WorldWideScience

Sample records for brownouts

  1. Contributions to the Characterization and Mitigation of Rotorcraft Brownout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritschler, John Kirwin

    Rotorcraft brownout, the condition in which the flow field of a rotorcraft mobilizes sediment from the ground to generate a cloud that obscures the pilot's field of view, continues to be a significant hazard to civil and military rotorcraft operations. This dissertation presents methodologies for: (i) the systematic mitigation of rotorcraft brownout through operational and design strategies and (ii) the quantitative characterization of the visual degradation caused by a brownout cloud. In Part I of the dissertation, brownout mitigation strategies are developed through simulation-based brownout studies that are mathematically formulated within a numerical optimization framework. Two optimization studies are presented. The first study involves the determination of approach-to-landing maneuvers that result in reduced brownout severity. The second study presents a potential methodology for the design of helicopter rotors with improved brownout characteristics. The results of both studies indicate that the fundamental mechanisms underlying brownout mitigation are aerodynamic in nature, and the evolution of a ground vortex ahead of the rotor disk is seen to be a key element in the development of a brownout cloud. In Part II of the dissertation, brownout cloud characterizations are based upon the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), a metric commonly used in the optics community for the characterization of imaging systems. The use of the MTF in experimentation is examined first, and the application of MTF calculation and interpretation methods to actual flight test data is described. The potential for predicting the MTF from numerical simulations is examined second, and an initial methodology is presented for the prediction of the MTF of a brownout cloud. Results from the experimental and analytical studies rigorously quantify the intuitively-known facts that the visual degradation caused by brownout is a space and time-dependent phenomenon, and that high spatial frequency

  2. SMOOTHING THE PEAKS: GRIDSHARE SMART GRID TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE BROWNOUTS ON MICRO-HYDROELECTRIC MINI-GRIDS IN BHUTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village scale micro-hydroelectric systems in countries like Bhutan, Thailand, Peru, Laos and China provide renewable electricity to thousands of self-reliant communities in remote locations. While promising, many of these systems are plagued by a common problem: brownouts occu...

  3. Millimeter-wave radar for brown-out landings using passive imager components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher A.; Kolinko, Vladimir; Lovberg, John A.

    2010-04-01

    A millimeter-wave radar designed for landing helicopters in brown-out conditions is described and data is presented from an initial flight test. The radar operates in a frequency modulated continuous wave architecture, determining range to target by calculating the difference between transmitted and returned frequencies. The millimeter-wave frequency band provides sand and dust penetration and allows for small apertures appropriate for helicopter mounting. This radar also uses a flat panel phased-array receive antenna and phase processor to sample multiple antenna beams simultaneously, an architecture that has previously been successfully used in passive millimeter-wave imaging systems. The radar presents a wide field-of-view image to the operator at a 3 Hz frame rate where range to the ground and obstacles is depicted in grayscale. The flight test showed the radar to be capable of depicting terrain height variations and obstacles such as buildings, vehicles, building materials, and even power lines. Reductions in noise and symbology improvements are necessary developments for a viable landing system.

  4. SMOOTHING THE PEAKS: SMART OUTLETS TO REDUCE BROWNOUTS ON MICRO-HYDROELECTRIC MINIGRIDS IN BHUTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our proposed project provides a low cost solution for a problem faced by thousands of communities that are seeking to use renewable electricity for sustainable economic development. It also creates a unique opportunity for collaboration between university students from Humbol...

  5. FlyTact : A tactile display improves a helicopter pilot's landing performance in degraded visual environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, C.; Wennemers, A.S.; Vos, W.K.; Groen, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    Helicopter landings are more challenging in 'brownout' conditions, in which sand and dust is stirred up by the rotary wing aircraft, obscuring visibility. Safe brownout landings require new sensor and display technologies to provide the pilot with information on helicopter motion. In this respect ta

  6. 7 CFR 760.810 - Qualifying 2005, 2006, or 2007 quantity crop losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., 2007; (2) Caused by a failure of power supply or brownouts; (3) Caused by the inability to market..., quarantine, boycott, or refusal of a buyer to accept production; (4) Caused by fire unless directly...

  7. 7 CFR 760.611 - Qualifying losses, eligible causes and types of loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Losses caused by a failure of power supply or brownout as defined in § 760.602; (2) Losses caused by the inability to market nursery stock as a result of quarantine, boycott, or refusal of a buyer to...

  8. Two-Dimensional Rotorcraft Downwash Flow Field Measurements by Lidar-Based Wind Scanners with Agile Beam Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas; Hansen, Per;

    2014-01-01

    A major risk to helicopters is the unexpected encounter of degraded visual environments in close-to-ground operations, where a loss of visibility often is caused by clouds of dust (brownout) or snow (whiteout) stirred up by intense downwash. The understanding of the phenomenon is limited, and there...

  9. The GridShare solution: a smart grid approach to improve service provision on a renewable energy mini-grid in Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quetchenbach, T. G.; Harper, M. J.; Robinson, J., IV; Hervin, K. K.; Chase, N. A.; Dorji, C.; Jacobson, A. E.

    2013-03-01

    This letter reports on the design and pilot installation of GridShares, devices intended to alleviate brownouts caused by peak power use on isolated, village-scale mini-grids. A team consisting of the authors and partner organizations designed, built and field-tested GridShares in the village of Rukubji, Bhutan. The GridShare takes an innovative approach to reducing brownouts by using a low cost device that communicates the state of the grid to its users and regulates usage before severe brownouts occur. This demand-side solution encourages users to distribute the use of large appliances more evenly throughout the day, allowing power-limited systems to provide reliable, long-term renewable electricity to these communities. In the summer of 2011, GridShares were installed in every household and business connected to the Rukubji micro-hydro mini-grid, which serves approximately 90 households with a 40 kW nominal capacity micro-hydro system. The installation was accompanied by an extensive education program. Following the installation of the GridShares, the occurrence and average length of severe brownouts, which had been caused primarily by the use of electric cooking appliances during meal preparation, decreased by over 92%. Additionally, the majority of residents surveyed stated that now they are more certain that their rice will cook well and that they would recommend installing GridShares in other villages facing similar problems.

  10. The GridShare solution: a smart grid approach to improve service provision on a renewable energy mini-grid in Bhutan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter reports on the design and pilot installation of GridShares, devices intended to alleviate brownouts caused by peak power use on isolated, village-scale mini-grids. A team consisting of the authors and partner organizations designed, built and field-tested GridShares in the village of Rukubji, Bhutan. The GridShare takes an innovative approach to reducing brownouts by using a low cost device that communicates the state of the grid to its users and regulates usage before severe brownouts occur. This demand-side solution encourages users to distribute the use of large appliances more evenly throughout the day, allowing power-limited systems to provide reliable, long-term renewable electricity to these communities. In the summer of 2011, GridShares were installed in every household and business connected to the Rukubji micro-hydro mini-grid, which serves approximately 90 households with a 40 kW nominal capacity micro-hydro system. The installation was accompanied by an extensive education program. Following the installation of the GridShares, the occurrence and average length of severe brownouts, which had been caused primarily by the use of electric cooking appliances during meal preparation, decreased by over 92%. Additionally, the majority of residents surveyed stated that now they are more certain that their rice will cook well and that they would recommend installing GridShares in other villages facing similar problems. (letter)

  11. Optimal Dispatch of an Industrial Microgrid with a Mixed Portfolio of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Zong, Yi; Bindner, Henrik W.;

    2014-01-01

    Local brownouts are a nuisance and have driven consumers to take greater responsibility for their electricity supply – particularly industries and communities with a critical need for reliable and safe power. By deploying a Microgrid on their own site, the consumers could benefit from having this...... interoperable grid solution with respect to improved energy efficiency, system reliability and power quality. When the on-site generation is from renewables, external incentives and system sustainability could make the Microgrid solution even more attractive......Local brownouts are a nuisance and have driven consumers to take greater responsibility for their electricity supply – particularly industries and communities with a critical need for reliable and safe power. By deploying a Microgrid on their own site, the consumers could benefit from having this...

  12. Optimal Dispatch of an Industrial Microgrid with a Mixed Portfolio of Distributed Energy Resources

    OpenAIRE

    You, Shi; Zong, Yi; Bindner, Henrik W.; Cai, Yu; Lin, Jin; Song, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Local brownouts are a nuisance and have driven consumers to take greater responsibility for their electricity supply – particularly industries and communities with a critical need for reliable and safe power. By deploying a Microgrid on their own site, the consumers could benefit from having this interoperable grid solution with respect to improved energy efficiency, system reliability and power quality. When the on-site generation is from renewables, external incentives and system sustainabi...

  13. Solar Powered Full Bridge FET SMPS based Pulse Battery Charger with Power Management Using Atmega328

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Batra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to build a microcontroller based SMPS full wave bridge power transfer system that will also incorporate some domestic alerting mechanisms, such as security-alert, mail notification, flooding, smoke detection etc. The solar energy is utilized to charge a battery, which in turn will power up the system to drive various modules. This helps the system to be a completely stand-alone device. Along with usage of renewable energy, the paper also aims at protecting the electrical devices in a domestic setting from power-fluctuations or a brown-out.

  14. Ramos` private-power policies pay off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This article reports that political stability, government incentives attract foreign capital for new generating plants and T and D facilities. Teams of multinational lenders, developers, equipment vendors, engineering contractors erect critical plants in record time. As recently as the summer of 1993, the Republic of the Philippines was teetering on the brink of bankruptcy--mainly because of electricity shortages. Brownouts averaging seven hours a day were common nationwide, and Manila`s business districts were frequently blacked out for most of the day. With the nation of 67-million facing economic losses estimated at several billion dollars a year, President Fidel V. Ramos took swift, decisive action. Ramos, elected the previous year, accelerated power-sector reforms initiated by his predecessor, Corazon C. Aquino, that sought to augment the aging, unreliable generating capacity of the state-owned electric utility with private power development.

  15. Amplifier based broadband pixel for sub-millimeter wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkozy, Stephen; Drewes, Jonathan; Leong, Kevin M. K. H.; Lai, Richard; Mei, X. B. (Gerry); Yoshida, Wayne; Lange, Michael D.; Lee, Jane; Deal, William R.

    2012-09-01

    Broadband sub-millimeter wave technology has received significant attention for potential applications in security, medical, and military imaging. Despite theoretical advantages of reduced size, weight, and power compared to current millimeter wave systems, sub-millimeter wave systems have been hampered by a fundamental lack of amplification with sufficient gain and noise figure properties. We report a broadband pixel operating from 300 to 340 GHz, biased off a single 2 V power supply. Over this frequency range, the amplifiers provide > 40 dB gain and 1.0 THz. The first sub-millimeter wave-based images using active amplification are demonstrated as part of the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization Longe Range Personnel Imager Program. This development and demonstration may bring to life future sub-millimeter-wave and THz applications such as solutions to brownout problems, ultra-high bandwidth satellite communication cross-links, and future planetary exploration missions.

  16. China Cools with Tighter RAC Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Rosenquist, Gregory

    2006-06-01

    After boiling summer brought brown-out to most part of the country in 2004, China announced a new set of minimum energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners in September 2004, with the first tier going into effect on March 1, 2005 and the reach standard taking effect on January 1, 2009. This represents a milestone in China's standard setting process since the reach standard levels are significantly more stringent than previous standards for other appliances. This paper first analyzes cost-effectiveness of China's new standards for room air conditioners, and then attempts to evaluate the impact of the new standards on energy savings, electric generation capacity, and CO2 emissions reductions.

  17. Operations managers conference: summary of proceedings. [Carmel, California, Feb. 13-15, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    The fifth AESOP Operations Managers Conference was held in Carmel, California on February 13-15, 1979. The keynote address dealt with the changing role of the computer operations manager. Representatives presented contrasting approaches to managing the procurement and installation of new computer systems. The advantages and disadvantages of maintaining strong internal management support and good communication with the vendor and of increasing the involvement of broad-based planning committees and operations personnel in the computer procurement process were discussed. Two promising management programs, the PEER and 10/40 systems proved effective in improving employee morale by reducing job fragmentation, increasing internal mobility and modifying the work week. The topic of unionization of operations personnel was also discussed. The uneasy relationship between computers and the energy shortage was also considered. Techniques for avoiding computer problems caused by blackouts and brownouts were presented. The difficulty of conserving power at a computer facility was also discussed. Presentations concerning the President's committee on ADP reorganizaion and methods for predicting trends in computer innovation were made. Abstracts and two-page summaries of the papers given are included in this report.

  18. Real-time image processing for passive mmW imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozacik, Stephen; Paolini, Aaron; Bonnett, James; Harrity, Charles; Mackrides, Daniel; Dillon, Thomas E.; Martin, Richard D.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Kelmelis, Eric; Prather, Dennis W.

    2015-05-01

    The transmission characteristics of millimeter waves (mmWs) make them suitable for many applications in defense and security, from airport preflight scanning to penetrating degraded visual environments such as brownout or heavy fog. While the cold sky provides sufficient illumination for these images to be taken passively in outdoor scenarios, this utility comes at a cost; the diffraction limit of the longer wavelengths involved leads to lower resolution imagery compared to the visible or IR regimes, and the low power levels inherent to passive imagery allow the data to be more easily degraded by noise. Recent techniques leveraging optical upconversion have shown significant promise, but are still subject to fundamental limits in resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. To address these issues we have applied techniques developed for visible and IR imagery to decrease noise and increase resolution in mmW imagery. We have developed these techniques into fieldable software, making use of GPU platforms for real-time operation of computationally complex image processing algorithms. We present data from a passive, 77 GHz, distributed aperture, video-rate imaging platform captured during field tests at full video rate. These videos demonstrate the increase in situational awareness that can be gained through applying computational techniques in real-time without needing changes in detection hardware.

  19. MMW radar enhanced vision systems: the Helicopter Autonomous Landing System (HALS) and Radar-Enhanced Vision System (REVS) are rotary and fixed wing enhanced flight vision systems that enable safe flight operations in degraded visual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jack; Schneider, John; Cariani, Pete

    2013-05-01

    Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) has developed rotary and fixed wing millimeter wave radar enhanced vision systems. The Helicopter Autonomous Landing System (HALS) is a rotary-wing enhanced vision system that enables multi-ship landing, takeoff, and enroute flight in Degraded Visual Environments (DVE). HALS has been successfully flight tested in a variety of scenarios, from brown-out DVE landings, to enroute flight over mountainous terrain, to wire/cable detection during low-level flight. The Radar Enhanced Vision Systems (REVS) is a fixed-wing Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) undergoing prototype development testing. Both systems are based on a fast-scanning, threedimensional 94 GHz radar that produces real-time terrain and obstacle imagery. The radar imagery is fused with synthetic imagery of the surrounding terrain to form a long-range, wide field-of-view display. A symbology overlay is added to provide aircraft state information and, for HALS, approach and landing command guidance cuing. The combination of see-through imagery and symbology provides the key information a pilot needs to perform safe flight operations in DVE conditions. This paper discusses the HALS and REVS systems and technology, presents imagery, and summarizes the recent flight test results.

  20. Broadband sub-millimeter wave amplifer module with 38dB gain and 8.3dB noise figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkozy, S.; Leong, K.; Lai, R.; Leakey, R.; Yoshida, W.; Mei, X.; Lee, J.; Liu, P.-H.; Gorospe, B.; Deal, W. R.

    2011-05-01

    Broadband sub-millimeter wave technology has received significant attention for potential applications in security, medical, and military imaging. Despite theoretical advantages of reduced size, weight, and power compared to current millimeter-wave systems, sub-millimeter-wave systems are hampered by a fundamental lack of amplification with sufficient gain and noise figure properties. We report on the development of a sub-millimeter wave amplifier module as part of a broadband pixel operating from 300-350 GHz, biased off of a single 2V power supply. Over this frequency range, > 38 dB gain and chain consists of two WR3 waveguide amplifier blocks, and a horn antenna and diode detector. The low noise amplifier Sub-Millimeter-wave Monolithic Integrated Circuit (SMMIC) was originally developed under the DARPA SWIFT and THz Electronics programs and is based on sub 50 nm Indium Arsenide Composite Channel (IACC) transistor technology with a projected maximum oscillation frequency fmax > 1.0 THz. This development and demonstration may bring to life future sub-millimeter-wave and THz applications such as solutions to brown-out problems, ultra-high bandwidth satellite communication cross-links, and future planetary exploration missions.

  1. Power grab : the impacts of power market deregulation on B.C.'s environment and consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government of British Columbia is developing a new energy policy that will include the deregulation of the province's integrated, publicly-owned electric utilities. The BC Citizens for Public Power Society presents its views on the impact this will have on the BC environment and consumers. It argues that deregulation will result in increased pollution and environmental degradation from new coal and natural gas fired power plants. Deregulation will also result in a lack of accountability and control in the power maker, and prices will increase by a predicted minimum 30 per cent. In addition, the increased price and supply volatility will result in brownouts. This report also discussed the impact that deregulation would have on the transmission system. It was noted that if the public electricity resources are removed from public ownership and control, the province's future options will be restricted under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The BC Citizens for Public Power Society argues that the future power needs of the province are best met by public investment and energy conservation using BC Hydro. 65 refs

  2. Electricity deregulation roundup : Ontario prepares for electricity deregulation and anxiously watches impact elsewhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the time for deregulation of Ontario's electric power industry approaches, consumers are watching other Canadian and American jurisdictions to see what deregulation will mean in terms of energy costs. Albertans have expressed serious concerns about the impact of deregulating their electric power industry. They found that in the four years since deregulation in their province, electricity prices increased when markets opened to competition. The proposed start date for deregulation in Ontario is November 1, 2000. This paper suggests that if investors don't put out significant resources, problems such as power shortages and brownouts could occur, as was the case in Alberta. Potential investors in the Ontario electricity market are already sceptical because the Ontario government, in an effort to protect consumers from unreasonable price increases, has tabled legislation that restricts the efforts of municipal utility companies to raise distribution rates. One step that will inspire some confidence is the recently finalized deal between Ontario Power Generation and British Energy to operate the Bruce Nuclear Power Station. Independent consultants have warned that electricity prices will continue to increase with deregulation for a least the next few years. Industrial customers will be the hardest hit. In California, America's first deregulated electricity market, the power grid is strained and prices have doubled or tripled in one year

  3. When does unreliable grid supply become unacceptable policy? Costs of power supply and outages in rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite frequent blackouts and brownouts, extension of the central grid remains the Indian government's preferred strategy for the country's rural electrification policy. This study reports an assessment that compares grid extension with distributed generation (DG) alternatives, based on the subsidies they will necessitate, and costs of service interruptions that are appropriate in the rural Indian context. Using cross-sectional household expenditure data and region fixed-effects models, average household demand is estimated. The price elasticity of demand is found to be in the range of −0.3 to −0.4. Interruption costs are estimated based on the loss of consumer surplus due to reduced consumption of electric lighting energy that results from intermittent power supply. Different grid reliability scenarios are simulated. Despite the inclusion of interruption costs, standalone DG does not appear to be competitive with grid extension at distances of less than 17 km. However, backing up unreliable grid service with local DG plants is attractive when reliability is very poor, even in previously electrified villages. Introduction of energy efficient lighting changes these economics, and the threshold for acceptable grid unreliability significantly reduces. A variety of polices to promote accelerated deployment and the wider adoption of improved end-use efficiency, warrant serious consideration. - Highlights: • We question the reliance on conventional grid in rural electricity supply in India. • Alternatives compared through government subsidies and consumer interruption costs. • Interruption costs are estimated based on loss of consumer surplus due to outages. • Augmenting unreliable grid with local biomass or diesel based backups preferable. • With efficient lighting, standalone biomass plants are optimal at very low distances

  4. Stopping coal-fired electricity imports on smog days : a review of the OPA's proposed 250 MW demand response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposed an alternative to importing coal-fired electricity from the Ohio Valley on smog alert days in Ontario. It was suggested that the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) should pay large electricity consumers to shift some of their consumption from peak to off-peak hours. It was observed that demand response programs which pay consumers to shift demands to off-peak hours can provide multiple benefits to Ontario, including reduced air pollution on smog-alert days, a reduction in the spot price of electricity and reduced price volatility. In addition, demand response programs reduce the risk of blackouts and brownouts, as well as the need for new electricity generation and transmission infrastructure. It was noted that the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) and the OPA are planning to introduce demand response programs for the summer of 2006. However, the IESO's emergency load reduction program will be operated only during emergency situations to avoid the need for voltage reductions, while the OPA proposes to introduce a non-emergency demand response program which will be activated during most smog-alert days. Various amendments to the proposed program were suggested in this paper, including the establishment of price parity with coal-fired electricity imports; the provision of notification by 3 PM of the need for demand reductions the following day; no capping on the quantity of demand reductions that the OPA will purchase at a lower cost than electricity imports; and that the OPA's proposed Capacity Building Demand Response Program should proceed as quickly as possible without a pre-determined MW cap. 4 refs., 6 figs

  5. Pulling the plug : how the Liberals' plan to dismantle BC Hydro threatens taxpayers, businesses, communities and jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia government is planning to sell-off and deregulate the province's integrated, publicly-owned electric utilities despite election promises not to do so. The author argues that the consequences will be catastrophic with massive price increasing, rolling brownouts and service cuts. A recent poll indicates that 76 per cent of British Columbians oppose the decision to sell, 68 per cent do not support deregulation, and 83 per cent support a full public consultation before any changes are made. In response, the BC Citizens for Public Power Society was formed to give voice to British Columbians demand that their power system remain in public hands. This report presents a chronology of events for BC Hydro, and describes the experience of other jurisdictions with electricity deregulation. The BC Task Force on Energy Policy has released a report which claims that a fully competitive energy market will attract private capital and bring more energy supply, thereby lowering energy costs and increasing energy security. British Columbians condemn that report, arguing that it is too ideological and poorly substantiated. This paper discusses the impact that deregulation would have on the transmission system, the environment, and on local governments and small communities. It was noted that if the public electricity resources are removed from public ownership and control, the province's future options will be restricted under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The BC Citizens for Public Power Society argues that the future power needs of the province are best met by public investment and energy conservation using BC Hydro. 65 refs

  6. Automated Demand Response Approaches to Household Energy Management in a Smart Grid Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adika, Christopher Otieno

    The advancement of renewable energy technologies and the deregulation of the electricity market have seen the emergence of Demand response (DR) programs. Demand response is a cost-effective load management strategy which enables the electricity suppliers to maintain the integrity of the power grid during high peak periods, when the customers' electrical load is high. DR programs are designed to influence electricity users to alter their normal consumption patterns by offering them financial incentives. A well designed incentive-based DR scheme that offer competitive electricity pricing structure can result in numerous benefits to all the players in the electricity market. Lower power consumption during peak periods will significantly enhance the robustness of constrained networks by reducing the level of power of generation and transmission infrastructure needed to provide electric service. Therefore, this will ease the pressure of building new power networks as we avoiding costly energy procurements thereby translating into huge financial savings for the power suppliers. Peak load reduction will also reduce the inconveniences suffered by end users as a result of brownouts or blackouts. Demand response will also drastically lower the price peaks associated with wholesale markets. This will in turn reduce the electricity costs and risks for all the players in the energy market. Additionally, DR is environmentally friendly since it enhances the flexibility of the power grid through accommodation of renewable energy resources. Despite its many benefits, DR has not been embraced by most electricity networks. This can be attributed to the fact that the existing programs do not provide enough incentives to the end users and, therefore, most electricity users are not willing to participate in them. To overcome these challenges, most utilities are coming up with innovative strategies that will be more attractive to their customers. Thus, this dissertation presents various

  7. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect

  8. The marginalization of "small is beautiful": Micro-hydroelectricity, common property, and the politics of rural electricity provision in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greacen, Christopher Edmund

    This study analyzes forces that constrain sustainable deployment of cost-effective renewable energy in a developing country. By many economic and social measures, community micro-hydro is a superior electrification option for remote mountainous communities in Thailand. Yet despite a 20 year government program, only 59 projects were built and of these less than half remain operating. By comparison, the national grid has extended to over 69,000 villages. Based on microeconomic, engineering, social barriers, common pool resource, and political economic theories, this study investigates first, why so few micro-hydro projects were built, and second, why so few remain operating. Drawing on historical information, site visits, interviews, surveys, and data logging, this study shows that the marginal status of micro-hydro arises from multiple linked factors spanning from village experiences to geopolitical concerns. The dominance of the parastatal rural electrification utility, the PEA, and its singular focus on grid extension are crucial in explaining why so few projects were built. Buffered from financial consequences by domestic and international subsidies, grid expansion proceeded without consideration of alternatives. High costs borne by villagers for micro-hydro discouraged village choice. PEA remains catalytic in explaining why few systems remain operating: grid expansion plans favor villages with existing loads and most villages abandon micro-hydro generators when the grid arrives. Village experiences are fundamental: most projects suffer blackouts, brownouts, and equipment failures due to poor equipment and collective over-consumption. Over-consumption is linked to mismatch between tariffs and generator technical characteristics. Opportunities to resolve problems languished as limited state support focused on building projects and immediate repairs rather than fundamentals. Despite frustrations, many remain proud of "their power plant". Interconnecting and selling

  9. Basic Research Needs for Superconductivity. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Superconductivity, May 8-11, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrao, J.; Kwok, W-K; Bozovic, I.; Mazin, I.; Seamus, J. C.; Civale, L.; Christen, D.; Horwitz, J.; Kellogg, G.; Finnemore, D.; Crabtree, G.; Welp, U.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Shapard, L.; Nault, R. M.

    2006-05-11

    As an energy carrier, electricity has no rival with regard to its environmental cleanliness, flexibility in interfacing with multiple production sources and end uses, and efficiency of delivery. In fact, the electric power grid was named ?the greatest engineering achievement of the 20th century? by the National Academy of Engineering. This grid, a technological marvel ingeniously knitted together from local networks growing out from cities and rural centers, may be the biggest and most complex artificial system ever built. However, the growing demand for electricity will soon challenge the grid beyond its capability, compromising its reliability through voltage fluctuations that crash digital electronics, brownouts that disable industrial processes and harm electrical equipment, and power failures like the North American blackout in 2003 and subsequent blackouts in London, Scandinavia, and Italy in the same year. The North American blackout affected 50 million people and caused approximately $6 billion in economic damage over the four days of its duration. Superconductivity offers powerful new opportunities for restoring the reliability of the power grid and increasing its capacity and efficiency. Superconductors are capable of carrying current without loss, making the parts of the grid they replace dramatically more efficient. Superconducting wires carry up to five times the current carried by copper wires that have the same cross section, thereby providing ample capacity for future expansion while requiring no increase in the number of overhead access lines or underground conduits. Their use is especially attractive in urban areas, where replacing copper with superconductors in power-saturated underground conduits avoids expensive new underground construction. Superconducting transformers cut the volume, weight, and losses of conventional transformers by a factor of two and do not require the contaminating and flammable transformer oils that violate urban safety

  10. Basic Research Needs for Superconductivity. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Superconductivity, May 8-11, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an energy carrier, electricity has no rival with regard to its environmental cleanliness, flexibility in interfacing with multiple production sources and end uses, and efficiency of delivery. In fact, the electric power grid was named ?the greatest engineering achievement of the 20th century? by the National Academy of Engineering. This grid, a technological marvel ingeniously knitted together from local networks growing out from cities and rural centers, may be the biggest and most complex artificial system ever built. However, the growing demand for electricity will soon challenge the grid beyond its capability, compromising its reliability through voltage fluctuations that crash digital electronics, brownouts that disable industrial processes and harm electrical equipment, and power failures like the North American blackout in 2003 and subsequent blackouts in London, Scandinavia, and Italy in the same year. The North American blackout affected 50 million people and caused approximately $6 billion in economic damage over the four days of its duration. Superconductivity offers powerful new opportunities for restoring the reliability of the power grid and increasing its capacity and efficiency. Superconductors are capable of carrying current without loss, making the parts of the grid they replace dramatically more efficient. Superconducting wires carry up to five times the current carried by copper wires that have the same cross section, thereby providing ample capacity for future expansion while requiring no increase in the number of overhead access lines or underground conduits. Their use is especially attractive in urban areas, where replacing copper with superconductors in power-saturated underground conduits avoids expensive new underground construction. Superconducting transformers cut the volume, weight, and losses of conventional transformers by a factor of two and do not require the contaminating and flammable transformer oils that violate urban safety

  11. The Hydrogen Economy Making the Transition to the Third Industrial Revolution and a New Energy Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremy Rifkin

    2006-07-01

    ;forever fuel'. It never runs out and produces no harmful CO{sub 2} emissions. Commercial fuel-cells powered by hydrogen are just now being introduced into the market for home, office and industrial use. Hitachi, Toshiba, and other companies will be introducing the first hydrogen fuel cell cartridges into retail stores around the world in 2007. The small hydrogen powered micro fuel cells will replace traditional batteries and provide mobile power for lap-top computers, cell phones, PDA's, Mp3 players, camcorders, portable DVD players, hand- held computers, video games, and digital cameras. With this new energy source, computers can be powered for days at a time, where existing battery technology lasts only a few hours before needing to be plugged back into the wall socket to be recharged. Similarly, manufacturing and service-related companies are just beginning to introduce stationary fuel cell power plants to provide back-up generation during periods of peak load or when the price of electricity on the grid becomes too expensive, or when the grid cannot keep up with demand surges, resulting in rolling brownout and blackouts. Indeed, when the massive 2002 power blackout shut down large parts of the Northeast and Midwestern part of the US and the New York City skyline went black, a newly erected skyscraper in Times Square remained fully lit and powered up because a stationary fuel cell power plant had been built into its infrastructure. The German company, Linde AG, recently introduced a hydrogen fuel cell power plant at the Munich airport. The hydrogen economy makes possible a broad redistribution of power, with far-reaching beneficial consequences for society. In the new era, businesses, municipalities and homeowners could become the producers as well as the consumers of their own energy so-called 'distributed generation'. Even the automobile itself is a 'power station on wheels' with a generating capacity of twenty kilowatts. Since the average

  12. The Hydrogen Economy Making the Transition to the Third Industrial Revolution and a New Energy Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    out and produces no harmful CO2 emissions. Commercial fuel-cells powered by hydrogen are just now being introduced into the market for home, office and industrial use. Hitachi, Toshiba, and other companies will be introducing the first hydrogen fuel cell cartridges into retail stores around the world in 2007. The small hydrogen powered micro fuel cells will replace traditional batteries and provide mobile power for lap-top computers, cell phones, PDA's, Mp3 players, camcorders, portable DVD players, hand- held computers, video games, and digital cameras. With this new energy source, computers can be powered for days at a time, where existing battery technology lasts only a few hours before needing to be plugged back into the wall socket to be recharged. Similarly, manufacturing and service-related companies are just beginning to introduce stationary fuel cell power plants to provide back-up generation during periods of peak load or when the price of electricity on the grid becomes too expensive, or when the grid cannot keep up with demand surges, resulting in rolling brownout and blackouts. Indeed, when the massive 2002 power blackout shut down large parts of the Northeast and Midwestern part of the US and the New York City skyline went black, a newly erected skyscraper in Times Square remained fully lit and powered up because a stationary fuel cell power plant had been built into its infrastructure. The German company, Linde AG, recently introduced a hydrogen fuel cell power plant at the Munich airport. The hydrogen economy makes possible a broad redistribution of power, with far-reaching beneficial consequences for society. In the new era, businesses, municipalities and homeowners could become the producers as well as the consumers of their own energy so-called 'distributed generation'. Even the automobile itself is a 'power station on wheels' with a generating capacity of twenty kilowatts. Since the average car is parked most of the time, it can be plugged in