first time within the same year, thus forecasting yet another record NE incidence for 2008. We therefore predict that with the anticipated climate changes due to global warming, NE might become a highly endemic disease in Belgium and surrounding countries.

  11. Increase in dust storm related PM10 concentrations: A time series analysis of 2001-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Helena; Katra, Itzhak; Friger, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Over the last decades, changes in dust storms characteristics have been observed in different parts of the world. The changing frequency of dust storms in the southeastern Mediterranean has led to growing concern regarding atmospheric PM10 levels. A classic time series additive model was used in order to describe and evaluate the changes in PM10 concentrations during dust storm days in different cities in Israel, which is located at the margins of the global dust belt. The analysis revealed variations in the number of dust events and PM10 concentrations during 2001-2015. A significant increase in PM10 concentrations was identified since 2009 in the arid city of Beer Sheva, southern Israel. Average PM10 concentrations during dust days before 2009 were 406, 312, and 364 μg m(-3) (median 337, 269,302) for Beer Sheva, Rehovot (central Israel) and Modi'in (eastern Israel), respectively. After 2009 the average concentrations in these cities during dust storms were 536, 466, and 428 μg m(-3) (median 382, 335, 338), respectively. Regression analysis revealed associations between PM10 variations and seasonality, wind speed, as well as relative humidity. The trends and periodicity are stronger in the southern part of Israel, where higher PM10 concentrations are found. Since 2009 dust events became more extreme with much higher daily and hourly levels. The findings demonstrate that in the arid area variations of dust storms can be quantified easier through PM10 levels over a relatively short time scale of several years. PMID:26874873

  12. Neonicotinoid insecticides alter induced defenses and increase susceptibility to spider mites in distantly related crop plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Szczepaniec

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical suppression of arthropod herbivores is the most common approach to plant protection. Insecticides, however, can cause unintended, adverse consequences for non-target organisms. Previous studies focused on the effects of pesticides on target and non-target pests, predatory arthropods, and concomitant ecological disruptions. Little research, however, has focused on the direct effects of insecticides on plants. Here we demonstrate that applications of neonicotinoid insecticides, one of the most important insecticide classes worldwide, suppress expression of important plant defense genes, alter levels of phytohormones involved in plant defense, and decrease plant resistance to unsusceptible herbivores, spider mites Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae, in multiple, distantly related crop plants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, corn (Zea mays and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum plants, we show that transcription of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, coenzyme A ligase, trypsin protease inhibitor and chitinase are suppressed and concentrations of the phytohormone OPDA and salicylic acid were altered by neonicotinoid insecticides. Consequently, the population growth of spider mites increased from 30% to over 100% on neonicotinoid-treated plants in the greenhouse and by nearly 200% in the field experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings are important because applications of neonicotinoid insecticides have been associated with outbreaks of spider mites in several unrelated plant species. More importantly, this is the first study to document insecticide-mediated disruption of plant defenses and link it to increased population growth of a non-target herbivore. This study adds to growing evidence that bioactive agrochemicals can have unanticipated ecological effects and suggests that the direct effects of insecticides on plant defenses should be considered when the ecological costs of insecticides

  13. Increased Reward-Related Behaviors during Sleep and Wakefulness in Sleepwalking and Idiopathic Nightmares.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampros Perogamvros

    Full Text Available We previously suggested that abnormal sleep behaviors, i.e., as found in parasomnias, may often be the expression of increased activity of the reward system during sleep. Because nightmares and sleepwalking predominate during REM and NREM sleep respectively, we tested here whether exploratory excitability, a waking personality trait reflecting high activity within the mesolimbic dopaminergic (ML-DA system, may be associated with specific changes in REM and NREM sleep patterns in these two sleep disorders.Twenty-four unmedicated patients with parasomnia (12 with chronic sleepwalking and 12 with idiopathic nightmares and no psychiatric comorbidities were studied. Each patient spent one night of sleep monitored by polysomnography. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI was administered to all patients and healthy controls from the Geneva population (n = 293.Sleepwalkers were more anxious than patients with idiopathic nightmares (Spielberger Trait anxiety/STAI-T, but the patient groups did not differ on any personality dimension as estimated by the TCI. Compared to controls, parasomnia patients (sleepwalkers together with patients with idiopathic nightmares scored higher on the Novelty Seeking (NS TCI scale and in particular on the exploratory excitability/curiosity (NS1 subscale, and lower on the Self-directedness (SD TCI scale, suggesting a general increase in reward sensitivity and impulsivity. Furthermore, parasomnia patients tended to worry about social separation persistently, as indicated by greater anticipatory worry (HA1 and dependence on social attachment (RD3. Moreover, exploratory excitability (NS1 correlated positively with the severity of parasomnia (i.e., the frequency of self-reported occurrences of nightmares and sleepwalking, and with time spent in REM sleep in patients with nightmares.These results suggest that patients with parasomnia might share common waking personality traits associated to reward-related brain functions

  14. Analysis of human brucellosis monitoring results in Baotou city of Inner Mongolia in 2010%2010年内蒙古包头市人间布鲁杆菌病监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳军; 王宏; 解英波

    2012-01-01

    detected cases,and the detection rate was 12.10% (73/603).Conclusions Continue to increase the brucellosis prevention knowledge propaganda,carry out brucellosis surveillance of high-risk people,quarantine,and strengthen immunity is the only measure of effective control of brucellosis epidemic.

  15. Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

    OpenAIRE

    Ducrotoy, Marie J.; Ammary, Khaoula; Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Mick, Virginie; Prevost, Laura; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Susan C.; Benkirane, Abdelali

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world caused by several species of the genus Brucella. The disease, eradicated in many developed countries, is a re-emerging neglected zoonosis endemic in several zones especially in the Mediterranean region, impacting on human health and livestock production. A One Health approach could address brucellosis control in Morocco but scarcity of reliable epidemiological data, as well as underreporting, hinders the implementation of sustain...

  16. [Relative increase and metacritic aggravation in the diagnosis of anicteric cholestasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albot, G; Geraudias, P; Kind, M

    1975-02-14

    The authors report 3 cases and report the diagnostic usefulness of two signs of minor cholestasis described by one of them in 1966. A relative increase, in the absence of obvious virus hepatitis or cirrhosis, of the serum bilirubin, cholesterol, lipids and alkaline phosphatase, together with B.S.P. excretion. suggest minor cholestasis. The sign of "metacritical aggravation" when there is some suspicion of minor cholestasis, the supervision of the course of the disease, or a retrospective inquiry, permit, in the presence of minor symptoms, such as, pain, fever, jaundice, or pruritus, one to make the diagnosis of minor cholestasis. The latter is due either to the presence of small gall stones in the common bile duct, or to inflammation of the ampulla of Vater, or sphincter of Oddi, a Vaterian ampulloma, pancreatitis, or following damage to the common bile duct. In practice, liver biopsy confirms the diagnosis, and intravenous cholangiography, by the perfusion method, is usually able to demonstrate obstruction of the common bile duct. PMID:169583

  17. Prevalence of mastitis and brucellosis in cattle in Awassa and the peri-urban areas of two smaller towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, G; Ike, A C; Siegmund-Schultze, M; Mané-Bielfeldt, A; Valle Zárate, A

    2010-08-01

    The prevalence of mastitis and brucellosis in urban and peri-urban settings was studied in Awassa and two smaller nearby towns in southern Ethiopia, because milk-born diseases are causing a risk for human health, besides direct impacts on animal production. Mastitis was investigated by examining 80 cows (320 udder quarters) using California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC). The prevalence of brucellosis was assessed by sampling 177 cattle in Awassa and its peri-urban areas using serological methods. Logistic regression was used to analyse risk factors associated with mastitis. Prevalence of clinical mastitis on quarter level was 0.9%, and 1.9% of quarters were non-functional or blocked. Prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis at quarter level in urban and peri-urban areas was significantly different (P CMT (42.5%) was close to the percentage-positive detected by SCC (41.2%). Prevalence of brucellosis was 3.9% in the peri-urban area, while no brucellosis cases were detected in Awassa. More frequent use of artificial insemination in the urban than in peri-urban area might have contributed to the absence of brucellosis in the urban location. The extent of mastitis is, however, a threat to the dairy enterprise in and around Awassa. Pasteurization of milk and milk products is indicated in some parts of the area because of the danger of brucellosis. PMID:19309482

  18. Brucellosis Seroprevalance in İnönü University Medical Faculty Hospital: The Results of Rose Bengal, Wright, Coombs Aglutination Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Duman, Yücel; Tekerekoğlu, Mehmet Sait; Batı, Nihal Seçil; OTLU, Barış

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in our region. Serological markers (Wright, Coombs agglutination test and Rose-Bengal test) of brucellosis, were evaluated retrospectively according to laboratory data for 2942 sera from brucellosis suspected patients admitted to Inonu University Medical Faculty Hospital in the year 2012. Rose Bengal agglutination test was positive in 251(8.5%) sera. Rose-Bengal positive 118 (4%) sera was determined under the 1/160 titer in Wrigh...

  19. Mass vaccination as a complementary tool in the control of a severe outbreak of bovine brucellosis due to Brucella abortus in Extremadura, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Cristina; Sáez, José Luis; Alvarez, Julio; Cortés, María; Pereira, Gema; Reyes, Aurelia; Rubio, Félix; Martín, Javier; García, Nerea; Domínguez, Lucas; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, María; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, Javier

    2010-11-01

    We report the evolution of an outbreak of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in the region of Extremadura (Spain) involving more than 1000 herds and nearly 40,000 animals. S19 vaccination of young cattle combined with a test and slaughter strategy did not result in a rapid decrease in herd prevalence and animal incidence; these parameters showed a constant decreasing trend only when a combination of restriction of cattle movements, increased test frequency, S19 vaccination and mass RB51 vaccination (with yearly revaccinations) were applied to all susceptible populations. These measures were applied for 5 years; abortions following RB51 vaccination of pregnant cows were limited to the first inoculation and the involvement of the vaccine strain could only be demonstrated in 78 out of 897 abortions. Our results demonstrate the usefulness - and lack of significant side effects - of RB51 mass vaccination as a complementary tool to control bovine brucellosis outbreaks in areas where the disease cannot be contained using more conservative approaches. PMID:20833439

  20. Trace metals in Antarctica related to climate change and increasing human impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2000-01-01

    in most samples of atmospheric particulates, snow, ice, soils, and marine sediments from Antarctica can be taken as global background levels. Comparison between the results of trace element surveys in marine waters of the Southern Ocean and in other seas is practically impossible. The upwelling or subduction of water masses, the seasonality in ice cover and in phytoplankton biomass, the low fallout of atmospheric dust, and many other peculiar characteristics of the Southern Ocean make concentrations of trace metals in surface waters quite variable in space and time. The depletion of nutrients in surface waters, which is a regular feature of many marine environments, rarely occurs in the Southern Ocean. Waters in some regions are characterized by very low concentrations of Fe and Mn, whereas in others the content of Cd is relatively high at the beginning of summer and may decrease about one order of magnitude during the phytoplankton bloom. Although in most Antarctic coastal ecosystems the input of metals from geochemical and anthropogenic sources and from long-range transport is negligible, concentrations of Cd in the waters and biota may be higher than in waters and related species of organisms from polluted coastal areas. Like the Southern Ocean, Antarctic lakes have many peculiar characteristics. They are often perennially ice covered and without outlet, and their water, which is gained only from short-term melting of snow and glaciers in summer, is lost mainly by sublimation of surface ice. Several lakes are distinctly stratified: the water under the ice may be cool, rich in oxygen, and among the cleanest and clearest of natural waters, whereas water near the bottom becomes anoxic, tepid, and richer in major and trace elements. Considering the specificity of Antarctic environments, to evaluate the extent and consequences of global changes and increasing human activities in Antarctica itself, research on the biogeochemistry of trace metals and monitoring programs

  1. The history of brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories and its re-emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    There are few publications on brucellosis within the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The reason is possibly because the cattle population has been reportedly free of the disease for many years until a re-emergence occurred in the Fiji Islands (Viti Levu) in 2009. This paper reports on the outbreak of brucellosis in Fiji and its progression between 2009 and 2013 in the context of an overview of brucellosis in the Pacific Island community. Review of the literature found only 28 articles with the oldest record of brucellosis being in 1965 in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and from human cases in Tonga in 1980. The Fiji outbreak of Brucella abortus occurred in cattle in 2009 (Wainivesi basin) in the Tailevu province. Prior to the outbreak, Fiji declared freedom from B. abortus to OIE in 1996 after a successful eradication campaign. During the course of the outbreak investigation, serum samples were collected from between 9790 and 21,624 cattle per annum between 2009 and 2013 from 87 farms on the main island of Fiji (Viti Levu). Blood samples were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) in 2009 and the indirect ELISA test in subsequent years. At the time of the outbreak in Fiji (2009) the apparent prevalence in cattle was 1.50% and this has fluctuated since the outbreak. The True Prevalence (TP) for the main island in Fiji for the indirect ELISA tests was 2.40% in 2010, reached a peak of 3.49% in 2011 then reduced to 0.12% by 2013. The significant reduction in prevalence compared to 2010 is most likely due to the control programs being implemented in Fiji. The re-emergence of B. abortus in Fiji could be attributed to the lack of monitoring for the disease until 2009 combined with inadequate management of exposed animals, thus illustrating how important it is for authorities not to become complacent. Continued awareness and monitoring for brucellosis is essential if future outbreaks are to be avoided. PMID:26497272

  2. 布鲁氏菌病的研究进展%The Research Advancement of Brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛景东; 王景龙; 杨艳玲

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis, especially caused by Brucella melitensis, remains one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide with more than 500000 human cases reported annually. The bacterial pathogen is classified by the CDC as a category (B)pathogen that has potential for development as a bio-weapon. Brucella spp. is considered as the most common laboratory-acquired pathogens. The geographical distribution of brucellosis is constantly changing with new foci emerging or re-emerging.The disease occurs worldwide in both animals and humans, except in those countries where bovine brucellosis has been eradicated. The worldwide economic losses due to brucellosis are extensive not only in animal production but also in human health. Although a number of successful vaccines are being used for immunization of animals, no satisfactory vaccine against human brucellosis is available. When the incidence of brucellosis is controlled in the animal reservoirs, there is a corresponding and significant decline in the incidence in humans.%布病,尤其是由羊种布鲁氏菌引起的布病,目前是世界上最常见的一种人兽共患传染病,全世界每年报道的布病病例超过500万.布鲁氏菌已经被CDC列为B类病原体,成为潜在的生物武器.布鲁氏菌也是最常见的实验室源性病原体.布病的流行地域在不断变化,每年都有新发地和复发地的报道.除了那些牛布病已经根除的国家,布病仍然在许多国家的人和动物中存在.全世界由于布病给动物产品及公共卫生安全而带来的经济损失是巨大的.虽然许多有效的疫苗正在用于动物免疫,但是还没有理想的人用疫苗可以使用.动物布病的控制将显著降低人布病的发生.

  3. Direct evidence for wake-related increases and sleep-related decreases in synaptic strength in rodent cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhong-Wu; Faraguna, Ugo; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio; Gao, Xiao-Bing

    2010-01-01

    Despite evidence that waking is associated with net synaptic potentiation and sleep with depression, direct proof for changes in synaptic currents is lacking in large brain areas such as the cerebral cortex. By recording miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) from frontal cortex slices of mice and rats that had been awake or asleep, we found that the frequency and amplitude of mEPSCs increased after wake and decreased after sleep. Recovery sleep after sleep deprivation also decre...

  4. Brucellosis in Camels (Camelus dromedorius in the south province of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawari A. Dawood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the prevalence of camel brucellosis has been carried out in the south province of Jordan during the years 2006 and 2007. Six hundred forty camel sera from 44 herds were randomly collected and analyzed. Rose Bengal plate test was used to screen all serum samples. The positive samples were subjected to confirmation by complement fixation test. The true prevalence of Brucella seropositive was 15.8%. Brucella melitensis biotype 3 was isolated from 2 aborted fetuses and from 2 milk samples. 64.8% of the positive camels were adult > than 4 years old and the remaining 35.2% were young ranging from 6 months to 4 years old. Recommendations for brucellosis control were given.

  5. A Rare Case: Isolated Testicular and Epidural Abscess Associated with Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Kalayci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Coincidence of isolated testicular abscess and epidural-paravertebral abscess is a rare complication of brucellosis. A 24-year-old male patient was admitted to our clinic with 2 months ongoing back pain, night sweats and left scrotal pain. Septal cystic lesion with dense content in the left testis was considered to isolated testicular abscess in scrotal Doppler examination. Multiple spinal epidural and right paraspinal abscess were detected in the spinal magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was treated with drainage of abscess and oral antibiotics. The rare combination of spinal epidural and testicular abscess should be kept in the mind if a patient presented with low back pain and scrotal pain in regions where brucellosis was endemic.

  6. Bayesian estimation of the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and livestock in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, S.; Bonfoh, B.; Schelling, E.; Kasymbekov, J.; Doherr, M.G.; Toktobaev, N.; Schueth, T.; Zinsstag, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Kyrgyzstan reported 77.5 new cases of human brucellosis per 100,000 inhabitants in 2007, which is one of the highest incidences in the world. However, because this number is based on official records, it is very likely that the incidence is underreported. The diagnostic tests most commonly used in Kyrgyzstan are the Rose Bengal test in ruminants and the Huddleson test in humans. The sensitivity and specificity of these tests have never been evaluated under field conditions in Kyrgyzstan, where the strains circulating in livestock and humans are unknown. Therefore, a representative national cross-sectional serological study was undertaken in humans, cattle, sheep and goats to assess the true seroprevalence and to compare different serological tests. In the year of study (2006), few animals were vaccinated against brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan. A total of 5,229 livestock sera and 1,777 human sera from three administrative regions were collected during spring 2006 and submitted to a range of serological tests. The true seroprevalence of brucellosis, estimated using Bayesian methodology, was 7% (95% credibility interval 4%–9%) in humans, 3% (1%–5%) in cattle, 12% (7%–23%) in sheep and 15% (7%–30%) in goats. The Rose Bengal test was confirmed as a useful screening test in livestock and humans, although its sensitivity was lower than that of other tests. The estimates of specificity of all tests were significantly higher than those for sensitivity. The high seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans, cattle and small ruminants in Kyrgyzstan was confirmed. Bayesian statistical approaches were demonstrated to be useful for simultaneously deriving test characteristics and true prevalence estimates in the absence of a gold standard. PMID:24761732

  7. Comparison of Wright Agglutination Test and ELISA in Diagnosis of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansarinia, H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: In our country, the Wright test routinely is used for diagnosing brucellosis. Because of its low sensitivity, the range of false-negative results is high. Therefore, we aimed at comparing Wright and ELISA in the people suspected brucellosis. Material and Methods: The results of Wright, 2ME, Coombs Wright tests were compared with Anti-Brucella IgG, Anti-Brucella IgM. Of 1183 subjects referred for Wright test, 148 of them were investigated for Coombs Wright and 228 for 2ME Wright. In addition to Wright test for 32 cases, Brucella IgG and IgM classes were also experimented. Results: Wright test was negative in 95.4% of cases. Of these negative results, 2.3% were positive for Coombs Wright. Eight-point-five percent of the cases were positive for Coombs Wright test and 4.7% for 2ME Wright test. Sixteen cases were negative for both Wright and ELISA. In 8 cases of Wright-negative, ELISA IgM class was positive and IgG class was negative, and in 4 cases of Wright-negative, ELISA IgM was negative and IgG was positive. About 4 cases of Wright-positive, IgM and IgG antibody classes were positive. Conclusion: Due to the mismatch between the results of Wright agglutination test and ELISA method and with regard to availability, high sensitivity and determining the type of antibody classes in ELISA, it is focused on ELISA method for brucellosis diagnosis. Keywords: Brucellosis; Wright; ELISA

  8. A review of the basis of the immunological diagnosis of ruminant brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Conde-Álvarez, Raquel; Blasco, José María; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria of the genus Brucella cause brucellosis, the most common bacterial zoonosis worldwide. The diagnosis of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis ruminant brucellosis is based on bacteriological and immunological tests, the latter being routinely used in control and eradication and surveillance programs. Infections by smooth and rough Brucella spp., the use of smooth and rough vaccines, and the false-positive serological reactions caused by Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 and other cross-reacting bacteria represent the immunological contexts in which those tests are used. This complex context explains the large number of brucellosis tests that have been developed, and that vary in antigen type, antigen presentation, antibody and conditions for the reaction, the response detected and the sample required. This wealth of information and an imperfect understanding of Brucella antigens and of the peculiarities of the immunoresponse to Brucella has created confusion and led to several misconceptions on the usefulness and limitations of the brucellosis diagnostic tests. In this review, Brucella antigens are examined focusing on cellular topology, supramolecular properties, epitopic structure and lipopolysaccharide and protein cross-reactivity in the various contexts of the immune response in ruminants. Then, the significance of these features in diagnostic tests that use whole bacteria is discussed with respect to the activities of ruminant immunoglobulins, and the effect of pH on unspecific agglutinations, non-agglutinating and blocking antibodies, pseudo-prozones and complement activation. Similarly, the bacterial surface lipopolysaccharides and cognate polysaccharides are discussed with regards to topological effects, epitope exposure, ionic strength and antibody avidity in immunoprecipitation, immunosorbent and fluorescence polarization assays. Finally, the search for immunodominant protein antigens and their use in immunological tests is reviewed. Critical review

  9. Transplacentally transmitted congenital brucellosis due to brucella abortus biotype 1 in sprague-dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the investigation on the transplacentally transmitted congenital brucellosis due to Brucella abortus biotype 1 in Sprague- Dawley rats, neither any stillbirth, abortion or premature birth nor any abnormality of fetus was observed in the infected group or in the control group. B. abortus biotype was isolated from the fetus of infected rats only. Only one band of 498 base pair DNA was obtained in polymerase chain reaction products from DNA of the fetuses of infected SD rats. (author)

  10. Examination of sensitivity and specificity of some serological tests in diagnostics of bovine brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Matović Kazimir; Ašanin Ružica; Radojičić Sonja; Lako B.; Žarković A.

    2008-01-01

    The most reliable diagnosis of an infectuous disease is confirmed by isolation of its pathogen. When it comes to brucellosis, it is important to know that brucella isolation is rarely successful; it is not only very complicated but is as well hazardous for laboratory workers. Due to the above mentioned reasons, it is reasonable to use serological tests for routine diagnosis of this zoonose. This paper deals with examination of bovine sera samples with the aim to detect the titer of specific a...

  11. Disease and Behavioral Dynamics for Brucellosis Control in Elk and Cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Fang; Horan, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates private responses and ecological impacts of policies proposed to confront the problem of brucellosis being spread from elk to cattle in Wyoming. The policies consist of combinations of changes in elk feeding and population levels. Farmers’ responses to these dynamics are modeled along with the associated impacts to livestock population dynamics. Our findings suggest that feedbacks between jointly determined disease dynamics and decentralized economic behavior matter, a...

  12. The Value of Serologic Tests for Diagnosis and Follow up of Patients having Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia E. Lucero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Though diagnosis of human brucellosis is accurate when the causal agent is isolated, this procedure is not always successful and the most of patients are diagnosed on the basis of rising titres of antibodies in serum. The classical tests used for detection of antibodies to S-Brucella sp., include Rose Bengal (RBT, buffered plate antigen (BPAT, serum agglutination (SAT, 2-mercapto-ethanol (2MET and complement fixation (CFT. The modern methods are based on primary binding assays of which a competitive enzyme immunoassay (CELISA and fluorescence polarization (FPA are the best developed. For antibodies to R-Brucella sp. a rapid slide agglutination (RSAT as screening and an indirect ELISA (IELISA as confirmatory tests have been reported. We have selected 23 cases of human brucellosis that were followed up over a long period, to assess which test was most effective in detecting different stages of the disease. The patients were divided into five groups: “chronic” cases; relapses; infection acquired in a laboratory; patients presumptively infected with B. canis and cases with a long history of brucellosis. The results suggest that BPAT is a practical test that reduces non specific reactions and is more sensitive than RBT. SAT detects the acute form but cross reacts with other antibodies and the diagnostic end-point titre has not been satisfactorily established; 2MET should be discontinued because of its toxicity and the scant information it can add; CFT fails to detect the acute form and is technically complicated. CELISA correlate well with the clinical course and is useful to detect acute as well as “chronic” cases and FPA do not work in serum with high lipid content. RSAT and IELISA are useful tests for brucellosis caused by B. canis. A unique protocol for serologic diagnosis that uses robust tests would be of value to the surveillance and control the disease.

  13. Outbreak investigation and control case report of brucellosis: Experience from livestock research centre, Mpwapwa, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Shirima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis screening was conducted between 2005 and 2010 at the National Livestock Research Institute headquarters, Mpwapwa, Tanzania, following an abortion storm in cattle. The initial screening targeted breeding herds; 483 cattle were screened using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT followed by the Competitive Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA as a confirmatory test. The seropositivity on c-ELISA was 28.95% in 2005; it subsequently declined to 6.72%, 1.17%, 0.16% and 0.00% in 2006, 2007, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Brucella seropositivity was not detected in goats. Seropositivity declined following institution of stringent control measures that included: gradual culling of seropositive animals through slaughter; isolation and confinement of pregnant cows close to calving; proper disposal of placentas and aborted foetuses; the use of the S19 vaccine; and restricted introduction of new animals. It was thought that the source of this outbreak was likely to have been from the introduction of infected animals from another farm. Furthermore, humans were found with brucellosis antibodies. Out of 120 people screened, 12 (10% were confirmed seropositive to brucella antigen exposure by c-ELISA analysis. The majority of the seropositive individuals (80% were milkers and animal handlers from the farm. Nine individuals had clinical signs suggestive of brucellosis. All cases received medical attention from the district hospital. This achievement in livestock and human health showed that it is possible to control brucellosis in dairy farms, compared to pastoral and agro-pastoral farms, thus providing evidence to adopt these strategies in dairy farms thought to be at risk.

  14. Diagnostic Efficacy of Modified Coagglutination Test in the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohite S.T,; Annapurna Sajjan; Mangalgi, Smita S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Laboratory help is must for thediagnosis of human brucellosis due to proteanclinical manifestations. As culture is hazardous,time consuming and less sensitive, serologicaltests are preferred for the diagnosis. Aggluti-nation tests like Rose Bengal PlateTest (RBPT), Serum Agglutination tests (SAT),2-Mercaptoethanol test (2-ME) that are com-monly employed for the diagnosis either lacksensitivity or specificity. Coombs test andBrucellacapt though are sensitive and specific,workout co...

  15. Brucellosis in a refugee who migrated from Syria to Germany and lessons learnt, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, Roland; Jacob, Daniela; Klee, Silke; Schlembach, Dietmar; Jackowski-Dohrmann, Sabine; Loenning-Baucke, Vera; Eberspächer, Bettina; Swidsinski, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    A teenage woman migrating from Syria arrived in May 2015 in Germany. She gave birth to a healthy child in early 2016, but became febrile shortly after delivery. Blood cultures revealed Brucella melitensis. In retrospect, she reported contact with sheep in Syria and recurrent pain in the hip joints over about five months before diagnosis of brucellosis. We discuss consequences for adequate treatment of mother and child as well as for clinical and laboratory management. PMID:27525454

  16. Possible implications of doxycycline-rifampin interaction for treatment of brucellosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Colmenero, J D; Fernández-Gallardo, L C; Agúndez, J. A.; Sedeño, J; Benítez, J; Valverde, E

    1994-01-01

    We studied the possible interaction between rifampin and doxycycline in 20 patients with brucellosis treated randomly with either doxycycline and streptomycin or doxycycline and rifampin. The doxycycline levels in the plasma of patients in the group treated with rifampin were significantly lower than those in the plasma of patients treated with doxycycline and streptomycin. Furthermore, clearance in patients treated with rifampin was significantly higher than that in patients treated with dox...

  17. Isolation & characterization of Brucella melitensis isolated from patients suspected for human brucellosis in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Barua

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The present study showed an overall isolation rate of 17.64 per cent for B. melitensis. There is a need to establish facilities for isolation and characterization of Brucella species for effective clinical management of the disease among patients as well as surveillance and control of infection in domestic animals. Further studies are needed from different geographical areas of the country with different level of endemicity to plan and execute control strategies against human brucellosis.

  18. Brucellosis as an Emerging Threat in Developing Economies: Lessons from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ducrotoy, M. J.; Bertu, W.J.; Ocholi, R.A. (Reuben A.); Gusi, A.M. (Amahyel M.); Bryssinckx, W.; Welburn, S. (Sue); Moriyon, I

    2014-01-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, has a large proportion of the world's poor livestock keepers, and is a hotspot for neglected zoonoses. A review of the 127 accessible publications on brucellosis in Nigeria reveals only scant and fragmented evidence on its spatial and temporal distribution in different epidemiological contexts. The few bacteriological studies conducted demonstrate the existence of Brucella abortus in cattle and sheep, but evidence for B. melitensis in small rumi...

  19. Brucellosis- Advanced Diagnostic Methods and Update on Epidemiology/ Epizootology in the Balkan Region

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso

    2005-01-01

    Brucellosis is a typical zoonotic disease caused by organisms of genus brucella, a potential bio-warfare agent. Humans become infected by ingestion of animal food products, direct contact with infected animals or inhalation of infectious aerosols. Different diagnostic tests, ranging from culture, serologic test (Slide Agglutination Test, Tube Agglutination Test, Antihuman Globulin Test, 2-Mercaptoethanol Test, Fluorescent Polarization Test, ELISA) and numerous PCR-based assays are availab...

  20. Doxycycline plus streptomycin versus ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin in spinal brucellosis [ISRCTN31053647

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumerkan Bulent

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal treatment regimen and duration of the therapy is still controversial in spinal brucellosis. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, adverse drug reactions, complications and cost of ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin versus doxycycline plus streptomycin in the treatment of spinal brucellosis. Methods The patients diagnosed as spinal brucellosis between January 2002 to December 2004 were enrolled into the study. Patients were enrolled into the two antimicrobial therapy groups (doxycycline plus streptomycin vs. ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin consecutively. For the cost analysis of the two regimens, only the cost of antibiotic therapy was analysed for each patient. Results During the study period, 31 patients with spinal brucellosis were enrolled into the two antimicrobial therapy groups. Fifteen patients were included in doxycycline plus streptomycin group and 16 patients were included in ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin group. Forty-two levels of spinal column were involved in 31 patients. The most common affected site was lumbar spine (n = 32, 76% and involvement level was not different in two groups. Despite the disadvantages (older age, more prevalent operation and abscess formation before the therapy of the patients in the ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin group, the duration of the therapy (median 12 weeks in both groups and clinical response were not different from the doxycycline plus streptomycin. The cost of ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin therapy was 1.2 fold higher than the cost of doxycycline plus streptomycin therapy. Conclusion Classical regimen (doxycycline plus streptomycin, with the appropriate duration (at least 12 weeks, is still the first line antibiotics and alternative therapies should be considered when adverse drug reactions were observed.

  1. Rough vaccines in animal brucellosis: Structural and genetic basis and present status

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyon, I. (Ignacio); Grillo, M.J. (María Jesús); Monreal, D.; Gonzalez-fernandez, D.; Marin, C.M.; Lopez-Goñi, I. (Ignacio); Mainar, R. (Raúl); Moreno, E.; Blasco, J.M. (José)

    2004-01-01

    International audience - Brucellosis control and eradication requires serological tests and vaccines. Effective classical vaccines (S19 in cattle and Rev 1 in small ruminants), however, induce antibodies to the O-polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide which may be difficult to distinguish from those resulting from infection and may thus complicate diagnosis. Rough attenuated mutants lack the O-polysaccharide and would solve this problem if eliciting protective immunity; the empirically o...

  2. Disease and Behavioral Dynamics for Brucellosis in Elk and Cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Fang; Horan, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate private responses to policies that have been proposed to confront a human-wildlife conflict that likely emerged as a result of a management regime designed to address an earlier human-wildlife conflict: specifically, brucellosis in elk that has spread to cattle in Wyoming. We examine population and disease dynamics under several different management options for the Jackson elk herd, where each option involves a combination of changes in elk feeding and population levels. Farmer...

  3. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in Livestock in Khuzestan Province, Southwest of Iran, 2008-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Mombeni, Ehsan Gharib; MOMBEINI, Manoochehr Gharib; Khalaj, Mehdi; Asadi, Reza; REZAEI, Abdul Amir; AMIRI, Karim; BROMAND, Samed; KENARKOHI, Mostafa; MOMBENI, Afshin Gharib

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTBrucellosis is a zoonotic problem worldwide, especially in developing countries and specifically in Iran, where it is endemic. This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among livestock in the 18 districts of Khuzestan Province in Southwest Iran. Serum samples of 87798 cattle and 119020 sheep were tested using the Rose Bengal Plate Test, and positive results were confirmed with serum agglutination tests (SAT) and 2-mercaptoethanol SAT (2ME-SAT). The seroprevalen...

  4. Using public health surveillance data to monitor the effectiveness of brucellosis control measures in animals.

    OpenAIRE

    KUJTIM MERSINAJ; LULIETA ALLA; XHELIL KOLECI; SILVA BINO

    2014-01-01

    The current brucellosis control program in small ruminants consists in two major components the first is an intervention strategy through modification of host resistance by vaccinating the entire small ruminant’s population using live attenuated Rev-1 strain of B. melitensis. The second is a post vaccination monitoring and surveillance system (MOSS) to monitor the efficacy of the mass vaccination. The MOSS is based on sampling vaccinated animals between 20 to 40 days post-vaccination and tes...

  5. 布鲁菌病的研究进展%The Current Research on Brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓贺; 韩文瑜

    2011-01-01

    布鲁菌病(Brucellosis)是由布鲁菌(Brucella)引起的主要侵害生殖系统的一种全世界广泛分布的人畜共患慢性细菌传染病.患病动物是主要传染源,人与人之间不传播.本研究综述了布鲁菌病的研究现状.

  6. Comparison of serological and milk tests for bovine brucellosis using a Monte Carlo simulation model

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, V.; D. Nannini; La Porta, L.; Petrini, A; Conte, A; Giovannini, A

    2004-01-01

    European Union (EU) Directive 97/12/EC allows the trade of cattle within the EU of animals originating from an 'officially brucellosis-free herd'. To qualify for this status, a number of different programmes must be implemented. Each EU Member Country is free to decide which procedure to use to qualify herds. The authors conducted a study to compare the merits and costs of testing programmes given in the Directive and of some alternative testing strategies. The effectiveness of testing progra...

  7. 牛羊布鲁菌病(brucellosis)的诊断方法%Diagnostic Method of Brucellosis in Cattle and Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温德宝; 特尼格尔; 赵慧; 格日勒图

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis was one of the important zoonosis caused by different kinds of Brucella spp. The most common clinical manifestations of the infected animals were abortion,placentitis,epididymitis and orchitis. In human being,brucellosis was a debilitating and chronic disease,which could injure a variety of organs. Although etiology identification was a conventional and effective diagnosis method,but it was strict with personal safety and requirements of laboratory. The process of isolating pathogen from infected animal was time-consuming and hazardous,so it was difficult to be popularized in the clinical diagnosis of brucellosis. The serological diagnosis method showed good specificity and sensibility,but it was hard to identify various wild strains and the infection of vaccine strain. In view of the above factors,it was necessary to in-depth develop new diagnosis method of brucellosis with better specificity, sensibility and stability in the veterinary clinical practice. The diagnosis methods of brucellosis were reviewed from the bacteriological,serological and molecular biology aspects, so as to provide references for the related studies.%布鲁菌病是一类由各型布鲁菌感染而引起的重要的人畜共患病之一。被感染的动物最常见的临床表现为流产、胎盘炎、附睾炎、睾丸炎等。人感染布鲁菌病后,多呈慢性经过,可损害人体多种器官。虽然病原学鉴定是一种常规有效的诊断布鲁菌病的方法之一,但由于其对操作人员安全以及实验室级别的要求非常严格,加之从患病动物体内分离病原体的过程既耗时又具有危险性,在布鲁菌病临床诊断实践中推广应用困难。布鲁菌病血清学诊断方法显示出较高的特异性和敏感性,但难以鉴别布鲁菌各型野毒株以及疫苗株感染。鉴于上述问题,深入开发和研制更高特异性、敏感性和稳定性的新型布鲁菌病诊断方法在兽医临床实践中势在必

  8. Increased Event-Related Potentials and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-Activity Associated with Intentional Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Karch, Susanne; Loy, Fabian; Krause, Daniela; Schwarz, Sandra; Kiesewetter, Jan; Segmiller, Felix; Chrobok, Agnieszka I.; Keeser, Daniel; Pogarell, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Internally guided actions are defined as being purposeful, self-generated and offering choices between alternatives. Intentional actions are essential to reach individual goals. In previous empirical studies, internally guided actions were predominantly related to functional responses in frontal and parietal areas. The aim of the present study was to distinguish event-related potentials and oscillatory responses of intentional actions and externally guided actions. In addition, we ...

  9. Age-related neural correlates of cognitive task performance under increased postural load.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Impe, A. Van; Bruijn, S.M.; Coxon, J.P.; Wenderoth, N.; Sunaert, S.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Swinnen, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that postural control requires increased cognitive control and visuospatial processing with aging. Consequently, performance can decline when concurrently performing a postural and a demanding cognitive task. We aimed to identify the neural substrate underlying this effect

  10. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Emily Jane; LeRoith, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemi...

  11. Seroprevalence and comparison of different serological tests for brucellosis detection in small ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashrath B. Sadhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the seroprevalence and efficacy of the different serological tests used for detection of antibody against Brucella species in small ruminants of Banaskantha district of North-Gujarat. Materials and Methods: Total 1000 serum samples comprising of 485 from sheep and 515 from goat tested for detection of antibodies against the Brucella species by three different serological tests viz., Rose bengal plate test (RBPT, Standard tube agglutination test (STAT, and Indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA. Results: The seroprevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants was 11.30%, 11.10%, and 8.80% by RBPT, STAT, and I-ELISA, respectively. The seroprevalence of brucellosis was found to be higher in sheep than goats. The sensitivity of RBPT was found slight more than STAT, but the specificity of both tests was same. In this study, the overall agreement of RBPT and STAT with I-ELISA was found 92.50% and 92.30% in small ruminants, respectively. Conclusion: I-ELISA was a better serological test as compared to RBPT and STAT in the sense of sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity and it could be advocated for screening of brucellosis in sheep and goats.

  12. Seroprevalence of sheep and goat brucellosis in the northeast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey to estimate the seroprevalence of ovine and caprine brucellosis was conducted in the region of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Northeast of Portugal. In total, 278,097 small ruminants and 5,466 flocks from 13 Livestock Farmers Organizations (OPP's were analysed. Four hundred and eighty seven (8.9% flocks had one or more serologically positive animals with values ranging between 8.2% and 9.7%. The individual seroprevalence was 0.44% (CI 95% 0.40-0.48%. There were significant differences in seroprevalence rates among herd sizes, species, constitution of herd, production's type and OPP. Based on the results of this survey, a small percentage of animals and a high percentage of flocks in the Northeast of Portugal were serologically positive. Considering the paucity of epidemiological reports on brucellosis in the Northeast of Portugal the information on seroprevalence provided in this study is necessary to define control measures for brucellosis in the area.

  13. Prevalence of brucellosis in the human, livestock and wildlife interface areas of Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirima, Gabriel M; Kunda, John S

    2016-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2006, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in domestic ruminants in agropastoral communities of Serengeti district, Tanzania to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in domestic-wildlife interface villages. Both the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Competitive Enzyme Linked-immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA) were used to analyse 82 human and 413 livestock sera from four randomly selected villages located along game reserve areas of Serengeti National Park. Although both cattle (288) and small ruminants (125) were screened, seropositivity was detected only in cattle. The overall seroprevalence based on c-ELISA as a confirmatory test was 5.6%. In cattle both age and sex were not statistically associated with brucellosis seropositivity (P = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.8 and 0.33; 95% CI = 0.6, 3.7, respectively). Overall herd level seropositivity was 46.7% (n = 7), ranging from 25% to 66.7% (n = 4-10). Each village had at least one brucellosis seropositive herd. None of the 82 humans tested with both RBPT and c-ELISA were seropositive. Detecting Brucella infection in cattle in such areas warrants further investigation to establish the circulating strains for eventual appropriate control interventions in domestic animals. PMID:27247075

  14. Seroprevalence and comparison of different serological tests for brucellosis detection in small ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Dashrath B.; Panchasara, H. H.; Chauhan, H. C.; Sutariya, D. R.; Parmar, V. L.; Prajapati, H. B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to study the seroprevalence and efficacy of the different serological tests used for detection of antibody against Brucella species in small ruminants of Banaskantha district of North-Gujarat. Materials and Methods: Total 1000 serum samples comprising of 485 from sheep and 515 from goat tested for detection of antibodies against the Brucella species by three different serological tests viz., Rose bengal plate test (RBPT), Standard tube agglutination test (STAT), and Indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). Results: The seroprevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants was 11.30%, 11.10%, and 8.80% by RBPT, STAT, and I-ELISA, respectively. The seroprevalence of brucellosis was found to be higher in sheep than goats. The sensitivity of RBPT was found slight more than STAT, but the specificity of both tests was same. In this study, the overall agreement of RBPT and STAT with I-ELISA was found 92.50% and 92.30% in small ruminants, respectively. Conclusion: I-ELISA was a better serological test as compared to RBPT and STAT in the sense of sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity and it could be advocated for screening of brucellosis in sheep and goats. PMID:27047135

  15. Osteoarticular tissue infection and development of skeletal pathology in murine brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo M. Magnani

    2013-05-01

    Brucellosis, a frequent bacterial zoonosis, can produce debilitating chronic disease with involvement of multiple organs in human patients. Whereas acute brucellosis is well studied using the murine animal model, long-term complications of host-pathogen interaction remain largely elusive. Human brucellosis frequently results in persistent, chronic osteoarticular system involvement, with complications such as arthritis, spondylitis and sacroiliitis. Here, we focused on identifying infectious sites in the mouse that parallel Brucella melitensis foci observed in patients. In vivo imaging showed rapid bacterial dispersal to multiple sites of the murine axial skeleton. In agreement with these findings, immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of bacteria in bones and limbs, and in the lower spine vertebrae of the axial skeleton where they were preferentially located in the bone marrow. Surprisingly, some animals developed arthritis in paws and spine after infection, but without obvious bacteria in these sites. The identification of Brucella in the bones of mice corroborates the findings in humans that these osteoarticular sites are important niches for the persistence of Brucella in the host, but the mechanisms that mediate pathological manifestations in these sites remain unclear. Future studies addressing the immune responses within osteoarticular tissue foci could elucidate important tissue injury mediators and Brucella survival strategies.

  16. A serological diagnostic survey for Brucella canis infection in Turkish patients with Brucellosis-like symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayan, Murat; Erdenlig, Sevil; Stack, Judy; Kilic, Selcuk; Guducuoglu, Huseyin; Aksoy, Yavuz; Baklan, Ayhan; Etiler, Nilay

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of Brucella canis infection in humans is unknown in Turkey. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of B. canis infection in human sera obtained from six regions in Turkey and comparatively evaluated the results obtained by agglutination-based techniques using standardized antigens made from B. canis. The patients (n = 1,746) presented with clinical symptoms that were similar to those of brucellosis. All patients who tested negative in the Rose Bengal test for the smooth Brucella strains (abortus, melitensis, and suis) were screened for evidence of B. canis infection using the rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT), the microagglutination test (MAT), and the 2-mercaptoethanol RSAT test (2ME-RSAT). Of the samples tested, 157 (8.9%), 68 (3.8%), and 66 (3.7%) were positive for B. canis, as determined by RSAT, MAT, and 2ME-RSAT, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of RSAT were 100%, 94.6%, 42%, and 100%, respectively, and of MAT were 100%, 99.9%, 97%, and 100%, respectively. We recommend the routine use of MAT and 2ME-RSAT to check the sera of all patients with symptoms of brucellosis who are negative for brucellosis using a smooth Brucella antigen. PMID:22116333

  17. Brucellosis outbreak in a rural endemic region of Mexico - a comprehensive investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Garcia, Maria Rosario Morales-Garcia; Lopez-Mendez, Jaime; Pless, Reynaldo; Garcia-Morales, Emilio; Kosanke, Hannah; Hernandez-Castro, Rigoberto; Bedi, Jasbir; Lopez-Merino, Ahide; Velazquez-Guadarram, Norma; Jimenez-Rojas, Leticia; Rontreras-Rodriguez, Araceli

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease. Generally, humans can be infected by either the consumption of raw milk and fresh cheeses made from unpasteurised milk or by contact with infected animals, mainly in endemic regions. In this study, we investigated a brucellosis outbreak in State of Guanajuato, an endemic region of Mexico. Microbiological culture of human blood, raw milk from cows and goats, and fresh cheeses was performed to isolate Brucella. Identification of the bacteria was done by bacteriological procedures and by multiplex Bruce-ladder polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Brucella melitensis was isolated from patients, infected goats, and fresh goat cheeses; while Brucella abortus was isolated from cows. All patients had eaten fresh cheese, but no occupational exposure to animals was reported. The results of molecular typing did not show any Brucella vaccine strains. The isolation, identification, and molecular characterisation of Brucella spp. in both human brucellosis cases and infected animals are very important to identify the source of infection and to take control measures in endemic regions. PMID:26455370

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Associated with Brucellosis in Livestock Owners in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musallam, Imadidden I; Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud N; Guitian, Javier

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated livestock owners' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding brucellosis in Jordan. A questionnaire was administered and biological samples were examined to verify the serological status of animals. Seroprevalence estimates indicated that 18.1% (95% CI: 11-25.3) of cattle herds and 34.3% (95% CI: 28.4-40.4) of small ruminant flocks were seropositive. The results showed that 100% of the interviewed livestock keepers were aware of brucellosis: 87% indicated a high risk of infection if unpasteurized milk is consumed and 75% indicated a high risk if unpasteurized dairy products are consumed. Awareness of the risk of infection through direct contact with fetal membranes or via physical contact with infected livestock is considerably lower, 19% and 13%, respectively. These knowledge gaps manifest in a high frequency of high-risk practices such as assisting in animal parturition (62%), disposing aborted fetuses without protective gloves (71.2%) or masks (65%), and not boiling milk before preparation of dairy products (60%). When brucellosis is suspected, basic hygiene practices are often disregarded and suspect animals are freely traded. Public health education should be enhanced as the disease is likely to remain endemic in the ruminant reservoir as long as a suitable compensation program is not established and trust on available vaccines is regained. PMID:26438029

  19. A serological survey for brucellosis in reindeer in Finnmark county, northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetil Åsbakk

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available During September-December, 1990 to 1994, serum samples from a total of 5792 semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandm tarandm from Finnmark county, northern Norway, were screened for brucellosis on an indirect ELISA. There were no serologically positive animals. Twenty six of the animals had levels of antibodies detectable on the ELISA and were classed as suspicious, but the ELISA optical density readings were low compared to the readings for reindeer that were both culture positive and seropositive for Brucella suis biovar 4. When assayed on the standard tube agglutination test (STAT, all the 26 animals were seronegative. When absorbed with cells of Yersinia enterocolitica 0-9, the antibody detectable on the ELISA could be removed to a great extent from most of the sera, indicating previous or ongoing exposure to bacteria serologically cross-reacting with Brucella in these animals. We concluded that brucellosis was not present among reindeer in Finnmark during this study. This is supported by the absence of any reports of brucellosis among reindeer in Norway.

  20. Prevalence of brucellosis in the human, livestock and wildlife interface areas of Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Shirima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2006, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in domestic ruminants in agropastoral communities of Serengeti district, Tanzania to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in domestic–wildlife interface villages. Both the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and Competitive Enzyme Linked-immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA were used to analyse 82 human and 413 livestock sera from four randomly selected villages located along game reserve areas of Serengeti National Park. Although both cattle (288 and small ruminants (125 were screened, seropositivity was detected only in cattle. The overall seroprevalence based on c-ELISA as a confirmatory test was 5.6%. In cattle both age and sex were not statistically associated with brucellosis seropositivity (P = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.8 and 0.33; 95% CI = 0.6, 3.7, respectively. Overall herd level seropositivity was 46.7% (n = 7, ranging from 25% to 66.7% (n = 4–10. Each village had at least one brucellosis seropositive herd. None of the 82 humans tested with both RBPT and c-ELISA were seropositive. Detecting Brucella infection in cattle in such areas warrants further investigation to establish the circulating strains for eventual appropriate control interventions in domestic animals.

  1. Evaluation of an indirect elisa for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Patagonia, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control and eradication of bovine brucellosis is usually based on the serological detection of antibodies. In Argentina, the Rose Bengal test (RB) and the Buffered Plate antigen test (BPA) are the two screening test officially recognized, while the 2-mercaptoethanol test (2ME) and the Tube Agglutination test (SAT) are the confirmatory assays currently in use. In order to improve the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Patagonia, Argentina, an indirect ELISA kit produced by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division was evaluated. Sera from negative non-vaccinated, negative but vaccinated and positive animals were tested by all the above techniques. The specificity of the I-ELISA (99.6% and 99.7%) was similar to that of the BPA, RB, 2ME and Complement Fixation test (CF) when used to test sera from non-vaccinated, negative and vaccinated, negative animals, respectively. The sensitivity of the I-ELISA (98%) was higher than the BPA test (96%) and the CF test (95,2%). The I-ELISA kit evaluated in this study was thought to be a valuable tool for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Patagonia region where little epidemiological information is available about this disease and where large numbers of sera should be tested to obtain such information. (author)

  2. Sensitive Procedure for Rapid Detection of Human Brucellosis, Based on PCR Method in Contaminated Serum Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslam Ghezelsofla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and objective: Brucellosis is a zoonosis transmittable to humans poses a significant public health problem in many developing countries and requires rapid and accurate diagnostic methods. Here, our aim was to develop a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay in artificially contaminated serum samples as a model for rapid and accurate laboratory confirmation of human brucellosis. Material and methods: In this study, initially the standard Brucella abortus strain (2308 were cultured on Brucella agar medium and then colonies were inactivated by formalin 10 %. Genomic DNA was extracted from inactivated bacterial colonies. Serial dilutions of bacterial-DNA were prepared in fetal bovine serum (FBS and water and subsequently DNA extraction were repeated on these artificially contaminated samples. The two pairs of primers amplified two different fragments included in: a gene encoding an outer membrane protein (omp-2 (primers JPF/JPR and a sequence 16S rRNA of B. abortus (primers F4/R2. Results: The two primers assayed showed a difference in sensitivity for detecting Brucella DNA, ranging between 5 pg and 50 pg for artificially contaminated serum samples and 50Fg and 5 pg for contaminated control samples. Therefore, the sensitivity of PCR using F4/R2 primers was greater than the PCR using JPF/JPR primers.Conclusion: Although the sensitivity of PCR using these primers was affected by serum inhibitors, they are still the most sensitive and they could provide a useful tool for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.

  3. Situation of human epidemic of Brucellosis in Shandan County of Gansu Province from 2008-2010%2008-2010年甘肃省山丹县人间布鲁杆菌病流行现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨精锐; 汪杰; 顾学海; 杨振中

    2012-01-01

    目的 掌握甘肃省山丹县当前布鲁杆菌病(以下简称布病)流行状况,为制定布病的防治措施提供科学依据.方法 采取询问座谈、血清学检查等方法进行调查.结果 ①居民布病虎红平板试验阳性率为7.3%.②问卷调查表明,伴有布病感染症状的居民53人,感染率为2.65%.③居民当中牧民的感染率最高,为13.24%( 100/755),且感染率呈逐年上升趋势.④布病发病人群年龄在20~60岁之间,占发病总人数的78.61%.⑤男性感染者多于女性,男女性别比为2.90∶1.结论 目前,山丹县居民布病疫情处于逐年上升趋势.尤其对从事放牧工作的牧民应加大宣传教育力度,加强动物情疫监测,杜绝布病带菌牲畜的输入,同时做好病区患者的治疗管理,严防人间布病的流行.%[Objective] To understand the prevalence of brucellosis in Shandan County of Gansu Province, and provide scientific evidence for developing its control measures. [Methods]Inquiry discussion, serological examination, etc were adopted for investigation. [Results] ①The bengal plate test positive rate of Brucellosis of the residents was 7. 3%. ②After a survey of brucellosis, S3 residents associated with infection symptoms, with the infection rate of 2.65%. ③Most patients were herdsmen, with the highest infection rate of 13.24% (100/755), and infection rates were increasing. ④Brucellosis disease population aged 20-60 years old, accounting for 78.61% of total cases. ⑤Infected male were more than female, the ratio was 2.90 : 1. [Conclusion] The epidemic situation of Brucellosis is increasing annually. The health education should be strengthened , especially for herdsmen. Meanwhile, it is necessary to enhance animal disease surveillance, to eliminate brucellosis contaminated livestock input, and do well in patient treatment and management to prevent human epidemic of Brucellosis.

  4. The Long-Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    The length of parents. birth-related leave varies across countries and has been subject of some debate. I investigate the long-term e¤ects on children of increasing the length of parents.birth-related leave using a natural experiment from 1984 in Denmark when the leave length was increased from 14...... to 20 weeks. Regression discontinuity design is used to identify the causal e¤ect of the reform. A population sample of children born in 1984 and a dataset with PISA-2000 scores are used for the analysis. Results indicate that increasing parents. access to birth-related leave has no measurable e...

  5. Transformation of family relations and its influence on the natural increase in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the depopulation of Vojvodina is analyzed from the demographic point of view. Social factors, if they are mentioned at all, are reduced to the financial possibilities of families. Changes in the intergenerational relations and their influence on the natural growth of the population are fully neglected. The aim of the paper is to point out the transformation in the relations between parents and children, and its indirect influence on the population’s natural growth. The most important sources of data are two empirical researches carried out in the territory of Vojvodina.

  6. The Relative Impact of Regional Scale Land Cover Change and Increasing CO2 over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei ZHAO; Andrew J. PITMAN

    2005-01-01

    A series of 17-yr equilibrium simulations using the NCAR CCM3 (T42 resolution) were performed to investigate the regional scale impacts of land cover change and increasing CO2 over China. Simulations with natural and current land cover at CO2 levels of 280, 355,430, and 505 ppmv were conducted. Results show statistically significant changes in major climate fields (e.g. temperature and surface wind speed) ona 15-yr average following land cover change. We also found increases in the maximum temperature and in the diurnal temperature range due to land cover change. Increases in CO2 affect both the maximum and minimum temperature so that changes in the diurnal range are small. Both land cover change and CO2 change also impact the frequency distribution of precipitation with increasing CO2 tending to lead to more intense precipitation and land cover change leading to less intense precipitation-indeed, the impact of land cover change typically had the opposite effect versus the impacts of CO2. Our results provide support for the inclusion of future land cover change scenarios in long-term transitory climate modelling experiments of the 21st Century. Our results also support the inclusion of land surface models that can represent future land cover changes resulting from an ecological response to natural climate variability or increasing CO2. Overall, we show that land cover change can have a significant impact on the regional scale climate of China, and that regionally, this impact is of a similar magnitude to increases in CO2 of up to about 430 ppmv. This means that that the impact of land cover change must be accounted for in detection and attribution studies over China.

  7. Anger Management Leadership Groups: A Creative Intervention for Increasing Relational and Social Competencies with Aggressive Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Isaac; Patel, Samir H.; Lewis, Sally V.

    2012-01-01

    School counselors (SCs) have a wide range of responsibilities in schools, such as administrative, disciplinary, and counseling duties (Dahir & Stone, 2009). Due to the large number of responsibilities, SCs sometime struggle with developing programs to meet relational needs of at-risk students. The purpose of this article was to provide SCs with a…

  8. Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…

  9. Increased deoxythymidine triphosphate levels is a feature of relative cognitive decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Frederiksen, Jane H; Olsen, Maria Nathalie Angleys;

    2015-01-01

    PBMC content of deoxythymidine-triphosphate (dTTP) (20%), but not mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters measured in this study or mitochondrial ROS. Levels of dTTP in PBMCs are indicators of relative cognitive change suggesting a role of deoxyribonucleotides in the etiology of AD....

  10. Microvascular filtration is increased in the forearms of patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Radmer; Simonsen, Lene; Karlsmark, Tonny;

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a frequent and debilitating complication of breast cancer treatment. The pathophysiology is complex and remains poorly understood; however, data suggest that changes in the peripheral circulation may contribute to edema formation. In 13 volunteers with...

  11. IMPROVEMENT OF RENT RELATIONS AS A FACTOR OF INCREASING THEENERGY EFFICIENCY OF UKRAINIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Grazhevska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses prerequisites and consequences of counterproductive rent-seeking behavior of economic agents as a factor that contributes to the low energy efficiency of the national economy.Author justifies the necessity and strategic directions of improvement of state regulation of rent relations in order to modernize the economy of Ukraine.

  12. Increase in fall-related hospitalizations in the United States, 2001-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Hartholt (Klaas); J.A. Stevens (Judy); S. Polinder (Suzanne); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa); P. Patka (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The objective was to determine secular trends in unintentional fall-related hospitalizations in people aged 65 years and older in the United States. MATERIALS: Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of emergency department visits from January 1, 2001, to D

  13. Improvement in Working Memory Is Not Related to Increased Intelligence Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Quiroga, Ma. Angeles; Shih, Pei Chun; Martinez, Kenia; Burgaleta, Miguel; Martinez-Molina, Agustin; Roman, Francisco J.; Requena, Laura; Ramirez, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    The acknowledged high relationship between working memory and intelligence suggests common underlying cognitive mechanisms and, perhaps, shared biological substrates. If this is the case, improvement in working memory by repeated exposure to challenging span tasks might be reflected in increased intelligence scores. Here we report a study in which…

  14. Declining Drug Use in Relation to Increased Drug Education: A Trend Study 1979-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Reginald G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined data from repeated cross-sectional probability surveys of alcohol/drug use conducted biennially since 1979 in Ontario schools to determine relationships between classroom alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis education and student use of these substances. Found strong inverse association between increases in exposure to alcohol and drug…

  15. Increased circulating leptin in alcoholic cirrhosis: relation to release and disposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Holst, J J; Møller, Søren; Brinch, K; Bendtsen, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    Leptin is a cytokine peptide that decreases appetite and thereby food intake and increases energy expenditure. It is produced in fat cells, but recent animal experiments have shown expression of leptin in modified stellate hepatic cells. Because a change in circulating leptin in cirrhosis could be...

  16. Age-related neural correlates of cognitive task performance under increased postural load

    OpenAIRE

    Impe, A. Van; Bruijn, S. M.; Coxon, J. P.; Wenderoth, N; Sunaert, S.; Duysens, J.; Swinnen, S. P.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that postural control requires increased cognitive control and visuospatial processing with aging. Consequently, performance can decline when concurrently performing a postural and a demanding cognitive task. We aimed to identify the neural substrate underlying this effect. A demanding cognitive task, requiring visuospatial transformations, was performed with varying postural loads. More specifically, old and young subjects performed mental rotations of abstract fig...

  17. Comparative analysis of Brucellosis epidemic between Shanxi province and the country%山西省与全国布鲁杆菌病疫情的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽红; 白永飞; 刘桂芬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the Brucellosis incidence and to predict the trends of the disease in Shanxi province and the national in recent years,which could provide the reference for surveillance,prevention and control of the disease.Methods Brucellosis data which was reported monthly during January 2006 and December 2010 in Shanxi province and the data released by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention during January 2005 and December 2010 were collected.Several indexes,such as the annual increasing number,the development rate,growth rate and other indicators were applied to compare Shanxi province with the national Brucellosis epidemic in recent years.What's more,the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) was fitted respectively with the data of Brucellosis incident number reported monthly,so as to predict the prevalence status in the coming two years by verifying the fitting effect.Results Brucellosis prevalence of Shanxi province reached the peak in 2008,and the incidence number was 5397,which was 900 more than 2007.From the onset of decline after 2008,the prevalence decreased by 17.67% (906/5128) in 2010.However,national incidence of Brucellosis kept increasing before 2009 and the prevalence increased rapidly from 2007 to 2008,and the growth rate reached 39.16% (8442/21 560).Although the number of Brucellosis fell by 2041 cases in 2010 than in 2009,the rate of decline was only 5.14%(2041/37 734).The fastigium of Brucellosis was from May to July yearly whether Shanxi province or the country.The ARIMA models of Shanxi province and the nation were ARIMA [(1,0,1)(1,1,0)12] and ARIMA[(1,0,1)(0,1,1)12],respectively,according to the incidence numbers reported monthly.The fitting effect of models showed that the predicted values of the two models were both consistent with the actual situation and all predicted values fell within the 95% confidence limits,which depicted that they both fitted well.The predicted values depict that

  18. THE MAIN DIRECTION INCREASING LEVEL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC AND PEOPLE''S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    ABDULLAYEV KAMRAN

    2015-01-01

    The article dedicated increasing level of international economic relations between Azerbaijan Republic and People's Republic of China. In article realized analyze and gave estimation modern condition of economic collaboration between two countries.

  19. Estimating the phenology of elk brucellosis transmission with hierarchical models of cause-specific and baseline hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Maichak, Eric J.; Rogerson, Jared D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Jones, Jennifer D; Heisey, Dennis M.; Edwards, William H.; Scurlock, Brandon M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the seasonal timing of disease transmission can lead to more effective control strategies, but the seasonality of transmission is often unknown for pathogens transmitted directly. We inserted vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) in 575 elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) from 2006 to 2014 to assess when reproductive failures (i.e., abortions or still births) occur, which is the primary transmission route of Brucella abortus, the causative agent of brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Using a survival analysis framework, we developed a Bayesian hierarchical model that simultaneously estimated the total baseline hazard of a reproductive event as well as its 2 mutually exclusive parts (abortions or live births). Approximately, 16% (95% CI = 0.10, 0.23) of the pregnant seropositive elk had reproductive failures, whereas 2% (95% CI = 0.01, 0.04) of the seronegative elk had probable abortions. Reproductive failures could have occurred as early as 13 February and as late as 10 July, peaking from March through May. Model results suggest that less than 5% of likely abortions occurred after 6 June each year and abortions were approximately 5 times more likely in March, April, or May compared to February or June. In western Wyoming, supplemental feeding of elk begins in December and ends during the peak of elk abortions and brucellosis transmission (i.e., Mar and Apr). Years with more snow may enhance elk-to-elk transmission on supplemental feeding areas because elk are artificially aggregated for the majority of the transmission season. Elk-to-cattle transmission will depend on the transmission period relative to the end of the supplemental feeding season, elk seroprevalence, population size, and the amount of commingling. Our statistical approach allowed us to estimate the probability density function of different event types over time, which may be applicable to other cause-specific survival analyses. It is often challenging to assess the

  20. Event-related potentials reveal increased distraction by salient global objects in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas;

    Age-related changes in visual functions influence how older individuals perceive and react upon objects in their environment. In particular, older individuals might be more distracted by highly salient, irrelevant information. Kanizsa figures induce a ‘global precedence’ effect, which reflects a ...... global-local asymmetries originates from early processing stages, where the dissociation of hierarchical levels is less distinct, and inhibition of the salient irrelevant global object information is less effective......Age-related changes in visual functions influence how older individuals perceive and react upon objects in their environment. In particular, older individuals might be more distracted by highly salient, irrelevant information. Kanizsa figures induce a ‘global precedence’ effect, which reflects a...... search. Older participants detected target stimuli slower and less accurate than younger participants did. ERPs indicated that the general performance decline originated at multiple stages within the information-processing stream, from sensory coding to spatial allocation of attention: The P1 was...

  1. Ethanol- and cocaine-induced locomotion are genetically related to increases in accumbal dopamine

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Paul J.; Meshul, Charles K.; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroanatomical research suggests that interactions between dopamine and glutamate within the mesolimbic dopamine system are involved in both drug-induced locomotor stimulation and addiction. Therefore, genetically determined differences in the locomotor responses to ethanol and cocaine may be related to differences in the effects of these drugs on this system. To test this, we measured drug-induced changes in dopamine and glutamate within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a major target of mesol...

  2. Increased risk of cancer among relatives of patients with lung cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Ming; Xu Yingchun; Jin Yongtang; Xue Saoli

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Genetic factors were considered as one of the risk factors for lung cancer or other cancers. The aim of this work was to determine whether a genetic predisposition accounts for such familial aggregation of cancer among relatives of lung cancer probands. Methods A case-control study was conducted in 800 case families identified by lung cancer patients (probands), and in 800 control families identified by the probands'spouses. The data were analysed with logistic regression ...

  3. Epidemiology of Brucellosis and Q Fever in Linked Human and Animal Populations in Northern Togo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Anna S.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kulo, Abalo E.; Boukaya, G. Aboudou; Amidou, Moussa; Hattendorf, Jan; Pilo, Paola; Schelling, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Background Although brucellosis (Brucella spp.) and Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii) are zoonoses of global importance, very little high quality data are available from West Africa. Methods/Principal Findings A serosurvey was conducted in Togo’s main livestock-raising zone in 2011 in 25 randomly selected villages, including 683 people, 596 cattle, 465 sheep and 221 goats. Additionally, 464 transhumant cattle from Burkina Faso were sampled in 2012. The serological analyses performed were the Rose Bengal Test and ELISA for brucellosis and ELISA and the immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for Q Fever Brucellosis did not appear to pose a major human health problem in the study zone, with only 7 seropositive participants. B. abortus was isolated from 3 bovine hygroma samples, and is likely to be the predominant circulating strain. This may explain the observed seropositivity amongst village cattle (9.2%, 95%CI:4.3–18.6%) and transhumant cattle (7.3%, 95%CI:3.5–14.7%), with an absence of seropositive small ruminants. Exposure of livestock and people to C. burnetii was common, potentially influenced by cultural factors. People of Fulani ethnicity had greater livestock contact and a significantly higher seroprevalence than other ethnic groups (Fulani: 45.5%, 95%CI:37.7–53.6%; non-Fulani: 27.1%, 95%CI:20.6–34.7%). Appropriate diagnostic test cut-off values in endemic settings requires further investigation. Both brucellosis and Q Fever appeared to impact on livestock production. Seropositive cows were more likely to have aborted a foetus during the previous year than seronegative cows, when adjusted for age. This odds was 3.8 times higher (95%CI: 1.2–12.1) for brucellosis and 6.7 times higher (95%CI: 1.3–34.8) for Q Fever. Conclusions This is the first epidemiological study of zoonoses in Togo in linked human and animal populations, providing much needed data for West Africa. Exposure to Brucella and C. burnetii is common but further research is needed into the clinical

  4. Epidemiology of brucellosis and q Fever in linked human and animal populations in northern togo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S Dean

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although brucellosis (Brucella spp. and Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii are zoonoses of global importance, very little high quality data are available from West Africa. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A serosurvey was conducted in Togo's main livestock-raising zone in 2011 in 25 randomly selected villages, including 683 people, 596 cattle, 465 sheep and 221 goats. Additionally, 464 transhumant cattle from Burkina Faso were sampled in 2012. The serological analyses performed were the Rose Bengal Test and ELISA for brucellosis and ELISA and the immunofluorescence assay (IFA for Q Fever Brucellosis did not appear to pose a major human health problem in the study zone, with only 7 seropositive participants. B. abortus was isolated from 3 bovine hygroma samples, and is likely to be the predominant circulating strain. This may explain the observed seropositivity amongst village cattle (9.2%, 95%CI:4.3-18.6% and transhumant cattle (7.3%, 95%CI:3.5-14.7%, with an absence of seropositive small ruminants. Exposure of livestock and people to C. burnetii was common, potentially influenced by cultural factors. People of Fulani ethnicity had greater livestock contact and a significantly higher seroprevalence than other ethnic groups (Fulani: 45.5%, 95%CI:37.7-53.6%; non-Fulani: 27.1%, 95%CI:20.6-34.7%. Appropriate diagnostic test cut-off values in endemic settings requires further investigation. Both brucellosis and Q Fever appeared to impact on livestock production. Seropositive cows were more likely to have aborted a foetus during the previous year than seronegative cows, when adjusted for age. This odds was 3.8 times higher (95%CI: 1.2-12.1 for brucellosis and 6.7 times higher (95%CI: 1.3-34.8 for Q Fever. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first epidemiological study of zoonoses in Togo in linked human and animal populations, providing much needed data for West Africa. Exposure to Brucella and C. burnetii is common but further research is needed into the

  5. Pregnancy related pelvic pain is more frequent in women with increased body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering, Karin; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Olsen, Jørn;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the association between pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and pregnancy-related pelvic pain. Design: Nested case-control study. Setting and population. The Danish National Birth Cohort, a cohort of pregnant women and their children recruited 1996–2002. Methods. The women.......Main outcomemeasure. Self-reported pregnancy-related pelvic pain. Results. In the total cohort, 18.5% of all pregnant women reported pregnancyrelated pelvic pain. In the nested case-control study, the adjusted ORs for overall pelvic pain were 0.9 (0.7–1.2) in underweight women, 1.2 (1.1–1.4) in overweight women, 1.......5 (1.2–2.0) in obese women Class 1 (30=BMI<35), and 1.9 (1.3–2.8) in obese women Class 2 + 3 (BMI=35), all relative to normal weight women. The correspondent ORs for severe pelvic pain were 0.8 (0.6–1.2), 1.4 (1.2–1.7), 1.7 (1.3–2.2), and 2.3 (1.6–3.4). The associations were stronger among women who...

  6. Increased Serum Level of Cyclopropaneoctanoic Acid 2-Hexyl in Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia-Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Adriana; Stepnowski, Piotr; Chmielewski, Michal; Malgorzewicz, Sylwia; Kaska, Lukasz; Proczko, Monika; Ratnicki-Sklucki, Krzysztof; Sledzinski, Maciej; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    We recently reported the presence of various cyclopropane fatty acids-among them, cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl-in the adipose tissue of obese women. The aim of this study was to verify whether the presence of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl in human serum was associated with obesity or chronic kidney disease (both being related to dyslipidemia), and to find potential associations between the serum level of this compound and specific markers of the these conditions. The serum concentration of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in non-obese controls, obese patients, obese patients after a 3-month low-calorie diet, and individuals with chronic kidney disease. Obese patients and those with chronic kidney disease presented with higher serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl than controls. Switching obese individuals to a low-calorie (low-lipid) diet resulted in a reduction in this fatty acid concentration to the level observed in controls. Cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was also found in foods derived from animal fat. Serum concentrations of triacylglycerols in the analyzed groups followed a pattern similar to that for serum cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl, and these variables were positively correlated with each other among the studied groups. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia-related conditions presented with elevated serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl. Our findings suggest that its high serum level is related to high serum triacylglycerol concentrations rather than to body mass or BMI. PMID:27003900

  7. 安阳市2004~2011年布鲁杆菌病疫情特征及流行因素分析%Epidemic characteristics and factors of Brucellosis in Anyang City from 2004 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栓虎; 王勇; 梁玉清; 于杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze epidemic characteristics and factors of brucellosis in Anyang city so as to provide scientific basis for prevention and control. Methods The data of epidemic situation and monitoring of brucellosis in Anyang city from 2004 to 2011 has been statically analyzed. Results The incidence rate has increased year by year and epidemic area has enlarged continuously in Anyang city. 36. 30% of townships including towns and offices had reported the cases of incidence; Farmers gave priority to other people on the infection; the incidence rate of male was more than that of female,middle and aged old patients with brucellosis were majority and the tendency of this disease was aging, which were consistent with the result of serologic test. There were cases throughout the whole year,having incidence peak in late spring and early summer,which was not obviously, 32. 99 % of these cases happened on April and May. All of the cases were sporadic. The types of infection of brucellosis were diverse, which were mainly contact infection. Patients'clinical symptoms were typical, but the definite diagnosis was not in time. It cost more than 30 days from falling ill to definite diagnosis for 55. 15 % of the cases, which resulted in more misdiagnosis and mistreatment. Not meet the requirements of quarantine and immune of foreign brutish, short of personal health consciousness and lack of protective measures were the main factors which caused brucellosis. Conclusion Government leadership, departments coordination and supervision should be strengthen. Quarantine and immune measures between livestock should be carried out, as well as strengthen propaganda and training on brucellosis so as to dispose well the disease livestock and personal protection, induce and control the outbreak of brucellosis through taking all of above measures.%目的 分析安阳市布鲁杆菌病(布病)的疫情特征及其流行因素,为制定防控措施提供科学依据.方法 对安阳市2004

  8. Clinical features of patients with brucellosis complicated by hemophagocytic syndrome%布鲁氏菌病并发噬血细胞综合征的临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童晶晶; 赵伟; 胡瑾华; 辛绍杰; 段学章

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical features of brucellosis complicated by hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) so as to accumulate experience for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Methods Clinical data of 35 patients with brucellosis were analyzed retrospectively to compare the differences in signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, treatment protocols and therapeutic effect in brucellosis patients with HPS and without HPS. Results HPS was more likely to occur in brucellosis patients under 18 years (P0.05). Immunosuppressive therapy had good efficacy on severe brucellosis patients with HPS. Conclusions Brucellosis may be complicated by HPS. The decrease in the levels of 2 or 3 lineages of peripheral blood leukocytes and fibrinogen and the increase in the level of triglyceride may help to diagnose HPS. Antibiotic therapy and immunosuppressive therapy in an early stage play an important role in the treatment of brucellosis complicated by HPS.%目的 采用病例对照研究的方法,总结布鲁氏菌病并发噬血细胞综合征(hemophagocytic syndrome,HPS)的临床特点,为诊断和治疗积累经验.方法 回顾性分析35例布鲁氏菌病的临床资料,比较并发HPS(7例)与未并发HPS(28例)患者在症状、体征、化验检查、治疗方案及治疗效果方面的差异.结果 未成年布鲁氏菌病患者(≤18岁)更易并发HPS (P<0.05).与未并发HPS的布鲁氏菌病患者比较,并发HPS的患者更易出现肝大和出血倾向,外周血三系下降更明显,甘油三酯更高,而纤维蛋白原更低(P<0.05).经治疗后,2组的平均好转天数差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),且使用2种与3种抗生素治疗的好转天数差异也无统计学意义(P>0.05).并发HPS且病情严重者采取免疫抑制治疗效果好.结论 布鲁氏菌病可并发HPS,外周血三系或两系及纤维蛋白原明显下降,以及甘油三酯升高有助于HPS的诊断.抗菌和早期免疫抑制治疗在布鲁氏菌病并发HPS的治疗中至关重要.

  9. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Emily Jane; LeRoith, Derek

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemia and insulin-like growth factor I, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines and cytokines, and the gut microbiome. These metabolic changes may contribute directly or indirectly to cancer progression. Intentional weight loss may protect against cancer development, and therapies for diabetes may prove to be effective adjuvant agents in reducing cancer progression. In this review we discuss the current epidemiology, basic science, and clinical data that link obesity, diabetes, and cancer and how treating obesity and type 2 diabetes could also reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes. PMID:26084689

  10. Increased visceral fat mass and insulin signaling in colitis-related colon carcinogenesis model mice

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Shingo; Tanaka, Takuji; Murakami, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Leptin, a pleiotropic hormone regulating food intake and metabolism, plays an important role in the regulation of inflammation and immunity. We previously demonstrated that serum leptin levels are profoundly increased in mice which received azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) as tumor-initiator and -promoter, respectively, in a colon carcinogenesis model. In this study, we attempted to address underlying mechanism whereby leptin is up-regulated in this rodent model. Five-week-...

  11. Increased Reward-Related Behaviors during Sleep and Wakefulness in Sleepwalking and Idiopathic Nightmares

    OpenAIRE

    Lampros Perogamvros; Kristoffer Aberg; Marianne Gex-Fabry; Stephen Perrig; C Robert Cloninger; Sophie Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously suggested that abnormal sleep behaviors, i.e., as found in parasomnias, may often be the expression of increased activity of the reward system during sleep. Because nightmares and sleepwalking predominate during REM and NREM sleep respectively, we tested here whether exploratory excitability, a waking personality trait reflecting high activity within the mesolimbic dopaminergic (ML-DA) system, may be associated with specific changes in REM and NREM sleep patterns in t...

  12. Age-Related Increase in the Number of Oligodendrocytes Is Dysregulated in Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Uranova; Victor Vostrikov

    2011-01-01

    The postnatal maturation of the human prefrontal cortex is associated with substantial increase of number of oligodendrocytes. Previously, we reported decreased numerical density of oligodendrocytes in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorders. To gain further understanding of the role oligodendrocytes in pathogenesis of schizophrenia and mood disorders, we examined the effect of the age on the number of oligodendrocytes in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disor...

  13. Analysis of process related factors to increase volumetric productivity and quality of biomethane with Methanothermobacter marburgensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biological methanogenesis with M. marburgensis was identified to be gas limited. • Volumetric productivity was increased by improving gas/liquid mass transfer. • Quantitative analysis of key parameters in gas/liquid mass transfer was demonstrated. • A systematic strategy for maximising productivity without quality loss is suggested. - Abstract: The biological conversion of H2 and CO2 into CH4, using methanogenic archaea is an interesting technology for CO2 conversion, energy storage and biogas upgrading. For an industrial application of this process however, the optimization of the volumetric productivity and the product quality is an important issue. Since the reactants in this fermentation process are, unlike in most microbial fermentations, solely gasses, the gas liquid mass transfer is supposed to play an important role on the way to a higher volumetric productivity. This work aimed at investigating the effects of the gassing rate, the reactor pressure, as well as reactor design issues on the performance of Methanothermobactermarburgensis by using continuous cultures. Our results show that biological methanogenesis with M. marburgensis is gas limited. Maximum physiological capacity is not reached yet. The gassing rate influenced mainly the volumetric methane production rate (MER), the reactor pressure influenced mainly the offgas quality. Based on this information, we demonstrated how a combination of increased gas flow rate and increased reactor pressure can be used to reach high volumetric productivity at high offgas quality. Maximum MER was 950 mmol L−1 h−1 at a CH4 concentration of 60 Vol.-%, maximum CH4 concentration reached was 85 Vol.-% at a MER of 255 mmol L−1 h−1. The reactor design currently limits further increase in gas flow rate and reactor pressure. Therefore Interdisciplinary bridges from bioprocessing to chemical reactor design must be followed in the future to boot this promising bioprocess to gain biomethane via

  14. Relation of Taser (electrical stun gun) deployment to increase in in-custody sudden deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byron K; Vittinghoff, Eric; Whiteman, Dean; Park, Minna; Lau, Linda L; Tseng, Zian H

    2009-03-15

    Despite controversy concerning their safety, use of electrical stun guns (Tasers) by law enforcement agencies is increasing. We examined the effect of Taser deployment on rates of (1) in-custody sudden deaths in the absence of lethal force, (2) lethal force (firearm) deaths, and (3) officer injuries (OIs) requiring emergency room visits. Under the Public Records Act and the Freedom of Information Act, 126 police and sheriff departments from California cities were mailed surveys requesting rates of each of the outcomes of interest for each of the 5 years preceding Taser deployment through the 5 years after deployment. To control for population size and crime rates, we used total annual arrests per city as reported to the Department of Justice. Fifty cities provided predeployment and postdeployment data on in-custody sudden death, 21 cities reported firearm deaths, and 4 cities reported OIs. The rate of in-custody sudden death increased 6.4-fold (95% confidence interval 3.2-12.8, p = 0.006) and the rate of firearm death increased 2.3-fold (95% confidence interval 1.3-4.0, p = 0.003) in the in the first full year after Taser deployment compared with the average rate in the 5 years before deployment. In years 2 to 5 after deployment, rates of the 2 events decreased to predeployment levels. We observed no significant change in the rate of serious OIs after Taser deployment. In conclusion, although considered by some a safer alternative to firearms, Taser deployment was associated with a substantial increase in in-custody sudden deaths in the early deployment period, with no decrease in firearm deaths or serious OIs. PMID:19268749

  15. Psychotherapy participants show increased physiological responsiveness to a lab stressor relative to matched controls

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick R Steffen; Louise eFidalgo; Dominic eSchmuck; Yoko eTsui; Tracy eBrown

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that psychotherapy participants show increased physiological responsiveness to stress. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences between individuals participating in outpatient psychotherapy and matched controls using an experimental design. Forty-two psychotherapy participants and forty-eight matched controls were assessed on cardiovascular and cortisol functioning at baseline, during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and during a twenty-m...

  16. Increasing water cycle extremes in California and in relation to ENSO cycle under global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jinho; Wang, Shih-Yu Simon; Robert R. Gillies; Kravitz, Ben; Hipps, Lawrence E.; Rasch, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the winter of 2013–2014, California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history, causing statewide water stress, severe economic loss and an extraordinary increase in wildfires. Identifying the effects of global warming on regional water cycle extremes, such as the ongoing drought in California, remains a challenge. Here we analyse large-ensemble and multi-model simulations that project the future of water cycle extremes in California as well as to understand those assoc...

  17. Better stay together: pair bond duration increases individual fitness independent of age-related variation

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged pair bonds have the potential to improve reproductive performance of socially monogamous animals by increasing pair familiarity and enhancing coordination and cooperation between pair members. However, this has proved very difficult to test robustly because of important confounds such as age and reproductive experience. Here, we address limitations of previous studies and provide a rigorous test of the mate familiarity effect in the socially monogamous blue-footed booby, Sula neboux...

  18. The Price of a Neglected Zoonosis: Case-Control Study to Estimate Healthcare Utilization Costs of Human Brucellosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded Vered

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis has reemerged as a serious public health threat to the Bedouin population of southern Israel in recent years. Little is known about its economic implications derived from elevated healthcare utilization (HCU. Our objective was to estimate the HCU costs associated with human brucellosis from the insurer perspective. A case-control retrospective study was conducted among Clalit Health Services (CHS enrollees. Brucellosis cases were defined as individuals that were diagnosed with brucellosis at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Soroka University Medical Center in the 2010-2012 period (n = 470. Control subjects were randomly selected and matched 1:3 by age, sex, clinic, and primary physician (n = 1,410. HCU data, demographic characteristics and comorbidities were obtained from CHS computerized database. Mean±SD age of the brucellosis cases was 26.6±17.6 years. 63% were male and 85% were Bedouins. No significant difference in Charlson comorbidity index was found between brucellosis cases and controls (0.41 vs. 0.45, respectively, P = 0.391. Before diagnosis (baseline, the average total annual HCU cost of brucellosis cases was slightly yet significantly higher than that of the control group ($439 vs. $382, P<0.05, however, no significant differences were found at baseline in the predominant components of HCU, i.e. hospitalizations, diagnostic procedures, and medications. At the year following diagnosis, the average total annual HCU costs of brucellosis cases was significantly higher than that of controls ($1,327 vs. $380, respectively, P<0.001. Most of the difference stems from 7.9 times higher hospitalization costs (p<0.001. Additional elevated costs were 3.6 times higher laboratory tests (P<0.001, 2.8 times higher emergency room visits (P<0.001, 1.8 times higher medication (P<0.001 and 1.3 times higher diagnostic procedures (P<0.001. We conclude that human brucellosis is associated with elevated HCU costs. Considering these

  19. Development of a new live rough vaccine against bovine brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Brucella abortus S-19 is the most commonly used attenuated live vaccine to prevent bovine brucellosis. The vaccine induces good levels of protection in cattle, preventing premature abortion. Although B. abortus S-19 is the most used vaccine in eradication campaigns worldwide, it has two major problems: (i) it produces abortion when administered to pregnant cattle and is fully virulent for humans and (ii), the presence of smooth lipopolysaccharide interferes with the discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals during immunescreening procedures. In our laboratory we have previously cloned, sequenced and disrupted the gene coding for the enzyme phosphoglucomutase (pgm), responsible for the interconversion of glucose-6P to glucose-1P. The mutant does not synthesize the sugar nucleotide UDP-glucose and/or ADP-glucose and thus is unable to form any polysaccharide containing glucose, galactose or any other sugars whose synthesis proceeds through a glucose-nucleotide intermediate. The mutant has a rough phenotype, is avirulent in mice but retains the ability to multiply inside HeLa cells, although it shows a delay of the exponential intracellular replication. These characteristics prompt us to evaluate the potential use of this strain as a new live rough vaccine. We generated an unmarked deletion mutant of pgm. Western blot analysis of purified lipopolysaccharide from Δpgm indicated that it is devoid of O-antigen, however Δpgm whole cell extracts contained detectable amounts of O-antigen with a MW of 45 kDa, indicating that mutant strain is able to synthesize O-antigen but incapable to assemble a complete LPS probably due to the presence of an altered core structure. When administered intraperitoneally in Balb/C mice, the number of viable Δpgm recovered from spleens were, at all tested times, significantly lower than those inoculated with the parental virulent strain S2308 and was completely cleared at 8 weeks p.i., thus indicating a severe

  20. Determination of the accuracy and optimal cut-off point for ELISA test in diagnosis of human brucellosis in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hasibi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In endemic area the most challenging problem for brucellosis is to find a reliable diagnostic method. In this case-control study, we investigated the accuracy of ELISA test for diagnosis of human brucellosis and determined the optimal cut-off value for ELISA results in Iran. The laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis was performed by blood isolation of Brucella organism with a BACTEC 9240 system and/or detection of Brucella antibodies by standard agglutination test (titer ≥ 1:160. Serum level of ELISA IgG and ELISA IgM from 56 confirmed cases of brucellosis and 126 controls were compared with each other by Box plot graph and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. Box plot graphs showed the high degree of dispersion for IgG and IgM data in patients compared with all controls. We observed partially overlapping for IgM data (not for IgG between cases and controls in graphs. The area under ROC curve for distinguishing between cases and controls was larger for IgG compared to IgM. Based on results of this study, ELISA IgG test was more reliable than ELISA IgM test in diagnosis of human brucellosis in Iran. Using a cut-off of 10 IU/ml and 50 IU/ml had most sensitivity (92.9% and most specificity (100% for ELISA IgG test, respectively.

  1. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, and Q Fever among Butchers and Slaughterhouse Workers in South-Eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Saber; Naddaf, Saied Reza; Pourhossein, Behzad; Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Bagheri Amiri, Fahimeh; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases can be occupational hazards to people who work in close contact with animals or their carcasses. In this cross-sectional study, 190 sera were collected from butchers and slaughterhouse workers in different regions of the Sistan va Baluchestan province, in Iran in 2011. A questionnaire was filled for each participant to document personal and behavioural information. The sera were tested for detection of specific IgG antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever (phase I and II) using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The seroprevalence of brucellosis was 7.9%, leptospirosis 23.4%, and phase I and II of Q fever were 18.1% and 14.4%, respectively. The seroprevalence of Q fever and leptospirosis, but not brucellosis, varied among regions within the province (p = 0.01). Additionally, a significant relationship was found between seropositivity of Q fever and camel slaughtering (p = 0.04). Reduced seropositivity rate of brucellosis was associated with use of personal protective equipment (PPE) (p = 0.004). This study shows that brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever occur among butchers and slaughterhouse workers in this area. PMID:26731333

  2. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, and Q Fever among Butchers and Slaughterhouse Workers in South-Eastern Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Esmaeili

    Full Text Available Zoonotic diseases can be occupational hazards to people who work in close contact with animals or their carcasses. In this cross-sectional study, 190 sera were collected from butchers and slaughterhouse workers in different regions of the Sistan va Baluchestan province, in Iran in 2011. A questionnaire was filled for each participant to document personal and behavioural information. The sera were tested for detection of specific IgG antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever (phase I and II using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. The seroprevalence of brucellosis was 7.9%, leptospirosis 23.4%, and phase I and II of Q fever were 18.1% and 14.4%, respectively. The seroprevalence of Q fever and leptospirosis, but not brucellosis, varied among regions within the province (p = 0.01. Additionally, a significant relationship was found between seropositivity of Q fever and camel slaughtering (p = 0.04. Reduced seropositivity rate of brucellosis was associated with use of personal protective equipment (PPE (p = 0.004. This study shows that brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever occur among butchers and slaughterhouse workers in this area.

  3. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, and Q Fever among Butchers and Slaughterhouse Workers in South-Eastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Saber; Naddaf, Saied Reza; Pourhossein, Behzad; Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Bagheri Amiri, Fahimeh; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases can be occupational hazards to people who work in close contact with animals or their carcasses. In this cross-sectional study, 190 sera were collected from butchers and slaughterhouse workers in different regions of the Sistan va Baluchestan province, in Iran in 2011. A questionnaire was filled for each participant to document personal and behavioural information. The sera were tested for detection of specific IgG antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever (phase I and II) using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The seroprevalence of brucellosis was 7.9%, leptospirosis 23.4%, and phase I and II of Q fever were 18.1% and 14.4%, respectively. The seroprevalence of Q fever and leptospirosis, but not brucellosis, varied among regions within the province (p = 0.01). Additionally, a significant relationship was found between seropositivity of Q fever and camel slaughtering (p = 0.04). Reduced seropositivity rate of brucellosis was associated with use of personal protective equipment (PPE) (p = 0.004). This study shows that brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever occur among butchers and slaughterhouse workers in this area. PMID:26731333

  4. Silicon Application Increases Drought Tolerance of Kentucky Bluegrass by Improving Plant Water Relations and Morphophysiological Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Saud; Xin Li; Yang Chen; Lu Zhang; Shah Fahad; Saddam Hussain; Arooj Sadiq; Yajun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Drought stress encumbers the growth of turfgrass principally by disrupting the plant-water relations and physiological functions. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of silicon (Si) in improving the drought tolerance in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Drought stress and four levels (0, 200, 400, and 800 mg L−1) of Si (Na2SiO3·9H2O) were imposed after 2 months old plants cultured under glasshouse conditions. Drought stress was found to decrease the photosynthesis, tra...

  5. Increase in the relative level of type V collagen during development and ageing of the placenta.

    OpenAIRE

    Iwahashi, M.; Ooshima, A; Nakano, R

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To obtain some insight into the extracellular matrix in the placenta, changes in the composition of collagens during placental development were investigated. METHODS: Collagen was extracted from placentas (group 1, 25-30 weeks, n = 21; group 2, 31-36 weeks, n = 32; and group 3, 37-41 weeks of gestation, n = 40) and the relative concentrations of various collagens were evaluated by SDS-PAGE. RESULTS: The ratio of the intensity of the alpha 1 (III) band to that of alpha 1 (I) chain collage...

  6. Summary of IEA-R1 research a reactor licensing related to its power increase from 2 to 10 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a summary of IEA-R1 research reactor licensing related to its power increase from 2 to 10 MW. It reports also safety requirements, fuel elements, and reactor control modifications inherent to power increase. (A.C.A.S.)

  7. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion is not related to impaired renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommel, Eva; Friberg, Lars; Mølvig, Jens;

    2010-01-01

    Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at 5-years of follow-up. To further explore UOER in relation to local renal physiological phenomena, we studied renal glomerular and tubular functions in patients...... with type 2 diabetes and normal or increased UOER....

  8. Psychotherapy Participants Show Increased Physiological Responsiveness to a Lab Stressor Relative to Matched Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick R Steffen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that psychotherapy participants show increased physiological responsiveness to stress. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences between individuals participating in outpatient psychotherapy and matched controls using an experimental design. Forty-two psychotherapy participants and forty-eight matched controls were assessed on cardiovascular and cortisol functioning at baseline, during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, and during a twenty-minute recovery period. Psychotherapy participants and matched controls did not differ at baseline or during the TSST on the physiological measures but psychotherapy participants had higher cortisol and heart rate during the recovery period. In regards to reactivity, cortisol increased during the recovery period for the psychotherapy participants but decreased for those in the matched control group. Psychotherapy participants experiencing clinically significant levels of distress displayed elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate during the TSST when compared to psychotherapy participants not experiencing clinically significant levels of distress. Overall, physiological reactivity to stress appears to be an important issue for those in psychotherapy and directly addressing this issue may help improve psychotherapy outcomes.

  9. Better stay together: pair bond duration increases individual fitness independent of age-related variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2014-07-01

    Prolonged pair bonds have the potential to improve reproductive performance of socially monogamous animals by increasing pair familiarity and enhancing coordination and cooperation between pair members. However, this has proved very difficult to test robustly because of important confounds such as age and reproductive experience. Here, we address limitations of previous studies and provide a rigorous test of the mate familiarity effect in the socially monogamous blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, a long-lived marine bird with a high divorce rate. Taking advantage of a natural disassociation between age and pair bond duration in this species, and applying a novel analytical approach to a 24 year database, we found that those pairs which have been together for longer establish their clutches five weeks earlier in the season, hatch more of their eggs and produce 35% more fledglings, regardless of age and reproductive experience. Our results demonstrate that pair bond duration increases individual fitness and further suggest that synergistic effects between a male and female's behaviour are likely to be involved in generating a mate familiarity effect. These findings help to explain the age- and experience-independent benefits of remating and their role in life-history evolution. PMID:24827435

  10. Manure and sorbent fertilisers increase on-going nutrient availability relative to conventional fertilisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, M R; Lewis, R; Kearton, T; Smith, O

    2016-11-01

    The key to better nutrient efficiency is to simultaneously improve uptake and decrease losses. This study sought to achieve this balance using sorbent additions and manure nutrients (spent poultry litter; SL) compared with results obtained using conventional sources (Conv; urea nitrogen, N; and phosphate-phosphorus; P). Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, a phosphorus pot trial involving two soils (sandy and clay) based on a factorial design (Digitaria eriantha/Pennisetum clandestinum). Subsequently, a factorial N and P field trial was conducted on the clay soil (D. eriantha/Lolium rigidum). In the pot trial, sorbent additions (26.2g of hydrotalcite [HT] gP(-1)) to the Conv treatment deferred P availability (both soils) as did SL in the sandy soil. In this soil, P delivery by the Conv treatments declined rapidly, and began to fall behind the HT and SL treatments. Addition of HT increased post-trial Colwell P. In the field trial low HT-rates (3.75 and 7.5g of HTgP(-1)) plus bentonite, allowed dry matter production and nutrient uptake to match that of Conv treatments, and increased residual mineral-N. The SL treatments performed similarly to (or better than) Conv treatments regarding nutrient uptake. With successive application, HT forms may provide better supply profiles than Conv treatments. Our findings, combined with previous studies, suggest it is possible to use manures and ion-exchangers to match conventional N and P source productivity with lower risk of nutrient losses. PMID:27432730

  11. 0268 Is perceived stress related to an increase in salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Samuel; Peter Bonde, Jens; Agergaard Vammen, Marianne; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Frølund Thomsen, Jane

    version of the PSS-scale was used to measure perceived stress and operationalized as the average score. Salivary cortisol samples were taken at 30 min post awakening and at 8 pm. A mean value of cortisol was calculated. In our analysis we applied logarithmic transformation to the concentrations. RESULTS......OBJECTIVES: Perceived Stress is a suspected cause of many psychological and physical illnesses. However it remains to be discovered what physiological measures are involved. While it is widely known that acute stress leads to an increase in cortisol levels, the findings in prolonged stress research...... have not been consistent. This study explores the association between Perceived Stress and salivary cortisol levels using the largest population ever used in this field. METHOD: 4467 public employees in the PRISME cohort in 2007. 3217 of those did a similar follow up study in 2009. A 4-item Danish...

  12. Increased circulating leptin in alcoholic cirrhosis: relation to release and disposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, JJ; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Møller, Søren;

    1999-01-01

    Leptin is a cytokine peptide that decreases appetite and thereby food intake and increases energy expenditure. It is produced in fat cells, but recent animal experiments have shown expression of leptin in modified stellate hepatic cells. Because a change in circulating leptin in cirrhosis could be...... caused by an altered production rate, altered disposal rate, or both, the present study was undertaken to identify regions of leptin overflow into the blood stream and regions of leptin extraction. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 16) and control patients without liver disease (n = 12) were studied...... during catheterization with elective blood sampling from different vascular beds. Blood samples for leptin determination (radioimmunoassay) were taken simultaneously from artery/hepatic vein, artery/renal vein, artery/iliac vein, and artery/cubital vein. Patients with cirrhosis had significantly...

  13. Low calcium intake is related to increased risk of tooth loss in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Twetman, Svante;

    2010-01-01

    (30-60 y) with information on dietary Ca intake and number of teeth and a subset of 511 participants with information on tooth loss from 1987-88 to 1993-94. Ca intake less than the recommendations, estimated by a 7-d food record or a diet history interview in 1982-83, was more frequent among females...... oral dryness, and time since last dental care visit. The reference group (26-32 teeth) and edentulous participants did not significantly differ. A Ca intake below recommendations was significantly associated with increased risk of subsequent tooth loss in males [incidence-rate ratio = 1.70 (95% CI = 1...... intake below recommendations, consumption of foods rich in Ca should be promoted to preserve oral health....

  14. [Effects of practical training to increase motivation for learning and related factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takumi; Akiyama, Shinji; Sagara, Hidenori; Tanaka, Akihiro; Miyauchi, Yoshirou; Araki, Hiroaki; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Izushi, Fumio; Namba, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Under the six-year pharmaceutical education system that was initiated in April 2006, students who had completed the course in March 2012 became the first graduates. The six-year system encourages students to develop a well-rounded personality, a deep sense of ethics, knowledge required for health care professionals, abilities to identify and solve problems, and practical skills required in clinical settings, as well as basic knowledge and skills. Under the new education system based on the "pharmaceutical education model core curriculums" and "practical training model core curriculums", general pharmaceutical education is implemented in each college, and five-month practical training is conducted in clinical settings. Clinical tasks experienced by students for the first time are expected to significantly influence their motivation to learn and future prospects. In the present survey research, students who had completed practical training evaluated the training program, and correspondence and logistic regression analyses of the results were conducted to examine the future effects and influences of the training on the students. The results suggest that the students viewed the practical training program positively. In addition, clinical experience during the training sessions not only influenced their decisions on future careers, but also significantly increased their motivation to learn. Furthermore, their motivation for learning was increased most by the enthusiasm of pharmacists who advised them in clinical settings, rather than the training program itself. To improve pharmaceutical clinical learning, it is important to develop teaching and working environments for pharmacists in charge of advising students in clinical training. PMID:25366920

  15. Application of enzyme linked immunosorbent assays for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) and a competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) for detection of antibody to Brucella abortus in cattle were compared with those of conventional serological tests. The sensitivity of I-Elisa using 230 sera from infected animals was 98.6% and the specificity in 720 sera from brucellosis-free animals was 98.2%. The C-ELISA when tested in 94 positive sera and 91 negative sera was 100% sensitive and specific. The relative sensitivity and specificity of I-ELISA compared to C-ELISA in 582 sera from groups of animals vaccinated with S19 by different routes and doses was respectively 64% and 100%. When comparing five serological tests on sera from vaccinated animals, the specificity was 94% for C-ELISA, 93% for 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME), 88% for Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT), 84% for Slow Tube Agglutination test (SAT) and 34% for I-ELISA. It can be concluded from this study that the RBPT gave less false positive results than the I-ELISA in vaccinated animals and the C-ELISA is a good confirmatory test with the advantage of distinguishing the antibody response due to vaccination from that resulting from infection with Brucella abortus. (author)

  16. Increased conditioned place preference for cocaine in high anxiety-related behavior (HAB mice is associated with an increased activation in the accumbens corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Maria Prast

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders and substance use disorders are strongly associated in humans. Accordingly, a widely held but controversial concept in the addiction field, the so-called "self-medication hypothesis", posits that anxious individuals are more vulnerable for drug dependence because they use drugs of abuse to alleviate their anxiety. We tested this hypothesis under controlled experimental conditions by quantifying the conditioned place preference (CPP to 15 mg/kg i.p. cocaine given contingently (COCAINE in CD1 mice selectively bred for high anxiety-related behavior (HAB vs normal anxiety-related behavior (NAB. Cocaine was conditioned to the initially nonpreferred compartment in an alternate day design (cocaine vs saline, 4 pairings each. HAB and NAB mice were also tested for the effects of noncontingent (NONCONT cocaine administration. HAB mice showed a slightly higher bias for one of the conditioning compartments during the pretest than NAB mice that became statistically significant (p=0.045 only after pooling COCAINE and NONCONT groups. Cocaine CPP was higher (p=0.0035 in HAB compared to NAB mice. The increased cocaine CPP was associated with an increased expression of the immediate early genes c-Fos and Early Growth Related Protein 1 (EGR1 in the accumbens corridor, i.e., a region stretching from the anterior commissure to the interhemispheric border and comprising the medial nucleus accumbens core and shell, the major island of Calleja and intermediate part of the lateral septum, as well as the vertical limb of the diagonal band and medial septum. The cocaine CPP-induced EGR1 expression was only observed in D1- and D2-medium spiny neurons, whereas other types of neurons or glial cells were not involved. With respect to the activation by contingent vs noncontingent cocaine EGR1 seemed to be a more sensitive marker than c-Fos. Our findings suggest that cocaine may be more rewarding in high anxiety individuals, plausibly due to an anxiolytic

  17. Legumes increase rhizosphere carbon and nitrogen relative to cereals in California agricultural plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R.; Maltais-landry, G.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient to plant growth, therefore a sufficient supply is needed for high yields. By using N-fixing plants like legumes in crop rotation, we can increase soil N and yields of following crops. Furthermore, legumes also affect soil carbon (C) and C:N ratios, which impacts nutrient cycling in soils. We assessed the effects of two legumes (vetch, fava bean) and a cereal mixture (oats and wheat) on soil N and C by comparing both rhizosphere and bulk soils. We studied the impacts of these plants with different management types (organic, low-input conventional, unfertilized) to see if plant effects on soil C and N changed across management. We used plots from the Long-Term Research on Agricultural Systems (LTRAS) experiment (Davis, CA) to conduct this experiment, where three plots were under each management type. Within each of these plots, we sampled three micro-plots, where we collected rhizosphere soil from fava bean, vetch, and cereals as well as bulk soil, i.e. non-rhizosphere soil. We collected 108 samples, each of which were dried and ball-milled into a fine, uniform powder. Tin capsules with 15-30mg of soil were then analyzed with a Carlo Erba Elemental analyzer to measure how much N and C was present in each of the samples. The different management types didn't affect the relationship among plants, but soil C and N were highest in organic and lowest in unfertilized plots. We found that N was significantly higher in legume rhizosphere than cereal rhizosphere and bulk soils. Soil C was also higher in legumes vs. cereals and bulk soils, but the only significant difference was with the bulk soils. This ultimately resulted in lower C:N ratios in the rhizosphere of legumes, only vetch, however, had significantly lower soil C:N than cereals. Vetch had higher N, and lower C and C:N than fava bean, but the difference between the two legumes was never significant. Similarly, cereals had higher C and N and lower C:N than bulk soils, although

  18. High relative humidity increases yield, harvest index, flowering, and gynophore growth of hydroponically grown peanut plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortley, D. G.; Bonsi, C. K.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Morris, C. E.

    2000-01-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to study the physiological and growth response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to 50% and 85% relative humidity (RH). The objective was to determine the effects of RH on pod and seed yield, harvest index, and flowering of peanut grown by the nutrient film technique (NFT). 'Georgia Red' peanut plants (14 days old) were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart with 15 cm between channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with an additional 2 mM Ca was used. Solution pH was maintained between 6.4 and 6.7, and electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. Temperature regimes of 28/22 degrees C were maintained during the light/dark periods (12 hours each) with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at canopy level of 500 micromoles-m-2s-1. Foliage and pod fresh and dry weights, total seed yield, harvest index (HI), and seed maturity were greater at high than at low RH. Plants grown at 85% RH had greater total and individual leaflet area and stomatal conductance, flowered 3 days earlier and had a greater number of flowers reaching anthesis. Gynophores grew more rapidly at 85% than at 50% RH.

  19. Increased aortic stiffness and related factors in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Mariella; Scandale, Giovanni; Carzaniga, Gianni; Cinquini, Michela; Minola, Marzio; Dimitrov, Gabriel; Carotta, Maria

    2013-10-01

    A number of conditions have been associated with functional changes of large arteries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with aortic stiffness in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The authors studied 86 patients with PAD (ankle-brachial pressure index [ABPI] ≤0.9) and 86 controls. Aortic stiffness was determined by pulse wave velocity (aPWV) using applanation tonometry. In PAD patients, aPWV was higher compared with controls (11 ± 3 vs 9.8 ± 1.8; P=.002). In multiple regression analysis, aPWV was independently associated with pulse pressure (β=0.05, P=.01) in the PAD patients and with age in the control group (β=0.08, P=.0005). The results of this study confirm an aPWV increase in patients with PAD and emphasize the association between blood pressure and aPWV. Further studies are necessary to assess whether higher aortic stiffening adds prognostic value to ABPI, which is the most powerful prognostic indicator in PAD. PMID:24088278

  20. Reversal of HO-1 related cytoprotection with increased expression is due to reactive iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttner, D M; Dennery, P A

    1999-10-01

    It is often postulated that the cytoprotective nature of heme oxygenase (HO-1) explains the inducible nature of this enzyme. However, the mechanisms by which protection occurs are not verified by systematic evaluation of the physiological effects of HO. To explain how induction of HO-1 results in protection against oxygen toxicity, hamster fibroblasts (HA-1) were stably transfected with a tetracycline response plasmid containing the full-length rat HO-1 cDNA construct to allow for regulation of gene expression by varying concentrations of doxycycline (Dox). Transfected cells were exposed to hyperoxia (95% O(2)/5% CO2) for 24 h and several markers of oxidative injury were measured. With varying concentrations of Dox, HO activity was regulated between 3- and 17-fold. Despite cytoprotection with low (less than fivefold) HO activity, high levels of HO-1 expression (greater than 15-fold) were associated with significant oxygen cytotoxicity. Levels of non-heme reactive iron correlated with cellular injury in hyperoxia whereas lower levels of heme were associated with cytoprotection. Cellular levels of cyclic GMP and bilirubin were not significantly altered by modification of HO activity, precluding a substantial role for activation of guanylate cyclase by carbon monoxide or for accumulation of bile pigments in the physiological consequences of HO-1 overexpression. Inhibition of HO activity or chelation of cellular iron prior to hyperoxic exposure decreased reactive iron levels in the samples and significantly reduced oxygen toxicity. We conclude that there is a beneficial threshold of HO-1 overexpression related to the accumulation of reactive iron released in the degradation of heme. Therefore, despite the ready induction of HO-1 in oxidant stress, accumulation of reactive iron formed makes it unlikely that exaggerated expression of HO-1 is a cytoprotective response. PMID:10506583

  1. Warming Ocean Conditions Relate to Increased Trophic Requirements of Threatened and Endangered Salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Daly

    Full Text Available The trophic habits, size and condition of yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha caught early in their marine residence were examined during 19 survey years (1981-1985; 1998-2011. Juvenile salmon consumed distinct highly piscivorous diets in cold and warm ocean regimes with major differences between ocean regimes driven by changes in consumption of juvenile rockfishes, followed by several other fish prey, adult euphausiids and decapod larvae. Notable, Chinook salmon consumed 30% more food in the warm versus cold ocean regime in both May and June. Additionally, there were about 30% fewer empty stomachs in the warm ocean regime in May, and 10% fewer in warm June periods. The total prey energy density consumed during the warmer ocean regime was also significantly higher than in cold. Chinook salmon had lower condition factor and were smaller in fork length during the warm ocean regime, and were longer and heavier for their size during the cold ocean regime. The significant increase in foraging during the warm ocean regime occurred concurrently with lower available prey biomass. Adult return rates of juvenile Chinook salmon that entered the ocean during a warm ocean regime were lower. Notably, our long term data set contradicts the long held assertion that juvenile salmon eat less in a warm ocean regime when low growth and survival is observed, and when available prey are reduced. Comparing diet changes between decades under variable ocean conditions may assist us in understanding the effects of projected warming ocean regimes on juvenile Chinook salmon and their survival in the ocean environment. Bioenergetically, the salmon appear to require more food resources during warm ocean regimes.

  2. Acute Supramaximal Exercise Increases the Brain Oxygenation in Relation to Cognitive Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediz, Cem Seref; Oniz, Adile; Guducu, Cagdas; Ural Demirci, Enise; Ogut, Hilmi; Gunay, Erkan; Cetinkaya, Caner; Ozgoren, Murat

    2016-01-01

    total-Hb). The magnitude of this impact might be related with the physical performance capacities of the individuals. This can become a valuable parameter for future studies on human factor. PMID:27148022

  3. Acute supramaximal exercise increases the brain oxygenation in relation to cognitive workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Seref Bediz

    2016-04-01

    responses (oxy-, deoxy- and total-Hb. The magnitude of this impact might be related with the physical performance capacities of the individuals. This can become a valuable parameter for future studies on human factor.

  4. Age-related effects of increasing postural challenge on eye movement onset latencies to visual targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Sergio; Hollands, Mark; Palmisano, Stephen; Kim, Juno; Markoulli, Maria; McAndrew, Darryl; Stamenkovic, Alexander; Walsh, Joel; Bos, Sophie; Stapley, Paul J

    2016-06-01

    When a single light cue is given in the visual field, our eyes orient towards it with an average latency of 200 ms. If a second cue is presented at or around the time of the response to the first, a secondary eye movement occurs that represents a reorientation to the new target. While studies have shown that eye movement latencies to 'single-step' targets may or may not be lengthened with age, secondary eye movements (during 'double-step' displacements) are significantly delayed with increasing age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the postural challenge posed simply by standing (as opposed to sitting) results in significantly longer eye movement latencies in older adults compared to the young. Ten young (65 years) participated in the study. They were required to fixate upon a central target and move their eyes in response to 2 types of stimuli: (1) a single-step perturbation of target position either 15° to the right or left and (2) a double-step target displacement incorporating an initial target jump to the right or left by 15°, followed after 200 ms, by a shift of target position to the opposite side (e.g. +15° then -15°). All target displacement conditions were executed in sit and stand positions with the participant at the same distance from the targets. Eye movements were recorded using electro-oculography. Older adults did not show significantly longer eye movement latencies than the younger adults for single-step target displacements, and postural configuration (stand compared to sit) had no effect upon latencies for either group. We categorised double-step trials into those during which the second light changed after or before the onset of the eye shift to the first light. For the former category, young participants showed faster secondary eye shifts to the second light in the standing position, while the older adults did not. For the latter category of double-step trial, young participants showed no significant difference between

  5. Analysis of test result for 204 brucellosis cases%204例布氏杆菌病实验室检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋耀丽; 张俊杰; 牛国永; 刘伟伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective Based on the result of laboratory test, the diagnosis for brucelosis was determined, in order to sup-port of trend prediction and making control measures for brucelosis.Methods According to the experimental diagnostic criteria for brucellosis, the combined detection of tiger red plate agglutination test ( RBPT) and serum agglutination test ( SAT) was performed in detection of brucella antibody on infected cases, suspected cases and related conective individu-als.Results The brucella antibody were detected in 204 cases among all of 470 subjects,with a positive rate 43.4%. Among the brucellosis cases, the ratio of male to female was 1.62 ∶1, cases in 40 to 69 years age accounted for 75.49%, farmers accounted for 40.69%, slaughter workers accounted for 32.35%.Conclusions It is to strengthen control brucel-losis measures to the individuals engaged in aquaculture and animal husbandry, and improve their awareness of self-protec-tion.%目的:通过实验室检测,发现布氏杆菌感染者,掌握疫情动态,为预测布氏杆菌病流行趋势、制订防治对策提供依据。方法根据布氏杆菌病实验室诊断标准,利用虎红平板凝集试验(RBPT)和试管凝集试验(SAT)相结合的试验方法,对布氏杆菌病疑似病例和有接触史等的人员进行布氏杆菌抗体检测。结果在470例监测对象中,布氏杆菌抗体阳性病例204例,阳性率43.4%。在阳性病例中,男女性别比为1.62∶1;40~69岁年龄组占75.49%;畜牧养殖人员占40.69%,屠宰作业者占32.35%。结论应加强对养殖业和畜牧业人员的预防控制工作,提高其自我防护意识。

  6. Ruminant brucellosis in the Kafr El Sheikh Governorate of the Nile Delta, Egypt: prevalence of a neglected zoonosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamen M Hegazy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a neglected tropical zoonosis allegedly reemerging in Middle Eastern countries. Infected ruminants are the primary source of human infection; consequently, estimates of the frequency of ruminant brucellosis are useful elements for building effective control strategies. Unfortunately, these estimates are lacking in most Middle East countries including Egypt. Our objectives are to estimate the frequency of ruminant brucellosis and to describe its spatial distribution in Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, Nile Delta, Egypt. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in which 791 sheep, 383 goats, 188 cattle milk tanks and 173 buffalo milk tanks were randomly selected in 40 villages and tested for the presence of antibodies against Brucella spp. The seroprevalence among different species was estimated and visualized using choropleth maps. A spatial scanning method was used to identify areas with significantly higher proportions of seropositive flocks and milk tanks. We estimated that 12.2% of sheep and 11.3% of goats in the study area were seropositive against Brucella spp. and that 12.2% and 12% of cattle and buffalo milk tanks had antibodies against Brucella spp. The southern part of the governorate had the highest seroprevalence with significant spatial clustering of seropositive flocks in the proximity of its capital and around the main animal markets. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Our study revealed that brucellosis is endemic at high levels in all ruminant species in the study area and questions the efficacy of the control measures in place. The high intensity of infection transmission among ruminants combined with high livestock and human density and widespread marketing of unpasteurized milk and dairy products may explain why Egypt has one of the highest rates of human brucellosis worldwide. An effective integrated human-animal brucellosis control strategy is urgently needed. If resources are not

  7. Survey of Serum Zinc and Copper Levels in the Patients with Brucellosis and Comparing with Healthy Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Eini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection. Metabolism of trace elements such as zinc and copper can influence the response of immunity system and can activate host 's immunochemical mechanisms against the organism. Therefore, this study aimed to determine changes in serum levels of Zn and Cu in patients with brucellosis in pre and post treatment compared with healthy persons. Methods: In this individual matched case-control study, 26 patients participated who were admitted to infectious unit of Farshchian Hospital with brucellosis. Moreover, 26 healthy individuals were included in the control group. 5mL of venous blood was taken from all cases in pre-treatment as well post-treatment. Then, the serum samples were diluted with deionized water, and Cu and Zn levels were measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: In this study, 26 patients with brucellosis were enrolled, who were 13 men (50% and 13 women (50%. No significant difference was observed between the patients and the control group in regard with their age and sex. Serum level of Cu in patients with brucellosis was found to be 100.31µg/dl and 92.81µg/dl, respectively before and after the treatment (P=0.495. Serum level of Cu in healthy individuals was reported to be 97.96µg/dl. In addition, serum level of Zn in the patients and controls was 93 µg/dl and 96.38 µg/dl, respectively (P= 0.625. Patients' Zn Serum level was found to be 90.27µg/dl after the treatment. Conclusion: In this study, no significant changes were observed in serum levels of copper and zinc in the patients with brucellosis in comparison with the control group. Besides, no significant changes were reported in serum levels of these elements in the patients in the end of treatment.

  8. The Long-Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    experiment from 1984 in Denmark when the leave length was increased quite suddenly by almost 50% from 14 to 20 weeks. Regression discontinuity design is used to identify the causal effect of the leave reform and to estimate whether there is a measurable, persistent effect on children's cognitive and...... educational outcomes at ages 15 and 21. A population sample of Danish children born in the months around implementation of the reform and a dataset with Danish PISA-2000 scores are used for the analysis. Results indicate that increasing parents' access to birth-related leave has no measurable effect on......The length of parents' birth-related leave varies across countries and has been subject of some debate. In this paper, I will focus on some potential benefits of leave. I investigate the long-term effects on children of increasing the length of parents' birth-related leave using a natural...

  9. Reduction of pain-related fear and increased function and participation in work-related upper extremity pain (WRUEP): effects of exposure in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jeroen R; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; van Eijsden, Marjon; Loo, Christoph; Onghena, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that pain-related fear influences the development and maintenance of pain disability, presumably mediated through the fear-related avoidance of valued activities. Individually tailored graded exposure in vivo (GEXP) has been demonstrated to reduce pain-related fear and increase functional abilities in patients with chronic low back pain, neck pain, and complex regional pain syndrome. The current study aimed to test whether these effects generalize towards patients with work-related upper extremity pain. A sequential replicated and randomized single-case experimental phase design with multiple measurements was used. Within each participant, GEXP was compared to a no-treatment baseline period and a no-treatment 6-month follow-up period. Eight patients who reported a high level of pain-related fear were included in the study. Daily changes in pain catastrophizing, pain-related fear, and pain intensity were assessed using a diary, and subjected to randomization tests. Before the start of the baseline period, just after GEXP, and at 6-month follow-up, clinically relevant changes of pain catastrophizing, pain-related fear, perceived harmfulness of physical activity, pain disability, and participation/autonomy were verified. When GEXP was introduced, levels of pain catastrophizing and pain-related fear decreased significantly. Clinically relevant improvements were observed for pain disability, perceived participation, and autonomy. These favourable changes were maintained until 6-month follow-up. The findings of the current study underscore the external validity of a cognitive-behavioural GEXP treatment for patients with chronic pain reporting increased pain-related fear. PMID:22902198

  10. Increased levels of deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in active bacteria-related appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaemmerer, Elke; Schneider, Ursula; Klaus, Christina; Plum, Patrick; Reinartz, Andrea; Adolf, Maximilian; Renner, Marcus; Wolfs, Tim G A M; Kramer, Boris W; Wagner, Norbert; Mollenhauer, Jan; Gassler, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    Kaemmerer E, Schneider U, Klaus C, Plum P, Reinartz A, Adolf M, Renner M, Wolfs T G A M, Kramer B W, Wagner N, Mollenhauer J & Gassler N (2012) Histopathology Increased levels of deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in active bacteria-related appendicitis Aims:  Deleted in malignant brain...... bacteria-related active intestinal inflammation such as appendicitis. Methods and results:  mRNA and protein levels of DMBT1 were analysed in surgical resections of 50 appendices (active inflammation: n = 25). In non-actively inflamed appendices, inter-individual differences in basal DMBT1 levels of...... enterocytes and some non-epithelial cells were found. In active appendicitis, enterocytic DMBT1 mRNA expression was increased approximately fivefold, which was paralleled by a corresponding increase of cytoplasmic and secreted DMBT1 protein levels. Increased DMBT1 expression was predominant in enterocytes...

  11. A Comparison of Immuncapture Agglutination and ELISA Methods in Serological Diagnosis of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özdemir, Bahadır Feyzioğlu, Muhammed Güzel Kurtoğlu, Metin Doğan, Hatice Türk Dağı, Şerife Yüksekkaya, Recep Keşli, Bülent Baysal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different serological tests are used in serologic diagnosis of brucellosis. The most widely used of these are Standard Tube Agglutination and Coombs anti-brucella tests. Whereas ELISA Ig M and Ig G tests have been in use for a long time, immuncapture agglutination test has been recently introduced and used in serological diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic values of ELISA Ig M and Ig G and immuncapture agglutination tests with Coombs anti-brucella test.Methods: Sera from 200 patients with presumptive diagnosis of brucellosis were included into the study. Coombs anti-brucella test, ELISA Ig M and Ig G tests and Immuncapture test were investigated in these sera. Then, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive and positive predictive values were calculated.Results: Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive and positive predictive values were found to be 90,6 %, 76,3 %, 94,2 %, and 65,9 % respectively for the Immuncapture test, whereas they were found to be 73,7 %, 58,9 %, 84,2 %, and 42,8 % for Ig G and 72,2 %, 67,8 %, 85,2 %, and 48,7 % for Ig M. The Immuncapture test was found to be compatible with ELISA Ig M and Ig G tests but it was statistically incompatible with Coombs anti-brucella test.Conclusions: Immuncapture agglutination test yields similar results to those of Coombs anti-brucella test. This test is a useful test by virtue of the fact that it determines blocking antibodies in the diagnosis and follow-up of brucellosis.

  12. A serological survey of brucellosis in wild ungulate species from five game parks in Zimbabwe

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    Tatenda R. Motsi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective serosurvey was carried out between 2009 and 2012 to detect antibodies to Brucella spp. in free-ranging African wildlife ungulates from five selected game parks in Zimbabwe. Samples were drawn from wildlife-livestock interface and non-interface areas in Zimbabwe. A total of 270 serum samples from four different species, namely African buffalo (Syncerus caffer (n=106, impala (Aepyceros melampus (n = 72, black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis (n= 45 and white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum (n = 47, were tested. The percentage of positive samples was 17.0% in buffalo (18/106; 95% CI: 9.72% – 24.1% and 1.4% in impala (1/72; 95% CI: 0% – 4.2%. No antibodies to Brucella spp. were detected in the two rhinoceros species. The difference in the percentage of seropositive cases between buffalo and impala was significant (p< 0.05. Seropositivity to Brucella spp. was higher (19.1% in adult buffalo compared with juveniles and sub-adults younger than six years (5.9%. Further, seropositivity was marginally higher (20.4% in animals from wildlife-livestock interface areas than in those from non-interface areas (13.45%; OR = 1.45 although the difference was not statistically significant. The study showed that brucellosis could be more widespread in buffalo and may circulate in this species independently in the absence of contact with cattle, whilst rhinoceros may be considered less susceptible to brucellosis. The role of the wildlife-livestock interface in the epidemiology of brucellosis in wildlife and livestock is probably overstated but needs to be explored further.

  13. Serological Follow up in 50 Brucellosis Cases in a Rural Area

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    Semra Özgümüş

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Brucellosis is an endemic and zoonotic disease in livestock farming areas. Patients may exhibit relapses, reinfections and multi-system complications. Therefore, early diagnosis, appropriate treatment as well as serological follow-up are extremely important in the management of this disease. Methods: We aimed to investigate the demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings and risk factors in 50 brucellosis cases (14 males, 36 females who were treated in Hakkari State Hospital. All patients were evaluated for post-treatment serological results. Results: The mean age of the patients was 35 years. The main clinical symptoms were arthralgia, fatigue, sweating, back pain, and headache. Fever, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and arthritis were the most common signs. Anemia, high level of AST and ALT, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, high sedimentation rate, and leukocytosis were found in laboratory tests. The Wright agglutination test was positive at titers of 1/160 in 18 cases, 1/320 in 22 cases, 1/640 in 3 cases, and 1/1280 in 7 cases. Twelve patients had relapse. One patient, who was a veterinarian, was infected via splashing live brucella vaccine into the eyes. Two women transmitted the disease to their babies through breast milk. At the end of the treatment, Wright agglutination test results were negative in all patients. Conclusion: The average duration of symptoms before the diagnosis was 4 months in our study. Therefore, brucellosis should be considered in all individuals who present with fever and arthralgia in endemic areas (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:139-42

  14. Comparison of Coombs' and immunocapture-agglutination tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurittin Ardic; Mustafa Ozyurt; Ogun Sezer; Ali Erdemoglu; Tuncer Haznedaroglu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella encountered in animals such as cows, sheep, goats and pigs as well as in humans. It is one of the most widely seen infections and nearly half a million cases are declared annually. Endemic infections occur especially in the Mediterranean, Middle East, Latin America and Asia.1 Seropositiveness ratios vary between 2% and 12% in Turkey.2 The average annual number of cases declared to the Turkish Ministry of Health between 1991 and 2000 was 9000.3

  15. A serological study of brucellosis in camels south of Kirkuk, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yawoz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the prevalence of antibodies to camel brucellosis has been carried out in the south of Kirkuk city during March 2011. A total of 66 camels (6 male, 60 female involved in this study with age between 6 months to 22 years. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein and the sera samples were screened by using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT. The sera that were positive by using RBPT have been tested again by using the 2-Mercaptoethanol (2ME test. The results of this study revealed that two camels from 66 camels (3.03% were seropositive for brucella antibodies in South of Kirkuk city.

  16. Adverse events in humans associated with accidental exposure to the livestock brucellosis vaccine RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, David A; di Pietra, Jennifer; Lingappa, Jairam; Woods, Christopher; Noll, Heather; Neville, Bridget; Weyant, Robbin; Bragg, Sandra L; Spiegel, Richard A; Tappero, Jordan; Perkins, Bradley A

    2004-09-01

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine, is an attenuated live bacterial vaccine that was licensed conditionally by the Center for Veterinary Biologics, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, on 23 February 1996, for vaccination of cattle in the United States. Accidental human inoculations can occur during vaccination of cattle, and previous live Brucella vaccines designed for cattle have been known to cause brucellosis in humans. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established passive surveillance for accidental inoculation with the RB51 vaccine in the United States to determine if this veterinary vaccine is associated with human disease, to describe the circumstances of accidental inoculation, to evaluate the potential efficacy of post-exposure chemoprophylaxis, and to develop recommendations for post-exposure management following exposure to RB51. Reports were received from 26 individuals. Accidental exposure to RB51 occurred by needle stick injury in 21 people (81%), conjunctival spray exposure in four (15%), and spray exposure of an open wound in one (4%) individual. At least one systemic symptom was reported in 19 (73%) people, including three (12%) who reported persistent local reactions with systemic involvement. One case required surgery, and B. abortus strain RB51 was isolated from the wound of that individual. Seven cases reported no adverse event associated with accidental exposure. Nine cases reported previous exposure to Brucella vaccines, including one case who also reported a previous diagnosis of brucellosis following exposure to S19 vaccine. Accidental needle stick injuries and conjunctival or open wound exposures of humans with the RB51 vaccine are associated with both local and systemic adverse events in the United States that are consistent with brucellosis; however, it remains undetermined if strain RB51 vaccine can cause systemic brucellosis in humans. Early culture attempts on those exposed and

  17. Disease and Behavioral Dynamics for Brucellosis in Elk and Cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Fang

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates private responses to policies that have been proposed to confront a human-wildlife conflict that likely emerged as a result of a management regime designed to address an earlier human-wildlife conflict. The artificial elk feeding which is intended to conserve wildlife and reduce elk predation on cattle forage, now led to the emergence of brucellosis in elk and has allowed it to become endemic, in turn imposing great risk to the livestock. We propose a joint model of wi...

  18. Higher language ability is related to angular gyrus activation increase during semantic processing, independent of sentence incongruency

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    Helene Van Ettinger-Veenstra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during processing of sentences. Moreover, we were interested if observed neural activation patterns are modulated by semantic incongruency similarly to previously observed changes upon syntactic congruency modulation. We investigated 27 healthy adults with a sentence reading task - which tapped language comprehension and inference, and modulated sentence congruency - employing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We assessed the relation between neural activation, congruency modulation, and test performance on a high-level language ability assessment with multiple regression analysis. Our results showed increased activation in the left-hemispheric angular gyrus extending to the temporal lobe related to high language ability. This effect was independent of semantic congruency, and no significant relation between language ability and incongruency modulation was observed. Furthermore, a significant increase of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally when the sentences were incongruent, indicating that processing incongruent sentences was more demanding than processing congruent sentences and required increased activation in language regions. The correlation of high-level language ability with increased rather than decreased activation in the left angular gyrus, a region specific for language processing is opposed to what the neural efficiency hypothesis would predict. We can conclude that there is no evidence found for an interaction between semantic congruency related brain activation and high-level language performance, even though the semantic incongruent condition shows to be more demanding and evoking more neural activation.

  19. Increased treatment-related mortality with additional cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with standard radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purposes: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the overall risk of treatment-related death associated with additional cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with standard radiotherapy. Material and methods: Eligible studies included RCTs in which cisplatin-based chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy was compared with radiotherapy alone. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the summary incidence rates, relative risks (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using fixed- or random-effects models based on the heterogeneity of included studies. Results: A total of 2829 patients from 13 RCTs were included in this study. The overall incidence for treatment-related death in chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy treated patients was 1.7% and 0.8%. Compared to radiotherapy alone, radiotherapy plus cisplatin-based chemotherapy significantly increased the risk of treatment-related mortality. On subgroup analyses, no difference was found in treatment-related mortality between different timings of chemotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents. Adding cisplatin-based chemotherapy was associated with higher incidences of severe acute toxicity. Conclusions: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy plus radiotherapy increased the risk of treatment-related death and severe acute toxicity, compared with radiotherapy alone. Better management of treatment toxicity might improve the therapeutic gain in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  20. Epidemic analysis of brucellosis in Datong of Shanxi province between 2006 and 2009%2006-2009年山西省大同市布鲁杆菌病流行现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高学萍; 李振宇; 郭曼卿; 吴文华; 邢月珍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemic situation of brucellosis in Datong city, and to provide scientific evidence for making appropriate prevention and control measures. Methods Surveillance data of human brucellosis in 7 countris and 4 districts in Datong city between 2006 and 2009 were collected, throng the national network straight quote system in an infectious diseases. Excel database was established and all data were statistically analyzed. Incidence of brucellosis in local population was analyzed. The regional distribution, time distribution,occupation, age and sex distribution were analyzed. Epidemic characteristics and trend of brucellosis in Datong city were summarized. Results A total of 5195 cases of brucellosis patients in Datong were found between 2006 and 2009, the average incidence rate was 57.51/10 million. All counties had the disease, and the onset of the disease mainly in the spring and summer. Most cases were young males. Farmer case was 81.67%(4243/5195) of the total patients. Conclusions From 2006 to 2009, epidemic characteristic of Datong human brucellosis is"high-low-high"(incidence). We suggests the Department concerned to strengthen the prevention and control of the disease in some counties, focusing on spreading of disease prevention and control knowledge among farmers and increase their self-protection awareness.%目的 了解大同市布鲁杆菌病(简称布病)流行现状,为制订预防决策提供科学依据。方法 通过全国传染病疫情网络直报系统,收集整理2006 - 2009年大同市7个县4个区人间布病疫情监测资料,建立Excel数据库,对全部数据进行统计分析。分析当地人群布病发病率,发病人群的地区分布、时间分布、职业分布、年龄性别分布,总结大同市人间布病流行趋势及特点。结果 2006 - 2009年大同市共发生布病5195例,平均发病率为57.51/10万。各县(区)均有发病,发病时间以春、夏季为主,发