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Sample records for brucellosis increases relative

  1. Mapping brucellosis increases relative to elk density using hierarchical Bayesian models

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    Cross, Paul C.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Edwards, William H.; Brennan, Angela; Ebinger, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between host density and parasite transmission is central to the effectiveness of many disease management strategies. Few studies, however, have empirically estimated this relationship particularly in large mammals. We applied hierarchical Bayesian methods to a 19-year dataset of over 6400 brucellosis tests of adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming. Management captures that occurred from January to March were over two times more likely to be seropositive than hunted elk that were killed in September to December, while accounting for site and year effects. Areas with supplemental feeding grounds for elk had higher seroprevalence in 1991 than other regions, but by 2009 many areas distant from the feeding grounds were of comparable seroprevalence. The increases in brucellosis seroprevalence were correlated with elk densities at the elk management unit, or hunt area, scale (mean 2070 km2; range = [95–10237]). The data, however, could not differentiate among linear and non-linear effects of host density. Therefore, control efforts that focus on reducing elk densities at a broad spatial scale were only weakly supported. Additional research on how a few, large groups within a region may be driving disease dynamics is needed for more targeted and effective management interventions. Brucellosis appears to be expanding its range into new regions and elk populations, which is likely to further complicate the United States brucellosis eradication program. This study is an example of how the dynamics of host populations can affect their ability to serve as disease reservoirs.

  2. Mapping brucellosis increases relative to elk density using hierarchical Bayesian models.

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    Paul C Cross

    Full Text Available The relationship between host density and parasite transmission is central to the effectiveness of many disease management strategies. Few studies, however, have empirically estimated this relationship particularly in large mammals. We applied hierarchical Bayesian methods to a 19-year dataset of over 6400 brucellosis tests of adult female elk (Cervus elaphus in northwestern Wyoming. Management captures that occurred from January to March were over two times more likely to be seropositive than hunted elk that were killed in September to December, while accounting for site and year effects. Areas with supplemental feeding grounds for elk had higher seroprevalence in 1991 than other regions, but by 2009 many areas distant from the feeding grounds were of comparable seroprevalence. The increases in brucellosis seroprevalence were correlated with elk densities at the elk management unit, or hunt area, scale (mean 2070 km(2; range = [95-10237]. The data, however, could not differentiate among linear and non-linear effects of host density. Therefore, control efforts that focus on reducing elk densities at a broad spatial scale were only weakly supported. Additional research on how a few, large groups within a region may be driving disease dynamics is needed for more targeted and effective management interventions. Brucellosis appears to be expanding its range into new regions and elk populations, which is likely to further complicate the United States brucellosis eradication program. This study is an example of how the dynamics of host populations can affect their ability to serve as disease reservoirs.

  3. Brucellosis

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000597.htm Brucellosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Brucellosis is an infectious disease that occurs from contact ...

  4. Milk production increase in a dairy farm under a six-year Brucellosis control program.

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    Herrera, Enrique; Palomares, Gabriela; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén

    2008-12-01

    relation existed between the application of a program of brucellosis control and the increase in milk production.

  5. Increasing Threat of Brucellosis to Low-Risk Persons in Urban Settings, China

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    Chen, Shouyi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Xiaoning; Wang, Wenjing; Hou, Shuiping; Li, Tingting; Zhao, Shuoxian; Yang,Zhicong; Li, Chengyao

    2014-01-01

    Cases of brucellosis were diagnosed in 3-month-old twins and their mother. An epidemiologic survey suggested that raw sheep or goat meat might be the source of Brucella melitensis infection. This finding implies that the increasing threat of brucellosis might affect low-risk persons in urban settings in China.

  6. Probable causes of increasing brucellosis in free-ranging elk of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

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    Cross, P.C.; Cole, E.K.; Dobson, A.P.; Edwards, W.H.; Hamlin, K.L.; Luikart, G.; Middleton, A.D.; Scurlock, B.M.; White, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    While many wildlife species are threatened, some populations have recovered from previous overexploitation, and data linking these population increases with disease dynamics are limited. We present data suggesting that free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) are a maintenance host for Brucella abortus in new areas of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Brucellosis seroprevalence in free-ranging elk increased from 0-7% in 1991-1992 to 8-20% in 2006-2007 in four of six herd units around the GYE. These levels of brucellosis are comparable to some herd units where elk are artificially aggregated on supplemental feeding grounds. There are several possible mechanisms for this increase that we evaluated using statistical and population modeling approaches. Simulations of an age-structured population model suggest that the observed levels of seroprevalence are unlikely to be sustained by dispersal from supplemental feeding areas with relatively high seroprevalence or an older age structure. Increases in brucellosis seroprevalence and the total elk population size in areas with feeding grounds have not been statistically detectable. Meanwhile, the rate of seroprevalence increase outside the feeding grounds was related to the population size and density of each herd unit. Therefore, the data suggest that enhanced elk-to-elk transmission in free-ranging populations may be occurring due to larger winter elk aggregations. Elk populations inside and outside of the GYE that traditionally did not maintain brucellosis may now be at risk due to recent population increases. In particular, some neighboring populations of Montana elk were 5-9 times larger in 2007 than in the 1970s, with some aggregations comparable to the Wyoming feeding-ground populations. Addressing the unintended consequences of these increasing populations is complicated by limited hunter access to private lands, which places many ungulate populations out of administrative control. Agency-landowner hunting access

  7. Outbreaks of brucellosis related to the consumption of unpasteurized camel milk.

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    Garcell, Humberto G; Garcia, Elias G; Pueyo, Pedro V; Martín, Isis R; Arias, Ariadna V; Alfonso Serrano, Ramon N

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is the most frequent zoonosis reported in Qatar, mainly related to exposure to infected camels. An outbreak of human brucellosis in 14 members of a family living in a rural area in Qatar is reported herein. Clinical, epidemiological and laboratory results from all 14 patients with Brucella and 12 non-confirmed family members were collected from files. All patients reported fever for a maximum of 14 days, associated with arthralgia (6 patients), weakness (4 patients), headache (4 patients), diarrhea (2 patients) and abdominal pain (2 patients). The median age of the patients was 10 years and that of non-cases was 16 years, with a predominance of males (92.9%). Elevated levels of transaminases were observed in patients. A mixed infection caused by Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis was identified by blood culture and serology. The source of the infection was the milk of an infected camel. The outbreak of brucellosis melitensis/abortus related to the consumption of camel milk constitutes a gap in the prevention and control of the potential sources of brucellosis in animal farms. Proper control and education of the population are required.

  8. Human brucellosis in Maghreb: existence of a lineage related to socio-historical connections with Europe.

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    Lounes, Nedjma; Cherfa, Moulay-Ali; Le Carrou, Gilles; Bouyoucef, Abdellah; Jay, Maryne; Garin-Bastuji, Bruno; Mick, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Despite control/eradication programs, brucellosis, major worldwide zoonosis due to the Brucella genus, is endemic in Northern Africa and remains a major public health problem in the Maghreb region (Algeria/Morocco/Tunisia). Brucella melitensis biovar 3 is mostly involved in human infections and infects mainly small ruminants. Human and animal brucellosis occurrence in the Maghreb seems still underestimated and its epidemiological situation remains hazy. This study summarizes official data, regarding Brucella melitensis infections in Algeria, from 1989 to 2012, with the purpose to provide appropriate insights concerning the epidemiological situation of human and small ruminant brucellosis in Maghreb. Algeria and Europe are closely linked for historical and economical reasons. These historical connections raise the question of their possible impact on the genetic variability of Brucella strains circulating in the Maghreb. Other purpose of this study was to assess the genetic diversity among Maghreb B. melitensis biovar 3 strains, and to investigate their possible epidemiological relationship with European strains, especially with French strains. A total of 90 B. melitensis biovar 3 Maghreb strains isolated over a 25 year-period (1989-2014), mainly from humans, were analysed by MLVA-16. The obtained results were compared with genotypes of European B. melitensis biovar 3 strains. Molecular assays showed that Algerian strains were mainly distributed into two distinct clusters, one Algerian cluster related to European sub-cluster. These results led to suggest the existence of a lineage resulting from socio-historical connections between Algeria and Europe that might have evolved distinctly from the Maghreb autochthonous group. This study provides insights regarding the epidemiological situation of human brucellosis in the Maghreb and is the first molecular investigation regarding B. melitensis biovar 3 strains circulating in the Maghreb.

  9. Brucellosis in San Diego: epidemiology and species-related differences in acute clinical presentations.

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    Troy, Stephanie B; Rickman, Leland S; Davis, Charles E

    2005-05-01

    Although aggressive public health measures have greatly reduced the number of brucellosis cases in the United States, there is a resurgence of interest in this worldwide zoonosis because of its potential as a bioweapon and its 8-fold higher incidence in California, Texas, and the other borderlands between the United States and Mexico compared with the national rate. Accordingly, we reviewed the clinical records of 28 patients diagnosed at a university hospital in San Diego, CA, between 1979 and 2002 to look for new epidemiologic trends and to test the hypothesis that there are species-specific differences in clinical presentations. In contrast to the latest California-wide study completed in 1992, Brucella abortus infections were more common (73%) than Brucella melitensis after 1992, and women were more commonly infected (77% compared with 39%) than men. Major risk factors remained Hispanic ethnicity, travel to Mexico, and ingestion of nonpasteurized dairy products. Analysis of diagnostic procedures suggested that the traditional practice of prolonged incubation of blood cultures increased their sensitivity for Brucella, even in automated radiometric systems. Direct comparison of the clinical manifestations of infections with B. abortus and B. melitensis strongly supported differences in acute presentations. B. melitensis presented more acutely as fevers of unknown origin with statistically significant higher rates of abdominal tenderness, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, and hepatic dysfunction. These results suggest that the epidemiology of brucellosis in California may be evolving, and they show, to our knowledge for the first time in a single series, that species-specific differences in presentations may account for some of the protean manifestations of brucellosis. Familiarity with manifestations of brucellosis and the optimal laboratory techniques for its diagnosis could help physicians protect the public against this reemerging

  10. [Seroepidemiology of brucellosis in Mexico].

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    López-Merino, A; Migranas-Ortiz, R; Pérez-Miravete, A; Magos, C; Salvatierra-Izaba, B; Tapia-Conyer, R; Valdespino, J L; Sepúlveda, J

    1992-01-01

    Brucellosis is an important and widely distributed zoonosis in Mexican cattle which also affects an unknown proportion of the human population. This report presents the brucellosis antibody levels registered in the National Seroepidemiology Survey (NAS) in sera obtained from 66,982 healthy persons from one to 98 years of age and determined by the test of plaque microagglutination. Seroprevalences by states ranged from 0.24 per cent in Morelos to 13.5 per cent in the state of Mexico. The national mean was estimated to be 3.42 per cent. The analysis showed no statistical differences for brucellosis antibody levels by urban and rural residence and by density of family sleeping areas (three or more persons vs. one or two persons per bedroom). Adults between 20 and 39 years of age had greater seropositivity and children from one to nine years had the least. Women were most affected and had 48 per cent more seropositivity than men. According to the information obtained in the study, brucellosis in Mexico has the following characteristics: it is related to gender but not to occupation; affects persons in all age groups, social strata and is independent of size of the community of residence. Historically, brucellosis has been an endemic disease in Mexico. Recently an increasing incidence has been reported, and this is possibly due to a better national notification system.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) relating to brucellosis in smallholder dairy farmers in two provinces in Pakistan

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    Arif, Shumaila; Thomson, Peter C.; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; McGill, David M.; Warriach, Hassan Mahmood; Heller, Jane

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the extent of knowledge and understanding of brucellosis in smallholder dairy farmers and identify practices at the farm and household level that might pose a risk for humans contracting brucellosis. Between February and June 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted among smallholder farms (n = 420) in five districts of Punjab and two districts of Sindh province. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain information on farmers’ knowledge about brucellosis and the potential risks for contracting the disease that are present for dairy farmers and their families. Logistic regression and ordinal logistic models were used to investigate potential predictors for risky behaviours. The results show almost all farmers (97%) were not aware of the modes of transmission of brucellosis. Relating to risk, the majority (66%) of the farmers’ families were reported to consume raw milk and its products, live in shared housing with animals (49%) and not cover hand cuts during contact with animals (74%). All farmers performed at least one risky practice on a regular basis for brucellosis transmission from animal to human. A multivariable analysis highlighted that the respondents with no formal education and those who had not heard of the disease displayed greater risky behaviour. Poor understanding of the disease, presence of multiple risky practices on farm and at the household, and incorrect perception supports the need for an educational awareness program in order to ensure uptake of improved practices. PMID:28301498

  12. Meningoencephalitis in brucellosis.

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    Kochar D

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis, more specifically neurobrucellosis, is a less commonly reported disease in India; although, animal brucellosis and seroprevalence in specific areas is well reported. We are reporting 4 cases of neurobrucellosis presenting as meningoencephalitis. Diagnosis was confirmed by serological test and agglutination titre was > 1:320 in all the patients. All these patients had close contact with animals and history of raw milk ingestion was present in 3 cases. The aim of presenting these cases is to create awareness among physicians while treating meningitis in persons, engaged in occupations related to brucellosis or having a history of ingestion of raw milk or milk product.

  13. Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria.

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    Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Alabi, Peter I; Stack, Judy A; Cadmus, Simeon I B

    2013-03-06

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5%) of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262). Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations.

  14. Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria

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    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH and livestock marketers (LM in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5% of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262. Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05. In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations.

  15. Spinal brucellosis.

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    Tali, E Turgut; Koc, A Murat; Oner, A Yusuf

    2015-05-01

    Spinal involvement in human brucellosis is a common condition and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in endemic areas, because it is often associated with therapeutic failure. Most chronic brucellosis cases are the result of inadequate treatment of the initial episode. Recognition of spinal brucellosis is challenging. Early diagnosis is important to ensure proper treatment and decrease morbidity and mortality. Radiologic evaluation has gained importance in diagnosis and treatment planning, including interventional procedures and monitoring of all spinal infections.

  16. Spinal brucellosis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelli Bouaziz, Mouna; Ladeb, Mohamed Fethi; Chakroun, Mohamed; Chaabane, Skander [Institut M T Kassab d' orthopedie, Department of Radiology, Ksar Said (Tunisia)

    2008-09-15

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, relatively frequent in Mediterranean countries and in the Middle East. It is a systemic infection, caused by facultative intra-cellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, that can involve many organs and tissues. The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement, followed by the sacroiliac joints. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and imaging features of spinal brucellosis. (orig.)

  17. A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to brucellosis among small-scale dairy farmers in an urban and peri-urban area of Tajikistan.

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    Lindahl, Elisabeth; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of knowledge, attitudes and practices among urban livestock farmers could have a significant impact on the reduction of many zoonotic infections in urban farming. This study aimed to describe and evaluate weak areas in knowledge, attitudes and practices with regards to brucellosis among urban and peri-urban small-scale dairy farmers in a low income country to generate information essential for control programmes and public health interventions. The cross-sectional study was conducted during six weeks in 2011. The study subjects were small-scale dairy farmers living in the urban and peri-urban area of the capital Dushanbe in Tajikistan. In total, 441 farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with questions about demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to brucellosis. Descriptive statistics were used and a logistic regression model applied to evaluate potential predictors to knowledge about brucellosis. The majority (85%) of the farmers had never heard of brucellosis. Low educational level was found to be associated with low awareness of brucellosis (P = brucellosis compared to those who often talked to veterinarians (P = 0.03). Sixty three per cent of the participants wanted more information about brucellosis. Seventeen per cent sold unpasteurized dairy products on a regular basis direct to consumers. Almost 30% of the households consumed unpasteurized dairy products on regular basis. A majority of the respondents did not use any protection when handling cows having an abortion or when dealing with aborted materials. Poor knowledge, high-risk behaviours and a willingness to learn more strengthens the logic for including health education as part of control programmes.

  18. A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to brucellosis among small-scale dairy farmers in an urban and peri-urban area of Tajikistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Lindahl

    Full Text Available Improvement of knowledge, attitudes and practices among urban livestock farmers could have a significant impact on the reduction of many zoonotic infections in urban farming. This study aimed to describe and evaluate weak areas in knowledge, attitudes and practices with regards to brucellosis among urban and peri-urban small-scale dairy farmers in a low income country to generate information essential for control programmes and public health interventions. The cross-sectional study was conducted during six weeks in 2011. The study subjects were small-scale dairy farmers living in the urban and peri-urban area of the capital Dushanbe in Tajikistan. In total, 441 farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with questions about demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to brucellosis. Descriptive statistics were used and a logistic regression model applied to evaluate potential predictors to knowledge about brucellosis. The majority (85% of the farmers had never heard of brucellosis. Low educational level was found to be associated with low awareness of brucellosis (P = < 0.001. Respondents who talked about animal health issues with family members or friends were less likely to have heard of brucellosis compared to those who often talked to veterinarians (P = 0.03. Sixty three per cent of the participants wanted more information about brucellosis. Seventeen per cent sold unpasteurized dairy products on a regular basis direct to consumers. Almost 30% of the households consumed unpasteurized dairy products on regular basis. A majority of the respondents did not use any protection when handling cows having an abortion or when dealing with aborted materials. Poor knowledge, high-risk behaviours and a willingness to learn more strengthens the logic for including health education as part of control programmes.

  19. Brucella ceti and brucellosis in cetaceans

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    Edgardo eMoreno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the first case of brucellosis detected in a dolphin aborted fetus, an increasing number of Brucella ceti isolates has been reported in members of the two suborders of cetaceans: Mysticeti and Odontoceti. Serological surveys have shown that cetacean brucellosis may be distributed worldwide in the oceans. Although all B. ceti isolates have been included within the same species, three different groups have been recognized according to their preferred host, bacteriological properties and distinct genetic traits: B. ceti dolphin type, B. ceti porpoise type and B. ceti human type. It seems that B. ceti porpoise type is more closely related to B. ceti human isolates and B. pinnipedialis group, while B. ceti dolphin type seems ancestral to them. Based on comparative phylogenetic analysis, it is feasible that the B. ceti ancestor radiated in a terrestrial artiodactyl host close to the Raoellidae family about 58 million years ago. The more likely mode of transmission of B. ceti seems to be through sexual intercourse, maternal feeding, aborted fetuses, placental tissues, vertical transmission from mother to the fetus or through fish or helminth reservoirs. The B. ceti dolphin and porpoise types seem to display variable virulence in land animal models and low infectivity for humans. However, brucellosis in some dolphins and porpoises has been demonstrated to be a severe chronic disease, displaying significant clinical and pathological signs related to abortions, male infertility, neurobrucellosis, cardiopathies, bone and skin lesions, strandings and death.

  20. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  1. Skeletal brucellosis.

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    Patil, M Y; Antin, S M; Gupta, Abhishek

    2011-03-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial infection causing severe public and socioeconomic problem, most prevalent in human beings in those areas in which infection of cattle, dogs, pigs, and goats is common. Out of a total number of 100 patients, there were 65 males (65%) and 35 females (35%). Forty patients lost to follow-up. Detection of specific antibodies was done by brucella agglutination test. In majority of the patients the titre was 1:320; the highest titre was 1:2560 and least titre was 1:40. All the patients were treated by combination therapy of doxycycline 100 to 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 to 900 mg/day and streptomycin one g/day (for high titres above 600 IU) for six weeks. To check the efficacy of treatment the titres were repeated after four weeks, in 42 (70%) the titres were negative, 1:40 in 8 (13%), 1:80 in 4 (7%), 1:160 in 4 (7%) and 1:640 in 2 (3%). Brucella is a zoonotic disease and found most commonly in person who handles the animal most frequently but can occur in other persons also by other modes of infection. The most common joint involved was sacro-iliac joint in 31 (52%) and least common joints involved were ankle and elbow 2 (3%) each. The patients responded well to three-drug regimen and their antibody titre came down drastically following four weeks of treatment.

  2. Valvular Involvement in Brucellosis

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    Dohaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Brucella endocarditis, although an uncommon complication of brucellosis, is the main cause of the mortality related to this disease. The best therapy is a combination of antibiotic administration with valve replacement. After treatment of the first episode of endocarditis, new infection may be occurred as a relapse or reinfection. Case Presentation In this report, we described a patient with brucella endocarditis complicated with a reinfection of the mechanical prosthetic valve after one year of follow-up. Conclusions Both medical and surgical management should be done for better treatment of brucella endocarditis. Repeat infection is a problem during follow-up.

  3. Brucellosis Vaccines: An Overview

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    Hasanjani-Roushan Mohammad Reza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is considered as an important zoonotic and worldwide infection with more than half of million human cases, which it occurs more and more in animals like as wild and live stocks. Sheep, cattle, and goats are animal samples that listed. Symptoms of this disease in human are consisted of: undulant fever, back pains, faint, spondylitis, arthritis and orchitis. This infection causes abortion in livestock, and this point is one of the important economic losses. Reduction in milk production is another problem in this disease too. Materials and Methods: This study is conducted by reviewing of the literatures, which are related to this concern, and also visiting PubMed, ISI and other websites. Results: We must pay heed that most zoonoses are maintained in the animal reservoir. These diseases, such as leptospirosis, Q-fever, brucellosis etc. which among them brucellosis can transfer to human via close contact with infected animals or consumption of unpasteurized dairy. Therefore, eradication of this infection in human population is depended on omission of that in possible methods among animals reservoir. Such methods are like test-slaughter and vaccination of livestock. Hence, vaccination is not alone method for controlling, but it is probably economic one. Conclusion: Nowadays a vaccine which is effective for this disease control in human is not available. Of course presented some different vaccines for this infection in livestock that cleave live attenuated, killed bacteria and sub unit. Therefore, for eradication of this disease some vaccines with more effectiveness protection mid fewer side effects are necessary.

  4. The Brucellosis Eradication Program in Texas

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    1983-09-01

    r•. • -- J 4"•:,••’• ’W#,•Q ’-’• ’’ ... •.... . -•- . ’, .• ... • 61 than Area C herd owners. 12. BRUCELLOSIS INFECTION IN SWINE, GOAT , SHEEP AND...replacement heifers? 1. Yes 2. No 3. Not Sure 12. Were you aware that brucellosis could also infect swine, goats , sheep, dogs and horses? 1. Yes 2. No 3. Only...94.6 Not Sure 0 No Response 2 5.4 100.0 TOTAL 37 100.0 - - 102 Q 12 Area C - BRUCELLOSIS INFECTION IN SWINE. GOAT , SHEEP, HORSES RELATIVE CUM ABSOLUTE

  5. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

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    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-13

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification.

  6. MicroRNA Expression Patterns of CD8+ T Cells in Acute and Chronic Brucellosis

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    Budak, Ferah; Bal, S. Haldun; Tezcan, Gulcin; Guvenc, Furkan; Akalin, E. Halis; Goral, Guher; Deniz, Gunnur

    2016-01-01

    Although our knowledge about Brucella virulence factors and the host response increase rapidly, the mechanisms of immune evasion by the pathogen and causes of chronic disease are still unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the immunological factors which belong to CD8+ T cells and their roles in the transition of brucellosis from acute to chronic infection. Using miRNA microarray, more than 2000 miRNAs were screened in CD8+ T cells of patients with acute or chronic brucellosis and healthy controls that were sorted from peripheral blood with flow cytometry and validated through qRT-PCR. Findings were evaluated using GeneSpring GX (Agilent) 13.0 software and KEGG pathway analysis. Expression of two miRNAs were determined to display a significant fold change in chronic group when compared with acute or control groups. Both miRNAs (miR-126-5p and miR-4753-3p) were decreased (p 2). These miRNAs have the potential to be the regulators of CD8+ T cell-related marker genes for chronic brucellosis infections. The differentially expressed miRNAs and their predicted target genes are involved in MAPK signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, endocytosis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and focal adhesion indicating their potential roles in chronic brucellosis and its progression. It is the first study of miRNA expression analysis of human CD8+ T cells to clarify the mechanism of inveteracy in brucellosis. PMID:27824867

  7. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis and Risk Factors Related to High Risk Occupational Groups in Kazeroon, South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Taheri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a major zoonosis worldwide. Many people for their professions are at higher risk of contracting the disease.Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis and its risk factors in a group of high risk professions.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, all personnel or students of veterinary schools, slaughters and butchers working in the city were invited to participate (n=141. A comparison group (n=44 randomly selected from patients who were selected at random from people attended our healthcare center for reasons other than the infectious diseases.Results: 4 veterinarians, 15 veterinary assistants, 42 veterinarian students, 52 butchers, 17 slaughters, 8 slaughterhouse workers and 3 chefs made the first group and 14 storekeepers, 5 students of engineering, 11 clerks, 13 freelance workers, and 1 high school student made the comparison group. While the rate of consumption of most of the studied dairy products was almost similar in both groups, comparison group patients consumed more often milk (p<0.001 and cream (p<0.001 than the high risk group. 11 (7.8%; 95% CI: 3.4%–12.2% cases from high risk group and none of the comparison group were found seropositive for Brucella.Conclusion: Profession is the main factor in seropositivity. Consumption of dairy products and raw milk is not associated with a higher risk of seropositivity.

  8. Neonatal brucellosis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnemri, Abdul Rahman M; Hadid, Adnan; Hussain, Shaik Asfaq; Somily, Ali M; Sobaih, Badr H; Alrabiaah, Abdulkarim; Alanazi, Awad; Shakoor, Zahid; AlSubaie, Sarah; Meriki, Naema; Kambal, Abdelmageed M

    2017-02-28

    Although brucellosis is not uncommon in Saudi Arabia, neonatal brucellosis has been infrequently reported. In this case of neonatal brucellosis, Brucella abortus was isolated by blood culture from both the mother and the neonate. Serology was positive only in the mother.

  9. Update on childhood brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushan, Mohammad R H; Amiri, Mohammad J S

    2013-04-01

    In endemic regions of brucellosis, childhood brucellosis includes up to one-third of all cases of human brucellosis. The main source of infection in children is consumption of unpasteurized dairy products and traditional local foods containing dairy products. The older boys are more involved in animal care. Boys are more commonly infected than girls. Common symptoms and signs include fever, arthralgia, sweating, peripheral arthritis and splenomegaly. Peripheral arthritis especially monoarthritis is more common and the most commonly affected joints are hip and knee. All organs may involve during the course of the disease. Isolation of Brucella spp. from the blood, bone marrow or other tissue fluids is the hallmark of diagnosis. Serologic tests are the main tools of diagnosis of brucellosis in endemic regions. Standard agglutination test (SAT) with titers > 1:160 and the 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) test ≥ 1:80 are suggestive of active infection. Children older than 8 years should be treated with doxycycline for 45 days or 8 weeks plus gentamicin for 7 or 5 days respectively or doxycycline for 45 days and streptomycin for 14 days. Also doxycycline plus rifampin or cotrimoxazole plus rifampin for 45 days may be alternative regimens. Cotrimoxazole plus rifampin for six weeks is the regimen of choice for the treatment of patients younger than 8 years old. Gentamicin for 5 days plus cotrimoxazole for six weeks may be a suitable alternative regimen. The article presented few of the patents associated with Brucellosis.

  10. Ocular involvement of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzazi, Nooshin; Yavarikia, Alireza; Keramat, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    A 29-year-old male diagnosed with brucellosis a week earlier was referred to the ophthalmology clinic with visual complaints. On examination, visual acuity was 20/25, he had conjunctival injection on slit lamp examination. There was also bilateral optic disk swelling plus retinal hyperemia (optic disc hyperemia and vascular tortuosity) and intraretinal hemorrhage on funduscopy. The patient was admitted and treated with cotrimoxazole, rifampin, doxycycline and prednisolone for 2 months. Ocular manifestations subsided gradually within 6 months after treatment. Brucellosis can affect the eye and lead to serious ocular complications. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment should be considered in endemic areas.

  11. Economic losses due to bovine brucellosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato L. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars. Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.

  12. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  13. Brucellosis vaccines for livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Zakia I; Pascual, David W

    2016-11-15

    Brucellosis is a livestock disease responsible for fetal loss due to abortions. Worldwide, this disease has profound economic and social impact by reducing the ability of livestock producers to provide an adequate supply of disease-free meat and dairy products. In addition to its presence in domesticated animals, brucellosis is harbored in a number of wildlife species creating new disease reservoirs, which adds to the difficulty of eradicating this disease. Broad and consistent use of the available vaccines would contribute in reducing the incidence of brucellosis. Unfortunately, this practice is not common. In addition, the current brucellosis vaccines cannot provide sterilizing immunity, and in certain circumstances, vaccinated livestock are not protected against co-mingling Brucella-infected wildlife. Given that these vaccines are inadequate for conferring complete protection for some vaccinated livestock, alternatives are being sought, and these include genetic modifications of current vaccines or their reformulations. Alternatively, many groups have sought to develop new vaccines. Subunit vaccines, delivered as a combination of soluble vaccine plus adjuvant or the heterologous expression of Brucella epitopes by different vaccine vectors are currently being tested. New live attenuated Brucella vaccines are also being developed and tested in their natural hosts. Yet, what is rarely considered is the route of vaccination which could improve vaccine efficacy. Since Brucella infections are mostly transmitted mucosally, mucosal delivery of a vaccine has the potential of eliciting a more robust protective immune response for improved efficacy. Hence, this review will examine these questions and provide the status of new vaccines for livestock brucellosis.

  14. Brucellosis in India – a review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basappa G Mantur; Satish K Amarnath

    2008-11-01

    Brucellosis is an important re-emerging zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. It is still an uncontrolled serious public health problem in many developing countries including India. Brucellosis in India is yet a very common but often neglected disease. Currently, Brucella melitensis accounts for most recorded cases globally with cattle emerging as a important reservoir with the few cases of B. suis. Isolated cases of non-terrestrial brucellosis and continuing transmission from wild animals have raised important epidemiological issues. Routine serological surveillance along with high clinical suspicion and screening of family members of index cases would be essential in delineating the real magnitude of human brucellosis in endemic countries. Increased business and leisure travel to endemic countries have led to diagnostic challenge in non-endemic areas. Laboratory testing is indispensable for diagnosis. Advances in newer rapid, sensitive, and specific testing methodologies and alternate treatment strategies are urgently needed. A safe and effective vaccine in human is not yet available. Prevention is dependent upon increasing public awareness through health education programmes and safe livestock practices. Active co-operation between health and veterinary services should be promoted. This review collates world literature and its impact to the discovery, isolation and diagnosis and epidemiology along with the control measures adapted in the Indian scenario.

  15. Effects of management and climate on elk brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P.C.; Edwards, W.H.; Scurlock, B.M.; Maichak, E.J.; Rogerson, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Every winter, government agencies feed ???6000 metric tons (6 ?? 106 kg) of hay to elk in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) to limit transmission of Brucella abortus, the causative agent of brucellosis, from elk to cattle. Supplemental feeding, however, is likely to increase the transmission of brucellosis in elk, and may be affected by climatic factors, such as snowpack. We assessed these possibilities using snowpack and feeding data from 1952 to 2006 and disease testing data from 1993 to 2006. Brucellosis seroprevalence was strongly correlated with the timing of the feeding season. Longer feeding seasons were associated with higher seroprevalence, but elk population size and density had only minor effects. In other words, the duration of host aggregation and whether it coincided with peak transmission periods was more important than just the host population size. Accurate modeling of disease transmission depends upon incorporating information on how host contact rates fluctuate over time relative to peak transmission periods. We also found that supplemental feeding seasons lasted longer during years with deeper snowpack. Therefore, milder winters and/or management strategies that reduce the length of the feeding season may reduce the seroprevalence of brucellosis in the elk populations of the southern GYE. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Brucellosis: a political disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.; Roffe, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    With the challenges confronting North America's elk herds today, a bacteria that causes a nonfatal disease in a few elk herds seems an unlikely addition to the list. Fragmentation of habitat, dwindling bull-cow ratios, grazing competition from livestock on public rangelands, or the crowding of favorite hunting spots all seem like far more urgent matters to elk junkies. But a twist of fate an a national campaign to eradicate this seemingly innocuous bacterium have put brucellosis on the front burner.

  17. Brucellosis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, L; Grant, W W; Alva, J D

    1975-03-01

    Brucellosis has always been an unusual disease in children and, concomitant with the control of the disease in domestic animals, reports have become sparse. The pediatrician, therefore, may not be aware of the protean clinical manifestations of childhood brucellosis. In 1973, nine cases occurred during a three-month period in El Paso, Texas. All cases were marked by spiking fevers and lethargy of four days to four weeks in duration. Tender hepatomegaly or splenomegaly was striking in seven patients. Other characteristics included epistaxis, arthralgia, myalgia, and weight loss. Leukopenia and leukemoid reaction were found in five patients. All of the patients tested had elevated liver enzymes. Febrile agglutinins were invaluable in screening for an early clue to diagnosis. When Brucella abortus antigen agglutinated serum from patients with a positive screen in dilutions greater than 1:320, a presumptive diagnosis of brucellosis was made. Brucella was isolated from the blood or bone marrow in seven patients and the time of incubation proved crucial for successful recovery. Bacterial blood cultures are usually discarded at ten days of age, as were cultures from the only two patients from whom the organism was not recovered. All of the cultures incubated for 12 to 15 days grew B. melitensis, an unusual causative species in the United States. However, several patients admitted eating cheese from the State of Chihuahua, Mexico, made from unpasteurized goat's milk, the presumed source of the infection. Within one to three days, all patients responded dramatically to antibiotics; tetracycline was given orally for 21 days and streptomycin intramuscularly for 14 days. Pediatricians caring for patients in areas where consumption of unpasteurized milk products is likely would do well to consider brucellosis in a child with obscure fever or toxic hepatosplenomegaly.

  18. Screening Household Members of Acute Brucellosis Cases in Endemic Areas and Risk Factors for Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Secil; Baykam, Nurcan; Celikbas, Aysel; Yilmaz, Sirin Menekse; Guzel, Tugba Cirkin; Dokuzoguz, Basak; Ergonul, Onder

    2015-08-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of acute brucellosis cases were targeted by screening the household members of the index cases. We also aimed to describe the causal relations of brucellosis in an endemic region. A cross-sectional study was performed among household members (29 index cases, 113 household members). Brucellosis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings, serum agglutinin titer of ≥1/160 in standard tube agglutination test (STA), or a positive blood culture. Index cases were defined as patients who had been admitted to the clinic on suspicion of brucellosis and then confirmed as brucellosis cases. The people who lived in the same house as the index cases were defined as household members. The risk factors for seropositivity were studied by multivariate analysis. Independent variables of gender, consuming fresh cheese, blood groups, dealing with husbandry, and contact with the placenta of infected animals were included to the model. Backward and forward selections were performed. Nineteen out of 113 (17%) screened individuals had agglutination titers ≥1/160. The mean ages of index cases and household members were 43 years (standard deviation [SD] 18) and 29 years (SD 19), respectively. In multivariate analysis, consuming fresh cheese (odds ratio [OR]=3.1, confidence interval [CI] 1.07-9.68, p=0.049), blood group A (OR=2.6, CI 1.18-5.96, p=0.018), contact with the placenta of the infected animals (OR=3.7, CI 1.42-9.68, p=0.007), and age >30 years (OR=2.8, CI 1.25-6.51, p=0.13) were found to be associated with brucellosis. In univariate analysis, the individuals with blood group B were protected from brucella infection (p=0.013). In conclusion, screening of the people in brucellosis-endemic areas should be considered for early diagnosis and treatment. To our knowledge, blood groups were studied for the first time by this study. Higher prevalence of brucellosis among the individuals with blood group A and less prevalence among the individuals with

  19. Outbreak of Occupational Brucellosis at a Pharmaceutical Factory in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, B D; Wang, S Q; Lai, S M; Lu, Y; Shi, X G; Cao, G P; Hu, X L; Zheng, C J; Yu, Z Y; Zhang, J M; Fang, C F; Gong, Z Y

    2016-11-12

    Brucellosis is an occupational disease affecting workers in butcher shops, the milking and dairy product industry, causing more than 500 000 new cases around the world. As a national statutory B infectious disease in China, morbidity of brucellosis is rapidly increasing in recent years. We report an occupational outbreak of brucellosis infection in a pharmaceutical factory. Exposure was a result of manual operation in the process line, close contact with sheep placentas, insufficient disinfection and repeated using of protective suits and infected by aerosol dissemination. Improved preventive methods, appropriate public health measures and spread of health education would be helpful to prevent the occupational outbreak of brucellosis in future.

  20. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920-18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129-2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic.

  1. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920–18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129–2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic. PMID:27872852

  2. Transmission dynamics and control for a brucellosis model in Hinggan League of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingtao; Sun, Guiquan; Zhang, Juan; Jin, Zhen; Sun, Xiangdong; Wang, Youming; Huang, Baoxu; Zheng, Yaohui

    2014-10-01

    Brucellosis is one of the major infectious and contagious bacterial diseases in Hinggan League of Inner Mongolia, China. The number of newly infected human brucellosis data in this area has increased dramatically in the last 10 years. In this study, in order to explore effective control and prevention measures we propose a deterministic model to investigate the transmission dynamics of brucellosis in Hinggan League. The model describes the spread of brucellosis among sheep and from sheep to humans. The model simulations agree with newly infected human brucellosis data from 2001 to 2011, and the trend of newly infected human brucellosis cases is given. We estimate that the control reproduction number Rc is about 1.9789 for the brucellosis transmission in Hinggan League and compare the effect of existing mixed cross infection between basic ewes and other sheep or not for newly infected human brucellosis cases. Our study demonstrates that combination of prohibiting mixed feeding between basic ewes and other sheep, vaccination, detection and elimination are useful strategies in controlling human brucellosis in Hinggan League.

  3. 76 FR 28885 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    .... Troy Bigelow, Swine Health Programs, Aquaculture, Swine, Equine, and Poultry Programs, National Center... treated for brucellosis with antibiotics. The brucellosis regulations in 9 CFR part 78 (referred to...

  4. Genitourinary brucellosis: results of a multicentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, H; Elaldi, N; Ak, O; Gulsun, S; Tekin, R; Ulug, M; Duygu, F; Sunnetcioglu, M; Tulek, N; Guler, S; Cag, Y; Kaya, S; Turker, N; Parlak, E; Demirdal, T; Ataman Hatipoglu, C; Avci, A; Bulut, C; Avci, M; Pekok, A; Savasci, U; Kaya, S; Sozen, H; Tasbakan, M; Guven, T; Bolukcu, S; Cesur, S; Sahin-Horasan, E; Kazak, E; Denk, A; Gonen, I; Karagoz, G; Haykir Solay, A; Alici, O; Kader, C; Senturk, G; Tosun, S; Turan, H; Baran, A I; Ozturk-Engin, D; Bozkurt, F; Deveci, O; Inan, A; Kadanali, A; Sayar, M S; Cetin, B; Yemisen, M; Naz, H; Gorenek, L; Agalar, C

    2014-11-01

    This study reviewed the clinical, laboratory, therapeutic and prognostic data on genitourinary involvement of brucellosis in this largest case series reported. This multicentre study pooled adult patients with genitourinary brucellar involvement from 34 centres treated between 2000 and 2013. Diagnosis of the disease was established by conventional methods. Overall 390 patients with genitourinary brucellosis (352 male, 90.2%) were pooled. In male patients, the most frequent involved site was the scrotal area (n=327, 83.8%), as epididymo-orchitis (n=204, 58%), orchitis (n=112, 31.8%) and epididymitis (n=11, 3.1%). In female patients, pyelonephritis (n=33/38, 86.8%) was significantly higher than in male patients (n=11/352, 3.1%; pbrucellosis occurred in one patient. A localized scrotal infection in men or pyelonephritis in women in the absence of leucocytosis and with mild to moderate increases in inflammatory markers should signal the possibility of brucellar genitourinary disease.

  5. Unusual presentation of Brucellosis:Afebrile,culture posi-tive Brucellosis and culture positive,seronegative Brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Avijgan; Masoud Hafizi; Ardeshir Salemi; Shams al-sadate Izadi Dehkordi

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the unusual presentation of brucellosis.Methods:This prospective study was carried out on 46 patients suspected to brucellosis.The diagnosis was made with isolation of brucella species by Bone Marrow culture.Results:Among 40 culture positive patients,there were two unusual presentations of brucello-sis;Afebrile culture positive and culture positive seronegative brucellosis.Conclusion:Some brucellosis pa-tients would not match with criteria for diagnosis of brucellosis.Although it is needed to have positive serology or culture for diagnosis of brucellosis but sometimes,it is the clinical experiences,which help to diagnose and treat these kinds of patients.

  6. BOCI-Egypt : Brucellosis and Tuberculosis control 21- 25 March 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, A.J.; Vugt, van F.

    2011-01-01

    This is the report of the first mission to Egypt for the project: Impact of brucellosis and tuberculosis on animal production and public health (BO-10-009-118). The objective of this mission was: to make an assessment of the current needs and problems in Egypt related to brucellosis and tuberculosis

  7. [Brucellosis as a cause of hemophagocytic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Saliha; Günal, Özgür; Taşkın, Mehmet Hakan; Atilla, Aynur; Kılıç, Süleyman Sırrı

    2015-04-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare syndrome of excessive inflammation and tissue destruction due to abnormal immune activation and inflammation. HLH can occur primarily due to genetic etiology, or secondarily associated with malignancies, autoimmmune diseases or infections. There are a number of reports that revealed the relationship of hemophagocytosis with brucellosis. In this report, we described a brucellosis-related HLH case. A 73-year-old male who work as farmer was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of fever continuing for 10 days, loss of appetite and back pain. Physical examination revealed right upper quadrant tenderness and hepatomegaly. Since the patient exhibited five of the diagnostic criteria for HLH (fever, hepatosplenomegaly, bicytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia and high ferritin level), he was diagnosed as secondary HLH. PCR, microscopic agglutination and indirect fluorescent antibody tests gave negative results for the diagnosis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, leptospirosis and Q fever, respectively. On the other hand, Rose Bengal test for brucellosis was positive, while standard tube agglutination test (STA) was negative. The patient's serum yielded a very high positive (1/1280) result when Coombs' test was performed in terms of the possibility of blocking antibodies or prozone phenomenon. Additionally, B.melitensis was isolated from his blood culture on the sixth day. The patient was treated with doxycycline and rifampicin, and on the 10th day of antibiotic therapy the patient was discharged and recommended to complete his treatment up to 6 weeks. In conclusion, in patients with secondary HLH symptoms especially in the endemic areas, brucellosis should be considered as a predisposing infection.

  8. Brucellosis - diagnostic dilemma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of a 20-year old student from Belgrade, who was admitted to the Institute of Infectious Diseases with fever, muscle and spine pains, strong headacke and malice. During the clinical examination bilateral sacroileitis was found. Serological analyses confirmed brucellosis. Epidemiological data showed that she lived in Kosovo and Metohia in 1997, where she consumed diary products from domestic animals this might be the reason of the acquired infection. With appropriate antibiotic therapy (aminoglycoside, doxicyclin, rifampicin, symptomatic therapy and rehabilitation the disease had favorable outcome; there was no recidive. The authors point out the importance of specific microbiological examinations of patients with fever of unknown origin, especially if the patient has the symptoms that are compatible with brucellosis. In our case it was sacroileitis, as a characteristic complication. As brucellosis is endemic in some parts of our country, there is always a possibility of brucellosis in general medical practice.

  9. Brucellosis and Tuberculosis in Arsi-Negele District Ethiopia: Prevalence in Ruminants and People's Behaviour towards Zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amenu, K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Arsi-Negele District of Southern Ethiopia to estimate the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis in livestock and to identify risk behaviours that would facilitate the transmission of zoonoses to humans. The study involved testing some 400 cattle, 200 sheep and 170 goats for tuberculosis and brucellosis and interviewing 98 livestock keepers. Single comparative intradermal tuberculin test and Rose Bengal plate test were used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and brucellosis, respectively. Tuberculosis was recorded in 27 cattle, 1 goat and 1 sheep. In cattle, the estimated individuallevel and herd-level tuberculosis prevalence was 5.9% and 35%, respectively. The individual-level and herdlevel brucellosis prevalence in cattle was 2.6% and 12%, respectively. The questionnaire survey showed that most respondents had no accurate knowledge about the transmission of zoonoses. It was also found that some of their behaviours would potentially facilitate the transmission of zoonotic pathogens to human, such as raw animal product consumption and backyard slaughtering. Even though the prevalence of the two diseases was relatively low, surveillance and prevention may be warranted taking into account possible animal genetic improvement programs, unrestricted animal movement in the area and low awareness of the community about zoonoses, which might result in an increased transmission to humans.

  10. The quest for a true One Health perspective of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, J; DeBolle, X; Roop, R M; O'Callaghan, D; Tsolis, R M; Baldwin, C; Santos, R L; McGiven, J; Olsen, S; Nymo, I H; Larsen, A; Al Dahouk, S; Letesson, J J

    2014-08-01

    One Health is an interdisciplinary collaboration that aims at mitigating risks to human health arising from microorganisms present in non-human animal species, which have the potential to be transmitted and cause disease in humans. Different degrees of scientific collaboration and sectoral integration are needed for different types of zoonotic diseases, depending on the health and associated economic gains that can be expected from a One Health approach. Indeed, mitigating zoonotic risks related to emerging diseases with pandemic potential is different from mitigating risks related to endemic zoonotic diseases like brucellosis. Likewise, management of brucellosis at the wildlife-livestock interface in wildlife conservation areas is in essence different from mitigating transmission of a given Brucella species within its preferential host species, which in turn is different from mitigating the spillover of a given Brucella species to non-preferential host species, humans included. Brucellosis economic models often oversimplify and/or wrongly assess transmission between reservoir hosts and spillover hosts. Moreover,they may not properly value non-market outcomes, such as avoidance of human disease, consumer confidence and conservation biology issues. As a result, uncertainty is such that the economic predictions of these models can be questionable. Therefore, understanding the infection biology of Brucella species is a prerequisite. This paper reviews and highlights important features of the infection biology of Brucella species and the changing epidemiology of brucellosis that need to be integrated into a true One Health perspective of brucellosis.

  11. Foodborne outbreak of human brucellosis caused by ingested raw materials of fetal calf on Jeju Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong Rae; Heo, Sang Taek; Lee, Keun Hwa; Kim, Young Ree; Yoo, Seung Jin

    2015-02-01

    Since the first reported case of human brucellosis in 2002 in South Korea, its incidence has been increasing nationally. However, bovine brucellosis has not been present from 2005 to date on Jeju Island. Despite Jeju Island being considered a clean area for bovine brucellosis, we experienced an outbreak of human brucellosis between 2012 and 2013. Herein, we report cases with human brucellosis after ingestion of raw materials of fetal calf at a restaurant. Patients were identified by isolation of the Brucella abortus in their blood and joint tissue. Because all patients developed zoonosis by a faulty folk remedy, we emphasize the importance of educational programs to increase the awareness of zoonosis, and the need for active surveillance and detection of illegal distribution channels of the infected animal. After the outbreak, we took control of the involved restaurant and its illegal distribution channel, and there have been no further outbreaks.

  12. State-space modeling to support management of brucellosis in the Yellowstone bison population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, N. Thompson; Geremia, Chris; Treanor, John; Wallen, Rick; White, P.J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Rhyan, Jack C.

    2015-01-01

    The bison (Bison bison) of the Yellowstone ecosystem, USA, exemplify the difficulty of conserving large mammals that migrate across the boundaries of conservation areas. Bison are infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and their seasonal movements can expose livestock to infection. Yellowstone National Park has embarked on a program of adaptive management of bison, which requires a model that assimilates data to support management decisions. We constructed a Bayesian state-space model to reveal the influence of brucellosis on the Yellowstone bison population. A frequency-dependent model of brucellosis transmission was superior to a density-dependent model in predicting out-of-sample observations of horizontal transmission probability. A mixture model including both transmission mechanisms converged on frequency dependence. Conditional on the frequency-dependent model, brucellosis median transmission rate was 1.87 yr−1. The median of the posterior distribution of the basic reproductive ratio (R0) was 1.75. Seroprevalence of adult females varied around 60% over two decades, but only 9.6 of 100 adult females were infectious. Brucellosis depressed recruitment; estimated population growth rate λ averaged 1.07 for an infected population and 1.11 for a healthy population. We used five-year forecasting to evaluate the ability of different actions to meet management goals relative to no action. Annually removing 200 seropositive female bison increased by 30-fold the probability of reducing seroprevalence below 40% and increased by a factor of 120 the probability of achieving a 50% reduction in transmission probability relative to no action. Annually vaccinating 200 seronegative animals increased the likelihood of a 50% reduction in transmission probability by fivefold over no action. However, including uncertainty in the ability to implement management by representing stochastic variation in the number of accessible bison dramatically reduced the probability of

  13. 9 CFR 311.15 - Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis. 311.15 Section 311.15... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.15 Brucellosis. Carcasses affected with localized lesions of brucellosis may be passed for human food after the affected parts...

  14. An evaluation of ELISA using recombinant Brucella abortus bacterioferritin (Bfr) for bovine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Simborio, Hannah Leah; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Lee, Jin Ju; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-04-01

    To date, detection of antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide portion is the backbone of most serodiagnostic methods for brucellosis screening. However this pose a risk for false positive reactions related to other pathogens especially that of Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 which has the most prominent cross reactivity with Brucella spp. In this study, cloning and expression of Brucella abortus bacterioferritin (Bfr) was accomplished by PCR amplification into an expression vector system, and purification of a recombinant B. abortus Bfr (rBfr). The immunogenicity of rBfr was confirmed by Western blot with Brucella-positive bovine serum. To determine whether rBfr has a potential benefit for use in the serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis, rBfr-based ELISA was performed. Interestingly, rBfr was able to detect anti-Brucella antibodies in positive sera in a dependent manner of TAT values but did not show an immunoreaction with negative samples. Particularly, average OD492 values at the lowest, medium and highest TAT titer levels were 1.4, 2.2 and 2.6-fold increase compared with the cutoff value, respectively. The accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of rBfr showed 89.09%, 93.6% and 85.33%, respectively. These findings suggest that rBfr might be a good candidate for serological diagnosis development of bovine brucellosis.

  15. Risk factors for human brucellosis in northern Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Shehada, M N; Abu-Halaweh, M

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the risk factors of human brucellosis in Jordan. A case-control study was conducted involving 56 Jordanians who had been treated for brucellosis and at least 3 matched controls for each case (n = 247). Matching was for sex, age, locality (the same village) and socioeconomic standard. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. In all, 17 risk factors were examined related to: contact with various livestock, milk and milk product consumption, drinking-water treatment and disease awareness. Most variables were associated with brucellosis in the univariate analysis but the final logistic model included only 4: milking sheep and goats (OR 3.5), consumption of raw feta cheese made from sheep and goat milk (OR 2.8) and consumption of cows' milk (OR 0.4) and boiled feta cheese (OR 0.4). Small ruminant farmers need to be trained in safer milking practices and feta cheese making procedures.

  16. Spinal epidural abscess in brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyaci, Ahmet; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Dokumaci, Dilek Sen

    2013-09-26

    Involvement of the skeletal system is a common complication of brucellosis. However, muscle involvement or paraspinal abscess formation are rare complications. Paraspinal abscess usually develops secondary to spondylitis. A case is reported here of a 33-year-old woman with symptoms of night sweats, fever and low back pain. Rose-Bengal test for brucellosis was positive and Brucella standard tube agglutination test was positive at a titre of 1/160. The diagnosis was made on MRI. The patient was treated with doxycycline and rifampin daily for 16 weeks. On day 14 of treatment, decline was observed in the patient's symptoms. In the presence of inflammatory lower back pain and fever, brucellosis should be considered particularly in the endemic areas. Furthermore, tuberculosis should be remembered in the differential diagnosis when a spinal epidural abscess is determined.

  17. Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios Papaioannides

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Context :Acute pancreatitis can be caused by a variety of infectious agents but it is regarded as an extremely rare complication of brucellosis. Case report: We briefly describe a 56-yearold man who presented with acute pancreatitis, fever, myalgia, and other clinical symptoms. Brucella melitensis was cultured from his blood. All clinical manifestations gradually resolved with the institution of intramuscular streptomycin and oral doxycycline therapy. Conclusion :Acute pancreatitis may rarely be a complication of infection with B. melitensis. In areas where brucellosis is endemic, it should be kept in mind that acute pancreatitis may result from infection with brucella organisms..

  18. CLINICAL-IMMUNOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ACUTE BRUCELLOSIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Atakhodjayeva

    2013-12-01

    lymphatic nodes (submaxillary, inguinal and axillary in 73.8% of children with brucellosis. That category of children had lymphatic nodes of average consistence, painless, from pea to a bean size. 79.1% of patients had mild hypo chrome anemia. 65% of patients had acceleration of erythrocytes sedimentation rate of various degrees. On the part of white cells of blood 43.5% patients had explicit leukopenia and 21.7% - moderate one. 30.5% of patients had normal number of leukocytes. Leukocytosis was observed in 4.3% of children with acute brucellosis. Patients with acute brucellosis had misbalance of cell-mediated and humoral immunities characterized by the decrease of T-cell and B-cell values of immunity accompanied by the activation of immunoglobulins (А, М, G. In cases of acute brucellosis together with combined immune deficiency children had significant disorders of cytokines regulation displayed in statistic increase of pro- (IL-1β, IL-6 and counter inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and reliable decrease of γ-interferons proving development of inflammatory process.

  19. [An unusual cause of febrile neutropenia: brucellosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Soner; Asma, Süheyl; Ozdoğu, Hakan; Yeral, Mahmut; Turunç, Tuba

    2014-10-01

    Febrile neutropenia which is a common complication of cancer treatment, is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. Several gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are responsible for infections in neutropenic patients, however the most common microorganisms are Escherichia coli and coagulase-negative staphylococci, in decreasing order. Although Brucella spp. infections are endemic in Turkey, brucellosis-related febrile neutropenia has only rarely been reported. In this report, a case of brucellosis-related febrile neutropenia in a patient with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) was presented. A 56-year-old male patient presenting with fever, petechiae/purpura, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and anemia was admitted to our hospital. Laboratory studies revealed a hemoglobin level of 8.27 g/dl, leukocyte count of 77.100 k/ml, absolute neutrophil count of 200 k/ml, and platelets at 94.200 k/ml. The patient was diagnosed as AML-M1 and piperacillin/tazobactam was started as the first-line antibiotic therapy due to the febrile neutropenia. On admission, blood and urine cultures were negative. Once the fever was controlled, remission/induction chemotherapy was initiated. However, fever developed again on the eight day, and vancomycin was added to the therapy. Since the fever persisted, the antibiotic therapy was gradually replaced with meropenem and linezolid. However, fever continued and the patient's general condition deteriorated. Subsequently performed Brucella tube agglutination test revealed positivity at 1/320 titer and the microorganism grown in blood culture (Bactec 9050; BD, USA) was identified as B.melitensis by conventional methods. Rifampicin and doxycycline therapy was started immediately, however, the patient died due to septic shock. If the tests for brucellosis were performed earlier when response to second step antibiotic therapy lacked in this patient, it was assumed that mortality could be prevented by the prompt initiation of the

  20. The Prevalence of Brucellosis in Cattle, Goats and Humans in Rural Uganda: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R; Nakavuma, J L; Ssajjakambwe, P; Vudriko, P; Musisi, N; Kaneene, J B

    2016-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the presence of brucellosis in cattle, goats and humans in farms from south-western Uganda and identify risk factors associated with brucellosis in these three host groups. Data and serum samples were collected from 768 cattle, 315 goats and 236 humans, with 635 samples of bovine milk, from 70 farms in two different study areas in south-western Uganda. Sera from livestock were tested with the Rose Bengal Plate test, using B. abortus and B. melitensis antigens, and human sera were tested with a commercial IgG/IgM lateral flow assay. Milk samples were tested using the OIE-approved milk ring test. Screening tests for brucellosis were positive in 14% of cattle serum, 29% of bovine milk, 17% of goat serum and 11% of human serum samples. There were significant differences in the test prevalence of brucellosis by study site, with levels higher in the study area near Lake Mburo National Park than in the study area near Queen Elizabeth National Park. Multivariable regression models identified risk factors associated with increasing test positivity at the individual and farm levels for cattle, goats and humans. Positive associations were seen between increasing seropositivity of brucellosis in goats, cattle and humans. Results of multivariable analyses suggest that improvements in farm biosecurity and hygiene may reduce the risk of brucellosis on the farm and suggest a role for ticks in bovine brucellosis. Although cattle are the focus of brucellosis control in Uganda, the significant associations between seropositivity in humans and seropositivity in goats suggest that brucellosis in goats may be an important contributor to the epidemiology of the disease on the farm.

  1. Brucellosis: Epizootiologic and diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Sonja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been known as a separate etiological entity for almost 150 years, brucellosis is, on a global scale, one of the most frequent diseases that is transferred from animals to humans. It is present as an endemic disease in almost all countries of the Mediterranean Sea, which indicates that a large number of aspects in connection with the control and epizootiology of this disease still remain unexplained. Three of the six types of brucella have been officially confirmed in our country as well. They are Brucella melitensis biotip 3, Brucella suis biotip 2 and Brucella canis. Brucellosis is endemically present in Kosovo and Metohija province and in southern Serbia proper; over the past few years, the spread of brucellosis in sheep and goats as primary hosts for B. melitensis to new territories, mostly in Vojvodina province, has shown that risk analysis is one of the main factors in selecting and implementing control programmes. A correctly selected set of diagnostic tests yields reliable data in most cases, but interpretations of results are prone to result in subjective assessments as well. A special problem in the serological diagnosis of brucellosis is the cross reactivity of brucellas and some other bacteria, often a weak immunological response of the animal, or that the type of brucella that causes the infection determines the sensitivity and specificity of the applied tests, most often screenings tests. Due to the big economic losses resulting from disease control and eradication, and the serious risk to human health, brucellosis still poses an epizootiological, and, in particular, a diagnostic challenge.

  2. Etiological role of brucellosis in autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colakoglu Onder; Taskiran Bengur; Adnan Kirci; Tunakan Mine; Buyrac Zafer; Unsal Belkis; Aksoz Kadir; Yorukoglu Gazi

    2005-01-01

    To show that brucellosis may trigger autoimmune hepatitis(AIH), in addition to nonspecific liver involvement and toxic hepatitis, due to a class effect of tetracycline family used for treatment. We present a female patient admitted to our hospital due to partially improved fatigue and elevated liver enzymes following doxycycline and streptomycin usage for brucellosis. Brucellosis is endemic in our country, Turkey. It may involve any organ in the body. Liver is frequently involved. Doxycycline used for treatment occasionally may lead to hepatotoxicity. AIH is a necroinflammatory disease of the liver. Certain drugs (e.g. Minocycline), toxins, and viruses (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, EBV, etc.) can trigger AIH. Only one case of AIH probably caused by doxycycline and brucellosis was reported. We discuss the relationship between brucellosis, AIH, and hepatotoxicity of doxycycline. Brucellosis may trigger AIH.

  3. Brucellosis in Mexico: current status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Martínez, J Eduardo; Mejía-Terán, Claudia

    2002-12-20

    Traditionally, Mexico has been recognized as endemic with brucellosis. The improvements in diagnostics techniques and vaccination strategies and the enforcement of a national eradication policy have contributed significantly to making progress in the control of brucellosis. The current status of brucellosis and its risk factors, in the different production species as well as in human population is reviewed. Also the trends in control and eventual eradication strategies and perspectives for the near future of Mexico are presented.

  4. Bovine Brucellosis: Old and New Concepts with Pakistan Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abubakar*, Mehwish Mansoor and Muhammad Javed Arshed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is considered to be one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. According to OIE, it is the second most important zoonotic disease in the world after rabies. The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats, camels and dogs. It may also infect other ruminants and marine mammals. The disease is manifested by late term abortions, weak calves, still births, infertility and characteristic lesions are primarily placentitis, epididymitis and orchitis. The organism is excreted in uterine discharges and milk. The disease is economically important, is one of the most devastating transboundary animal diseases and also a major trade barrier. Although not yet reported, some species of Brucella (e.g., B. abortus are zoonotic and could be used as bioweapons. Brucellosis has a considerable impact on animal and human health, as well as wide socio-economic impacts, especially in countries in which rural income relies largely on livestock breeding and dairy products. Considering the poor health infrastructure and manpower in rural areas, the focus should be on preventive measures coupled with strengthening the curative health care services for early diagnosis and treatment. The incidence of brucellosis is increasing particularly in large dairy herds in Pakistan. Several studies have been conducted using sero-diagnostic techniques to determine the prevalence of brucellosis in different provinces, districts and livestock farms in government and private sector.

  5. ABO blood groups and susceptibility to brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenpour, Behzad; Hajibagheri, Katayon; Afrasiabian, Shahla; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ghasembegloo, Saeideh

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between blood groups and some infections such as norovirus, cholera, and malaria has been reported. Despite the importance of brucellosis, there is a lack of data on the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. Thus, in this study, we examined the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. In this case-control study, the blood groups of 100 patients with brucellosis and 200 healthy individuals were studied. Exclusion criteria for the control group consisted of a positive Coombs Wright test or a history of brucellosis. The chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables between the two groups. The variables that met inclusion criteria for the regression model were entered into the logistic regression model. A total of 43% patients were female and 57% male; 27% were urban and 73% rural. Regression analysis showed that the likelihood of brucellosis infection was 6.26 times more in people with blood group AB than in those with blood group O (Pbrucellosis infection. Thus, there is a relationship between blood group and brucellosis. People with blood group AB were susceptible to brucellosis, but no difference was observed for brucellosis infection in terms of blood Rh type.

  6. Brucellosis update in Libya and regional prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed O; Abouzeed, Yousef M; Bennour, Emad M; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C

    2015-02-01

    Brucellosis is a global bacterial zoonosis responsible for high morbidity in humans and significant livestock economic losses. While brucellosis remains a public health concern worldwide, its global geographic distribution is variable, largely due to different management schemes; however, paucity of information renders the status of brucellosis unclear and incomplete in many countries, especially those with low income and under-developed infrastructure. This short article summarizes and discusses recent important updates on brucellosis from the North African countries, with a particular brief emphasis on the current status and recent updates in Libya.

  7. Epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the Mexicali Valley, Mexico: literature review of disease-associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, M D; Meyer, M E

    1984-08-01

    The world literature was searched to document the variables known to affect the initiation, spread, maintenance, and/or control of bovine brucellosis. Each variable was classified into 1 of 3 categories, depending upon whether it was related to the animal population, to management, or to the biology of the disease. These variables were documented and categorized as the initial step for a quantitative path analysis on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in a defined geographic area in northern Mexico.

  8. Intestinal brucellosis associated with celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery stenosis and with ileum mucosa and submucosa thickening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaoqian; Zhu, Qingli; Yang, Qian; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Xinning; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Baotong; Li, Zhenghong; Yang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Brucellosis is a multisystem infection found worldwide that has a broad range of characteristics, which range from acute fever and hepatomegaly to chronic infections that most commonly affect the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, or skeletal system. Gastrointestinal and splanchnic artery involvements in brucellosis are relatively uncommon. Patient concerns: We report a case of brucellosis in an adolescent presenting as intermittent abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fever, with intestinal tract involvement. And stenosis of the celiac artery and the superior mesenteric artery was found after exposed to risk factors of Brucella infection. Splanchnic vessels stenosis and an endothelial lesion may exacerbate the prevalent symptom of abdominal pain, as a form of colic pain, occurring after eating. Diagnoses: The patient was diagnosed as brucellosis. The narrowing of the SMA and CA was suspected to be vasculitis secondary to the brucellosis. Interventions: The patient was treated with minocycline and rifampicin for 12 weeks totally. Outcomes: The gastrointestinal manifestations of brucellosis recovered rapidly under intensive treatment. However, follow-up imaging revealed that the superior mesenteric artery and celiac artery stenosis was unimproved. Lessons: In brucellosis, gastrointestinal manifestations may be the only observable features of the disease. Splanchnic arterial stenosis is a rare complication of brucellosis. Sonography and computed tomography may be useful for both diagnosis and follow-up. PMID:28079834

  9. Brucellosis - diagnostic dilemma: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bojić Biljana; Vujošević Milica; Nikolić Svetlana; Dulović Olga; Grebenarević Jelica; Milinković Zoran; Gvozdenović Jasna J.

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a case of a 20-year old student from Belgrade, who was admitted to the Institute of Infectious Diseases with fever, muscle and spine pains, strong headacke and malice. During the clinical examination bilateral sacroileitis was found. Serological analyses confirmed brucellosis. Epidemiological data showed that she lived in Kosovo and Metohia in 1997, where she consumed diary products from domestic animals this might be the reason of the acquired infection. With appropriate ...

  10. Seroepidemiological survey of human brucellosis in and around Ludhiana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moti Yohannes Gemechu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been done on public health significance of brucellosis using serology with little or no emphasis to risk factors. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate seroprevalence of brucellosis and assess epidemiological variables associated with human brucellosis. After obtaining verbal consent, 241 peripheral blood samples were collected from occupationally exposed groups with and without pyrexia of unknown origin. A structured questionnaire was prepared to gather risk factors, such as occupation, age, sex, history of consuming raw milk and other unpasteurised dairy products, direct contact with domestic animals, general knowledge about the route of transmission and awareness level. Purposive sampling was used to select the key informants. All serum samples were first screened by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and further analysed by Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT. The results revealed that 24.5% were positive by RBPT and diagnosis was established in 26.6% using STAT with a titre range between 80 and 1,280 IU/ml. Among occupational groups, prevalence was 17.8% in veterinarians and pharmacists but was not statistically significant. The most common clinical symptoms at presentation were fever, headache, back pain, arthralgia and myalgia. No female reactor was found and the mean age and standard deviation of seropositive patients was 34.69±10.97 years. Risk factors such as residence in rural area, participation in vaccination of animals and eating during working hours were significantly associated (P<0.05 with brucellosis by univariate and multivariate analysis. In conclusion, to deal with occupation-related disease like brucellosis, awareness on risk factors must be part of extension education campaign. Besides, regular surveillance of the disease needs to be integrated into control and prevention programme at a local and national level.

  11. The "effects" of Rev-1 vaccination of sheep and goats on human brucellosis in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, A; Minas, M; Stournara, A; Tselepidis, S

    2004-06-10

    Vaccination of young animals (3-6-month-old sheep and goats) with Rev-1 vaccine for 15 years in Greece, importantly decreased the abortions in sheep and goats as well as the incidence of brucellosis in humans. After the stop of vaccination in 1994, all over Greece, the prevalence of brucellosis in animals and the incidence in humans quickly increased. It was a positive rank correlation (0.90) among these variables. Once an emergency mass-vaccination programme of young and adult animals with Rev-1 vaccine was started in 1998, the human incidence again decreased. The association of the vaccination coverage of animals and incidence of brucellosis in humans was not linear; the decrease in human brucellosis incidence was observed when the vaccination coverage of animals was >30%.

  12. Model-Based Evaluation of Strategies to Control Brucellosis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Tao; Sun, Gui-Quan; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Jin, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis, the most common zoonotic disease worldwide, represents a great threat to animal husbandry with the potential to cause enormous economic losses. Brucellosis has become a major public health problem in China, and the number of human brucellosis cases has increased dramatically in recent years. In order to evaluate different intervention strategies to curb brucellosis transmission in China, a novel mathematical model with a general indirect transmission incidence rate was presented. By comparing the results of three models using national human disease data and 11 provinces with high case numbers, the best fitted model with standard incidence was used to investigate the potential for future outbreaks. Estimated basic reproduction numbers were highly heterogeneous, varying widely among provinces. The local basic reproduction numbers of provinces with an obvious increase in incidence were much larger than the average for the country as a whole, suggesting that environment-to-individual transmission was more common than individual-to-individual transmission. We concluded that brucellosis can be controlled through increasing animal vaccination rates, environment disinfection frequency, or elimination rates of infected animals. Our finding suggests that a combination of animal vaccination, environment disinfection, and elimination of infected animals will be necessary to ensure cost-effective control for brucellosis. PMID:28287496

  13. Clinical analysis of 117 patients with brucellosis in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region%新疆布鲁菌病117例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 孙晓风; 向阳; 张跃新

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨新疆维吾尔自治区(新疆)布鲁菌病的流行情况、临床特征、实验室检查及治疗结果。方法回顾性分析我院2012年7月—2014年4月收治的117例布鲁菌病的临床特征及治疗效果。结果本地区布鲁菌病以4—9月高发,发病人群以畜牧相关人员为主。主要临床表现除发热、多汗、乏力、关节痛等一般症状外,肝脾大和淋巴结肿大也占一定比例,部分患者ALT、AST和GGT升高。治疗以多西环素联合利福平为主,好转率为97.44%。结论布鲁菌病为新疆地区发病率较高的传染病,当地有关部门应普及该病防护知识,临床医师应关注该病的临床特点及其并发症和合并症,并给予规范的抗菌治疗。%Objective To investigate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and treatment outcome of bru-cellosis in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang). Methods Clinical characteristics and therapeutic efficacy were analyzed in 117 patients with brucellosis admitted to our hospital from Jul. 2012 to Apr. 2014. Results The incidence of brucellosis was higher from April to September in Xinjiang and brucellosis mainly occurred in livestock-related personnel. The main clinical manifestations were fever, sweating, fatigue and joint pain, and hepatosplenomegaly and lymph node enlargement were found in some patients. ALT, AST and GGT increased in some patients. The combination of doxycycline and rifampin achieved a high improvement rate (97.44%). Conclusions Brucellosis is a more frequent infectious disease in Xinjiang, so local authorities should strengthen public education on brucellosis prevention and management, and clinicians should pay much attention to the clinical characteristics of brucellosis and its complications and comorbidities, and give standard antimicrobial therapy.

  14. ADP and brucellosis indemnity systems development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, W.M.; Harlan, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    Our initial study of the USDA/TAHC Brucellosis Indemnity Program in Texas has shown that both the efficiency and rate of claim payments can be increased by the application of present day computer technologies. Two main factors contribute to these increases: the number of discrepancies that are caused by poor penmanship, transposition of numbers, and other human errors can be monitored and minimized; and the documented information can be indexed, sorted, and searched faster, more efficiently, and without human error. The overall flow of documentation that is used to control the movement of infected or exposed animals through commerce should be studied. A new system should be designed that fully utilizes present day computer and electronic technologies.

  15. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine....

  16. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed...

  17. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle....

  18. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed...

  19. 9 CFR 78.43 - Validated brucellosis-free States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Validated brucellosis-free States. 78.43 Section 78.43 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... BRUCELLOSIS Designation of Brucellosis Areas § 78.43 Validated brucellosis-free States. Alabama,...

  20. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine....

  1. 9 CFR 78.22 - Brucellosis reactor bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor bison. 78.22... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.22 Brucellosis reactor bison....

  2. Context-dependent survival, fecundity and predicted population-level consequences of brucellosis in African buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsich, Erin E; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Cross, Paul C; Bengis, Roy G; Jolles, Anna E

    2015-07-01

    Chronic infections may have negative impacts on wildlife populations, yet their effects are difficult to detect in the absence of long-term population monitoring. Brucella abortus, the bacteria responsible for bovine brucellosis, causes chronic infections and abortions in wild and domestic ungulates, but its impact on population dynamics is not well understood. We report infection patterns and fitness correlates of bovine brucellosis in African buffalo based on (1) 7 years of cross-sectional disease surveys and (2) a 4-year longitudinal study in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We then used a matrix population model to translate these observed patterns into predicted population-level effects. Annual brucellosis seroprevalence ranged from 8·7% (95% CI = 1·8-15·6) to 47·6% (95% CI = 35·1-60·1) increased with age until adulthood (>6) and varied by location within KNP. Animals were on average in worse condition after testing positive for brucellosis (F = -5·074, P brucellosis and pregnancy or being observed with a calf. For the range of body condition scores observed in the population, the model-predicted growth rate was λ = 1·11 (95% CI = 1·02-1·21) in herds without brucellosis and λ = 1·00 (95% CI = 0·85-1·16) when brucellosis seroprevalence was 30%. Our results suggest that brucellosis infection can potentially result in reduced population growth rates, but because these effects varied with demographic and environmental conditions, they may remain unseen without intensive, longitudinal monitoring.

  3. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, E.; Cross, P.C.; Beneria, M.; Ficapal, A.; Curia, J.; Marco, X.; Lavin, S.; Marco, I.

    2011-01-01

    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  4. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, E; Cross, P C; Beneria, M; Ficapal, A; Curia, J; Marco, X; Lavín, S; Marco, I

    2011-10-01

    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  5. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy features of normal-appearing white matter in patients with acute brucellosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayabas, Uner [Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey)], E-mail: ukayabas@inonu.edu.tr; Alkan, Alpay; Firat, Ahmet Kemal; Karakas, Hakki Muammer [Department of Radiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey); Bayindir, Yasar; Yetkin, Funda [Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2008-03-15

    We aimed to evaluate whether the subtle metabolic cerebral changes are present in normal-appearing white matter on conventional MRI, in patients with acute brucellosis, by using MR spectroscopy (MRS). Sixteen patients with acute brucellosis and 13 healthy control subjects were investigated with conventional MRI and single-voxel MRS. Voxels were placed in normal-appearing parietal white matter (NAPWM). N-Acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios were calculated. There was no significant difference between the study subjects and the control group in NAA/Cr ratios obtained from NAPWM. However, the Cho/Cr ratios were significantly higher in patients with acute brucellosis compared to controls (p = 0.01). MRS revealed metabolic changes in normal-appearing white matter of patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis may cause subtle cerebral alterations, which may only be discernible with MRS. Increased Cho/Cr ratio possibly represents an initial phase of inflammation and/or demyelination process of brucellosis.

  6. Clinical presentations and diagnosis of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Metan, Gökhan; Alp, Emine

    2013-04-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Brucella species. The disease remains a significant economic and public health problem particularly in the Mediterranean countries. Clinical manifestations of brucellosis are variable and often nonspecific, simulating infectious and noninfectious diseases. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common focal complication of brucellosis and morbidity. Mortality rate due to brucellosis is low, mostly secondary to endocarditis and central nerve involvement of disease. The diagnosis of brucellosis depends on the clinical presentations and laboratory tests. Detection of Brucella species by culture method is sometimes unsuccessful; therefore, serological tests are preferred. These tests are easy to perform, and results can be obtained within a short span of time. Several serologic tests have been developed for the diagnosis of human brucellosis, including the standard agglutination tube (SAT) test, anti-human globulin (Coombs) test, indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) test, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SAT is the primary test used in many clinical laboratories. IFA and ELISA are simple and reliable for the detection of immunoglobulin classes especially in complicated cases. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique is highly sensitive and specific for the determination of Brucella spp. from peripheral blood and other tissues. Recent patents are especially based on molecular assays in the diagnosis of brucellosis. However, PCR is still expensive and may not be appropriate for daily practice.

  7. Brucellosis: An Unrecognized Zoonotic Disease in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Maphilindawati Noor

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis, is a disease caused by members of the genus Brucella . In Indonesia, brucellosis has known as a contagious reproductive disease in animals, however, only certain people know that brucellosis can be transmitted to human . Bovine brucellosis is characterised by one or more of the following signs : abortion, retained placenta . orchitis, epididymitis and, rarely, arthritis, with excretion of the organisms in uterine discharges and in milk . The Brucella organism is transmitted to human most commonly by ingestion of untreated milk or milk products or through the mucous membranes and wound of the skin . The severity of human disease varies, depending largely upon the infecting strain . Brucella abortus, B . melitensis. B . suis and B. canis are highly pathogenic for humans . Clinical symptoms of human brucellosis may include an intermittent fever, headaches, weakness, arthalgia, myalgia and weight loss . Occasional complications include arthritis, endocarditis, hepatitis granuloma, meningitis, orchitis dan osteomyelitis have also been reported . Brucellosis can also produce spontaneous abortion in pregnant woman . Diagnosis is based on the isolation of the organism and serology . Antibiotics are usually the mainstay of treatment and long-term treatment may be required . Brucellosis can be controlled by comprehensive campaigns to eradicate the disease by vaccination programme followed by test and slaughter of domestic animals which exhibit positive serologic reactions to brucellae.

  8. The changing pattern of human brucellosis: clinical manifestations, epidemiology, and treatment outcomes over three decades in Georgia

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    Zenaishvili Otar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is an endemic infection in Georgia. We conducted a review of patient records with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of brucellosis over three decades at the central referral hospital for brucellosis cases, the Institute of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine (IPTM in Tbilisi. The purpose was to describe the demographic profile and clinical characteristics as well as diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with brucellosis. Methods Data were abstracted from randomly selected patient records at the IPTM. In total, 300 records were reviewed from three time periods: 1970-73, 1988-89, and 2004-2008. Results The age distribution of patients shifted from a median age of 40 years in the first time period to 20 years in the third time period. Azeri ethnicity was an increasing proportion of the total number of cases. The frequency of relapsed infection was 14.7% (44 cases. A total of 50 patients received vaccine therapy, and although the vaccine produced immune responses, demonstrated by an increase in agglutination titers, it was not associated with improved outcome. Conclusion The demographics of brucellosis in Georgia fit a profile of persons that tend sheep. Osteoarticular complications were commonly detected, especially in children. The changing pattern of brucellosis in Georgia suggests clinicians should be updated about different trends in brucellosis in their country.

  9. Brucellosis in Kosovo and Clinical Features of Brucellosis at University clinical center of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Qehaja Buçaj; Edmond Puca; Sadie Namani; Muharem Bajrami; Valbon Krasniqi; Lindita Ajazaj Berisha; Xhevat Jakupi; Bahrie Halili; Dhimiter Kraja

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Brucellosis became a remarkable disease in Kosovo. But there is not a comprehensive epidemiological study about epidemiology and clinical course of this disease from Kosovo. The aim of our study is to present demographic and clinical data of patients with brucellosis at University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Methods: A retrospective study was performed for the patients with brucellosis treated in our clinic during years 2011- 2012. The data about demography, history of the diseas...

  10. Bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis patients with hematologic abnormalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cengiz Demir; Mustafa Kasim Karahocagil; Ramazan Esen; Murat Atmaca; Hayriye G(o)nüllü; Hayrettin Akdeniz

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis can mimic various multisytem diseases,showing wide clinical polymorphism that frequently leads to misdiagnosis and treatment delay,further increasing the complication rates.In this study,we aimed to examine bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis cases presenting with hematologic abnormalities.Methods Forty-eight brucellosis cases were prospectively investigated.Complaints and physical examination findings of patients were recorded.Patients' complete blood count,routine biochemical tests,erythrocyte sedimentation rate,C-reactive protein and serological screenings were performed.Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration was performed in patients with cytopenia,for bone marrow examination and brucella culture,in accordance with the standard procedures from spina iliaca posterior superior region of pelvic bone.Results Of the 48 patients,35 (73%) were female and 13 (27%) were male.Mean age was (34.8±15.4) years (age range:15-70 years).Anemia,leukopenia,thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia were found in 39 (81%),28 (58%),22 (46%) and 10 patients (21%),respectively.In the examination of bone marrow,hypercellularity was found In 35 (73%) patients.Increased megacariocytic,erythroid and granulocytic series were found in 28 (58%),15 (31%) and 5 (10%) patients,respectively.In addition,hemophagocytosis was observed in 15 (31%) patients,granuloma observed in 12 (25%) and increased eosinophil and plasma cells observed in 9 (19%) patients.Conclusion According to the results of our series,hemophagocytosis,microgranuloma formation and hypersplenism may be responsible for hematologic complications of brucellosis.

  11. [Brucellosis, an overview and current aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmar, Patrick; Zange, Sabine; Zöller, Lothar; Erkel, Joseph; Robert Thoma, Bryan

    2016-07-01

    Although brucellosis, a zoonosis mostly associated with sheep, goats and cattle, is not endemic in Germany, it is a relevant imported infectious disease. If patients suffer from fever of unknown origin after a stay in highly endemic countries like the Mediterranean area or the Arab world, it is mandatory to formally exclude brucellosis. Cultural methods are the diagnostic gold standard, but due to special methodical and infrastructural requirements it is essential to inform the laboratory at suspicion of infection. The treatment of brucellosis is challenging and usually based on a long-term combination regime using doxycycline and rifampin for at least 6 weeks.

  12. Brucellosis in spondyloarthritis mimicking an exacerbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Y; Eser, F; Erten, S; Yilmaz, O; Yildirim, P

    2014-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis are a group of chronic inflammatory diseases that affect the axial skeleton, entheses and peripheral joints and may have extraarticular manifestations such as uveitis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. Brucellosis is a systemic infectious disease, endemic in Middle East, Latin America, and Mediterranean countries, which may present manifestations that resemble other diseases posing serious problems of differential diagnosis. Some hallmarks of Brucellosis may mimic a spondyloarthritis flare. In this paper, authors present a clinical case of brucellosis occurring in a patient with spondyloarthritis. Clinical symptoms initially mimicked exacerbation of spondyloarthritis.

  13. A NEW APPROACH TO BRUCELLOSIS ALLERGODIAGNOSTICS

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    D. G. Ponomarenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The new cytometric method for laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis in vitro conditions based on detection of hypersensitivity to Brucella has been developed. This test allows to differentiate vaccinal and infectious processes in case of chronic brucellosis, and to measure the level of patient sensibilization to Brucella. Thus, the test might be used to estimate intensity of post-vaccination immunity before re-immunization against brucellosis. Using of flow cytometry in the test excludes additional antigenic influence on human organism and allows to provide testing within 1 hour.

  14. 76 FR 65935 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Troy Bigelow, Swine Health Programs, Aquaculture, Swine, Equine... conditions, including arthritis. Humans can be treated for brucellosis with antibiotics. In an interim...

  15. An evaluation of Irish cattle herds with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis

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    Hayes M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 1998, there has been a steady decline in herd restrictions and de-populations in Ireland due to bovine brucellosis. There is concern that the interpretation of laboratory results may become increasingly problematic, as brucellosis prevalence falls in Ireland. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the infection status of Irish herds and animals with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis. During 12 months from September 1, 2004, laboratory and observational epidemiological data were collected from all Irish herds where animal testing identified at least one animal with a complement fixation test (CFT reading greater than zero and/or a positive result to the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA. Due to the observational nature of the study, we have robust estimates of the relative, but not the absolute, performance of the CFT, iELISA and brucellin skin test (BST. Herds were divided into three categories (Group A, B or C on the basis of test results at initial assessment. A total of 639 herds were enrolled into the study, and observed for at least two years following enrolment. A rising CFT titre, with a CFT reading of 111 International CFT Units (IU or greater at the subsequent blood test, was generally associated with herds where other evidence of infection was also available. Knowledge of the CFT reading at the initial and a subsequent blood test proved useful in distinguishing false-positive and true-positive brucellosis results. There was poor correlation between the CFT and iELISA results, and between the CFT and BST results. As a result of this study, national policy has been modified to include re-sampling of all animals with CFT readings of 20 IU or greater. This project has also led to a reduction in the number of herds restricted, as well as restriction duration. It has also contributed to a reduction in the number of herds listed for contiguous tests, and therefore the

  16. The Rose Bengal Test in human brucellosis: a neglected test for the diagnosis of a neglected disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Ramón; Casanova, Aurora; Ariza, Javier; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2011-04-19

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis affecting livestock and human beings. The human disease lacks pathognomonic symptoms and laboratory tests are essential for its diagnosis. However, most tests are difficult to implement in the areas and countries were brucellosis is endemic. Here, we compared the simple and cheap Rose Bengal Test (RBT) with serum agglutination, Coombs, competitive ELISA, Brucellacapt, lateral flow immunochromatography for IgM and IgG detection and immunoprecipitation with Brucella proteins. We tested 208 sera from patients with brucellosis proved by bacteriological isolation, 20 contacts with no brucellosis, and 1559 sera of persons with no recent contact or brucellosis symptoms. RBT was highly sensitive in acute and long evolution brucellosis cases and this related to its ability to detect IgM, IgG and IgA, to the absence of prozones, and to the agglutinating activity of blocking IgA at the pH of the test. RBT was also highly specific in the sera of persons with no contact with Brucella. No test in this study outperformed RBT, and none was fully satisfactory in distinguishing contacts from infected patients. When modified to test serum dilutions, a diagnostic titer >4 in RBT resulted in 87.4% sensitivity (infected patients) and 100% specificity (contacts). We discuss the limitations of serological tests in the diagnosis of human brucellosis, particularly in the more chronic forms, and conclude that simplicity and affordability of RBT make it close to the ideal test for small and understaffed hospitals and laboratories.

  17. Epididymoorchitis as the First Finding in Patients with Brucellosis

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    Ayhan Karaköse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Acute scrotal pain as the first symptom of brucellosis is rarely observed. We aimed to evaluate the data of male patients with brucellosis and epididymoorchitis as the initial diagnosis. Material and Methods. The data of seven patients presented with testicular pain, hyperemia, swelling, and increased fever were reviewed. Concomitant focal diseases as well as clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings were retrospectively evaluated. Results. The mean age of the patients was 22.28 ± 7.78 (16–35 years. All patients presented with scrotal pain, swelling, and increased sweating. Additional findings included fever, asthenia, arthralgia, dysuria, shiver and rash, weight loss, and vomiting in 6, 5, 4, 4, 3, 2, and 1 patient, respectively. In all of 7 patients, the agglutination tests of Rose-Bengal and Wright were positive. Coombs test was positive only in 3 patients. The patients underwent antibiotic and conservative treatment. No relapse was observed following the treatment. Conclusion. In endemic regions, epididymoorchitis caused by brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute scrotal pain. Clinical and serological findings are sufficient for the diagnosis. Conservative management combined with antibiotic therapy is adequate for managing brucellar epididymoorchitis.

  18. Seroprevalence of human brucellosis in and around Jammu, India, using different serological tests

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    H. K. Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Brucellosis is a disease of zoonotic importance as it affects both human as well as animal’s health, and therefore, directly affects animal productivity and human efficiency. Therefore, a study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in Jammu and surrounding areas. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 sera samples from humans occupied with professional related to animals were collected and tested for anti-Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT, modified RBPT (mRBPT, standard tube agglutination test (STAT, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA. Sampling was done keeping in view with the occupation, sex, and age. Results: The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded was 4.96%. The test-wise seroprevalence was 9.91% by RBPT, 9.91% by mRBPT, 9.09% by STAT, and 16.52% by I-ELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis was higher in >35-50 years age group compared to >20-35 years and >50-65 years. Sex-wise seroprevalence was higher in males than females. Taking I-ELISA as standard, the relative sensitivities of mRBPT, RBPT, and I-ELISA were in the order of mRBPT=RBPT>STAT. All the tests revealed high specificity values; however, among different serological tests, I-ELISA detected a maximum number of positive sera samples. Conclusions: The prevalence of brucellosis was found to be approximately 5%. The adult (>35-50 years age male group was most vulnerable. The routine diagnosis of brucellosis involved the conventional serological tests, viz., RBPT and STAT, but each was associated with drawbacks which could give either false-positive or false-negative interpretation. Therefore, it is always recommended to use a battery of tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  19. Seroprevalence of human brucellosis in and around Jammu, India, using different serological tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H. K.; Kotwal, S. K.; Singh, D. K.; Malik, M. A.; Kumar, Arvind; Rajagunalan; Singh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Brucellosis is a disease of zoonotic importance as it affects both human as well as animal’s health, and therefore, directly affects animal productivity and human efficiency. Therefore, a study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in Jammu and surrounding areas. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 sera samples from humans occupied with professional related to animals were collected and tested for anti-Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), modified RBPT (mRBPT), standard tube agglutination test (STAT), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). Sampling was done keeping in view with the occupation, sex, and age. Results: The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded was 4.96%. The test-wise seroprevalence was 9.91% by RBPT, 9.91% by mRBPT, 9.09% by STAT, and 16.52% by I-ELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis was higher in >35-50 years age group compared to >20-35 years and >50-65 years. Sex-wise seroprevalence was higher in males than females. Taking I-ELISA as standard, the relative sensitivities of mRBPT, RBPT, and I-ELISA were in the order of mRBPT=RBPT>STAT. All the tests revealed high specificity values; however, among different serological tests, I-ELISA detected a maximum number of positive sera samples. Conclusions: The prevalence of brucellosis was found to be approximately 5%. The adult (>35-50 years) age male group was most vulnerable. The routine diagnosis of brucellosis involved the conventional serological tests, viz., RBPT and STAT, but each was associated with drawbacks which could give either false-positive or false-negative interpretation. Therefore, it is always recommended to use a battery of tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis. PMID:27536036

  20. Brucellosis as an emerging threat in developing economies: lessons from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Bertu, Wilson J; Ocholi, Reuben A; Gusi, Amahyel M; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Sue; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, has a large proportion of the world's poor livestock keepers, and is a hotspot for neglected zoonoses. A review of the 127 accessible publications on brucellosis in Nigeria reveals only scant and fragmented evidence on its spatial and temporal distribution in different epidemiological contexts. The few bacteriological studies conducted demonstrate the existence of Brucella abortus in cattle and sheep, but evidence for B. melitensis in small ruminants is dated and unclear. The bulk of the evidence consists of seroprevalence studies, but test standardization and validation are not always adequately described, and misinterpretations exist with regard to sensitivity and/or specificity and ability to identify the infecting Brucella species. Despite this, early studies suggest that although brucellosis was endemic in extensive nomadic systems, seroprevalence was low, and brucellosis was not perceived as a real burden; recent studies, however, may reflect a changing trend. Concerning human brucellosis, no studies have identified the Brucella species and most reports provide only serological evidence of contact with Brucella in the classical risk groups; some suggest brucellosis misdiagnoses as malaria or other febrile conditions. The investigation of a severe outbreak that occurred in the late 1970s describes the emergence of animal and human disease caused by the settling of previously nomadic populations during the Sahelian drought. There appears to be an increasing risk of re-emergence of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa, as a result of the co-existence of pastoralist movements and the increase of intensive management resulting from growing urbanization and food demand. Highly contagious zoonoses like brucellosis pose a threat with far-reaching social and political consequences.

  1. Brucellosis as an emerging threat in developing economies: lessons from Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie J Ducrotoy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, has a large proportion of the world's poor livestock keepers, and is a hotspot for neglected zoonoses. A review of the 127 accessible publications on brucellosis in Nigeria reveals only scant and fragmented evidence on its spatial and temporal distribution in different epidemiological contexts. The few bacteriological studies conducted demonstrate the existence of Brucella abortus in cattle and sheep, but evidence for B. melitensis in small ruminants is dated and unclear. The bulk of the evidence consists of seroprevalence studies, but test standardization and validation are not always adequately described, and misinterpretations exist with regard to sensitivity and/or specificity and ability to identify the infecting Brucella species. Despite this, early studies suggest that although brucellosis was endemic in extensive nomadic systems, seroprevalence was low, and brucellosis was not perceived as a real burden; recent studies, however, may reflect a changing trend. Concerning human brucellosis, no studies have identified the Brucella species and most reports provide only serological evidence of contact with Brucella in the classical risk groups; some suggest brucellosis misdiagnoses as malaria or other febrile conditions. The investigation of a severe outbreak that occurred in the late 1970s describes the emergence of animal and human disease caused by the settling of previously nomadic populations during the Sahelian drought. There appears to be an increasing risk of re-emergence of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa, as a result of the co-existence of pastoralist movements and the increase of intensive management resulting from growing urbanization and food demand. Highly contagious zoonoses like brucellosis pose a threat with far-reaching social and political consequences.

  2. Risk factors for occupational brucellosis among veterinary personnel in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Murat; Ergonul, Onder; Sayin-Kutlu, Selda; Guven, Tumer; Ustun, Cemal; Alp-Cavus, Sema; Ozturk, Serife Barcın; Acicbe, Ozlem; Akalin, Serife; Tekin, Recep; Tekin-Koruk, Suda; Demiroglu, Yusuf Ziya; Keskiner, Ramazan; Gönen, Ibak; Sapmaz-Karabag, Sevil; Bosnak, Vuslat; Kazak, Esra

    2014-11-01

    Veterinarians and veterinary technicians are at risk for occupational brucellosis. We described the risk factors of occupational brucellosis among veterinary personnel in Turkey. A multicenter retrospective survey was performed among veterinary personnel who were actively working in the field. Of 712 veterinary personnel, 84 (11.8%) had occupational brucellosis. The median number of years since graduation was 7 (interquartile ranges [IQR], 4-11) years in the occupational brucellosis group, whereas this number was 9 (IQR, 4-16) years in the non-brucellosis group (pbrucellosis. We suggest that all veterinary personnel should be trained on brucellosis and the importance of using personal protective equipment in order to avoid this infection.

  3. Chest wall involvement as a manifestation of Brucellosis

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    K Rahmdel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis continues to be a common infectious disease in some parts of the world. Although the disease has different presentations, but chest wall involvement, as a manifestation of brucellosis is rare. In this study, we report three cases of chest wall involvement as manifesting feature of Brucellosis in Iran. They presented with a history of parasternal masses revealed to a diagnosis of Brucellosis and responded well to the treatment. Brucellosis may present with strange and unpredictable manifestations and can be misdiagnosed with tuberculosis and malignancies, especially in endemic areas for both TB and brucellosis.

  4. A Case of Brucellosis with Recurrent Attacks of Vasculitis

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    Pınar Korkmaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis that affects several organs or systems. Skin involvement is nonspecific and it is reported to range between 0,4 and 17% of the patients with brucellosis. Here, we defined a 36-year-old female patient presented to our clinic with a clinical picture of recurrent attacks of vasculitis due to brucellosis for the first time. Skin involvement and vasculitic lesions as a finding of skin involvement are nonspecific in brucellosis. Therefore, in the regions like Turkey where brucellosis is endemic, brucellosis should be kept in mind necessarily in the differential diagnosis of vasculitis.

  5. Implications of laboratory diagnosis on brucellosis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dahouk, Sascha; Nöckler, Karsten

    2011-07-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis with a huge economic impact on animal husbandry and public health. The diagnosis of human brucellosis can be protracted because the disease primarily presents as fever of unknown origin with unspecific clinical signs and symptoms. The isolation rate of the fastidious etiologic agent from blood cultures is low, and therefore laboratory diagnosis is mainly based on serologic and molecular testing. However, seronegative brucellosis patients have been described, and antibody titers of diagnostic significance are difficult to define. Whether the molecular detection of Brucella DNA in clinical samples should be followed by long-term antibiotic treatment or not is also a matter of debate. The aim of this article is to review and discuss the implications of laboratory test results in the diagnosis of human brucellosis on disease therapy.

  6. Brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis prevalence in livestock from pastoralist communities adjacent to Awash National Park, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Bekele, Shiferaw; Moti, Tesfaye; Young, Douglas; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-06-15

    This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in local cattle and goat breeds of Oromo and Afar pastoralist communities living in two distinct parts around the Awash National Park. A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess information on husbandry, milk consumption habits, and on knowledge-attitude-practice regarding both diseases. Among a total of 771 animals from all sites tested by comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) none were BTB reactors with the >4mm cut-off. Using the >2mm cut-off, individual apparent prevalence was 0.9% (95%CI: 0.23-3.56%) in cattle and 0.7% (95%CI: 0.12-3.45%) in goats. Herd prevalence in Oromia and Afar sites was 0% and 66.7% respectively in goats and 16.7% and 50% in cattle. Among the 327 animals tested by enzyme linked immunoassay for brucellosis, 4.8% (95%CI: 1.2-17.1%) of cattle and 22.8% (95%CI: 5.98-29.5%) of goats were reactors. Highest individual prevalence of both diseases was found in Afar settlements with brucellosis being as high as 50%. Respondent ethnicity was the only risk factor for brucellosis positivity in goats in the univariable risk factor analysis. Knowledge about the diseases was poor. Raw goat milk was regularly consumed by women and children, putting them at risk for brucellosis. This study highlighted an increased prevalence gradient of BTB and brucellosis from West to East along the study sites with high brucellosis individual prevalence and abortion rates among Afar settlements in particular.

  7. Serum annexin A2 levels in acute brucellosis and brucellar spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktug Demir, N; Kolgelier, S; Sumer, S; Inkaya, A C; Ozcimen, S; Demir, L S; Ural, O; Arpaci, A

    2014-10-01

    Brucellosis is a chronic granulomatous infection and may present with various clinical manifestations. Brucellar spondylodiscitis symptoms are initially subtle and nonspecific. Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is involved in various biological functions, including osteoclast formation, bone resorption, and cell growth regulation. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical significance of serum ANXA2 levels in acute brucellosis and brucellar spondylodiscitis. This prospective study included 96 acute brucellosis patients and 51 healthy controls. Acute brucellosis was diagnosed by a 1/160 or higher titer in a standard tube agglutination (STA) test or a four-fold increase in titers between two STA tests performed two weeks apart in the presence of clinical symptoms within the last eight weeks and/or growth of Brucella spp. in appropriately prepared culture media. ANXA2 levels were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Forty (41.7 %) of 96 acute brucellosis patients were male and 56 (58.3 %) were female. Serum ANXA2 levels were elevated in patients compared to healthy controls (p = 0.001). Eighteen of 96 (18.7 %) acute brucellosis patients had brucellar spondylodiscitis. The serum ANXA2 levels of patients with brucellar spondylodiscitis were higher than those of patients with acute disease without brucellar spondylodiscitis (p = 0.001). ANXA2, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) values were elevated in the brucellar spondylodiscitis group compared to patients without brucellar spondylodiscitis. Serum ANXA2 measurement together with ESR and CRP is thought to be indicative in the diagnosis of brucellar spondylodiscitis, a common complication of brucellosis.

  8. Brucellosis in a renal transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, I W; Ho, M W; Sung, Y J; Tien, N; Chi, C Y; Ho, H C; Huang, C C

    2013-10-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most common systemic zoonotic diseases transmitted by consumption of unpasteurized dairy products or by occupational contact with infected animals. Brucellosis is rare in renal transplant recipients. Only 3 cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of brucellosis with hematologic and hepatobiliary complications in a patient 3 years after renal transplantation. The mean time from transplantation to the diagnosis of brucellosis in these 4 reported patients was 5.1 years (range 17 months to 13 years). All patients had fever and constitutional symptoms, and all attained clinical cure after combination antibiotic therapy. Given the small number of patients, further study is needed to identify the characteristics of brucellosis in renal transplant recipients. Drug interactions and acute renal failure developed in our patient during antibiotic treatment. Therefore, we should monitor the levels of immunosuppressive agents frequently. Several studies have shown in vitro susceptibilities of Brucella melitensis to tigecycline. In our patient, fever finally subsided after tigecycline administration. The minimum inhibitory concentration of tigecycline using Etest was 0.094 μg/mL. Tigecycline may be a potential option for treatment of brucellosis in the setting of transplantation.

  9. Detection of Brucellosis in Sika Deer ( Cervus nippon ) through Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianhong; Wei, Jie; Sun, Qingsong; Wang, Ben; Wang, Yuting; Hu, Ying; Wu, Wenrong

    2017-03-20

    Brucellosis (Brucella bovis) in sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) can cause enormous losses to stag breeding, especially in areas in which stag breeding has become an important industry. It also poses a threat to humans because it is a zoonotic disease. Use of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been poorly described in the diagnosis of brucellosis in deer. We developed a LAMP assay targeting the omp25 gene sequence to detect brucellosis (Brucella bovis) in sika deer. The reaction can be completed in 60 min at 63 C and, with a detection limit of 17 pg, it was more sensitive than conventional PCR, with its detection limit of 1.7 ng. No cross-reactivity was observed with four bacteria: Escherichia coli , Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Clostridium pasteurianum , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . We used 263 samples of blood to evaluate the reaction. The percentage of agreement between LAMP and PCR reached 91%; relative specificity reached 87%, and relative sensitivity reached 100%. The results indicate LAMP can be a simple and rapid diagnostic tool for detecting brucellosis in sika deer, particularly in the field, where it is essential to control brucellosis in deer with a rapid and accurate diagnosis for removal of positive animals.

  10. Epidemiology of brucellosis among cattle in Korea from 2001 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hachung; Moon, Oun-Kyong; Lee, Soo-Han; Lee, Won-Chang; Her, Moon; Jeong, Wooseog; Jung, Suk-Chan; Kim, Do-Soon

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the outbreak patterns of bovine brucellosis in Korea from 2000 to 2011 were analyzed to understand the epidemiological evolution of this disease in the country. A total of 85,521 brucella reactor animals were identified during 14,215 outbreaks over the 12-year study period. The number of bovine brucellosis cases increased after 2003 and peaked in 2006 before decreasing thereafter. The majority of the bovine brucellosis cases were Korean native cattle, Han Woo. The numbers of human brucellosis cases and cattle outbreaks increased and decreased in the same pattern. The correlation coefficient for human and bovine cases per year was 0.96 (95% confidence interval = 0.86 ˜ 0.99; p brucellosis appeared to be affected by the intensity of eradication programs that mainly involved a test- and-slaughter policy. Findings from the present study were based on freely available statistics from web pages maintained by government agencies. This unlimited access to information demonstrates the usefulness of government statistics for continually monitoring the health of animal populations.

  11. A Case of Brucellosis with Recurrent Attacks of Vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pınar Korkmaz; Mehtap Kıdır; Nazlı Dizen Namdar; Ahmet Özmen; Cemile Uyar; Ayşe Nur Değer

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis that affects several organs or systems. Skin involvement is nonspecific and it is reported to range between 0,4 and 17% of the patients with brucellosis. Here, we defined a 36-year-old female patient presented to our clinic with a clinical picture of recurrent attacks of vasculitis due to brucellosis for the first time. Skin involvement and vasculitic lesions as a finding of skin involvement are nonspecific in brucellosis. Therefore, in the regions like Turkey where ...

  12. Review of clinical and laboratory features of human Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantur B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Brucella spp. continues to pose a human health risk globally despite strides in eradicating the disease from domestic animals. Brucellosis has been an emerging disease since the discovery of Brucella melitensis by Sir David Bruce in 1887. Although many countries have eradicated B. abortus from cattle, in some areas B. melitensis and B. suis have emerged as causes of this infection in cattle, leading to human infections. Currently B. melitensis remains the principal cause of human brucellosis worldwide including India. The recent isolation of distinct strains of Brucella from marine mammals as well as humans is an indicator of an emerging zoonotic disease. Brucellosis in endemic and non-endemic regions remains a diagnostic puzzle due to misleading non-specific manifestations and increasing unusual presentations. Fewer than 10% of human cases of brucellosis may be clinically recognized and treated or reported. Routine serological surveillance is not practiced even in Brucella - endemic countries and we suggest that this should be a part of laboratory testing coupled with a high index of clinical suspicion to improve the level of case detection. The screening of family members of index cases of acute brucellosis in an endemic area should be undertaken to pick up additional unrecognised cases. Rapid and reliable, sensitive and specific, easy to perform and automated detection systems for Brucella spp. are urgently needed to allow early diagnosis and adequate antibiotic therapy in time to decrease morbidity / mortality. The history of travel to endemic countries along with exposure to animals and exotic foods are usually critical to making the clinical diagnosis. Laboratory testing is indispensable for diagnosis. Therefore alertness of clinician and close collaboration with microbiologist are essential even in endemic areas to correctly diagnose and treat this protean human infection. Existing treatment options, largely based on

  13. 春节效应对布鲁杆菌病监测分析影响的探讨%The thinking of the affect of Brucellosis surveillance analysis of spring festival effect from a epidemic situation briefing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余晓花; 肖宛凝; 李晔

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the reasons of national Brucellosis epidemic situation year on year increase in Feb 2012 year, to bring up and analyzing the effect of Brucellosis surveillance analysis of spring festival effect. Methods To describe surveillance data of national Brucellosis epidemic situation by epidemiological method in Feb 2012 year, to analyzing spring festival effect by chi - square test. Results Year on year analysis, there are the statistical difference between the average incidence of the months including spring festival and the average incidence of the months non - including spring festival (x2 =9183. 16, P < 0.01 Jin national Brucellosis from 2008 to 2012;link relative ration analysis, there are the statistical difference between the average incidence of the months including spring festival and the average incidence of the months non - including spring festival { x2 = 59. 88, P < 0. 01) in national Brucellosis in Jan from 2008 to 2012, there are the statistical difference between the average incidence of the months including spring festival and the average incidence of the months non - including spring festival(x2 =959. 7, P <0. 01) in national Brucellosis in Feb from 2008 to 2012. Conclusions The reasons of national Brucellosis epidemic situation year on year increase in Feb 2012 year include the spring festival effect and the leap year and the increasing of Brucellosis epidemic situation of several provinces. Reported incidence ratio of Brucellosis in the months that include spring festival year on year decline caused of spring festival effect. To use the methods of adjusted ARIMA model\\move average could reduce the spring festival effect among Brucellosis surveillance analysis.%目的 分析2012年2月全国布鲁杆菌病疫情同比上升原因,提出并分析春节效应对监测分析的影响.方法 对2012年2月全国布鲁杆菌病疫情监测资料进行三间分布的流行病学描述,对春节效应分析采用卡方检验.结果 2008

  14. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  15. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall not be slaughtered in an official establishment....

  16. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... bovine brucellosis in the United States. The notice stated that USDA would hold four public...

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in goats in areas of Mexico with and without brucellosis control campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Frankena, K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Keilbach Baer, N.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a major constraint for small-scale goat farming systems in Mexico. This study estimated the prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis and identified and quantified risk factors in goats from small-scale farms of Michoacán that had participated in a brucellosis campaign (i.e. vacci

  18. 76 FR 6322 - Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 RIN 0579-AD22 Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and Certification Requirements AGENCY: Animal and... are extending the comment period for an interim rule modifying brucellosis testing,...

  19. 75 FR 81090 - Brucellosis Class Free States and Certified Brucellosis-Free Herds; Revisions to Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... be treated for brucellosis with antibiotics. The brucellosis regulations, contained in 9 CFR part 78... disease control. APHIS has announced its intention to take a new approach to managing the bovine.... (See ``A Concept Paper for a New Direction for the Bovine Brucellosis Program,'' 74 FR...

  20. Brucellosis Prevention Program: Applying “Child to Family Health Education” Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Allahverdipour

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pupils have efficient potential to increase community awareness and promoting community health through participating in the health education programs. Child to family health education program is one of the communicative strategies that was applied in this field trial study. Because of high prevalence of Brucellosis in Hamadan province, Iran, the aim of this study was promoting families’ knowledge and preventive behaviors about Brucellosis in the rural areas by using child to family health education method.Materials & Methods: In this nonequivalent control group design study three rural schools were chosen (one as intervention and two others as control. At first knowledge and behavior of families about Brucellosis were determined using a designed questionnaire. Then the families were educated through “child to family” procedure. At this stage the students gained information. Then they were instructed to teach their parents what they had learned. After 3 months following the last session of education, the level of knowledge and behavior changes of the families about Brucellosis were determined and analyzed by paired t-test.Results: The results showed significant improvement in the knowledge of the mothers. The knowledge of the mothers about the signs of Brucellosis disease in human increased from 1.81 to 3.79 ( t:-21.64 , sig:0.000 , and also the knowledge on the signs of Brucellosis in animals increased from 1.48 to 2.82 ( t:-10.60 , sig:0.000. Conclusion: Child to family health education program is one of the effective and available methods, which would be useful and effective in most communities, and also Students potential would be effective for applying in the health promotion programs.

  1. Investigation of CTLA-4 and CD86 gene polymorphisms in Iranian patients with brucellosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari-Nasab, Ebrahim; Moghadampour, Mehdi; Najibi, Habib; Hadadi-Fishani, Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    The protective immune response against Brucella involves T-cell-mediated immunity. T-lymphocyte receptors, CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4), bind the same ligands, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) on antigen-presenting cells and regulate T cell activation. CD28 delivers stimulatory signals whereas CTLA-4 provides inhibitory signals for T cell activation. Here, we investigated the association of four polymorphisms in CTLA4 (+49A/G [rs231775] and -318 C/T [rs5742909]) and its ligand CD86 (+1057 G/A [rs1129055] and +2379G/C [rs17281995]) with brucellosis infection. The study included 153 Iranian patients with active brucellosis and 128 healthy individuals as the control group. Genotyping of the CTLA4 and CD86 variants was performed using tetra amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (T-ARMS-PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, respectively. It was found that the CTLA4 -318 CT genotype and T allele were present more frequently in cases than in controls and are therefore associated with an increased risk for brucellosis (-318 TT genotype; OR = 2.544, P = 0.002). Likewise, the CD86 +1057 GA and AA genotypes and A allele were associated with an increased risk of brucellosis (+1057 AA genotype; OR = 3.81, P = 0.001). However, no statistically significant difference between brucellosis patients and controls in the allele and genotype distributions of CTLA4, +49A/G (P = 0.859) and CD86, +2379G/C (P = 0.476) was found. In conclusion, CTLA4 -318 CT genotype and T allele and the CD86 +057 GA and AA genotypes and A allele play roles as risk factors for developing brucellosis infection in Iran.

  2. Two cases of brucellosis epididymo-orchitis

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    Gülay Dede

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epididymoorchitis caused by Brucella species is a rare infection. In this report two cases of epididymoorchitis due to brucellosis are presented with their clinical and laboratory findings. The patients complained of fever, and painful testicles with swelling, the duration of which varied between 7 to 10 days. They had unilateral epididymoorchitis. Brucellosis was diagnosed serologically in all patients, whereas Brucella spp. was isolated from the blood culture of one patient. One patient was given rifampicin and doxycycline, and the other streptomycin, doxycycline and rifampicin. In all cases, complete resolution was achieved with medical treatment and relapse did not occur. Brucellosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of epididymoorchitis in endemic areas.

  3. The first outbreak of brucellosis in the region of Šabac

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    Marković-Denić Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In Serbia brucellosis is a primary disease of the animals in the southern parts of the country. The aim of this study was to describe the first outbreak of human and animal brucellosis in the region of Šabac, Serbia. Methods. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify a source of outbreak and the ways of transmission of brucellosis infection in human population. A descriptive and analytical epidemiological methods (cohort study were used. Additional data included monthly reports of the infectious diseases from the Institutes of Public Health and data from the Veterinary Specialistic Institute in Šabac. The serological tests for human brucellosis cases were performed in the Laboratory of the Military Medical Academy; laboratory confirmation of animal brucellosis cases was obtained from the reference laboratory of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Belgrade. Results. Twelve cases of brucellosis were recorded from February 9 to September 1, 2004. Total attack rate was 8.1% (7.5% of males, 14.2% of females. Relative risk (RR of milk consumption was 8.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.63-13.38, and RR for direct contact with animals was 14 (95% confidence interval: 3.5-55.6. The prevalence of seropositive animals in 33 villages of the Mačva region accounted for 0.8%. Regarding animal species, sheep were predominant - 264 (95.7%. Out of a total number of seropositive animals, ELISA results were positive in 228 (88.7% of them. Conclusion. As contact epidemics generally last longer, it is probable that the implemented measures of outbreak control did reduce the length of their duration.

  4. Analytical Review of Brucellosis in Jolfa City between 2010 and 2014

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    Safooreh Esmaeilzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : This study aimed to analyze existing data to achieve a comprehensive understanding of human brucellosis trend and its current situation in Jolfa city for implementing appropriate prevention and controlling program. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted on 91 patients with brucellosis who referred to Jolfa city health centers and private clinics from 2010 to 2014 and standard form of the brucellosis disease was completed for them. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16 and descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results : The mean incidence of brucellosis was 34.6 per 100,000. About 60.4% of the patients were male and 86.6% were living in rural. Disease was more common in men but there was no significant difference between the genders (x2 =2.72, p-value=0.85. The mean age was 36.7 years old (SD=1.78 with a range from 4 to 87 years old. The most cases of diseases were aged 40-50 years old. The most contagious seasons were spring (40.65% and summer (26.37%. About 85.7% of the patients had a history of animal contact and 78 % of the patients had a background of consuming unpasteurized dairy products. According to the findings, 94.55% of the patients were new cases and 38.5% had a history of disease in the family. The most cases (34.1% were in Komar-Sofla village. Conclusion : Despite the decrease of brucellosis disease in the East Azerbaijan province, trend of disease is increasing in Jolfa and brucellosis is still one of the common diseases. According to the results and considering the nature of the disease, applying ecological theories based on the multi-sectoral collaboration of the society can be effective in preventing the disease. ​

  5. Two cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to brucellosis: a review of hemolytic disorders in patients with brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskazan, Ahmet Emre; Dal, Mehmet Sinan; Kaya, Safak; Dal, Tuba; Ayyildiz, Orhan; Soysal, Teoman

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease associated with hemolytic complications, including thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and hemolytic anemia. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare clinical presentation of this disease. In this report, we describe the cases of two patients with brucellosis who presented with Coombs-positive AIHA. We also include a review of the literature on the hemolytic complications of brucellosis. Both patients were successfully treated with a combination of doxycycline and rifampicin in addition to steroids. In the medical literature, there are several cases of TMA associated with brucellosis, although only a few cases of Coombs test-positive AIHA have been reported. Antibiotic therapy is the mainstay of treatment, and the selection of antibiotics and duration of treatment do not differ between brucellosis patients with and without hemolysis. Although rare, the potential for brucellosis should always be kept in mind in patients who present with hemolysis, especially those living in areas where brucellosis is endemic.

  6. Simulating sterilization, vaccination, and test-and-remove as brucellosis control measures in bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, M.; Cross, P.; Wallen, Rick; White, P.J.; Treanor, John

    2011-01-01

    Brucella abortus, the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, infects wildlife, cattle, and humans worldwide, but management of the disease is often hindered by the logistics of controlling its prevalence in wildlife reservoirs. We used an individually based epidemiological model to assess the relative efficacies of three management interventions (sterilization, vaccination, and test-and-remove). The model was parameterized with demographic and epidemiological data from bison in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Sterilization and test-and-remove were most successful at reducing seroprevalence when they were targeted at young seropositive animals, which are the most likely age and sex category to be infectious. However, these approaches also required the most effort to implement. Vaccination was less effective (even with a perfect vaccine) but also required less effort to implement. For the treatment efforts we explored (50–100 individuals per year or 2.5–5% of the female population), sterilization had little impact upon the bison population growth rate when selectively applied. The population growth rate usually increased by year 25 due to the reduced number of Brucella-induced abortions. Initial declines in seroprevalence followed by rapid increases (>15% increase in 5 years) occurred in 3–13% of simulations with sterilization and test-and-remove, but not vaccination. We believe this is due to the interaction of superspreading events and the loss of herd immunity in the later stages of control efforts as disease prevalence declines. Sterilization provided a mechanism for achieving large disease reductions while simultaneously limiting population growth, which may be advantageous in some management scenarios. However, the field effort required to find the small segment of the population that is infectious rather than susceptible or recovered will likely limit the utility of this approach in many free-ranging wildlife populations. Nevertheless, we encourage

  7. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piampiano, P.; McLeary, M.; Young, L.W. [Dept. of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Loma Linda University Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Janner, D. [Div. of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Loma Linda University Medical Center and Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  8. OUTBREAK INVESTIGATION AND CONTROL OF BRUCELLOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biserka I. Vasileva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosisis an infectious and contagious disease caused by bacterial species of the genus Brucella. It is a major zoonosis with an important social and economic impact. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate and analyze the measures application for control and eradication of brucellosis occurred in the region of Pleven. Methods: We conducted a retrospective epidemiological study. Respective documents were reviewed. We analyzed Case report form and Questionnaire for persons suspected of having brucellosis. Conclusions were made of the possible source of the disease and the risk factors leading to infection of humans. Results: A focus of Brucellosis among the animals to private goat farm in August was detected. The connection to other existing in the country focuses has been proved. Two of the persons, having had contacts with the animals developed clinical symptoms of the disease; referenced persons have consumed fresh goat cheese and milk. A joint epidemiological investigation with representatives of responsible authorities was carried out and measures undertook to restrict and liquidate the focus. Conclusion: Brucellosis in man can only be prevented effectively by elimination of the animal reservoir. This necessitates a close interaction between the medical authorities concerned with public health authorities on the one hand and the veterinary authorities on the other.

  9. Observations on brucellosis due to Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPINK, W W

    1953-01-01

    A special study was made of the problem of brucellosis due to Brucella melitensis in visits to Mexico City in 1948, to the FAO/WHO Brucellosis Centres at Montpellier (France), Florence (Italy), and Rijeka (Yugoslavia) in 1951, and to Spain in 1952. Br. melitensis infection in human beings causes more severe illness than Br. abortus infection. It develops primarily in rural communities living in close contact with goats and sheep; cattle and swine may also harbour the infection.In diagnosis, the agglutination test has proved the most satisfactory procedure; testing would be more uniformly reliable if a single antigen were used. Lack of funds and technical assistance have in many instances limited the bacteriological studies upon which a more definitive diagnosis of brucellosis depends.Antibiotics, Brucella vaccines, and colloidal preparations of gold and silver-used separately and in combination-have proved of varying therapeutic value, although response to antibiotics is less favourable than in cases of Br. abortus infection.While the drastic measures-involving the slaughter of about 10,000 sheep-taken in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, in the late 1940's, against an outbreak of brucellosis, is an inspiring example of how the disease can be eradicated, the removal of all diseased animals is rarely feasible economically. It is hoped that future research will reveal a practicable alternative in the immunization of sheep and goats against the disease.

  10. 75 FR 27579 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination Program...(2)(C), the National Park Service announces the availability of the Bison Brucellosis...

  11. Update on treatment options for spinal brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu-Kilic, A; Karakas, A; Erdem, H; Turker, T; Inal, A S; Ak, O; Turan, H; Kazak, E; Inan, A; Duygu, F; Demiraslan, H; Kader, C; Sener, A; Dayan, S; Deveci, O; Tekin, R; Saltoglu, N; Aydın, M; Horasan, E S; Gul, H C; Ceylan, B; Kadanalı, A; Karabay, O; Karagoz, G; Kayabas, U; Turhan, V; Engin, D; Gulsun, S; Elaldı, N; Alabay, S

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of antibiotic regimens and optimal duration of therapy in complicated and uncomplicated forms of spinal brucellosis. This is a multicentre, retrospective and comparative study involving a total of 293 patients with spinal brucellosis from 19 health institutions. Comparison of complicated and uncomplicated spinal brucellosis was statistically analysed. Complicated spinal brucellosis was diagnosed in 78 (26.6%) of our patients. Clinical presentation was found to be significantly more acute, with fever and weight loss, in patients in the complicated group. They had significantly higher leukocyte and platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and C-reactive protein levels, and lower haemoglobulin levels. The involvement of the thoracic spine was significantly more frequent in complicated cases. Spondylodiscitis was complicated, with paravertebral abscess in 38 (13.0%), prevertebral abscess in 13 (4.4%), epidural abscess in 30 (10.2%), psoas abscess in 10 (3.4%) and radiculitis in 8 (2.7%) patients. The five major combination regimens were: doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and streptomycin 1 g/day; doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and gentamicin 5 mg/kg; doxycycline 200 mg/day and rifampicin 600 mg/day; doxycycline 200 mg/day and streptomycin 1 g/day; and doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and ciprofloxacin 1 g/day. There were no significant therapeutic differences between these antibiotic groups; the results were similar regarding the complicated and uncomplicated groups. Patients were mostly treated with doxycycline and rifampicin with or without an aminoglycoside. In the former subgroup, complicated cases received antibiotics for a longer duration than uncomplicated cases. Early recognition of complicated cases is critical in preventing devastating complications. Antimicrobial treatment should be prolonged in complicated spinal brucellosis in particular.

  12. High asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels in patients with brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengeloglu, Zafer; Sünnetcioglu, Mahmut; Tosun, Mehmet; Kücükbayrak, Abdülkadir; Ceylan, Mehmet Resat; Baran, Ali Irfan; Karahocagil, Mustafa; Akdeniz, Hayrettin

    2014-02-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is the main endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and is considered to be associated with endothelial dysfunction. Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp., can manifest as vasculopathy. The present study was performed to investigate the relationship between ADMA and brucellosis. Serum samples from 39 patients with an accurate diagnosis of brucellosis and from 18 healthy control individuals were included in this study. ADMA levels were significantly higher in the patient group than the controls (P brucellosis and high levels of ADMA. In conclusion, ADMA levels should be tested in brucellosis cases and that further studies to clarify the mechanism underlying the association between ADMA and brucellosis are required.

  13. Quantifying risk factors for human brucellosis in rural northern Tanzania.

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    Kunda John

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis to humans in Tanzania. METHODS: This was a matched case-control study. Any patient with a positive result by a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test for brucellosis, and presenting to selected hospitals with at least two clinical features suggestive of brucellosis such as headache, recurrent or continuous fever, sweating, joint pain, joint swelling, general body malaise or backache, was defined as a case. For every case in a district, a corresponding control was traced and matched by sex using multistage cluster sampling. Other criteria for inclusion as a control included a negative c-ELISA test result and that the matched individual would present to hospital if falls sick. RESULTS: Multivariable analysis showed that brucellosis was associated with assisted parturition during abortion in cattle, sheep or goat. It was shown that individuals living in close proximity to other households had a higher risk of brucellosis. People who were of Christian religion were found to have a higher risk of brucellosis compared to other religions. The study concludes that assisting an aborting animal, proximity to neighborhoods, and Christianity were associated with brucellosis infection. There was no association between human brucellosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV serostatus. Protecting humans against contact with fluids and tissues during assisted parturition of livestock may be an important means of reducing the risk of transferring brucellosis from

  14. Epidemiology and risk factors of brucellosis in Alexandria governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meky, F A; Hassan, E A; Abd Elhafez, A M; Aboul Fetouhl, A M; El-Ghazali, S M S

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the trend and to identify possible risk factors for brucellosis in Alexandria in northern Egypt. We enrolled 72 confirmed cases of brucellosis and 144 age-matched controls in this study. Participants were interviewed at home using a structured questionnaire. Working with animals, breeding goats and eating ice cream bought from street vendors were significantly associated (P brucellosis by univariate and multivariate analysis. Contact with infected animals and their products was the most important method of transmission.

  15. [Analysis of a case with Brucellosis misdiagnosed as osteoarthrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Liying; Yao, Dongmei

    2014-02-01

    Brucellosis is far more frequent in a pasturing area in the northern part of our country and it has many clinical manifestations. It may cause multiple organ damage and its features lack specificity. It is rare in the south, so it is extremely easy to be misdiagnosed or overlooked. The retrospective analysis of a case with Brucellosis misdiagnosed as osteoarthrosis provides a guide for clinical doctors to understand Brucellosis, so that early diagnosis would be accessible, and prognosis could be improved.

  16. Brucellosis: Review on the recent trends in pathogenicity and laboratory diagnosis

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    Supriya Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection transmitted from animals to humans by the ingestion of infected food products, direct contact with an infected animal or inhalation of aerosols. The last method is remarkably efficient given the relatively low concentration of organisms (10 - 100 bacteria needed to establish infection in humans, and has brought renewed attention to this old disease. Brucella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that has the ability to survive and multiply in the phagocytes and cause abortion in cattle and undulant fever in humans. Brucella spp particularly B. melitensis, B. abortus, and B. suis represent a significant public health concern. At present, B. melitensis is the principle cause of human brucellosis in India. Molecular studies have demonstrated the phylogenetic affiliation of Brucella to Agrobacterium, Ochrobactrum, and Rhizobium. Human brucellosis still presents scientists and clinicians with several challenges, with regard to the understanding of its pathogenic mechanism, severity, progression, and development of improved treatment regimens. Molecular studies have now highlighted the pathogenesis of Brucella, for the development of newer diagnostic tools that will be useful in developing countries where brucellosis is a common, but often a neglected disease. This review compiles all these issues in general and the pathogenicity and newer diagnostic tools in particular.

  17. An analysis of brucellosis epidemic situation in humans from 2004 to 2010 in China%2004~2010年中国人间布鲁杆菌病疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晔; 余晓花; 贺天锋

    2012-01-01

    目的 描述2004~2010年全国人间布鲁氏菌病疫情现状和动态分布,分析流行趋势,为全国布鲁杆菌病防控提供科学依据.方法 对中国疾病预防控制信息系统中的2004~ 2010年全国布鲁杆菌病监测数据进行统计描述,并利用灰色模型进行趋势分析.结果 2004~2010年全国布鲁杆菌病疫情呈上升趋势,分布范围相对集中、逐年扩大,每年3~8月份高发,以青壮年男性为主,农牧民占很大比例.结论 近年全国人间布鲁杆菌病疫情严峻,有继续上升的趋势,应根据其流行特征,探讨改进防治策略和措施,加大防治力度和投入.%Objectives To describe epidemic situation and dynamic distribution of national human brucellosis from 2004 to 2010; to analysis epidemic trends; to provide scientific basis for prevention and control of national brucellosis. Methods To analyse the monitoring data of national brucellosis from 2004 to 2010 by describe statistical analysis, and to conduct analysis trends by using the grey model. Results Epidemic situation of national brucellosis shows that the trends had risen from 2004 to 2010 , regional distribution range was relatively concentrated, the case was increasing year by year, epidemic threshold was between March and August, young male were main disease groups, farmers and herdsmen took up a large proportion. Conclusions In recent years, the epidemic situation of national brucellosis is severe, and the trend keeps rising, we should explore and improve some strategies and measures to control and prevent brucellosis, and strengthen prevention efforts and investment according to epidemic features.

  18. Trends of reported human cases of brucellosis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloufi, Abdulaziz D; Memish, Ziad A; Assiri, Abdullah M; McNabb, Scott J N

    2016-03-01

    Human brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease and is especially concerning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), where livestock importation is significant. We analyzed reported human brucellosis disease trends in KSA over time to help policymakers understand the magnitude of the disease and guide the design of prevention and control measures. By using data from the national registry from 2004 to 2012, we calculated the cumulative numbers by age group and months. Trends of incidence rates (IRs) by gender, nationality, and region were also calculated. We found that there was a greater number of cases (19,130) in the 15-44 years age group than in any other age group. The IRs significantly decreased from 22.9 in 2004 [95% confidence interval (CI)=22.3, 23.5] to 12.5 in 2012 (95% CI=12.1, 13). Males had a significantly greater IR than females. Most cases were reported during spring and summer seasons. The IR of Saudi citizens was significantly greater than that of non-Saudis, but this difference reduced over time. The IRs of Al-Qassim, Aseer, and Hail were in the highest 25th percentile. Young, male Saudi citizens living in highly endemic areas were at greatest risk of acquiring brucellosis. We recommend vaccinating susceptible animals against brucellosis and increasing the public's awareness of preventive measures.

  19. 布鲁氏菌病的健康干预%Brucellosis health intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟惠云; 王迪; 张国芳; 孙洪杰

    2014-01-01

    吉林省前郭县是布鲁氏菌病(以下简称布病)的老疫区,多年来虽然狠抓布病的防治工作并取得了显著成果,但随着近年来养殖规模的增大,粗放管理模式加上自我防范意识的缺乏,使一度控制的布病出现了多发的趋势,不但威胁到养殖人员的健康,还严重制约了当地畜牧业的发展,如何遏制布病的传播显得尤为重要和紧迫。%Jilin Province Qianguo County is an old epidemic area of brucellosis(hereinafter referred to as the Bubing).Over the years,although we have paid close attention to the prevention and control of brucellosis and achieve remarkable results,but with the breeding scale increases in recent years,extensive management pattern and the lack of awareness of self-protection,the control of brucellosis appeared multiple development trend.It not only threatens the farm staff health,but also seriously hampers local animal husbandry development.How to curb the spread of brucellosis is particularly important and urgent.

  20. On the origin of brucellosis in bison of Yellowstone National Park: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Mary; Meyer, Margaret E.

    1994-01-01

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus occurs in the free-ranging bison (Bison bison) of Yellowstone and Wood Buffalo National Parks and in elk (Cervus elaphus) of the Greater Yellowstone Area. As a result of nationwide bovine brucellosis eradication programs, states and provinces proximate to the national parks are considered free of bovine brucellosis. Thus, increased attention has been focused on the wildlife within these areas as potential reservoirs for transmission to cattle. Because the national parks are mandated as natural areas, the question has been raised as to whether Brucella abortus is endogenous or exogenous to bison, particularly for Yellowstone National Park. We synthesized diverse lines of inquiry, including the evolutionary history of both bison and Brucella, wild animals as Brucella hosts, biochemical and genetic information, behavioral characteristics of host and organism, and area history to develop an evaluation of the question for the National Park Service. All lines of inquiry indicated that the organism was introduced to North America with cattle, and that the introduction into the Yellowstone bison probably was directly from cattle shortly before 1917. Fistulous withers of horses was a less likely possibility. Elk on winter feedgrounds south of Yellowstone National Park apparently acquired the disease directly from cattle. Bison presently using Grand Teton National Park probably acquired brucellosis from feedground elk.

  1. Epidemiology of Brucellosis in High Risk Group & PUO Patients of Western – Rajasthan

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    Prabhu Prakash, Suman Bhansali, Ekta Gupta, Dinesh Kothari, Arvind Mathur, Sneha Ambuwani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is an important re-emerging zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. Brucellosis in India is yet a very common but often neglected disease. Methods: A retro prospective study was done in western Rajasthan on PUO patients those who attended Hospital attached of Dr. SNMC Jodhpur. Total 570 samples were tested for Brucella antibodies titration. In study group samples of PUO Patients (420, Milkmen & Veterinarians (70, Meat Handlers (30 & Healthy Control (50 were taken for finding their Antibrucella antibody titers Typhoid by Widal Test, Malaria by MP Strip Test were included in exclusion criteria for PUO patients All samples were tested by Stained Febrile Antigen. Results: Positivity for Antibrucella Antibody was 25.72%, 26.66%, 37.14%& 6.00% in PUO Patients, Meat Handlers & Veterinarians, Milkman & Healthy Control respectively. Conclusion & Recommendations: As climatic conditions of Western Rajasthan mimics with Middle East where Brucellosis is prevalent, in clinical practice Brucellosis should be kept in differential diagnosis & management of PUO& all preventive measure should be used for prevention of this Zoonotic disease.. A safe and effective vaccine in human is not yet available. Prevention is dependent upon increasing public awareness through health education programmes and safe livestock practices. Active co-operation between health and veterinary services should be promoted.

  2. Asymptomatic brucellosis infection in humans: implications for diagnosis and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Q; Lu, Y; Yuan, X; Qiu, Y; Xu, J; Li, W; Ke, Y; Yu, Y; Huang, L; Wang, Y; Chen, Z

    2013-09-01

    Human brucellosis is mainly caused by contact with Brucella-infected animals and their secretions and carcasses. Individuals who are continuously in contact with animals are considered to be at a high risk but only some show symptoms and are diagnosed as cases of brucellosis. Here, we showed that asymptomatic brucellosis infections occur among humans. Asymptomatic infections mainly result from less frequent contact with Brucella and/or contact with low-virulence Brucella. In our study, patients with asymptomatic infection had low antibody titres and different contact patterns. Awareness of asymptomatic infection is important for early diagnosis of brucellosis and prevention of chronic infection.

  3. Global burden of human brucellosis: a systematic review of disease frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S Dean

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This report presents a systematic review of scientific literature published between 1990-2010 relating to the frequency of human brucellosis, commissioned by WHO. The objectives were to identify high quality disease incidence data to complement existing knowledge of the global disease burden and, ultimately, to contribute towards the calculation of a Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY estimate for brucellosis. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty three databases were searched, identifying 2,385 articles relating to human brucellosis. Based on strict screening criteria, 60 studies were selected for quality assessment, of which only 29 were of sufficient quality for data analysis. Data were only available from 15 countries in the regions of Northern Africa and Middle East, Western Europe, Central and South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Central Asia. Half of the studies presented incidence data, six of which were longitudinal prospective studies, and half presented seroprevalence data which were converted to incidence rates. Brucellosis incidence varied widely between, and within, countries. Although study biases cannot be ruled out, demographic, occupational, and socioeconomic factors likely play a role. Aggregated data at national or regional levels do not capture these complexities of disease dynamics and, consequently, at-risk populations or areas may be overlooked. In many brucellosis-endemic countries, health systems are weak and passively-acquired official data underestimate the true disease burden. CONCLUSIONS: High quality research is essential for an accurate assessment of disease burden, particularly in Eastern Europe, the Asia-Pacific, Central and South America and Africa where data are lacking. Providing formal epidemiological and statistical training to researchers is essential for improving study quality. An integrated approach to disease surveillance involving both human health and veterinary services would allow a

  4. Terrorism-related trauma in Africa, an increasing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfa-Wali, Maryam; Sritharan, Kaji; Mehes, Mira; Abdullah, Fizan; Rasheed, Shahnawaz

    2015-06-01

    Global terrorist activities have increased significantly over the past decade. The impact of terrorism-related trauma on the health of individuals in low- and middle-income countries is under-reported. Trauma management in African countries in particular is uncoordinated, with little or no infrastructure to cater for emergency surgical needs. This article highlights the need for education, training and research to mitigate the problems related to terrorism and surgical public health.

  5. CKD Increases the Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin; Iyengar, Sudha K; Wang, Jie Jin

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the United States and often coexists with chronic kidney disease. Both conditions share common genetic and environmental risk factors. A total of 1183 participants aged 54+ were examined in the population-based, prospective cohort Blue Mountains Eye Study (Australia) to determine if chronic kidney disease increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Moderate chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerul...

  6. Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2010-01-01

    Investments in children are generally seen as investments in the future economy. In this study I focus on time investments in children as I investigate the long-term educational effects on children of increasing parents' birth-related leave from 14 to 20 weeks using a natural experiment from 1984...... in Denmark. The causal effect of the reform is identified using regression discontinuity design to compare a population sample of children born shortly before and shortly after the reform took effect. Results indicate that increasing parents' access to birth-related leave has no measurable effect on children...

  7. Caffeine increases food intake while reducing anxiety-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Patrick; Levack, Russell; Watters, Jared; Xu, Zhenping; Yang, Yunlei

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different doses of caffeine on appetite and anxiety-related behavior. Additionally, we sought to determine if withdrawal from chronic caffeine administration promotes anxiety. In this study, we utilized rodent open field testing and feeding behavior assays to determine the effects of caffeine on feeding and anxiety-related behavior (n = 8 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We also measured 2 h and 24 h food intake and body-weight during daily administration of caffeine (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). To test for caffeine withdrawal induced anxiety, anxiety-related behavior in rodents was quantified following withdrawal from four consecutive days of caffeine administration (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We find that acute caffeine administration increases food intake in a dose-dependent manner with lower doses of caffeine more significantly increasing food intake than higher doses. Acute caffeine administration also reduced anxiety-related behaviors in mice without significantly altering locomotor activity. However, we did not observe any differences in 24 h food intake or body weight following chronic caffeine administration and there were no observable differences in anxiety-related behaviors during caffeine withdrawal. In conclusion, we find that caffeine can both increase appetite and decrease anxiety-related behaviors in a dose dependent fashion. Given the complex relationship between appetite and anxiety, the present study provides additional insights into potential caffeine-based pharmacological mechanisms governing appetite and anxiety disorders, such as bulimia nervosa.

  8. A Rare Complication of Brucellosis: Testicular Abscess

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    Ümit Gul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella species. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This case was a male patient who developed Brucella epidiymo-orchitis and testicular abscess. He had fever, arthralgia and his right epididymis and right testicle were enlarged and tender. Ultrasound evaluation showed hypertrophy of the right epididymis and testis and moreover hypoechoic area within the testis. Brucella serology was positive and the patient did not respond completely to treatment with streptomycin, doxycycline, and rifampicina. Unilateral orchidectomy was decided. In areas where brucella infection is endemic brucella epididymo-orchitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Effective and rapid treatment is important. It should be noted that these patients may develop testicular abscess.

  9. [Brucellosis in pregnancy: course and perinatal results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Damian, R; Rojas Rodríguez, L; Marcano Tochon, E S

    1995-05-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis that affect cows, goats and pigs, but in endemic zones human beings are frequently infected. Brucella infection in animals is associated with a high incidence of abortion, in humans a cause-effect relationship has not been proven. We present four cases of pregnant women with Brucella infection, all were treated only with rifampin, the patients had adequate obstetric evolution, the deliveries were at term and there were not birth defects or intrauterine growth retardation. One woman had a relapse during her puerperium. In the medical literature review there were not enough support to attribute to brucellosis as causal factor of abortion in humans. The treatment during pregnancy must include the combination of rifampin with another antibiotic with intracellular action.

  10. A review of gastrointestinal manifestations of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Shahid

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is hyperendemic in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA with more than 8,000 cases reported each year to the public health authorities. The disease can affect almost any organ system in the body including the gastrointestinal system. In some instances, gastrointestinal manifestations may be the only presenting features of the disease. These range from milder complaints like diarrhea, vomiting to more serious complications like involvement of the liver, the spleen and the gallbladder to rarely life-threatening complications like colitis, pancreatitis, peritonitis and intestinal obstruction. Recognition of this type of presentation of brucellosis is important because early diagnosis and treatment usually result in complete recovery without complications

  11. Retrospective and prospective perspectives on zoonotic brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo eMoreno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Brucella are pathogenic bacteria exceedingly well adapted to their hosts. The bacterium is transmitted by direct contact within the same host species or accidentally to secondary hosts, such as humans. Human brucellosis is strongly linked to the management of domesticated animals and ingestion of their products. Since the domestication of ungulates and dogs in the Fertile Crescent and Asia in 12000 B.P. and 33000 B.P., respectively, a steady supply of well adapted emergent Brucella pathogens causing zoonotic disease has been provided. Likewise, anthropogenic modification of wild life may have also impacted host susceptibility and Brucella selection. Domestication and human influence on wild life animals are not neutral phenomena. Consequently, Brucella organisms have followed their hosts' fate and have been selected under conditions that favor high transmission rate. The arm race between Brucella and their preferred hosts has been driven by genetic adaptation of the bacterium confronted with the evolving immune defenses of the host. Management conditions, such as clustering, selection, culling and vaccination of Brucella preferred hosts have profound influences in the outcome of brucellosis and in the selection of Brucella organisms. Countries that have controlled brucellosis systematically used reliable smooth live vaccines, consistent immunization protocols, adequate diagnostic tests, broad vaccination coverage and sustained removal of the infected animals. To ignore and misuse tools and strategies already available for the control of brucellosis may promote the emergence of new Brucella variants. The unrestricted use of low-efficacy vaccines may promote a false sense of security and works towards selection of Brucella with higher virulence and transmission potential.

  12. Categorical and associative relations increase false memory relative to purely associative relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coane, Jennifer H; McBride, Dawn M; Termonen, Miia-Liisa; Cutting, J Cooper

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the contributions of associative strength and similarity in terms of shared features to the production of false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott list-learning paradigm. Whereas the activation/monitoring account suggests that false memories are driven by automatic associative activation from list items to nonpresented lures, combined with errors in source monitoring, other accounts (e.g., fuzzy trace theory, global-matching models) emphasize the importance of semantic-level similarity, and thus predict that shared features between list and lure items will increase false memory. Participants studied lists of nine items related to a nonpresented lure. Half of the lists consisted of items that were associated but did not share features with the lure, and the other half included items that were equally associated but also shared features with the lure (in many cases, these were taxonomically related items). The two types of lists were carefully matched in terms of a variety of lexical and semantic factors, and the same lures were used across list types. In two experiments, false recognition of the critical lures was greater following the study of lists that shared features with the critical lure, suggesting that similarity at a categorical or taxonomic level contributes to false memory above and beyond associative strength. We refer to this phenomenon as a "feature boost" that reflects additive effects of shared meaning and association strength and is generally consistent with accounts of false memory that have emphasized thematic or feature-level similarity among studied and nonstudied representations.

  13. Seroepidemiological survey of Q fever and brucellosis in Kurdistan Province, western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Saber; Pourhossein, Behzad; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Amiri, Fahimeh Bagheri; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Given that the there is little information about the current status of brucellosis and Q fever in most parts of Iran, the aim of this study was to assay the seroprevalence of these two diseases in high-risk populations of Kurdistan Province in western Iran. Two hundred fifty sera samples were collected from hunters and their families, butchers, health care workers, and those referred to medical diagnostic laboratories in the southwestern regions of Kurdistan Province. Sera were tested to detect specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against brucellosis and Coxiella burnetii (phase I and II). The seroprevalence of brucellosis and Q fever (C. burnetii IgG phase I and II) was 6.4% and 27.83% (20% and 14.52%), respectively. The highest seroprevalence of Q fever (38%) and brucellosis (12%) was seen in butchers, who handled cattle, sheep, and goats during their work. Age had a significant positive association with Q fever seropositivity (p=0.04). The seroprevalence of Q fever was higher in those people who had been in employment for more than 10 years (21.88%) compared to others (7.79%) (p=0.02). The keeping of animals (p=0.03), hunting and eating the meat of wild animals (p=0.02), and not disinfecting hands and faces after working (for health care workers and butchers) (p=0.02) were risk factors for Q fever seropositivity. This study showed a relatively high seroprevalence of brucellosis and Q fever in high-risk populations of Kurdistan Province. It is suggested that complementary studies be carried out in other parts of western Iran to clarify the epidemiological aspects of these diseases.

  14. The Effect of Brucellosis on Women’s Health and Reproduction

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    Mertihan Kurdoglu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its potential harmful effects on the general health and reproductive life of the women, in the light of available literature, it was aimed to review the effect of human brucellosis on women’s health and reproduction. Data from 75 reports belonging to the years 1917 through 2015, obtained via a search on various internet sources by the words “Brucella”, “brucellosis,” “women’s health,” “human pregnancy,” “human reproduction,” “abortion,” “preterm birth,” “intrauterine fetal demise,” and “intrauterine fetal death” were used to characterize basic microbiological features together with the risk factors, clinical presentations and complications of the human brucellosis related to various aspects of reproductive well-being. A high rate of spontaneous abortion was a more consistent finding rather than high rates of preterm delivery and intrauterine fetal death in pregnant women with brucellosis. The occurrence of abortion was not associated with the magnitude of serum agglutination titre or the clinical type of disease. The novel replication profiles of Brucella in human trophoblasts give insights into the pathogenesis of infectious abortion. Brucellosis is a risk factor for women’s general health and reproduction as well as for many obstetric complications during pregnancy, of which spontaneous abortion is the mostly known. In order to prevent the disease and these complications, education of the women, especially the poor ones of childbearing age with low educational level is strongly advised. When the infected women present for medical care, an appropriate antimicrobial therapy should be started promptly.

  15. Human brucellosis among pyrexia of unknown origin cases and occupationally exposed individuals in Goa Region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay D. Pathak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic infection. This disease is endemic in many parts of Asia, including India. Brucellosis is a major cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO. Persons exposed to infected animals or contaminated animal products are at high risk. Seropositivity among animal handlers, veterinarians and dairy workers has been documented in India. Thus, the present study was aimed to determine prevalence of brucellosis among PUO cases and occupationally exposed individuals. Methods: In this study, serum samples (n=282 from cases of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO (n=243, and occupationally exposed individuals (n=39 were collected and tested for brucellosis by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT, indirect ELISA, IgG and IgM ELISA. Blood culture for isolation of Brucella was performed for 10 serologically positive patients using BACTEC 9050 automated blood culture system. Biochemical tests and PCR techniques were used for confirmation of the isolates. Results: Of the samples tested, 4.25%, 3.54%, 6.02% and 4.96% samples were positive by RBPT, SAT, indirect ELISA and IgG ELISA, respectively. None of the sample was positive for IgM ELISA. Of the 10 blood samples cultured bacteriologically, one Brucella isolate was recovered. The isolate was confirmed as Brucella abortus. Amplification of the bcsp31 and IS711 genes was also observed. Conclusions: Seropositivity for brucellosis was observed among PUO cases, animal handlers and dairy workers in Goa, India. The serological tests showed variable results. One Brucella isolate was obtained by performing blood culture. Confirmation of the case was done rapidly using molecular tools. General awareness about clinical symptoms should be increased which will improve proper diagnosis within short time frame.

  16. Lessons from the history of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, H V

    2013-04-01

    The disease we now know as brucellosis was first discovered in the 1850s in Malta. It came to the attention of British medical officers serving on the island after the Crimean War. It was easy to eliminate the disease in British servicemen, but very difficult to reach Maltese citizens. Over the decades, more and more Maltese were infected asthe control measures introduced were half-hearted and were often not even enforced. The work of Dr Themistocles Zammit showed that infected goats transmitted brucellosis and that banning use of their milk would be effective. Pasteurisation was not introduced onto the island until the 1930s, when the production of cheap, small sterile containers became possible. Transmission was also possible through sexual contact and by inhalation when people were crowded in hot airless conditions. Success in controlling the disease requires sensible, strict control of animals and the elimination of infected ones, but will fail without an educated public willing to help. In Malta, failure to control rogue flocks and small flocks kept for family use led to an epidemic caused by the sale of cheeselets (small cheeses). In 2005, nearly a century after Zammit's discovery, Malta was finally free of brucellosis.

  17. Jealousy increased by induced relative left frontal cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Eastwick, Paul W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Asymmetric frontal cortical activity may be one key to the process linking social exclusion to jealous feelings. The current research examined the causal role of asymmetric frontal brain activity in modulating jealousy in response to social exclusion. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the frontal cortex to manipulate asymmetric frontal cortical activity was combined with a modified version of the Cyberball paradigm designed to induce jealousy. After receiving 15 min of tDCS, participants were excluded by a desired partner and reported how jealous they felt. Among individuals who were excluded, tDCS to increase relative left frontal cortical activity caused greater levels of self-reported jealousy compared to tDCS to increase relative right frontal cortical activity or sham stimulation. Limitations concerning the specificity of this effect and implications for the role of the asymmetric prefrontal cortical activity in motivated behaviors are discussed.

  18. Recent Developments in Livestock and Wildlife Brucellosis Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Live attenuated brucellosis vaccines have been available for protecting domestic livestock against B. melitensis or B. abortus for more than 60 years. Current vaccines are effective in preventing abortion and transmission of brucellosis, but poor at preventing infection or seroconversion. In addit...

  19. Brucellosis in pregnancy: clinical aspects and obstetric outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Vilchez

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: This is the largest series of brucellosis in pregnancy reported in the literature. Brucella presents adverse obstetric outcomes including fetal and maternal/neonatal death. Cases with unexplained spontaneous abortion should be investigated for brucellosis. Prompt treatment is paramount to decrease the devastating outcomes.

  20. Human Brucellosis: Still an Unfamiliar and Misdiagnosed Disease in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Mangalgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human brucellosis is a disease with protean clinical manifestations. Despite many awareness programmes, it is still missed or wrongly diagnosed. This leads to chronic morbidity leading to misery and loss of working days. Aim and Objectives: To assess the microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of human brucellosis. Materials and Methods: Patients with positive brucella screening test constituted the study material. A detailed laboratory, clinical, epidemiological study along with response to the treatment was analyzed. Results: Seroprevalence of brucellosis was found to be 1.75%. Brucellosis was clinically diagnosed in only 12.73% of cases. Fever, joint pain and low backache were the commonest symptoms. Close contact with animals and raw milk ingestion were the major sources of infection. Knowledge regarding brucellosis and its prevention was lacking in patients. Brucellosis was not considered as one of the differential diagnosis by the treating physicians. Conclusion: Brucellosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis in cases presenting with fever, low backache, arthritis and arthralgia. Laboratories should screen all the serum samples for brucella agglutinins by Rose Bengal Plate Test. Awareness regarding the prevention of brucellosis in the general population and regarding the existence of the disease among the doctors practicing in rural areas is needed

  1. 77 FR 42256 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Collection; Brucellosis Program AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension...-Federal Brucellosis Eradication Program. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before... State-Federal Brucellosis Eradication Program, contact Dr. Debbi Donch, Brucellosis Program Manager,...

  2. Simple and rapid field tests for brucellosis in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoel, Theresia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Cardoso, Regina; Smits, Henk L

    2008-08-25

    Four simple and rapid field tests for the serodiagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, goat, sheep and swine were developed. The performance of the assays was investigated using serum samples collected in Portugal from animals originating from herds with a defined sanitary status with respect to the presence of brucellosis. The sensitivity calculated for the bovine, caprine, ovine and swine Brucella lateral flow assays based on results obtained for samples collected from animals with culture confirmed brucellosis was 90%, 100%, 90% and 73%, respectively. None of the samples from animals from herds free of brucellosis reacted in the flow assays indicating a high specificity. However, as expected, some degree of reactivity was observed when testing selected serum samples that reacted non-specific in reference tests for brucellosis.

  3. Changing trends in the epidemiology of human brucellosis in California from 1973 to 1992: a shift toward foodborne transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; DeBess, E E; Mangiamele, D M; Reilly, K F; Farver, T B; Sun, R K; Barrett, L R

    1994-11-01

    From 1973 through 1992, 426 cases of human brucellosis were reported in California, of which 98% were laboratory confirmed. Brucella melitensis was identified in 185 cases (78.7% of the bacteriologically typed cases). Hispanics accounted for 81% of the cases from 1983 to 1992 compared with 65% during the previous decade (P Mexico during 1983-1992 than during the previous 10 years (relative risk, 1.45). Between 1973 and 1992, human brucellosis in California evolved from an occupational to a foodborne illness.

  4. Development and comparative evaluation of a plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on recombinant outer membrane antigens Omp28 and Omp31 for diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sapana; Kumar, Ashu; Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Mangalgi, Smita; Rathod, Vedika; Prakash, Archana; Barua, Anita; Arora, Sonia; Sathyaseelan, Kannusamy

    2013-08-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonotic infectious disease of humans and livestock with worldwide distribution and is caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. The diagnosis of brucellosis always requires laboratory confirmation by either isolation of pathogens or detection of specific antibodies. The conventional serological tests available for the diagnosis of brucellosis are less specific and show cross-reactivity with other closely related organisms. These tests also necessitate the handling of Brucella species for antigen preparation. Therefore, there is a need to develop reliable, rapid, and user-friendly systems for disease diagnosis and alternatives to vaccine approaches. Keeping in mind the importance of brucellosis as an emerging infection and the prevalence in India, we carried out the present study to compare the recombinant antigens with the native antigens (cell envelope and sonicated antigen) of Brucella for diagnosis of human brucellosis by an indirect plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Recombinant outer membrane protein 28 (rOmp28) and rOmp31 antigens were cloned, expressed, and purified in the bacterial expression system, and the purified proteins were used as antigens. Indirect plate ELISAs were then performed and standardized for comparison of the reactivities of recombinant and native antigens against the 433 clinical samples submitted for brucellosis testing, 15 culture-positive samples, and 20 healthy donor samples. The samples were separated into four groups based on their positivity to rose bengal plate agglutination tests (RBPTs), standard tube agglutination tests (STATs), and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) tests. The sensitivities and specificities of all the antigens were calculated, and the rOmp28 antigen was found to be more suitable for the clinical diagnosis of brucellosis than the rOmp31 antigen and native antigens. The rOmp28-based ELISA showed a very high degree of agreement with the conventional agglutination tests and

  5. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (I): A citizen-science based risk model for bovine brucellosis transmission from elk to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Scurlock, Brandon; Logan, Jim; Robinson, Timothy; Cook, Walt; Boroff, Kari; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-09-15

    Livestock producers and state wildlife agencies have used multiple management strategies to control bovine brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). However, spillover from elk to domestic bison and cattle herds continues to occur. Although knowledge is increasing about the location and behavior of elk in the SGYA, predicting spatiotemporal overlap between elk and cattle requires locations of livestock operations and observations of elk contact by producers. We queried all producers in a three-county area using a questionnaire designed to determine location of cattle and whether producers saw elk comingle with their animals. This information was used to parameterize a spatially-explicit risk model to estimate the number of elk expected to overlap with cattle during the brucellosis transmission risk period. Elk-cattle overlap was predicted in areas further from roads and forest boundaries in areas with wolf activity, with higher slopes, lower hunter densities, and where the cost-distance to feedgrounds was very low or very high. The model was used to estimate the expected number of years until a cattle reactor will be detected, under alternative management strategies. The model predicted cattle cases every 4.28 years in the highest risk herd unit, a higher prediction than the one case in 26 years we have observed. This difference likely indicates that ongoing management strategies are at least somewhat effective in preventing potential elk-cattle brucellosis transmission in these areas. Using this model, we can infer the expected effectiveness of various management strategies for reducing the risk of brucellosis spillover from elk to cattle.

  6. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion).

  7. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Kenji [Hiroshima City Hospital (Japan); Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-12-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  8. CKD increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin; Iyengar, Sudha K; Wang, Jie Jin

    2008-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the United States and often coexists with chronic kidney disease. Both conditions share common genetic and environmental risk factors. A total of 1183 participants aged 54+ were examined in the population-based, prospective cohort Blue Mountains Eye Study (Australia) to determine if chronic kidney disease increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Moderate chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate macular degeneration was 3.9% in participants with no/mild chronic kidney disease (35 of 897) and 17.5% in those with moderate chronic kidney disease (50 of 286). After adjusting for age, sex, cigarette smoking, hypertension, complement factor H polymorphism, and other risk factors, persons with moderate chronic kidney disease were 3 times more likely to develop early age-related macular degeneration than persons with no/mild chronic kidney disease (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 5.7, P macular degeneration (odds ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 2.8, P chronic kidney disease have a higher risk of early age-related macular degeneration, suggesting the possibility of shared pathophysiologic mechanisms between the two conditions.

  9. Analysis on the epidemiological characteristics of brucellosis in Langfang city%廊坊市布鲁氏菌病流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董为为; 吴涛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the status of infection and risk factors on Brucellosis among Workers in Langfang city so as to provide related preventive and control measures.Methods Extraction in breeding,slaughtering and other key groups in the blood serum of the subject each 5 ml,standing separation of serum,the use of amber red treadmill test tube agglutination test methods for qualitative and quantitative detection of them.Using SPSS 19.0 software for data analysis.Results Langfang City in 2010-2014 focus groups Brucellosis Serological surveillance average positive rate was 2.90%,the incidence rate increased year by year,with an average incidence of 1.87/100 000,as of 2014 a total of Langfang City to monitor the cases of 734 cases of Brucellosis.Prevention and control among an average was 68.28%,showed an increasing trend;health behaviors average rate was 63.18%,showing an upward trend.April to July high,Xianghe Country,Dachang County,Guang Yang District,high fat,40 to 50 years old age group high.Feeding,the positive rate of livestock products processing and trafficking,slaughtering,veterinary and other professional high,whether the impact on morbidity operating procedures.Conclusion Langfang Brucellosis incidence increased year by year,the positive rate of blood tests focus groups brucellosis average 1.87/100 000,through health education can reduce human brucellosis trends.%目的 对廊坊市布鲁氏菌病(以下简称布病)监测点重点人群血清学监测结果进行分析,观察人间布病流行状况.方法 抽取从事饲养、屠宰等重点人群血清受检者的血液各5ml,静置分离血清,采用琥红平板试验定性和试管凝集试验定量的方法对其进行检测.使用SPSS 19.0软件进行数据分析.结果 廊坊市2010-2014年重点人群布鲁氏菌病血清学监测平均阳性率为2.90%,发病率逐年增加,平均发病率1.87/10万,截至2014年廊坊市共计监测到734例布病病例.防治知识知晓率平均68.28

  10. Brucellosis in Kosovo and Clinical Features of Brucellosis at University clinical center of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Qehaja Buçaj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis became a remarkable disease in Kosovo. But there is not a comprehensive epidemiological study about epidemiology and clinical course of this disease from Kosovo. The aim of our study is to present demographic and clinical data of patients with brucellosis at University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Methods: A retrospective study was performed for the patients with brucellosis treated in our clinic during years 2011- 2012. The data about demography, history of the disease, clinical presentations, serological test, serum biochemistry and reatment were collected from hospital medical records. The diagnosis of brucellosis based on clinical and laboratory findings. Results: This descriptive study included 47 patients, who 33 of them (70.2% were males. The mean age was 37.9 ± 19.3 years. The route of transmission of the disease was known in 28 59.5% of them. Direct contact with livestock in 22 (46.8% and ingestion of dairy products in six cases (12.7% were reported as the transmission route. The majority of patients (27 patients, 57.4% were from rural area. The main presenting symptoms were atigue, fever and arthralgia. Osteoarticular manifestations were the common forms of localized disease. Regarding to the therapy, 45 (95.7% of patients were treated with streptomycin and doxycycline for the first three weeks. Conclusion: Human brucellosis is not a common in Kosovo but there is a potential risk. Osteoarticular symptoms were the most common presentation reasons. The most effective and preferred treatment regimen was Streptomycin plus Doxycycline for the first three weeks, and Doxycycline plus Rifampicin thereafter. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 147-150

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in goats in selected states in Nigeria and the public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogugua, A J; Akinseye, V O; Ayoola, M C; Oyesola, O O; Shima, F K; Tijjani, A O; Musa, Aderemi N A; Adesokan, H K; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy A; Moriyon, I; Cadmus, S I B

    2014-09-01

    Available reports on brucellosis in Nigeria are largely confined to cattle while it is believed that other ruminants like sheep and goats are equally exposed to the disease. To have an insight into the role of goats in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria, we conducted a cross-sectional study between June 2011 and May 2013 to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in goats in some selected states in Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from goats at different locations and tested for antibodies to Brucella spp using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT), samples positive by RBT were further subjected to Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA). Data collected to determine risk factors were also analysed using chi-square and logistics regression statistics. Out of a total of 2827 samples tested from the different states (Benue = 331; Borno =195; Oyo = 2155; Sokoto = 146), we recorded an overall seroprevalence of 2.83% (Benue = 17.30%; Borno = 2.05%; Oyo = 0.60% and Sokoto = 0.00%) by RBT. The cELISA further supported 9.45% (7/74) of the total RBT positive samples. Logistic regression analysis showed that the location (p = 0.004) and source (p brucellosis with sex (p = 0.179); age (p = 0.791) and breed (p = 0.369) not playing any major role. Our findings reveal a relatively low seroprevalence of brucellosis among goats screened except for Benue State. Since most of the goats sampled in the present study were from the abattoirs, further farm level investigations are required to determine the role of goats in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria since they share common environment with sheep and cattle that are natural hosts of Brucella species which are of major public health threat.

  12. A review on camel brucellosis: a zoonosis sustained by ignorance and indifference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lisa D; Al-Dahouk, Sascha; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2012-07-01

    In many developing countries of Asia and Africa, camels are one of the most important sources of income for the nomadic population. With increasing urbanization, camel milk and meat have gained a wider market and commercialization and consumption of camel products are on the rise. Camel brucellosis can be encountered in all camel rearing countries with exception of Australia. High animal and herd prevalences have been reported from numerous countries, which not only pose a continuous risk for human infection, but also increase the spread of infection through uncontrolled trade of clinically inconspicuous animals. This short review aims at providing an overview on diagnostic investigations, as well as the public health and economic impact of brucellosis in old world camels.

  13. [A case of brucellosis and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever coinfection in an endemic area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Çıkman, Aytekin; Akın, Hicran; Gülhan, Barış; Özçiçek, Adalet

    2016-04-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease which is especially seen in developing countries is still an important public health problem worldwide. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is another zoonotic disease that transmits to humans by infected tick bites as well as exposure to blood or tissue from infected animals. Both of the diseases are common among persons who live in rural areas and deal with animal husbandry. Since brucellosis usually presents with non-specific clinical symptoms and may easily be confused with many other diseases, the diagnosis of those infections could be delayed or misdiagnosed. In this report, a case of coinfection of brucellosis and CCHF has been presented to emphasize the possibility of association of these infections. A 70-year-old female patient with a history of dealing with animal husbandry in a rural area admitted to our hospital with the complaints of fever, malaise, generalized body and joint pains, and headache. Her complaints had progressed within the past two days. She also reported nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. She denied any history of tick bites. Her physical examination was significant for the presence of 38.8°C fever, increased bowel sounds and splenomegaly. Laboratory analysis revealed leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and high levels of liver enzymes. The patient was admitted to our service with the prediagnosis of CCHF. Serum sample was sent to the Department of Microbiology Reference Laboratory at Public Health Agency of Turkey for CCHF testing. During patient's hospitalization in service, more detailed history was confronted and it was learned that she had fatigue, loss of appetite, sweating, joint pain, and intermittent fever complaints were continuing within a month and received various antibiotic treatments. The tests for brucellosis were conducted and positive results for Brucella Rose Bengal test, tube agglutination (1/160 titers) and immune capture test with Coombs (1/320 titers) were determined

  14. Evaluation of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells during treatment of patients with brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanjani Roushan, M R; Bayani, M; Soleimani Amiri, S; Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, M; Nouri, H R; Ebrahimpour, S

    2016-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) plays a critical role in the control of brucellosis. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have a functional character in modulating the balance between host immune response and tolerance, which can eventually lead to chronic infection or relapse. The aim of this study was to assess the alteration of Tregs in cases of brucellosis before and after treatment. Thirty cases of acute brucellosis with the mean age of 41.03±15.15 years (case group) and 30 healthy persons with the mean age of 40.63±13.95 years (control group) were selected and assessed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from peripheral blood of all individuals. We analyzed the alteration of Treg cell count using flow cytometry for CD4, CD25, and FoxP3 markers. The level of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg cells was increased in active patients compared with controls (2.5±0.99% vs 1.6±0.84%, p= 0.0004), but it had declined in the treated cases (1.83±0.73%, p=0.02). The level of Tregs was elevated in three relapsed cases. The frequency of Tregs and Treg/Teff (effector T cell) ratio was correlated with inverse serum agglutination test (SAT) and, 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) titers as markers of treatment in brucellosis. Based on our findings, we suggest that regulatory cells, such as CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg cells, may contribute to the development of infection processes involving immune responses in brucellosis, and evaluation of regulatory T-cell levels may be a potential diagnostic strategy for the treatment outcome in chronic and relapsed cases of brucellosis.

  15. Hemiplegia and Facial Palsy due to Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ashraf, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractManifestations involving the nervous system (neurobrucellosis, is a treatable infection, however it is not well documented. Direct invasion of the central nervous system occurs in fewer than 5% of cases. Acute or chronic meningitis is the most frequent nervous system complication. However, hemiplegia and cranial nerve involvement are rarely encountered. In this report we present a patient with “seventh cranial nerve palsy” and “hemiplegia,” as the manifestations of probable neurobrucellosis.Thus, in endemic area, brucellosis should be ruled out in patients who develop unexplained neurological symptoms such as hemiplegi

  16. A Study for Brucellosis Seroprevelance in Agri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Tok

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We evaluated retrospectively laboratory test results of 520 patient who has brucellosis suspect between 2002-2004 years. METHOD: We use to Rose-Bengal test, Wright agglutination test and the other laboratory results and demographic properties for diagnosis. RESULTS: Rose-Bengal test was positive in 39 patients (11.3 % sera. Wright agglutination test was found positive for 1/160 or higher titers in 18 (3.4% sera. CONCLUSION: Wright agglutination test gave higher positive results in summer and autumn months. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 485-488

  17. Seroprevalence survey of brucellosis among rural people in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selenge Tsend

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: After the transition from socialism to a market economy in 1990, human brucellosis re-emerged in Mongolia. The aim of our study was to estimate a representative seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and to determine risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity among rural people. Methods: A cross-sectional study with multistage random selection was conducted in eight provinces of Mongolia. Study participants were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain their brucellosis history, current symptoms and likely risk factors. Blood samples were drawn to determine brucellosis seroprevalence. Results: A total of 2856 randomly selected rural people aged four to 90 years were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.0–12.1, ranging between 2.3% and 22.6% in the eight provinces; 39.2% (n = 609 of nomadic camps had at least one seropositive participant. Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity were being older than 45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.9, 95% CI = 5.1–8.7 and being a veterinarian (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.5–5.0. Conclusion: Our study confirms that human brucellosis seroprevalence among rural people in Mongolia is high. Human brucellosis can be effectively controlled if high-coverage livestock mass vaccination is implemented with a coverage survey after the vaccinations to ensure completeness. This mass vaccination should be accompanied by public awareness and educational programmes.

  18. Evaluation of an Immunocapture-Agglutination Test (Brucellacapt) for Serodiagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orduña, Antonio; Almaraz, Ana; Prado, Ana; Gutierrez, M. Purificación; Garcia-Pascual, Agustina; Dueñas, Ana; Cuervo, Milagros; Abad, Ramon; Hernández, Beatriz; Lorenzo, Belen; Bratos, Miguel A.; Torres, Antonio Rodriguez

    2000-01-01

    are lower, they increase significantly in the following 30 days, despite the evolution of SAT titers. In contrast, Brucellacapt and Coombs titers are always high (≥1/640) in brucellosis with long evolution, whether SAT titers are higher or lower than 1/160. PMID:11060059

  19. Prevalence of positive autoimmune biomarkers in the brucellosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Abdollahi, Alireza; Ziaee, Vahid; Domiraei, Zeinab; Najafizadeh, Seyed-Reza; Jafari, Sirus; Ahmadinejad, Mahdi

    2016-10-01

    Brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease with articular involvement. Discrimination between brucellosis and rheumatologic disorders is difficult in regions endemic for brucellosis. There are few studies about the rate of positive autoantibodies as rheumatologic biomarkers in brucellosis, and the prevalence is variable. In this study, the rheumatologic tests were studied in brucellosis patients. This cross sectional study was performed in two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Forty-nine patients with brucella infection and 42 healthy participants were enrolled in this study. Brucellosis was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical symptoms and positive serology for brucellosis. Rheumatic factor (RF) and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were evaluated in all patients. Cyclic citrullinated peptides antibody (ACPA) and anti-double strand DNA (anti-dsDNA) were checked in all patients and control groups. Out of 49 patients, 15 (30.6 %) were RF positive and 4 (8.2 %) were ANA positive. Anti-dsDNA was concurrently positive with ANA in 1 patient (2 %) but ACPA titer was positive in 8 patients (16.3 %). None of the patients with positive autoantibody biomarkers fulfilled the criteria for rheumatologic disorders. The rate of positive RF in healthy people was significantly lower than patient group (2.4 vs. 30.6 %), but the positiveness rate of other biomarkers did not have significant difference in two groups. Sixty percent of the patients with positive RF and 75 % with positive ACPA had skeletal involvement (P brucellosis. Rheumatologists should be aware of brucellosis in patients with musculoskeletal involvement and positive autoantibody biomarkers in endemic regions.

  20. 浙江省布鲁氏菌病疫情分析与防制对策研究%A retrospective analysis on the epidemic of human and livestock brucellosis and the prevention and control measures in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐卫民; 朱素娟; 施旭光; 王衡; 金行一; 杨洋; 王佳

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析浙江省人畜布鲁氏菌病(布病)疫情,提出防制对策。方法收集浙江省1955—2014年人畜布病监测及防控工作资料,进行描述性流行病学分析。结果浙江省历史畜间布病阳性率最高达22.28%,证实有犬种、牛种布病疫源地存在;1996年达到国家布病控制区标准后,畜间布病阳性率控制在较低水平;但近年多地从外来肉山羊及本地湖羊中检出布病阳性,存在输入性疫源扩散的风险。人间布病疫情首次于1967年有确诊病例,当时仅在职业人群中确诊有散发慢性稳定型病例或隐性感染者;2003—2014年共报告布病506例,新增感染者767人,年报告发病率呈递增趋势(P=0.002);在此期间共发生9起人间布病局部暴发疫情,分布在绍兴、杭州、宁波、金华、嘉兴及衢州等地。全省在人和动物中已先后检出犬种、牛种、羊种5个生物型82株布氏菌,优势菌为羊种3型布氏菌。结论浙江省现阶段畜间布病以省外输入性疫情为主,人间疫情大多与经畜输入的疫源有关,随着省外肉羊输入逐年增多,疫情呈扩大趋势并存在扩散的风险,应加强布病联防联控,采取综合防治措施做好人畜布病防控工作。%Objective To analyze the epidemic situation of human and livestock brucellosis in Zhejiang Province in recent sixty years and to put forward countermeasures for prevent and control.Methods Related data of prevention and cure of human and livestock brucellosis were collected from 1 996 to 201 4 and descriptive analysis was conducted.Results The positive rate of the livestock's bacteria was up to 22. 28%in the history of Zhejiang Province.Epidemic foci of B.canis and B.bovis in Zhejiang Province were confirmed.After achieving stability control standards of brucellosis,the positive rate of livestock brucellosis was low.But in recent years,meat goats from the north and local sheep

  1. [A case of brucellosis presenting with suppurative parotitis involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmaz, Lutfi; Karakeçili, Faruk; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Karavaş, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a common zoonotic infection caused by Brucella bacteria. Brucella infections are usually presented with various clinical manifestations, and often accompanied by multiple organ involvements. In this article, we present a case of brucellosis with suppurative parotitis involvement accompanied by parotid abscess and fistula in a 60-year-old male patient. According to the literature review we conducted regarding complications of brucellosis, our case is the first case reported in the literature. Significant improvement in patient's suppurative parotitis and clinical findings was observed at the fifth week of combination antibiotic therapy. Patient's complaints resolved completely after eight weeks of treatment.

  2. Human brucellosis at a pig slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Gabriela I; Jacob, Néstor R; López, Gustavo; Ayala, Sandra M; Whatmore, Adrian M; Lucero, Nidia E

    2013-12-01

    Seventeen workers in a pig slaughterhouse with signs and symptoms compatible with brucellosis were clinically examined at the outpatient service of different health institutions and studied by serological tests during the period 2005-2011. Eleven blood cultures were taken and six Brucella suis strains were isolated, three biovar 1 and three with atypical characteristics. In order to confirm that these cases had no common source, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analyses were performed on 5 of the 6 strains whose results showed substantial heterogeneity in the genotypes, thereby demonstrating that the immediate origin was not the same. Two hundred adult pigs admitted for slaughter at the plant were sampled by convenience and tested by buffered antigen plate test (BPAT), serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2-mercapto-ethanol test (MET). Seven of 62 males (11%) and 25/138 (18%) females tested positive. The study results contribute information on risk scenarios for packing plant workers and underscore the need to improve plant workers' education on appropriate containment measures and to actively screen animals for swine brucellosis.

  3. Age-related hearing loss increases cross-modal distractibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Sandmann, Pascale; Bendixen, Alexandra; Thiel, Christiane M

    2014-10-01

    Recent electrophysiological studies have provided evidence that changes in multisensory processing in auditory cortex cannot only be observed following extensive hearing loss, but also in moderately hearing-impaired subjects. How the reduced auditory input affects audio-visual interactions is however largely unknown. Here we used a cross-modal distraction paradigm to investigate multisensory processing in elderly participants with an age-related high-frequency hearing loss as compared to young and elderly subjects with normal hearing. During the experiment, participants were simultaneously presented with independent streams of auditory and visual input and were asked to categorize either the auditory or visual information while ignoring the other modality. Unisensory sequences without any cross-modal input served as control conditions to assure that all participants were able to perform the task. While all groups performed similarly in these unisensory conditions, hearing-impaired participants showed significantly increased error rates when confronted with distracting cross-modal stimulation. This effect could be observed in both the auditory and the visual task. Supporting these findings, an additional regression analysis indicted that the degree of high-frequency hearing loss significantly modulates cross-modal visual distractibility in the auditory task. These findings provide new evidence that already a moderate sub-clinical hearing loss, a common phenomenon in the elderly population, affects the processing of audio-visual information.

  4. Increased endogenous DNA oxidation correlates to increased iron levels in melanocytes relative to keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelle, Edward; Huang, Xi; Zhang, Qi; Pernodet, Nadine; Yarosh, Daniel B; Frenkel, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous oxidative state of normal human epidermal melanocytes was investigated and compared to normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) in order to gain new insight into melanocyte biology. Previously, we showed that NHEKs contain higher levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than melanocytes and that it can migrate from NHEKs to melanocytes by passive permeation. Nevertheless, despite lower concentrations of H2O2, we now report higher levels of oxidative DNA in melanocytes as indicated by increased levels of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG): 4.49 (±0.55 SEM) 8-oxo-dG/10(6) dG compared to 1.49 (±0.11 SEM) 8-oxo-dG/10(6) dG for NHEKs. An antioxidant biomarker, glutathione (GSH), was also lower in melanocytes (3.14 nmoles (±0.15 SEM)/cell) in comparison to NHEKs (5.98 nmoles (±0.33 SEM)/cell). Intriguingly, cellular bioavailable iron as measured in ferritin was found to be nearly fourfold higher in melanocytes than in NHEKs. Further, ferritin levels in melanocytes were also higher than in hepatocarcinoma cells, an iron-rich cell, and it indicates that higher relative iron levels may be characteristic of melanocytes. To account for the increased oxidative DNA and lower GSH and H2O2 levels that we observe, we propose that iron may contribute to higher levels of oxidation by reacting with H2O2 through a Fenton reaction leading to the generation of DNA-reactive hydroxyl radicals. In conclusion, our data support the concept of elevated oxidation and high iron levels as normal parameters of melanocytic activity. We present new evidence that may contribute to our understanding of the melanogenic process and lead to the development of new skin care products.

  5. Brucellosis at the animal/ecosystem/human interface at the beginning of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, J; Scholz, H C; Barbier, T; Nicolas, C; Wattiau, P; Fretin, D; Whatmore, A M; Cloeckaert, A; Blasco, J M; Moriyon, I; Saegerman, C; Muma, J B; Al Dahouk, S; Neubauer, H; Letesson, J-J

    2011-11-01

    Following the recent discovery of new Brucella strains from different animal species and from the environment, ten Brucella species are nowadays included in the genus Brucella. Although the intracellular trafficking of Brucella is well described, the strategies developed by Brucella to survive and multiply in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, particularly to access nutriments during its intracellular journey, are still largely unknown. Metabolism and virulence of Brucella are now considered to be two sides of the same coin. Mechanisms presiding to the colonization of the pregnant uterus in different animal species are not known. Vaccination is the cornerstone of control programs in livestock and although the S19, RB51 (both in cattle) and Rev 1 (in sheep and goats) vaccines have been successfully used worldwide, they have drawbacks and thus the ideal brucellosis vaccine is still very much awaited. There is no vaccine available for pigs and wildlife. Animal brucellosis control strategies differ in the developed and the developing world. Most emphasis is put on eradication and on risk analysis to avoid the re-introduction of Brucella in the developed world. Information related to the prevalence of brucellosis is still scarce in the developing world and control programs are rarely implemented. Since there is no vaccine available for humans, prevention of human brucellosis relies on its control in the animal reservoir. Brucella is also considered to be an agent to be used in bio- and agroterrorism attacks. At the animal/ecosystem/human interface it is critical to reduce opportunities for Brucella to jump host species as already seen in livestock, wildlife and humans. This task is a challenge for the future in terms of veterinary public health, as for wildlife and ecosystem managers and will need a "One Health" approach to be successful.

  6. A case of brucellosis mimicking Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin, Ozge; Teke, Turkan A; Gayretli Aydin, Zeynep G; Kaman, Ayse; Oz, Fatma N; Bayhan, Gulsum I; Tanir, Gonul

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. that is transmitted to humans by the ingestion of unpasteurized milk and other dairy products from infected animals or through close contact with secretions. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by a virus that is transmitted to humans by ixoid tick bites, contact with blood and tissue of infected animals or contact with infected humans. The symptoms of brucellosis are non-specific; it can mimic other diseases. In this paper, we present a case of brucellosis that was initially evaluated as CCHF. We emphasize that brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CCHF, especially in endemic countries.

  7. FY 2001 year-end status report : Brucellosis program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The brucellosis program, created by the Wildlife Health, is a combination of technical assistance and research. The National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and...

  8. An interesting case of childhood brucellosis with unusual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksugur, Sevil Bilir; Bekdas, Mervan; Gurel, Safiye; Tas, Tekin; Sarac, Esma Gokcen; Demircioglul, Fatih; Kismet, Erol

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection, which is still a major public health concern worldwide. Common clinical findings are usually nonspecific involving fever, arthralgia, myalgia, weakness and malaise. Since none of the symptoms of brucellosis is pathognomonic, it may have a similar course with various multisystemic diseases. In terms of focal involvement, sacroiliitis is the most common musculoskeletal manifestation in adult patients, while it is quite rare in pediatric patients. Blood culture is the gold standard in the diagnosis of brucellosis. In the absence of culture facilities, the diagnosis traditionally relies on serologic testing with a variety of agglutination tests such as the Rose Bengal test and the serum agglutination test. However, these agglutination tests are accompanied by frequent false negative results such as seen in prozone phenomenon, which may lead to diagnostic delays. In this article we present a rarely encountered pediatric brucellosis patient who had sacroiliitis-spondylitis, which are rarely reported in children, and exhibited prozone phenomenon in agglutination tests.

  9. False positive seroreactivity to brucellosis in tuberculosis patients: a prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Varshochi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mojtaba Varshochi1,2, Jafar Majidi2, Marjan Amini1, Kamyar Ghabili3, Mohammadali M Shoja31Department of Infectious Disease, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: The rising worldwide incidence of tuberculosis (TB increases the demand for knowledge about its potential seroreactivity with other microbial agents. A few reports and the authors’ experiences indicate that tuberculosis may result in a false-positive brucellosis serology. This may cause a diagnostic challenge because of the close clinical resemblance of these two infections.Objective: The aim of the present prevalence study was to elucidate brucellosis seroreactivity in patients with active TB.Methods: Ninety-eight patients with newly diagnosed and active TB were studied using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Wright’s and Coombs–Wright’s tests. Seventy-five healthy individuals were used as controls. The patients showed signs of recovery after starting a standard anti-TB regimen and had no clinical evidence of brucellosis at a subsequent 6-month follow-up. The data were analyzed statistically by Fisher’s exact test using SPSS 11.0.Results: We found that 9.2% of TB patients versus 1.3% of healthy controls had positive results on the anti-Brucella IgG ELISA (P = 0.04. Five TB patients were found to have agglutination on Wright’s tests, while none of the controls showed agglutination.Conclusion: Active TB patients may have some seroreactivity with Brucella antigens, and Brucella IgG ELISA may give a false positive in these patients. Clinicians should consider false positive brucellosis seroreactivity in patients with active TB.Keywords: false positive serology, ELISA, diagnosis

  10. Seroepidemiological Study of Brucellosis in High Risk Groups in Boyerahmad 1384

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Khosravani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that may have a major public health and economic impact in most countries. The disease appears as a Malt fever in humans and abortion in animals. This study was designed to determine the serologic titer of Brucella in high risk and non high risk people in Boyerahmad. Materials & Methods: A retrospective seroepidemiological study was performed on samples collected from 604 high risk and non high risk people using Rose Bengol test, tube standard test as a rapid test and 2 mercaptoethanol (2ME and comb's wright as a confirmatory test. The data collected were analyzed by X2 test via SPSS. Results: Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in high risk people appeared to be high in the Rose Bengal and tube standard test (TST 6.62 at titer ≥1/40 whereas for non high risk it was 0%. Confirmation test in high risk people was shown with 2ME in four people. Conclusion: Brucellosis is a major cause of disease in high risk people which can be due to direct or indirect contact with diary products of the related animals.

  11. Seroprevalence of Q fever, Brucellosis, and Bluetongue in Selected Provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Soukvilay, Vilayvahn; Senaphanh, Chanthana; Phithacthep, Kamphok; Phomhaksa, Souk; Yingst, Samuel; Lombardini, Eric; Hansson, Eric; Selleck, Paul W.; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2016-01-01

    This study has determined the proportional seropositivity of two zoonotic diseases, Q fever and brucellosis, and bluetongue virus (BTV) which is nonzoonotic, in five provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) (Loungphabang, Luangnumtha, Xayaboury, Xiengkhouang, and Champasak, and Vientiane Province and Vientiane capital). A total of 1,089 samples from buffalo, cattle, pigs, and goats were tested, with seropositivity of BTV (96.7%), Q fever (1.2%), and brucellosis (0.3%). The results of this survey indicated that Q fever seropositivity is not widely distributed in Lao PDR; however, Xayaboury Province had a cluster of seropositive cattle in seven villages in four districts (Botan, Kenthao, Paklaiy, and Phiang) that share a border with Thailand. Further studies are required to determine if Xayaboury Province is indeed an epidemiological hot spot of Q fever activity. There is an urgent need to determine the levels of economic loss and human health-related issues caused by Q fever, brucellosis, and BTV in Lao PDR. PMID:27430548

  12. CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE BRUCELLOSIS IN CHILDREN OF THE STAVROPOL TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bezrodnova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the clinical  and  epidemiological features of brucellosis in children in the Stavropol region.Materials and  methods: Analysis of brucellosis is made and  the  share  of brucellosis in the  Stavropol Territory  from 2010 to 2014 is clarified. The paper  used  the  data  from the Territorial  Rospotrebnadzor in  the  Stavropol Territory.  Dynamic   clinical  indices were  analyzed in  17  children with brucellosis under treatment and  dispensary observation in the  State  Budget Institution of Health  of the  Stavropol Territory  «Regional Clinical  Hospital of  Infectious Diseases». Analyzed an  outbreak of brucellosis in  Essentuki in  2016. We used  the following methods: bibliographic, monographic description, epidemiological, analytical, statistical methods.Results. The proportion of the incidence of brucellosis in children in Stavropol Krai in comparison with the Russian figures were: in 2010 – 8,33%, in 2016 – 56%. A household way of infection increases, including children, who were infected in the  farms  of their  own  parents. The age  of infection was12–16 (47,06%, 8–11 (35,29% and 4–7  years (17,65%.The  main  clinical  syndromes were: arthritic, vegetative, asthenic, lymphoproliferative syndrome, liver disease, splenomegaly. Isolated forms did not occur. Predominantly, large joints with dysfunction of joints of I–II degree were affected. Late referral after the initial manifestation is typical. Late initiation of treatment. The etiotropic therapy is carried  out at least 4 weeks, in the presence of carditis – up to 16 weeks.Conclusion. The epidemiological situation of brucellosis in the Stavropol territory  has been  tense in the recent  years. The active migration of the population from the regions of the North  Caucasus Federal  District  contributes to this.  Intensive  incidence rate of brucellosis exceeds the  average Russian level by 5–8

  13. Quantifying Risk Factors for Human Brucellosis in Rural Northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kunda John; Julie Fitzpatrick; Nigel French; Rudovick Kazwala; Dominic Kambarage; Mfinanga, Godfrey S; Alastair MacMillan; Sarah Cleaveland

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission...

  14. Representative seroprevalences of brucellosis in humans and livestock in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kasymbekov, Joldoshbek; Dürr, Salome; Toktobaev, Nurjan; Doherr, Marcus G; Schueth, Tobias; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2012-06-01

    Kyrgyzstan reported 77.5 new human brucellosis cases per 100,000 people in 2007, which is one of the highest incidences worldwide. In Kyrgyzstan, the currently used diagnostic tests in humans and animals are the Rose Bengal Test and the Huddleson test. A national representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, cattle, sheep, and goats was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 4,936 livestock sera and 1,774 human sera were tested in Naryn, Chuy, and Osh Oblasts. The overall apparent seroprevalences of brucellosis were 8.8% in humans (95% CI 4.5-16.5), 2.8% (95% CI 1.6-4.9%) in cattle, 3.3% (95% CI 1.5-6.9%) in sheep, and 2.5% (95% CI 1.4-4.5%) in goats. Naryn Oblast had the highest seroprevalences in humans and sheep. More men than women were seropositive (OR = 1.96; P brucellosis exposure, measured by serological tests, was more than ten times higher than the annual incidence of reported clinical brucellosis cases. This indicates an under-reporting of human brucellosis cases, even if only a fraction of seropositive people have clinical symptoms. In conclusion, this study confirms the high seroprevalence of brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan and warrants rapid effective intervention, among others, by mass vaccination of sheep and goats but also of cattle.

  15. Assessment of a strain 19 brucellosis vaccination program in elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maichak, Eric J.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Cross, Paul C.; Rogerson, Jared D.; Edwards, William H.; Wise, Benjamin; Smith, Scott G.; Kreeger, Terry J.

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases in wildlife present substantial challenges and risks to host populations, susceptible domestic livestock populations, and affected stakeholders. Brucellosis, a disease caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus, is endemic among elk (Cervus canadensis) attending winter feedgrounds and adjacent areas of western Wyoming, USA. To minimize transmission of brucellosis from elk to elk and elk to livestock, managers initiated a B. abortus strain 19 ballistic vaccination program in 1985. We used brucellosis prevalence (1971–2015) and reproductive outcome (2006–2015) data collected from female elk attending feedgrounds to assess efficacy of the strain 19 program while controlling for potentially confounding factors such as site and age. From our generalized linear models, we found that seroprevalence of brucellosis was 1) not lower following inception of vaccination; 2) not inversely associated with proportion of juveniles vaccinated over time; 3) not inversely associated with additional yearlings and adults vaccinated over time; and 4) associated more with feeding end-date than proportion of juveniles vaccinated. Using vaginal implant transmitters in adult females that were seropositive for brucellosis, we found little effect of vaccination coverage at reducing reproductive failures (i.e., abortion or stillbirth). Because we found limited support for efficacy of the strain 19 program, we support research to develop an oral vaccine and suggest that continuing other spatio-temporal management actions will be most effective to minimize transmission of brucellosis and reduce dependency of elk on supplemental winter feeding.

  16. Alcohol dependence and anxiety increase error-related brain activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Bruijn, E.R. de; Lankveld, C.A. van; Hulstijn, W.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Verkes, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Detection of errors is crucial for efficient goal-directed behaviour. The ability to monitor behaviour is found to be diminished in patients with substance dependence, as reflected in decreased error-related brain activity, i.e. error-related negativity (ERN). The ERN is also decreased in othe

  17. Alcohol dependence and anxiety increase error-related brain activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de; Lankveld, C.A.A. van; Hulstijn, W.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Verkes, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Detection of errors is crucial for efficient goal-directed behaviour. The ability to monitor behaviour is found to be diminished in patients with substance dependence, as reflected in decreased error-related brain activity, i.e. error-related negativity (ERN). The ERN is also decreased in other

  18. The prevalence and impact of brucellosis in patients with hepatitis delta virus infection: inside the Brucella outbreak with cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Suvak, Ozlem; Yesilyurt, Aysun Özel; Gultepe, Bilge; Guducuoglu, Huseyin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection is a serious health problem leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite evidence that zoonotic infections are associated with end-stage liver disease, brucellosis in patients with delta hepatitis related to liver disease has not been well characterized. So, we examined this relationship using recent hospital-based data. Material and methods We analyzed data from 96 delta hepatitis patients (mean age: 52.5 ±12.8 years; 50 male; 52 cirrhotics) and 117 (mean age: 50.4 ±7 years; 60 male) control subjects who were selected from patients with splenomegaly. The Brucella Wright test in connection with blood culture was used to detect active Brucella infection. Demographic features, laboratory data, results of ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen and Wright agglutination titers were compared between groups. Results There were 9 (9%) patients with active brucellosis in delta hepatitis patients. Compared to the control group, there was a statistically significant difference between groups in terms of having active brucellosis (9 vs. 2 patients; p brucellosis requiring hospitalization. Higher Wright titers among patients with more advanced liver disease may reflect a unique phenomenon that requires further investigation to determine underlying causative factors. PMID:28261291

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in goats in areas of Mexico with and without brucellosis control campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseguera Montiel, David; Frankena, Klaas; Udo, Henk; Keilbach Baer, Nícola Maria; van der Zijpp, Akke

    2013-08-01

    Brucellosis is a major constraint for small-scale goat farming systems in Mexico. This study estimated the prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis and identified and quantified risk factors in goats from small-scale farms of Michoacán that had participated in a brucellosis campaign (i.e. vaccination, serological testing, culling and awareness) and of Jalisco that had negligible brucellosis campaign participation. A cross-sectional serological survey was conducted among 1,713 goats of 83 flocks. The prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis was higher (38%) in Jalisco than in Michoacán (11%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that goats from Michoacán had lower odds to test positive for brucellosis (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.48) compared to goats from Jalisco. Goats in zero-grazing systems had lower odds than goats in grazing systems (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.09-0.57). When goats were kept in pens with low density (0.002 to 0.22 goat/m(2)), odds was lower (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.67) compared to goats kept in pens with higher density (0.23 to 1 goat/m(2)). Odds was higher for testing positive when farmers bought goats from goat traders (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.15-2.87) compared to farmers who did not. If scavenger poultry had access to goat pens, the odds was half (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.33-0.83) of those where poultry had no access. Regular disinfection of the pen reduced the odds (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.44-0.99) compared to where disinfection was not regular. The brucellosis control campaign was effective in reducing brucellosis seropositivity.

  20. Epidemiological Analysis of Brucellosis Disease in Taiyuan City from 2010 to 2014%2010~2014年太原市布鲁氏菌病流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳静; 张晓佳; 魏晓勇

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To describe the distribution of brucellosis cases in Taiyuan city from 2010 to 2014 and to put forward the suggestions on prevention and control. Methods:The diagnosed cases of brucellosis patients were con-ducted the epidemiological analysis based on the data that were collected in Taiyuan city according to Chinese Diseases Reporting Information System between 2010 and 2014. Results:The tendency of epidemic situation of brucellosis in Taiyuan city continued to increase,and the outbreak and deaths case didn′t appear. The brucellosis in 10 counties(cit-ies,districts)in Taiyuan city occurred with the characteristic of the developed livestock of agricultural counties,such as Yangqu county,Loufan county,Qingxu county relatively severe. The brucellosis disease attacked all the year round. The peak incidence of brucellosis was from April to August. The young and middle-aged male farmers easily suffered. Conclusion:It is essential for the government to be attracted the attention to the prevention and control of brucellosis in Taiyuan city. The cooperation between all departments should be strengthened. The comprehensive measures,mainly in-cluding quarantine,immunization tend to be adopted among animals and discover the epidemic disease of animal slaugh-ter. The quarantine must be strengthened while transporting. And large-scale breeding will develop. The epidemiological investigation into the human cases should be carried out in order to conduct standard treatment in a large scale. Health education should be strengthened. The stock administrative departments are responsible for administration of epizootic in-vestigation and disposition within their jurisdiction.%目的:描述太原市2010~2014年的布鲁氏菌病分布情况,提出防治建议。方法:对2010~2014年《中国疾病预防控制信息系统》中报告的布鲁氏菌病病例进行流行病学分析。结果:布鲁氏菌病疫情处于上升阶段,尚未出现暴发疫情和死亡

  1. 75 FR 53979 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement... Service announces the reopening of the public comment period on the Bison Brucellosis Remote...

  2. Financial analysis of brucellosis control for small-scale goat farming in the Bajío region, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseguera Montiel, David; Bruce, Mieghan; Frankena, Klaas; Udo, Henk; van der Zijpp, Akke; Rushton, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in small-scale goat husbandry systems in Mexico. It is a zoonosis and the economic consequences can be large, although estimates are not available for the Mexican goat sector. Our objective was to conduct a financial analysis of brucellosis control in a prominent dairy goat production area of the Bajío region, Mexico. We used three models: (1) a brucellosis transmission model at village flock level (n=1000 head), (2) a flock growth model at smallholder flock level (n=23 head) using output of model 1 and (3) cost-benefit analysis of several brucellosis control scenarios based on output of model 2. Scenarios consisted of test-and-slaughter or vaccination or a combination of both compared to the base situation (no control). The average net present values (NPV) of using vaccination over a 5-year period was 3.8 US$ (90% CI: 1.3-6.6) and 20 US$ (90% CI: 11.3-28.6) over a 10-year period per goat. The average benefit-cost ratios over a 5-year period and 10-year period were 4.3 US$ (90% CI: 2.2-6.9) and 12.3 US$ (90% CI: 7.5-17.3) per goat, respectively. For the total dairy goat population (38,462 head) of the study area (the Bajío of Jalisco and Michoacán) the NPV's over a 5-year and 10-year period were 0.15 million US$ and 0.8 million US$. However, brucellosis prevalence was predicted to remain relatively high at about 12%. Control scenarios with test-and-slaughter predicted to reduce brucellosis prevalence to less than 3%, but this produced a negative NPV over a 5-year period ranging from -31.6 to -11.1 US$ and from -31.1 to 7.5 US$ over a 10-year period. A brucellosis control campaign based on vaccination with full coverage is economically profitable for the goat dairy sector of the region although smallholders would need financial support in case test-and-slaughter is applied to reduce the prevalence more quickly.

  3. Risk, knowledge and preventive measures of smallholder dairy farmers in northern Malawi with regard to zoonotic brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanly Fon Tebug

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk production using local cattle breed-types is an age-old practice in Malawi. Although dairy farming is becoming more common as a result of the increasing population and demand for milk and milk products, there is limited knowledge of the farmers’ awareness of zoonotic disease risks, their preventative practices and the disease burden in animals. This study determined dairy farmers’ general knowledge of zoonoses, assessed their risks for infection with zoonotic bovine tuberculosis (bTB and brucellosis, and evaluated farm practices to prevent disease transmission. A questionnaire was drawn up and administered by the authors. It was used to collect information about the knowledge and preventive practices of 140 out of 684 registered dairy farmers at Mzuzu Agricultural Development Division, northern Malawi. During a second visit to 60 out of the 140 farms, a total of 156 and 95 cattle were tested for brucellosis and tuberculosis, respectively. Most farmers (77.1% knew or had heard of zoonotic diseases, whilst 75.0% correctly named at least one zoonotic disease. More survey participants named tuberculosis as a zoonotic disease compared to brucellosis (74.3% versus 2.9%. The most commonly named means of transmission were milk (67.0% and meat (56.0%. Almost all survey participants (96.4% practised at least one farm activity that could lead to potential transmission of brucellosis or bTB, including sale (67.0% and consumption (34.0% of unpasteurised milk. Antibodies against brucellosis were found in 12 cattle (7.7%, whilst one animal (1.1% reacted to the tuberculin skin test. General knowledge about possible transmission of diseases between humans and animals was high, although most farmers practised risk behaviours that could potentially expose the public to milk-borne zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis and bTB. Furthermore, some animals had positive results for brucellosis and tuberculosis tests. Therefore, improvement of zoonotic disease

  4. Risk, knowledge and preventive measures of smallholder dairy farmers in northern Malawi with regard to zoonotic brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebug, Stanly Fon; Njunga, Gilson R; Chagunda, Mizeck G G; Mapemba, Jacob P; Awah-Ndukum, Julius; Wiedemann, Steffi

    2014-02-28

    Milk production using local cattle breed-types is an age-old practice in Malawi. Although dairy farming is becoming more common as a result of the increasing population and demand for milk and milk products, there is limited knowledge of the farmers' awareness of zoonotic disease risks, their preventative practices and the disease burden in animals. This study determined dairy farmers' general knowledge of zoonoses, assessed their risks for infection with zoonotic bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and brucellosis, and evaluated farm practices to prevent disease transmission. A questionnaire was drawn up and administered by the authors. It was used to collect information about the knowledge and preventive practices of 140 out of 684 registered dairy farmers at Mzuzu Agricultural Development Division, northern Malawi. During a second visit to 60 out of the 140 farms, a total of 156 and 95 cattle were tested for brucellosis and tuberculosis, respectively. Most farmers (77.1%) knew or had heard of zoonotic diseases, whilst 75.0% correctly named at least one zoonotic disease. More survey participants named tuberculosis as a zoonotic disease compared to brucellosis (74.3% versus 2.9%). The most commonly named means of transmission were milk (67.0%) and meat (56.0%). Almost all survey participants (96.4%) practised at least one farm activity that could lead to potential transmission of brucellosis or bTB, including sale (67.0%) and consumption (34.0%) of unpasteurised milk. Antibodies against brucellosis were found in 12 cattle (7.7%), whilst one animal (1.1%) reacted to the tuberculin skin test. General knowledge about possible transmission of diseases between humans and animals was high, although most farmers practised risk behaviours that could potentially expose the public to milk-borne zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis and bTB. Furthermore, some animals had positive results for brucellosis and tuberculosis tests. Therefore, improvement of zoonotic disease prevention

  5. Acute abdomen as atypical presentation of brucellosis: report of two cases and review of literature.

    OpenAIRE

    al Faraj, S

    1995-01-01

    Abdominal involvement in brucellosis is seen in the acute, subacute and chronic disease. It is not typical, however, that acute abdomen is the presenting feature of brucellosis. In this paper, two cases of serologically diagnosed brucellosis are reported, both presenting initially with acute abdomen and fever. In brucella-endemic regions of the world, brucellosis has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen and fever. With definitive diagnosis, unnecessary laparotomy ca...

  6. Increased incidence of thoracic wall deformities in related Bengal kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Timothy M; Sturgess, Christopher P

    2012-06-01

    Clinical records made during routine vaccinations were compared between populations of domestic shorthair cats and Bengal kittens. An increased incidence (12/244) of thoracic wall deformity was detected amongst the Bengal kittens. Deformities detected were: pectus excavatum (five), unilateral thoracic wall concavity (six) and scoliosis (one). Five-generation pedigrees were analysed for the affected kittens that showed a high degree of common ancestry indicating the likelihood of a familial cause.

  7. Increased circulating calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Schifter, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1991-01-01

    with minor disorders (59 vs. 46 pmol/l, p less than 0.01), as well as with 232 healthy persons (37 pmol/l, p less than 0.0001). Moreover, circulating CGRP increased significantly with the severity of cirrhosis (Child-Turcotte group A, 56; group B, 59; group C, 71 pmol/l; p less than 0.025). No significant...

  8. Seroprevalence survey of brucellosis among rural people in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljinnyam, Zolzaya; Suuri, Bujinlkham; Dashbal, Enkhbayar; Oidov, Baatarkhuu; Roth, Felix; Zinstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Dambadarjaa, Davaalkham

    2014-01-01

    Background After the transition from socialism to a market economy in 1990, human brucellosis re-emerged in Mongolia. The aim of our study was to estimate a representative seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and to determine risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity among rural people. Methods A cross-sectional study with multistage random selection was conducted in eight provinces of Mongolia. Study participants were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain their brucellosis history, current symptoms and likely risk factors. Blood samples were drawn to determine brucellosis seroprevalence. Results A total of 2856 randomly selected rural people aged four to 90 years were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.0–12.1), ranging between 2.3% and 22.6% in the eight provinces; 39.2% (n = 609) of nomadic camps had at least one seropositive participant. Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity were being older than 45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.9, 95% CI = 5.1–8.7) and being a veterinarian (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.5–5.0). Conclusion Our study confirms that human brucellosis seroprevalence among rural people in Mongolia is high. Human brucellosis can be effectively controlled if high-coverage livestock mass vaccination is implemented with a coverage survey after the vaccinations to ensure completeness. This mass vaccination should be accompanied by public awareness and educational programmes. PMID:25685600

  9. Coccolithophore Response to CO2 Increase and Related Ecological Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziveri, P.

    2007-12-01

    Changes in ocean chemistry due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions affect marine life, nutrient cycles and biocalcification. Ocean acidification has been identified as a major consequence of rising atmospheric CO2 levels. This makes understanding the response of calcareous plankton, and other effects of global change, an urgent challenge. There have been controversial results from culture experiments and field observations, on the impact of CO2 increase on coccolithophore calcification and ecology. The objective of this presentation is to report the state-of-the-art on the impact of ocean acidification on coccolithophores and possible consequences on their biogeography and ecology. Results will also be reported from a workshop sponsored by the European Science Foundation (Euroclimate Program) and PAGES on Atmopheric CO2, ocean acidification and ecological changes in planktonic calcifying organisms. A wide range of experts contributed to that workshop, from the cellular and genetic to the ecological and global carbon cycle levels. Questions include how the predicted CO2 increase and acidification is likely to affect coccolithophores, what the possible secondary consequences may be, and what research is needed to allow robust predictions for the future.

  10. 78 FR 23740 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. This action will allow... a potential new approach to managing swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public...

  11. 78 FR 9028 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... approach to managing swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. Swine brucellosis and pseudorabies have been eliminated from commercial swine herds within the United States,...

  12. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... destroyed because of brucellosis. 51.5 Section 51.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis. (a) The claimant shall be responsible...

  13. Human Brucellosis in Febrile Patients Seeking Treatment at Remote Hospitals, Northeastern Kenya, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Falk; Wareth, Gamal; El-Adawy, Hosny; Henning, Klaus; Pletz, Mathias W.; Heller, Regine; Kariuki, Samuel; Fèvre, Eric; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    During 2014–2015, patients in northeastern Kenya were assessed for brucellosis and characteristics that might help clinicians identify brucellosis. Among 146 confirmed brucellosis patients, 29 (20%) had negative serologic tests. No clinical feature was a good indicator of infection, which was associated with animal contact and drinking raw milk. PMID:27662463

  14. Clinical and laboratory findings of 97 pediatric brucellosis patients in central Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldas, Tamer; Tezer, Hasan; Ozkaya-Parlakay, Aslinur; Sayli, Tulin Revide

    2015-08-01

    Brucellosis is a disease transmitted to humans by consumption of unpasteurized animal milk, or through direct contact with infected animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical, laboratory findings of pediatric patients with brucellosis. Data of 97 patients diagnosed with brucellosis between January 2000 and December 2010 were evaluated retrospectively.

  15. Field trial of the brucellosis fluorescence polarization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K; Gall, D; Bermudez, R; Renteria, T; Moreno, F; Corral, A; Monroy, O; Monge, F; Smith, P; Widdison, J; Mardrueno, M; Calderon, N; Guerrero, R; Tinoco, R; Osuna, J; Kelly, W

    2002-01-01

    Fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) is a homogeneous technique which was applied to the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Because of its simplicity and because it may be performed very rapidly, it was an ideal test to adapt to field use. The FPA was used to test cattle on six dairy farms in Baja California, Mexico. Anticoagulated blood, serum, and milk were collected from each animal. The anticoagulated blood was tested immediately on the farm while serum and milk were tested subsequently in the laboratory. Cattle on one farm (n = 140) were thought not to be infected with Brucella abortus and the other farms were thought to have high prevalence of the infection. The whole blood FPA (FPA(bld)) did not detect antibody in any of the cattle on the first premise. This finding was confirmed using a number of other serological tests, including the buffered antigen plate agglutination test, the complement fixation test, the indirect and competitive enzyme immunoassays, and the FPA using serum and milk. Cattle on the other premises (n = 1122) were tested in a similar fashion. The sensitivity of the FPA(bld), relative to the serum FPA (considered the definitive test), was 99.1% and the relative specificity of the FPA(bld) was 99.6%. These results compared favourably with those obtained using the other serological tests.

  16. Ocular Complications of Brucellosis: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Reza Lashay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A 21-year-old female was referred for severe bilateral visual loss 3 weeks after a diagnosis of brucellosis. On ocular examination she had bilateral optic nerve head swelling, preretinal hemorrhages and retinal vasculitis. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral optic neuritis secondary to brucellosis and developed optic atrophy and severe visual loss despite medical treatment. Brucellosis can lead to various types of ocular involvement including vasculitis, optic neuritis and retinal hemorrhage.

  1. Skin Rashes on Leg in Brucellosis: a Rare Presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Shahcheraghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is the most widespread zoonotic infection in the world. The disease is endemic in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. It is an important re-emerging infectious disease. This disease is closely associated with the evolution of mankind as an agrarian society linked to the practice of shepherding and popularization of animal husbandry. The patients with this disease are typically present with chills, fever, asthenia and sweating. This paper describes a patient with brucellosis and skin rashes on the leg. A 41-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd. The patient reported the loss of appetite, arthralgia and weight loss during previous five months. Finally, he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and high titer for Brucella agglutination test. The clinical manifestation of brucellosis is very broad, ranging from asymptomatic infection to serious debilitating disease. Current patient had skin rashes on his leg. Brucellosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute infections, especially if there is a history of fresh milk product ingestion and living in an endemic region.

  2. [Epidemiology of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Formosa province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana M; Mancebo, Orlando A; Monzón, Carlos M; Gait, Juan J; Casco, Rubén D; Torioni de Echaide, Susana M

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of brucellosis was carried out in 516 goats and mixed flocks (goat/sheep) from the three agro-ecological regions of Formosa province, Argentina. Serum samples from a total of 25401 goats and 2453 sheeps were analyzed using buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Bacteriological and PCR analyses on milk samples from goats in three flocks with a history of brucellosis and recent abortions were also performed. Brucellosis was detected in four of the nine departments of the province with an overall prevalence of 2% and an intra-flock prevalence ranging between 1% and 40%. The proportion of infected flocks was 3.6%, 12% and 36% for the eastern, central and western regions, respectively. Brucella melitensis bv. 1 was isolated efrom goats for the first time in the province. The expected fragments of 827bp from the omp2ab gene (Brucella spp.) and 731bp from the insert IS711 (B. melitensis) were amplified by PCR. Detection of antibodies by BPAT and FCT in sheep cohabiting with goats suggests that infections could have been caused by B. melitensis, posing an additional risk to public health. Control and eradication programs for brucellosis should consider mixed flocks as a single epidemiological unit. The results indicate that brucellosis by B. melitensis bv1 is highly endemic in the central and western regions of Formosa province.

  3. Acute brucellosis associated with leukocytoclastic vasculitis and splenic infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçmak, Feyzullah; Uçmak, Derya; Beştaş, Remzi; Anli, Ruken Azizoğlu; Adanir, Haydar

    2014-12-01

    Brucellosis is globally the most prevalent multisystem infection of zoonotic origin, while it is still one of the most important public health problems in Turkey as non-pasteurised milk and dairy products are consumed. Early diagnosis is vital to prevent the possibly lethal complications caused by the disease. However, diagnosis might be delayed as the disease does not have a single and typical manifestation and presents with various symptoms of different systems. Brucellosis and associated splenic infarct have rarely been studied, there being few cases in the literature. One of the rare involvements in this disease is dermatological involvement, which has been found in less than 10 percent of brucellosis cases. In this study, we discuss a 17 year old male patient who was admitted to our hospital due to fever, abdominal pain, arthralgia and rash on legs, diagnosed with brucellosis through brucellosis tube agglutination test and found to have splenic infarct upon examination and leukocytoclastic vasculitis according to the skin biopsies in the light of the present literature.

  4. Bovine Brucellosis: An Epidemiological Study at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchandan Sikder*, AKM Anisur Rahman1, Mohammad Rayhan Faruque, Mohammad Abdul Alim2, Shubhagata Das2, Aungshuman Das Gupta3, Bhajan Chandra Das, Mohammad Inkeyas Uddin4 and Mohammad Abdul Matin Prodhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological survey was conducted to identify probable risk factors and prevalence of brucellosis in commercial and backyard dairy cows at Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 500 milk samples were collected (250 commercial and 250 backyards for Milk Ring Test (MRT. The MRT positive cows were subjected to sera collection and Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and indirect ELISA were done for confirmatory diagnosis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle was 5% (7.6% in commercial and 2.4% in backyard. Significantly higher (P<0.05 prevalence was found in the zero grazing (5.74%, pregnant cows (7.53% and cows with history of retained placenta (7.89% or abortion (5.88% or both (11.76% than non-pregnant (2.68% and without any reproductive disorder (4.44%. A total of 420 farm attendants and owners were interviewed where 93.55 and 99.08% commercial and backyard personnel were found to have no knowledge of brucellosis and 9.67 and 87.77% consumed raw milk and yogurt respectively were highly vulnerable to zoonotic brucellosis. The results showed that brucellosis is widely distributed locally, underscoring the need for further studies including biovar determination.

  5. Skin Rashes on Leg in Brucellosis: a Rare Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein; Ayatollahi, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is the most widespread zoonotic infection in the world. The disease is endemic in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. It is an important re-emerging infectious disease. This disease is closely associated with the evolution of mankind as an agrarian society linked to the practice of shepherding and popularization of animal husbandry. The patients with this disease are typically present with chills, fever, asthenia and sweating. This paper describes a patient with brucellosis and skin rashes on the leg. A 41-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd. The patient reported the loss of appetite, arthralgia and weight loss during previous five months. Finally, he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and high titer for Brucella agglutination test. The clinical manifestation of brucellosis is very broad, ranging from asymptomatic infection to serious debilitating disease. Current patient had skin rashes on his leg. Brucellosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute infections, especially if there is a history of fresh milk product ingestion and living in an endemic region.

  6. Surveillance of brucellosis and its prevention and control in Zhejiang%浙江省布鲁氏菌病疫情与防控对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐卫民; 朱素娟; 王衡; 王佳; 杨洋; 金行一; 汤益

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析浙江省布鲁氏菌病(布病)疫情态势,提出防控对策,为今后南方地区开展布病防治工作提供参考依据.方法 采用布病血清学检测方法,对全省从事牲畜养殖、交易、屠宰、皮毛加工和海洋生物捕捞加工等重点人群进行监测.结果 2011年浙江省共监测重点人群7565人,血清学阳性125例,阳性率平均为1.65%,确诊新发布病病例57例,年发病率为0.12/10万,检出布病感染者68例.与2010年相比病例数增加了90%,新感染者数增加了7.9%,发生暴发疫情1起,布病病例数为历年最高.发病主要与接触外省引进的病牛羊或羊肉制品有关,医院实验室人员有因接触患者血培养物感染布病,但仅接触本地湖羊的从业人员未发现有布病感染.结论 应大力发展饲养本地牲畜,禁止调运高风险区域牲畜,加强牲畜流通环节的检疫和管理,实行定点交易、集中屠宰.做好职业人群的保护和疫情监测,开展对专业人员的诊治技术培训;做好对重点人群的健康教育和健康促进,以控制疫情蔓延.%Objective To understand the epidemic situation of brucellosis in Zhejiang province and provide evidence for the prevention and control of brucellosis in Zhejiang and in southern China. Method Rose-Bengal plate agglutination test ( RBPT) and standard tube agglutination test ( SAT) were conducted to detect the serum samples collected from risk populations engaged in livestock trade, slaughter, cultivation and milking, related product processing and marine life catching in Zhejiang. Results Totally 7565 people from 12 areas were surveyed in 2011, in which 125 were sero-positive( 1. 65% ) ,57 were diagnosed with brucellosis and 68 were bacteria carriers. The annual incidence was 0. 12/lakh. The cases and bacteria carriers increased by 90% and 7. 9% respectively compared with 2010. In 2011, one outbreak occurred and the cases number was highest. The epidemic was mainly

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of sheep and goat brucellosis vaccination with Rev.1 in the north of Portugal from 2000 to 2005

    OpenAIRE

    COELHO, A. M.; Pinto,M.L; Coelho,A.C.

    2011-01-01

    In the North of Portugal, a mass vaccination programme of small ruminants was conducted from 2001 to 2004. A study of cost-benefit was carried out for the 2000/2005 period to ascertain the economic benefits of this strategy. In order to estimate the cost of the zoonosis, the compensation costs paid to farmers for culled animals in the Brucellosis Eradication Campaign, data from vaccine Rev. 1 costs, and costs of people internment due to brucellosis were studied. An increase in the cost was ob...

  8. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in children with brucellosis: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Yöntem; Gözmen, Salih; Özkaya, Ahmet Kağan; Oymak, Yeşim; Apa, Hurşit; Vergin, Canan; Devrim, İlker

    2015-10-29

    Brucellosis is a systemic zoonotic infectious disease that may cause fever, fatigue, sweating, arthritis, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenia, and lymphadenopathy. It continues to be an important health problem worldwide. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is characterized by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, high serum levels of ferritin and triglycerides, low serum fibrinogen levels, and hemophagocytosis in bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, or liver. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with brucellosis is a very rare condition in the pediatric age group. Here, three pediatric cases of secondary HLH associated with brucellosis are reported. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis should be considered in patients with brucellosis having cytopenias. Hemophagocytosis in brucellosis seems to be cured with appropriate antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin.

  9. Predictive contribution of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in diagnosis of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olt, Serdar; Ergenç, Hasan; Açıkgöz, Seyyid Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Here we wanted to investigate predictive value of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in the diagnosis of brucellosis. Thirty-two brucellosis patients diagnosed with positive serum agglutination test and thirty-two randomized healthy subjects were enrolled in this study retrospectively. Result with ROC analyzes the baseline NLR and hemoglobin values were found to be significantly associated with brucellosis (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, resp.). Herein we demonstrated for the first time that NLR values were significantly associated with brucellosis. This situation can help clinicians during diagnosis of brucellosis.

  10. Targeted prevention of brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklyarov, Oleg; Shumilov, Konstantin; Klimanov, Arkadii; Denisov, Aleksander

    2010-10-01

    The article presents a brief history of the brucellosis prevention in animals in the world and in the Russian Federation. Data are taken from studies on the immunogenic activity and epizootic efficacy of vaccines against brucellosis in animals, which made it possible, in the final analysis, to regard these preparations as highly important for brucellosis prevention. The relationship between the epizootic brucellosis situation in Russia and the employment of specific agents in targeted prevention of brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats, and the sequence of their use, are presented briefly, substantiating the feasibility of their use and improvement.

  11. Recurrent Epistaxis and Bleeding as the Initial Manifestation of Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali Aghdam, Mojtaba; Davari, Kambiz; Eftekhari, Kambiz

    2016-03-01

    Severe thrombocytopenia with bleeding is rarely reported in children with brucellosis, and recurrent epistaxis is extremely rare. Brucellosis with hemorrhage should be differentiated from viral hemorrhagic fever, malignancy, and other blood disorders. Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) is mandatory to differentiate from other blood diseases. An 8-year-old boy was admitted with recurrent epistaxis, petechiae and purpura on face and extremities and bleeding from the gums. During the hospitalization, he was febrile and complained of muscle pain. Leukopenias associated with thrombocytopenia were observed. BMA showed to be normal. Among the multiple tests requested, only serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2-MercaptoEthanol test (2-ME) were positive. He was treated with Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) associated with co-trimoxazole and rifampin. Finally, fever subsided, and he was discharged with good condition and normal platelet count. Brucellosis should be a differential diagnosis in patients with fever and bleeding disorders and a history of consumption of unpasteurized dairy, in endemic areas.

  12. An optimal control problem for ovine brucellosis with culling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannyonga, B; Mwanga, G G; Luboobi, L S

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model is used to study the dynamics of ovine brucellosis when transmitted directly from infected individual, through contact with a contaminated environment or vertically through mother to child. The model developed by Aïnseba et al. [A model for ovine brucellosis incorporating direct and indirect transmission, J. Biol. Dyn. 4 (2010), pp. 2-11. Available at http://www.math.u-bordeaux1.fr/∼pmagal100p/papers/BBM-JBD09.pdf. Accessed 3 July 2012] was modified to include culling and then used to determine important parameters in the spread of human brucellosis using sensitivity analysis. An optimal control analysis was performed on the model to determine the best way to control such as a disease in the population. Three time-dependent controls to prevent exposure, cull the infected and reduce environmental transmission were used to set up to minimize infection at a minimum cost.

  13. A Case of Adolescent Brucellosis Presented with Epididymoorchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Karlı

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a sistemic infectious disease and it is a major public health problem in our country. It can involve many organs and systems and epididymoorchitis can be a rare presentation of this zoonotic disease in children. Here we report an adolescent patient who presented only with scrotal sweeling and brucella epididymoorchitis diagnosed later. Brucellosis can be rarely seen as epididimoorchitis. So it should be especially considered in the differential diagnosis in endemic areas of brucellosis. It can be diagnosed with a well documented history and relevant laboratory investigations and appropriate treatments can prevent a number of serious complications such as necrotizing orchitis, oligospermia and azospermia. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2013; 11: 150-2

  14. Bilateral sacroiliitis and uveitis comorbidity: brucellosis? Ankylosing spondylitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Lütfi; Aslan, Kerim; Özgen, Metin; Sayarlioglu, Mehmet

    2015-09-22

    We present a rare case of a comorbidity of sacroiliitis and brucellosis infection. A 28-year-old woman received irregular medication due to ongoing backache and hip pain for 5 years. The patient presented to our hospital for evaluation of visual loss and was diagnosed with uveitis. Sacroiliac MRI was performed to investigate the inflammatory backache and hip pain, and the aetiology of the uveitis, revealing the presence of sacroiliitis. The patient's blood test results were as follows: positive brucellosis Rose Bengal test and positive tube agglutination test with a titre of 1/640. The patient was treated with doxycycline and rifampicin for 8 weeks for the brucellosis infection, and with acemetacin for the ankylosing spondylitis. The patient's back and hip pain decreased significantly 8 weeks later; however, the uveitis was not controlled by the treatment. Therefore, anti-tumour necrosis factor (infliximab) treatment was started.

  15. Comparison of Plasma Copper Concentrations in Patients with Brucellosis and Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Mobaien

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : There are some reports about influence of the rare nutrients such as copper and zinc on immune system. Serum concentrations of copper alter in patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis is a common and endemic disease and a health problem in Iran. We compared serum concentrations of copper in patients with brucellosis and healthy individuals.Materials & Methods: In a cross sectional study, serum concentrations of copper was measured in patients with brucellosis and control group. Eighty six subjects were enrolled in the study, including 43 patients with brucellosis (34 men and 9 women and 43 healthy individuals. Serum concentrations of copper was measured by automatic absorptive spectrophotometer in patients with brucellosis and compared with control group. We employed a non parametrical test, kolmogrov – smirnov, to determine if data distribution was normal or not. Results: Mean age of patients with brucellosis was 40.1415.10 years with the range of 14-60 years. The most frequent symptoms were arthralgia (86%. Serum concentrations of copper in patients with brucellosis were significantly higher than healthy subjects (160.8454.61, 101.7427.37 g/dl respectively, p<0.001.Conclusion: Serum concentrations of copper in patients with brucellosis showed significant alterations in comparison with healthy subjects. So, we recommend using serum copper concentrations in patients with brucellosis as a marker in brucellosis diagnosis. Also we recommend another study for detection of serum copper concentrations before and during treatment.

  16. Brucellosis and tuberculosis:Clinical overlap and pitfalls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sowjanya Dasari; Kushal Naha; Mukhyaprana Prabhu

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To identify characteristic features of tuberculosis in patients with culture proven brucellosis.Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed on patients diagnosed with culture proven brucellosis betweenJanuary andDecember2011, based on review of their medical records.Patients with demonstrable co-infection with tuberculosis were excluded.Clinical features, laboratory parameters and tissue histopathology reports where available were noted. Results:Thirty-two patients with brucellosis were included in the study.Twenty-one(65.63%) patients had chronic fever, thirteen(40.63%) had a productive cough, while significant weight loss, evening rise of temperature and night sweats were reported by eight(25.00%), eleven(34.38%) and five(15.63%) patients respectively.Nine(28.13%) patients had atleast three of these symptoms. Lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly were noted on examination in seven(21.88%), fifteen(46.88%) and twelve(37.50%) patients respectively.Eight(25.00%) patients had hepato-splenomegaly, of these only two had associated significant lymphadenopathy.Respiratory examination was normal in all patients.ElevatedESR greater than50 mm/hr was seen in eight (25.00%), it was greater than100 mm/hr in five(15.63%) patients.Hypergammaglobulinemia was seen in eight(25.00%) cases.Bone marrow biopsy showed non-caseating granulomas in three (9.38%) cases, lymph node biopsy showed granulomas in one case.Overall, three(9.38%) patients had known risk factors for tuberculosis, while six(18.75%) had risk factors for brucellosis. Conclusions:There is a clear overlapbetween brucellosis and tuberculosis both in terms of clinical presentation and laboratory parameters.It is essential to carefully rule out tuberculosis in all cases of suspected or proven brucellosis before initiating antimicrobial therapy, in order to forestall development of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  17. Brucellosis outbreak in Chouf district of Lebanon in 2009: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaar, L; Chaaya, M; Ghosn, N; Mahfoud, Z

    2014-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine risk factors associated with brucellosis infection in an outbreak in Chouf district of Lebanon during summer 2009. Cases of brucellosis reported to the Ministry of Public Health were identified, and for each case 2 controls were matched by sex, age and residence. Sociodemographic data, exposure to animals and animal products, knowledge about brucellosis, symptoms and history of past brucellosis infections were collected. Consumption of raw cheese was a significant risk factor for contracting brucellosis (matched OR = 29.5), whereas wearing gloves when in contact with animals and animal products and self-preparing dairy products were protective factors (OR = 0.08 and 0.13 respectively). Low and inaccurate knowledge about brucellosis was prevalent among subjects, with a common misconception about human-human transmission. Ensuring animal vaccination, educating people on correct ways of milk pasteurization and handling meat products, and elevating food safety monitoring threshold are key elements in controlling brucellosis.

  18. Evaluation of an ELISA for the diagnosis of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, E; Singhal, A; Verghese, S; D'Lima, D; Mathai, D; Ganesh, A; Thomas, K; Moses, P

    1996-06-01

    Brucela serology using ELISA and standard agglutination test was performed on 23 patients with prolonged fever where the test was requested, on 26 randomly chosen patients with prolonged fever where it was not requested and on 17 controls. ELISA was positive in 39.1, 26.9 and 0 per cent respectively in these groups. Brucellosis may often be unsuspected because of its varied clinical manifestations and may be a more important cause of fever than previously considered. Our data reaffirm that ELISA is superior to the standard agglutination test for the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  19. Negative serology: could exclude the diagnosis of brucellosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Aygul Dogan; Yulugkural, Zerrin; Kilincer, Cumhur; Hamamcioglu, Mustafa Kemal; Kuloglu, Figen; Akata, Filiz

    2012-08-01

    Two cases of brucellar spondylodiscitis of the lumbar area were presented. Although both cases showed typical radiological changes, serological tests could not detect Brucella agglutinating antibodies. One of the patients was bacteremic and Brucella spp. was identified from blood culture. In the second patient needle biopsy was required for definite diagnosis. Although small, serologic tests have a certain rate of false negative results in brucellosis. Thus, a negative serology should not exclude the diagnosis of brucellosis, as it is demonstrated in the current cases.

  20. Brucellosis mimicking Henoch-Schönlein purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massasso, David; Gibson, Kathryn

    2007-06-04

    A young male immigrant from Syria with a vasculitic-appearing leg rash, asymmetrical polyarthritis, microscopic haematuria, and raised inflammatory markers was provisionally diagnosed with Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Skin biopsy showed leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Low-grade fevers persisted despite non-steroidal anti-inflammatory therapy, and Brucella sp. was subsequently grown from both blood and synovial fluid aspirates. Further tests gave positive results for B. abortus, and triple antibiotic therapy produced a rapid clinical response. Cutaneous vasculitis has rarely been described in brucellosis, and this is the first report in the English medical literature of brucellosis mimicking Henoch-Schönlein purpura.

  1. Epidemic analysis of Brucellosis from 2011 to 2014 in Qingzhou City%青州市2011-2014年布鲁氏菌病疫情的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀国霞; 袁芳; 李泽园

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze epidemical characteritics of Brucellosis from 2011 to 2014 in Qingzhou City,Shangdong Province and provide a scientific basis in prevention and control of Brucellosis. Methods The discriptive epidemical method and Excel 2000 software were carried out in analyzing investigated data from epidemic area, time, patient’ s age, gender and population distribution 2011—2014 in Qingzhou City, according to National Disease Surveillance Information Reporting System. Results A total of 207 Brucellosis cases were reported 2011—2014 in Qingzhou City, the average an-nual incidence rate was 5. 65/105 , and the Brucellosis incidence increased from 1. 90/105 to 13. 29 /105 , it was a slightly higher from Mar. to Aug. , which was related to a certain situation in the local area . There were 44, 36, 20 and 20 cases in Tanfang, Huanglou, Yunmenshan and Shaozhuang township, respectively, the cases accounted for 57. 97% ( 120/207). The age distribution mainly focused on young adults 30 to 60 years accounted for 67. 63% (140/207), gender dis-tribution was predominantly male, the ratio was 2. 59 ∶ 1 for male and female patients, professional distribution was mainly farmer accounted for 90. 82% (188/207). Conclusion Brucellosis incidence increased yearly form 2011 to 2014 in Qingzhou City, which had an obvious property in contact with profession.%目的:分析2011—2014年山东省青州市人布鲁氏菌病( Brucellosis)疫情的分布特征,为预防控制布病提供科学依据。方法采用描述性流行病学方法和Excel 2000软件对青州市2011—2014年布病的流行地区、时间,患者年龄、性别、人群分布等情况进行分析。结果青州市2011—2014年共报告布病病例207例。布病发病时间多集中在3—8月,发病地区以谭坊镇(44例)、黄楼办事处(36例)、云门山办事处(20例)和邵庄镇(20例)居多,占发病总数的57.97%(120/207);布病发病年龄以30~60岁青壮

  2. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Scacchia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT. A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05% of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% – 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% – 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% – 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

  3. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchia, Massimo; Di Provvido, Andrea; Ippoliti, Carla; Kefle, Uqbazghi; Sebhatu, Tesfaalem T; D'Angelo, Annarita; De Massis, Fabrizio

    2013-04-23

    In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% - 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% - 5.80%), followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% - 2.50%) and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% - 2.20%) regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

  4. Changing Epidemiology of Human Brucellosis, China, 1955–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Hang; Xiong, Weiyi; Gilbert, Marius; Huang, Zhuojie; Yu, Jianxing; Yin, Wenwu; Wang, Liping; Chen, Qiulan; Li, Yu; Mu, Di; Zeng, Lingjia; Ren, Xiang; Geng, Mengjie; Zhang, Zike; Cui, Buyun; Li, Tiefeng; Wang, Dali; Li, Zhongjie; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease, was made statutorily notifiable in China in 1955. We analyzed the incidence and spatial–temporal distribution of human brucellosis during 1955–2014 in China using notifiable surveillance data: aggregated data for 1955–2003 and individual case data for 2004–2014. A total of 513,034 brucellosis cases were recorded, of which 99.3% were reported in northern China during 1955–2014, and 69.1% (258, 462/374, 141) occurred during February–July in 1990–2014. Incidence remained high during 1955–1978 (interquartile range 0.42–1.0 cases/100,000 residents), then decreased dramatically in 1979–1994. However, brucellosis has reemerged since 1995 (interquartile range 0.11–0.23 in 1995–2003 and 1.48–2.89 in 2004–2014); the historical high occurred in 2014, and the affected area expanded from northern pastureland provinces to the adjacent grassland and agricultural areas, then to southern coastal and southwestern areas. Control strategies in China should be adjusted to account for these changes by adopting a One Health approach. PMID:28098531

  5. Polymyositis-like syndrome with rhabdomyolysis in association with brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kushal Naha; Suman Karanth; Sowjanya Dasari; Mukhyaprana Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse myositis with progression to rhabdomyolysis has been reported in association with wide range of viral infections.We report a case of polymyositis-like syndrome complicated by rhabdomyolysis secondary to brucellosis.This case report thus contributes yet another atypical presentation to a disease already infamous for its protean manifestations.

  6. Evaluation of childhood brucellosis in the central Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çıraklı, Sevgi; Karlı, Arzu; Şensoy, Gülnar; Belet, Nurşen; Yanık, Keramettin; Çıraklı, Alper

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a systemic infectious disease that leads to various clinical pictures and is still a significant health problem in Turkey. In this study, 52 pediatric patients diagnosed with brucellosis between January 2008 and December 2013 were examined. Clinical and laboratory findings, response to treatment, prognosis and complications were evaluated. Diagnosis of brucellosis was made based on a clinical picture compatible with the disease, together with standard tube agglutination test (SAT) positivity (1/160 or higer titer) or isolation of Brucella spp. in a sterile body fluid culture. The cases comprised 10 females and 42 males. In 75% of cases, there was a history of consumption of unpasteurized milk or dairy products. The most commonly seen symptoms and findings were fever (75%), arthralgia (54%), fatigue (19%), splenomegaly (44%), hepatomegaly (42%) and arthritis (19%). Atypical presentations were seen in one case of epidydymo-orchitis and three cases of bleeding of the nose and gums. In the laboratory examinations, anemia was determined in 56% of cases, leukopenia in 40% and thrombocytopenia in 27%. In blood cultures taken from 41 patients, Brucella spp. were isolated in 23 (56.1%). All patients recovered, and sequelae were seen only in a patient with osteoarthritis. In conclusion, although brucellosis leads to many different clinical pictures, a very good response to treatment can be obtained. If effective treatment cannot be implemented in time, the disease may become chronic, and complications and relapses may be encountered. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment is of great importance.

  7. Assessment of Rose Bengal test in diagnosing Egyptian human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fekhfakh, Effat Abdel-Monaem; Hassanain, Nawal Abdel-Hafiz; El-Folly, Runia Fouad; El-Hariri, Hazem

    2011-08-01

    A total of 30 patients suffering from brucellosis were suspected based on history taking, clinical manifestations and positive serum tube agglutination test (at titer > or = 1/160). The followings were done for all cases; complete blood picture (differential leucocytic count) and liver function tests, serodiagnosis of Brucella (serum tube agglutination test (STAT) as well as Rose Bengal test (RBT) and PCR. The study aimed to analyze the diagnostic value of RBT as compared to STAT and PCR for human brucellosis, and to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, the cost and the time consuming of RBT as compared to STAT and PCR. There was a significant difference between diagnosis by RBT and both STAT > or = 1/640, & STAT > or = 1/1280. Also, there was a significant difference between PCR and both STAT > or = 1/640, and STAT > or = 1/1280. No significant difference was detected between RBT in diagnosing acute and chronic infection. STAT > or = 1/320 proved to be better than STAT at other titers and RBT in diagnosis of brucellosis. RBT proved to be suitable as screening test regarding time (faster) and cost. But, STAT > or = 1/320 from a practical and economic point of views proved to be the best one in diagnosing human brucellosis.

  8. Neonatal Brucellosis: Two Cases with Two Different Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlke Mungan Akın

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis remains as an endemic infection of humans in many parts of the world; Latin America, Asia including Middle East and Mediterranean region including Turkey. Neonatal brucellosis is very rare and clinical manifestations as well as transmission route are not well-defined. The neonate can be either infected transplacentally, or by ingestion of mother’s secretions and blood during delivery, or by ingestion of breast milk. Here, we present two cases with two different transmission route and clinical findings. First case is a premature infant born after 31 weeks of gestation and hospitalized for respiratory distress in addition to hepatosplenomegaly and leukocytosis. Brucella species were isolated from the initial blood culture obtained just after birth. Clinical and laboratory findings improved with decreased ventilatory support after replacement of antibiotherapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX and rifampicin. Second case was a 28 days old, term infant. Her sibling was diagnosed as brucellosis and during evaluation of the family members, her mother was found to have brucellosis just before delivery. Initial evaluation of the baby after birth was totally normal. Beside medical advice, she was breastfed and in the 4th week of life she was found to have leucopenia and neutropenia, and brucella tube agglutination test turned to be positive. After antibiotherapy, laboratory findings were normalized. Breastfeeding was ceased during the treatment periods of both mothers. Both families were from rural regions of Turkey, who were using unpasteurized dairy products. Both patients were treated with TMP-SMX and rifampicin for 6 weeks without any complication. Brucella spp must be sought as a causative agent in the differential diagnosis of intrauterine and neonatal infections in endemic countries. Family members of patients from rural areas of the country must be questioned about traditional food consumption, as findings of neonatal

  9. Medical Meteorology: the Relationship between Meteorological Parameters (Humidity, Rainfall, Wind, and Temperature and Brucellosis in Zanjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefali Abedini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis (Malta fever is a major contagious zoonotic disease, with economic and public health importance. Methods To assess the effect of meteorological (temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind and climate parameters on incidence of brucellosis, brucellosis distribution and meteorological zoning maps of Zanjan Province were prepared using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW and Kriging technique in Arc GIS medium. Zoning maps of mean temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind were compared to brucellosis distribution maps. Results: Correlation test showed no relationship between the mean number of patients with brucellosis and any of the four meteorological parameters. Conclusion: It seems that in Zanjan province there is no correlation between brucellosis and meteorological parameters.

  10. Brucellosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current challenges for management, diagnosis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, M; Bertu, W J; Matope, G; Cadmus, S; Conde-Álvarez, R; Gusi, A M; Welburn, S; Ocholi, R; Blasco, J M; Moriyón, I

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella and affecting domestic and wild mammals. In this paper, the bacteriological and serological evidence of brucellosis in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and its epidemiological characteristics are discussed. The tools available for the diagnosis and treatment of human brucellosis and for the diagnosis and control of animal brucellosis and their applicability in the context of SSA are presented and gaps identified. These gaps concern mostly the need for simpler and more affordable antimicrobial treatments against human brucellosis, the development of a B. melitensis vaccine that could circumvent the drawbacks of the currently available Rev 1 vaccine, and the investigation of serological diagnostic tests for camel brucellosis and wildlife. Strategies for the implementation of animal vaccination are also discussed.

  11. Acute Brucellosis with Splenic Infarcts: A Case Report from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishal Alyousef

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenic infarction is an extremely rare and unique presentation of brucellosis. Only few cases have been reported worldwide. We here report a case of a young man, presenting with acute onset of fever, left hypochondial pain, and vomiting. Further evaluation revealed multiple splenic infarcts and positive blood culture for brucellosis despite negative transesophageal echocardiography for endocarditis. Significant improvement in clinical symptoms and splenic lesions was achieved after six weeks of combination therapy against brucellosis.

  12. The Questionable Prevailing Meat Inspection Regulations for Prevention of Tuberculosis and Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    OF.TUBERCULOSIS AND BRUCELLOSIS ■ - East Germany - ’ ; \\ ’ ■ ’-] [Following is the translation of an article by G. Seidel in Das Deutsche...of our contribution to preventive medicine lies in the field of meat hygiene. Since today tuberculosis and brucellosis are prominent diseases in...the case we shall propose changes. The prevailing ,;■•’ measures for the control of brucellosis and tuberculosis in animals, and the changes

  13. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Bovine Brucellosis Seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhtar Salihu Anka; Latiffah Hassan; Siti Khairani-Bejo; Mohamed Abidin Zainal; Ramlan Bin Mohamad; Annas Salleh; Azri Adzhar

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-fiv...

  14. A case of childhood Brucellosis with neurological involvement and epididymo-orchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanık-Yüksek, Saliha; Gülhan, Belgin; Ozkaya-Parlakay, Aslınur; Tezer, Hasan

    2014-12-15

    Brucellosis is a common zoonotic infection worldwide caused by Brucella species. Central nervous system involvement is a serious complication of brucellosis, and the clinical presentation is quite heterogeneous. The genitourinary system may be affected. Epididymo-orchitis is the most common type of urinary tract involvement, which can cause serious complications. Herein, we present a case of brucellosis in a child with a rare combination of epididymo-orchitis and neurobrucellosis not encountered previously in the literature.

  15. Predictive Contribution of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in Diagnosis of Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar Olt; Hasan Ergenç; Seyyid Bilal Açıkgöz

    2015-01-01

    Here we wanted to investigate predictive value of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in the diagnosis of brucellosis. Thirty-two brucellosis patients diagnosed with positive serum agglutination test and thirty-two randomized healthy subjects were enrolled in this study retrospectively. Result with ROC analyzes the baseline NLR and hemoglobin values were found to be significantly associated with brucellosis (P=0.01, P=0.01, resp.). Herein we demonstrated for ...

  16. Predictive Contribution of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in Diagnosis of Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Olt, Serdar; Ergenç, Hasan; Açıkgöz, Seyyid Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Here we wanted to investigate predictive value of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in the diagnosis of brucellosis. Thirty-two brucellosis patients diagnosed with positive serum agglutination test and thirty-two randomized healthy subjects were enrolled in this study retrospectively. Result with ROC analyzes the baseline NLR and hemoglobin values were found to be significantly associated with brucellosis (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, resp.). Herein we demonstrated ...

  17. Immunological effectiveness of “immun-5” in various forms brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Ellular immunity was studied in patients with acute, subacute, primary and secondary chronic forms of brucellosis was studied before and after therapy including domestic preparation “Immunе-5” and in healthy persons (as a control group). Effect was not observed in the treatment of acute and subacute brucellosis, but positive immunologic and clinical dynamics was observed in patients with chronic forms of brucellosis.

  18. Increased circulating calcitonin in cirrhosis. Relation to severity of disease and calcitonin gene-related peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Schifter, S; Møller, S

    2000-01-01

    circulating plasma concentrations of CT in patients with cirrhosis in relation to the severity of disease and the plasma level of CGRP. Moreover, the kinetics of CT was evaluated for different organ systems by determination of arteriovenous extraction. Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis (Child-Turcotte...... control (12.1 v 6.9 pmol/L, P Turcotte score was found (P

  19. Chronic Brucellosis Patients Retain Low Frequency of CD4+ T-Lymphocytes Expressing CD25 and CD28 after Escherichia coli LPS Stimulation of PHA-Cultured PBMCs

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    Panagiotis Skendros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic brucellosis patients display a defective Th1 response to PHA. We have previously shown that heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA can downregulate the PHA-induced increase of CD4+/CD25+ and CD14+/CD80+ cells of brucellosis patients. In the present study, we investigate the effect of E. coli LPS, as a potent stimulant of monocytes and autologous T-lymphocytes, on the PHA-cultured PBMCs of the same groups of patients. Thirteen acute brucellosis (AB patients, 22 chronic brucellosis (CB patients, 11 “cured” subjects, and 15 healthy volunteers were studied. The percentage of CD4+/CD25+ and CD4+/CD28+ T-lymphocytes as well as CD14+/CD80+ monocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry after PBMCs culture with PHA plus E. coli LPS. A significant decrease in the percentage of CD4+/CD25+ and CD4+/CD28+ T-lymphocytes was observed in CB compared to AB. In HKBA cultures, compared to E. coli LPS-cultures, there was a significant reduction of CD4+/CD25+ T-lymphocytes in all groups and CD14+/CD80+ in patients groups. We suggest that Brucella can modulate host immune response, leading to T-cell anergy and chronic infection.

  20. The Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Anti-Diuretic Hormone (SIADH) and Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Keziban Asli; Doğan, Murat; Kaba, Sultan; Akbayram, Sinan; Aslan, Oktay; Kocaman, Selami; Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Üstyol, Lokman; Demir, Nihat

    2016-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to demonstrate the frequency of the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) and associated factors during the course of brucellosis in children and adolescents. Material/Methods The study included children and adolescents aged 0–18 years old diagnosed with brucellosis between 2012 and 2014. The data were collected from patient charts. The diagnosis of brucellosis was made based on titrations >1:160 in standard Wright tube agglutination tests and/or positive culture tests. SIADH diagnosis was made based on the following criteria: euvolemic hyponatremia, serum Na+ 25 mmol/L with normal dietary salt intake), low uric acid (brucellosis. PMID:27590789

  1. A brucellosis case presenting with vesicular and maculopapular rash and febrile neutropenia

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    Selmin Dirgen Çaylak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a systemic disease in which all kind of tissues and organs can be affected. Brucellosis may present with different symptoms and symptoms are non-specific. A broad spectrum of clinical manifestations can be seen, therefore diagnosis can be difficult. Cutaneous complications and febrile neutropenia have been rarely reported. Here, a rare brucellosis case was reported that he applied with fever, skin eruption and neutropenia. We emphasized that especially in endemic areas brucellosis should always be kept on mind in the differential diagnosis of patient with skin eruption and febril neutropenia.J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(1: 39-41

  2. Analysis of a multi patch dynamical model about cattle brucellosis

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    Juan Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of cattle brucellosis in Zhejiang province of China can be attributed to the transport of cattle between cities within the province. In this paper,an n-patch dynamical model is proposed to study the effect of cattle dispersal on brucellosis spread. Theoretically,we analyze the dynamical behavior of the muti-patch model. For the 2-patch submodel,sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number R0 and the number of the infectious cattle in term of model parameters are carried out. By numerical analysis,it is obtained that the dispersal of susceptible cattle between patches and the centralization of infected cattle to the large scale patch can alleviate the epidemic and are in favor of the control of disease in the whole region.

  3. "Seroepidemiological Survey of Brucellosis Among Animal Farmers of Yazd Province"

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    MH Salari

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis has remained a great problem of health in most of countries, which have failed in control of zoonosis infections. This disease is caused by species of Brucella and usually is transferred from animals to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among animal farmers of Yazd province. In this descriptive study, 933 animal farmers were investigated by serological tests and blood culture method. Then the data were analyzed by SPPS statistical program. The results showed that the frequency distribution of seropositive cases by MAT and STAT were 35 (3.2%; 25 (2.7% males and 10 (1.1% females. The highest and lowest incidences of seropositive cases were among age group of 21-30 (1% and more than 60 (0.3% years old, respectively. Of the 35 seropositive cases, 2MET positive were 5 (0.5%, while all blood cultures were negative.

  4. 布鲁杆菌病职业人群高危行为习惯调查及健康教育效果评价%Effective evaluation of brucellosis related risk behaviors of occupation groups and the effect of health education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹; 柳晓琳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To find out demography characteristic and risk behaviors of occupation groups and to evaluate the effect of health education. Methods A baseline survey was conducted among occupation groups in the western part of Liaoning province by stratified random cluster sampling. Health education started to intervene in occupation groups in Linghai city of Liaoning province. An investigation of brucellosis related behaviors was carried out before and after a health education among occupation groups. Other occupational groups were as the control group. The research on high-risk behaviors of occupation groups was in the following eight aspects: protection taken when contact with abortion livestock, timely slaughter and burying deeply of sick animals, not selling sick animals do not eat dead meat, nor drink raw milk, do not eat raw meat, and immunity of livestock. Results Before the intervention, a total of 916 objects, of which intervention group 499 and control group 417 were investigated. The high-risk behaviors of brucellosis were not significantly different between the two groups[70.9% (354/499), 64.3%(321/499 ), 53.8% (268/499), 92.2% (460/499), 82.2% (410/499 ), 87.5% (437/499), 93.6% (467/499), 56.2%(280/499) in intervention group, 68.8% (287/417), 59.2% (247/417 ), 54.7% (228/417), 89.2% (372/417 ), 85.6%(360/417) ,885%(369/417),94.0%(392/417),55.9%(233/417) in control group, all P > 0.05]. After the intervention,a total of 908 survey objects, of which intervention group 499 and control group 409, were investigated. The above eight aspects of high-risk behaviors in the intervention group were 85.4% (426/499),79.0% (394/499),69.9%(349/499),96.4%(481/499),943%(471/499),94.9%(474/499),94.0%(469/499), 99.4%(496/499), respectively; in the control 66.8% (273/409),57.3% (234/409),50.1% (205/409),85.3% (349/409),88.8% (363/409),89.5%(366/409) ,90.1% (369/409), and 57.2% (234/409), respectively. Between the two groups, the difference was statistically significant (x2

  5. “PCR based methods for diagnosis of human brucellosis"

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Human brucellosis has been attributed to B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and B. canis and more recently to strains resembling Brucella isolated from marine mammals. Brucella has been isolated from human tissue samples, blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid which are suitable for analysis by PCR. Brucella species are highly monomorphic with minimal genetic variation among species. Brucella genome consists of two circular hromosomes, has been completely sequenced for B. ...

  6. Seroepidemiological study of livestock brucellosis in a pastoral region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megersa, B; Biffa, D; Abunna, F; Regassa, A; Godfroid, J; Skjerve, E

    2012-05-01

    A seroepidemiological study of Brucella infections in multiple livestock species in the Borana pastoral system of Ethiopia was performed between December 2007 and October 2008. A cross-sectional multi-stage sampling technique was employed to select 575 cattle, 1073 camels and 1248 goats from the target populations. Sera were collected from the animals, and serially tested using Rose Bengal test and complement fixation test. Overall prevalence and prevalence with respect to explanatory variables were established, and potential risk factors for seropositivity were analysed using a multivariable logistic regression. The results showed that 8·0% (95% CI 6·0-10·6), 1·8% (95% CI 1·1-2·8) and 1·6% (95% CI 1·0-2·5) of the tested cattle, camels and goats, respectively, had antibodies to Brucella antigen. Positive reactors were found in 93·8% of the villages with more frequent detection of positive cattle (93·3%) than camels (56·3%) and goats (37·5%). Risk factors identified for cattle were: keeping more livestock species at household level (OR 4·1, 95% CI 1·9-8·9), increasing age of the animal (OR 2·8, 95% CI 1·3-6·0) and wet season (OR 3·3, 95% CI 1·6-6·9). Increase in household-level species composition (OR 4·1, 95% CI 1·2-14·2) and wet season (OR 3·7, 95% CI 1·5-9·1) were found to be risk factors for seropositivity in camels and goats, respectively. Existence of more than one seroreactor animal species in most villages and association of increased livestock species composition with seropositivity may add more credence to the possibility of cross-species transmission of Brucella infections. Although no attempt to isolate Brucella spp. was made, our results suggest that cattle are more likely maintenance hosts of Brucella abortus which has spread to goats and camels. This should be substantiated by further isolation and identification of Brucella organisms to trace the source of infection and transmission dynamics in various hosts kept under

  7. The clinical characteristics and analysis of 12 cases of Brucellosis%布氏杆菌病12例临床特点与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鑫

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析布氏杆菌病的临床特点,以便于及时诊断与治疗.方法 回顾性分析大连市第六人民医院自2010年1月至2011年12月收治的12例布氏杆菌病病例.结果 布氏杆菌病一年四季均可发病,但多发生于春、夏、秋季,传播途径复杂,有明显的职业特点.临床表现不典型,病程初期易误诊.利福平联合多西环素治疗有效,症状重者加用喹诺酮药物疗效肯定.结论 掌握布氏杆菌临床特点及流行病学特征,可提高诊断率,合理规范抗菌治疗.%Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of Brucellosis for timely diagnosis and treatment. Methods Retrospective analysis on 12 cases of Brucellosis from January 2010 to December 2011 were performed. Results Brucellosis could take place anytime during the whole year, especially in spring, summer and autumn. The transmission route was complicated. It often happened in special population. It was easy to be misdiagnosed in the early course of disease because its clinical symptoms were not typical. Rifampin and doxycycline were used together to treat Brucellosis, and quin-olone was added when the disease aggravated. Conclusion Better understanding of the clinical characteristics of Brucellosis can increase the diagnosis rate and optimize the treatment.

  8. A randomized, comparative study of dual therapy (doxycycline–rifampin versus triple therapy (doxycycline–rifampin–levofloxacin for treating acute/subacute brucellosis

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    Ahmad Hasanain

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The aim of this study was to compare both the efficacy and safety profile of the WHO-recommended, dual therapy (doxycycline–rifampin to a quinolone-based, triple therapy (doxycycline–rifampin–levofloxacin for treating acute/subacute brucellosis. Patients and methods We studied 107 consecutive, naïve patients with acute/subacute brucellosis admitted to Assiut University Hospital. Patients were randomly allocated to receive the dual therapy of doxycycline–rifampin (group-A or to receive the triple therapy of doxycycline–rifampin–levofloxacin (group-B. Acute/subacute brucellosis was diagnosed based on the presence of: (1 contact with animals or fresh animal products, (2 suggestive clinical manifestations of less than one-year duration, and (3 positive antibody titer (1:160 by standard tube agglutination test. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding their demographic data. Fever was the most frequent manifestation (96.3%. Epigastric pain was the most frequent adverse effect of treatment (12.1%. Group-A patients had a significantly higher relapse rate compared to group-B patients (22.6% versus 9.3%, p-value = 0.01. The rate of treatment adverse effects was higher among group-B patients, although not reaching statistical significance (20.4% versus 11.3%, p-value = 0.059. Conclusions Adding levofloxacin to the dual therapy for acute/subacute brucellosis (doxycycline–rifampin may increase its efficacy in terms of lowering the relapse rate of the disease. Further, larger scale studies are needed before considering modifying the standard, dual therapy for brucellosis.

  9. Altered Expressions of miR-1238-3p, miR-494, miR-6069, and miR-139-3p in the Formation of Chronic Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Ferah; Bal, Salih Haldun; Tezcan, Gulcin; Akalın, Halis; Goral, Guher; Oral, Haluk Barbaros

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that is still endemic in developing countries. Despite early diagnosis and treatment of patients, chronic infections are seen in 10-30% of patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate the immunological factors that play roles in the transition of brucellosis from acute infection into chronic infection. Here, more than 2000 miRNAs were screened in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with acute or chronic brucellosis and healthy controls by using miRNA array, and the results of the miRNA array were validated through qRT-PCR. Findings were evaluated using GeneSpring GX (Agilent) 13.0 software and KEGG pathway analysis. Four miRNAs were expressed in the chronic group but were not expressed in acute and control groups. Among these miRNAs, the expression level of miR-1238-3p was increased while miR-494, miR-6069, and miR-139-3p were decreased (p 2). These miRNAs have the potential to be markers for chronic cases. The differentially expressed miRNAs and their predicted target genes involved in endocytosis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, MAPK signaling pathway, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and its chemokine signaling pathway indicate their potential roles in chronic brucellosis and its progression. It is the first study of miRNA expression analysis of human PBMC to clarify the mechanism of inveteracy in brucellosis.

  10. Altered Expressions of miR-1238-3p, miR-494, miR-6069, and miR-139-3p in the Formation of Chronic Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Ferah; Bal, Salih Haldun; Tezcan, Gulcin; Akalın, Halis; Goral, Guher

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that is still endemic in developing countries. Despite early diagnosis and treatment of patients, chronic infections are seen in 10–30% of patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate the immunological factors that play roles in the transition of brucellosis from acute infection into chronic infection. Here, more than 2000 miRNAs were screened in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with acute or chronic brucellosis and healthy controls by using miRNA array, and the results of the miRNA array were validated through qRT-PCR. Findings were evaluated using GeneSpring GX (Agilent) 13.0 software and KEGG pathway analysis. Four miRNAs were expressed in the chronic group but were not expressed in acute and control groups. Among these miRNAs, the expression level of miR-1238-3p was increased while miR-494, miR-6069, and miR-139-3p were decreased (p 2). These miRNAs have the potential to be markers for chronic cases. The differentially expressed miRNAs and their predicted target genes involved in endocytosis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, MAPK signaling pathway, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and its chemokine signaling pathway indicate their potential roles in chronic brucellosis and its progression. It is the first study of miRNA expression analysis of human PBMC to clarify the mechanism of inveteracy in brucellosis. PMID:27722176

  11. Diagnosis of bovine brucellosis using a homogeneous fluorescence polarization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K; Gall, D; Lin, M; Massangill, C; Samartino, L; Perez, B; Coats, M; Hennager, S; Dajer, A; Nicoletti, P; Thomas, F

    1998-12-11

    To evaluate the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis, 118 sera from cattle which were culture positive for Brucella abortus, 1751 sera from cattle from premises containing cattle infected with B. abortus, 1222 sera from cattle vaccinated with B. abortus strain 19 and 1199 sera from cattle with no evidence of brucellosis were tested in Argentina, Chile, Mexico and in the American states of Iowa, Missouri and Texas. Initial determination of serological positivity and negativity was based upon reactivity in currently used serological tests, consisting of a rapid screening test, the rose-bengal or the buffered plate antigen tests, followed by a second serological test, the complement fixation test. Sensitivity of the FPA (sera from culture positive animals) ranged from 87.5% to 100%. Serological positivity of cattle from infected premises ranged from 65.5% to 99.0% while the % negative cattle in herds without evidence of brucellosis was between 94.9 and 100%. Of B. abortus strain 19 vaccinated cattle which were positive in at least one in-use serological tests, 88.2% were negative in the FPA. In contrast, previous Canadian studies, sensitivity values were 99.0% and 100% and the specificity in both cases was 100%. This discrepancy was probably due to the use of less well characterized sera in the current study.

  12. Osteoarticular Involvement among Brucellosis Cases in Konya City

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    Hale Turan Ozden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Brucellosis is a systemic disease that can affect many organs and tissues. Musculoskeletal system is one of the most commonly affected systems. Disease may present itself with sacroiliitis, peripheral arthritis, spondylitis, paraspinal abscess, bursitis or osteomyelitis. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency, types and clinical features of osteoarticular involvement among cases with brucellosis in Konya city and to establish the differences between patients with and without osteoarticular involvement. Material and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen patients with Brucellosis who presented between June 2003 and June 2014 were included in the study. Brucellosis was diagnosed by positive Brucella Standard Agglutination Test ( and #61619;1/160 titer and/or growth of Brucella spp. in blood culture in addition to the presence of clinical signs and findings. Diagnosis of osteoarticular system complications was established by physical examination and radiological findings obtained by diagnostic imaging tools. Magnetic resonance images of the thoracic, lumbar or sacral vertebrae were acquired in patients with back pain, low back pain and sacro-iliac joint pain. Results: Osteoarticular involvement was noted in 129 patients (40.8% (females: 52% and males: 48%. The most common route of transmission was employment in farming and/or consumption of un-pasteurized milk or dairy products, especially fresh cheese, in 97 (75% cases. Mean age was 46 and #61617;18 years. Sacroiliitis was the most frequent osteoarticular involvement (n: 68, 52.7%, 70.5% of which were bilateral. Sacroiliitis was followed by spondylodiscitis in 35 (38.7%, peripheral arthritis in 20 (15.5%, bursitis in 1 (0.8% cases. Patients with osteoarticular involvement received medical treatment for at least three months. Discussion: Ratio and anatomical region of osteoarticular involvement in brucellosis shows variability among areas. In the present study, we

  13. Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and small ruminants in the Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germeraad, Eveline A.; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Faye-Joof, Tisbeh; Goossens, Bart; Van Hoek, Wim Der; Jeng, Momodou; Lamin, Modou; Manneh, Ismaila L.; Nwakanma, Davis; Roest, Hendrik I J; Secka, Arss; Stegeman, Arjan; Wegmüller, Rita; Van Der Sande, Marianne A B; Secka, Ousman

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis with significant impact on rural livelihoods and a potentially underestimated contributor to febrile illnesses. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and small ruminants in The Gambia. METHODS: The study was

  14. Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and small ruminants in the Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germeraad, Eveline A.; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Faye-Joof, Tisbeh; Roest, Hendrik-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis with significant impact on rural livelihoods and a potentially underestimated contributor to febrile illnesses. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and small ruminants in The Gambia. Methods The study was

  15. Brucellosis in the United States: Role and Significance of Wildlife Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory programs for brucellosis in domestic livestock have been active in the United States for almost 80 years. Wildlife reservoirs of brucellosis include bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) for B. abortus whereas B. suis is the predominant species infecting feral swine. The...

  16. Low Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in Humans and Small Ruminants in the Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germeraad, Eveline A; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Faye-Joof, Tisbeh; Goossens, Bart; van der Hoek, Wim; Jeng, Momodou; Lamin, Modou; Manneh, Ismaila L; Nwakanma, Davis; Roest, Hendrik I J; Secka, Arss; Stegeman, Arjan; Wegmüller, Rita; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Secka, Ousman

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis with significant impact on rural livelihoods and a potentially underestimated contributor to febrile illnesses. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and small ruminants in The Gambia. METHODS: The study was

  17. Financial analysis of brucellosis control for small-scale goat farming in the Bajio Region, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Bruce, M.; Frankena, K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Rushton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in small-scale goat husbandry systems in Mexico. It is a zoonosis and the economic consequences can be large, although estimates are not available for the Mexican goat sector. Our objective was to conduct a financial analysis of brucellosis control in a prominent da

  18. Cervical Spondylitis and Epidural Abscess Caused by Brucellosis: a Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reşorlu Hatice

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease widely seen in endemic regions and that can lead to systemic involvement. The musculoskeletal system is frequently affected, and the disease can exhibit clinical involvements such as arthritis, spondylitis, spondylodiscitis, osteomyelitis, tenosynovitis and bursitis. Spondylitis and spondylodiscitis, common complications of brucellosis, predominantly affect the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae.

  19. A retrospective analysis of 7 cases with Brucellosis in Fujian Province%福建省7例布鲁菌病患者诊治分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤; 沈建箴; 付海英; 周华蓉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features of patients with brucellosis in Fujian Province and to update the relevant physician's knowledge on brucellosis.Method Retrospective analysis of the epidemiological,clinical,laboratory,imaging,treatment and outcome data of 7 patients with brucellosis were carried out in Fujian Medical University Union Hospital between January 2011 and July 2015.Results Of the 7 patients with brucellosis,6 were males and 1 was female aged between 29 to 61 years old,and 6 cases had a history of contact with goat.The main clinical presentations were repeated limb pain in 6 cases,6 patients got fever,4 cases with hepatomegaly,6 cases splenomegaly,and 7 cases lung inflammation.Hematology examination results indicated that 4 cases were normal,1 case decreased and 2 cases increased in white blood cells.Six cases had a liver dysfunction and 4 cases with low albumin level.All patients were detected positive of Malta Brucella by blood culture or bone marrow culture.In 6 cases and 4 cases out of the 6 cases,splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were found through B ultrasonography,respectively.After treatment of the 7 cases by doxycycline combined with minocycline rifampicin,3 cases were recovered,2 cases were relapsed,and 2 cases were improved.Conclusions The clinical symptoms are typical in these brucellosis patients.What we need to do is focus on improving the clinical and related physician's awareness of brucellosis,collecting a comprehensive history,choosing suitable assistant examinations based on the conditions of patients,strengthening the contact between clinical departments and auxiliary departments,and timely diagnosis.%目的 探讨福建省布鲁菌病临床特征,提高相关医师对布鲁菌病的认识.方法 收集2011年1月至2015年7月福建医科大学附属协和医院收治的布鲁菌病患者7例资料,采用回顾性分析方法总结分析患者的流行病学特点、临床表现、实验室检查结果、病原学检

  20. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among children in the Middle Anatolia Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Serdar; Satilmiş, Ozgun Kiriş; Ozturk, Baris; Gökçe, Mehmet Ilker; Kuscu, Ferit

    2014-12-01

    Brucellosis is an important public-health problem in Turkey. Children may constitute 20 to 30% of all brucellosis cases in the world, especially in the endemic regions. Data on the seroprevalence of brucellosis in childhood are very limited. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among a child population. One thousand one hundred and ten subjects were included in the study. Blood samples were collected and tested with Rose Bengal (RB) and standard tube agglutination test (SAT). RB test results were positive for 6 patients, and SAT was negative for all patients. Our findings suggest that seroprevalence of brucellosis is decreasing in Middle Anatolia due to a new cattle vaccination and eradication programme which was initiated in 2009.

  1. A Case of Brucellosis Associated with Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis: A Diagnostic Pitfall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Dalton Wheeler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cases of brucellosis are rare in the United States and difficult to diagnose. We report a case of a young female who underwent a diagnostic investigation of fever of unknown origin, which included a lymph node biopsy. The biopsy was consistent with Kikuchi’s Disease, or histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, an entity where the major differential diagnosis is systemic lupus erythematosus. Interestingly, serologic studies supported the diagnosis of brucellosis. Brucellosis has rarely been associated with histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis. This association has never been reported in the United States, thus suggesting that brucellosis should be considered in the differential for histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, along with lupus-like autoimmune disease. As the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, brucellosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus are distinct, it is important to differentiate these entities. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(5.000: 274-279

  2. A case report of brucellosis with fever and abdominal pain at onset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU He-Ling; YANG Fei-Fei; HUANG Yu-Xian; JIN Jia-Lin; ZHANG Wen-Hong; WENG Xin-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella ,with an acute or chronic clinical infection .Clinical manifestations of brucellosis are various or atypical ,and it is easily misdiagnosed and miss-diagnosed .The case we have reported had an onset of fever and abdominal pain ,associated with arthralgia ,headache and rashes during the course , and was initially misdiagnosed as “acute cholangitis , associated with biliary pancreatitis” . According to epidemiologic survey , radiological evidence , as well as blood culture and agglutination test showing Brucella positive ,the diagnosis of brucellosis associated with splenic infarction and multi-systemic involvement including lungs , skin and brain was made . After regular anti-brucellosis treatment , the patient’s symptoms were significantly improved . Brucellosis associated with splenic infarction is rare ,which is possibly due to vasculitis resulting from Brucella infection .

  3. Renal manifestations of human brucellosis: First report of minimal change disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Sabanis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis is considered a great example of the complexity of clinical manifestations possibly affecting multiple organs or systems. Renal manifestations of human brucellosis have been documented in few case reports and one case series. Herein, we present a case of Nephrotic syndrome (NS due to minimal change disease in the course of acute brucellosis. A 53-year-old male farmer was admitted to our department with acute brucellosis and NS. Renal biopsy revealed minimal change disease. Combined treatment with prednisone (1 mg/kg, rifampicin (600 mg/day, and doxycycline (200 mg/day was initiated. Complete remission of NS was achieved at the end of the fourth week. One year later, the patient remained in complete remission of NS without any sign of relapse of brucellosis.

  4. Renal manifestations of human brucellosis: First report of minimal change disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanis, Nikolaos; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Paschou, Eleni; Tsotsiou, Eleni; Kalaitzoglou, Asterios; Kavlakoudis, Christos; Vasileiou, Sotirios

    2016-05-01

    Human brucellosis is considered a great example of the complexity of clinical manifestations possibly affecting multiple organs or systems. Renal manifestations of human brucellosis have been documented in few case reports and one case series. Herein, we present a case of Nephrotic syndrome (NS) due to minimal change disease in the course of acute brucellosis. A 53-year-old male farmer was admitted to our department with acute brucellosis and NS. Renal biopsy revealed minimal change disease. Combined treatment with prednisone (1 mg/kg), rifampicin (600 mg/day), and doxycycline (200 mg/day) was initiated. Complete remission of NS was achieved at the end of the fourth week. One year later, the patient remained in complete remission of NS without any sign of relapse of brucellosis.

  5. Serum paraoxonase activity, total thiols levels, and oxidative status in patients with acute brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Ramazan; Aslan, Mehmet; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Emin; Cıkman, Aytekin; Yakan, Umit; Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Selek, Sahbettin

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity may decrease during the course of infection and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate serum PON1 activity, oxidative status, and thiols levels in patients with acute brucellosis. In addition, we investigated the PON1 phenotype in patients with acute brucellosis. Thirty patients with acute brucellosis and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, thiols levels, lipid hydroperoxide levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined. Serum basal and salt-stimulated paraoxonase-arylesterase activities, TAC levels and thiols levels were significantly lower in patients with acute brucellosis than controls (for all, p brucellosis. These results indicate that lower PON1 activity is associated with oxidant-antioxidant imbalance.

  6. The influence of fatigue-induced increase in relative work rate on temperature regulation during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacin, Alan; Golja, Petra; Tipton, Michael J; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2008-05-01

    Heat-loss responses during steady-load exercise are affected by an increase in relative work rate induced by muscle ischaemia or hypoxaemia. The present study investigated whether progressive increases in perception of exertion and relative oxygen uptake %VO2peak which occur during prolonged steady-load exercise as a result of progressively increased peripheral fatigue, might also affect the regulation of heat loss responses and hence the exercise-induced increase in mean body temperature. Ten male subjects first performed a ramp-test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer to evaluate their initial peak oxygen uptake (Control VO2peak). On a separate day, 120 min of cycling at constant power output corresponding to 60% of Control VO2peak was performed in thermoneutral environment (Ta = 23 degrees C, RH = 50%, wind speed = 5 m s(-1)). This was immediately followed by another maximal performance test (Fatigue VO2peak). During prolonged exercise, median (range) rating of perceived exertion for whole-body (RPEwb) increased (P temperature increased towards asymptotic values, thereafter remained constant throughout the 120 min exercise, despite the concomitant progressive increase in relative work rate, as reflected in increased RPEwb and relative oxygen uptake. It is thus concluded that the increase in relative work rate induced predominantly by peripheral muscle fatigue affects neither the level of increase in mean body temperature nor the regulation of heat loss responses during prolonged steady-load exercise.

  7. Assessment and simulation of the implementation of brucellosis control programme in an endemic area of the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Y M; Ridler, A L; Guitian, F J

    2009-10-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonosis in Middle Eastern countries. In this study we assessed the extent of the application of planned official brucellosis control programmes in Kafr El Sheikh governorate, Egypt and we used a stochastic simulation model to assess the probable impact of changes to the official control strategy on the dynamics of small-ruminant brucellosis. Our results show that brucellosis. Given our assumptions, the intensity with which infected animals are removed under the actual levels of implementation of test-and-slaughter programmes would permit brucellosis to remain endemic at a level >8% of the sheep and goat population.

  8. Seroprevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in a high-risk group of individuals in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A K M Anisur; Dirk, Berkvens; Fretin, David; Saegerman, Claude; Ahmed, Muzahed Uddin; Muhammad, Noor; Hossain, Akram; Abatih, Emmanuel

    2012-03-01

    Brucellosis is an occupational hazard of livestock farmers, dairy workers, veterinarians, slaughterhouse workers, and laboratory personnel, all of whom are considered to belong to the high-risk occupational group (HROG). A study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis, identify risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity, and detect Brucella at genus level using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) among people in the HROG in the Dhaka division of Bangladesh. A sample of 500 individuals from the HROG was collected from three districts of Dhaka division of Bangladesh. A multiple random effects logistic regression model was used to identify potential risk factors. Two types of real-time PCR methods were applied to detect Brucella genus-specific DNA using serum from seropositive patients. The prevalence of brucellosis based on the three tests was observed to be 4.4% based on a parallel interpretation. The results of the multiple random effects logistic regression analysis with random intercept for district revealed that the odds of brucellosis seropositivity among individuals who had been in contact with livestock for more than 26 years was about 14 times higher as compared to those who had less than 5 years of contact with livestock. In addition, when the contact was with goats, the odds of brucellosis seropositivity were about 60 times higher as compared to when contact was with cattle only. Noticeable variation in brucellosis seropositivity among humans within the three districts was noted. All of the 13 individuals who tested positive for the serological tests were also positive in two types of real-time PCR using the same serum samples. Livestock farmers of brucellosis positive herds had a significantly higher probability to be seropositive for brucellosis. The study emphasized that contact with livestock, especially goats, is a significant risk factor for the transmission of brucellosis among individuals in the HROG.

  9. Brucellosis Ontology (IDOBRU as an extension of the Infectious Disease Ontology

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    Lin Yu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caused by intracellular Gram-negative bacteria Brucella spp., brucellosis is the most common bacterial zoonotic disease. Extensive studies in brucellosis have yielded a large number of publications and data covering various topics ranging from basic Brucella genetic study to vaccine clinical trials. To support data interoperability and reasoning, a community-based brucellosis-specific biomedical ontology is needed. Results The Brucellosis Ontology (IDOBRU: http://sourceforge.net/projects/idobru, a biomedical ontology in the brucellosis domain, is an extension ontology of the core Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO-core and follows OBO Foundry principles. Currently IDOBRU contains 1503 ontology terms, which includes 739 Brucella-specific terms, 414 IDO-core terms, and 350 terms imported from 10 existing ontologies. IDOBRU has been used to model different aspects of brucellosis, including host infection, zoonotic disease transmission, symptoms, virulence factors and pathogenesis, diagnosis, intentional release, vaccine prevention, and treatment. Case studies are typically used in our IDOBRU modeling. For example, diurnal temperature variation in Brucella patients, a Brucella-specific PCR method, and a WHO-recommended brucellosis treatment were selected as use cases to model brucellosis symptom, diagnosis, and treatment, respectively. Developed using OWL, IDOBRU supports OWL-based ontological reasoning. For example, by performing a Description Logic (DL query in the OWL editor Protégé 4 or a SPARQL query in an IDOBRU SPARQL server, a check of Brucella virulence factors showed that eight of them are known protective antigens based on the biological knowledge captured within the ontology. Conclusions IDOBRU is the first reported bacterial infectious disease ontology developed to represent different disease aspects in a formal logical format. It serves as a brucellosis knowledgebase and supports brucellosis data integration and

  10. Human brucellosis in northwest Ecuador: typifying Brucella spp., seroprevalence, and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron-Román, Jorge; Ron-Garrido, Lenin; Abatih, Emmanuel; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Vizcaíno-Ordóñez, Laura; Calva-Pacheco, Jaime; González-Andrade, Pablo; Berkvens, Dirk; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington; Brandt, Jef; Fretin, David; Saegerman, Claude

    2014-02-01

    Human brucellosis in Ecuador is underreported and based only on passive surveillance. Since 2008, brucellosis was removed from the list of communicable diseases in the country. Until now, the true human brucellosis picture has not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of the disease, identify risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity in humans, and isolate circulating strains of Brucella spp. in the northwestern part of Ecuador. Between 2006 and 2008, a large transect survey was conducted, based on blood sampling of people from the northwestern part of Ecuador (n=3733) together with an epidemiological inquiry. On the basis of three diagnostic tests used in parallel, the overall seroprevalence was estimated as 1.88% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48-2.38). Based on a multivariable random effects logistic regression analysis, the main risk factors associated with human brucellosis seropositivity were contact with livestock (odds ratio [OR]=3.0; CI 1.25-7.08), consumption of fetus and placenta (OR=2.5; CI 1.18-5.22), and involvement in activities at risk for brucellosis infection (OR=1.8; CI 1.00-3.35). Noticeable variation in brucellosis seropositivity among humans within cantons was observed. The circulating strain was Brucella abortus biotype 4. This study emphasized that contact with livestock, consumption of fetus and placenta, and occupational hazard group were all significant risk factors for the transmission of brucellosis among individuals in the northwestern part of Ecuador. Alongside encouraging the launching of educational campaigns against brucellosis, especially in rural areas where 36% of the population lives, controlling this zoonotic disease in animals will directly benefit its prevention in humans, especially because there is no safe and efficacious vaccine against brucellosis in humans.

  11. An investigation of brucellosis in occupational population in Yuxi, China%玉溪市职业人群布鲁菌病调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳华; 左顺武; 姚颖波; 杨汝松; 王树坤

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解玉溪市职业人群布鲁菌病的流行现状,制定有效的防治策略.方法 对玉溪市2008至2014年发现布鲁菌病县(区)的养殖、屠宰、乳肉制品加工、兽医和销售交易等2 320名从业人员进行血清学检测;对职业人群疑似布鲁菌病患者进行病原学检测.结果 血清学检测显示,布鲁菌病感染率达3.32%,发现现症布鲁菌病15例,其中养殖人员感染率(4.89%)最高,差异有统计学意义(x-25.75,P<0.05);2008至2014年布鲁菌病感染率为0.37%~4.93%,呈上升趋势;67.85%的职业人群在工作中未采取个人防护措施,其感染率为4.45%,高于采取个人防护措施感染率(0.94%),差异有统计学意义(x2=19.42,P<0.05);161例疑似患者中,通过实验室病原学检测确诊现症布鲁菌病42例.结论 玉溪市职业人群布鲁菌病的感染率和新发病例有上升趋势,养殖人员是感染的主要人群.%Objective To investigate the epidemic status of brucellosis in the occupational population in Yuxi,China,and to develop effective prevention and control strategies.Methods Serological test was performed for 2320 enployees involved in breeding,slaughtering,meat and dairy product processing,veterinary medicine,and sales in counties and districts where brucellosis was detected from 2008 to 2014 in Yuxi;pathogenic detection was performed for those in the occupational population who were suspected of brucellosis.Results The results of serological test showed that the infection rate of brucellosis reached 3.32%,and 15 cases of brucellosis had clinical symptoms.The employees involved in breeding had the highest infection rate (4.89%) (x2=25.75,P<0.05).From 2008 to 2014,the infection rate of brucellosis was 0.37%~4.93% and tended to increase;67.85% of the occupational population did not take personal protective measures and had a significantly higher infection rate than those who took personal protective measures (4.45% vs 0

  12. epidemiological analysis on Brucellosis in Tangshan from 2002 to 2010%唐山市2002~2010年布鲁菌病流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓慧; 李芳

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze current epidemiological of Brucellosis in Tangshan, and provide scientific evidence for formulation of relevant prevention and control measures. METHODS The incidence rate of the Brucellosis were collected. The clue of Brucellosis was explored. The epidemic informations of Brucellosis fever from 2004 to 2008 were investigated and analyzed. RESULTS The Brucellosis in Tangshan are located in 12 counties, and a total of 237 cases were found from 2004 to 2008. CONCLUSION The epidemic situation of Tangshan showed diffuse, and the incidence of Brucellosis showed increased trend, and main cases were male, and there is no obvious seasonal difference.%目的 对唐山市近年来布鲁菌病病例进行流行病学调查与分析,为布鲁菌病防治提供理论依据.方法 收集近年来布鲁菌病疫情资料,对全市布鲁菌病病例进行线索调查,对2002~2010年布鲁菌病病例进行回顾性调查与分析.结果 2002~2010年全市布鲁菌病疫情主要分布于12个县(市)区,共有新发病人237例.结论 唐山市疫情以散发为主,疫情回升态势明显,职业特征明确,以男性为主,无明显季节性差异.

  13. Vaccination strategies for managing brucellosis in Yellowstone bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, John J; Johnson, Joseph S; Wallen, Rick L; Cilles, Sara; Crowley, Philip H; Cox, John J; Maehr, David S; White, P J; Plumb, Glenn E

    2010-10-01

    Concerns over migratory bison (Bison bison) at Yellowstone National Park transmitting brucellosis (Brucella abortus) to cattle herds on adjacent lands led to proposals for bison vaccination. We developed an individual-based model to evaluate how brucellosis infection might respond under alternate vaccination strategies, including: (1) vaccination of female calves and yearlings captured at the park boundary when bison move outside the primary conservation area; (2) combining boundary vaccination with the remote delivery of vaccine to female calves and yearlings distributed throughout the park; and (3) vaccinating all female bison (including adults) during boundary capture and throughout the park using remote delivery of vaccine. Simulations suggested Alternative 3 would be most effective, with brucellosis seroprevalence decreasing by 66% (from 0.47 to 0.16) over a 30-year period resulting from 29% of the population receiving protection through vaccination. Under this alternative, bison would receive multiple vaccinations that extend the duration of vaccine protection and defend against recurring infection in latently infected animals. The initial decrease in population seroprevalence will likely be slow due to high initial seroprevalence (40-60%), long-lived antibodies, and the culling of some vaccinated bison that were subsequently exposed to field strain Brucella and reacted positively on serologic tests. Vaccination is unlikely to eradicate B. abortus from Yellowstone bison, but could be an effective tool for reducing the level of infection. Our approach and findings have applicability world-wide for managers dealing with intractable wildlife diseases that cross wildlife-livestock and wildlife-human interfaces and affect public health or economic well-being.

  14. A serological and bacteriological survey of canine brucellosis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Castro, R; Segura, R

    1976-07-01

    Using agglutination procedures, 203 human and 500 dog sera collected in Mexico City were tested for canine brucellosis. Blood samples from the 500 dogs also were cultured for Brucella canis (B. canis). Positive agglutination titers (1:100 or greater) were found in 27 (13.3%) of the human and 140 (28.0%) of the dog sera tested. B. canis was isolated from the blood of eight dogs. The disease was experimentally produced in susceptible dogs by inoculation with one of the isolated strains.

  15. The Effects of Good Breeding Practices on Brucellosis Incidence in Kangal Akkaraman Sheep Flocks

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    Yusuf Ziya Oğrak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of brucellosis in groups of Kangal Akkaraman sheep flocks raised in farm conditions in Sivas province. The first and second groups of the sheep flocks were part of the 8 sub-projects which belong to The Project entitled “Nationwide Genetic Improvement of Small Ruminants in Farm Condition” continued for 7 and 1-3 years, respectively. The third group of the sheep flocks was not part of this nationwide project. The study material consisted of 1491 units of blood serum (n=278, 1166 and 47 for the first, second and third groups, respectively. Brucella antibodies were looked for in blood serum using tube and slide agglutination tests. The incidences of brucellosis were 4% and 7.5% in flocks which were part of the nationwide project continued for 7 and 3 years, respectively and 25.5% for the flocks not part of the nationwide project. The differences between groups were found statistically significant. Even though there was no brucella vaccination programs in the flocks of the nationwide project, practices such as regular controls of the flocks by veterinary technicians, drug/vaccination applications for parasites and some other diseases, removal of rams positive for brucella before breeding season significantly reduced the incidence of brucella. As a result, promoting good breeding practices along with the brucella vaccination program applied by the related Ministry can be very beneficial for the eradication of brucella disease that is a big problem for the country.

  16. Serial kinetics of the antibody response against the complete Brucella melitensis ORFeome in focal vertebral brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella, Anthony P; Lin, Jennifer C; Liang, Li; Atluri, Vidya; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Felgner, Philip L; Tsolis, Renee M; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2012-03-01

    Human brucellosis is a common zoonosis worldwide. Here we present a case of focal vertebral brucellosis in a 71-year-old Mexican-American woman who contracted infection from unpasteurized goat milk. Standard agglutination serology was negative; the diagnosis was established by the isolation of Brucella melitensis from abscess fluid. A B. melitensis protein microarray comprised of nearly all proteins encoded by the bacterial genome was used to determine the kinetics of this patient's antibody responses to the complete collection of open reading frames existing in the genome (ORFeome). Three patterns of antibody responses against B. melitensis antigens were seen for serum samples obtained on days 0 (pretreatment), 14, 49, 100, and 180: (i) stable titers over time, (ii) a steady fall in titers, and (iii) an initial rise in titers followed by declining titers. Sera from this patient with chronic brucellosis recognized some of the same B. melitensis proteins as those recognized by sera from acute/subacute, blood culture-positive brucellosis patients but also recognized a distinct set of proteins. This study is the first to determine the kinetics of the human antibody responses to the complete repertoire of proteins encoded by a bacterial genome and demonstrates fundamentally different immunopathogenetic mechanisms between acute human brucellosis and chronic human brucellosis. While an extension of these findings to a larger patient population is necessary, these findings have important clinical and diagnostic implications and lead toward new insights into the fundamental immunopathogenesis of brucellosis.

  17. Serological and molecular diagnosis of human brucellosis in Najran, Southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Ahmed Morad; Alqahtani, Jobran Miree

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of human brucellosis in Najran, southwestern Saudi Arabia, and to assess the performances of ELISA and PCR as diagnostic tools for brucellosis with respect to conventional methods. The study included 340 patients with clinical characteristics of brucellosis. Blood samples from cases and controls were subjected to culture, standard tube agglutination test (SAT), ELISA for IgM and IgG, and brucella PCR. The diagnosis of brucellosis was confirmed in 54 (15.9%) of the 340 provisionally diagnosed brucellosis patients. Blood culture identified only 14 (25.9%) cases. The SAT was positive for 50 (92.6%) cases, whereas ELISA IgM, IgG and PCR were found positive in 46, 52 and 38 cases respectively. The sensitivities of ELISA IgM and IgG were 85.2% and 96.3% respectively and the specificity was 100% for each. For PCR, the sensitivity and specificity were 70.4% and 100% respectively. In conclusion, ELISA offers a significant advantage over conventional serological methods in the diagnosis of brucellosis in endemic areas. The PCR test results can be particularly important in patients with clinical signs and symptoms, and negative serological results, allowing the early and rapid confirmation of the brucellosis.

  18. Descriptive Study of the Presentation of Human Brucellosis in Colombia (2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lopez Guarnizo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to conduct a descriptive study of the occurrence of human brucellosis in Colombia between 2000 and 2012, and, based on previous studies, to determine the prevalence and incidence of the disease, and the limitations for its timely diagnosis and recognition by the Colombian labor system. The research consisted of searching for and analyzing articles on human brucellosis published between 2000 and 2012 in Colombia. It included a phase of information gathering and unstructured interviews with representatives of brucellosis control programs and experienced professionals. We analyzed 17 studies of human brucellosis cases in personnel at risk in slaughterhouses, retailers and vaccinators for animal brucellosis programs: 10 of them reported prevalences between 0.14% and 10.4%, and seven evidenced seropositivity. Information revealed the limitations of the diagnosis, and it demonstrated the little knowledge of the medical community about this disease. In Colombia, there is no clear policy regarding this occupational zoonosis. Brucellosis is mentioned only in Decree 2566 of 2009, in which the new table of occupational diseases is established. The paper concludes that human brucellosis in Colombia is an underdiagnosed, and therefore underreported, disease since there is no mandatory reporting system on the subject.

  19. Patterns of Brucellosis Infection Symptoms in Azerbaijan: A Latent Class Cluster Analysis

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    Rita Ismayilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis infection is a multisystem disease, with a broad spectrum of symptoms. We investigated the existence of clusters of infected patients according to their clinical presentation. Using national surveillance data from the Electronic-Integrated Disease Surveillance System, we applied a latent class cluster (LCC analysis on symptoms to determine clusters of brucellosis cases. A total of 454 cases reported between July 2011 and July 2013 were analyzed. LCC identified a two-cluster model and the Vuong-Lo-Mendell-Rubin likelihood ratio supported the cluster model. Brucellosis cases in the second cluster (19% reported higher percentages of poly-lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, arthritis, myositis, and neuritis and changes in liver function tests compared to cases of the first cluster. Patients in the second cluster had a severe brucellosis disease course and were associated with longer delay in seeking medical attention. Moreover, most of them were from Beylagan, a region focused on sheep and goat livestock production in south-central Azerbaijan. Patients in cluster 2 accounted for one-quarter of brucellosis cases and had a more severe clinical presentation. Delay in seeking medical care may explain severe illness. Future work needs to determine the factors that influence brucellosis case seeking and identify brucellosis species, particularly among cases from Beylagan.

  20. 浙江省桐乡市非职业人群布鲁菌病感染分析%Investigation and analysis of brucellosis infection in non-occupational population in Tongxiang City of Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红芳; 钱华; 王国华

    2016-01-01

    目的 通过对浙江省桐乡市非职业人群布鲁菌病(简称布病)病例进行浅析,为制定布病防控策略提供科学依据.方法 采用布病虎红平板凝集试验(rose bengal plate agglutination test,RBPT)及试管凝集试验(serum tube agglutination test,SAT),对非职业密切接触者和出现布病相关症状的普通人群进行血清学检测.对试验阳性者进一步作布鲁菌种型鉴定,分析非职业人群感染布病的原因.结果 共发现7例非职业人群感染布病,非职业人群病例占总病例数的14.58% (7/48),普遍存在误诊现象,发病季节不明显,传播途径和感染人群呈多样化.结论 桐乡市非职业人群布病发病比例有上升趋势,加强大众布病防治知识宣传和医务人员布病诊治技能培训是布病防控工作重点之一.%Objective To analyze the cases of brucellosis in non-occupational population in Tongxiang City of Zhejiang Province,and to provide a scientific basis for making strategies in brucellosis prevention and control.Methods Rose bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT) and serum tube agglutination test (SAT) were used to detect brucellosis in the general population who were closely contacted with cases in non-occupational groups and who had brucellosis-related symptoms.If the pathogen result was positive,Brandt strain type identification should be done to analyze the reasons for non-occupational population who infected with brucellosis.Results A total of 7 cases of brucellosis were detected in the non-occupational groups,which accounted for 14.58% of the total number of cases (7/48).Misdiagnosis was common,seasonal incidence was not obvious,transmission route and population infected were diverse.Conclusion The incidence rate of brucellosis is an upward trend,public brucellosis prevention knowledge should be strengthened,and training in diagnostic and treating skills for medical professionals should be provided.

  1. An analysis of human brucellosis epidemic characteristic and trend in Wuhai during 2010 to 2014%2010—2014年乌海市布鲁氏菌病疫情特征及趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄喜平; 银福

    2015-01-01

    目的 掌握乌海市人间布鲁氏菌病疫情流行动态,分析疫情特征及现状,预测疫情发展趋势,为布鲁氏菌病的科学防治提供理论依据.方法 收集分析2010—2014年中国疾病预防控制信息系统传染病报告资料;2010—2014年人间布病防治项目调查及监测资料,历史资料.结果 乌海市人间布鲁氏菌病疫情呈上升态势,但发病总体上呈散发状态;该地区人间布病为较典型的"城市型"布病,病例多集中在养殖、屠宰、兽医、畜产品购销等行业,非职业人群发病增多.结论 加强对高危人群的监测工作,加大布病防治知识的宣传力度,做好畜间检疫、免疫、淘汰宰杀病畜等工作,有效控制人间布病疫情.%Objective To master the human brucellosis dynamics epidemic situation,to analysis the epidemic characteristic and present situation,and to predict the development trend of the epidemic of Wuhai to provide a the-oretical basis for brucellosis control.Methods Analysis on the brucellosis data of infectious disease report of 2010-2014 China disease prevention and control information system,investigation and monitoring data of 2010-2014 hu-man brucellosis prevention and control project and the historical data.Results The human brucellosis epidemic of Wuhai is rising gradually,but the incidence is interspersed on the whole.This area of human brucellosis is a typical urban type.Most cases was concentrated in the breeding,slaughtering,veterinary,animal products purchasing and supplying industry,and the incidence of occupational population was increased.Conclusions We should strength-en the monitoring of high-risk groups and the propaganda of the knowledge of prevention and control of brucellosis, and do well the work of animal quarantine and immunization and out of the slaughter of sick livestock,to effective control of the human brucellosis.

  2. [A case of brucellosis misdiagnosed as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almiş, Habip; Yakıncı, Cengiz

    2012-07-01

    Brucellosis which is a zoonotic infection, is an important public health problem in Turkey and all over the world. The disease may involve many organs and systems. Since the symptoms of brucellosis are non-specific, difficulties in differential diagnosis and misdiagnosis are frequent. In this case report we present a case of brucellosis, misdiagnosed as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). A 13-year-old boy was referred from another medical center with preliminary diagnosis of CCHF and admitted to our clinic with fever and a history of presence of a tick on his back. His physical observation only included splenomegaly. The laboratory results on admission were anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevation of acute phase reactants and liver transaminase levels. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed splenomegaly. Since the patient had anemia, epistaxis, fever and thrombocytopenia, he was initially diagnosed as CCHF. Meantime serum sample of the patient had been sent to Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency for CCHF PCR test. The fever of the patient could not be controlled. His detailed medical history revealed stockbreeding and consumption of raw milk products. Patient's signs and symptoms were also compatible with brucellosis and standard tube agglutination test for brucellosis was positive at 1/1280 titer in serum. The patient was diagnosed as brucellosis and the treatment was started with combination of rifampicin (1 x 600 mg/day) and doxycycline (2 x 100 mg/day). Blood cultures yielded negative result. The PCR tests for CCHF was found also negative. His fever and other complaints improved with treatment which was completed in six weeks and the follow-up was without complications. Turkey is endemic both for brucellosis and CCHF. This case was reported to emphasize that the cases of brucellosis could mimic other diseases and brucellosis should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of CCHF.

  3. Epidemiological survey of brucellosis in sheep and goats in selected pastoral and agro-pastoral lowlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintayehu, G; Melesse, B; Abayneh, D; Sintayehu, A; Melaku, S; Alehegne, W; Mesfin, S; De Blas, I; Casal, J; Allepuz, A; Martin-Valls, G; Africa, T; Abera, K

    2015-12-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted in pastoral regions of Ethiopia to investigate the distribution of brucellosis in sheep and goats. Between November 2004 and December 2007, a total of 6,201 serum samples were collected from 67 randomly selected peasant associations, 25 districts and eight pastoral zones of Ethiopia. The Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and complement fixation test were used in series. Samples for bacteriology were collected from three export abattoirs, where 285 goats were randomly selected and tested by RBPTthree days before slaughter. Tissue samples were collected from 14 strongly positive goats and cultured in dextrose agar and Brucella agar base. To confirm and subtype the isolates, staining, biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction were used. The overall standardised seroprevalence of brucellosis was 1.9%, ranging from 0.07% in Jijiga zone to 3.3% in Borena zone. There was statistically significant variation among the studied regions, zones, districts and peasant associations (p goats and sheep were twice as likely to test positive as females (relative risk [RRJ: 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.7-3.4; x2 = 21.05, p Goats were around four times more likely to be infected than sheep (RR: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.4-6.1; chi2 = 36.99, p Brucella melitensis was isolated from 2 of the 14 samples analysed. The widespread distribution of brucellosis in goats and sheep in these areas justifies the use of control measures to minimise the economic losses and public health hazards.

  4. [THE PERSPECTIVES OF STUDYING OF POLYMORPHISM OF GENES OF GAMMA-INTERFERON UNDER CHRONIC BRUCELLOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurpeisova, A Kh; Kolomeietz, A N

    2016-02-01

    The brucellosis is an actual zoonotic disease in many countries, Russia included. The complexity of individual prognosis of disease and choice of tactics of maintenance of patients is explained by heterogeneity of clinical manifestations of brucellosis and different rate of progression of organs pathology. Despite of low mortality, this pathology quite often results in disability of patient. The frequent transition of acute process into chronic one (40-60%), probability of development of primary chronic brucellosis determines interest of researchers to issues of immunopathogenesis of this disease. The article presents review of achievements in studies of polymorphism of genes of gamma-interferon in the given area.

  5. A rare disease in the differential diagnosis of acute pancreatitis: acute brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Ilhami; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Yetkin, Funda; Unlu, Serkan; Yilmaz, Sami; Bentli, Recep; Bazna, Sezai

    2014-01-01

    Some infectious organisms may give rise to acute pancreatitis; brucellosis, however, extremely rarely leads to acute pancreatitis. A 40-year-old man was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, the etiology of which was determined to be acute brucellosis. The patient was discharged without complications approximately 15 days after the initiation of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and doxycycline treatment. Brucella infections may rarely be complicated by acute pancreatitis. Thus, brucellosis should be remembered in the etiology of acute pancreatitis in regions such as Turkey, where Brucella infections are endemic.

  6. Co-infection of brucellosis and tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle in Ibadan, Nigeria: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy A. Stack

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case report on co-infection of brucellosis and tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered at the Bodija abattoir in Ibadan, Nigeria. Out of 32 animals that were seropositive for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal test, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and competitive ELISA, six were also demonstrated as being infected with tuberculosis through mycobacterial culture. This is the first report of co-infection of brucellosis and tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered in Nigeria. There is a need for further studies to investigate this occurrence.

  7. ELISA for brucellosis detection based on three Brucella recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepsuriyanont, Pikun; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Chanket, Panita; Tunyong, Wittawat; Kalambaheti, Thareerat

    2014-01-01

    Control of brucellosis among farm animals, wildlife and humans require reliable diagnosis. Rose Bengal serological test (RBT) is based on lipopolysaccharide antigen of Brucella, which may cross react with other gram-negative bacteria and produce false positive result. Immunoreactive proteins, such as outer-membrane protein BP26, ribosome recycling factor protein CP24 and Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS), previously reported to be recognized by infected sheep sera, were selected for production of recombinant proteins for use in an ELISA in order to investigate immune response among goats and cows, in comparison with commercial RBT. Cut-off value for ELISA was based on the immune response of in vitro fertilized goats and cows. Goats positive for Brucella culture or by RBT were ELISA positive for either IgG or IgM against at least one recombinant protein. For animals with negative RBT, animals with positive ELISA could be detected, and 61.6% possessed ELISA values as high as in infected animals. Thus, this ELISA procedure is proposed as an alternative to RBT for screening of brucellosis in farm animals.

  8. Osteoarticular complications of brucellosis: a study of 169 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, A R; Muhtaseb, S A; Almudallal, D S; Khodeir, S M; Marafie, A A

    1987-01-01

    Of 452 patients with brucellosis, 169 (111 male and 58 female) had osteoarticular complications. Brucella melitensis was isolated from the blood in 7.7% of the cases. Fever, chills, arthralgia, backache, high levels of C-reactive protein, positive rheumatoid factor, and splenomegaly were more frequent in osteoarticular brucellosis than in nonosteoarticular disease. Arthritis occurred in the hip joint in 90 cases (53%), knees in 61 (36%), sacroiliacs in 33 (20%), ankles in 25 (15%), elbows in nine (5.3%), shoulders in eight (5%), wrists in six (3.5%), and sternoclavicular arthritis occurred in three cases (1.8%). Spondylitis occurred in 10 cases (6%), osteomyelitis in four (2.4%), and tendinitis or bursitis in two (1.2%). Treatment with tetracycline or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) alone (four to eight weeks) or in combination with streptomycin (two to four weeks) resulted in a relapse rate of 16.6%. No relapses occurred in seven patients treated with repeated four- to six-weeks courses of rifampin plus tetracycline or TMP-SMZ plus streptomycin.

  9. Brucellosis presenting as piriformis myositis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanos Odysseas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Myositis is a rare bacterial muscle infection. Involvement of the piriformis muscle has been rarely reported in the literature. In this report we describe a case of piriformis myositis due to Brucella melitensis, which to the best of our knowledge is the first such case presented in the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 19-year-old Caucasian man who presented to our institution with fever and right hip pain. Brucellosis was suspected, but the clinical suspicion was for spondylodiscitis. A pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scan allowed prompt diagnosis of inflammatory involvement of the right piriformis muscle. Blood culture results were positive for B. melitensis. Our patient was treated with antibiotics, and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans showed resolution of the inflammation. Conclusion Brucellosis can present as piriformis myositis. The clinical diagnosis of piriformis myositis is difficult, as it can mimic other common entities such as referred back pain from spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for establishing the diagnosis in the early stages of the disease, as late diagnosis can lead to abscess formation and the need for drainage.

  10. An overview of the brucellosis epidemic conditions in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fallah rostami Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is as one of the most important infection common disease between human and cattle, which nowadays considered as one of serious health systems dilemma specifically in developing countries.Among brucellosis different species are the cause of infection, 4 species namely B.melitensis, BSuis, B.abortus , B.canis are the most major cause of disease in human(1.Indeed, in Iran that is considered as an endemic area of hygienic organization, B. melitensis is as the most prevalent cause of infection in human. This bacterium generally will transfer to human from contact with contaminated animals or the consumption of cattle production such as unpasteurized dairy (raw milk, soft cheese, cream or even via breathe can transfer to human. But the transfer of infection from person to person is very infrequent.Of course there is some evidence of transfer in a bone marrow transplanting. The most prevalent clinical symptoms of this disease are fever, night sweat, asthenia and anorexia (2.Naturally this infection involved different systems and organs in human body and the one of most major part of body can be mentioned to nervous system, muscuskeletal and also some organs like joints, heart and liver.Diagnosis of this infection can be made by some various laboratory tests like SAT, 2ME. But some misdiagnosis instances are very common. Thus, World Health Organization (WHO exposed in its report that the number of infected cases are maybe ten folds more than scale which stated by health organizations.

  11. Studies on a suitable antibiotic therapy for treating swine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieste-Pérez, L; Fraile, L; de Miguel, M J; Barberán, M; Blasco, J M; Muñoz, P M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was developing effective treatments against Brucella suis biovar 2, responsible for swine brucellosis in Europe. MICs for antibiotics used classically in brucellosis and two new macrolides (tulathromycin and tildipirosin) were determined for 33 B. suis biovar 2 field and B. suis reference strains. MIC90 values ranged from 0.01 to 0.25 μg/mL. The best candidates, given alone or combined, were then evaluated in mice. Ten groups (n = 7) of BALB/c mice were inoculated (1 × 10(5) CFU/mouse) with a virulent B. suis biovar 2 field strain. All groups, excepting untreated control, were treated for 14 days with, respectively, doxycycline, dihydrostreptomycin, tulathromycin (one or two doses), or tildipirosin (one or two doses) given alone, and doxycycline combined with dihydrostreptomycin, tulathromycin, or tildipirosin. Combined tildipirosin treatment was the most effective, then selected for pig studies. Sixteen B. suis biovar 2 naturally infected sows were treated with oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg BW/daily) for 21 days. The half of these received also tildipirosin (4 mg/kg BW) in two doses with a 10-day interval. An extensive bacteriological study conducted ten days after ceasing treatments proved the efficacy of this combined oxytetracycline/tildipirosin treatment.

  12. Discussion on the control process of sudden brucellosis%突发布鲁菌病防治进程的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高芸

    2014-01-01

    Objective In order to accumulate data of prevention and control brucellosis related for public health emergencies in the future. Methods The discussion were carried on the prevention process of burst Brucellosis of the city this year from the livestock disease purification, existing epidemic prevention effect, prevention process problems and solutions. Results Summarized the experience in prevention of brucellosis and existing problems. Conclusion Accumulated data of prevention and control brucellosis related for public health emergencies.%目的:探讨突发布鲁菌病的防治进程,为今后防治与布鲁菌病相关的突发公共卫生事件积累资料。方法就2013年我市突发布鲁菌病的防治进程,从病畜的净化、疫情防治的效果、防治过程中存在的问题及解决方案进行探讨。结果此次防治布鲁菌病进程中,没有发生防疫人员和兽医人员感染事故,疫情处理及时。结论探讨突发布鲁菌病的防治进程,及时总结防治经验和分析存在的问题,能够为防治相关突发公共卫生事件积累资料。

  13. Age-related increase in brain activity during task-related and -negative networks and numerical inductive reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, LI; Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Qi, Zhigang; Li, Kuncheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that elderly adults exhibit increased and decreased activation on various cognitive tasks, yet little is known about age-related changes in inductive reasoning. Methods: To investigate the neural basis for the aging effect on inductive reasoning, 15 young and 15 elderly subjects performed numerical inductive reasoning while in a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. Results: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis revealed that numeri...

  14. Increased Need for Gastrointestinal Surgery and Increased Risk of Surgery-Related Complications in Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulas Søborg, Marie-Louise; Leganger, Julie; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    . The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the causes of GI-related surgery and related mortality and morbidity in patients with EDSs. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Scopus to identify relevant studies. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta...

  15. The Long Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

        The length of parents' total birth related leave was increased with almost 50% in 1984 in Denmark. The previous length of the Danish maternity leave was long, especially compared to e.g. the U.S. today. This paper investigates the long term effects on children of increasing length of birth...... and educational outcomes. A 100% sample Danish population born in May, June, July, and August 1983, 1984, and 1985 and a dataset with Danish PISA-2000 scores are used for the estimations. Preliminary results indicate there is no positive effect on children's cognitive outcomes from increasing parents' mandated...... related leave from 14 to 20 weeks. We use differences-in-differences regression discontinuity design to identify the causal effect of the leave reform and it estimated whether such a large increase in the mandated leave period has a large measurable and persistent effect on children's cognitive...

  16. Increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Ting Zhang; Ming-Wei Wang; Zhen-Long Zhu; Xiao-Hui Huo; Jian-Kun Chu; Dong-Sheng Cui; Liang Qiao; Jun Yu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)in human gastric cancer tissues and their paired adjacent mucosa, as well as mucosa from gastric antrum and corpus of the first-degree relatives of the recruited cancer patients.METHODS: The expression of COX-2 mRNA in 38 patients with gastric cancer and their 29 first-degree relatives and 18 healthy controls was assessed by the real time RT-PCR.The expression of COX-2 protein was determined by Western blot.RESULTS: A marked increase in COX-2 mRNA expression was found in 20 of 37 (54%) cancerous tissues compared to their respective paired normal mucosa (P<0.001).Interestingly, increased COX-2 mRNA expression was also found in mucosa of the corpus (6/29) and antrum (13/29)of their first-degree relatives. Increased COX-2 mRNA expression was more frequently observed in the antrum biopsies from cancer patients than in the antrum biopsies from healthy controls (P<0.05). In addition, 3 of 23 (13%)patients with atrophic mucosa and 6 of 35 (17%) patients with intestinal metaplasia showed increased COX-2 mRNA expression. Furthermore, COX-2 expression increased in H pylori-positive tissues, especially in antrum mucosa.CONCLUSION: Increased COX-2 expression is involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and may be necessary for maintenance of the malignant phenotype and contribute to Helicobacterpylori-associated malignant transformation.

  17. Manpower assessment brief: Employment of energy related doctoral scientists and engineers increased between 1981 and 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, the nearly 45,000 energy-related doctoral scientists and engineers represented 11% of all employed doctoral scientists and engineers. Engineers comprised 40%, physical scientists, 21%, and earth scientists, almost 10% of those involved in energy-related activities - a significantly different distribution than occurs among all Ph.D. scientists and engineers. Between 1981 and 1985, by far the largest increase in energy-related Ph.D.'s occurred in employment in the life sciences - up over 120%. Employment in the social sciences and pyschology (primarily the latter) grew by 17% and in engineering by 7%.

  18. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-01-08

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.  Created: 1/8/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 1/8/2008.

  19. Relative workload determines exercise-induced increases in PGC-1alpha mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lundby, Carsten; Leick, Lotte;

    2010-01-01

    trial. No change in HIF1alpha, PFK, CS, LDH-A or LDH-B mRNA expression was detected after any of the exercise trials. CONCLUSION:: The relative intensity of brief intermittent exercise is of major importance for the exercise induced increase of several mRNA's, including PGC-1alpha....

  20. Spatio-temporal clusters of incident human brucellosis cases in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Lenin; Benitez, Washington; Speybroeck, Niko; Ron, Jorge; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk; Abatih, Emmanuel

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether variations in the incidence of reported cases of human brucellosis in Ecuador were clustered in space and time. In addition, the effects of cattle and small ruminant population density and other socio-economic factors on the incidence were investigated. Significant space-time clusters were found in the northern and southern highlands and parts of Ecuadorian Amazonia. Customs of people, cattle, goat and sheep population density appeared to influence the incidence of brucellosis. In this study, the incidence of reported cases of human brucellosis was found to be higher in the highlands (sierra) and in municipalities near Peru and Colombia. The results of this study highlight the need for prevention and control measures aimed at abating the incidence of brucellosis among livestock and humans.

  1. Comparison of a PCR assay in whole blood and serum specimens for canine brucellosis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keid, L B; Soares, R M; Vasconcellos, S A; Salgado, V R; Megid, J; Richtzenhain, L J

    2010-07-17

    The performance of a serum PCR assay was compared with that of a blood PCR assay for the diagnosis of canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis in 72 dogs. The dogs were classified into three groups (infected, non-infected and suspected brucellosis) according to the results of blood culture and serological tests. The sensitivities of blood PCR and serum PCR were, respectively, 97.14 per cent and 25.71 per cent. The specificities of both were 100 per cent. In the group of dogs with suspected brucellosis, three were positive by blood PCR and none was positive by serum PCR. Serum PCR showed little value for the direct diagnosis of canine brucellosis as the assay had low diagnostic sensitivity and fewer positive dogs were detected by this test than by blood culture, blood PCR, rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) and RSAT with 2-mercaptoethanol.

  2. Polymerase chain reaction-based assays for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhanli; Zhang, Yaxian; Bai, Liyun; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Chunfang; Ma, An; Yu, Hui

    2014-08-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an in vitro technique for the nucleic acid amplification, which is commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases. The use of PCR for pathogens detection, genotyping and quantification has some advantages, such as high sensitivity, high specificity, reproducibility and technical ease. Brucellosis is a common zoonosis caused by Brucella spp., which still remains as a major health problem in many developing countries around the world. The direct culture and immunohistochemistry can be used for detecting infection with Brucella spp. However, PCR has the potential to address limitations of these methods. PCR are now one of the most useful assays for the diagnosis in human brucellosis. The aim of this review was to summarize the main PCR techniques and their applications for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with brucellosis. Moreover, advantages or limitation of the different PCR methods as well as the evaluation of PCR results for treatment and follow-up of human brucellosis were also discussed.

  3. Simultaneous acute deep vein thrombosis and acute brucellosis. A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaç, Şeyda; Kalender, Mehmet; Yıldırım, Onur; İmre, Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease common in developing countries. Vascular complications, including arterial and venous, associated with Brucella infection have rarely been reported. A case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) developing after a diagnosis of acute brucellosis in a young milkman is presented. A 26-year-old man presented with pain in the right leg. The patient's medical history included a diagnosis of brucellosis in our hospital where he had presented with complaints of weakness and fever. Peripheral venous Doppler ultrasound showed DVT, and the patient was treated with anticoagulants. The patient was discharged with warfarin therapy and anti-brucellosis treatment. Although rare, some infectious agents may cause vascular pathologies. Patients presenting with symptoms of DVT or similar vascular pathologies should be assessed for infectious agents, particularly in those coming from Brucella-endemic areas. PMID:27516795

  4. Negative statin-related news stories decrease statin persistence and increase myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    AIM: We tested the hypothesis that statin-related news stories, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, statin dose, calendar year, and socio-demographic status are associated with early statin discontinuation. We also examined frequency and consequences of early statin discontinuation. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: From the entire Danish population, we studied 674 900 individuals aged 40 or older who were initiated on statin therapy in 1995-2010, and followed them until 31 December 2011. Individuals on statins increased from early statin discontinuation increased from 6...... for individuals with vs. without early statin discontinuation were 1.26 (1.21-1.30) for myocardial infarction and 1.18 (1.14-1.23) for death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSION: Early statin discontinuation increased with negative statin-related news stories, calendar year, statin dose, male sex, living...

  5. Health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan Alastair

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is known to cause debilitating conditions if not promptly treated. In some rural areas of Tanzania however, practitioners give evidence of seeing brucellosis cases with symptoms of long duration. The purpose of this study was to establish health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania and explore the most feasible ways to improve it. Methods This was designed as a longitudinal study. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients who reported to selected hospitals in rural northern Tanzania between June 2002 and April 2003. All patients with conditions suspicious of brucellosis on the basis of preliminary clinical examination and history were enrolled into the study as brucellosis suspects. Blood samples were taken and tested for brucellosis using the Rose-Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and other agglutination tests available at the health facilities and the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test at the Veterinary Laboratory Agencies (VLA in the UK. All suspects who tested positive with the c-ELISA test were regarded as brucellosis cases. A follow-up of 49 cases was made to collect data on health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases. Results The majority of cases 87.7% gave a history of going to hospital as the first point of care, 10.2% purchased drugs from a nearby drug shop before going to hospital and 2% went to a local traditional healer first. Brucellosis cases delayed going to hospital with a median delay time of 90 days, and with 20% of the cases presenting to hospitals more than a year after the onset of symptoms. Distance to the hospital, keeping animals and knowledge of brucellosis were significantly associated with patient delay to present to hospital. Conclusion More efforts need to be put on improving the accessibility of health facilities to the rural poor people who succumb to most of the diseases including zoonoses. Health education on brucellosis in

  6. Exclusion of an outbreak of human brucellosis%一起人间布鲁杆菌病爆发疫情的排除调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙广玖; 姚文清

    2014-01-01

    Objective To prevent misdiagnoses of brucellosis and misjudgment of brucellosis outbreak through differential diagnosis between influenza and brucellosis of three new cases who were in the same work unit and underwent the longest latent period.Methods Contact history of the three new cases was investigated epidemiologically and physical examination and blood test were taken.Brucellosis antibodies of the cases and abortion cow were tested by serum tube agglutination test (SAT),and pathogen was isolated.The tonsilla and pharyngeal secretion substance of cases were collected for detection of influenza virus RNA by real-time PCR.Results The cases had contact history with brucellosis abortion cattle and/or the animal contaminated environment,and had a fever,fatigue and other symptoms.Total blood cell(WBC) was normal and proportion of lymphocyte was increased.The antibody titer in SAT test was 1:200(+++),but pathogen isolation was negative for all three cases.Brucellosis antibody of abortion cow was positive and antibody titer was 1:800 (++).The test of Bv RNA of influenza virus was positive in the three cases.Conclusions The three cases are brucellosis latent infection combined with influenza and we have excluded a misjudgment of pestilence of human brucellosis outbreak.%目的 调查并排除一起人间布鲁杆菌病爆发疫情.方法 对在同一个集体单位、布鲁杆菌病(简称布病)最长潜伏期内发病的已构成布病诊断的3例新发布病病例与流感进行鉴别诊断,调查内容包括病例的流行病学接触史、临床症状体征及血常规检测.血清试管凝集试验(SAT)检测病例及其接触的流产病牛布病抗体并进行布鲁杆菌分离;采集病例扁桃体、咽部分泌物,实时荧光定量PCR检测流感病毒RNA.结果 3例病例都有与流产病牛或其污染环境接触的病史,均有发烧、乏力等症状;白细胞总数正常、淋巴细胞比例增高;SAT试验抗体滴度为1:200(+++),病原分离结

  7. Analysis of 153 patients with brucellosis in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region%新疆布鲁氏菌病153例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘珂君; 买买提艾力·吾布力; 包依夏姆·阿巴拜克力; 努尔比亚·阿不都克尤木; 孙晓风; 鲁晓擘; 张跃新

    2013-01-01

    considered when the patient presents with primary complaint of fever of unknown origin. The incidence of brucellosis is increasing in China, which should be paid much more attention.

  8. Cost-benefit analysis of sheep and goat brucellosis vaccination with Rev.1 in the north of Portugal from 2000 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Coelho

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the North of Portugal, a mass vaccination programme of small ruminants was conducted from 2001 to 2004. A study of cost-benefit was carried out for the 2000/2005 period to ascertain the economic benefits of this strategy. In order to estimate the cost of the zoonosis, the compensation costs paid to farmers for culled animals in the Brucellosis Eradication Campaign, data from vaccine Rev. 1 costs, and costs of people internment due to brucellosis were studied. An increase in the cost was observed from 2000 to 2001 (aproximately US$ 110,000, essentially due to compensation for culled animals, but also from vaccination and human internment costs. However, a progressive decrease was observed from 2001 to 2004 (from more than US$1,200,000 in 2001 to US$180,000 in 2004, roughly US$ 1,020,000 less. As the main conclusion, the annual cost of this zoonosis decreased by an average of almost US$600,000 per year, and a total of more than three million dollars were saved from 2000 to 2005. The results of this study suggest that mass vaccination with Rev. 1 reduced overall costs and was effective in reducing animal and human brucellosis costs

  9. Empirical Research on the Relations between Farmers’ Income Increase and Economic Development in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to data of per capita net income of rural households and the per capita regional gross output from 1978 to 2008 provided by the Henan Statistical Yearbook, we know that both of the time series obey the unit root process, so they belong to non-stationary time series. The results of the Engle-Granger two-stage estimation method show that the two terms have long-term stable integration equilibrium relations. The results of Granger Causality Test show that there is only the one way Granger Causality relation from farmers’ income increase to economic growth. Connecting with the reality of Henan Province, the possible reasons are analyzed. The population of rural residents is huge and the income level of the rural residents are low, and the marginal consumption tendency is bigger than urban and township residents, so the increase of farmers’ income will promote economic growth. Notably, the income increase of farmers is even more helpful to expand domestic demand. Since 1978, the consumption level and structure of farmers in Henan Province is increasing gradually and the role played by of farmers’ income increase in stimulating economic growth is increasing. Besides, the urban-rural double system which serves for economic development strategy is the historic root for the expanding gap of urban and rural income. In addition, the economic policy which gives priority to cities is the system root for the expanding gap of rural and urban income.

  10. A Primary Investigation on Serum CTX-II Changes in Patients Infected with Brucellosis in Qinghai Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi Jun; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Ma, Li; Xu, Li Qing; Yang, Pei Zhen; Meng, Xian Ya; Yu, Hui Zhen; Xu, Xiao Qing; Cao, Jian Ying

    2016-03-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases, with the most frequent complication being osteoarticular changes. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) in patients infected with brucellosis. A total of 84 brucellosis patients and 43 volunteers were selected and divided into brucellosis vs. control groups. Serum samples were subjected to serological tests for brucellosis, and CTX-II levels in all samples were measured simultaneously with ELISA. The results showed that serum CTX-II levels in human brucellosis were higher than those of healthy controls, without a statistically significant difference, but serum CTX-II levels in male patients were significantly higher than those of female patients (Pbrucellosis.

  11. Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Brucellosis in the Country of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhvlediani, Tamar; Bautista, Christian T.; Garuchava, Natalia; Sanodze, Lia; Kokaia, Nora; Malania, Lile; Chitadze, Nazibrola; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Rivard, Robert G.; Hepburn, Matthew J.; Nikolich, Mikeljon P.; Imnadze, Paata; Trapaidze, Nino

    2017-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the country of Georgia. According to the National Center for Disease Control and Public Health of Georgia (NCDC), the average annual number of brucellosis cases was 161 during 2008–2012. However, the true number of cases is thought to be higher due to underreporting. The aim of this study was to provide current epidemiological and clinical information and evaluate diagnostic methods used for brucellosis in Georgia. Methodology Adult patients were eligible for participation if they met the suspected or probable case definition for brucellosis. After consent participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, epidemiology, history of present illness, and clinical manifestation. For the diagnosis of brucellosis, culture and serological tests were used. Results A total of 81 participants were enrolled, of which 70 (86%) were from rural areas. Seventy-four percent of participants reported consuming unpasteurized milk products and 62% consuming undercooked meat products before symptom onset. Forty-one participants were positive by the Wright test and 33 (41%) were positive by blood culture. There was perfect agreement between the Huddelston and Wright tests (k = 1.0). Compared with blood culture (the diagnostic gold standard), ELISA IgG and total ELISA (IgG + IgM), the Wright test had fair (k = 0.12), fair (k = 0.24), and moderate (k = 0.52) agreement, respectively. Conclusions Consumption of unpasteurized milk products and undercooked meat were among the most common risk factors in brucellosis cases. We found poor agreement between ELISA tests and culture results. This report also serves as an initial indication that the suspected case definition for brucellosis surveillance purposes needs revision. Further research is needed to characterize the epidemiology and evaluate the performance of the diagnostic methods for brucellosis in Georgia. PMID

  12. Patterns of Brucellosis Infection Symptoms in Azerbaijan: A Latent Class Cluster Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Ismayilova; Emilya Nasirova; Colleen Hanou; Rivard, Robert G.; Bautista, Christian T.

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis infection is a multisystem disease, with a broad spectrum of symptoms. We investigated the existence of clusters of infected patients according to their clinical presentation. Using national surveillance data from the Electronic-Integrated Disease Surveillance System, we applied a latent class cluster (LCC) analysis on symptoms to determine clusters of brucellosis cases. A total of 454 cases reported between July 2011 and July 2013 were analyzed. LCC identified a two-cluster mo...

  13. Serial Kinetics of the Antibody Response against the Complete Brucella melitensis ORFeome in Focal Vertebral Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cannella, Anthony P.; Lin, Jennifer C.; Liang, Li; Atluri, Vidya; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Felgner, Philip L; Tsolis, Renee M.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Human brucellosis is a common zoonosis worldwide. Here we present a case of focal vertebral brucellosis in a 71-year-old Mexican-American woman who contracted infection from unpasteurized goat milk. Standard agglutination serology was negative; the diagnosis was established by the isolation of Brucella melitensis from abscess fluid. A B. melitensis protein microarray comprised of nearly all proteins encoded by the bacterial genome was used to determine the kinetics of this patient's antibody ...

  14. A new outbreak of brucellosis in Bulgaria detected in July 2015--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenova, Rumiana; Tomova, Iskra; Saparevska, Raina; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2015-01-01

    During July 2015 a brucellosis outbreak was detected in Kyustendil district, west Bulgaria. As of 15 August, 31 patients have been diagnosed all with an epidemiological connection to Rila town. Patients have not travelled/worked abroad. Breeding family-owned goats and/or improper use of their milk appear to be the main risk factors for transmission of the infection. This second autochthonous brucellosis outbreak in Bulgaria since 2006, affects the western part of the country.

  15. Sero-epidemiological survey of brucellosis in small ruminants in Hamedan province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Gharekhani; Mahmoudreza Rasouli; Ehsan Abbasi-Doulatshahi; Mohammadali Bahrami; Zahra Hemati; Aliakbar Rezaei; Aboulghasem Shahreiari

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis with global distribution. The disease remains endemic in many countries including Iran, while its seroprevalence in endemic area is not well documented. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep and goats in Hamedan province, west of Iran. Material and methods: A total of 3,250 blood samples from 2,550 sheep and 700 goats were collected randomly. All samples were analyzed for the presence of Brucella antibodies ...

  16. Prevalence of Brucellosis among Women Presenting with Abortion/Stillbirth in Huye, Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Rujeni; Léonidas Mbanzamihigo

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of human brucellosis is not documented in Rwanda despite several reports on the disease in cattle. Because brucellosis has been associated with abortion, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of positive serology in women presenting with abortion and/or stillbirth. The study was done in Huye District, in the Southern Province of Rwanda, and the patients were recruited from both the University Teaching Hospital of Butare (CHUB) and Kabutare District Hospital. Se...

  17. Antigen-specific acquired immunity in human brucellosis: implications for diagnosis, prognosis, and vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P Cannella

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular Gram negative bacteria with specific tropism for monocytes/macrophages. Clinical manifestations of brucellosis are primarily immune-mediated and not thought to be due to bacterial virulence factors. Acquired immunity to brucellosis has been studied through observations of naturally infected hosts (cattle, goats, laboratory mouse models, and human infection. Cell-mediated immunity drives the clinical manifestations of human disease after exposure to Brucella species but high antibody responses are not associated with protective immunity. The precise mechanisms by which cell-mediated immune responses confer protection or lead to disease manifestations remain poorly understood. Descriptive studies of immune responses in human brucellosis show that TH1 (interferon-gamma are associated with dominant immune responses, findings consistent with animal studies. Whether these T cell responses are protective, or determine the different clinical responses associated with brucellosis is unknown, especially with regard to undulant fever manifestations, relapsing disease, or are associated with responses to distinct sets of Brucella spp. antigens are unknown. Few data regarding T cell responses in terms of specific recognition of Brucella spp. protein antigens and peptidic epitopes, either by CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, have been identified in human brucellosis patients. Additionally because current attenuated Brucella vaccines used in animals cause human disease, there is a true need for a recombinant protein subunit vaccine for human brucellosis, as well as for improved diagnostics in terms of prognosis and identification of unusual forms of brucellosis. This review will focus on current understandings of antigen-specific immune responses induced by Brucella protein antigens that has promise for yielding new insights into vaccine and diagnostics development, and for understanding pathogenetic mechanisms of human

  18. Involvement and Complications Associated with Brucellosis Connected Rare Evaluation of 46 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Turunc

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: In this study, it is determined that cases were followed with brucellosis (10.2% atypical disease and / or complications, and the first assesses made by outside the Department of Infectious Diseases. For this reason, we think not only experts in Infectious Diseases, all other branches of physicians should keep in mind in the differential diagnosis of brucellosis. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 829-839

  19. Competitive Enzyme Immunoassay for Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Nidia E.; Foglia, Luis; Ayala, Sandra M.; Gall, David; Nielsen, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    The methods commonly used for human brucellosis serological testing are agglutination tests and the complement fixation test (CFT). Among the newer serological tests, primary binding assays were developed to improve sensitivity and specificity. The competitive enzyme immunoassay (CELISA) for the detection of serum antibody to Brucella is a multispecies assay which appears to be capable of differentiating vaccinal and cross-reacting antibodies from antibodies elicited by field infection in cattle. The competing monoclonal antibody used in this assay is specific for a common epitope of smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS). In this study, we compared the CELISA to the classical tests for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. The CELISA cutoff value was determined to calculate its diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. A survey was performed with 911 sera. Of the sera, 341 were from an asymptomatic population that tested negative with conventional serological tests (screening and confirmatory). Based on these samples, the CELISA specificities were determined to be 99.7 and 100% with cutoff values of 28 and 30% inhibition (%I), respectively. In a further study with 393 additional sera from an asymptomatic population found negative by the conventional screening tests, the CELISA specificities were calculated to be 96.5 and 98.8% with cutoff values of 28 and 30%I. The CELISA sensitivities were determined to be 98.3 and 94.8% with cutoff values of 28 and 30%I, respectively, for sera from 116 individuals found positive by the classical tests. For the 51 culture-positive patients, CELISA was positive for 100%, the CFT was positive for 92%, and the standard tube agglutination test (TAT) was positive for 100%. The CELISA specificity was 100% for 31 sera from patients found negative by conventional serological tests but with brucellosis-like symptoms. The CELISA is fairly rapid to perform, somewhat faster than TAT, and cross-reacts less with other antigens (or antibodies) than the

  20. Effect Observation after Production Process of Brucellosis Vaccine Improved%布氏杆菌病疫苗生产工艺的改进后的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑琴; 张读朴; 黄炯; 钟旗; 吴冬玲

    2012-01-01

    通过对布氏杆菌病疫苗的生产工艺方面进行了部分优化:在原明胶蔗糖保护剂的基础上添加改良剂10%脱脂奶粉后,残余水分比原来有所下降,基本上解决了残余水分偏高的现象;结晶现象、不脱壁现象已完全解决;同时活菌计数的活茵数提高了3%。结果表明新的布氏杆菌复合培养基不受培养基原材料的质量因素影响,且疫苗的生产工艺稳定,易于保存,半成品的活菌数提高了28%,疫苗冻干后的活菌数提高了39%。%The production process of Brucellosis vaccine was partinally optimized by our company. Through adding the modifier 10% skim milk on the basis of the original gelatin sucrose protective agent, residual moisture content declined relative to the original and the residual water being on the high side phenomenon had been resolved basically and Crystallization and off the wall phenomenon had been resolved completely.At the same time living bacteria rate increased by 3% through the viable bacteria counting. The results show that the new brucellosis composite medium is not affected from the culture medium raw material quality factors and vaccine production process is stability and easy storage, living bacteria rate of semi-finished products and freeze-dried vaccine were improved respectively by 28% and 39%.

  1. Frontal lobe activation mediates the relation between sensation seeking and cortisol increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hani D; Beer, Jennifer S

    2010-10-01

    Low sensation seekers are theorized to avoid risk more often because risk is emotionally more costly for them (in comparison to high sensation seekers). Therefore, individual differences in sensation seeking should predict differences in risk task-induced cortisol changes. Furthermore, the neural mediation that accounts for the relation between sensation seeking and cortisol changes has not been studied. The current study tested whether individual differences in sensation seeking predicted cortisol changes in relation to a risk task and whether this relation was mediated by frontal lobe activation. Participants (N=17) who varied in sensation seeking completed an fMRI study in which they rated the likelihood they would take various risks. Cortisol was measured from saliva samples collected prior to and after the fMRI procedure. The findings show that low sensation seekers showed the greatest rise in cortisol after the risk procedure, and this relation was partially mediated by increased orbitofrontal cortex activity.

  2. Chronic fatigue is associated with increased disease-related worries and concerns in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lars-Petter Jelsness-Jφrgensen; Tomm Bernklev; Magne Henriksen; Roald Torp; Bjφrn Mourn

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of chronic fatigue on disease-related worries in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the potential multicolinearity between subjective questionnaires. METHODS: Patients in remission or with mild-tomoderate disease activity completed the fatigue questionnaire (FQ), the rating form of IBD patient concerns (RFIPC), the Short-Form 36 (SF-36), and IBD questionnaire (N-IBDQ). In addition, clinical and epidemiological data were obtained. RESULTS: In total, 140 patients were included; of which 92 were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and 48 with Crohn's disease. the mean age of patients with chronic fatigue was 44.2 years (SD =15.8) and for non-fatigued patients was 44.7 years (SD = 16.0). Chrnnic fatigued patients had clinically significantly increased levels of disease-related worries, as measured by Cohen's d effect size. Worries about having an ostomy bag, loss of bowel control, and energy levels were most prominent in both chronic fatigued and non-chronic fatigued IBD patients. Variance inflation factor (VIF) and tolerance indicated that there were no problematic multicolinearity among the FQ, RFIPC, SF-36 and N-IBDQ responses (VIF 2). CONCLUSION: Chronic fatigue is associated with increased levels of disease-related worries and concerns in IBD. Increased levels of worries were also associated with impaired health-related quality of life.

  3. BRUCELLOSIS: REVIEW OF CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FEATURES AND THERAPEUTIC REGIMENS IN 44 CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Afsharpaiman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBrucellosis is not uncommon in children in endemic areas. We described clinical and laboratory features and therapeutic regimens for brucellosis in children under 14 who admitted in the Pediatric Medical Center Hospital, Tehran, Iran from March 1988 until February 2001. The male: female ratio was 2:1. Family history of brucellosis and consumption of un-pasteurized milk and dairy products was positive in 20.4% and 65.9%, respectively. The common clinical findings were arthritis (79.5%, fever (77.4%, anorexia (61.4%, sweating (52.3%, splenomegaly (43.2%, hepatomegaly (34.1% and lymphadenopathy (13.65. Anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia were recorded in 56.8%, 31.8% and 9.1%, respectively. Out of all patients, seropositivity rate for brucellosis was found in 97.7% using serum agglutination test. Culture of blood and bone marrow specimen were positive in 30% and 50% of samples obtained, respectively. Rifampin and co-trimoxazole were the most commonly used combination in 68.1%. The overall relapse rate was 13.6%. Arthritis and fever were the most common clinical findings of brucellosis. Wright test is a very sensitive method to detect brucella infection. Public education and control measures should be applied to prevent the zoonotic and human brucellosis

  4. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among cattle slaughtered in three municipal abattoirs of Gombe state, Northeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Bitrus, Asinamai Athliamai; Hamisu, Tasiu Mallam; Ayo, Ajurojo Oluwaseun

    2016-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis among cattle slaughtered at three municipal abattoirs of Gombe State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 blood samples collected from slaughtered cattle of different breeds (Sokoto Gudali - 50, White Fulani - 102, Red bororo – 34, and Crossbreeds - 14), sex (males - 19 and females - 181), and from different locations (Billiri - 30, Yamaltu Deba – 50, and Gombe - 120) were screened for brucellosis using rose bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT), and microtiter agglutination test (MAT). Results: Of the 200 serum samples analyzed, 7 (3.5%), 10 (5.0%) and 18 (9.0%) were positive by RBPT, SAT and MAT, respectively. The results showed no statistically significant association between sex and seropositivity to bovine brucellosis. However, seropositivity of bovine brucellosis was higher in females than in males. Similarly, no statistically significant association was observed between breed and occurrence of bovine brucellosis. Moreover, the prevalence of brucellosis was higher in Sokoto Gudali as compared with the other breeds. Based on the study locations, higher seroprevalence was observed in animals screened from Billiri as compared with those from other locations (pbrucellosis among cattle herds, ascertain the prevalence and status of the disease among both farms and nomadic herds. PMID:27847417

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF PATHOGENETIC THERAPY ON THE LEVER OF CYTOKINES IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE BRUCELLOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Kovalevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the level of proinflammatory cytokines: IL-12, IL-8 and IFNγ, neopterin and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in the serum of patients with acute brucellosis before and after antibiotic therapy. The clinical data from 32 patients with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis — “acute brucellosis” admitted to the diagnosis, treatment and examination of occupational diseases brucellosis GBUZ SC “City Clinical Hospital No. 2”, the city of Stavropol were used in the study. The concentrations IL-12, IL-8, IFNγ cytokines and acute-phase proteins in serum was determined by ELISA. In the acute phase of brucellosis infection (before treatment had high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IFNγ, but despite holding a course of antibiotic treatment in the serum of patients with preserved high levels of IL-8, indicative of active inflammation in the absence of clinical manifestations. IL-12 level, a key cytokine in the initiation of lymphocyte-dependent immune response was lower than in the control group. Evaluation of the cytokine status (IL-8, IL-12, IL-18 and proteins of acute inflammation phase (neopterin and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein will provide valuable information for monitoring the effect of pharmacotherapy of acute brucellosis. Indicators of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and neopterin in the serum of patients with brucellosis should be considered as a marker of inflammatory activity and as a predictor of outcome of acute brucellosis.

  6. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Traditionally Managed Livestock in Selected Districts of Southern Province of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Muma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in 2008 to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in traditionally reared cattle of Southern Province in Zambia in four districts. The single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT was used to identify TB reactors, and the Rose Bengal test (RBT, followed by confirmation with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA, was used to test for brucellosis. A total of 459 animals were tested for tuberculosis and 395 for brucellosis. The overall prevalence of BTB based on the 4 mm and 3 mm cutoff criteria was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.6–7.0% and 6.3% (95% CI: 3.8–8.8%, respectively. Change in skin thickness on SCITT was influenced by initial skin-fold thickness at the inoculation site, where animals with thinner skin had a tendency to give a larger tuberculin response. Brucellosis seroprevalence was estimated at 20.7% (95% CI: 17.0–24.4%. Comparison between results from RBT and c-ELISA showed good agreement (84.1% and revealed subjectivity in RBT test results. Differences in brucellosis and tuberculosis prevalence across districts were attributed to type of husbandry practices and ecological factors. High prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis suggests that control control programmes are necessary for improved cattle productivity and reduced public health risk.

  7. Ecological study of brucellosis in humans and animals in Khoy, a mountainous District of the IR. of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Rabbani, M.; H Mousakhani; Abbaszadeh, S; S Heydari Latibari; Saied Bokaie; L Sharifi

    2009-01-01

    Background and objective: Brucellosis is primarily a contagious disease of domestic animals causing abortion, so it is considered one of the most serious of the current public health problems, especially in developing countries. The main purpose of this study was finding the incidence of human and animal brucellosis and detection of any correlation between human and animal brucellosis in Khoy, one of the endemic regions in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: We carried out an ecological study in Kh...

  8. Acute hepatitis due to brucellosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevil AYKIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucella infection is a systemic disease. It rarely causes local infections like hepatitis in gastrointestinal system. In this article we would like to present an acute hepatitis case related to brucella infection that followed up in our clinic. A male, 30 year-old patient hospitalized due to common muscle pain, high fever and vomiting. During the physical examination the patient’s skin, scleras and mucosal membranes were icteric, the liver was 2-3 cm palpable and tender. Laboratory findings were as follows: AST:1190 U/L; ALT:715 U/L; GGT:961 U/L; ALP:369 U/L; total bilirubin:4.6 mg/dL; direct bilirubin:2.1 mg/dL. Viral markers were found to be negative. We started treatment with streptomicine and doxicycline since, the patient’s standard brucella tube agglutination test was positive (1/60 and brucella spp produced in his blood culture. From the second day of the treatment, we started to get clinical response. On the 17th day of the treatment, he discharged from the hospital because ALT, AST and bilirubine level were found normal and his treatment was completed to the 8 weeks. Brucella is continuing to be an important health problem especially who live in surrounding countryside and have to keep in mind in the differential diagnosis of the acute hepatitis.

  9. Increased 4-hydroxynonenal formation contributes to obesity-related lipolytic activation in adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximei Zhang

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress in adipose tissue plays an etiological role in a variety of obesity-related metabolic disorders. We previously reported that increased adipose tissue 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE contents contributed to obesity-related plasma adiponectin decline in mice. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intracellular 4-HNE accumulation on lipolytic response in adipocytes/adipose tissues and underlying mechanisms. In both fully-differentiated 3T3-L1 and primary adipocytes, a 5-hour 4-HNE exposure elevated lipolytic reaction in a dose-dependent manner at both basal and isoproterenol-stimulated conditions, evidenced by significantly increased glycerol and fatty acids releases. This conclusion was corroborated by the comparable observations when the minced human visceral adipose tissues were used. Mechanistic investigations revealed that 4-HNE-stimulated lipolytic activation is multifactorial. 4-HNE exposure quickly increased intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP level, which was concomitant with increased phosphorylations of protein kinase A (PKA and its direct downstream target, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL. Pre-incubation with H89, a potent PKA inhibitor, prevented 4-HNE stimulated glycerol release, suggesting that enhanced lipolytic action in response to 4-HNE increase is mediated mainly by cAMP/PKA signal pathway in adipocytes. In addition to activating cAMP/PKA/HSL pathway, 4-HNE exposure also suppresses AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a suppressive pathway for lipolysis, measured by both Western blotting for phosphorylated form of AMPK and ELISA for enzyme activity. Furthermore, 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, a pharmacological AMPK activator, alleviated 4-HNE-induced lipolysis, suggesting that AMPK suppression also contributes to 4-HNE elicited lipolytic response. In conclusion, our findings indicate that increased intracellular 4-HNE accumulation in adipocytes/adipose tissues contributes to

  10. Increase of resolution by use of microspheres related to complex Snell's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Aryeh, Y

    2016-12-01

    The increase of resolution by the use of microspheres is related to the use of evanescent waves satisfying complex Snell's law with complex trigonometric functions related to the incident and refracted angles, while the refractive indices are real. The evanescent waves are obtained in addition to initial propagating waves satisfying the ordinary Snell's law. The lateral spatial wave vectors of the evanescent waves, which include information on the object fine structures, are converted at the microsphere surface to smaller wave vectors. Due to the reduction in the magnitudes of the spatial wave vectors of the evanescent waves, they become propagating waves including the fine structures which are recovered in the image plane.

  11. Assessment of Credit Risk Approaches in Relation with Competitiveness Increase of the Banking Sector

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    Cipovová Eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on a presentation and analysis of selected methods of credit risk management in relation with competitiveness increase of the banking sector. The article is defined credit risk approaches under the Basel III gradually. Aim of this contribution constitutes various methods of credit risk management and effects of their usage on regulatory capital amount in respect of corporate exposures. Optimal equity amount in relation to the risk portfolio presents an essential prerequisite of performance and competitiveness growth of commercial banks. Gradually capital requirements using Standardized Approach and Internal Based Approach in a case of used and unused techniques of credit risk reduce has been quantified. We presume that sophisticated approach means significant saving for bank’s equity which increases competitiveness of banking sector also. Within the article, quantification of capital savings in case of Standardized (with and without assigned external ratings and Foundation Internal Based Approach at the selected credit portfolio has been effected.

  12. 秩和比法在吉林省布鲁氏菌病发病率比较中的应用%Application of RSR on Comparison of the Incidence of Brucellosis in Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战扬; 孙齐蕊; 孙爱峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective RSR compare the incidence of brucellosis in Jilin Province, and to explore its value. Methods Ap-plications based on rank and confidence intervals than the comparative law from 1990 to 2010, the difference in 2011 and 2012 the level of incidence of brucellosis (Brucellosis control situations) whether a statistical significance between the ap-plication based on the sub-RSR file method for nine cities (prefectures) of brucellosis incidence levels (brucellosis control situation) cluster analysis. Results In addition to differences from 1990 to 2010 and 2012 every two years the level of inci-dence of brucellosis (Brucellosis control the situation) was statistically significant between (P0.05). Baicheng, Matsubara is a high incidence areas, relatively poor control of brucellosis; Siping, Liaoyuan and a moderate incidence of Yanbian region, brucellosis control situation is relatively acceptable; Tonghua, Changchun, Jilin Baishan and a low incidence area, cloth disease control situation is rela-tively better. Conclusion After 90 years since the 20th century, brucellosis epidemic is serious, Jilin Province in 2011 and 2012 outbreaks have been some control, but the incidence of 9 cities and states are not the same situation, should take fur-ther effective measures to continuously improve the level of disease prevention. RSR principles of law evident, simple oper-ation, should be widely applied.%目的:应用秩和比法比较吉林省布鲁氏菌病发病率,并探讨其应用价值。方法应用基于秩和比的可信区间法比较1990—2010年、2011年和2012年布病发病率水平(布病控制情况)之间的差异是否具有统计学意义,应用基于秩和比的分档法对9个市(州)的布病发病率水平(布病控制情况)进行聚类分析。结果除1990—2010年和2012年两两年份布病发病率水平(布病控制情况)之间的差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。白城、松原属于高发病率地区,布病

  13. Neurological Manifestations of Brucellosis in an Indian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Mushbiq

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease causing serious public health problems in countries of the Middle-East and developing countries like India. Neurobrucellosis is one of the devastating complications of this re-emerging zoonosis. The objective of this review was to identify the neurological manifestations of Brucellosis in an Indian population and bring into light the effective modalities used for treating neurobrucellosis. A systematic review of the scientific literature reported in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Three databases (PubMed, IndMed, and ScienceDirect) were used to analyze retrospectively case reports of sufficient quality for data extraction (from the last 15 years, 2002-2016), and relevant literature was reviewed. Most of the cases had a definite history of exposure to Brucella through occupational contact with cattle, drinking raw milk, or living near unhygienic abattoir or even trips to epidemic areas outside India. The common presentations include fever, meningitis, brisk deep-tendon reflexes, extensor plantars, sensory deficit usually below the twelfth thoracic vertebral level, weakness of lower limbs, ocular signs of papilledema, and retrobulbar neuritis. The usual systemic findings associated were hepatosplenomegaly and weight-loss. Neurobrucellosis needs to be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin involving neurological symptoms and systemic involvement. Prognosis is good if there is a combination of antibiotics, each with different mechanisms of action given in full dose. Suitable measures for its prevention are also suggested. PMID:27555982

  14. Subject-specific increases in serum S-100B distinguish sports-related concussion from sports-related exertion.

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    Karin Kiechle

    Full Text Available The on-field diagnosis of sports-related concussion (SRC is complicated by the lack of an accurate and objective marker of brain injury.To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences in S100B before and after non-contact exertion.Longitudinal cohort study.From 2009-2011, we performed a prospective study of athletes from Munich, Germany, and Rochester, New York, USA. Serum S100B was measured in all SRC athletes at pre-season baseline, within 3 hours of injury, and at days 2, 3 and 7 post-SRC. Among a subset of athletes, S100B was measured after non-contact exertion but before injury. All samples were collected identically and analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescent assay to quantify serum S100B levels.Forty-six athletes (30 Munich, 16 Rochester underwent baseline testing. Thirty underwent additional post-exertion S100B testing. Twenty-two athletes (16 Rochester, 6 Munich sustained a SRC, and 17 had S100B testing within 3 hours post-injury. The mean 3-hour post-SRC S100B was significantly higher than pre-season baseline (0.099±0.008 µg/L vs. 0.058±0.006 µg/L, p = 0.0002. Mean post-exertion S100B was not significantly different than the preseason baseline. S100B levels at post-injury days 2, 3 and 7 were significantly lower than the 3-hour level, and not different than baseline. Both the absolute change and proportional increase in S100B 3-hour post-injury were accurate discriminators of SRC from non-contact exertion without SRC (AUC 0.772 and 0.904, respectively. A 3-hour post-concussion S100B >0.122 µg/L and a proportional S100B increase of >45.9% over baseline were both 96.7% specific for SRC.Relative and absolute increases in serum S100B can accurately distinguish SRC from sports-related exertion, and may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SRC.

  15. Reward prediction-related increases and decreases in tonic neuronal activity of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus

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    Ken-Ichi eOkada

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The neuromodulators serotonin, acetylcholine, and dopamine have been proposed to play important roles in the execution of movement, control of several forms of attentional behavior, and reinforcement learning. While the response pattern of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and its specific role in reinforcement learning have been revealed, the roles of the other neuromodulators remain elusive. Reportedly, neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, one major source of serotonin, continually track the state of expectation of future rewards by showing a correlated response to the start of a behavioral task, reward cue presentation, and reward delivery. Here, we show that neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN, one major source of acetylcholine, showed similar encoding of the expectation of future rewards by a systematic increase or decrease in tonic activity. We recorded and analyzed PPTN neuronal activity in monkeys during a reward conditioned visually guided saccade task. The firing patterns of many PPTN neurons were tonically increased or decreased throughout the task period. The tonic activity pattern of neurons was correlated with their encoding of the predicted reward value; neurons exhibiting an increase or decrease in tonic activity showed higher or lower activity in the large reward-predicted trials, respectively. Tonic activity and reward-related modulation ended around the time of reward delivery. Additionally, some tonic changes in activity started prior to the appearance of the initial stimulus, and were related to the anticipatory fixational behavior. A partially overlapping population of neurons showed both the initial anticipatory response and subsequent predicted reward value-dependent activity modulation by their systematic increase or decrease of tonic activity. These bi-directional reward- and anticipatory behavior-related modulation patterns are suitable for the presumed role of the PPTN in reward processing and

  16. An examination of black/white differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase

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    Andrew Fenelon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rate of mortality increase with age among adults is typically used as a measure of the rate of functional decline associated with aging or senescence. While black and white populations differ in the level of mortality, mortality also rises less rapidly with age for blacks than for whites, leading to the well-known black/white mortality "crossover". OBJECTIVE This paper investigates black/white differences in the rate of mortality increase with age for major causes of death in order to examine the factors responsible for the black/white crossover. METHODS The analysis considers two explanations for the crossover: selective survival and age misreporting. Mortality is modeled using a Gompertz model for 11 causes of death from ages 50-84 among blacks and whites by sex. RESULTS Mortality increases more rapidly with age for whites than for blacks for nearly all causes of death considered. The all-cause mortality rate of mortality increase is nearly two percentage points higher for whites. The analysis finds evidence for both selective survival and age misreporting, although age misreporting is a more prominent explanation among women. CONCLUSIONS The black/white mortality crossover reflects large differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase. Instead of reflecting the impact of specific causes of death, this pattern exists across many disparate disease conditions, indicating the need for a broad explanation.

  17. Silicon application increases drought tolerance of kentucky bluegrass by improving plant water relations and morphophysiological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saud, Shah; Li, Xin; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Lu; Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Sadiq, Arooj; Chen, Yajun

    2014-01-01

    Drought stress encumbers the growth of turfgrass principally by disrupting the plant-water relations and physiological functions. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of silicon (Si) in improving the drought tolerance in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Drought stress and four levels (0, 200, 400, and 800 mg L(-1)) of Si (Na2SiO3·9H2O) were imposed after 2 months old plants cultured under glasshouse conditions. Drought stress was found to decrease the photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, leaf water content, relative growth rate, water use efficiency, and turf quality, but to increase in the root/shoot and leaf carbon/nitrogen ratio. Such physiological interferences, disturbances in plant water relations, and visually noticeable growth reductions in Kentucky bluegrass were significantly alleviated by the addition of Si after drought stress. For example, Si application at 400 mg L(-1) significantly increased the net photosynthesis by 44%, leaf water contents by 33%, leaf green color by 42%, and turf quality by 44% after 20 days of drought stress. Si application proved beneficial in improving the performance of Kentucky bluegrass in the present study suggesting that manipulation of endogenous Si through genetic or biotechnological means may result in the development of drought resistance in grasses.

  18. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

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    Karyn D Rode

    Full Text Available Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013 when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia, highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  19. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Wilson, Ryan R.; Regehr, Eric V.; St. Martin, Michelle; Douglas, David C.; Olson, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986–1995 and 2008–2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia), highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions. PMID:26580809

  20. Chronic psychosocial stress increases the risk for inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis in male mice.

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    Peters, Sebastian; Grunwald, Nicole; Rümmele, Petra; Endlicher, Esther; Lechner, Anja; Neumann, Inga D; Obermeier, Florian; Reber, Stefan O

    2012-07-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) have a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) than the general population. Furthermore, chronic psychosocial stress increases the likelihood of developing IBD and multiple types of malignant neoplasms, including CRC. Here, for the first time, we investigate the effects of chronic psychosocial stress in male mice on an artificially induced CRC, by employing the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing paradigm in combination with the reliable azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) CRC model. Colonoscopy revealed that CSC mice showed accelerated macroscopic suspect lesions. In addition, more CSC mice developed low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and/or high-grade dysplasia (HGD) in the colonic tissue compared to the single-housed control mice (SHC). CSC mice showed an increased number of Ki67+ and a decreased number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling epithelial cells in colonic tissue. Colonic liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1), cyclooxygenase II (COXII), tumor necrosis factor, forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) mRNA as well as colonic ß-catenin, COXII, and LRH-1 protein expression were also increased in CSC compared with SHC mice. Although the number of CD4+ Th cells was increased, a tendency toward a decreased colonic interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression was observed. Furthermore, despite an increased percentage of CD3+ cells and CD3+/FoxP3+ double-positive cells within mesenteric lymph node cells of CSC mice, IFN-γ secretion from these cells was unaffected. Altogether, our results suggest that chronic psychosocial stress increases the risk for AOM/DSS-induced and, thus, inflammation-related CRC. Finally, assessment of additional time points may test whether the shift from tumor-protective Th1 cell to regulatory T-cell immunity represents a consequence of increased carcinogenesis or a causal factor involved in its development.

  1. rTMS Induced Tinnitus Relief Is Related to an Increase in Auditory Cortical Alpha Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nadia; Lorenz, Isabel; Langguth, Berthold; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus, the continuous perception of a phantom sound, is a highly prevalent audiological symptom. A promising approach for the treatment of tinnitus is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as this directly affects tinnitus-related brain activity. Several studies indeed show tinnitus relief after rTMS, however effects are moderate and vary strongly across patients. This may be due to a lack of knowledge regarding how rTMS affects oscillatory activity in tinnitus sufferers and which modulations are associated with tinnitus relief. In the present study we examined the effects of five different stimulation protocols (including sham) by measuring tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related brain activity with Magnetoencephalography before and after rTMS. Changes in oscillatory activity were analysed for the stimulated auditory cortex as well as for the entire brain regarding certain frequency bands of interest (delta, theta, alpha, gamma). In line with the literature the effects of rTMS on tinnitus loudness varied strongly across patients. This variability was also reflected in the rTMS effects on oscillatory activity. Importantly, strong reductions in tinnitus loudness were associated with increases in alpha power in the stimulated auditory cortex, while an unspecific decrease in gamma and alpha power, particularly in left frontal regions, was linked to an increase in tinnitus loudness. The identification of alpha power increase as main correlate for tinnitus reduction sheds further light on the pathophysiology of tinnitus. This will hopefully stimulate the development of more effective therapy approaches. PMID:23390539

  2. Increased bias to report heat or pain following emotional priming of pain-related fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwilliam, S S; Derbyshire, S W G

    2008-07-01

    Emotional and attentional factors have been identified to play a significant role in modulating pain perception with negative emotions increasing pain sensitivity. Recent studies suggest that fearful images may activate the attentional components of fear driven behaviours and facilitate an attentional bias or sensitivity toward noxious stimuli. The current investigation examines whether priming of pain-related fear will affect performance by increasing sensitivity to punctuate heat stimuli. A modified version of the visual dot probe task was employed to provide priming of pain-related fear and a heat detection task was used to measure the effects of priming on sensitivity. The results indicated a significant facilitation of heat and pain perception at varying temperatures following emotional priming. In particular, there was an increase in the bias toward reporting a heat stimulus following emotional priming. The findings emphasise the efficacy of the visual dot probe task as a method of priming and provide a possible method for probing hypervigilance in chronic pain patients.

  3. 布鲁菌病的临床诊治分析%Clinical diagnosis and treatment of brucellosis disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢莹; 吴志勤; 辛海光; 徐文胜; 金瑞日

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and review the epidemiology , clinical features , treatment and prognosis of brucellosis ,in order to raise awareness of brucellosis in clinic .Methods:Eight clinical cases of brucellosis in Changzheng Hospital from 2010‐2015 were analyzed retrospectively ,and the clinical treatment experiences were concluded .Results:Five patients had history of epidemic exposure ,the epidemic exposure history of 3 cases were unknown .All patients had fever , fatigue and hyperhidrosis ,which 5 cases were accompanied by arthritis ,orchitis ,lymphadenectasis ,or migratory myalgia .The percentages of neutrophils in 8 cases were normal or relatively low ,and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was elevated in all patients ,in addition ,some indexes of liver function were elevated in 3 cases .All patients were cured by anti‐infective therapy , one patient who re‐contacted with goat was recrudescence .Conclusions: Brucellosis shows various clinical manifestations .Patients in non‐epidemic areas who have long‐term fever ,fatigue ,sweating or joint and muscle pain should be guarded against brucellosis ,and provide patients with early diagnosis and anti‐infective therapy .%目的:探讨布鲁菌病的临床特点、治疗和转归,以提高临床对布鲁菌病认识。方法:回顾性分析第二军医大学长征医院2010—2015年收治的8例布鲁菌病患者的临床资料,总结临床诊治经验。结果:5例患者有明确的流行病学史,3例患者流行病学史不明。8例患者临床表现均有发热、乏力、多汗,其中5例除上述症状外分别伴有关节炎、睾丸炎、淋巴结肿大和游走性肌肉疼痛。8例患者中性粒细胞比例正常或偏低,血沉均升高,其中3例患者部分肝功能指标升高。8例患者经内科积极治疗后治愈,1例患者出院后继续饲养山羊后再发。结论:布鲁菌病临床表现多样,非疫区患者出现发热、乏力、多汗或关节

  4. 2011年南宁市人间布鲁氏菌病监测分析%Analysis on the monitoring results of brucellosis in Nanning at 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闭志友; 黄世美; 覃健敏; 甘文烨

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解南宁市布鲁氏菌病疫情动态情况,掌握其流行规律,为制订防制策略提供科学依据.方法 对常规疫情监测和人间布鲁氏菌病监测点资料进行统计分析.结果 南宁市2011年常规疫情监测布病发现1例患病,发病率低;监测点监测211人,阳性5人,阳性率2.36%.男性感染1人,女性感染4人,男女感染率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),阳性感染年龄30岁以上为主,职业以饲养、管理及后勤人员为主.结论 2011年南宁市布鲁氏菌病发病率低;监测点阳性率较高,应加强传染源管理,继续加强人间布病监测,对重点人群及时开展布病相关知识的健康教育.%Objective To understand the dynamics of brucellosis epidemic in Nanning City, grasp the epidemic regularity and provide scientific basis for making prevention and control strategies. Method Statistically analyze the data of brucellosis surveillance system and sentinel surveillance. Results One case of brucellosis was found by surveillance system, and the incidence rate was low. 211 persons were monitored by sentinel surveillance , of which, 5 were positive, and the positive rate was 2. 36% , including 1 male and 4 females. There was no statistical significance between gender ( P > 0. 05 ) . Most^of the infected persons were persons over 30 years old and breeders, intendants and support staff. Conclusions The incidence rate of brucellosis was low in 2011, but the positive rate of sentinel surveillance were higher and needed to strengthen the management of infectious sources and development brucellosis - related knowledge health education among the key population.

  5. Epidemiological investigation on causes of the decline in the epidemic situation of human brucellosis%人间布鲁杆菌病疫情下降原因的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓丽; 赵会生; 陈素良; 孙印旗; 赵旭春; 姜霞; 韩国毅; 李月平; 吴建明; 钱振宇; 刘俊平

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨人间布鲁杆菌病(以下简称布病)疫情下降原因,为制定防控措施积累科学依据.方法 选择人间布病疫情严重且2010年病例数较2009年大幅度下降的市、县、村作为调查点,收集并调查居民畜牧养殖、畜间疫情、人间布病疫情、防疫措施的变化情况,分析人间布病疫情下降原因.结果 2010年人间布病疫情下降与畜牧存栏量减少、户养殖率下降、养殖人口率下降、畜间布病疫情下降和畜疫户率降低等因素有关.畜牧存栏量大幅度减少的原因是2009年11月实施了严厉的禁牧政策,养殖成本增加,居民弃养或减少了家畜存栏数;由于禁牧导致圈养增多,减少了羊群间布病传播的机会,畜间布病疫情减轻.还发现羊是当地布病的主要传染源.当地居民畜牧养殖行为习惯和健康行为形成不是影响2010年人间布病疫情下降的因素.结论 当地人间布病疫情下降主要原因是当地政府禁牧导致了羊存栏量减少,羊群布病疫情减轻所致.%Objectives To explore the causes of the decline of human brucellosis and provide scientific evidence to develop the measures for the prevention and control of the disease. Methods Survey areas were selected, in which the epidemic situation of human brucellosis was serious and the epidemic situation was significantly declined in 2010 compared with 2009. Materials of resident livestock, livestock brucellosis, human brucellosis and preventive measure changed from 2009 to 2010 were collected and investigated in the villages and the counties. The causes of the decline in human brucellosis were analyzed. Results The decline in human brucellosis in 2010 was related with the decline in livestock breeding stock, farming households rate, population of farming,livestock brucellosis and the number of households with livestock brucellosis. Conclusion The decline in sheep breeding stock and the decrease in sheep brucellosis which were

  6. Vagus nerve stimulation increases energy expenditure: relation to brown adipose tissue activity.

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    Guy H E J Vijgen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human brown adipose tissue (BAT activity is inversely related to obesity and positively related to energy expenditure. BAT is highly innervated and it is suggested the vagus nerve mediates peripheral signals to the central nervous system, there connecting to sympathetic nerves that innervate BAT. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS is used for refractory epilepsy, but is also reported to generate weight loss. We hypothesize VNS increases energy expenditure by activating BAT. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fifteen patients with stable vns therapy (age: 45 ± 10 yrs; body mass index; 25.2 ± 3.5 kg/m(2 were included between January 2011 and June 2012. Ten subjects were measured twice, once with active and once with inactivated VNS. Five other subjects were measured twice, once with active VNS at room temperature and once with active VNS under cold exposure in order to determine maximal cold-induced BAT activity. BAT activity was assessed by 18-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose-Positron-Emission-Tomography-and-Computed-Tomography. Basal metabolic rate (BMR was significantly higher when VNS was turned on (mean change; +2.2%. Mean BAT activity was not significantly different between active VNS and inactive VNS (BAT SUV(Mean; 0.55 ± 0.25 versus 0.67 ± 0.46, P = 0.619. However, the change in energy expenditure upon VNS intervention (On-Off was significantly correlated to the change in BAT activity (r = 0.935, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: VNS significantly increases energy expenditure. The observed change in energy expenditure was significantly related to the change in BAT activity. This suggests a role for BAT in the VNS increase in energy expenditure. Chronic VNS may have a beneficial effect on the human energy balance that has potential application for weight management therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in the Clinical Trial Register under the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01491282.

  7. Age-related increases in false recognition: The role of perceptual and conceptual similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Pidgeon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Older adults are more likely to falsely recognize novel events than young adults, and recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence points to a reduced ability to distinguish overlapping information due to decline in hippocampal pattern separation. However, other data suggest a critical role for semantic similarity. Koutstaal et al. [(2003. False recognition of abstract versus common objects in older and younger adults: Testing the semantic categorization account, J. Exp Psychol. Learn, 29(4, 499-510] reported that older adults were only vulnerable to false recognition of items with pre-existing semantic representations. We replicated Koutstaal et al.’s (2003 second experiment and examined the influence of independently rated perceptual and conceptual similarity between stimuli and lures. At study, young and older adults judged the pleasantness of pictures of abstract (unfamiliar and concrete (familiar items, followed by a surprise recognition test including studied items, similar lures, and novel unrelated items. Experiment 1 used dichotomous ‘old/new’ responses at test, while in Experiment 2 participants were also asked to judge lures as ‘similar’, to increase explicit demands on pattern separation. In both experiments, older adults showed a greater increase in false recognition for concrete than abstract items relative to the young, replicating Koutstaal et al.’s (2003 findings. However, unlike in the earlier study, there was also an age-related increase in false recognition of abstract lures when multiple similar images had been studied. In line with pattern separation accounts of false recognition, older adults were more likely to misclassify concrete lures with high and moderate, but not low degrees of rated similarity to studied items. Results are consistent with the view that older adults are particularly susceptible to semantic interference in recognition memory, and with the possibility that this reflects age-related decline

  8. Transcriptional effects of glucocorticoid receptors in the dentate gyrus increase anxiety-related behaviors.

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    Nadège Sarrazin

    Full Text Available The Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR is a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed in the brain. Activation of brain GRs by high levels of glucocorticoid (GC hormones modifies a large variety of physiological and pathological-related behaviors. Unfortunately the specific cellular targets of GR-mediated behavioral effects of GC are still largely unknown. To address this issue, we generated a mutated form of the GR called DeltaGR. DeltaGR is a constitutively transcriptionally active form of the GR that is localized in the nuclei and activates transcription without binding to glucocorticoids. Using the tetracycline-regulated system (Tet-OFF, we developed an inducible transgenic approach that allows the expression of the DeltaGR in specific brain areas. We focused our study on a mouse line that expressed DeltaGR almost selectively in the glutamatergic neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus. This restricted expression of the DeltaGR increased anxiety-related behaviors without affecting other behaviors that could indirectly influence performance in anxiety-related tests. This behavioral phenotype was also associated with an up-regulation of the MAPK signaling pathway and Egr-1 protein in the DG. These findings identify glutamatergic neurons in the DG as one of the cellular substrate of stress-related pathologies.

  9. Serological and molecular investigation for brucellosis in swine in selected districts of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erume, Joseph; Roesel, Kristina; Dione, Michel M; Ejobi, Francis; Mboowa, Gerald; Kungu, Joseph M; Akol, Joyce; Pezo, Danilo; El-Adawy, Hosny; Melzer, Falk; Elschner, Mandy; Neubauer, Heinrich; Grace, Delia

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is a notifiable zoonotic disease affecting livestock, humans, and wildlife in Uganda. Pigs can be infected with human pathogenic Brucella suis biovars 1 and 3 and can be a significant source of brucellosis for humans. Uganda has a rapidly growing pig population, and the pork consumption per capita is the highest in East Africa. The objective of this work was to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in Ugandan pigs. A cross-sectional serosurvey of pigs was conducted in three of the major pig-keeping districts in Uganda (Masaka (n = 381 samples), Mukono (n = 398), and Kamuli (n = 414)). In addition, pigs originating from these districts were sampled in the major pig abattoir in Kampala (n = 472). In total, 1665 serum samples were investigated by serological and molecular tests. Only three putative brucellosis-positive samples were detected serologically using indirect ELISA. These sera were found negative for Brucella antibodies by CFT; however, two had antibodies against Yersinia enterocolitica as determined by SAT. Presence of antibodies against Yersiniae was confirmed by Y. enterocolitica antibody-specific ELISA. The two Yersiniae ELISA-positive samples were brucellosis negative using real-time PCR. We tested additional 142 sera from the 1665 samples with real-time PCR. All tested negative. Under this type of production system, we expect a maximum B. suis prevalence of less than 1 % at 95 % confidence level, and therefore, the risk of acquiring brucellosis from the pigs or their products is negligible. However, pigs may harbor the zoonotic Y. enterocolitica. This is the first study to investigate the occurrence of brucellosis in pigs in Uganda and the first study to report Y. enterocolitica antibodies in swine in Uganda.

  10. Trend of human brucellosis over a decade at tertiary care centre in North Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D P Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease. India having a major agrarian population is expected to have a higher prevalence. However, due to lack of laboratory facility or awareness among clinicians, the disease is largely underreported. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence and trend of human brucellosis over a decade, in patients attending a teaching hospital in North Karnataka, and to understand their geographical distribution. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in North Karnataka. A total of 3610 serum samples were evaluated from suspected cases of brucellosis. All serum samples were initially screened by Rose Bengal plate test, and positive samples were further analysed by Serum agglutination test (SAT using standard Brucella abortus antigen from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. A titre above or equal to 1:80 IU/ml was considered as positive. Demographic data such as age, sex and native place of these patients were also analysed. Results: We observed that human brucellosis is present in North Karnataka. The overall seropositivity of brucellosis in suspected cases was 5.1%. The positive titres ranged from 1:80 to 163,840 IU/ml. The majority of the patients were from Gadag, Koppal and Haveri districts of North Karnataka. Conclusion: Our study confirms the presence of human brucellosis in the northern part of Karnataka. Further studies to understand the prevalence of animal brucellosis in these areas will help in implementing prevention measures.

  11. An unusual presentation of brucellosis, involving multiple organ systems, with low agglutinating titers: a case report

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    Khorvash Farzin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a multi-system disease that may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. While hepatic involvement in brucellosis is not rare, it may rarely involve the kidney or display with cardiac manifestations. Central nervous system involvement in brucellosis sometimes can cause demyelinating syndromes. Here we present a case of brucella hepatitis, myocarditis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and renal failure. Case presentation A 26-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd and gave a history of low grade fever, chilly sensation, cold sweating, loss of appetite, arthralgia and 10 Kg weight loss during the previous 3 months. He had a body temperature of 39°C at the time of admission. On laboratory tests he had elevated level of liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine, Creatine phosphokinase (MB, and moderate proteinuria. He also had abnormal echocardiography and brain MRI. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG and IgM was negative. Standard tube agglutination test (STAT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME titers were 1:80 and 1:40 respectively. Finally he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and the polymerase chain reaction for Brucella mellitensis. Conclusion In endemic areas clinicians should consider brucellosis in any unusual presentation involving multiple organ systems, even if serology is inconclusive. In endemic areas low STAT and 2-ME titers should be considered as an indication of brucellosis and in these cases additional testing is recommended to rule out brucellosis.

  12. Epidemiology of Brucellosis and Genetic Diversity of Brucella abortus in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Elena; Shevtsov, Alexandr; Mukanov, Kasim; Filipenko, Maxim; Kamalova, Dinara; Sytnik, Igor; Syzdykov, Marat; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Akhmetova, Assel; Zharova, Mira; Karibaev, Talgat; Tarlykov, Pavel; Ramanculov, Erlan

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a major zoonotic infection in Kazakhstan. However, there is limited data on its incidence in humans and animals, and the genetic diversity of prevalent strains is virtually unstudied. Additionally, there is no detailed overview of Kazakhstan brucellosis control and eradication programs. Here, we analyzed brucellosis epidemiological data, and assessed the effectiveness of eradication strategies employed over the past 70 years to counteract this infection. We also conducted multiple loci variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of Brucella abortus strains found in Kazakhstan. We analyzed official data on the incidence of animal brucellosis in Kazakhstan. The records span more than 70 years of anti-brucellosis campaigns, and contain a brief description of the applied control strategies, their effectiveness, and their impact on the incidence in humans. The MLVA-16 method was used to type 94 strains of B. abortus and serial passages of B. abortus 82, a strain used in vaccines. MLVA-8 and MLVA-11 analyses clustered strains into a total of four and seven genotypes, respectively; it is the first time that four of these genotypes have been described. MLVA-16 analysis divided strains into 28 distinct genotypes having genetic similarity coefficient that varies from 60 to100% and a Hunter & Gaston diversity index of 0.871. MST analysis reconstruction revealed clustering into "Kazakhstani-Chinese (Central Asian)", "European" and "American" lines. Detection of multiple genotypes in a single outbreak confirms that poorly controlled trade of livestock plays a crucial role in the spread of infection. Notably, the MLVA-16 profile of the B. abortus 82 strain was unique and did not change during 33 serial passages. MLVA genotyping may thus be useful for epidemiological monitoring of brucellosis, and for tracking the source(s) of infection. We suggest that countrywide application of MLVA genotyping would improve the control of brucellosis in Kazakhstan. PMID

  13. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among cattle slaughtered in three municipal abattoirs of Gombe state, Northeastern Nigeria

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    Saleh Mohammed Jajere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis among cattle slaughtered at three municipal abattoirs of Gombe State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 blood samples collected from slaughtered cattle of different breeds (Sokoto Gudali - 50, White Fulani - 102, Red bororo – 34, and Crossbreeds - 14, sex (males - 19 and females - 181, and from different locations (Billiri - 30, Yamaltu Deba – 50, and Gombe - 120 were screened for brucellosis using rose bengal plate test (RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT, and microtiter agglutination test (MAT. Results: Of the 200 serum samples analyzed, 7 (3.5%, 10 (5.0% and 18 (9.0% were positive by RBPT, SAT and MAT, respectively. The results showed no statistically significant association between sex and seropositivity to bovine brucellosis. However, seropositivity of bovine brucellosis was higher in females than in males. Similarly, no statistically significant association was observed between breed and occurrence of bovine brucellosis. Moreover, the prevalence of brucellosis was higher in Sokoto Gudali as compared with the other breeds. Based on the study locations, higher seroprevalence was observed in animals screened from Billiri as compared with those from other locations (p<0.05. Conclusion: The presence of Brucella abortus antigen in the sera of slaughtered cattle in Gombe state poses a significant public health risk. Therefore, it is important to carry out further epidemiological studies on fulani herdsmen and cattle herds in the study area, in order to explore the risk factors associated with the occurrence and perpetuation of brucellosis among cattle herds, ascertain the prevalence and status of the disease among both farms and nomadic herds.

  14. No evidence of age-related increases in unconscious plagiarism during free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Timothy John; Defeldre, Anne-Catherine; Elliman, Rachel; Dehon, Hedwige

    2011-07-01

    In three experiments younger and older participants took part in a group generation task prior to a delayed recall task. In each, participants were required to recall the items that they had generated, avoiding plagiarism errors. All studies showed the same pattern: older adults did not plagiarise their partners any more than younger adults did. However, older adults were more likely than younger adults to intrude with entirely novel items not previously generated by anyone. These findings stand in opposition to the single previous demonstration of age-related increases in plagiarism during recall.

  15. Adolescent caffeine consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Casey E; Newsom, Ryan J; Stafford, Jacob; Scott, Talia; Archuleta, Solana; Levis, Sophia C; Spencer, Robert L; Campeau, Serge; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2016-05-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used psychoactive substance and consumption by children and adolescents continues to rise. Here, we examine the lasting effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on anxiety-related behaviors and several neuroendocrine measures in adulthood. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed caffeine (0.3g/L) for 28 consecutive days from postnatal day 28 (P28) to P55. Age-matched control rats consumed water. Behavioral testing for anxiety-related behavior began in adulthood (P62) 7 days after removal of caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption enhanced anxiety-related behavior in an open field, social interaction test, and elevated plus maze. Similar caffeine consumption in adult rats did not alter anxiety-related behavior after caffeine removal. Characterization of neuroendocrine measures was next assessed to determine whether the changes in anxiety were associated with modifications in the HPA axis. Blood plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) were assessed throughout the caffeine consumption procedure in adolescent rats. Adolescent caffeine consumption elevated plasma CORT 24h after initiation of caffeine consumption that normalized over the course of the 28-day consumption procedure. CORT levels were also elevated 24h after caffeine removal and remained elevated for 7 days. Despite elevated basal CORT in adult rats that consumed caffeine during adolescence, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and CORT response to placement on an elevated pedestal (a mild stressor) was significantly blunted. Lastly, we assessed changes in basal and stress-induced c-fos and corticotropin-releasing factor (Crf) mRNA expression in brain tissue collected at 7 days withdrawal from adolescent caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption increased basal c-fos mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Adolescent caffeine consumption had no other effects on the basal or stress-induced c-fos mRNA changes. Caffeine consumption during adolescence increased

  16. Increased lymphangiogenesis in Riedel thyroiditis (Immunoglobulin G4-related thyroid disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameselle-Teijeiro, José; Ladra, María Jesús; Abdulkader, Ihab; Eloy, Catarina; Soares, Paula; Barreiro, Francisco; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Beiras-Iglesias, Andrés

    2014-09-01

    The present study describes in depth a case of Riedel thyroiditis (RT) to clarify its pathogenesis and its putative inclusion in the spectrum of IgG4-related disease. We report the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of a case of RT in a 39-year-old white Spanish woman, admitted with a hard goiter and cold nodule in the left thyroid lobe. This case represents 0.05 % of a series of 1,973 consecutive thyroidectomies performed in our hospital. More than 80 % of the left thyroid lobe was effaced by fibrosis and inflammation (lymphocytes, 57 IgG4+ plasma cells per 1 high-power field, an IgG4/IgG ratio of 0.67, and eosinophils) with extension into the surrounding tissues and occlusive phlebitis. Immunostaining for podoplanin (D2-40) detected signs of increased lymphangiogenesis in the fibroinflammatory areas that were confirmed by electron microscopy. A strong, diffuse stain for podoplanin and transforming growth factor ß1 was also detected in the same areas. The increased number of lymphatic vessels in RT is reported for the first time. Our findings support the inclusion of RT within the spectrum of IgG4-related thyroid disease (IgG4-RTD). Although the etiology and physiopathology of IgG4-RTD still remain elusive, the results obtained in the present case suggest the participation of lymphatic vessels in the pathogenesis of RT.

  17. Rumination but not distraction increases eating-related symptoms in anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Eva; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Caffier, Detlef; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Recent models of eating disorders emphasize the importance of ruminative thinking in the occurrence of unhealthy eating behavior. Hence, the aim of the current study was to examine the influence of induced rumination and distraction on the desire to engage in eating-related symptoms in anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). After a sadness induction, either a ruminative or distractive emotion regulation style was encouraged in women with AN (n = 38), BN (n = 37), and non-eating disordered controls (CG; n = 36). At baseline and after the emotion regulation induction feelings of sadness, desire to abstain from eating (DTA) and desire to binge (DTB) were assessed. Main results reveal that rumination led to a significant increase of DTA in the AN group and of DTB in patients with BN. In the CG, DTA significantly decreased after distraction. Although there were significant increases in subjective sadness in the rumination condition, no changes were found in the distraction condition. The results suggest that rumination in response to sadness has a detrimental effect on eating-related symptoms in eating disorders.

  18. Epidemic analysis of 1010 cases of brucellosis in Ji'nan from 2010 to 2014%2010-2014年济南市1010例布鲁菌病患者流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶波; 崔师玉; 李玲; 赵秀红; 李晓迎; 耿大影

    2016-01-01

    .There were two peak times,the first was from April to August,the incidence was 9.1% (92/1 010),12.2%(123/1010),13.4% (135/1010),11.1% (112/1010) and 10.7% (108/1010),respectively,in each month;the second was January,the incidence was 9.4% (95/1010).The diagnosed rate within 1 week of onset only accounted for 13.4% (135/1010),and 72.4% (731/1010) patients were diagnosed for more than two weeks after the onset.The male incidence of brucellosis was higher than the female,and the sex ratio was 2.36:1.00.In terms of age distribution,40-49 and 50-59 were both peak ages,with incidence of 29.3% (296/1 010) and 25.0% (252/1010),respectively.The professional was given priority to farmers and herdsmen (85.6%,865/1 010),and 96.4% (974/1010)of the patients had a clear exposure history,mainly related to sheep,cattle,pigs and other livestock,also related to pets and milk.Conclusions The brucellosis patients that received in Ji'nan Infectious Disease Hospital are increased significantly in the recent 5 years,and their transmission is closely associated with livestock breeding and processing.Most patients have failed timely diagnosis in the early days,which should catch enough of our attention.

  19. Cannabidivarin (CBDV suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression

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    Naoki Amada

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, anticonvulsant effects of the plant cannabinoid, cannabidivarin (CBDV, have been reported in several animal models of seizure. However, these behaviourally observed anticonvulsant effects have not been confirmed at the molecular level. To examine changes to epilepsy-related gene expression following chemical convulsant treatment and their subsequent control by phytocannabinoid administration, we behaviourally evaluated effects of CBDV (400 mg/kg, p.o. on acute, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ: 95 mg/kg, i.p.-induced seizures, quantified expression levels of several epilepsy-related genes (Fos, Casp 3, Ccl3, Ccl4, Npy, Arc, Penk, Camk2a, Bdnf and Egr1 by qPCR using hippocampal, neocortical and prefrontal cortical tissue samples before examining correlations between expression changes and seizure severity. PTZ treatment alone produced generalised seizures (median: 5.00 and significantly increased expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf. Consistent with previous findings, CBDV significantly decreased PTZ-induced seizure severity (median: 3.25 and increased latency to the first sign of seizure. Furthermore, there were correlations between reductions of seizure severity and mRNA expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf in the majority of brain regions in the CBDV+PTZ treated group. When CBDV treated animals were grouped into CBDV responders (criterion: seizure severity ≤3.25 and non-responders (criterion: seizure severity >3.25, PTZ-induced increases of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf expression were suppressed in CBDV responders. These results provide the first molecular confirmation of behaviourally observed effects of the non-psychoactive, anticonvulsant cannabinoid, CBDV, upon chemically-induced seizures and serve to underscore its suitability for clinical development.

  20. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

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    Mark D Alter

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  1. Cadmium Increases the Sensitivity of Adolescent Female Mice to Nicotine-Related Behavioral Deficits

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    Philip Adeyemi Adeniyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates spatial and nonspatial working memory, anxiety related behavior, and motor activities in cadmium and/or nicotine exposed female adolescent mice. P28 female adolescent mice (albino strain were divided into four groups of five (n=5 mice each. A set of mice (Nic received subcutaneous nicotine (2.0 mg/kg while a separate set (Cd was treated with 2.0 mg/kg cadmium (subcutaneous. For the combined treatments of cadmium and nicotine, we administered 2.0 mg/kg Nicotine and 2.0 mg/kg of Cd. Subsequently, a separate group of animals (n=5; control received normal saline. The total duration of treatment for all groups was 28 days (P28–P56. At P56, the treatment was discontinued, after which the animals were examined in behavioural tests. Nicotine and cadmium increased the metabolism and food intake in the female adolescent mice. This also corresponded to an increase in weight when compared with the control. However, a combined nicotine-cadmium treatment induced a decline in weight of the animals versus the control. Also, nicotine administration increased the motor function, while cadmium and nicotine-cadmium treatment caused a decline in motor activity. Both nicotine and cadmium induced a reduction in memory index; however, nicotine-cadmium treatment induced the most significant decrease in nonspatial working memory.

  2. Increasing water cycle extremes in California and in relation to ENSO cycle under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Wang, S-Y Simon; Gillies, Robert R; Kravitz, Ben; Hipps, Lawrence; Rasch, Philip J

    2015-10-21

    Since the winter of 2013-2014, California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history, causing statewide water stress, severe economic loss and an extraordinary increase in wildfires. Identifying the effects of global warming on regional water cycle extremes, such as the ongoing drought in California, remains a challenge. Here we analyse large-ensemble and multi-model simulations that project the future of water cycle extremes in California as well as to understand those associations that pertain to changing climate oscillations under global warming. Both intense drought and excessive flooding are projected to increase by at least 50% towards the end of the twenty-first century; this projected increase in water cycle extremes is associated with a strengthened relation to El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)--in particular, extreme El Niño and La Niña events that modulate California's climate not only through its warm and cold phases but also its precursor patterns.

  3. Increased RP105-Negative B Cells in IgG4-Related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koarada, S; Tashiro, S; Nagao, N; Suematsu, R; Ohta, A; Tada, Y

    2013-01-01

    Four patients with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) showed increased percentages of RP105-negative B cells in the peripheral blood. Case 1: A 66-year-old man having retroperitoneal fibrosis had 18.8% of RP105-negative B cells. Oral prednisolone improved the affected lesions and the percentage of RP105-negative B cells decreased (3.2%) after the treatment. Case 2: A 53-year-old man with retroperitoneal fibrosis had 27.9% of RP105-negative B cells. Case 3: A 38-year-old man with follicular hyperplasia showed increased percentage of RP105-negative B cells (8.3%). Case 4: A 60-year-old man with interstitial nephritis had 27.5% of RP105-negative B cells. The treatment decreased the numbers of RP105-negative B cells. Increased numbers of RP105-negatvie B cells is possibly associated with disease activity of IgG4-RD. Analysis of expression of RP105 on B cells may be helpful in evaluation of disease activity of IgG4-RD.

  4. Rapidly increasing macroalgal cover not related to herbivorous fishes on Mesoamerican reefs

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    Adam Suchley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-term phase shifts from coral to macroalgal dominated reef systems are well documented in the Caribbean. Although the impact of coral diseases, climate change and other factors is acknowledged, major herbivore loss through disease and overfishing is often assigned a primary role. However, direct evidence for the link between herbivore abundance, macroalgal and coral cover is sparse, particularly over broad spatial scales. In this study we use a database of coral reef surveys performed at 85 sites along the Mesoamerican Reef of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras, to examine potential ecological links by tracking site trajectories over the period 2005–2014. Despite the long-term reduction of herbivory capacity reported across the Caribbean, the Mesoamerican Reef region displayed relatively low macroalgal cover at the onset of the study. Subsequently, increasing fleshy macroalgal cover was pervasive. Herbivorous fish populations were not responsible for this trend as fleshy macroalgal cover change was not correlated with initial herbivorous fish biomass or change, and the majority of sites experienced increases in macroalgae browser biomass. This contrasts the coral reef top-down herbivore control paradigm and suggests the role of external factors in making environmental conditions more favourable for algae. Increasing macroalgal cover typically suppresses ecosystem services and leads to degraded reef systems. Consequently, policy makers and local coral reef managers should reassess the focus on herbivorous fish protection and consider complementary measures such as watershed management in order to arrest this trend.

  5. The use of skin delayed-type hypersensitivity as an adjunct test to diagnose brucellosis in cattle: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, is a contagious disease that causes economic loss to owners of domestic animals due to loss of progeny and milk yield. Because cattle, sheep, goats, and to a lesser extent pigs are considered to be the source of human brucellosis, serological te

  6. Study of toxic properties of prototypes of photo inactivated vaccines against tularemia and brucellosis by speckle microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianova, Onega V.; Ulyanov, Sergey

    2011-03-01

    Testing of prototypes of vaccines against extremely dangerous diseases, such as tularemia and brucellosis has been performed using speckle-microscopy. Changes of microcirculation caused by effect of toxins at applications of suspension of photoinactivated bacteria have been studied. Toxic properties of prototypes of vaccines against tularemia and brucellosis have been analyzed.

  7. Serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis using B. melitensis strain B115.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrente, Marialaura; Desario, Costantina; Parisi, Antonio; Grandolfo, Erika; Scaltrito, Domenico; Vesco, Gesualdo; Colao, Valeriana; Buonavoglia, Domenico

    2015-12-01

    Bovine brucellosis is diagnosed by official tests, such as Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and Complement Fixation test (CFT). Both tests detect antibodies directed against the lipolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella cell wall. Despite their good sensitivity, those tests do not discriminate between true positive and false positive serological reactions (FPSR), the latter being generated by animals infected with other Gram negative microorganisms that share components of Brucella LPS. In this study, an antigenic extract from whole Brucella melitensis B115 strain was used to set up an ELISA assay for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. A total of 148 serum samples from five different groups of animals were tested: Group A: 28 samples from two calves experimentally infected with Yersinia enterocolitica O:9; Group B: 30 samples from bovines infected with Brucella abortus; Group C: 50 samples from brucellosis-free herds; Group D: 20 samples RBPT positive and CFT negative; Group E: 20 samples both RBPT and CFT positive. Group D and Group E serum samples were from brucellosis-free herds. Positive reactions were detected only by RBPT and CFT in calves immunized with Y. enterocolitica O:9. Sera from Group B animals tested positive also in the ELISA assay, whereas sera from the remaining groups were all negative. The results obtained encourage the use of the ELISA assay to implement the serological diagnosis of brucellosis.

  8. Seroprevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in cattle in selected districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirar, Bashahun Gebremichael; Nasinyama, George William; Gelalcha, Benti Deresa

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Jimma town and Chora Botor district of Jimma zone from February 2014 to May 2014 to determine seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in cattle. A total of 348 blood samples (174 each from zebu and crossbreed) were collected. The sera were separated and screened by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), and positive sera were retested by complement fixation test (CFT) for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 1.4 and 0.3 % as tested by RBPT and CFT, respectively. The seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in indigenous and crossbreed cattle was 1.1 and 0.6 % and 1.7 and 0 % using RBPT and CFT, respectively. Retained fetal membrane was the only risk factor found to be significantly associated with seropositivity of brucellosis in this study (p = 0.019). The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was very low. However, due to the zoonotic and economic importance of the disease, prevention and control measures are required to stop further spread of the disease. To effectively implement this, the One Health (OH) is the most constructive approach we recommend.

  9. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Gebreyohans; Tsegaye, Wondeson; Chanie, Mersha; Abinet, Fisseha

    2011-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on bovine brucellosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms from November 2003 to April 2004. A total of 1,202 blood samples were collected from non-vaccinated, cross-bred dairy cattle. The Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) was used as a screening test. Those serum samples reacting positively to RBPT were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) for confirmation. The RBPT detected 30 of 1,202 (2.5%) of the samples as brucellosis positive. The positive sera when further retested using CFT, 18 out of the 30 RBPT positive sera were confirmed to be positive. The prevalence of brucellosis based on CFT in the study area was 1.5%, and all positive sera were from female cattle. Result of the questionnaire survey revealed that percentage of 4.4% abortion and 9.5% retained fetal membranes. Abortion and retained fetal membranes were associated with Brucella antibodies (P < 0.05). A total of 153 cattle attendants and owners in the farms were interviewed, and 73.5% were found to have no knowledge of brucellosis, only 20.8% wear protective gloves during handling aborted material and 39.6% responded that they consume raw milk. Results of this study showed that prevalence of bovine brucellosis in the study area is low and a test-and-slaughter policy can be used in order to control the diseases in dairy farms of Addis Ababa.

  10. Brucellosis Transmission between Wildlife and Livestock in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Inferences from DNA Genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael P; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Anderson, Neil; Ceballos, Ruben M; Edwards, William H; Harris, Beth; Wallen, Rick L; Costa, Vânia

    2017-01-24

    The wildlife of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem carries brucellosis, which was first introduced to the area by cattle in the 19th Century. Brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock has been difficult to study due to challenges in culturing the causative agent, Brucella abortus . We examined B. abortus transmission between American bison ( Bison bison ), Rocky Mountain elk ( Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and cattle ( Bos taurus ) using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) markers on DNA from 98 B. abortus isolates recovered from populations in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, USA. Our analyses reveal interspecies transmission. Two outbreaks (2007, 2008) in Montana cattle had B. abortus genotypes similar to isolates from bison and elk. Nevertheless, similarity in elk and cattle isolates from the 2008 outbreak suggest that elk are the likely source of brucellosis transmission to cattle in Montana and Wyoming. Brucella abortus isolates from sampling in Montana appear to be divided in two clusters: one exclusive to local Montana elk, cattle, and bison; and another composed mainly of elk and some bison individuals, found in many Wyoming elk, which is consistent with brucellosis having entered Montana via migration of infected elk from Wyoming. Our findings illustrate complex patterns of brucellosis transmission among elk, bison, and cattle as well as the utility of VNTRs to infer the wildlife species of origin for disease outbreaks in livestock.

  11. Concurrent Brucellosis and Q Fever Infection: a Case Control Study in Bamyan Province, Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khwaja Mir Islam Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than 500,000 people are affected by brucellosis each year while the incidence of Q fever is poorly recorded. Consistent outbreaks of brucellosis have been reported in Afghanistan, affecting social and economic life. This study aimed to determine the means of propagation of brucellosis and Q-fever and establish appropriate control measures for both. Methods and Materials: An outbreak of 1,317 cases of brucellosis and Q fever was investigated from May 2011 to the end of 2012 in Bamyan province of Afghanistan. A total of 100 cases were selected by random sampling with equal number of neighbor controls. Data were collected through structured questionnaire.Results: The average age was 30 years ±14 years. Of those sampled, 62% were female, 38% were male, and resided in three districts: Punjab, Yakawlang and Waras. Using multivariate analysis, being a housewife (OR=7.36, being within proximity of kitchens to barns (OR= 2.98, drinking un-boiled milk (OR= 5.26, butchering (OR= 3.53 and purchasing new animals in the last six months (OR= 3.53 were significantly associated with contraction of brucellosis and Q fever. Conclusion: Health educators should focus on families dealing with animals, especially on females. Pasturing, healthy milking, dunging, and slaughtering practices, along with use of safe dairy products should be the focus of preventive measures.

  12. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka, Mukhtar Salihu; Hassan, Latiffah; Khairani-Bejo, Siti; Zainal, Mohamed Abidin; Mohamad, Ramlan Bin; Salleh, Annas; Adzhar, Azri

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05); originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19) and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83) were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24) and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90) when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  13. Comparison of PCR, Wright agglutination test and blood culture for diagnosis of brucellosis in suspected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhosssein; Sadeh, Maryam; Khalili, Mohammad Bagher; Mollaabedin, Mansour; Sazmand, Alireza

    2013-11-15

    Brucellosis has long been prevalent in Iran, with considerable medical and economic importance. Timely diagnosis is needed for early management and effective prevention of its consequences in human beings and animals. Current diagnostic methods impose peculiar challenges in terms of analytical method performance. This study compares diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive Value of Positive (PVP) and Predictive Value of Negative (PVN) for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Wright agglutination test and blood culture used for patients suspected of brucellosis. In 120 patients clinically suspected of brucellosis and referred by physicians to the Yazd central Medical Laboratory, some relevant demographic, occupational, nutritional and clinical data were collected. Also, venous blood samples were drawn for diagnosis of brucellosis using PCR, Wright agglutination test and blood culture techniques. The most frequent symptom of patients was arthralgia (82 cases, 68.3%). PCR was positive in 25 cases (20.8%), wright test in 21 patients (17.5%) and blood culture in 6 cases (5%). In 20 out of 21 wright-positive cases, PCR was positive and all of the culture-positive patients had positive PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PVP and PVN of blood culture compared to PCR (as the gold standard test) were 24, 100, 100 and 86%, respectively, but the above parameters when PCR is compared with blood culture (as gold standard) were 100, 83, 24 and 95%, respectively. PCR has better analytical performances than blood culture for diagnosis of brucellosis and is suitable for confirmation of Wright-positive cases.

  14. Evaluation of Isfahan Inhabitant Attitude About Brucellosis and Common its Herbal Treatment

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    Ghomashlooyan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Brucellosis, also called Malta fever, is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions. Brucella species are small, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped (coccobacilli bacteria. Objectives The aim of this study is to perform an evaluation of Isfahan inhabitant attitude about brucellosis and its common herbal treatment. Patients and Methods This evaluation was a simple random sample study, which was carried out on 162 people in the city of Isfahan, Iran, by means of questionnaires. The data was analyzed using SPSS for Windows (Version 21.0. Results Of 162 people that were interviewed, 90 (55.6% patients were male and the other were female. Of these, 74 (45.7% patients were single and 88 (54.3% were married. Forty-three (26.5% participants lived in the city. The average age of participants was 11.51 ± 29.11 years. There is no significant relationship between age, gender, education level, residence, and people familiar with the disease brucellosis, herbal treatment for brucellosis (P > 0.05. Conclusions Our data suggest that the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of people in Isfahan, Iran, show no relationship with the attitude of individuals regarding brucellosis and towards common herbal treatments for the disease.

  15. Bilingualism and increased attention to speech: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Jan Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-10-01

    A number of studies have shown that from an early age, bilinguals outperform their monolingual peers on executive control tasks. We previously found that bilingual children and adults also display greater attention to unexpected language switches within speech. Here, we investigated the effect of a bilingual upbringing on speech perception in one language. We recorded monolingual and bilingual toddlers' event-related potentials (ERPs) to spoken words preceded by pictures. Words matching the picture prime elicited an early frontal positivity in bilingual participants only, whereas later ERP amplitudes associated with semantic processing did not differ between groups. These results add to the growing body of evidence that bilingualism increases overall attention during speech perception whilst semantic integration is unaffected.

  16. Where the Narcissistic Mind Wanders: Increased Self-Related Thoughts Are More Positive and Future Oriented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Philipp; Sharifi, Marjan; Smallwood, Jonathan; Dziobek, Isabel; Singer, Tania

    2016-09-12

    Narcissism is characterized by a preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, beauty, and similar values, which has been discussed as intra-individual regulation of a grandiose, but vulnerable self-concept. To explore where the narcissistic mind wanders, we used an experience-sampling approach in a sample with large variability in pathological narcissism inventory scores. Multilevel modeling revealed (1) more mind-wandering in participants with higher levels of narcissism and (2) a difference in the content of these thoughts (more self- and other-related, past and future oriented, negative content). Critically, (3) in high levels of narcissism, the self-related thoughts were associated with more positive valence and were also more future oriented. The results demonstrate the validity of the assumed grandiose, self-absorbed view of oneself in narcissism, which includes self-indulgent fantasies of future success. We also found additional evidence for negative, past-oriented thoughts in narcissism, a dysfunctional pattern reminiscent of rumination, possibly linked to increased psychopathological vulnerability in narcissism.

  17. Increased risk taking in relation to chronic stress in young adults

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    Smarandita eCeccato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured learning-independent risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS. We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify chronic cortisol exposure. We discovered a significant, positive correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations.

  18. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during worry forecasts stress-related increases in psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Deschênes, Sonya S; Dugas, Michel J

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been conceptualized as an index of emotion regulation abilities. Although resting RSA has been associated with both concurrent and prospective affective responses to stress, the impact of RSA reactivity on emotional responses to stress is inconsistent across studies. The type of emotional stimuli used to elicit these phasic RSA responses may influence the adaptive value of RSA reactivity. We propose that RSA reactivity to a personally relevant worry-based stressor might forecast future affective responses to stress. To evaluate whether resting RSA and RSA reactivity to worry inductions predict stress-related increases in psychological distress, an academic stress model was used to prospectively examine changes in psychological distress from the well-defined low- and high-stress periods. During the low-stress period, 76 participants completed self-report mood measures and had their RSA assessed during a resting baseline, free worry period and worry catastrophizing interview. Participants completed another mood assessment during the high-stress period. Results indicated that baseline psychological distress predicted larger decreases in RSA during the worry inductions. Lower resting RSA and greater RSA suppression to the worry inductions at baseline prospectively predicted larger increases in psychological distress from the low- to high-stress period, even after accounting for the impact of baseline distress on RSA. These results provide further evidence that RSA may represent a unique index of emotion regulation abilities in times of stress.

  19. Study on Relative COP Changes with Increasing Heat Input Temperatures of Double Effect Steam Absorption Chillers

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    Abd Majid Mohd Amin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorption chillers at cogeneration plants generate chilled water using steam supplied by heat recovery steam generators. The chillers are mainly of double effect type. The COP of double effect varies from 0.7 to 1.2 depending on operation and maintenance practices of the chillers. Heat input to the chillers during operations could have impact on the COP of the chillers. This study is on relative COP changes with increasing the heat input temperatures for a steam absorption chiller at a gas fueled cogeneration plant. Reversible COP analysis and zero order model were used for evaluating COP of the chiller for 118 days operation period. Results indicate increasing COP trends for both the reversible COP and zero model COP. Although the zero model COP are within the range of double effect absorption chiller, it is not so for the actual COP. The actual COP is below the range of normal double effect COP. It is recommended that economic replacement analysis to be undertaken to assess the feasibility either to repair or replace the existing absorption chiller.

  20. Increased oxidative stress in pemphigus vulgaris is related to disease activity and HLA-association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amit Aakash; Dey-Rao, Rama; Seiffert-Sinha, Kristina; Sinha, Animesh A

    2016-06-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare blistering skin disorder characterized by the disadhesion of keratinocytes due to autoantibody attack against epidermal targets including desmoglein (Dsg) 3, Dsg 1 and possibly other adhesion and non-adhesion molecules. The mechanisms leading to immune-mediated pathology in PV are multifactorial and not fully understood. Recently, oxidative stress (antioxidant/oxidant disequilibrium) has been proposed as a contributory mechanism of autoimmune skin diseases, including PV. In this study, we directly assessed oxidative stress via measurement of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) using ELISA in 47 PV patients, 25 healthy controls and 18 bullous pemphigoid (BP) patients. We also performed microarray gene expression analysis on a separate set of 21 PV patients and 10 healthy controls to evaluate transcriptional dysregulation in oxidative stress-related pathways. Our data indicate that there is a significant reduction in TAC levels in PV patients compared with healthy controls, as well as BP patients. Furthermore, PV patients with active disease have significantly lower TAC levels than PV patients in remission. We also find that HLA allele status has a significant influence on oxidative stress. These findings are corroborated by microarray analysis showing differentially expressed genes involved in oxidative stress between the aforementioned groups. Collectively, our findings provide support for a role of oxidative stress in PV. Whether increased oxidative stress leads to disease manifestation and/or activity, or if disease activity leads to increased oxidative stress remains unknown. Future longitudinal studies may help to further elucidate the relationship between PV and oxidative stress.

  1. Increased sugarcane water productivity in Brazil avoids land use change and related environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpare, F. V.; Galdos, M. V.; Kolln, O.; Gava, G.; Franco, H.; Trivelin, P.

    2012-12-01

    ratoon cane cycle. In order to demonstrate the potential effect of avoided land use change by increased productivity, we calculated the avoided GHG emissions related to land use change in a hypothetical fertirrigation project over a ten-year period (2010-2020). A conservative scenario for increased demand for sugarcane was selected, assuming a 20% increase in total production over the ten-year period. The current area under sugarcane in the municipality of Jaú is 42,500 ha. A 5,000 ha fertirrigation project, assuming the 40% increase in sugarcane productivity described above for the IN treatment, would avoid the conversion of 2,000 ha of other land uses in to sugarcane. Landsat data covering the region in the 2008/2009 crop year demonstrated that most conversion occurred over pasture areas (91%), with the remaining being converted from annual crops. Using IPCC biomass and soil carbon stock change factors and emission factors, the LUC-related emissions avoided by the fertirrigation project in the period were calculated as 53,199 Mg CO2 eq. A more comprehensive life cycle assessment of both the fertirrigation system and the reference case would be necessary to evaluate the actual GHG mitigation potential, but the preliminary results indicate that the increased productivity will bring environmental benefits under these conditions.

  2. Chemoresistance of CD133(+) colon cancer may be related with increased survivin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Ra; Ji, Sun-Young; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah; Cho, Mee-Yon

    2015-07-31

    CD133, putative cancer stem cell marker, deemed to aid chemoresistance. However, this claim has been challenged recently and we previously reported that patients with CD133(+) colon cancer have benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy incontrast to no benefit in patients with CD133(-) cancer. To elucidate the role of CD133 expression in chemoresistance, we silenced the CD133 expression in a colon cancer cell line and determined its effect on the biological characteristics downstream. We comparatively analyzed the sequential changes of MDR1, ABCG2, AKT1 and survivin expression and the result of proliferation assay (WST-1 assay) with 5-FU treatment in CD133(+) and siRNA-induced CD133(-) cells, derived from Caco-2 colon cancer cell line. 5-FU treatment induced significantly increase of the mRNA expression of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1genes, but not protein level. CD133 had little to no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. However, survivin expression at mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in CD133(+) cells compared with siRNA-induced CD133-cells and Mock (not sorted CD133(+) cells) at 96 h after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated notable increase of chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment (10 μM) in CD133(+) cells at 96 h after siRNA transfection. From this study, we conclude that CD133(+) cells may have chemoresistance to 5-FU through the mechanism which is related with survivin expression, instead of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. Therefore a survivin inhibitor can be a new target for effective treatment of CD133(+) colon cancer.

  3. Increased circulating β2-adrenergic receptor autoantibodies are associated with smoking-related emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia-yi; Liu, Bei-bei; Du, Yi-peng; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Yi-wei; Zhang, You-yi; Xu, Ming; He, Bei

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is a dominant risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema, but not every smoker develops emphysema. Immune responses in smokers vary. Some autoantibodies have been shown to contribute to the development of emphysema in smokers. β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-ARs) are important targets in COPD therapy. β2-adrenergic receptor autoantibodies (β2-AAbs), which may directly affect β2-ARs, were shown to be increased in rats with passive-smoking-induced emphysema in our current preliminary studies. Using cigarette-smoke exposure (CS-exposure) and active-immune (via injections of β2-AR second extracellular loop peptides) rat models, we found that CS-exposed rats showed higher serum β2-AAb levels than control rats before alveolar airspaces became enlarged. Active-immune rats showed increased serum β2-AAb levels, and exhibited alveolar airspace destruction. CS-exposed-active-immune treated rats showed more extensive alveolar airspace destruction than rats undergoing CS-exposure alone. In our current clinical studies, we showed that plasma β2-AAb levels were positively correlated with the RV/TLC (residual volume/total lung capacity) ratio (r = 0.455, p < 0.001) and RV%pred (residual volume/residual volume predicted percentage, r = 0.454, p < 0.001) in 50 smokers; smokers with higher plasma β2-AAb levels exhibited worse alveolar airspace destruction. We suggest that increased circulating β2-AAbs are associated with smoking-related emphysema. PMID:28262783

  4. An Integrated Intervention for Increasing Clinical Nurses' Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-Related Occupational Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liping; Lu, Zhiyan; Huang, Jing; Zhou, Yiping; Huang, Jian; Bi, Yongyi; Li, Jun

    2016-11-07

    Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV) cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS) and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses' knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300) were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ² = 86.34, p = 0.00), and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4%) and post-test (66.6%) (χ² = 73.2, p = 0.00). When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly. The pre

  5. Diagnosis and Treatment of Brucellosis in Non-pastoral Areas——Clinical Analysis of 30 Cases of Brucellosis%非牧区布氏杆菌病的诊治——布氏杆菌病30例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳; 李云华; 张蕾; 刘同刚; 夏风飞

    2013-01-01

    研究滨州地区布氏杆菌病的流行病学、临床特征、治疗及预后情况.对2010年4月~2012年9月入住我院的30例布氏杆菌病患者的临床特征及疗效进行分析.滨州地区布氏杆菌病在4月~6月高发,近3年发病人数有增多趋势.主要表现为发热、多汗、乏力及关节痛,部分可出现肝脾大、血小板减少.多西环素、利福平、左氧氟沙星联合治疗1个疗程(6周),治愈率为80%.滨州地区布氏杆菌病发病率较前升高.对发热伴血小板减少的患者要想到布氏杆菌病的可能.须加强对病畜的检疫工作,提高个人防护意识,重视从事养殖业及畜牧业人员的防疫.早期、规范、联合抗生素治疗是关键.%To study the epidemiology, clinical features, treatment and prognosis of brucellosis in Binzhou region, clinical characteristics and treatment effect of 30 cases with brucellosis hospitalized from April 2010 to September 2012. April, May and June were the fastigium that brucellosis disease occurrence in the region were analyzed, and the number increased gradually in the past three years. Its major clinical manifestations were fever, sweating, fatigue and arthralgia, some patients appeared hepatosplenomegaly and platelet reduction. The cure rate of a course (6 weeks) using doxycycline, ri-fampin, levofloxacin combination treatment was 80%. The incidence of brucellosis increased compared with the previous. Take into account the possibility of brucellosis for patients with fever and thrombocytopenia. Strengthen the quarantine of sick animals, raise the self — protective consciousness, paid more attention to epidemic prevention of staffs engaging in farming and animal husbandry were needed. Early, standard and combinational therapy of antibiotic was the key.

  6. Use of the Brucella melitensis native hapten to diagnose brucellosis in goats by a rapid, simple, and specific fluorescence polarization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Pfeiffer, Carlos; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Morales-Loredo, Alberto; Alvarez-Ojeda, Genoveva

    2008-06-01

    The performance of the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) using the recently described Brucella melitensis native hapten and the Brucella abortus O-polysaccharide tracer was evaluated and compared with those of The World Organization for Animal Health tests related to indirect and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays as classification variables for goat sera obtained from a high-prevalence area where vaccination was performed; test series were also evaluated to increase the final specificity of the tests. Our results showed that the respective relative sensitivity and specificity were 99.7% and 32.5% for the rose Bengal test with a 3% cell concentration (RBT3), 92.8% and 68.8% for the rose Bengal test with 8% cell concentration (RBT8), 98.4% and 84.9% for the Canadian complement fixation test (CFT), 83.7% and 65.5% for the Mexican CFT, 98.4% and 81.0% for the buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT), and 78.1% and 89.3% for the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA). The use of the FPA as the secondary test significantly increased the final specificities of test combinations; the screening tests BPAT, RBT3, and RBT8 plus FPA resulted in 90%, 91.2%, and 91.3% final specificities, respectively, whereas for the combinations RBT3 plus Mexican CFT, RBT8 plus Mexican CFT, and BPAT plus Canadian CFT, the specificities were 65.5%, 63.2%, and 91.7%, respectively. The results suggested that the FPA may be routinely applied as an adaptable screening test for diagnosis of goat brucellosis, since its cutoff can be adjusted to improve its sensitivity or specificity, it is a rapid and simple test, it can be the test of choice when specificity is relevant or when an alternative confirmatory test is not available, and it is not affected by vaccination, thus reducing the number of goats wrongly slaughtered due to misdiagnosis.

  7. Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle and Goats in Northern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

  8. Brucellosis in dairy cattle and goats in northern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P; Hutchins, Frank T; McNulty, Chase M; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7-6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0-8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2-44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis.

  9. Brucellosis in nomadic pastoralists and their goats in two provinces of the eastern Algerian high plateaus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabli, Abdelhafid; Agabou, Amir; Gabli, Zahra

    2015-08-01

    A 31-months study was conducted to elucidate the prevalence of brucellosis in nomadic pastoralists and their goats in two provinces of the eastern Algerian high plateaus. Five hundred eight human and 4955 animal sera were screened with the Rose Bengal plate test and the complement fixation test for confirmation. Uterine fluids from aborting goats were subjected to microbiological analyses to determine the biovars responsible for abortions. The overall seroprevalence was 0.98% among animals and 15.84% among herds. A significant correlation was recorded between occurrence of brucellosis and herd size (r = 0.4046, P Brucella melitensis biovar 3 was the only aetiology of brucellosis-associated abortion in goats of the studied region.

  10. Acutely developed elbow arthritis in a patient with Brucellosis: Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Yula

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF is an autosomal recessivedisorder that is prevalent in non-Ashkenazi Jews,Armenians, Turks and Arabs. The characteristic featuresof FMF is recurrent self-limited attacks of fever, polyserositis(synovitis, peritonitis, and pleuritis, and secondaryamyloidosis. Genetic studies have shown that the genefor FMF is located on chromosome 16p is designatedMEFV. The diagnosis of FMF is based on a clinical historyof typical acute attacks, ethnic background, and familyhistory.Brucellosis is a systemic infectious disease caused bygram-negative bacillus. The prevalence of the disease ishigher in developing countries. It is frequently transmittedto humans via consumption of infected unpasteurizeddairy products and infected by direct contact with infectedanimals.In this article, we discussed a patient who was in our followup with diagnosis of brucellosis, after sudden effusionof elbow; we diagnosed the case FMF together with brucellosis.J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 437-440

  11. Southwestern Internal Medicine Conference: brucellosis: don't let it get your goat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radolf, J D

    1994-01-01

    Brucellosis is a highly pleomorphic zoonotic infection caused by one of the following four species of gram-negative facultative intracellular coccobacilli: Brucella melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, or B. canis. The disease is a worldwide public health problem and a significant cause of economic losses in domestic live-stock. Although largely eradicated in most industrialized countries, in the United States there has been an upsurge of B. melitensis cases associated with the ingestion of unpasteurized goat's milk or goat's milk cheese from Mexico. Brucellosis can be either insidious or abrupt in onset and can affect virtually every organ system; skeletal involvement (spondylitis, arthritis) is the most frequent metastatic complication. Cases are diagnosed either by isolation of the bacterium (usually from blood) or by serologic testing. Treatment of brucellosis requires the administration of two antimicrobial agents. Doxycycline plus streptomycin or rifampin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus rifampin appear to be the most effective regimens.

  12. The use of live vaccine for vaccination of human beings against brucellosis in the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VERSHILOVA, P A

    1961-01-01

    The great majority of human brucellosis cases in the USSR are caused by contact with infected sheep and goats. Extensive action has been taken to prevent human infection and to reduce the incidence among farm animals, the main prophylactic measure in recent years being vaccination with live brucellosis vaccine. The author summarizes the steps leading to the development of a satisfactory vaccine and gives a brief description of the method of preparation. Discussing the results obtained, she states that there has been a nearly 60% reduction in the number of human cases over the period 1952-58.The subcutaneous route of administration is usually resorted to, but preliminary figures suggest that cutaneous vaccination is equally effective immunogenically, although in persons who have suffered from active brucellosis it causes strong reactions and may lead to exacerbation of the disease. Research is going forward into the development of a cutaneous vaccine capable of general use.

  13. Evaluation of conventional castaneda and lysis centrifugation blood culture techniques for diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantur, Basappa G; Mangalgi, Smita S

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the role of the lysis centrifugation blood culture technique over the conventional Castaneda technique for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. The lysis centrifugation technique has been found to be more sensitive in both acute (20% higher sensitivity; P < 0.00001) and chronic (40% higher sensitivity; P = 0.087) forms of brucellosis. The major advantage of lysis centrifugation was in the mean detection time, which was only 2.4 days in acute and 2.7 days in chronic cases, with 103 out of 110 (93.6%) and 17 out of 20 (85%) cultures from acute and chronic brucellosis, respectively, detected before the conventional culture was positive. Our results confirmed the potential usefulness of the lysis technique in diagnosis and institution of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  14. Research of Prevention Technology and Prevalent in Livestock Brucellosis in Xinjiang%新疆畜间布鲁氏菌病流行情况及防制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 闫晶华; 闫昊; 李金平; 米吉提; 地里夏提

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed the prevention work of brucellosis(hereinafter referred to as brucellosis) in Xinjiang.Quarantine of livestock disease control,immunization,monitoring,integrated control measures,including culling,eliminate sources of infection at this stage are still most easily to promote,simple and convention,and reliable control measures.Through the investigation and research to the livestock of Xinjiang in recent years,the results show:First,outbreak of brucellosis among livestock increased substantially in recent years,70 districts and cities in Xinjiang achieved the stability controlled zone index since 2007,but now there are only 42 counties achieve the index.Second,raising livestock brucellosis outbreak rebounded more quickly,individual breeders of livestock brucellosis-positive rate is up to about 10%.Third,the human incidence of brucellosis infection survey results in the recent three years show that exponential increase quickly.To solve the problem,strengthening the construction of livestock brucellosis control,increase investment in prevention funding,and popularize knowledge about prevention and treatment work for brucellosis is imperative.%本文对新疆畜间布鲁氏菌病(以下简称布病)防治工作进行回顾,畜间布病防制采用的检疫、免疫、监测、扑杀、消灭传染源等综合防制技术,在现阶段仍为最易推广、方法简便、结果可靠的防制措施。对新疆畜间近年来的布病疫情进行了调查与研究,数据显示:近年畜间布病疫情大幅上升,2007年前全疆70个县市达稳定控制区指标,目前只有42个市县达到;散养畜布病疫情回升幅度较快,个别养殖户畜间布病阳性率高达10%左右;近三年人间布病感染调查结果显示发病人数成倍增加。为此,加强畜间布病防治队伍建设,加大防治经费的投入以及普及布病防治常识的工作势在必行。

  15. Chemoresistance of CD133{sup +} colon cancer may be related with increased survivin expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Ra; Ji, Sun-Young; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Mee-Yon, E-mail: meeyon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Genomic Cohort, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    CD133, putative cancer stem cell marker, deemed to aid chemoresistance. However, this claim has been challenged recently and we previously reported that patients with CD133{sup +} colon cancer have benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy incontrast to no benefit in patients with CD133{sup −} cancer. To elucidate the role of CD133 expression in chemoresistance, we silenced the CD133 expression in a colon cancer cell line and determined its effect on the biological characteristics downstream. We comparatively analyzed the sequential changes of MDR1, ABCG2, AKT1 and survivin expression and the result of proliferation assay (WST-1 assay) with 5-FU treatment in CD133{sup +} and siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells, derived from Caco-2 colon cancer cell line. 5-FU treatment induced significantly increase of the mRNA expression of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1genes, but not protein level. CD133 had little to no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. However, survivin expression at mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in CD133{sup +} cells compared with siRNA-induced CD133-cells and Mock (not sorted CD133{sup +} cells) at 96 h after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated notable increase of chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment (10 μM) in CD133{sup +} cells at 96 h after siRNA transfection. From this study, we conclude that CD133{sup +} cells may have chemoresistance to 5-FU through the mechanism which is related with survivin expression, instead of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. Therefore a survivin inhibitor can be a new target for effective treatment of CD133{sup +} colon cancer. - Highlights: • We evaluate the role of CD133 in chemoresistance of colon cancer. • We compared the chemoresistance of CD133{sup +} cells and siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells. • CD133 had little to no effect on MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. • Survivin expression and chemoresistance were increased in CD133{sup +} colon cancer cells.

  16. Comparison between Efficacy of Ciprofioxacin -Doxycycline with Rifampin – Doxycycline Regimens inrelapse of Brucellosis

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    Hossein Sarmadian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is one of the endemic diseases in Iran that has a worldwide spread and is associated with chronic disabilities in humans. Combination therapy of Brucellosis leads to recovery of symptoms, shortening of the symptomatic intervals, and decrease in the rate of relapse and drug resistance. Considering the use of rifampin in the treatment of tuberculosis, and the necessity for an alternative treatment in regions endemic for both tuberculosis and brucellosis, the aim ofthis study was to compare the efficiency of the regimen of rifampin-Doxycycline with ciprofloxacin-Doxycycline in relapse of brucellosis. Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 90 patients, older than 17 years old, affected with brucellosis, which were referred to the Infectious Disease Clinics at ArakUniversity of medical sciences between the years 1384-1387. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the DR groups, receiving 100 mg of Doxycycline twice a day and 300 mg of rifampin Bid daily for eight weeks and the CD group, receiving 100 mg of Doxycycline plus 500 mg of ciprofloxacin twice a day for eight weeks. The patients were analyzed for the relief of symptoms, drug side effects, and laboratory findings during the treatment. Results:In this study, the rate of relapse in both groups were similar. The relapse was seen in 4.5% and 3.2% of the patients for the DR and CD groups, respectively (P=0.168. The drug side effects were slight in both of groups, with no significant difference, and did not lead to discontinuation of the therapy. Conclusion: According to the same rate of relapse in both CD and DR regimens in the treatment of brucellosis and considering the usage of rifampin in regions with high prevalence of tuberclusis, the CD regimen is recommended as an appropriate one.

  17. Sero-epidemiological survey of brucellosis in small ruminants in Hamedan province, Iran

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    Jamal Gharekhani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis with global distribution. The disease remains endemic in many countries including Iran, while its seroprevalence in endemic area is not well documented. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep and goats in Hamedan province, west of Iran. Material and methods: A total of 3,250 blood samples from 2,550 sheep and 700 goats were collected randomly. All samples were analyzed for the presence of Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal, Wright standard tube agglutination and 2-mercaptoethanol agglutination tests. Results: The seroprevalence rate of brucellosis in animals and flock level were found in 4.6% and 13.6% of goats and 3% and 27.9% of sheep, respectively. No evidence of correlation between gender and Brucella infection rate were found in animals (P>0.05. Statistical significant differences was seen between age groups and infection rate in goats (P=0.033, OR=2.1; unlike to sheep (P=0.373. Also, the infection rate in nomads population of sheep was higher than fix location animals (P=0.003; OR=1.9; unlike to goats (P=0.195. In animals with history of abortion and vaccination against brucellosis, seroprevalence rate was significantly lower than other (P<0.05. Conclusion: This is the first report of brucellosis in sheep and goats in Hamedan province. The design of a comprehensive control program including vaccination, screening, and culling of brucellosis-positive animals is recommended. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 399-405

  18. A Survey On Gastrointestinal And Hepatic Manifestations Of Brucellosis Imam Hospital (1995-2001

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    AhmadiNejad Z

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution. Despite its control in many developing countries the disease remains endemic in Iran. The symptoms, signs and laboratory results are variable and nonspecific. This case series study was conducted to determine the liver complications of Brucellosis in Iran"nMaterials and Methods: We studied 188 patients (108 males and 80 females with Brucellosis, fulfilled the diagnostic criteria, aged 1-79 years (mean 34.8 years were registered in Imam Khomeini Hospital, a referral center in Tehran, during the six years (1995-2001."nResults: Thirty-four of 188 cases (18.08 percent had elevated liver enzyme (elevated SGOT only, 6 patients; elevated SGPT only 1 patient; elevation of both transaminases, 27 patients. The prominent symptoms included anorexia (74 cases, weight loss (62 cases, right upper quadrant pain (32 cases, epigastric pain (25 cases and nausea and vomiting (23 cases. Among the gastrointestinal signs were found in these patients, hepatomegaly was seen in 28 patients. Jaundice and ascitis were present in only 7 and 3 patients, respectively. Other laboratory results showed elevated alkaline phosphatase in 28 cases and abnormal bilirubin in 10 cases. Fifty-seven patients had a focal illness, representing 30.32 percent of all patients. Osteoarticular complications were the most frequent focal forms, being present in 34 cases. Twelve male patients had genitourinary Brucellosis, representing 10.53 percent of focal forms. Also, 5 patients had neurologic complications."nConclusion: In conclusion liver involvement is frequent in Brucellosis, although the rate of this complication in our study was lower than other studies. So, in patients with evidence of overt clinical or laboratory findings compatible with liver disturbance etiologies other than brucellosis should be considered in Iran."n"n"n 

  19. Spatial distribution and risk factors of Brucellosis in Iberian wild ungulates

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    de la Fuente José

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of wildlife as a brucellosis reservoir for humans and domestic livestock remains to be properly established. The aim of this work was to determine the aetiology, apparent prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for brucellosis transmission in several Iberian wild ungulates. Methods A multi-species indirect immunosorbent assay (iELISA using Brucella S-LPS antigen was developed. In several regions having brucellosis in livestock, individual serum samples were taken between 1999 and 2009 from 2,579 wild bovids, 6,448 wild cervids and4,454 Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa, and tested to assess brucellosis apparent prevalence. Strains isolated from wild boar were characterized to identify the presence of markers shared with the strains isolated from domestic pigs. Results Mean apparent prevalence below 0.5% was identified in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica, Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica, and red deer (Cervus elaphus. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, fallow deer (Dama dama, mouflon (Ovis aries and Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia tested were seronegative. Only one red deer and one Iberian wild goat resulted positive in culture, isolating B. abortus biovar 1 and B. melitensis biovar 1, respectively. Apparent prevalence in wild boar ranged from 25% to 46% in the different regions studied, with the highest figures detected in South-Central Spain. The probability of wild boar being positive in the iELISA was also affected by age, age-by-sex interaction, sampling month, and the density of outdoor domestic pigs. A total of 104 bacterial isolates were obtained from wild boar, being all identified as B. suis biovar 2. DNA polymorphisms were similar to those found in domestic pigs. Conclusions In conclusion, brucellosis in wild boar is widespread in the Iberian Peninsula, thus representing an important threat for domestic pigs. By contrast, wild ruminants were not identified as a significant brucellosis reservoir for

  20. A bacterial engineered glycoprotein as a novel antigen for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocchini, Andrés E; Serantes, Diego A Rey; Melli, Luciano J; Guidolin, Leticia S; Iwashkiw, Jeremy A; Elena, Sebastián; Franco, Cristina; Nicola, Ana M; Feldman, Mario F; Comerci, Diego J; Ugalde, Juan E

    2014-08-27

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects livestock and human beings. Laboratory diagnosis of bovine brucellosis mainly relies on serological diagnosis using serum and/or milk samples. Although there are several serological tests with different diagnostic performance and capacity to differentiate vaccinated from infected animals, there is still no standardized reference antigen for the disease. Here we validate the first recombinant glycoprotein antigen, an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide-protein conjugate (OAg-AcrA), for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. This antigen can be produced in homogeneous batches without the need of culturing pathogenic brucellae; all characteristics that make it appropriate for standardization. An indirect immunoassay based on the detection of anti O-polysaccharide IgG antibodies in bovine samples was developed coupling OAg-AcrA to magnetic beads or ELISA plates. As a proof of concept and to validate the antigen, we analyzed serum, whole blood and milk samples obtained from non-infected, experimentally infected and vaccinated animals included in a vaccination/infection trial performed in our laboratory as well as more than 1000 serum and milk samples obtained from naturally infected and S19-vaccinated animals from Argentina. Our results demonstrate that OAg-AcrA-based assays are highly accurate for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis, even in vaccinated herds, using different types of samples and in different platforms. We propose this novel recombinant glycoprotein as an antigen suitable for the development of new standard immunological tests for screening and confirmatory diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in regions or countries with brucellosis-control programs.

  1. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria

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    Victor O. Akinseye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria; however, limited data exist on nationwide studies and risk factors associated with the disease. Using a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey, we determined the prevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis in slaughtered cattle in three geographical regions of Nigeria. Serum samples from randomly selected unvaccinated cattle slaughtered over a period of 3 years (between December 2010 and September 2013 from northern, southern and south-western Nigeria were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Data associated with risk factors of brucellosis were analysed by Stata Version 12. In all, 8105 cattle were screened. An overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (315/8105 was recorded by the Rose Bengal test, with 3.8%, 3.4% and 4.0% from the northern, southern and south-western regions, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that cattle screened in northern Nigeria were less likely to be seropositive for antibodies to Brucella spp. than those from south-western Nigeria (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.73–1.22. However, logistic regression analysis revealed that breed ( p = 0.04 and sex ( p £ 0.0001 of cattle were statistically significant for seropositivity to Brucella spp. The study found that brucellosis was endemic at a low prevalence among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria, with sex and breed of cattle being significant risk factors. Considering the public health implications of brucellosis, we advocate coordinated surveillance for the disease among diverse cattle populations in Nigeria, as is carried out in most developed countries.Keywords: Bovine brucellosis, RBT, Epidemiology, Public Health, Nigeria

  2. Assessment of the relative socioeconomic effects of increased coal development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenehjem, E.J.; Santini, D.J.

    1979-12-01

    This report contains a description of the Social and Economic Assessment Model, which is used to analyze the social and economic effects of energy development at the regional and county levels. Using the SEAM, the effects of coal mines and coal-fired utilities projected for over 340 US counties are examined. The study utilizes a clustering algorithm to determine the assimilative capacity of a county, that is, the county's ability to sustain the effects of an influx of population and thus an increased demand on its resources. The results of the clustering algorithm are used, together with county demographic data, as well as data on projected facility location, size, timing, and type, to estimate socioeconomic effects in terms of public costs that will be imposed on the affected populations. These results are aggregated to the regional level to give a rough estimate of the relative regional effects of coal development. The results indicate that 93% of the entire long-term, adverse impact from coal will be borne by states and counties of the Rocky Mountain area, whereas only 14% of the short-term impacts will be borne by this region. About 42% of the short-term costs will occur in the Southern region and 33% in the North Central region, but only 5% of the long-term costs are estimated for these two regions. Of the four major Census regions (Northeast, South, North Central, and West) only the Northeast is expected to be relatively free of community growth problems caused by coal development.

  3. Relating increasing hantavirus incidences to the changing climate: the mast connection

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    Maes Piet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nephropathia epidemica (NE, an emerging rodent-borne viral disease, has become the most important cause of infectious acute renal failure in Belgium, with sharp increases in incidence occurring for more than a decade. Bank voles are the rodent reservoir of the responsible hantavirus and are known to display cyclic population peaks. We tried to relate these peaks to the cyclic NE outbreaks observed since 1993. Our hypothesis was that the ecological causal connection was the staple food source for voles, being seeds of deciduous broad-leaf trees, commonly called "mast". We also examined whether past temperature and precipitation preceding "mast years" were statistically linked to these NE outbreaks. Results Since 1993, each NE peak is immediately preceded by a mast year, resulting in significantly higher NE case numbers during these peaks (Spearman R = -0.82; P = 0.034. NE peaks are significantly related to warmer autumns the year before (R = 0.51; P Conclusion NE peaks in year 0 are induced by abundant mast formation in year-1, facilitating bank vole survival during winter, thus putting the local human population at risk from the spring onwards of year 0. This bank vole survival is further promoted by higher autumn temperatures in year-1, whereas mast formation itself is primed by higher summer temperatures in year-2. Both summer and autumn temperatures have been rising to significantly higher levels during recent years, explaining the virtually continuous epidemic state since 2005 of a zoonosis, considered rare until recently. Moreover, in 2007 a NE peak and an abundant mast formation occurred for the first time within the same year, thus forecasting yet another record NE incidence for 2008. We therefore predict that with the anticipated climate changes due to global warming, NE might become a highly endemic disease in Belgium and surrounding countries.

  4. Increased Reward-Related Behaviors during Sleep and Wakefulness in Sleepwalking and Idiopathic Nightmares.

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    Lampros Perogamvros

    Full Text Available We previously suggested that abnormal sleep behaviors, i.e., as found in parasomnias, may often be the expression of increased activity of the reward system during sleep. Because nightmares and sleepwalking predominate during REM and NREM sleep respectively, we tested here whether exploratory excitability, a waking personality trait reflecting high activity within the mesolimbic dopaminergic (ML-DA system, may be associated with specific changes in REM and NREM sleep patterns in these two sleep disorders.Twenty-four unmedicated patients with parasomnia (12 with chronic sleepwalking and 12 with idiopathic nightmares and no psychiatric comorbidities were studied. Each patient spent one night of sleep monitored by polysomnography. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI was administered to all patients and healthy controls from the Geneva population (n = 293.Sleepwalkers were more anxious than patients with idiopathic nightmares (Spielberger Trait anxiety/STAI-T, but the patient groups did not differ on any personality dimension as estimated by the TCI. Compared to controls, parasomnia patients (sleepwalkers together with patients with idiopathic nightmares scored higher on the Novelty Seeking (NS TCI scale and in particular on the exploratory excitability/curiosity (NS1 subscale, and lower on the Self-directedness (SD TCI scale, suggesting a general increase in reward sensitivity and impulsivity. Furthermore, parasomnia patients tended to worry about social separation persistently, as indicated by greater anticipatory worry (HA1 and dependence on social attachment (RD3. Moreover, exploratory excitability (NS1 correlated positively with the severity of parasomnia (i.e., the frequency of self-reported occurrences of nightmares and sleepwalking, and with time spent in REM sleep in patients with nightmares.These results suggest that patients with parasomnia might share common waking personality traits associated to reward-related brain functions

  5. Plant functional diversity increases grassland productivity-related water vapor fluxes: an Ecotron and modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcu, Alexandru; Eugster, Werner; Bachmann, Dörte; Guderle, Marcus; Roscher, Christiane; Gockele, Annette; Landais, Damien; Ravel, Olivier; Gessler, Arthur; Lange, Markus; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Roy, Jacques; Hildebrandt, Anke; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-08-01

    The impact of species richness and functional diversity of plants on ecosystem water vapor fluxes has been little investigated. To address this knowledge gap, we combined a lysimeter setup in a controlled environment facility (Ecotron) with large ecosystem samples/monoliths originating from a long-term biodiversity experiment (The Jena Experiment) and a modeling approach. Our goals were (1) quantifying the impact of plant species richness (four vs. 16 species) on day- and nighttime ecosystem water vapor fluxes; (2) partitioning ecosystem evapotranspiration into evaporation and plant transpiration using the Shuttleworth and Wallace (SW) energy partitioning model; and (3) identifying the most parsimonious predictors of water vapor fluxes using plant functional-trait-based metrics such as functional diversity and community weighted means. Daytime measured and modeled evapotranspiration were significantly higher in the higher plant diversity treatment, suggesting increased water acquisition. The SW model suggests that, at low plant species richness, a higher proportion of the available energy was diverted to evaporation (a non-productive flux), while, at higher species richness, the proportion of ecosystem transpiration (a productivity-related water flux) increased. While it is well established that LAI controls ecosystem transpiration, here we also identified that the diversity of leaf nitrogen concentration among species in a community is a consistent predictor of ecosystem water vapor fluxes during daytime. The results provide evidence that, at the peak of the growing season, higher leaf area index (LAI) and lower percentage of bare ground at high plant diversity diverts more of the available water to transpiration, a flux closely coupled with photosynthesis and productivity. Higher rates of transpiration presumably contribute to the positive effect of diversity on productivity.

  6. Stability Study of Iriba Brucellosis Full-dose and Reduced-dose Vaccine Produced by Razi Institute in Iran

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    Hasannia, E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stability study of biological products plays an important role for determination of product changes in maintenance period and ensuring of safety and efficacy of vaccines. In this research, accelerated and long-term stability study performed for six batches of full and reduced-dose cattle Iriba strain brucellosis vaccine that manufactured by Razi vaccine and serum research institute as a new vaccine. After sampling, the vaccines were tested for accelerated stability, after four days storage at 22 0C and tested intervals in three months until 24 months for long-term stability after storage at 2-8 0C. The result indicated all batches of vaccines in accelerated stability met the specification recommended by OIE 2012 and the mean loss of activity for full-dose was 16.68, 18.87 and 17.79 % and for reduced-dose was 38.85, 36.06 and 34.98 %. In long term stability, the quality control tests including colony forming unit, purity, dissociation and physicochemical tests in all samples until 24 months, met the specification recommended by OIE 2012. The full-dose vaccines showed a mean loss of activity of 30.73, 25.53 and 32.45 % and the reduced-dose vaccines showed 63.51, 58.60 and 60.83 %. The mean increasing of moisture content was, 187.85, 214.13 and 160.77 % for full-dose and 142.35, 110.23 and 164.47 % for reduced-dose. So, the results of this research indicated in spite of moisture content increasing in second year, the brucellosis vaccines with this strain are stable at least 24months if the cold chain considered properly but the best expiry date for the vaccine is one year.

  7. 牛布鲁菌病概述%Summary of Brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁选国; 张知侠

    2012-01-01

    本文就牛布鲁菌病的发病病因、流行病学、临床症状、病理变化、临床诊断及防治措施等进行简要概述。%Brucellosis is a zoonosis,which is caused by Brucellae.The paper briefly summarized the reasons caused brucellosis of cattle,epidemiology,clinical symptoms,pathological change,clinical diagnosis,prophylaxis and treatment,and so on.

  8. Brucellosis outbreak due to unpasteurized raw goat cheese in Andalucia (Spain), January - March 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez Martínez, C; Páez Jiménez, A; Cortés-Blanco, M; Salmoral Chamizo, E; Mohedano Mohedano, E; Plata, C; Varo Baena, A; Martíinez Navarro, F

    2003-07-01

    Eleven brucellosis cases were identified in three municipalities of Cordoba (Andalucia, Spain). A case-control study was conducted, selecting three cases per control. Persons having eaten unpasteurized raw goat cheese produced in a farmhouse located in the epidemic territory, were at higher risk for presenting brucellosis (OR=21.6, IC95%=1.6-639.8). Brucella melitensis serovar 3 was identified in clinical specimens and in goat tissue and milk samples from the herd's farmhouse. Preventive measures were implemented and the outbreak was stopped after the withdrawal of all suspicious cheeses from the market, additional sanitation of the farmhouse and health promotion activities.

  9. Epidemiology of brucellosis in domestic animals caused by Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis and Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Aparicio, E

    2013-04-01

    Brucellosis is a disease that causes severe economic losses for livestock farms worldwide. Brucella melitensis, B. abortus and B. suis, which are transmitted between animals both vertically and horizontally, cause abortion and infertility in their primary natural hosts - goats and sheep (B. melitensis), cows (B. abortus) and sows (B. suis). Brucella spp. infect not only their preferred hosts but also other domestic and wild animal species, which in turn can act as reservoirs of the disease for other animal species and humans. Brucellosis is therefore considered to be a major zoonosis transmitted by direct contact with animals and/or their secretions, or by consuming milk and dairy products.

  10. Brucellosis: an unusual cause of a child's fever of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusid, M J; Perzigian, R W; Dunne, W M; Gecht, E A

    1989-03-01

    A 3-year-old Wisconsin native with the symptoms of chronic fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and inability to walk, was found to have an elevated anti-Brucella titer. Blood and bone marrow cultures grew Brucella melitensis, biotype 3. This infection was likely acquired during a trip to Mexico several months earlier during which the child had ingested raw milk. The patient's father was also discovered to have brucellosis. Both were successfully treated with antibiotic therapy. Although brucellosis has been almost totally eradicated in the United States, in the appropriate setting it should be considered as a possible cause of fever of unknown origin in a child.

  11. Novel Approach to Increase the Energy-related Process Efficiency and Performance of Laser Brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstädt, C.; Seefeld, T.; Radel, T.; Vollertsen, F.

    Although laser brazing is well established, the energy-related efficiency of this joining method is quite low. That is because of low absorptivity of solid-state laser radiation, especially when copper base braze metals are used. Conventionally the laser beam is set close to the vertical axis and the filler wire is delivered under a flat angle. Therefore, the most of the utilized laser power is reflected and thus left unexploited. To address this situation an alternative processing concept for laser brazing, where the laser beam is leading the filler wire, has been investigated intending to make use of reflected shares of the laser radiation. Process monitoring shows, that the reflection of the laser beam can be used purposefully to preheat the substrate which is supporting the wetting and furthermore increasing the efficiency of the process. Experiments address a standard application from the automotive industry joining zinc coated steels using CuSi3Mn1 filler wire. Feasibility of the alternative processing concept is demonstrated, showing that higher processing speeds can be attained, reducing the required energy per unit length while maintaining joint properties.

  12. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces.

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    Yingying Zhu

    Full Text Available Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish or non-meat proteins (casein or soy for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota.

  13. Increased circulating monocyte count is related to good collateral development in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Arslan, Uğur; Tavil, Yusuf; Okuyan, Hizir; Abaci, Adnan; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-04-01

    Monocytes have been shown to take an important role in collateral growth in animal studies. The aim of the study was to investigate the relation of circulating monocyte count with collateral development in patients with severely stenotic CAD. Patients who had > or =95% stenosis in at least one major coronary artery were included in the study. Coronary angiograms of 210 eligible patients from our database were analyzed again and 103 of them had good and 107 had poor collateral development according to Cohen-Rentrop method. Only the monocyte count was found to be significantly different between two groups (671+/-218 mm(-3) versus 522+/-195 mm(-3), p<0.001) when multivariate analysis was performed and an increased monocyte count was observed in the good collateral group (Odds ration [OR], 2.918; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.281-6.648, p=0.011). This study in which the relationship between monocyte count in blood and collateral development was disclosed has a potential importance in clinical and basic cardiovascular medicine.

  14. Changed of NK cell and T-lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood of patients with brucellosis%布鲁菌病患者外周血NK细胞和T淋巴细胞亚群的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾宇臣; 其其格; 郭菊红; 赵海珍; 乌云; 奥敦托娅

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解布鲁菌病患者性别、年龄、职业分布特征及并发症,外周血NK细胞和T淋巴细胞亚群的变化及意义。方法对101例布鲁菌病患者采用流行病学调查法进行调查,采用流式细胞仪抗体双表法检测38例布鲁菌病和非布鲁菌病发热患者外周血NK细胞(CD16+CD56+)、淋巴细胞绝对值(CD45+)、T淋巴细胞绝对值(CD3+)、T辅助细胞绝对值(CD3+CD4+)、T抑制/细胞毒细胞绝对值(CD3+CD8+)、B淋巴细胞绝对值(CD19+)、CD4/CD8比值,并进行分析。结果布鲁菌病患者以男性居多,中老年患者居多,发病人群主要为农牧民及从事防疫工作者,并发症以肝功能损害最多;布鲁菌病患者外周血NK绝对值显著低于非布鲁菌病发热患者组,具有统计学意义(t =-2.58,P <0.05)。结论布鲁菌病以男性中老年患者居多,以农牧民和防疫员为主,布鲁菌病患者外周血NK细胞常受损伤。%Objective To investigate the characteristics of gender, age, occupation distributions and complication of patients with brucellosis, explore the changes of NK cell and T-lymphocyte subsets, and the related significance. Methods Total of 101 cases of brucellosis were analyzed by descriptive epidemiological study. NK and T/B-lymphocyte subsets were studied in peripheral blood of 38 patients with brucellosis and 35 cases with non-brucellosis fever. Results The majority of cases were male elderly patients, mainly occurred among farmers, herdsmen and stuff engaged in the epidemic prevention. The complication of brucellosis was priority to liver damage. The number of NK cell in patients with brucellosis was below compared with in patients with non-brucellosis fever, with signiifcant differeces (t=-2.58, P<0.05). Conclusions The majority of patients with brucellosis were male elderly person. Outbreak mainly occur in farmers, herdsmen and stuffs engared in epidemic prevention ifeld

  15. Investigation and Analysis on Quarantine Monitoring of Brucellosis%布鲁氏菌病检疫监测情况调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强

    2012-01-01

    [目的]通过1990-2009年与2010-2012年布鲁氏杆菌的检疫监测结果对比,观察该病的发病趋势。[方法]各年度采集牛、羊、猪血清进行平板凝集(或虎红平板凝集)实验初筛,试管凝集判定结果。[结论]1990-2009年,牛羊猪综合的阳性检出率为)0.068%;2010-2012年,综合阳性率1.635%,而以荷斯坦乳牛阳性检出率上升最为显著,由0.019%上升到2.983%。%[Objective] It was to investigate the incident trend of brucellosis by comparing the quarantine results from 1990 to 2009 and with the results from 2010 to 2012. [MethodiThe serums of cattle, sheep and swine were collected every year for the first detection by plate agglutination test (or rose benaal plate agglutination test) ,and then confirmed by tube agglutination test. [Conclusion]The positive detectable rate of brucellosis in cattle,sheep and swine integrated was 0. 068% from 1999 to 2009, but increased to 1. 635% from 2010 to 2012. While the positive detectable rate of brucellosis increased most notably from 0. 019 % to 2. 983 % in Holstein cows.

  16. The Price of a Neglected Zoonosis: Case-Control Study to Estimate Healthcare Utilization Costs of Human Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vered, Oded; Simon-Tuval, Tzahit; Yagupsky, Pablo; Malul, Miki; Cicurel, Assi; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2015-01-01

    Human brucellosis has reemerged as a serious public health threat to the Bedouin population of southern Israel in recent years. Little is known about its economic implications derived from elevated healthcare utilization (HCU). Our objective was to estimate the HCU costs associated with human brucellosis from the insurer perspective. A case-control retrospective study was conducted among Clalit Health Services (CHS) enrollees. Brucellosis cases were defined as individuals that were diagnosed with brucellosis at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Soroka University Medical Center in the 2010-2012 period (n = 470). Control subjects were randomly selected and matched 1:3 by age, sex, clinic, and primary physician (n = 1,410). HCU data, demographic characteristics and comorbidities were obtained from CHS computerized database. Mean±SD age of the brucellosis cases was 26.6±17.6 years. 63% were male and 85% were Bedouins. No significant difference in Charlson comorbidity index was found between brucellosis cases and controls (0.41 vs. 0.45, respectively, P = 0.391). Before diagnosis (baseline), the average total annual HCU cost of brucellosis cases was slightly yet significantly higher than that of the control group ($439 vs. $382, Pbrucellosis cases was significantly higher than that of controls ($1,327 vs. $380, respectively, Pbrucellosis is associated with elevated HCU costs. Considering these results in cost-effective analyses may be crucial for both reducing health inequities and optimal allocation of health systems' scarce resources.

  17. 山西省天镇县2001-2010年控制布鲁氏菌病疫情探讨%Investigation on Brucellosis epidemic control from 2001 to 2010 in Tianzhen county, Shanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴美和

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the characteristics of Brucellosis epidemic control in Tianzhen county from 2001 to 2010 for exploring measures for the prevention and control of brucellosis in the areas of prevalence. Methods Statistical analysis was performed of the brucellosis epidemics from 2001 to 2010 in Tianzhen county. Results There were 1958 new cases of brucellosis reported in Tianzhen county during the 10 years with an average annual incidence rate of 100.53/105. Farmers were predominantly affected. An obvious seasonal periodicity was seen in terms of the incidence of the epidemic, with it spreading from a small area of the county to all of the 11 townships of the county year by year. Conclusion The source of infection was not effectively controlled because of frequent livestock trading during 2001 to 2005 with a significant increase in new cases. The epidemic was kept under control in 2006 to 2010 through intensive surveillance, free and timely standardized treatment of patients and file management, combined with intensified propaganda of the knowledge about brucellosis prevention and control, cooperation of departments concerned under the auspices of the local government, strengthened quarantine, and elimination of livestock with brucellosis.%目的 分析山西省天镇县2001-2010年布鲁氏菌病(布病)疫情控制特点,探索布病高发区的防治措施.方法 对2001 -2010年全县布病疫情进行统计分析,Excel软件绘制图表.结果 2001-2010年天镇县报告新发布病病例1958例,年平均发病率100.53/10万.病例以农民为主.布病发病呈明显的季节周期性;疫情逐年由部分乡镇向全县11个乡镇蔓延.结论 200l—2005年,牲畜交易频繁,传染源未得到有效控制,人间新发病例增加显著;2006-2010年加强监测,免费、规范及时治疗患者,档案化管理;强化宣传布病防治知识;政府主持下部门协作,加强检疫、淘汰病畜,遏制了疫情上升.

  18. Meta-Analysis and Advancement of Brucellosis Vaccinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Tatiane F.; Haddad, João Paulo A.; Paixão, Tatiane A.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives In spite of all the research effort for developing new vaccines against brucellosis, it remains unclear whether these new vaccine technologies will in fact become widely used. The goal of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to identify parameters that influence vaccine efficacy as well as a descriptive analysis on how the field of Brucella vaccinology is advancing concerning type of vaccine, improvement of protection on animal models over time, and factors that may affect protection in the mouse model. Methods A total of 117 publications that met the criteria were selected for inclusion in this study, with a total of 782 individual experiments analyzed. Results Attenuated (n = 221), inactivated (n = 66) and mutant (n = 102) vaccines provided median protection index above 2, whereas subunit (n = 287), DNA (n = 68), and vectored (n = 38) vaccines provided protection indexes lower than 2. When all categories of experimental vaccines are analyzed together, the trend line clearly demonstrates that there was no improvement of the protection indexes over the past 30 years, with a low negative and non significant linear coefficient. A meta-regression model was developed including all vaccine categories (attenuated, DNA, inactivated, mutant, subunit, and vectored) considering the protection index as a dependent variable and the other parameters (mouse strain, route of vaccination, number of vaccinations, use of adjuvant, challenge Brucella species) as independent variables. Some of these variables influenced the expected protection index of experimental vaccines against Brucella spp. in the mouse model. Conclusion In spite of the large number of publication over the past 30 years, our results indicate that there is not clear trend to improve the protective potential of these experimental vaccines. PMID:27846274

  19. Ecological study of brucellosis in humans and animals in Khoy, a mountainous District of the IR. of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rabbani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Brucellosis is primarily a contagious disease of domestic animals causing abortion, so it is considered one of the most serious of the current public health problems, especially in developing countries. The main purpose of this study was finding the incidence of human and animal brucellosis and detection of any correlation between human and animal brucellosis in Khoy, one of the endemic regions in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: We carried out an ecological study in Khoy district in North West of Iran. We ascertained all new cases of human and animal brucellosis in the 2001-2004 period. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient (r and square of correlation coefficient (r2. Seasonal incidence was calculated for each species."nResults: The cumulative incidence rate of human brucellosis was detected to be 175/100,000, cattle brucellosis was 391/100,000, and sheep and goat brucellosis was 105/100,000. We detected direct and incomplete correlation between human and cattle (r=0.096, r2=0.009, p value 0.742, human and sheep (r=0.267, r2=0.071, p value=0.355, and cattle and sheep (r=0.797, r2=0.635, p value=0.001."nConclusion: The most effective routes to control the disease include pasteurization or boiling of milk for human consumption, cooking all food stuff derived from animal sources, vaccination of cattle against brucellosis, isolation and slaughtering of seropositive reactors for brucellosis and providing protective clothing for humans dealing with infected cattle.

  20. Review and Analysis of 17 Patients with Brucellosis%17例布鲁菌病病例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建娜

    2014-01-01

    different degrees of abnormal liver function indicators. The values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reac-tive protein were increased in 13 cases. The blood culture for brucella was positive in 9 cases. Both RBPT and STA tests were positive in 17 cases. After treatment with the combination of doxycycline and rifampicin or streptomycin, all patients im-proved and were discharged from hospital. Conclusion Clinical symptoms of brucellosis are not typical and easy to be mis-diagnosed. We should pay attention to the patients with fever of unknown origin.

  1. Behavioral momentum and relapse of ethanol seeking: nondrug reinforcement in a context increases relative reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyszczynski, Adam D; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-02-01

    Drug-related stimuli seem to contribute to the persistence of drug seeking and relapse. Behavioral momentum theory is a framework for understanding how the discriminative-stimulus context in which operant behavior occurs governs the persistence of that behavior. The theory suggests that both resistance to change and relapse are governed by the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation between a stimulus context and all sources of reinforcement obtained in that context. This experiment examined the role of the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation in reinstatement of ethanol seeking of rats by including added response-independent nondrug reinforcement in the self-administration context. Although rates of ethanol-maintained responding were lower in a context with added nondrug reinforcement than a context with ethanol alone, relative resistance to extinction and relative reinstatement were greater in the context previously associated with the nondrug reinforcer. Thus, both relative resistance to extinction and relative relapse of ethanol seeking depended on the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation between a context and all sources of reinforcement in that context. These findings suggest that to understand how drug-related contexts contribute to relapse, it may be necessary to consider not only the history of drug reinforcement in a context, but also the wide variety of other reinforcers obtained in such contexts.

  2. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (II): Cost-benefit analysis of reducing elk brucellosis prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroff, Kari; Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Maichak, Eric; Scurlock, Brandon; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-11-01

    Recent cases of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in cattle (Bos taurus) and domestic bison (Bison bison) of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area (SGYA) have been traced back to free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus). Several management activities have been implemented to reduce brucellosis seroprevalence in elk, including test-and-slaughter, low-density feeding at elk winter feedgrounds, and elk vaccination. It is unclear which of these activities are most cost-effective at reducing the risk of elk transmitting brucellosis to cattle. In a companion paper, a stochastic risk model was used to translate a reduction in elk seroprevalence to a reduction in the risk of transmission to cattle. Here, we use those results to estimate the expected economic benefits and costs of reducing seroprevalence in elk using three different management activities: vaccination of elk with Brucella strain 19 (S19), low-density feeding of elk, and elk test-and-slaughter. Results indicate that the three elk management activities yield negative expected net benefits, ranging from -$2983 per year for low-density feeding to -$595,471 per year for test-and-slaughter. Society's risk preferences will determine whether strategies that generate small negative net benefit, such as low-density feeding, are worth implementing. However, activities with large negative net benefits, such as test-and-slaughter and S19 vaccination, are unlikely to be economically worthwhile. Given uncertainty about various model parameters, we identify some circumstances in which individual management activities might generate positive expected net benefit.

  3. The relative impact of demographic change on future social expenditure increases: an example from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriades, E I; House, W J

    1990-01-01

    "Taking the case of Cyprus, the authors examine the likely implications for social expenditure, under various scenarios of benefit and cost increases, of projected population changes up to the year 2020. The increased expenditure resulting solely from demographic changes could be easily absorbed if unit costs remain unchanged or rise no faster than overall productivity, but not if recent rapid increases in unit costs and in services continue."

  4. Increased deoxythymidine triphosphate levels is a feature of relative cognitive decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Frederiksen, Jane H; Olsen, Maria Nathalie Angleys;

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular levels of nucleotides have been hypothesized as early indicators of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Utilizing relative decline of cognitive ability as a predictor of AD risk, we evaluated the correlation between change...... of deoxythymidine-triphosphate (dTTP) (20%), but not mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters measured in this study or mitochondrial ROS. Levels of dTTP in PBMCs are indicators of relative cognitive change suggesting a role of deoxyribonucleotides in the etiology of AD....... of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a total of 103 selected participants displaying the most pronounced relative cognitive decline and relative cognitive improvement. We show that relative cognitive decline is associated with higher PBMC content...

  5. Age-related increase in top-down activation of visual features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Bucur, Barbara; Whiting, Wythe L.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research suggests that, during visual search and discrimination tasks, older adults place greater emphasis than younger adults on top-down attention. This experiment investigated the relative contribution of target activation and distractor inhibition to this age difference. Younger and older adults performed a singleton discrimination task in which either an E or an R target (colour singleton) was present among distractor letters. Relative to a baseline condition in which the colours of the targets and distractors remained constant, an age-related slowing of performance was evident when either the colour of the target or that of the distractors varied across trials. The age-related slowing was more pronounced in response to target colour variation, suggesting that older adults place relatively greater emphasis on the top-down activation of target features. PMID:17455072

  6. Relative effects of submersion and increased pressure on respiratory mechanics, work, and energy cost of breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Heather E; Pendergast, David R

    2013-03-01

    Submersion and increased pressure (depth) characterize the diving environment and may independently increase demand on the respiratory system. To quantify changes in respiratory mechanics, this study employed a unique protocol and techniques to measure, in a hyperbaric chamber, inspiratory and expiratory alveolar pressures (interrupter technique), inspiratory and expiratory resistance in the airways (RawI and RawE, esophageal balloon technique), nitric oxide elimination (thought to correlate with Raw), inspiratory and expiratory mechanical power of breathing, and the total energy cost of ventilation. Eight healthy adult men underwent experiments at 1, 2.7, and 4.6 atmospheres absolute (ATA) in dry and fully submersed conditions. Subjects rested, cycled on an ergometer at 100 W, and rested while voluntarily matching their ventilation to their own exercise hyperpnea (isocapnic simulated exercise ventilation). During isocapnic simulated exercise ventilation, increased O2 uptake (above rest values) resulted from increased expired ventilation. RawI decreased with submersion (mean 43% during rest and 20% during exercise) but increased from 1 to 4.6 ATA (19% during rest and 75% during exercise), as did RawE (53% decrease with submersion during rest and 10% during exercise; 9% increase from 1 to 4.6 ATA during rest and 66% during exercise). Nitric oxide elimination did not correlate with Raw. Depth increased inspiratory mechanical power of breathing during rest (40%) and exercise (20%). Expiratory mechanical power of breathing was largely unchanged. These results suggest that the diving environment affects ventilatory mechanics primarily by increasing Raw, secondary to increased gas density. This necessitates increased alveolar pressure and increases the work and energy cost of breathing as the diver descends. These findings can inform physician assessment of diver fitness and the pulmonary risks of hyperbaric O2 therapy.

  7. Microplate Agglutination Test for Canine Brucellosis Using Recombinant Antigen-Coated Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Yussaira; Tachibana, Masato; Kimura, Yui; Kim, Suk; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Endo, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Kenta; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2014-01-01

    Brucella canis, a facultative intracellular pathogen, is the causative agent of canine brucellosis. The diagnosis of canine brucellosis is based on bacteriological examination and serological methods, including agglutination and gel diffusion tests. In this study, four recombinant antigens, heat shock protein 60, rhizopine-binding protein, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, and hypothetical protein (Ag 4), were constructed. These antigens were coated on latex beads and their usefulness in the serological diagnosis of canine brucellosis was examined. All recombinant antigens showed specific reaction with sera from B. canis-infected dogs in Western blotting. In a microplate agglutination test, mixing sera from B. canis-infected dogs, but not sera from B. canis-free dogs, with single or multiple antigens-coated latex beads produced clear agglutination. Moreover, the antigen-coated latex beads did not show nonspecific agglutination in hemolyzed serum samples. A survey of canine serum samples conducted by the microplate agglutination test using single antigen-coated latex beads showed that this method would be useful in the serological diagnosis of canine brucellosis. Further investigations using more serum samples are required to confirm the usefulness of our method.

  8. DNA Genotyping Suggests Recent Brucellosis Outbreaks in the Greater Yellowstone Area Originated from Elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucellosis is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Brucella species infect a variety of livestock animals and humans world wide. In the United States, the disease with the greatest economic impact is caused by Brucella abortus in cattle. Although the disease has been mostly eradic...

  9. Prevention and Treatment of Brucellosis%布鲁菌病的预防与治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄石桩

    2015-01-01

    阐述了布鲁菌病的流行病学、临床症状、病理变化、诊断方法,并提出了相应的防治措施。%The epidemiology, clinical symptoms, necropsy lesions and diagno-sis methods of Brucellosis were elaborat-ed,and some prevention measures were proposed.

  10. Assessment of performance of selected serological tests for diagnosing brucellosis in pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz, P.M.; Blasco, J.M.; Engel, B.; Miguel, de M.J.; Marín, C.M.; Dieste, L.; Mainar-Jaime, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Swine brucellosis due to Brucella suis is considered an emerging zoonotic disease whose control is based on serological testing and the subsequent culling of seropositive animals or the full depopulation of affected flocks. Here we assessed the performance of several serological tests (Rose Bengal T

  11. Small ruminant brucellosis and community perception in Jijiga District, Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Mihreteab; Mohammed, Hassen; Tefera, Mulugeta; Tolosa, Tadele

    2011-04-01

    A cross-sectional study of brucellosis in small ruminants was carried out from October 2008 to March 2009 in Jijiga District, Somali Regional State of Ethiopia. Seven hundred thirty sera samples (421 of sheep and 309 of goats) were randomly collected from purposively selected villages of the study area. Structured questionnaire format was developed, pre-tested and administered to assess the perception of the community pertaining to brucellosis in sheep and goats. Sera samples were screened by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), and all samples tested positive by the RBPT were subjected to Complement Fixation Test (CFT) for confirmation. Of 12 serum samples that were positive by RBPT, 11 were positive by CFT. Statistically significant differences were not observed between the species as well as the sex groups (P > 0.05); however, the variation between the age groups was statistically significant (P brucellosis in their livestock and exposes the community to a public health hazard. In general, the sero-prevalence in the study area was not so high; nevertheless, appropriate brucellosis control and prevention methods should be implemented to circumvent future potential for economic losses and the public health hazard of the disease.

  12. Outbreak of Human Brucellosis from Consumption of Raw Goats' Milk in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kar Nim; Chow, Ting Soo; Wong, Peng Shyan; Hamzah, Siti Hawa; Ahmad, Norazah; Ch'ng, Chin Chin

    2015-09-01

    We report the largest outbreak of brucellosis in Penang, Malaysia. Brucellosis is not endemic in this region. The index case was a 45-year-old goat farm owner presented with 3 weeks of fever, headache, severe lethargy, poor appetite, and excessive sweating. He claimed to have consumed unpasteurized goat's milk that he had also sold to the public. Tests were negative for tropical diseases (i.e., dengue fever, malaria, leptospirosis and scrub typhus) and blood culture showed no growth. Based on epidemiological clues, Brucella serology was ordered and returned positive. Over a period of 1 year, 79 patients who had consumed milk bought from the same farm were diagnosed with brucellosis. Two of these patients were workers on the farm. Four laboratory staff had also contracted the disease presumably through handling of the blood samples. The mean duration from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 53 days with a maximum duration of 210 days. A combination treatment of rifampin and doxycycline for 6 weeks was the first line of treatment in 90.5% of patients. One-third of the patients had sequelae after recovering and 21% had a relapse. We highlight the importance of Brucellosis as a differential diagnosis when a patient has unexplained chronic fever.

  13. The high rate of prevalence of CT-detected basal ganglia calcification in neuropsychiatric (CNS) brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, A M; Muhtaseb, S A; Reddy, R R; Senthilselvan, A; Al-Mudallal, D S; Marafie, A A

    1987-12-01

    Of 65 cases presenting with neuropsychiatric manifestations of brucellosis (CNS-brucellosis), 9(13.8%) had CT-detected basal ganglia calcification (BGC). Of these, 5 had meningitis and 4 had psychiatric manifestations as presenting features. The diagnosis of brucellosis was made by the finding of consistent history and physical findings and the presence of significantly elevated antibody titres and/or positive culture in the blood and/or CSF. In all the cases, BGC was in the form of punctate hyperdense non-enhancing shadows with average density 44.5-58.4 and maximum density 49-64HU. The calcification was unilateral in 3 cases, bilateral and symmetrical in 4 and bilateral but asymmetrical in 2. None of the cases had other predisposing conditions to BGC and in one of the cases did specific anti-brucella treatment effect a detectable change in the BGC. The finding of CT-detected BGC in patients coming from areas endemic for brucellosis should alert physicians to the possibility of underlying brucellar infection.

  14. Prevalence of Brucellosis among Women Presenting with Abortion/Stillbirth in Huye, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Rujeni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of human brucellosis is not documented in Rwanda despite several reports on the disease in cattle. Because brucellosis has been associated with abortion, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of positive serology in women presenting with abortion and/or stillbirth. The study was done in Huye District, in the Southern Province of Rwanda, and the patients were recruited from both the University Teaching Hospital of Butare (CHUB and Kabutare District Hospital. Serum samples were collected and the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT was performed on each sample. A questionnaire was also used to investigate potential contacts with animals and/or consumption of raw milk. A total of 60 women were recruited and 15 (i.e., 25% were Brucella seropositive. The questionnaire showed that those with seropositivity either were in contact with domestic animals (cattle, goat, or sheep or were consuming raw cow’s milk. Human brucellosis appears to be of public health importance in Rwanda and more attention should be drawn on the disease. The current study provides a basis for larger studies to establish the incidence of human brucellosis in Rwanda. More mechanistic studies will also demonstrate the pathogenicity of Brucella in human placentas.

  15. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and typing of Brucella melitensis biovar 2 in lactating cows in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel El-Gohary

    2016-09-01

    Results: The results showed that the overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 339 (7.25% by BAPAT, 332 (7.1% by RBPT, and 329 (7.04% by CFT. The results revealed that, 42 (8.6%, 5 (1.4% and 292 (7.6% sera were positive for brucellosis by BAPAT in the cows of Al-Wafra, Al-Kabed and Al-Salebia areas, respectively. Whereas, their respective number and seroreactive cases by RBPT were 39 (8.02%, 5 (1.4% and 288 (7.4%. Similarly, as confirmatory test by CFT, the number and seroreactive cases in these areas were 39 (8.02%, 5 (1.4% and 285 (7.46%. MRT revealed that the average positive case was 61.67% (59.46% in Al-Wafra; 60% in Al-Kabed and 66.6% in Al-Salebia. Two Brucella isolates could be recovered from the stomach content of the two aborted feti and typed as Brucella melitensis biovar 2. Conclusion: Brucellosis is prevalent among lactating cows in Kuwait. This indicates the potential role of these dairy animals in disseminating and spread of such zoonosis to human. Considering public health significance, appropriate preventive measures are suggestive for combating brucellosis in Kuwait. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 229-235

  16. Exceptionally high titres in atypical presentation of occult epididymo-orchitis due to brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwar, Shashank; Metgud, S C; Gokale, Shilpa K

    2012-03-01

    A male patient of 32 years was referred for surgical drainage and orchidectomy of the right testis following a cycling injury. A Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test was requested by the surgery department to rule out secondary syphilis. Although serum samples gave a negative result in the VDRL test, qualitative screening was performed for Brucella antibodies, as per hospital policy, since brucellosis is endemic in this region. Following a positive reaction, a quantitative standard tube agglutination test was carried out yielding titres that were exceptionally high (STAT = 40 960 IU ml(-1); 2-ME = 1 : 5120). This finding correlated with the patient's history which included a number of predisposing factors for contracting brucellosis including exposure to cattle, consumption of raw milk and assisting in the parturition of cattle. Consequently, surgery was postponed and treatment was changed from injections of ceftriaxone to the WHO regimen for the treatment of brucellosis: 1 g streptomycin once daily, administered intra-muscularly, plus 100 mg doxycycline twice daily, taken orally. Following 3 days of this treatment, the testicular swelling reduced considerably and orchidectomy was not required. Indeed, after a week, swelling was completely resolved and the patient was discharged. To our knowledge, this is the first case of such high titres in a patient as a result of epididymo-orchitis without the typical clinical presentation of fever and joint pain that is normally associated with brucellosis.

  17. Human brucellosis mimicking axial spondyloarthritis: a challenge for rheumatologists when applying the 2009 ASAS criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Cong; Shen, Gui-Fen; Li, Shou-Xin; Dong, Ling-Li; Yu, Yi-Kai; Tu, Wei; Zhu, Ying-Zi; Hu, Shao-Xian

    2016-06-01

    Although the development of the 2009 SpA classification criteria by Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) represents an important step towards a better definition of the early disease stage particularly in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), the specificity of the criteria has been criticized these days. As the commonest zoonotic infection worldwide, human brucellosis can mimic a large number of diseases, including SpA. This study was performed to determine the frequency of rheumatologic manifestations in patients with brucellosis and the chance of misdiagnosing them as having axSpA in central China. The results showed that clinical manifestations of axSpA could be observed in brucellosis. Over half of patients had back pain, and one fifth of the patients with back pain were less than 45 years old at onset and had the symptom for more than 3 months. Two young males were falsely classified as suffering from axSpA according to the ASAS criteria, and one with MRI proved sacroiliitis was once given Etanercept for treatment. Therefore, differential diagnosis including human brucellosis should always be kept in mind when applying the ASAS criteria, even in traditionally non-endemic areas.

  18. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies with brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisacik, Bunyamin; Dag, Muhammet Said; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Ugurlu, Kenan; Mercan, Ozge Kaya; Aydinli, Musa; Devay, Seda Duygulu; Sayarlioglu, Mehmet; Onat, Ahmet Mesut

    2014-06-01

    Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) was positive in 11.5 % and rheumatoid factor was positive in 8.8 % of the patients with Brucella. After a comparative evaluation, we have found out that there was not a statistical significance concerning the anti-CCP levels between the patients with brucellosis and healthy control.

  19. Context-dependent survival, fecundity and predicted population-level consequences of brucellosis in African buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Cross, Paul C.; Bengis, Roy G.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic infections may have negative impacts on wildlife populations, yet their effects are difficult to detect in the absence of long-term population monitoring. Brucella abortus, the bacteria responsible for bovine brucellosis, causes chronic infections and abortions in wild and domestic ungulates, but its impact on population dynamics is not well understood.

  20. Possible brucellosis in an early hominin skeleton from sterkfontein, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggero D'Anastasio

    Full Text Available We report on the paleopathological analysis of the partial skeleton of the late Pliocene hominin species Australopithecus africanus Stw 431 from Sterkfontein, South Africa. A previous study noted the presence of lesions on vertebral bodies diagnosed as spondylosis deformans due to trauma. Instead, we suggest that these lesions are pathological changes due to the initial phases of an infectious disease, brucellosis. The macroscopic, microscopic and radiological appearance of the lytic lesions of the lumbar vertebrae is consistent with brucellosis. The hypothesis of brucellosis (most often associated with the consumption of animal proteins in a 2.4 to 2.8 million year old hominid has a host of important implications for human evolution. The consumption of meat has been regarded an important factor in supporting, directing or altering human evolution. Perhaps the earliest (up to 2.5 million years ago paleontological evidence for meat eating consists of cut marks on animal remains and stone tools that could have made these marks. Now with the hypothesis of brucellosis in A. africanus, we may have evidence of occasional meat eating directly linked to a fossil hominin.

  1. Diagnostic Efficacy of Modified Coagglutination Test in the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohite S.T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory help is must for thediagnosis of human brucellosis due to proteanclinical manifestations. As culture is hazardous,time consuming and less sensitive, serologicaltests are preferred for the diagnosis. Aggluti-nation tests like Rose Bengal PlateTest (RBPT, Serum Agglutination tests (SAT,2-Mercaptoethanol test (2-ME that are com-monly employed for the diagnosis either lacksensitivity or specificity. Coombs test andBrucellacapt though are sensitive and specific,workout costly. Therefore, modifiedcoagglutination test was developed and its di-agnostic efficacy was evaluated. Aims and Ob-jectives: To develop modified coagglutinationtest for the diagnosis of human brucellosis andcompare it with Coombs test. Materials andMethods: Serum samples collected from 191brucellosis patients and 100 controls were sub-jected to 2-ME, Coombs test and modifiedcoagglutination test (MCOAG. Blood culturewas performed by Castaneda’s method in all thepatients. Results: Significant difference in thepositivity rate was seen between MCOAG and2-ME. The results of MCOAG were compa-rable with Coombs test. Conclusions: Modi-fied coagglutination test is a better option toCoombs test for the serodiagnosis of brucel-losis in resource constrained countries as it issensitive, specific and cost effective.

  2. A Pedagogical Model for Increasing Race-Related Multicultural Counseling Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Tamara R.; Foldy, Erica Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing need for multicultural competence, questions have emerged about the appropriate classroom strategies to cultivate growth in this area. These questions have been further complicated by a growing focus on self-awareness, which has increased the affective demands of and student resistance to the material. This article proposes a…

  3. Representative seroprevalences of human and livestock brucellosis in two Mongolian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolzaya, Baljinnyam; Selenge, Tsend; Narangarav, Tsegeen; Gantsetseg, Dorj; Erdenechimeg, Dashzevge; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2014-09-01

    Mongolia implemented a brucellosis livestock mass vaccination campaign from 2000 to 2009. However, the number of human cases did not decline since 2004 and the current epidemiological situation in Mongolia was uncertain. The objective of this study was to estimate the representative seroprevalences of humans and livestock in two provinces in view of their comparison with officially reported data. A representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, sheep, goats, cattle, yaks, horses, camels and dogs was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 8054 livestock and dog sera and 574 human sera were collected in Sukhbaatar and Zavkhan provinces. Human and animal sera were tested with the Rose Bengal and ELISA tests. The overall apparent seroprevalence of brucellosis was 27.3% in humans (95% CI 23.7-31.2%), 6.2% (95% CI 5.5-7.1%) in sheep, 5.2% (95% CI 4.4-5.9%) in goats, 16.0% (95% CI 13.7-18.7%) in cattle, 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-7.6%) in camels, 8.3 (95% CI 6.0-11.6%) in horses and 36.4% (95% CI 26.3-48.0%) in dogs. More women than men were seropositive (OR = 1.7; P brucellosis, inferred from the seroprevalence using a catalytic model, was by a factor of 4.6 (1307/280) in Sukhbaatar and by a factor of 59 (1188/20) in Zavkhan. This represents a 15-fold underreporting of human brucellosis in Mongolia. The lack of access to brucellosis diagnostic testing at the village level hinders rural people from receiving appropriate treatment. In conclusion, this study confirms the high seroprevalence of human and livestock brucellosis in Mongolia. Stringent monitoring and quality control of operational management of a nationwide mass vaccination of small and large ruminants is warranted to assure its effectiveness. More research is needed to understand the complex animal-human interface of brucellosis transmission at different scales from farm to provincial level.

  4. Ex vivo innate immune cytokine signature of enhanced risk of relapsing brucellosis.

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    Kristyn E Feldman

    Full Text Available Brucellosis, a zoonotic infection caused by one of the Gram-negative intracellular bacteria of the Brucella genus, is an ongoing public health problem in Perú. While most patients who receive standard antibiotic treatment recover, 5-40% suffer a brucellosis relapse. In this study, we examined the ex vivo immune cytokine profiles of recovered patients with a history of acute and relapsing brucellosis.Blood was taken from healthy control donors, patients with a history of acute brucellosis, or patients with a history of relapsing brucellosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and remained in culture without stimulation or were stimulated with a panel of toll-like receptor agonists or heat-killed Brucella melitensis (HKBM isolates. Innate immune cytokine gene expression and protein secretion were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and a multiplex bead-based immunoassay, respectively. Acute and relapse patients demonstrated consistently elevated cytokine gene expression and secretion levels compared to controls. Notably, these include: basal and stimulus-induced expression of GM-CSF, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in response to LPS and HKBM; basal secretion of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α; and HKBM or Rev1-induced secretion of IL-1β, IL-2, GM-CSF, IFN-Υ, and TNF-α. Although acute and relapse patients were largely indistinguishable by their cytokine gene expression profiles, we identified a robust cytokine secretion signature that accurately discriminates acute from relapse patients. This signature consists of basal IL-6 secretion, IL-1β, IL-2, and TNF-α secretion in response to LPS and HKBM, and IFN-γ secretion in response to HKBM.This work demonstrates that informative cytokine variations in brucellosis patients can be detected using an ex vivo assay system and used to identify patients with differing infection histories. Targeted diagnosis of this signature may allow for better follow-up care of brucellosis patients

  5. Evaluation of serological diagnostic tests for human Brucellosis in an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Arabacı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The clinical utility of complementary tests for brucellosis are not clear in many situation. This study aimed toevaluate value of these tests for brucellosis in an endemic area in Turkey.Materials and methods: This study was performed at Çanakkale General Hospital in 2009. In a retrospective approach, recordsof the patients who evaluated for brucellosis were collected. During the study period, 236 people (131 symptomaticand 105 non-symptomatic were evaluated for diagnosis of brucellosis. All of the samples from these patients were testedfor Brucella antibody seropositivity by RB slide agglutination, standard serum agglutination, Brucella Coombs, BrucellaCapt,and ELISA IgG and IgM tests. Results: In total, 49 symptomatic patients were hospitalized and blood cultures wereobtained. Brucella spp. were isolated from nine of them (18.4%.The BrucellaCapt test was found to be the most sensitivefor Brucella (74.0% and close behind it was the Coombs test (72.5%. The sensitivity for the RB test was 48.1%. The ELISAIgG test was found more sensitive for brucellosis than the ELISA IgM test was (65.6% and 49.6%, respectively. All examinedtests were found about 100% specific for brucellosis but the RB test was found less specific than the others were (96.1%Positive predictive value for all tests was about 1 but negative predictive values were only valuable for the Coombs andBrucella Capt test (0.744 and 0.755, respectively. The other serological tests were around and below 0.50, which was weakfor negative results.Conclusions: The ELISA IgG and IgM tests were no superior to the other tests. By assessment of receiver operating characteristics(ROC analysis, the Brucella Coombs and BrucellaCapt tests were found to be the most valuable tests for serologicaldiagnosis of brucellosis in endemic areas. The seronegative tests in the symptomatic patients should be evaluated andrepeated in short time. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(2: 50-56Key words: Brucella

  6. Pregnancy related pelvic pain is more frequent in women with increased body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering, Karin; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the association between pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and pregnancy-related pelvic pain. Design: Nested case-control study. Setting and population. The Danish National Birth Cohort, a cohort of pregnant women and their children recruited 1996–2002. Methods. The women...... had not given birth before. Conclusion. The risk of pregnancy-related pelvic pain increasedwith pre-pregnancy BMI in an exposure–response relation and potentially adds another maternal complication to obesity....... were interviewed twice during pregnancy and twice after childbirth. The first pregnancy interview provided information on self-reported pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and possible confounders, while data on pregnancy-related pelvic pain came from an interview sixmonths postpartum. Cases (n=2 271...

  7. Increased expression of survivin in gastric cancer patients and in first degree relatives

    OpenAIRE

    J. Yu; Leung, W K; Ebert, M P A; Ng, E K W; Go, M Y Y; Wang, H.B.; Chung, S C S; Malfertheiner, P; Sung, J. J. Y.

    2002-01-01

    Survivin was recently described as an apoptosis inhibitor. Its pathogenic role in gastric cancer is largely unknown. Expression of survivin in gastric cancer and non-cancer first-degree relatives, and its association with apoptosis and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression was investigated. Fifty gastric cancer, 30 non-cancer first-degree relatives, 20 normal controls and five gastric cancer cell lines were studied. Survivin and cyclo-oxygenase-2 were evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chai...

  8. Current application of brucellosis vaccines and its research advances%动物布鲁氏菌病疫苗应用现状及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁家波; 冯忠武

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a crucial zoonosis caused by Brucella, which has some traits of wide hosts, great infectivity, serious damage and difficulty in cure. In recent years, brucellosis rebounds worldwidely, and it is especially serious in China. It causes great losses to farming and people's health. Vaccination is one of the most effective measures used to control the disease, and the application of appropriate vaccine decides the brucellosis controlling effect. Up to now, therer are several attenuated vaccines used in domestic and abroad, in which the most widely used vaccines were B. abortus strain 19 (S19), B. melitensis Rev.l (Rev.1), B. suis strain 2 (S2), and rough strain B. abortus 51 (RB51), and each vaccine has its advantages and disadvantages. Scientists are now trying to develop more effective vaccines to deal with increasingly serious brucellosis epidemic situation. They are now constructing recombinant and molecular marker strains, DNA vaccines and subunit vaccines. Some conventional and new-style vaccines were reviewed in this paper.%布鲁氏菌病(布病)是由布鲁氏菌引起的一种重要的人兽共患病,近几年在世界范围内呈反弹趋势,我国尤其严重,该病对畜牧业和人类健康均构成严重威胁.疫苗免疫是预防和控制布病的重要措施之一,选择和使用有效的布病疫苗关系到布病防控的成效.迄今国内外已有多个弱毒活疫苗在使用,其中使用最为广泛的有光滑型牛种S19株、羊种Rev.1株、猪种S2株,以及粗糙型牛种RB51株.不同疫苗各有其优缺点,科学家们正试图研发更理想的布病疫苗.目前人们正通过基因工程技术构建重组弱毒疫苗、分子标记疫苗、DNA疫苗以及亚单位疫苗.对布病疫苗的应用及新型疫苗的研究现状作一综述.

  9. Evaluation of Regulatory T Cells in Patients with Acute and Chronic Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, Ali; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah; khosravi, Khadije; Zarinfar, Nader

    2017-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis is one of the most common chronic diseases, with widespread distribution. In spite of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) modulated mainly via activated T-helper type 1 (Th1) cells, brucellosis can advance to chronic disease in about 10-30% of cases. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are involved the immune response to brucellosis; however, their role, particularly in the change from the acute to the chronic phase, have not yet been elucidated. The main hypothesis of this study was that Treg cells play critical roles in the progression of brucellosis from the acute to the chronic phase. Methods: Forty-eight unrelated subjects participated in this case-control study. The percentages of CD4+, CD25+, FoxP3+, and CD25/FoxP3+ T cells in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of acute (AB) and chronic brucellosis (CB) patients and healthy controls were determined by flow cytometry. The mean florescence intensities (MFIs) of CD4+, CD25+, and FoxP3+ T cells were also measured. Results: We found a significantly lower percentage of CD25/FoxP3+ Treg cells in CB than in the AB and control groups (p < 0.05). Also, CD4 and CD25 MFIs were significantly less in CB than in AB and controls (p < 0.05). Conclusions: We propose that the reduced number of CD25/FoxP3+ Treg cells in the CB group leads to T cell anergy and this contributes to the development of chronic infection. PMID:28367469

  10. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Cattle and African Buffalo in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, M; Inlameia, O; Michel, A; Maxlhuza, G; Pondja, A; Fafetine, J; Macucule, B; Zacarias, M; Manguele, J; Moiane, I C; Marranangumbe, A S; Mulandane, F; Schönfeld, C; Moser, I; van Helden, P; Machado, A

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and brucellosis are prevalent in buffaloes of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa). Both diseases were considered to have no or a very low prevalence in wildlife and livestock in and around the Limpopo National Park (LNP, Mozambique). The same applies for tuberculosis in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP, Zimbabwe), but just recently, BTB was detected in buffaloes in the GNP and fears arose that the disease might also spread to the LNP as a result of the partial removal of the fences between the three parks to form the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. To assess the status of both diseases in and around LNP, 62 buffaloes were tested for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis. The percentage of positive BTB reactors in buffalo was 8.06% using BovidTB Stat-Pak® and 0% with BOVIGAM® IFN-γ test and IDEXX ELISA. The brucellosis seroprevalence in buffalo was found to be 17.72% and 27.42% using Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and ELISA, respectively. In addition, 2445 cattle in and around the LNP were examined for BTB using the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test (SICCT), and an apparent prevalence of 0.98% was found with no significant difference inside (0.5%) and outside (1.3%) the park. This is the first published report on the presence of positive reactors to BTB and bovine brucellosis in buffalo and cattle in and outside the LNP. Monitoring the wildlife-livestock-human interface of zoonotic high-impact diseases such as BTB and brucellosis is of outmost importance for the successful implementation and management of any transfrontier park that aims to improve the livelihoods of the local communities.

  11. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Salihu Anka

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05; originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19 and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83 were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24 and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90 when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

  12. CLINICAL, EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, LABORATORY AND IMAGING ASPECTS OF BRUCELLOSIS WITH AND WITHOUT NEUROLOGICAL INVOLVEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaffarpour

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in our country. Neurobrucellosis occurs in 5 to 10% of cases, and can present at any stage of of the disease. This study was undertaken to evaluate clinical, epidemiological and paraclinical aspects of brucellosis with and without neurological manifestations. Data of 30 patients, 15 cases with nervous system involvement (neurobrucellosis and 15 cases without neurological complication (brucellosis were collected and analyzed. Constitutional manifestations of the disease were detected with nearly the same frequencies in both groups. Exceptions were headache which was more common in patients with neurobrucellosis (73% vs. 33% and arthralgia which was detected more frequently in cases with brucellosis than neurobrucellosis (53% vs. 13%. Signs and symptoms of meningeal irritation and disturbances of consciousness were the most common manifestations in cases with neurobrullosis, which had been detected in 60% and 46.7% of cases, respectively. Less common neurological presentations, in decreasing order of frequency were ophthalmoplegia, papilledema and seizures, spastic weakness of limbs, hearing loss and spinal epidural abscess. In two patients with negative serum and CSF agglutinin test, diagnosis of neurobrucellosis was made by blood and CSF cultures. In patients with neurobrucellosis, MRI of brain and spinal cord showed abnormalities in 5/15(33.3% of cases, including decreased lateral ventricular volume due to brain swelling (2/15, hydrocephalus with periventricular edema and meningeal enhancement in posterior fossa (1/15, multiple hypodense periventricular lesions, ischemic or demyelinating in nature (1/15 and spinal epidural abscess (1/15. Brucellosis should be kept in mind in patients with neurological presentations.

  13. Brucellosis Seropositivity in Animals and Humans in Ethiopia: A Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to assess the heterogeneities of estimates and to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in animals and humans in Ethiopia. Methods/Principal findings Data from 70 studies covering 75879 animals and 2223 humans were extracted. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Complement Fixation Test (CFT) in series were the most frequently used serological tests. A random effects model was used to calculate pooled prevalence estimates. The overall True Prevalence of brucellosis seropositivity in goats and sheep were estimated at 5.3% (95%CI = 3.5, 7.5) and 2.7% (95%CI = 1.8, 3.4), respectively, and 2.9% for each of camels and cattle. The prevalence was higher in post-pubertal than in pre-pubertal animals (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.6, 3.7) and in the pastoral than in the mixed crop-livestock production system (OR = 2.8, 95%CI = 2.5, 3.2). The incidence rates of brucellosis in humans of pastoral and sedentary system origins were estimated at 160 and 28 per 100 000 person years, respectively. Conclusions The seroprevalence of brucellosis is higher in goats than in other species. Its occurrence is evocative of its importance in the country in general and in the pastoral system in particular. Public awareness creation could reduce the transmission of Brucella spp. from animals to humans and the potential of livestock vaccination as a means of control of brucellosis needs to be assessed. PMID:27792776

  14. Preliminary study of an immunochromatography test for serological diagnosis of canine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, M M; Cairó, F; Rossano, M; Laiño, M; Baldi, P C; Monachesi, N E; Comercio, E A; Vivot, M M

    2012-12-01

    The most widely used screening test for the diagnosis of brucellosis in the dog is the rapid slide agglutination test in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME-RSAT). The diagnosis is partially confirmed by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) and definitively confirmed by bacteriological isolation. Some chronic cases not detected by these tests may be detected by ELISA tests. The use of 2ME-RSAT in routine clinical practice requires a microscope and an experienced operator. An immunochromatographic diagnostic test for canine brucellosis (FASTest(®) Brucella c., Megacor, Hörbranz, Austria) has been recently released. In this study, we compared the diagnostic performance of the FASTest with those of 2ME-RSAT, AGID and ELISAs. Sera from 17 healthy dogs used as negative controls yielded negative results by FASTest, indicating a 100% specificity in this sample. Among 27 sera of dogs with acute or subacute brucellosis confirmed by B. canis isolation, all of which were positive by RSAT and ELISAs, the FASTest was positive in 24 cases and AGID in 23. In acute and subacute cases, the sensitivity of FASTest was 89%. Sera from six dogs with bacteriologically confirmed chronic brucellosis, which were positive by ELISAs but negative by 2ME-RSAT, were also tested; 1 was positive by FASTest and 4 were positive by AGID. These preliminary results indicate a good specificity of the FASTest (100% in this sample) but an unacceptable sensitivity as a screening test. In cases with chronic brucellosis, the sensitivity of the FASTest was lower than that of ELISAs but this assay could make a good intermediate test to be run after a positive RSAT and before running an AGID.

  15. EFFECTIVE METHODS FOR APPROPRIATE DIAGNOSIS OF BRUCELLOSIS IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS (REVIEW ARTICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. MOLAVI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most common diseases among human that identification and control of disease transmission methods can promote public health. Clinical signs alone are not sufficient for brucellosis diagnosis. Hence, a sensitive, specific, rapid and inexpensive method is required. Early and appropriate diagnosis of this disease is effective in improving public health as well as disease control and eradication. Several serological tests for probable diagnosis of Brucella infection were used in evaluation of antibodies against Brucella. Using new methods such as Elisa has higher sensitivity and specificity than standard SAT test and complement fixation which can show both G and M immunoglobulins. It is also suitable for examining certain class of immunoglobulin. Research and studies have shown that ELISA is a complete method for in vitro detection of chronic disease, especially when other tests results are negative. In addition to this method, all unique and specific immunoglobulin in tested serum appear with high speed and accuracy. Another diagnostic method is PCR, which has higher sensitivity and specificity in comparison with serologic methods for diagnosis of human brucellosis. PCR shows similar sensitivity as 16srRNA using L7/L12 gene. It can be used in diagnosis of human brucellosis. Another diagnostic method is identification of different forms of IL-10 gene, which is a cytokine. It inactivates macrophages and infects the susceptible subject with brucellosis. Therefore, identification of different forms of IL-10 gene is considered as effective method for diagnosis of the disease. It’s recommended to use this new and effective method because many of these methods can overcome limitations of traditional methods.

  16. Demographic and Epidemiological Study of Brucellosis in the Kohgilooye and Boyerahmad Province, 2009 -2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shahriari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Brucellosis or Malta fever is a highly contagious zoonosis disease. In addition to clinical complications, the disease leads to an important economic loss. The aim of this study was to determine the demographic and epidemiological prevalence of brucellosis in the Kohgilooye and Boyerahmad province (2009-2013. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 374 patients with brucellosis in a period of five-year (2009-2013. Demographic data and address of all patients were obtained from the health centers of Kohgilooye and Boyerahmad province and analyzed based on the statistical methods. For data analysis, descriptive and analytical tests were performed. Results: Distribution of patients in this study showed that the majority of patients were in the Kohgilooye, Boyerahmad and Gachsaran districts, respectively, and the lowest were in Basht and Bahmaei districts. Among 374 patients, 8.5%, 23.5% and 68% of cases showed nomadic, urban and rural origin, respectvely. 84% of patients had a history of contact with animals and 31.5% were ranchers and slaughterhouse workers in the province. 50.5% and 49.5% of patients were female and male respectively.The mean age of patients was 39 years old. Conclusion: Contact with livestock plays an important role in prevalence of brucellosis in this province. Refering to report of notable urban cases, consumption of contaminated diary may have priority in the urban regions. This study provides a guideline for health managers to determine hazard regions of brucellosis and so perform the more efficient and with lower budget control deals in this province.

  17. Epidemiological, laboratory, diagnostic and public health aspects of human brucellosis in western Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Hamid Amani; Massoud Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine brucellosis's epidemiologic, laboratory, diagnostic and public health features considering brucellosis is endemic in Azna County, western Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was investigated on 43 patients with brucellosis in Azna County. The subjects were the patients with symptoms correspondent with brucellosis and positive Wright and 2ME tests. A questionnaire about demographic, epidemiological and laboratory findings was filled in. Afterwards, patients were treated using usual antimicrobial drugs regimen. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Results:Forty-three subjects were found to be positive in laboratory tests. Incidence of Brucellosis was 59.31 per hundred thousand population. About 34.9% of patients were female and 65.1% male. Nearly 95.2 % of human cases were living in rural and 4.8 % in urban areas. Around 20.9% of patients had history of animal contact. The commonest transmission was unpasteurized dairy products (79.1%). The most contagious seasons were summer and spring (60.3%). The most common age group was 15-24 (27.9%), and about 60.5% of the patients were between 15-44 years old. Disease was more common among housewives (30.2%) and farmers (20.9%). The majority of the patients had Wright test titre=1:320 (54.1%) and 2ME test titre=1:160 (56.1%) in serological titration. Doxycycline with Rifampin was used for treatment of the greatest of patients (60.4%). Conclusions:In order to control this zoonotic disease, close cooperation of health and veterinary organizations is necessary.

  18. Surveillance analysis of human brucellosis in Ningbo from 2002 to 2012%2002年-2012年宁波市人间布鲁氏菌病监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亚维; 张颉楠; 赵薛飞; 姚漫红; 陈科杰

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of human brucellosis in Ningbo and provide scientific evidence for the development of the preventive and control measures.Methods:By using Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT) and standard tube agglutination test (SAT),serological detection was conducted in risk populations with occupational exposure to Brucella,including lives stock traders,slaughters,raisers,milkmaids,veterinary and people engaged in lives stock in Ningbo.Results:From 2002 to 2012,6737 persons received the detection,113 were serological positive (1.68%),of which 50 cases were diagnosed as brucellosis and 63 cases were bacteria carriers.The brucellosis cases and carriers mainly distributed in Cixi City,Yuyao City,Yinzhou District,Ninghai county.Brucellosis cases related to local trafficking processing slaughtering sheep industry in Cixi City,Yuyao City.Brucellosis cases related to the local dairy farming in Yinzhou District,Ninghai county.Conclusion:In recent ten years,human brucellosis epidemic presents a clear upward trend in Ningbo.It is suggested to strengthen the training of medical staff in and of brucellosis knowledge and management.Active surveillance and health education on focus groups is the focus of the prevention and control of brucellosis in the future.%目的:掌握宁波市人间布鲁氏菌病(以下简称布病)流行特征,为制定防治策略提供依据.方法:采用虎红平板凝集试验和试管凝集试验对全市涉及牛、羊畜交易、屠宰、养殖、挤乳、畜产品加工、兽医等重点职业人群进行血清学检测.结果:2002年-2012年共监测重点人群6737人,检出血清学阳性113例,阳性率为1.68%,其中病例50例,感染者63例,患者和感染者主要分布在慈溪市、余姚市、鄞州区和宁海县,慈溪和余姚的患病与当地贩卖加工屠宰肉羊产业相关.鄞州区和宁海县的患病与当地奶牛饲养有关.结论:近10年来,宁波市人间布病

  19. Prevalence trend of human brucellosis in Qinghai Province from 2000 to 2012%2000-2012年青海省人间布鲁菌病疫情趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立青; 赵志军; 马丽; 李超; 杨旭欣; 胡桂英; 魏荣杰; 李亚楠; 李强

    2016-01-01

    Objective By summing up monitoring data of human brucellosis in Qinghai Province from 2000 to 2012, to evaluate epidemiological dynamics and analyze prevalence trend. Method Monitoring data of human brucellosis in Qinghai Province from 2000 to 2012 were collected, epidemiological characteristics including prevalence condition, area and population distribution were analyzed by descriptive epidemiology method. Results Totally 38 578 persons were examined from 2000 to 2012. The number of persons infected with brucellosis was 1 209, the infection rate was 3.34%;the number of patients diagnosed with human brucellosis was 344, the prevalence rate was 0.89%. New cases had occurred since 2006, and there were 158 new cases diagnosed with brucellosis. The prevalence rates in cities and areas of agriculture and pasture were 2.93%(78/2 663), 1.18%(33/2 806) and 0.70%(233/33 109), respectively. The ages of developing brucellosis ranged from 10 to 72 years old. The prevalence rates of biological pharmaceutical producers and the herdsman were [18.13%(196/1 081)] and [6.13%(353/5 763)], respectively. The prevalence rate of human brucellosis in Han nation was the highest [4.61%(467/10 140)], followed by Tibet [3.60%(443/12 318)], Mongolia [2.53%(211/8 342)], Tu [2.22%(110/4 953)] and Hui [2.09%(59/2 825)], and the differences were statistically significant (χ2 = 102.493, P < 0.01). Conclusion The prevalence state of human brucellosis in Qinghai Province is in a increasing trend, and new cases are increasing.%目的:总结青海省2000-2012年布鲁菌病(简称布病)监测资料,评价疫情动态,分析流行趋势。方法收集2000-2012年青海省32个县的布病监测资料,采用描述流行病学的方法分析青海省人群布病的流行特征,包括患病情况、地区分布、人群分布等。结果2000-2012年,青海省共监测38578人,感染布鲁菌1290人,感染率为3.34%;患布病344人,患病率为0.89%;自2006年开始出现新

  20. Event-related potentials reveal increased distraction by salient global objects in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas;

    a processing advantage for salient whole-object representations relative to configurations of local elements not inducing a global form. We investigated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of age-related decline in visual abilities, and specifically, distractibility by salient global objects in visual...... search. Older participants detected target stimuli slower and less accurate than younger participants did. ERPs indicated that the general performance decline originated at multiple stages within the information-processing stream, from sensory coding to spatial allocation of attention: The P1...... in global-local asymmetries originates from early processing stages, where the dissociation of hierarchical levels is less distinct, and inhibition of the salient irrelevant global object information is less effective...

  1. Increase in disaster-related deaths: risks and social impacts of evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, M

    2016-10-04

    In Fukushima Prefecture, disaster-related death is a social problem for individuals who were forced to leave their hometowns as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Disaster-related death is caused by stress, exhaustion, and worsening of pre-existing illnesses due to evacuation. The number of disaster-related deaths has reached almost 2000, and continues to rise. Prolonged uncertainty and deteriorating living conditions suggest no end to such deaths, although response measures have been taken to improve the situation. It is said that insufficient response measures were taken, in particular, during the transitional period between the emergency phase and the reconstruction phase. There is a need to apply the lessons learned in planning for evacuation after a nuclear hazard, considering radiological protection as well as risks associated with evacuation.

  2. Anticipating issues related to increasing preimplantation genetic diagnosis use: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S; Chung, Wendy; Sauer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Increasing use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) poses numerous clinical, social, psychological, ethical, legal and policy dilemmas, many of which have received little attention. Patients and providers are now considering and using PGD for a widening array of genetic disorders, and patients may increasingly seek 'designer babies.' In the USA, although governmental oversight policies have been discussed, few specific guidelines exist. Hence, increasingly, patients and providers will face challenging ethical and policy questions of when and for whom to use PGD, and how it should be financed. These issues should be better clarified and addressed through collection of data concerning the current use of PGD in the USA, including factors involved in decision making about PGD use, as well as the education of the various communities that are, and should be, involved in its implementation. Improved understanding of these issues will ultimately enhance the development and implementation of future clinical guidelines and policies.

  3. The Relative Impact of Regional Scale Land Cover Change and Increasing CO2 over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei ZHAO; Andrew J. PITMAN

    2005-01-01

    A series of 17-yr equilibrium simulations using the NCAR CCM3 (T42 resolution) were performed to investigate the regional scale impacts of land cover change and increasing CO2 over China. Simulations with natural and current land cover at CO2 levels of 280, 355,430, and 505 ppmv were conducted. Results show statistically significant changes in major climate fields (e.g. temperature and surface wind speed) ona 15-yr average following land cover change. We also found increases in the maximum temperature and in the diurnal temperature range due to land cover change. Increases in CO2 affect both the maximum and minimum temperature so that changes in the diurnal range are small. Both land cover change and CO2 change also impact the frequency distribution of precipitation with increasing CO2 tending to lead to more intense precipitation and land cover change leading to less intense precipitation-indeed, the impact of land cover change typically had the opposite effect versus the impacts of CO2. Our results provide support for the inclusion of future land cover change scenarios in long-term transitory climate modelling experiments of the 21st Century. Our results also support the inclusion of land surface models that can represent future land cover changes resulting from an ecological response to natural climate variability or increasing CO2. Overall, we show that land cover change can have a significant impact on the regional scale climate of China, and that regionally, this impact is of a similar magnitude to increases in CO2 of up to about 430 ppmv. This means that that the impact of land cover change must be accounted for in detection and attribution studies over China.

  4. Effects of increasing temperatures on physiological changes in pigs at different relative humidities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.; Canh, T.T.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of relative humidity (RH) and high ambient temperature (T) on physiological responses and animal performance were studied using 12 groups (10 gilts per group) in pens inside respiration chambers. The microclimate in the chamber was programmed so that T remained constant within a day. Eac

  5. Increase in fall-related hospitalizations in the United States, 2001-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Hartholt (Klaas); J.A. Stevens (Judy); S. Polinder (Suzanne); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa); P. Patka (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The objective was to determine secular trends in unintentional fall-related hospitalizations in people aged 65 years and older in the United States. MATERIALS: Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of emergency department visits from January 1, 2001, to D

  6. Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…

  7. Elevated relative humidity increases the incidence of boron deficiency in bedding plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    High relative humidity (RH) can cause lower concentrations of B accumulating in plants. The common greenhouse practice of controlling excess temperatures by applying mist irrigation to youngplants (plugs) results in elevated RH levels. Reports of boron (B) deficiency have become more prevalent ove...

  8. Early Alcohol Initiation Increases Risk Related to Drinking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Rodrigues, Andrea; Schiffman, Jason; Tawalbeh, Summer

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age of alcohol initiation on current alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in a diverse college student sample. Participants (N = 214) completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral habits regarding alcohol and other drugs. Early alcohol initiation (alcohol use before age 15) was…

  9. Anger Management Leadership Groups: A Creative Intervention for Increasing Relational and Social Competencies with Aggressive Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Isaac; Patel, Samir H.; Lewis, Sally V.

    2012-01-01

    School counselors (SCs) have a wide range of responsibilities in schools, such as administrative, disciplinary, and counseling duties (Dahir & Stone, 2009). Due to the large number of responsibilities, SCs sometime struggle with developing programs to meet relational needs of at-risk students. The purpose of this article was to provide SCs with a…

  10. Microvascular filtration is increased in the forearms of patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Radmer; Simonsen, Lene; Karlsmark, Tonny

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a frequent and debilitating complication of breast cancer treatment. The pathophysiology is complex and remains poorly understood; however, data suggest that changes in the peripheral circulation may contribute to edema formation. In 13 volunteers...

  11. 圆形分布法分析石家庄市2004-2010年布鲁杆菌病的高发季节%Analysis on seasonal distribution of brucellosis in Shijiazhuang City by circular distribution method from 2004 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世勇; 高秋菊

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to analyze the seasonal distribution of brucellosis in Shijiazhuang City from 2004 to 2010, so as to provide scientific basis for brucellosis control and prevention. The brucellosis incidence data was derived from China Information System for Diseases Control and Prevention. The seasonal characteristics including peak day and crest time of brucellosis were analyzed by circular distribution. The long-term trend of brucellosis was analyzed by correlation. Results demonstrated that the brucellosis incidence had no significant fluctuation (γ= 0. 572,P = 0. 180). The brucellosis incidence had obvious sea-sonality in Shijiazhuang from 2004 to 2010, brucellosis might occur in every month all over the year, which gradually increased from February, and reached the peak time from March to July, but gradually decreased from August. There were obvious peak day and crest time of brucellosis from 2004 to 2010 (P<0. 01). The peak day of brucellosis in each year was different or partly different (F=3. 912, P<0. 05). The peak day all over the year was 3rd June, and the crest time was 10th March to 26th August. It's suggested that there is obvious seasonality of brucellosis, which is concentrated from March to July. As the crest time is concentrated from the first 10 days of March to the last 10 days of September, effective precautions might be adopted according to the results.%目的 分析石家庄市2004-2010年布鲁杆菌病的季节性,为有效防制布病提供参考依据.方法 对全国传染病疫情信息网络直报系统上报的石家庄市布病疫情资料,用圆形分布法分析布病发病的高峰日和高峰期,用相关分析法分析布病发病的长期趋势.结果 2004-2010年石家庄市布病发病波动不明显(γ=0.572,P=0.180).且存在明显的季节性,其季节分布特征是,全年均可发病,2月份发病人数开始增多,3~7月份达高峰,8月份以后下降.7年间布病发病均存在明显的高峰日和高峰期(P<0

  12. Connecting and Collaborating: How Content-Related Instruction Increases Students' Speaking Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkins, Sherri

    2010-01-01

    Young students come to world language classrooms with genuine excitement about the possibility of being able to speak a language other than their own. When world language teachers connect second language instruction to students' general education curriculum content, the opportunity presents itself to potentially increase students' ability to speak…

  13. Integrating serological and genetic data to quantify cross-species transmission: brucellosis as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Mafalda; Shirima, Gabriel M; John, Kunda S; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Buza, Joram J; Cleaveland, Sarah; Haydon, Daniel T; Halliday, Jo E B

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological data are often fragmented, partial, and/or ambiguous and unable to yield the desired level of understanding of infectious disease dynamics to adequately inform control measures. Here, we show how the information contained in widely available serology data can be enhanced by integration with less common type-specific data, to improve the understanding of the transmission dynamics of complex multi-species pathogens and host communities. Using brucellosis in northern Tanzania as a case study, we developed a latent process model based on serology data obtained from the field, to reconstruct Brucella transmission dynamics. We were able to identify sheep and goats as a more likely source of human and animal infection than cattle; however, the highly cross-reactive nature of Brucella spp. meant that it was not possible to determine which Brucella species (B. abortus or B. melitensis) is responsible for human infection. We extended our model to integrate simulated serology and typing data, and show that although serology alone can identify the host source of human infection under certain restrictive conditions, the integration of even small amounts (5%) of typing data can improve understanding of complex epidemiological dynamics. We show that data integration will often be essential when more than one pathogen is present and when the distinction between exposed and infectious individuals is not clear from serology data. With increasing epidemiological complexity, serology data become less informative. However, we show how this weakness can be mitigated by integrating such data with typing data, thereby enhancing the inference from these data and improving understanding of the underlying dynamics.

  14. Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Ammary, Khaoula; Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Mick, Virginie; Prevost, Laura; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Susan C; Benkirane, Abdelali

    2015-12-22

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world caused by several species of the genus Brucella. The disease, eradicated in many developed countries, is a re-emerging neglected zoonosis endemic in several zones especially in the Mediterranean region, impacting on human health and livestock production. A One Health approach could address brucellosis control in Morocco but scarcity of reliable epidemiological data, as well as underreporting, hinders the implementation of sustainable control strategies. Surveillance and control policies implemented by the Moroccan government in domestic animals (cattle and small ruminants) in the last few decades are assessed for disease impact. This study considers the origins of animal brucellosis in Morocco and the potential for emergence of brucellosis during a shift from extensive to intensive livestock production.

  15. Increased incidence of Parkinson disease among relatives of patients with Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Assaf; Elstein, Deborah; Zimran, Ari

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study of 99 Ashkenazi Jewish patients with Parkinson disease from Israel who were tested for the six most common mutations for Gaucher disease, 31.3% had at least one Gaucher disease mutation, implying that carrier status per se my be a risk for Parkinson disease. The purpose of this survey was to ascertain the presence of Parkinson disease among Ashkenazi Jewish obligate carriers of Gaucher disease relative to its incidence in a comparable cohort of Ashkenazi Jews who are putatively non-carriers. There was no statistically significant difference in gender or age between the groups (n>100). Among patients, 27.3% reported having a relative with Parkinson disease while among the controls there was a reported 12.3% which was statistically significant (P=0.05). While based completely on subjective reports in a paper-base questionnaire, the results of this survey implicate a high rate of Parkinson disease among individuals with Gaucher disease mutations.

  16. Increasing consumption, decreasing support: a multi-generational study of family relations among South Indian Chakkliyars

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Sanso, Penny

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at intergenerational relations in two Chakkliyar neighbourhoods in rural Tamil Nadu. Post-1991 economic changes, together with longer-term changes in the rural economy and state policies, have significantly widened the customary ‘needs gap’ between younger and older generations by expanding the needs and aspirations of younger generations both absolutely and in comparison to the perceived needs of older people, whilst not providing them with the means to meet those needs. T...

  17. Worldwide increase of obesity is related to the reduced opportunity for natural selection

    OpenAIRE

    Budnik, Alicja; Henneberg, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide rise of obesity may be partly related to the relaxation of natural selection in the last few generations. Accumulation of mutations affecting metabolism towards excessive fat deposition is suggested to be a result of less purging selection. Using the WHO and UN data for 159 countries there is a significant correlation (r = 0.60, p30kg/m2). This correlation remains significant (r = 0.32., p

  18. Hormone therapy at early post-menopause increases cognitive control-related prefrontal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Romuald; Météreau, Elise; Thomas, Julie; Pugeat, Michel; Qu, Chen; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Clinical data have been equivocal and controversial as to the benefits to the brain and cognition of hormone therapy (HT) in postmenopausal women. Recent reevaluation of the role of estrogens proposed that HT may effectively prevent the deleterious effects of aging on cognition, and reduces the risks of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, if initiated early at the beginning of menopause. Yet, little is known about the effects of HT on brain activation related to cognitive control, the ability to make flexible decisions in relation to internal goals. Here, we used fMRI to directly test for a modulation of sequential 17β estradiol (2 mg/day) plus oral progesterone (100 mg/day) on task switching-related brain activity in women at early postmenopause. The results showed that HT enhanced dorsolateral prefrontal cortex recruitment during task switching. Between-subjects correlation analyses revealed that women who engaged more the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed higher task switching performance after HT administration. These results suggest that HT, when taken early at the beginning of postmenopause, may have beneficial effect on cognitive control prefrontal mechanisms. Together, these findings demonstrate that HT can prevent the appearance of reduced prefrontal cortex activity, a neurophysiological measure observed both in healthy aging and early dementia.

  19. Analysis of human brucellosis monitoring results in Baotou city of Inner Mongolia in 2010%2010年内蒙古包头市人间布鲁杆菌病监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳军; 王宏; 解英波

    2012-01-01

    detected cases,and the detection rate was 12.10% (73/603).Conclusions Continue to increase the brucellosis prevention knowledge propaganda,carry out brucellosis surveillance of high-risk people,quarantine,and strengthen immunity is the only measure of effective control of brucellosis epidemic.

  20. Better stay together: pair bond duration increases individual fitness independent of age-related variation

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged pair bonds have the potential to improve reproductive performance of socially monogamous animals by increasing pair familiarity and enhancing coordination and cooperation between pair members. However, this has proved very difficult to test robustly because of important confounds such as age and reproductive experience. Here, we address limitations of previous studies and provide a rigorous test of the mate familiarity effect in the socially monogamous blue-footed booby, Sula neboux...